WorldWideScience

Sample records for two dimensional 2d

  1. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  2. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  3. Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...... the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency,convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general...... conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given....

  4. Bill2d -- a software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solanpää, Janne; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    We present Bill2d, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Bill2d can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincar\\'e sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  5. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  6. Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2015-09-08

    Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity.

  7. Polyfunctional two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional oxalate bridged bimetallic magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, R; Gruselle, M; Train, C

    2003-01-01

    We report major results concerning polyfunctional two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional oxalate bridged bimetallic magnets. As a consequence of their specific organization they are composed of an anionic sub-lattice and a cationic counter-part. These bimetallic polymers can accommodate various counter-cations possessing specific physical properties in addition to the magnetic ones resulting from the interactions between the metallic ions in the anionic sub-lattice. Thus, molecular magnets possessing paramagnetic, conductive and optical properties are presented in this review. Refs. 60 (author)

  8. Removal of interfering substances in samples prepared for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelman, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Biological samples may contain contaminants that interfere with analysis by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Lysates or biological fluids are complex mixtures that contain a wide variety of nonprotein substances in addition to the proteins to be analyzed. These substances often interfere with the resolution of the electrophoretic separation or the visualization of the result. Macromolecules (e.g., polysaccharides and DNA) can interfere with electrophoretic separation by clogging gel pores. Small ionic molecules can impair isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation by rendering the sample too conductive. Other substances (e.g., phenolics and lipids) can bind to proteins, influencing their electrophoretic properties or solubility. In many cases, measures to remove interfering substances can result in significantly clearer 2-D patterns with more visible spots and better resolution. It should be borne in mind, however, that analysis of samples by 2-D electrophoresis is usually most successful and informative when performed with minimally processed samples, so it is important that any steps taken to remove interfering substance be appropriate to the sample and only performed when necessary. Procedures for the removal of interfering substances therefore represent a compromise between removing nonprotein contaminants, and minimizing interference with the integrity and relative abundances of the sample proteins. This chapter presents a number of illustrative examples of optimized sample preparation methods in which specific interfering substances are removed by a variety of different strategies.

  9. MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko

    1997-10-01

    A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)

  10. PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.

    1987-03-01

    PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  12. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.

    1990-12-01

    The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.

  13. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.

    2009-06-01

    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  14. Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.

  15. Synchronous two-dimensional MIR correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) as a novel method for screening smoke tainted wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.

  16. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  17. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia K Chatziefstratiou

    Full Text Available FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  18. Noise reduction methods applied to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) reveal complementary benefits of pre- and post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.

  19. Two-dimensional crystal melting and D4-D2-D0 on toric Calabi-Yau singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinaka, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We construct a two-dimensional crystal melting model which reproduces the BPS index of D2-D0 states bound to a non-compact D4-brane on an arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau singularity. The crystalline structure depends on the toric divisor wrapped by the D4-brane. The molten crystals are in one-to-one correspondence with the torus fixed points of the moduli space of the quiver gauge theory on D-branes. The F- and D-term constraints of the gauge theory are regarded as a generalization of the ADHM constraints on instantons. We also show in several examples that our model is consistent with the wall-crossing formula for the BPS index.

  20. WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR: An efficient joint two-dimensional magnetotelluric and direct current resistivity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatyakul, Puwis; Vachiratienchai, Chatchai; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai

    2017-05-01

    An efficient joint two-dimensional direct current resistivity (DCR) and magnetotelluric (MT) inversion, referred to as WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR, was developed with FORTRAN 95 based on the data space Occam's inversion algorithm. Our joint inversion software can be used to invert just the MT data or the DCR data, or invert both data sets simultaneously to get the electrical resistivity structures. Since both MT and DCR surveys yield the same resistivity structures, the two data types enhance each other leading to a better interpretation. Two synthetic and a real field survey are used here to demonstrate that the joint DCR and MT surveys can help constrain each other to reduce the ambiguities occurring when inverting the DCR or MT alone. The DCR data increases the lateral resolution of the near surface structures while the MT data reveals the deeper structures. When the MT apparent resistivity suffers from the static shift, the DCR apparent resistivity can serve as a replacement for the estimation of the static shift factor using the joint inversion. In addition, we also used these examples to show the efficiency of our joint inversion code. With the availability of our new joint inversion software, we expect the number of joint DCR and MT surveys to increase in the future.

  1. Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D and Two Dimensional (2D Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100 decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites.

  2. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1995-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  3. Introducing 2D Materials—a new multidisciplinary journal devoted to all aspects of graphene and related two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    2014-06-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing, I am pleased to announce the opening of 2D Materials. Research on two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology, and extending from fundamental science to novel applications. It is this situation which defines the scope and mission of 2D Materials, a new journal that will serve all sides of this multidisciplinary field by publishing urgent research of the highest quality and impact.

  4. An algorithm for circular test and improved optical configuration by two-dimensional (2D) laser heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.

  5. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  6. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-10-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  7. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  8. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038

  9. Surface plasmon hurdles leading to a strongly localized giant field enhancement on two-dimensional (2D) metallic diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.

  10. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation study of the structural characterization of a surface immobilized polypeptide film stimulated by pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Boknam; Son, Seok Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-11-01

    The pH-induced structural changes to surface immobilized poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) films were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. Significant spectral changes were observed in the FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA film between pH 6 and 7. The 2D correlation spectra constructed from the pH-dependent FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA films revealed the spectral changes induced by the alternations of the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group in the PLGA side chain. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, weak spectral changes in the secondary structure of the PLGA main chain were induced by deprotonation of the carboxylic acid side group.

  11. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  12. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) variable selection for near-infrared microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal in compound feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data.

  13. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  14. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  15. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  16. Haptic-2D: A new haptic test battery assessing the tactual abilities of sighted and visually impaired children and adolescents with two-dimensional raised materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazella, Anaïs; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    To fill an important gap in the psychometric assessment of children and adolescents with impaired vision, we designed a new battery of haptic tests, called Haptic-2D, for visually impaired and sighted individuals aged five to 18 years. Unlike existing batteries, ours uses only two-dimensional raised materials that participants explore using active touch. It is composed of 11 haptic tests, measuring scanning skills, tactile discrimination skills, spatial comprehension skills, short-term tactile memory, and comprehension of tactile pictures. We administered this battery to 138 participants, half of whom were sighted (n=69), and half visually impaired (blind, n=16; low vision, n=53). Results indicated a significant main effect of age on haptic scores, but no main effect of vision or Age × Vision interaction effect. Reliability of test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.51-0.84). Convergent validity was good, as shown by a significant correlation (age partialled out) between total haptic scores and scores on the B101 test (rp=0.51, n=47). Discriminant validity was also satisfactory, as attested by a lower but still significant partial correlation between total haptic scores and the raw score on the verbal WISC (rp=0.43, n=62). Finally, test-retest reliability was good (rs=0.93, n=12; interval of one to two months). This new psychometric tool should prove useful to practitioners working with young people with impaired vision.

  17. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-01-01

    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  18. Two-dimensional HRCT for monitoring postoperative results of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Zweidimensionale (2-D) CT-Arthrotomographie zur postoperativen Kontrolle einer neuen vorderen Kreuzbandplastik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, U.; Witt, H. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentralinstitut); Hertel, P.; Lais, E. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Unfallchirurgische Klinik)

    1989-11-01

    Fifty-eight patients underwent intraarticular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. This was performed by using an autogenous transplant from the mid portion of the patellar ligament with a proximal and distal bone block, as described by Hertel. For comparison with the conventional X-ray examination, HRCT was performed to study the early postoperative results. In four patients (7%) dislocation of the bone block in the femoral condyle was seen. Two-dimensional reconstruction proved to be a satisfactory method for demonstration of the exact position of the autogenous transplant in both coronary and sagittal planes. (orig.).

  19. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 2: User's manual and program listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. T.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D, was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  20. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  1. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  2. On the Current Drive Capability of Low Dimensional Semiconductors: 1D versus 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Appenzeller, J.

    2015-10-01

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  3. On the Current Drive Capability of Low Dimensional Semiconductors: 1D versus 2D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Appenzeller, J

    2015-12-01

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  4. VAM2D: Variably saturated analysis model in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huyakorn, P.S.; Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. (HydroGeoLogic, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This report documents a two-dimensional finite element model, VAM2D, developed to simulate water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. Both flow and transport simulation can be handled concurrently or sequentially. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. Nonlinear soil moisture characteristics and atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage face), are treated using Picard and Newton-Raphson iterations. Hysteresis effects and anisotropy in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be taken into account if needed. The contaminant transport simulation can account for advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear equilibrium sorption, and first-order degradation. Transport of a single component or a multi-component decay chain can be handled. The transport equation is approximated using an upstream weighted residual method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. This document has been produced as a user's manual. It contains detailed information on the code structure along with instructions for input data preparation and sample input and printed output for selected test problems. Also included are instructions for job set up and restarting procedures. 44 refs., 54 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Comparative analysis between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) MRI acquisitions - clinical applications for the evaluation of the knees in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Analise comparativa entre aquisicao tri (3D) e bidimensional (2D) em ressonancia magnetica - aplicabilidade clinica em joelhos em artrite reumatoide juvenil (ARJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andre S. [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Rebelo, Marina de Sa [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Informatica; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Ressonancia Magnetica] [and others

    2000-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis the authors compare two-dimensional evaluation of the maximum synovial diameter on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SE (spin-echo) sequences with volumetric (three-dimensional assessment) on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SPIR (spectral presaturation with inversion recovery) SE sequences. With the aim of determining their cost-effectiveness these two methods of assessment were compared to clinical and laboratorial parameters, as well as the presence of synovial enhancement seen on magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  6. Unveiling Dimensionality Dependence of Glassy Dynamics: 2D Infinite Fluctuation Eclipses Inherent Structural Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Hayato; Yamada, Yasunori; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Kim, Kang

    2016-12-01

    By using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of two-dimensional (2D) supercooled liquids turns out to be dependent on the system size, while the size dependence is not pronounced in three-dimensional (3D) systems. It is demonstrated that the strong system-size effect in 2D amorphous systems originates from the enhanced fluctuations at long wavelengths which are similar to those of 2D crystal phonons. This observation is further supported by the frequency dependence of the vibrational density of states, consisting of the Debye approximation in the low-wave-number limit. However, the system-size effect in the intermediate scattering function becomes negligible when the length scale is larger than the vibrational amplitude. This suggests that the finite-size effect in a 2D system is transient and also that the structural relaxation itself is not fundamentally different from that in a 3D system. In fact, the dynamic correlation lengths estimated from the bond-breakage function, which do not suffer from those enhanced fluctuations, are not size dependent in either 2D or 3D systems.

  7. GO-2D: identifying 2-dimensional cellular-localized functional modules in Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Da

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid progress in high-throughput biotechnologies (e.g. microarrays and exponential accumulation of gene functional knowledge make it promising for systematic understanding of complex human diseases at functional modules level. Based on Gene Ontology, a large number of automatic tools have been developed for the functional analysis and biological interpretation of the high-throughput microarray data. Results Different from the existing tools such as Onto-Express and FatiGO, we develop a tool named GO-2D for identifying 2-dimensional functional modules based on combined GO categories. For example, it refines biological process categories by sorting their genes into different cellular component categories, and then extracts those combined categories enriched with the interesting genes (e.g., the differentially expressed genes for identifying the cellular-localized functional modules. Applications of GO-2D to the analyses of two human cancer datasets show that very specific disease-relevant processes can be identified by using cellular location information. Conclusion For studying complex human diseases, GO-2D can extract functionally compact and detailed modules such as the cellular-localized ones, characterizing disease-relevant modules in terms of both biological processes and cellular locations. The application results clearly demonstrate that 2-dimensional approach complementary to current 1-dimensional approach is powerful for finding modules highly relevant to diseases.

  8. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  9. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  10. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  11. Novel Hydrogen-bonded Three-dimensional Supramolecular Architectures Containing 2D Honeycomb Networks or 2D Grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-Sheng; ZHOU Cai-Hua; WANG Yao-Yu; FU Feng; WU Ya-Pan; QI Guang-Cai; SHI Qi-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Two new supramolecular complexes, [Cu(H2dhbd)(3-pyOH)(H2O)]2·3-pyOH·2H2O (1) and [Cu2(dhbd)(dpa)2-(H2O)]·6H2O (2) (H4dhbd=2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, 3-pyOH=3-hydroxypyridine, dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine),have been synthesized in aqueous solution and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses,H-O hydrogen bonds, the cyclic dinuclear units in 1 together with four adjacent neighbors are connected into a 2D honeycomb network encapsulating free 3-pyOH ligands. Unexpectedly, the water-dimers are fixed in interlayers of 2D honeycomb network and act as hydrogen-bond bridging to further extend these 2D networks into 3D hydrogen-bonded framework. Complex 2 includes interesting 2D grids constructed from chiral dinuclear units through cules into three dimension with channels. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements for both complexes indicate the presence of weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between adjacent copper(Ⅱ) ions.

  12. Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷2D C/SiC复合材料的抗氧化性能%Oxidation resistance of two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左新章; 张立同; 刘永胜; 成来飞; 龚慧灵

    2013-01-01

    Two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD).Properties and structure evolution and self-healing mechanisms of the C/SiC composite were studied after oxidation for 10 h during 700-1200 ℃.At the same time,the evolution of morphologies,composition and phase for Si-B-C ceramic were also investigated.The experimental results show that the oxidation of Si-B-C ceramic accelerates with the temperature increasing,however,the oxidation scale is shallow and no more than 7 μm.With the temperature increasing,viscosity of borosilicate glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic reduces but volatilization accelerates.When the temperature increases to 1200 ℃,SiO2 crystallizes from borosilicate glass.C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic shows an excellent oxidation resistance.Mass loss increases with temperature increasing,which is only 0.47% after oxidation for 10 h at 1200 ℃.Furthermore,the strength retention ratio is 91.6% at 1000 ℃,higher than that at other temperatures.The main mechanisms for excellent oxidation resistance of C/SiC composite is that borosilicatc glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic can seal cracks in composite effectively.%利用化学气相沉积(CVD)法制备了Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的2D C/SiC复合材料,研究了其在700~1200℃氧化10 h性能和结构的演变规律以及自愈合机制,同时获得了Si-B-C涂层在不同温度氧化后的形貌、组分和物相转变规律.结果表明:涂敷在复合材料表面的Si-B-C陶瓷随温度的升高氧化加快,但氧化程度较低,不深于7μm;随温度的升高,氧化形成的硅硼玻璃黏度降低,挥发增强;当温度达到1200℃时,硅硼玻璃析出SiO2晶体;Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的C/SiC具有优良的抗氧化性能,随氧化温度的升高,复合材料失重率增加,但在1200℃氧化10h后失重率仅为0.47%;此外材料在1000℃氧化后的强度保持率最高,达到91.6%,Si-B-C陶瓷氧化形

  13. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  14. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  15. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  16. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  17. Simulations of two-particle interactions with 2D quantum walks in time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, A.; Laiho, K.; Silberhorn, C. [University of Paderborn, Applied Physics, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany and Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-str. 1 / Bau 24, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Gábris, A. [Department of Physics, FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha, Czech Republic and Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P. O. Box 49 (Hungary); Rohde, P. P. [University of Paderborn, Applied Physics, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany and Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2113 (Australia); Štefaňak, M.; Potoček, V.; Hamilton, C.; Jex, I. [Department of Physics, FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-04

    We present the experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a two-dimensional lattice and show how to employ the optical system to simulate the quantum propagation of two interacting particles. Our quantum walk in time transfers the spatial spread of a quantum walk into the time domain, which guarantees a high stability and scalability of the setup. We present with our device quantum walks over 12 steps on a 2D lattice. By changing the properties of the driving quantum coin, we investigate different kinds of two-particle interactions and reveal their impact on the occurring quantum propagation.

  18. Analysis of directional dependence of the two-dimensional array of detectors 2D array seven 29 implications in the planning system; Analisis de la dependencia direcccional de la matriz bidimensional de detectores 2D array seven29. Implicaciones en el sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)

  19. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  20. Unique Room Temperature Light Emitting Diode Based on 2D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Low Dimensional Perovskite Semiconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Vassilakopoulou, Anastasia; Koutselas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature single layer light emitting diode(LED), based on a two dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor(HOIS), is demonstrated. This simple, low cost excitonic LED operates at low voltages. Such an excitonic device is presented for the first time as functioning at room temperature. The newly introduced class of perovskite LEDs, until now based on 3D perovksite HOIS, is now broadened with the implementation of the 2D HOIS. Novel functionalities can be realized since it is now possible to access the hybrid's 2D semiconductor advantageous properties, such as the increased excitonic peak wavelength tunability, excitonic binding energy and oscillator strength.

  1. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  3. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  4. Getting the Most from 2-D Materials: the Role of Device Dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huashan; Strubbe, David; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    While the control of material dimensionality has been widely used as an important design means, the device dimensionality, which relates to the regularity of the material ensemble rather than the material itself, has received far less attention. Recently, both vertical and lateral heterojunctions based on 2-D materials have been successfully synthesized, which provides an unprecedented opportunity to renew our understanding of the concept of ``dimensionality.'' In this study, we propose a design strategy of controlling device dimensionality by computationally investigating a ``1.5-dimensional'' solar cell device made of a 2-dimensional graphene based material. According to the predicted optical properties and charge dynamics, this prototype system has the potential to achieve desirable characteristics of robustness against defects, efficient polaron pair dissociation, broad tunability with surface functionalization and the possibility to form tandem cells. In addition, the optimization of correlated light harvesting procedures simultaneously becomes attainable in such 1.5-d solar cell due to the extra degree of freedom to manage the flux of mass and energy.

  5. A COMPARISON OF TWO 2D CHANNEL ESTIMATORS FOR OFDM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng; Cheng Shixin; Chen Ming

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with two-dimensional (2D) channel estimation of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system in slow fading wireless channel. We concentrate on two channel estimation schemes: Least Square (LS)+Weighted BiLinear (WBL) and LS+Linear Minimum Mean-Squared Error (LMMSE) where the first method is proposed in this paper. After theory analysis and simulation in Typical Urban (TU) channel, we find that LS+LMMSE achieves the optimal performance by exploiting prior knowledge of channel whereas LS+WBL, without requiring channel knowledge and with only half of the computational amount of LS+LMMSE, approaches LS+LMMSE in Bit Error Ratio (BER) performance when the distance of two adjoining pilot symbols along frequency direction is sufficiently small. This makes LS+WBL very suitable for wideband wireless applications.

  6. Multi-particle collision simulations of 2D one-component plasmas: anomalous transport and dimensional crossovers

    CERN Document Server

    Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Lepri, Stefano; Ciraolo, Guido

    2016-01-01

    By means of hybrid MPC-PIC simulations we study the dynamical scaling of energy and density correlations at equilibrium in moderately coupled 2D and quasi 1D plasmas. We find that the predictions of Nonlinear Fluctuating Hydrodynamics for the structure factors of density and energy fluctuations in 1D systems with three global conservation laws hold true also for two dimensional systems that are more extended along one of the two spatial dimensions. Moreover, from the analysis of the equilibrium energy correlators and density structure factors of both 1D and 2D neutral plasmas, we find that neglecting the contribution of the fluctuations of the vanishing self-consistent electrostatic fields overestimates the interval of frequencies over which the anomalous transport is observed. Such violations of the expected scaling in the currents correlation are found in different regimes, hindering the observation of the asymptotic scaling predicted by the theory.

  7. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  8. MEASUREMENT OF 2-DIMENSIONAL DISPLACEMENT USING 2-D ZERO-REFERENCE MARKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yingnan; Zhou Chenggang; Huang Wenhao

    2005-01-01

    Several 2-D displacement sensing methods are reviewed. As to the cross diffraction grating,there is no absolute zero-reference. In regards to the optical fiber method, the output signal is affected greatly by the quality of the reflecting surface and it is hard to get high resolution. Considering the concentric-circle gratings, the displacement can only be gained with complicated calculating of the experiment data. Compared with the advantages and limitations of the methods above, a novel 2-D zero-reference mark is especially proposed and demonstrated. This kind of mark has an absolute zero-reference when used in pair, and the experimental result is simple to dispose. By superimposing a pair of specially coded 2-D marks, the correct alignment position of the two marks can be detected by the maximum output of the sharp intensity peak. And each slope of the peak is of good linearity which can be used to achieve high resolution in positioning and alignment in two dimensions. Design and fabrication of such 2-D zero-reference marks are introduced in detail. The experiment results are agreed with the theoretical ones.

  9. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E

    1998-01-01

    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  10. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  11. Dimensional heterostructures of 1D CdS/2D ZnIn2S4 composited with 2D graphene: designed synthesis and superior photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qingyong; Wu, Wei; Liu, Jun; Wu, Zhaohui; Yao, Weijing; Ding, Jin; Jiang, Changzhong

    2017-02-28

    The development of photocatalysts with superior photoactivity and stability for the degradation of organic dyes is very important for environmental remediation. In this study, we have presented a multidimensional (1D and 2D) structured CdS/ZnIn2S4/RGO photocatalyst with superior photocatalytic performance. The CdS/ZnIn2S4 helical dimensional heterostructures (DHS) were prepared via a facile solvothermal synthesis method to facilitate the epitaxial growth of 2D ZnIn2S4 nanosheets on 1D CdS nanowires. Ultrathin 2D ZnIn2S4 nanosheets have grown uniformly and perpendicular to the surface of 1D CdS nanowires. The as-obtained 1D/2D CdS/ZnIn2S4 helical DHS show good photocatalytic properties for malachite green (MG). Subsequently, 2D reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was introduced into the 1D/2D CdS/ZnIn2S4 helical DHS as a co-catalyst. The photoactivity and stability of the CdS/ZnIn2S4/RGO composites are significantly improved after 6 cycles. The enhanced photoactivity can be attributed to the high surface area of RGO, the improved adsorption of organic dyes and the efficient spatial separation of photo-induced charge carriers. The transfer of photo-generated electrons from the interface of CdS and ZnIn2S4 to RGO also restricted the photocorrosion of metal sulfide, suggesting an improved stability of the reused CdS/ZnIn2S4/RGO composited photocatalyst.

  12. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  13. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine Maya Dreier; Savran, Mona M; Konge, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery is widely used, and results in accelerated patient recovery time and hospital stay were compared with laparotomy. However, laparoscopic surgery is more challenging compared with open surgery, in part because surgeons must operate in a three-dimensional (3D) space...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...

  14. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney.

  15. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  16. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem

  17. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  18. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  19. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  20. The Rare Two-Dimensional Materials with Dirac Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinying; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Zhongfan; Liu, Zhirong

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the great development of graphene, more and more works have been conducted to seek new two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones. Although 2D Dirac materials possess many novel properties and physics, they are rare compared with the numerous 2D materials. To provide explanation for the rarity of 2D Dirac materials as well as clues in searching for new Dirac systems, here we review the recent theoretical aspects of various 2D Dirac materials, including graphene, silicene, ger...

  1. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  2. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  3. Two-Dimensional Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Isihara and Y. Nalane, Elementary Excitations and Energy Dispersion in TTF-TCNQ;Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors ...Abano Terme, Molec. Crys. Liq. Crys. 120, 85 (1984). One-dimensiona4 conductors such as TTF-TCNQ are attracting considerable attention for their...A. Isihara and Y. Nakane; Magnetoconductivity of 2D Conductors ; Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors , Abano Terme

  4. Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.

  5. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  6. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  7. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  8. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  9. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryadeep Ray

    2004-09-01

    We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

  10. Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, A. L.; Orlova, T. S.; Hussainova, I.; Romanov, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are presented in terms of continuum mechanics. The models are based on the classification of defects, which is founded on the dimensionality of the specification region of their self-distortions, i.e., lattice distortions associated with the formation of defects. The elastic field of an infinitesimal dislocation loop in a film is calculated for the first time. The fields of the center of dilatation, dislocation, disclination, and circular inclusion in planar 2D elastic media, namely, nanofilms and graphenes, are considered. Elastic fields of defects in 2D and 3D crystals are compared.

  11. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  12. Two numerical methods for an inverse problem for the 2-D Helmholtz equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gryazin, Y A; Lucas, T R

    2003-01-01

    Two solution methods for the inverse problem for the 2-D Helmholtz equation are developed, tested, and compared. The proposed approaches are based on a marching finite-difference scheme which requires the solution of an overdetermined system at each step. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method is used for rapid solutions of these systems and an efficient preconditioner has been developed for this class of problems. Underlying target applications include the imaging of land mines, unexploded ordinance, and pollutant plumes in environmental cleanup sites, each formulated as an inverse problem for a 2-D Helmholtz equation. The images represent the electromagnetic properties of the respective underground regions. Extensive numerical results are presented.

  13. Simulation of 2D Brain's Potential Distribution Based on Two Electrodes ECVT Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, S. H.; Edison, R. E.; Baidillah, M. R.; Taruno, W. P.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to simulate the potential distribution of 2D brain geometry based on two electrodes ECVT. ECVT (electrical capacitance tomography) is a tomography modality which produces dielectric distribution image of a subject from several capacitance electrodes measurements. This study begins by producing the geometry of 2D brain based on MRI image and then setting the boundary conditions on the boundaries of the geometry. The values of boundary conditions follow the potential values used in two electrodes brain ECVT, and for this reason the first boundary is set to 20 volt and 2.5 MHz signal and another boundary is set to ground. Poisson equation is implemented as the governing equation in the 2D brain geometry and finite element method is used to solve the equation. Simulated Hodgkin-Huxley action potential is applied as disturbance potential in the geometry. We divide this study into two which comprises simulation without disturbance potential and simulation with disturbance potential. From this study, each of time dependent potential distributions from non-disturbance and disturbance potential of the 2D brain geometry has been generated.

  14. A nodal collocation approximation for the multi-dimensional P{sub L} equations - 2D applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capilla, M. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: tcapilla@mat.upv.es; Talavera, C.F. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: talavera@mat.upv.es; Ginestar, D. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: dginesta@mat.upv.es; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es

    2008-10-15

    A classical approach to solve the neutron transport equation is to apply the spherical harmonics method obtaining a finite approximation known as the P{sub L} equations. In this work, the derivation of the P{sub L} equations for multi-dimensional geometries is reviewed and a nodal collocation method is developed to discretize these equations on a rectangular mesh based on the expansion of the neutronic fluxes in terms of orthogonal Legendre polynomials. The performance of the method and the dominant transport Lambda Modes are obtained for a homogeneous 2D problem, a heterogeneous 2D anisotropic scattering problem, a heterogeneous 2D problem and a benchmark problem corresponding to a MOX fuel reactor core.

  15. FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan

    2008-01-01

    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  16. OBSTACLE DETECTION BY ALV USING TWO 2D LASER RANGE FINDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an effective method of obstacle detection by ALV (Autonomous Land Vehi- cle) equipped with two 2D laser range finders (LRF) installed at different locations of the ALV to obtain eom- prehensive information on the environment. The data processing includes two main steps: ( 1 ) data-processing of the current sample; (2) fusion of the former range data and the current one. The rough description of the ALV's environnent via the four sub-steps ( Data Filter, Obstacle Extraction, Obstacle Merging, Distinguish- ing Obstacle from Road-Edge) was not reliable enough for our control system. To overcome the shortcoming of the 2D LRF and the motion noise of the ALV, a Kalman filter was used to estimate the position of the obsta- cles; then the data of the two LRFs were collated to obtain the height and width of the obstacles. Experiment results attested the feasibility of the detection system.

  17. Theory of two-dimensional transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  18. Ultrabroadband two-quantum two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Tobias A.; Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Breen, Ilana; Turner, Daniel B.

    2016-08-01

    A recent theoretical study proposed that two-quantum (2Q) two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy should be a background-free probe of post-Hartree-Fock electronic correlations. Testing this theoretical prediction requires an instrument capable of not only detecting multiple transitions among molecular excited states but also distinguishing molecular 2Q signals from nonresonant response. Herein we describe a 2Q 2D spectrometer with a spectral range of 300 nm that is passively phase stable and uses only beamsplitters and mirrors. We developed and implemented a dual-chopping balanced-detection method to resolve the weak molecular 2Q signals. Experiments performed on cresyl violet perchlorate and rhodamine 6G revealed distinct 2Q signals convolved with nonresonant response. Density functional theory computations helped reveal the molecular origin of these signals. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that 2Q electronic spectra can provide a singular probe of highly excited electronic states.

  19. Three-Dimensional Volume-Rendered Series Complements 2D Orthogonal Multidetector Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Abnormal Spinal Curvature in Patients at a Major Cancer Center: A Retrospective Review

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background. Abnormal spinal curvature is routinely assessed with plain radiographs, MDCT, and MRI. MDCT can provide two-dimensional (2-D) orthogonal as well as reconstructed three-dimensional volume-rendered (3-D VR) images of the spine, including the translucent display: a computer-generated image set that enables the visualization of surgical instrumentation through bony structures. We hypothesized that the 3-D VR series provides additional information beyond that of 2-D orthogonal MDCT in ...

  20. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  1. Moment-based method for computing the two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a fast algorithm for computing the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Hartley transform (DHT). By using kernel transform and Taylor expansion, the 2-D DHT is approximated by a linear sum of 2-D geometric moments. This enables us to use the fast algorithms developed for computing the 2-D moments to efficiently calculate the 2-D DHT. The proposed method achieves a simple computational structure and is suitable to deal with any sequence lengths.

  2. Orbital evolution of colliding star and pulsar winds in 2D and 3D: dimensionality, resolution, and grid size effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch-Ramon, V; Perucho, M

    2014-01-01

    The structure formed by the shocked winds of a massive star and a non-accreting pulsar in a binary system suffers periodic and random variations of orbital and non-linear dynamical origin. The characterization of the evolution of the two-wind interaction region is necessary to understand the non-thermal emission from radio to gamma rays. For the first time, we simulate in 3D the interaction of isotropic stellar and relativistic pulsar winds along one full orbit, on scales well beyond the binary size. We also investigate the impact of grid resolution and size. We carry out, with the code PLUTO, relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in 2 and 3D of the interaction of a slow dense wind and a mildly relativistic wind along one full orbit, up to ~100 times the binary size. The 2-dimensional simulations are carried out with equal and larger grid resolution and size than in 3D. The simulations in 3D confirm previous results in 2D, showing a strong shock induced by Coriolis forces that terminates the pulsar wind in ...

  3. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  4. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  5. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  6. A Direct Two-Dimensional Pressure Formulation in Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    YD, Sumith

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) pressure field estimation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been done using three-dimensional (3D) pressure field calculations followed by averaging, which is computationally expensive due to 3D convolutions. In this work, we develop a direct 2D pressure field estimation method which is much faster than 3D methods without losing accuracy. The method is validated with MD simulations on two systems: a liquid film and a cylindrical drop of argon suspended in surrounding vapor.

  7. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2016-12-27

    Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.

  9. Emergent elemental two-dimensional materials beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanbo; Rubio, Angel; Le Lay, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials may offer the ultimate scaling beyond the 5 nm gate length. The difficulty of reliably opening a band gap in graphene has led to the search for alternative, semiconducting 2D materials. Emerging classes of elemental 2D materials stand out for their compatibility with existing technologies and/or for their diverse, tunable electronic structures. Among this group, black phosphorene has recently shown superior semiconductor performances. Silicene and germanene feature Dirac-type band dispersions, much like graphene. Calculations show that most group IV and group V elements have one or more stable 2D allotropes, with properties potentially suitable for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review the advances in these fascinating elemental 2D materials and discuss progress and challenges in their applications in future opto- and nano-electronic devices.

  10. Computationally Driven Two-Dimensional Materials Design: What Is Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jie [Materials Science; Lany, Stephan [Materials Science; Qi, Yue [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States

    2017-07-17

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer many key advantages to innovative applications, such as spintronics and quantum information processing. Theoretical computations have accelerated 2D materials design. In this issue of ACS Nano, Kumar et al. report that ferromagnetism can be achieved in functionalized nitride MXene based on first-principles calculations. Their computational results shed light on a potentially vast group of materials for the realization of 2D magnets. In this Perspective, we briefly summarize the promising properties of 2D materials and the role theory has played in predicting these properties. In addition, we discuss challenges and opportunities to boost the power of computation for the prediction of the 'structure-property-process (synthesizability)' relationship of 2D materials.

  11. Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.

  12. Relations between two-dimensional models from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Natividade, C.P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1998-12-31

    In this work we explore the consequences of dimensional reduction of the 3D Maxwell-Chern-Simons and some related models. A connection between topological mass generation in 3D and mass generation according to the Schwinger mechanism in 2D is obtained. Besides, a series of relationships are established by resorting to dimensional reduction and duality interpolating transformations. Nonabelian generalizations are also pointed out. (author) 10 refs.

  13. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  14. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René

    2010-01-01

    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  15. Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)

    2003-01-01

    The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.

  16. Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhang, S B

    2016-01-01

    Band alignment in two-dimensional (2D) lateral heterostructures is fundamentally different from three-dimensional (3D), as Schottky barrier height is at the Schottky-Mott limit and band offset is at the Anderson limit, regardless interfacial conditions. This robustness arises because, in the asymptotic limit, effect of interfacial dipole vanishes. First-principles calculations of graphene/h-BN and MoS2/WS2 show that 2D junction width W is typically an order of magnitude longer than 3D. Therefore, heterostructures with dimension less than W can also be made, leading to tunable band alignment.

  17. Two dimensional fermions in three dimensional YM

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of $SU(N)$ live on the surface of a cylinder embedded in $R^3$ and interact with a three dimensional $SU(N)$ Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the circumference of the cylinder is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit at a typical bulk scale. Replacing three dimensional YM by four dimensional YM introduces non-trivial renormalization effects.

  18. A comparative study of two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average algorithm to estimate the multifractal spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang

    2016-07-01

    Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.

  19. Electromagnetic scattering from two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yun-Hua; Guo Li-Xin; Wu Qiong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper based on the equivalence principle and the reciprocity theorem, the scattered field up to second-order by two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam is considered. The first-order solution can easily be obtained by calculating the scattered field from isolated targets when illuminated by a Gaussian beam. However, because of the difficulty in formulating the couple scattering field, it is almost impossible to find an analytical solution for the second-order scattered field if the shapes of 2D targets are not canonical geometries. In order to overcome this problem, in this paper, the second-order solution is derived by using the technique based on the reciprocity theorem and the equivalence principle. Meanwhile, the relation between the secondary scattered field from target #1 and target #2 is obtained. Specifically, the bi- and mono-static scattering of Gaussian beam by two parallel adjacent inhomogeneous plasma-coated conducting circular cylinders is calculated and the dependence of attenuation of the scattering width on the thickness of the coated layer, electron number density, collision frequency and radar frequency is discussed in detail.

  20. Delocalization of two interacting particles in the 2D Harper model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of two interacting particles in a two-dimensional quasiperiodic potential of the Harper model. We consider an amplitude of the quasiperiodic potential such that in absence of interactions all eigenstates are exponentially localized while the two interacting particles are delocalized showing anomalous subdiffusive spreading over the lattice with the spreading exponent b ≈ 0.5 instead of a usual diffusion with b = 1. This spreading is stronger than in the case of a correlated disorder potential with a one particle localization length as for the quasiperiodic potential. At the same time we do not find signatures of ballistic pairs existing for two interacting particles in the localized phase of the one-dimensional Harper model.

  1. Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.

  2. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  3. Differences in growth properties of endometrial cancer in three dimensional (3D) culture and 2D cell monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitcholtan, Kenny, E-mail: kenny.chitcholtan@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Asselin, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Asselin@uqtr.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Quebec, at Trois-Rivières, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada G9A 5H7 (Canada); Parent, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Parent@uqtr.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Quebec, at Trois-Rivières, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada G9A 5H7 (Canada); Sykes, Peter H., E-mail: peter.sykes@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Evans, John J., E-mail: john.evans@otago.ac.nz [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand); Centre of Neuroendocrinology and The MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Otago, Christchurch, 2 Riccarton Avenue, Christchurch 8011 (New Zealand)

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have an invaluable role in understanding the behaviour of tumour cells in a well defined microenvironment. This is because some aspects of tumour characteristics cannot be fully recapitulated in a cell monolayer (2D). In the present study, we compared growth patterns, expression of signalling molecules, and metabolism-associated proteins of endometrial cancer cell lines in 3D and 2D cell cultures. Cancer cells formed spherical structures in 3D reconstituted basement membrane (3D rBM), and the morphological appearance was cell line dependent. Cell differentiation was observed after 8 days in the 3D rBM. There was reduced proliferation, detected by less expression of PCNA in 3D rBM than in 2D cell monolayers. The addition of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cancer cells induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in both cell culture conditions. The uptake of glucose was selectively altered in the 3D rBM, but there was a lack of association with Glut-1 expression. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) was selectively altered in 3D rBM, and it was cell line dependent. Our data demonstrated that 3D rBM as an in vitro model can influence proliferation and metabolism of endometrial cancer cell behaviour compared to 2D cell monolayer. Changes are specific to individual cell types. The use of 3D rBM is, therefore, important in the in vitro study of targeted anticancer therapies.

  4. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...

  5. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f

  6. On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp

  7. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  8. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro

  9. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  10. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  11. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  12. Two-dimensional gallium nitride realized via graphene encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Wang, Ke; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Vilá, Rafael A.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Qin, Xiaoye; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Desario, Paul A.; Stone, Greg; Subramanian, Shruti; Paul, Dennis F.; Wallace, Robert M.; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M.; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials `beyond graphene’ offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (~5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides `beyond hBN’ and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

  13. van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of two-dimensional CdSe plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Dan; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lei; Li, Xuan-Ze; Tian, Li-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2016-06-01

    Here we demonstrate the first growth of two-dimensional (2D) single-crystalline CdSe plates on mica substrates via van der Waals epitaxy. The as-synthesized 2D plates exhibit hexagonal, truncated triangular and triangular shapes with the lateral size around several microns. Photodetectors based on 2D CdSe plates present a fast response time of 24 ms, revealing that 2D CdSe is a promising building block for ultrathin optoelectronic devices.

  14. Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Negishi, S.; Shima, Y.; Hojo, H.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-higashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10.

  15. Non-separable 2D wavelets with two-row filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhan; H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature 2D (or bivariate) wavelets are usually constructed as a tensor product of 1D wavelets. Such wavelets are called separable. However, there are various applications, e.g. in image processing, for which non-separable 2D wavelets are preferable. In this paper, we

  16. Effects of anisotropy on the two-dimensional inversion procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Wiebke; Pous, Jaume

    2001-12-01

    In this paper we show some of the effects that appear in magnetotelluric measurements over 2-D anisotropic structures, and propose a procedure to recover the anisotropy using 2-D inversion algorithms for isotropic models. First, we see how anisotropy affects the usual interpretation steps: dimensionality analysis and 2-D inversion. Two models containing general 2-D azimuthal anisotropic features were chosen to illustrate this approach: an anisotropic block and an anisotropic layer, both forming part of general 2-D models. In addition, a third model with dipping anisotropy was studied. For each model we examined the influence of various anisotropy strikes and resistivity contrasts on the dimensionality analysis and on the behaviour of the induction arrows. We found that, when the anisotropy ratio is higher than five, even if the strike is frequency-dependent it is possible to decide on a direction close to the direction of anisotropy. Then, if the data are rotated to this angle, a 2-D inversion reproduces the anisotropy reasonably well by means of macro-anisotropy. This strategy was tested on field data where anisotropy had been previously recognized.

  17. Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen

    2012-10-01

    Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.

  18. Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Uniform Rectangular Array Using Reduced-Dimension Propagator Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm is proposed for two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation with uniform rectangular array using reduced-dimension propagator method (RD-PM. The proposed algorithm requires no eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix of the receive data and simplifies two-dimensional global searching in two-dimensional PM (2D-PM to one-dimensional local searching. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is much lower than that of 2D-PM. The angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT algorithm and conventional PM algorithms, also very close to 2D-PM. The angle estimation error and Cramér-Rao bound (CRB are derived in this paper. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can achieve automatically paired 2D-DOA estimation. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  19. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  20. Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang, Jinyang, E-mail: huangjy@mail.buct.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Xiaoming, E-mail: sunxm@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials according to their size of thickness difference. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Highlights: • Density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied on size separation of 2D material. • Isopycnic separation was applied on separation of low density materials. • Rate-zonal separation was applied on separation of large density materials. • Size

  1. Non-separable 2D wavelets with two-row filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Y; Heijmans, Henk

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature 2D (or bivariate) wavelets are usually constructed as a tensor product of 1D wavelets. Such wavelets are called separable. However, there are various applications, e.g. in image processing, for which non-separable 2D wavelets are preferable. In this paper, we investigate the class of compactly supported orthonormal 2D wavelets that was introduced by Belogay and Wang [2]. A characteristic feature of this class of wavelets is that the support of the corresponding f...

  2. Two Dimensional Spatial Independent Component Analysis and Its Application in fMRI Data Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua-fu; YAO De-zhong

    2005-01-01

    One important application of independent component analysis (ICA) is in image processing. A two dimensional (2-D) composite ICA algorithm framework for 2-D image independent component analysis (2-D ICA) is proposed. The 2-D nature of the algorithm provides it an advantage of circumventing the roundabout transforming procedures between two dimensional (2-D) image data and one-dimensional (1-D) signal. Moreover the combination of the Newton (fixed-point algorithm) and natural gradient algorithms in this composite algorithm increases its efficiency and robustness. The convincing results of a successful example in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show the potential application of composite 2-D ICA in the brain activity detection.

  3. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  4. Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, N. H.; Tarmizi, L. H.; Ghani, K. D.

    2015-05-01

    The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm.

  5. Adiabatic and Hamiltonian computing on a 2D lattice with simple two-qubit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Seth; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2016-02-01

    We show how to perform universal Hamiltonian and adiabatic computing using a time-independent Hamiltonian on a 2D grid describing a system of hopping particles which string together and interact to perform the computation. In this construction, the movement of one particle is controlled by the presence or absence of other particles, an effective quantum field effect transistor that allows the construction of controlled-NOT and controlled-rotation gates. The construction translates into a model for universal quantum computation with time-independent two-qubit ZZ and XX+YY interactions on an (almost) planar grid. The effective Hamiltonian is arrived at by a single use of first-order perturbation theory avoiding the use of perturbation gadgets. The dynamics and spectral properties of the effective Hamiltonian can be fully determined as it corresponds to a particular realization of a mapping between a quantum circuit and a Hamiltonian called the space-time circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction. Because of the simple interactions required, and because no higher-order perturbation gadgets are employed, our construction is potentially realizable using superconducting or other solid-state qubits.

  6. Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, N. H.; Tarmizi, L. H.; Ghani, K. D. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm.

  7. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  8. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  9. Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a

  10. A Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.

    2007-05-01

    We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALEs). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of divB by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for which multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is relevant.

  11. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional sonography of the temporomandibular joint in comparison to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, Constantin A. [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: c.landes@lycos.com; Goral, Wojciech A. [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: w.goral@gmx.de; Sader, Robert [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: r.sader@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Mack, Martin G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: martinmack@arcor.de

    2007-02-15

    Aim: To compare clinical feasibility of static two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) sonography of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in assessment of disk dislocation and joint degeneration compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Method: Thirty-three patients, 66 TMJ were prospectively sonographed 2D and 3D (8-12.5 MHz step motor scan), in occlusion and maximum opening with a probe position parallel inferior to the zygomatic arch. Axial 2D images were judged independent from the 3D scans; 3D volumes were cut axial, sagittal, frontal and rotated in real-time. Disk position and joint degeneration were assessed and compared to a subsequent MRI examination. Results: The specific appearance of the disk was hypoechogenic overlying a hyperechogenic condyle in axial (2D) or sagittal and frontal (3D) viewing. Specificity of 2D sonography for disk dislocation was 63%, sensitivity 58%, accuracy 64%, positive predictive value 46%, negative predictive value 73%; for joint degeneration synonymously 59/68/61/38/83%. 3D sonography for disk displacement reached synonymously 68/60/69/51/76%, for joint degeneration 75/65/73/48/86%. 2D sonographic diagnoses of disk dislocation in the closed mouth position and of joint degeneration showed significantly different results from the expected values (MRI) in {chi} {sup 2} testing; 3D diagnoses of disk dislocation in closed mouth position, of joint degeneration, 2D and 3D diagnoses in open mouth position were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Acceptable was the overall negative predictive value, as specificity and accuracy for joint degeneration in 3D. 3D appears superior diagnosing disk dislocation in closed mouth position as for overall joint degeneration. Sensitivity, accuracy and positive predictive value will have to ameliorate with future equipment of higher resolution in real-time 2D and 3D, if sonographic screening shall be clinically applied prior to MRI.

  12. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  13. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  14. On the critical behaviour of two-dimensional liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.l. Fariñas-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lebwohl-Lasher (LL model is the traditional model used to describe the nematic-isotropic transition of real liquid crystals. In this paper, we develop a numerical study of the temperature behaviour and of finite-size scaling of the two-dimensional (2D LL-model. We discuss two possible scenarios. In the first one, the 2D LL-model presents a phase transition similar to the topological transition appearing in the 2D XY-model. In the second one, the 2D LL-model does not exhibit any critical transition, but its low temperature behaviour is rather characterized by a crossover from a disordered phase to an ordered phase at zero temperature. We realize and discuss various comparisons with the 2D XY-model and the 2D Heisenberg model. Having added finite-size scaling behaviour of the order parameter and conformal mapping of order parameter profile to previous studies, we analyze the critical scaling of the probability distribution function, hyperscaling relations and stiffness order parameter and conclude that the second scenario (no critical transition is the most plausible.

  15. Surface Reconstruction-Induced Coincidence Lattice Formation Between Two-Dimensionally Bonded Materials and a Three-Dimensionally Bonded Substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, Jos E.; Momand, Jamo; Bragaglia, Valeria; Wang, Ruining; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Kooi, Bart J.; Riechert, Henning; Calarco, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Sb2Te3 films are used for studying the epitaxial registry between two-dimensionally bonded (2D) materials and three-dimensional bonded (3D) substrates. In contrast to the growth of 3D materials, it is found that the formation of coincidence lattices between Sb2Te3 and Si(111) depends on the geometry

  16. Assessment of the Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Patients by Two -dimensional Speckle Tracking Imaging( 2D - STI)%二维斑点追踪成像技术评价扩张型心肌病患者左心室心肌纵向收缩功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 胡元平; 宋樟伟; 杨炜宇; 徐瑞; 倪显达

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the left ventricular systolic function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy ( DCM ) . Methods 35 healthy subjects and 39 dilated cardiomyopathy patients underwent conventional echocardiography examination. Left atrial ( LA) diameter were measured by M - mode echocardiography, left ventricular( LV) end - systolic volume, end - diastolic volume and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated by bi -plane Simpson's method. The peak velocity during early diastole(Ve) and late diastole (Va) of anterior mitral valve were measured by pulse -waved doppler, and the ratio Ve/Va was calculated. We acquired the apical four - chamber, two - chamber and the long - axis views of the left ventricular images in these patients with GE - Vivid7 - dimension. Then the peak longitudinal velocity, strain and strain rate in systolic period were measured and recorded. Results The values of LAD, LVESV and LVEDV in DCM patients were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (P 0. 05 ) . The peak velocity in systolic period of the base and middle LV segments in DCM patients were lower than those of the healthy subjects (P < 0. 05). The peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were significantly lower than healthy subjects (P < 0. 01). The peak velocity of the healthy subjects and the DCM patients were descent from the base to the apex. Conclusion The peak velocity, stain and strain rate of regional myocardial function in long - axis of left ventricular can be analyzed by 2D - STI, and it is a feasible technique for the assessment of cardiac longitudinal systolic function in DCM patients, and it can be widely used in the cardiac examination.%目的 评价二维斑点追踪成像技术(2D - STI)在扩张型心肌病(dilated cardiomyopathy,DCM)患者的左心室心肌纵向收缩功能应用价值.方法 对39例DCM患者和35例正常对照组行常规超声心动图检查得到左心房内径(LAD)、左心室射血分数(LVEF)、过二尖瓣口

  17. Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhao, Jijun; Zhang, Shengbai

    2017-03-01

    Recent experimental synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures opens a door to new opportunities in tailoring the electronic properties for novel 2D devices. Here, we show that a wide range of lateral 2D heterostructures could have a prominent advantage over the traditional three-dimensional (3D) heterostructures, because their band alignments are insensitive to the interfacial conditions. They should be at the Schottky-Mott limits for semiconductor-metal junctions and at the Anderson limits for semiconductor junctions, respectively. This fundamental difference from the 3D heterostructures is rooted in the fact that, in the asymptotic limit of large distance, the effect of the interfacial dipole vanishes for 2D systems. Due to the slow decay of the dipole field and the dependence on the vacuum thickness, however, studies based on first-principles calculations often failed to reach such a conclusion. Taking graphene/hexagonal-BN and MoS2/WS2 lateral heterostructures as the respective prototypes, we show that the converged junction width can be order of magnitude longer than that for 3D junctions. The present results provide vital guidance to high-quality transport devices wherever a lateral 2D heterostructure is involved.

  18. Electron Cryomicroscopy of Membrane Proteins: Specimen Preparation for Two-Dimensional Crystals and Single Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg; Rubinstein, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein structure and function can be studied by two powerful and highly complementary electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) methods: electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and single particle analysis of detergent-solubilized protein complexes. To obtain the highest-possible resolution data from membrane proteins, whether prepared as 2D crystals or single particles, cryo-EM samples must be vitrified with great care. Grid preparation for cryo-EM of 2D crystals is possi...

  19. A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.

  20. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  1. Comparing the heterogeneity of copper-binding characteristics for two different-sized soil humic acid fractions using fluorescence quenching combined with 2D-COS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous distributions of copper-binding characteristics were compared for two ultrafiltered size fractions of a soil HA using fluorescence quenching combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The apparent shapes of the original synchronous fluorescence spectra and the extent of the fluorescence quenching upon the addition of copper were similar for the two fractions. The stability constants calculated at their highest peaks were not significantly different. However, the 2D-COS results revealed that the fluorescence quenching behaviors were strongly affected by the associated wavelengths and the fraction's size. The spectral change preferentially occurred in the wavelength order of 467 nm → 451 nm → 357 nm for the 1-10 K fraction and of 376 nm → 464 nm for the >100 K fraction. The extent of the binding affinities exactly followed the sequential orders interpreted from the 2D-COS, and they exhibited the distinctive ranges of the logarithmic values from 5.86 to 4.91 and from 6.48 to 5.95 for the 1-10 K and the >100 K fractions, respectively. Our studies demonstrated that fluorescence quenching combined with 2D-COS could be successfully utilized to give insight into the chemical heterogeneity associated with metal-binding sites within the relatively homogeneous HA size fractions.

  2. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  3. Two-dimensional numerical assessment of the hydrodynamics of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, G; Fohrer, N

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic assessment of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan has been carried out using DHI MIKE 21 software based on a ground referenced and corrected Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM...

  4. Ab Initio Prediction of Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonsky, Michael N; Zhuang, Houlong L; Singh, Arunima K; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-10-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials present many unique materials concepts, including material properties that sometimes differ dramatically from those of their bulk counterparts. One of these properties, piezoelectricity, is important for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Using symmetry analysis, we determine the independent piezoelectric coefficients for four groups of predicted and synthesized 2D materials. We calculate with density-functional perturbation theory the stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of these materials. We determine the in-plane piezoelectric coefficient d11 for 37 materials within the families of 2D metal dichalcogenides, metal oxides, and III-V semiconductor materials. A majority of the structures, including CrSe2, CrTe2, CaO, CdO, ZnO, and InN, have d11 coefficients greater than 5 pm/V, a typical value for bulk piezoelectric materials. Our symmetry analysis shows that buckled 2D materials exhibit an out-of-plane coefficient d31. We find that d31 for 8 III-V semiconductors ranges from 0.02 to 0.6 pm/V. From statistical analysis, we identify correlations between the piezoelectric coefficients and the electronic and structural properties of the 2D materials that elucidate the origin of the piezoelectricity. Among the 37 2D materials, CdO, ZnO, and CrTe2 stand out for their combination of large piezoelectric coefficient and low formation energy and are recommended for experimental exploration.

  5. Soluble, Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Excellent Aqueous Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenling; Cao, Yanlin; Tian, Pengyi; Guo, Fei; Tian, Yu; Zheng, Wen; Ji, Xuqiang; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-11-30

    Dispersion in water of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is conducive to their practical applications in fundamental science communities due to their abundance, low cost, and ecofriendliness. However, it is difficult to achieve stable aqueous 2D material suspensions because of the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the layered materials. Here, we report an effective and economic way of producing various 2D nanosheets (h-BN, MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and graphene) as aqueous dispersions using carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as exfoliation agents and stabilizers. The dispersion was prepared through a liquid phase exfoliation. The as-synthesized stable 2D nanosheets based dispersions were characterized by UV-vis, HRTEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, and XRD. The solutions based on CQD decorated 2D nanosheets were utilized as aqueous lubricants, which realized a friction coefficient as low as 0.02 and even achieved a superlubricity under certain working conditions. The excellent lubricating properties were attributed to the synergetic effects of the 2D nanosheets and CQDs, such as good dispersion stability and easy-sliding interlayer structure. This work thus proposes a novel strategy for the design and preparation of high-performance water based green lubricants.

  6. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  7. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  8. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  9. А heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional strip packing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dayong, Cao; Kotov, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct an improved best-fit heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional rectangular strip packing problem (2D-RSPP), and compare it with some heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms from literatures. The experimental results show that BFBCC could produce satisfied packing layouts than these methods, especially for the large problem of 50 items or more, BFBCC could get better results in shorter time.

  10. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N M Silvestre; P Patrício; M M Telo Da Gama

    2005-06-01

    We review theoretical and experimental work on colloidal interactions in two-dimensional (2D) nematic emulsions. We pay particular attention to the effects of (i) the nematic elastic constants, (ii) the size of the colloids, and (iii) the boundary conditions at the particles and the container. We consider the interactions between colloids and fluid (deformable) interfaces and the shape of fluid colloids in smectic-C films.

  11. Exact two-body solutions and quantum defect theory of two-dimensional dipolar quantum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Jianwen; Qi, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we provide the two-body exact solutions of the two-dimensional (2D) Schrödinger equation with isotropic +/- 1/{r}3 interactions. An analytic quantum defect theory is constructed based on these solutions and it is applied to investigate the scattering properties as well as two-body bound states of an ultracold polar molecules confined in a quasi-2D geometry. Interestingly, we find that for the attractive case, the scattering resonance happens simultaneously in all partial waves, which has not been observed in other systems. The effect of this feature on the scattering phase shift across such resonances is also illustrated.

  12. Two-Dimensional Tail-Biting Convolutional Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Alfandary, Liam

    2011-01-01

    The multidimensional convolutional codes are an extension of the notion of convolutional codes (CCs) to several dimensions of time. This paper explores the class of two-dimensional convolutional codes (2D CCs) and 2D tail-biting convolutional codes (2D TBCCs), in particular, from several aspects. First, we derive several basic algebraic properties of these codes, applying algebraic methods in order to find bijective encoders, create parity check matrices and to inverse encoders. Next, we discuss the minimum distance and weight distribution properties of these codes. Extending an existing tree-search algorithm to two dimensions, we apply it to find codes with high minimum distance. Word-error probability asymptotes for sample codes are given and compared with other codes. The results of this approach suggest that 2D TBCCs can perform better than comparable 1D TBCCs or other codes. We then present several novel iterative suboptimal algorithms for soft decoding 2D CCs, which are based on belief propagation. Two ...

  13. Synthesis of two-dimensional materials by selective extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from

  14. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.org, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  15. Superfluid phase transition in two-dimensional excitonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T.K., E-mail: kopec@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2014-03-01

    We study the superfluid phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) excitonic system. Employing the extended Falicov–Kimball model (EFKM) and considering the local quantum correlations in the system composed of conduction band electrons and valence band holes we demonstrate the existence of the excitonic insulator (EI) state in the system. We show that at very low temperatures, the particle phase stiffness in the pure-2D excitonic system, governed by the non-local cross correlations, is responsible for the vortex–antivortex binding phase-field state, known as the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) superfluid state. We demonstrate that the existence of excitonic insulator phase is a necessary prerequisite, leading to quasi-long-range order in the 2D excitonic system.

  16. Nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The theory of Bloembergen and Pershan for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is extended to a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal, i.e., a single planar atomic lattice, placed between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real 2D system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. As a particular case that contains all the essential physical features, second-order harmonic generation is considered. The theory, due to its simplicity that stems from the special character of a single planar atomic lattice, is able to elucidate and explain the rich experimental details of harmonic generation from a 2D atomic crystal.

  17. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-08-01

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  18. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D.; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D.; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L.; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes.Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. PMID:26680195

  19. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    a voltage is passed through the Josephson junction, we observe multiple Andreev reflections and preliminary results point to a highly transmissive interface between the 2D electron gas and the superconductor. In the theoretical section we demonstrate analytically and numerically, that in a 1D nanowire......This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show...... that a superconducting 1D nanowire can harbor Majorana bound states in the absence of spin–orbit coupling. We fabricate and measure micrometer–sized mesoscopic devices demonstrating the inheritance of superconducting properties in the 2D electron gas. By placing a quantum point contact proximal to the interface between...

  20. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  1. Two-dimensional coupled electron-hole layers in high magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlangeli, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    In solids, it is nowadays possible to create structures in which electrons are confined into a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The physics of a 2D electron gas (2DEG) has proved to be very rich, in particular in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The Quantum Hall Effect, i.e. the quantization

  2. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  3. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  4. Two-Dimensional Hydrous Silica : Nanosheets and Nanotubes Predicted from First-Principles Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Changming; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Van Huis, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hydrous silica sheets (HSSs) and hydrous silica nanotubes (HSNTs) have many unique properties and potential applications. Although preparation of 2D HSSs was patented already about half a century ago, very little is known about their structure and physical properties. He we pred

  5. 25th anniversary article: hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), receive a lot of attention, because of their intriguing properties and wide applications in catalysis, energy-storage devices, electronics, optoelectronics, and so on. To further enhance the performance of their application, these 2D nanomaterials are hybridized with other functional nanostructures. In this review, the latest studies of 2D nanomaterial-based hybrid nanostructures are discussed, focusing on their preparation methods, properties, and applications.

  6. Novel Symmetries in Two Dimensional Proca Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanja, T; Malik, R P

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the Stueckelberg's approach, we obtain a gauge theory for the two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) Proca theory and demonstrate that this theory is endowed with, in addition to the usual Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries, the on-shell nilpotent (anti-)co-BRST symmetries, under which, the total gauge-fixing term remains invariant. The anticommutator of the BRST and co-BRST (as well as anti-BRST and anti-co-BRST) symmetries define a unique bosonic symmetry in the theory, under which, the ghost part of the Lagrangian density remains invariant. To establish connections of the above symmetries with the Hodge theory, we invoke a pseudo-scalar field in the theory. Ultimately, we demonstrate that the full theory provides a field theoretic example for the Hodge theory where the continuous symmetry transformations provide a physical realization of the de Rham cohomological operators and discrete symmetries of the theory lead to the physical realization of the Hodge duality operation of diffe...

  7. The 2005 Vazcun Valley Lahar: Evaluation of the TITAN2D Two-Phase Flow Model Using an Actual Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.; Stinton, A. J.; Sheridan, M. F.

    2005-12-01

    TITAN2D is a depth-averaged, thin-layer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, suitable for simulating a variety of geophysical mass flows. TITAN2D output data include pile thickness and flow momentum at each time step for all cells traversed by the flow during the simulation. From this the flow limit, run-out path, pile velocity, deposit thickness, and travel time can be calculated. Results can be visualized in the open source GRASS GIS software or with the built-in TITAN2D viewer. A new two-phase TITAN2D version allows simulation of flows containing various mixtures of water and solids. The purpose of this study is to compare simulations by the two-phase flow version of TITAN2D with an actual event. The chosen natural flow is a small ash-rich lahar (volume approximately 60,000 m3) that occurred on 12 February 2005 in the Vazcún Valley, located on the north-east flank of Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador. Lahars and pyroclastic flows along this valley could potentially threaten the 20,000 inhabitants living in and near the city of Baños. A variety of data sources exist for this lahar, including: pre- and post-event meter-scale topography, and photographic, video, seismic and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) records from during the event. These data permit detailed comparisons between the dynamics of the actual lahar and those of the TITAN2D simulated flow. In particular, detailed comparisons are made between run-up heights, flow velocity, inundation area, and deposit area and thickness. Simulations utilize a variety of data derived from field observations such as lahar volume, solid to pore-fluid ratio and pre-event topography. TITAN2D is important in modeling lahars because it allows assessment of the impact of the flows on buildings and infrastructure lifelines located near drainages that descend from volcanoes.

  8. Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Two-View Registration for 3D/2D Registration of Vascular Images

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Chetna; Van Horn, Mark; Weeks, Susan; Bullitt, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Accurate 3D/2D vessel registration is complicated by issues of image quality, occlusion, and other problems. This study performs a quantitative comparison of 3D/2D vessel registration in which vessels segmented from preoperative CT or MR are registered with biplane x-ray angiograms by either a) simultaneous two-view registration with advance calculation of the relative pose of the two views, or b) sequential registration with each view. We conclude on the basis of phantom studies that, even i...

  9. Analysis of the IEA 2D test. 2D, 3D, steady or unsteady airflow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The “IEA Annex 20 two-dimensional test case” was defined by proffesor Peter V. Nielsen (1990) and was originally considered two-dimensional and steady flow. However, some recent works considering the case as three dimensional have shown different solutions from the 2D case as well as different so...

  10. Epi-two-dimensional flow and generalized enstrophy

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of the enstrophy ($L^2$ norm of the vorticity $\\omega$) plays an essential role in the physics and mathematics of two-dimensional (2D) Euler fluids. Generalizing to compressible ideal (inviscid and barotropic) fluids, the generalized enstrophy $\\int_{\\Sigma(t)} f(\\omega/\\rho)\\rho\\, d^2 x$, ($f$ an arbitrary smooth function, $\\rho$ the density, and $\\Sigma(t)$ an arbitrary 2D domain co-moving with the fluid) is a constant of motion, and plays the same role. On the other hand, for the three-dimensional (3D) ideal fluid, the helicity $\\int_{M} {V}\\cdot\\omega\\,d^3x$, ($V$ the flow velocity, $\\omega=\

  11. Thermal conductivity of disordered two-dimensional binary alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Hai-Yuan; Chen, Shi-You; Xiang, Hong-Jun; Gong, Xin-Gao

    2016-10-20

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the effect of disorder on the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) C1-xNx alloys. We find that the thermal conductivity not only depends on the substitution concentration of nitrogen, but also strongly depends on the disorder distribution. A general linear relationship is revealed between the thermal conductivity and the participation ratio of phonons in 2D alloys. Localization mode analysis further indicates that the thermal conductivity variation in the ordered alloys can be attributed to the number of inequivalent atoms. As for the disordered alloys, we find that the thermal conductivity variation can be described by a simple linear formula with the disorder degree and the substitution concentration. The present study suggests some general guidance for phonon manipulation and thermal engineering in low dimensional alloys.

  12. Gate-induced superconductivity in two-dimensional atomic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystals are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics, since these systems exhibit not only rich electronic and photonic properties but also exotic electronic phase transitions including superconductivity and charge density wave. Moreover, owing to the recent development of transfer methods after exfoliation and electric-double-layer transistors, superconducting 2D atomic crystals, the thicknesses of which are below 1-2 nm, have been successfully obtained. Here, we present a topical review on the recent discoveries of 2D crystalline superconductors by ionic-liquid gating and a series of their novel properties. In particular, we highlight two topics; quantum metallic states (or possible metallic ground states) and superconductivity robust against in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena can be discussed with the effects of weakened disorder and/or broken spacial inversion symmetry leading to valley-dependent spin-momentum locking (spin-valley locking). These examples suggest the superconducting 2D crystals are new platforms for investigating the intrinsic quantum phases as well as exotic nature in 2D superconductors.

  13. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  14. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  15. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  16. Image interpolation by two-dimensional parametric cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E

    2006-07-01

    Cubic convolution is a popular method for image interpolation. Traditionally, the piecewise-cubic kernel has been derived in one dimension with one parameter and applied to two-dimensional (2-D) images in a separable fashion. However, images typically are statistically nonseparable, which motivates this investigation of nonseparable cubic convolution. This paper derives two new nonseparable, 2-D cubic-convolution kernels. The first kernel, with three parameters (designated 2D-3PCC), is the most general 2-D, piecewise-cubic interpolator defined on [-2, 2] x [-2, 2] with constraints for biaxial symmetry, diagonal (or 90 degrees rotational) symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The second kernel, with five parameters (designated 2D-5PCC), relaxes the constraint of diagonal symmetry, based on the observation that many images have rotationally asymmetric statistical properties. This paper also develops a closed-form solution for determining the optimal parameter values for parametric cubic-convolution kernels with respect to ensembles of scenes characterized by autocorrelation (or power spectrum). This solution establishes a practical foundation for adaptive interpolation based on local autocorrelation estimates. Quantitative fidelity analyses and visual experiments indicate that these new methods can outperform several popular interpolation methods. An analysis of the error budgets for reconstruction error associated with blurring and aliasing illustrates that the methods improve interpolation fidelity for images with aliased components. For images with little or no aliasing, the methods yield results similar to other popular methods. Both 2D-3PCC and 2D-5PCC are low-order polynomials with small spatial support and so are easy to implement and efficient to apply.

  17. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  18. Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sébastien

    2011-02-01

    The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k(∥)=0 and in the area k(∥)>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvénic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.

  19. Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures

  20. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2012-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...

  1. Analysis of one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ban Xiaojun; Gao Xiaozhi; Huang Xianlin; Wu Tianbao

    2006-01-01

    The analytical structures and the corresponding mathematical properties of the one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers are first investigated in detail.The nature of these two kinds of fuzzy controllers is next probed from the perspective of control engineering. For the one dimensional fuzzy controller, it is concluded that this controller is a combination of a saturation element and a nonlinear proportional controller, and the system that employs the one dimensional fuzzy controller is the combination of an open-loop control system and a closedloop control system. For the latter case, it is concluded that it is a hybrid controller, which comprises the saturation part, zero-output part, nonlinear derivative part, nonlinear proportional part, as well as nonlinear proportional-derivative part, and the two dimensional fuzzy controller-based control system is a loop-varying system with varying number of control loops.

  2. Two-dimensional behavior of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow with a strong guiding field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandros

    2011-11-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the presence of a guiding magnetic field are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. The basis of the investigation consists of nine runs forced at the small scales. The results demonstrate that for a large enough uniform magnetic field the large scale flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) (non-MHD) fluid exhibiting an inverse cascade of energy in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the small scales behave like a three-dimensional (3D) MHD fluid cascading the energy forwards. The amplitude of the inverse cascade is sensitive to the magnetic field amplitude, the domain size, the forcing mechanism, and the forcing scale. All these dependences are demonstrated by the varying parameters of the simulations. Furthermore, in the case that the system is forced anisotropically in the small parallel scales an inverse cascade in the parallel direction is observed that is feeding the 2D modes k(//)=0.

  3. Two-Dimensional Chirality in Three-Dimensional Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintner, Claude E.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of two-dimensional chirality is used to enhance students' understanding of three-dimensional stereochemistry. This chirality is used as a key to teaching/understanding such concepts as enaniotropism, diastereotopism, pseudoasymmetry, retention/inversion of configuration, and stereochemical results of addition to double bonds. (JN)

  4. Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-05-11

    Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors.

  5. Generalized non-separable two-dimensional Dammann encoding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junjie; Zhou, Changhe; Zhu, Linwei; Lu, Yancong; Wu, Jun; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We generalize for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the Dammann encoding method into non-separable two-dimensional (2D) structures for designing various pure-phase Dammann encoding gratings (DEGs). For examples, three types of non-separable 2D DEGs, including non-separable binary Dammann vortex gratings, non-separable binary distorted Dammann gratings, and non-separable continuous-phase cubic gratings, are designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Correspondingly, it is shown that 2D square arrays of optical vortices with topological charges proportional to the diffraction orders, focus spots shifting along both transversal and axial directions with equal spacings, and Airy-like beams with controllable orientation for each beam, are generated in symmetry or asymmetry by these three DEGs, respectively. Also, it is shown that a more complex-shaped array of modulated beams could be achieved by this non-separable 2D Dammann encoding method, which will be a big challenge for those conventional separable 2D Dammann encoding gratings. Furthermore, the diffractive efficiency of the gratings can be improved around ∼10% when the non-separable structure is applied, compared with their conventional separable counterparts. Such improvement in the efficiency should be of high significance for some specific applications.

  6. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorić, G; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G Ya; Malomed, B A

    2015-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D \\textit{% soliton-based nano-antenna}, which should be stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.

  7. Heterostructures based on two-dimensional layered materials and their potential applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang

    2015-12-04

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials is driven by fundamental interest and their potential applications. Atomically thin 2D materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks with unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties which do not exist in their bulk counterparts. The van der Waals interlayer interaction enables the possibility to exfoliate and reassemble different 2D materials into arbitrarily and vertically stacked heterostructures. Recently developed vapor phase growth of 2D materials further paves the way of directly synthesizing vertical and lateral heterojunctions. This review provides insights into the layered 2D heterostructures, with a concise introduction to preparative approaches for 2D materials and heterostructures. These unique 2D heterostructures have abundant implications for many potential applications.

  8. Two-dimensional photonic crystal sensors for visual detection of lectin concanavalin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Cai, Zhongyu; Kwak, Daniel H; Liu, Xinyu; Asher, Sanford A

    2014-09-16

    We fabricated a two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal lectin sensing material that utilizes light diffraction from a 2-D colloidal array attached to the surface of a hydrogel that contains mannose carbohydrate groups. Lectin-carbohydrate interactions create hydrogel cross-links that shrink the hydrogel volume and decrease the 2-D particle spacing. This mannose containing 2-D photonic crystal sensor detects Concanavalin A (Con A) through shifts in the 2-D diffraction wavelength. Con A concentrations can be determined by measuring the diffracted wavelength or visually determined from the change in the sensor diffraction color. The concentrations are easily monitored by measuring the 2-D array Debye ring diameter. Our observed detection limit for Con A is 0.02 mg/mL (0.7 μM). The 2-D photonic crystal sensors are completely reversible and can monitor Con A solution concentration changes.

  9. Three-Dimensional Volume-Rendered Series Complements 2D Orthogonal Multidetector Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Abnormal Spinal Curvature in Patients at a Major Cancer Center: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, J Matthew; Ketonen, Leena; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita

    2012-01-01

    Background. Abnormal spinal curvature is routinely assessed with plain radiographs, MDCT, and MRI. MDCT can provide two-dimensional (2-D) orthogonal as well as reconstructed three-dimensional volume-rendered (3-D VR) images of the spine, including the translucent display: a computer-generated image set that enables the visualization of surgical instrumentation through bony structures. We hypothesized that the 3-D VR series provides additional information beyond that of 2-D orthogonal MDCT in the evaluation of abnormal spinal curvature in patients evaluated at a major cancer center. Methods. The 3-D VR series, including the translucent display, was compared to 2-D orthogonal MDCT studies in patients with an abnormal spinal curvature greater than 25 degrees and scored as being not helpful (0) or helpful (1) in 3 categories: spinal curvature; bony definition; additional findings (mass lesions, fractures, and instrumentation). Results. In 38 of 48 (79.2%) patients assessed, the 3-D VR series were scored as helpful in 63 of 144 (43.8%) total possible categories (32 spinal curvature; 14 bony definition; 17 additional findings). Conclusion. Three-dimensional MDCT images, including the translucent display, are complementary to multiplanar 2-D orthogonal MCDT in the evaluation of abnormal spinal curvature in patients treated at a major cancer center.

  10. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  11. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  12. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional ultrasonographic assessment of peripheral enthesitis in spondylarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, Oriane; Guillot, Pascale; Maugars, Yves; Le Goff, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    To compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric versus conventional two-dimensional (2D) power Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the assessment of peripheral enthesitis in spondylarthritis (SpA). Sixteen patients with SpA according to ASAS criteria were included. Two rheumatologists (one experimented in musculoskeletal US (sonographer 1) and one beginner (sonographer 2)) performed independently a 2D US scoring of the enthesis using the Madrid Sonographic Enthesis Index score followed by a 3D acquisition of the same entheseal sites. The reading of the 3D acquisition was performed a minimum of 1 week apart. Intraobserver reliability was evaluated by a second reading of the same images. The duration of 2D US scanning, 3D US acquisition and reading was recorded. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used for the reliability analysis. Intraobserver reproducibility was good to excellent for 2D US and good for 3D US (ICC (95 %CI) 2D US 0.776 (0.471-0.916) and 0.96 (0.892-0.986) and ICC (95 %CI) 3D US 0.796 (0.498-0.921) and 0.703 (0.325-0.886) for sonographer 1 and 2, respectively). Interobserver reliability was slightly better for 3D US than for 2D US (ICC (95 %CI) 0.776 (0.471-0.916) for 3D US versus 0.641 (0.221-0.859) for 2D US). The mean time (±SD) for 2D US scanning was 23 min (±4) whereas the mean time for 3D US volume acquisition and reading was 16.5 min (±2.6) (p < 0.001). 3D US showed good intra- and interobserver reliability in the assessment of enthesitis in SpA and shortened the needed time for scanning. It can be performed by a nonexperienced examiner without loss of reliability.

  13. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  14. Two-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic dromion-like soliton in a cold transparent plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yun-Liang; Zhou Zhong-Xiang; Yuan Cheng-Xun; Jiang Xiang-Qian; Qin Ru-Hu

    2006-01-01

    By using a standard multiple scale method, a Davey-Stewartson (DS) equation has been derived and also applied to a multi-dimensional analytical investigation on the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a cold unmagnetized transparent electron-ion plasma. The regions of instability are found by considering the modulation instability of a plane wave solution of the DS equation. The DS equation is just of the Daveylution, i.e. a two-dimensional (2D) dromion soliton decaying exponentially in all spatial directions. A 2D relativistic electromagnetic dromion-like soliton (2D REDLS) is derived for a vector potential.

  15. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  16. Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).

  17. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  18. Two-Dimensional Plasmonics in Massive and Massless Electron Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang

    Plasmonic waves in solid-state are caused by collective oscillation of mobile charges inside or at the surface of conductors. In particular, surface plasmonic waves propagating at the skin of metals have recently attracted interest, as they reduce the wavelength of electromagnetic waves coupled to them by up to ˜10 times, allowing one to create miniaturized wave devices at optical frequencies. In contrast, plasmonic waves on two-dimensional (2D) conductors appear at much lower infrared and THz-GHz frequencies, near or in the electronics regime, and can achieve far stronger wavelength reduction factor reaching well above 100. In this thesis, we study the unique machinery of 2D plasmonic waves behind this ultra-subwavelength confinement and explore how it can be used to create various interesting devices. To this end, we first develop a physically intuitive theoretical formulation of 2D plasmonic waves, whose two main components---the Coulomb restoration force and inertia of the collectively oscillating charges---are combined into a transmission-line-like model. We then use this formulation to create various ultra-subwavelength 2D plasmonic devices. For the 2D conductor, we first choose GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure---a 2D electron gas consisting of massive (m* > 0) electrons---demonstrating plasmonic bandgap crystals, interferometers, and negatively refracting metamaterials. We then examine a 2D plasmonic device based on graphene, a 2D electron gas consisting of effectively massless (m* = 0) electrons. We theoretically show and experimentally demonstrate that the massless electrons in graphene can surprisingly exhibit a collective mass when subjected to a collective excitation, providing the inertia that is essential for the propagation of 2D plasmonic waves. Lastly, we theoretically investigate the thermal current fluctuation behaviors in massive and massless electron gases. While seemingly unrelated on first sight, we show that the thermal current fluctuation is

  19. Comparison of Free Spectral Range and Quality Factor for Two-Dimensional Square and Circular Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国伟华; 黄永箴; 陆巧银; 于丽娟

    2004-01-01

    Free spectral range of whispering-gallery (WG)-like modes in a two-dimensional (2D) square microcavity is found to be twice that in a 2D circular microcavity. The quality factor of the WG-like mode with the low mode number in a 2D square microcavity, calculated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique and the Pade approximation method, is found to exceed that of the WG mode in 2D circular microcavity with the same cavity dimension and close mode wavelength.

  20. Three-dimensional liver motion tracking using real-time two-dimensional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, Lau, E-mail: lau.brix@stab.rm.dk [Department of Procurement and Clinical Engineering, Region Midt, Olof Palmes Allé 15, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Ringgaard, Steffen [MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Sørensen, Thomas Sangild [Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, Aabogade 34, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Poulsen, Per Rugaard [Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and linear accelerators for radiotherapy (MR-Linacs) are currently under development. MRI is noninvasive and nonionizing and can produce images with high soft tissue contrast. However, new tracking methods are required to obtain fast real-time spatial target localization. This study develops and evaluates a method for tracking three-dimensional (3D) respiratory liver motion in two-dimensional (2D) real-time MRI image series with high temporal and spatial resolution. Methods: The proposed method for 3D tracking in 2D real-time MRI series has three steps: (1) Recording of a 3D MRI scan and selection of a blood vessel (or tumor) structure to be tracked in subsequent 2D MRI series. (2) Generation of a library of 2D image templates oriented parallel to the 2D MRI image series by reslicing and resampling the 3D MRI scan. (3) 3D tracking of the selected structure in each real-time 2D image by finding the template and template position that yield the highest normalized cross correlation coefficient with the image. Since the tracked structure has a known 3D position relative to each template, the selection and 2D localization of a specific template translates into quantification of both the through-plane and in-plane position of the structure. As a proof of principle, 3D tracking of liver blood vessel structures was performed in five healthy volunteers in two 5.4 Hz axial, sagittal, and coronal real-time 2D MRI series of 30 s duration. In each 2D MRI series, the 3D localization was carried out twice, using nonoverlapping template libraries, which resulted in a total of 12 estimated 3D trajectories per volunteer. Validation tests carried out to support the tracking algorithm included quantification of the breathing induced 3D liver motion and liver motion directionality for the volunteers, and comparison of 2D MRI estimated positions of a structure in a watermelon with the actual positions. Results: Axial, sagittal

  1. Evaluation of Aqueductal Patency in Patients with Hydrocephalus: Three-Dimensional High-Sampling-Efficiency Technique (SPACE) versus Two-Dimensional Turbo Spin Echo at 3 Tesla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ucar, Murat; Guryildirim, Melike; Tokgoz, Nil; Kilic, Koray; Borcek, Alp; Oner, Yusuf; Akkan, Koray; Tali, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    ...) high-sampling-efficiency technique (sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions [SPACE]) and T2-weighted (T2W) two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE...

  2. Filtering and control for classes of two-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ligang

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on filtering, control and model-reduction problems for two-dimensional (2-D) systems with imperfect information. The time-delayed 2-D systems covered have system parameters subject to uncertain, stochastic and parameter-varying changes. After an initial introduction of 2-D systems and the ideas of linear repetitive processes, the text is divided into two parts detailing: ·         general theory and methods of analysis and optimal synthesis for 2-D systems; and ·         application of the general theory to the particular case of differential/discrete linear repetitive processes. The methods developed provide a framework for stability and performance analysis, optimal and robust controller and filter design and model approximation for the systems considered. Solutions to the design problems are couched in terms of linear matrix inequalities. For readers interested in the state of the art in linear filtering, control and model reduction, Filtering and Control for Classes of ...

  3. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimercati, A; Chincoli, A; de Gennaro, A C; DʼAddario, V; Cicinelli, E

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk.

  4. Two-dimensional graphene analogues for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-05-07

    The increasing demand of clinical biomedicine and fast development of nanobiotechnology has substantially promoted the generation of a variety of organic/inorganic nanosystems for biomedical applications. Biocompatible two-dimensional (2D) graphene analogues (e.g., nanosheets of transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, g-C3N4, Bi2Se3, BN, etc.), which are referred to as 2D-GAs, have emerged as a new unique family of nanomaterials that show unprecedented advantages and superior performances in biomedicine due to their unique compositional, structural and physicochemical features. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art progress of this dynamically developed material family with a particular focus on biomedical applications. After the introduction, the second section of the article summarizes a range of synthetic methods for new types of 2D-GAs as well as their surface functionalization. The subsequent section provides a snapshot on the use of these biocompatible 2D-GAs for a broad spectrum of biomedical applications, including therapeutic (photothermal/photodynamic therapy, chemotherapy and synergistic therapy), diagnostic (fluorescent/magnetic resonance/computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging) and theranostic (concurrent diagnostic imaging and therapy) applications, especially on oncology. In addition, we briefly present the biosensing applications of these 2D-GAs for the detection of biomacromolecules and their in vitro/in vivo biosafety evaluations. The last section summarizes some critical unresolved issues, possible challenges/obstacles and also proposes future perspectives related to the rational design and construction of 2D-GAs for biomedical engineering, which are believed to promote their clinical translations for benefiting the personalized medicine and human health.

  5. Phase reconstruction of digital holography with the peak of the two-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiawen; Zhong, Jingang; Hu, Cuiying

    2009-06-20

    We describe a numerical reconstruction technique for digital holography by means of the two-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform (2D-GWT). Applying the 2D-GWT to digital holography, the object wave can be reconstructed by calculating the wavelet coefficients of the hologram at the peak of the 2D-GWT automatically. At the same time the effect of the zero-order diffraction image and the twin image are eliminated without spatial filtering. Comparing the numerical reconstruction of a holographic image by the analysis of the one-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform (1D-GWT) with the 2D-GWT, we show that the 2D-GWT method is superior to the 1D-GWT method, especially when the fringes of the hologram are not just along the y direction. The theory and the results of a simulation and experiments are shown.

  6. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of mitral valve: Is it really superior to 2D transesophageal echocardiography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Chirojit; Tschernich, Heinz; Kaisers, Udo X; Eibel, Sarah; Seeburger, Joerg; Ender, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility of use and possible additional value of real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D-TEE) compared to conventional 2D-TEE in patients undergoing elective mitral valve repair. After ethical committee approval, patients were included in this prospective study. After induction of anesthesia, a comprehensive 2D-TEE examination was performed, followed with RT-3D-TEE. The intraoperative surgical finding was used as the gold standard for segmental analysis. Only such segments which were surgically corrected either by resection or insertion of artificial chords were judged pathologic. A total of 50 patients were included in this study; usable data were available from 42 of these patients . Based on the Carpentier classification, the pathology found was type I in 2 (5%) patients, type II in 39 (93%) patients and type IIIb in 1 (2%) patient. We found that 3D imaging of complex mitral disease involving multiple segments, when compared to 2D-TEE did not show any statistically significant difference.RT-3D-TEE did not show any major advantage when compared to conventional 2D-TEE for assessing mitral valve pathology, although further study in a larger population is required to establish the validity of this study.

  7. Intersecting Surface Defects and Two-Dimensional CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis, Jaume; Pan, Yiwen; Peelaers, Wolfger

    2016-01-01

    We initiate the study of intersecting surface operators/defects in four-dimensional quantum field theories (QFTs). We characterize these defects by coupled 4d/2d/0d theories constructed by coupling the degrees of freedom localized at a point and on intersecting surfaces in spacetime to each other and to the four-dimensional QFT. We construct supersymmetric intersecting surface defects preserving just two supercharges in N = 2 gauge theories. These defects are amenable to exact analysis by localization of the partition function of the underlying 4d/2d/0d QFT. We identify the 4d/2d/0d QFTs that describe intersecting surface operators in N = 2 gauge theories realized by intersecting M2-branes ending on N M5-branes wrapping a Riemann surface. We conjecture and provide evidence for an explicit equivalence between the squashed four-sphere partition function of these intersecting defects and correlation functions in Liouville/Toda CFT with the insertion of arbitrary degenerate vertex operators, which are labeled by ...

  8. Criticality in Two-Dimensional Quantum Systems: Tensor Network Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ran, Shi-Ju; Li, Wei; Lewenstein, Maciej; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Determination and characterization of criticality in two-dimensional (2D) quantum many-body systems belong to the most important challenges and problems of quantum physics. In this paper we propose an efficient scheme to solve this problem by utilizing the infinite projected entangled pair state (iPEPS), and tensor network (TN) representations. We show that the criticality of a 2D state is faithfully reproduced by the ground state (dubbed as boundary state) of a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian constructed from its iPEPS representation. We demonstrate that for a critical state the correlation length and the entanglement spectrum of the boundary state are essentially different from those of a gapped iPEPS. This provides a solid indicator that allows to identify the criticality of the 2D state. Our scheme is verified on the resonating valence bond (RVB) states on kagom\\'e and square lattices, where the boundary state of the honeycomb RVB is found to be described by a $c=1$ conformal field theory. We apply ...

  9. Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.

  10. Two dimensional electron spin resonance: Structure and dynamics of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sunil; Freed, Jack H.

    1998-03-01

    The potential of two dimensional (2D) electron spin resonance (ESR) for measuring the structural properties and slow dynamics of labeled biomolecules will be presented. Specifically, it will be shown how the recently developed method of double quantum (DQ) 2D ESR (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 107), 1317, (1997) can be used to measure large interelectron distances in bilabeled peptides. The need for DQ ESR spectroscopy, as well as the challenges and advantages of this method will be discussed. The elucidation of the slow reorientational dynamics of this peptide (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101) 7998 (1997) in a glassy medium using COSY and 2D ELDOR ESR spectroscopy will be demonstrated. The contributions to the homogeneous relaxation time, T_2, from the overall and/or internal rotations of the nitroxide can be distinguished from the COSY spectrum. The growth of spectral diffusion cross-peaks^2 with mixing time in the 2D ELDOR spectra can be used to directly determine a correlation time from the experiment which can be related to the rotational correlation time.

  11. Low-cost two-dimensional gel densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, R M; Maytin, E V; Young, D A

    1986-11-01

    A major obstacle to full utilization of the powerful technique of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis is the expense and complexity of quantifying the results. Using an analog-to-digital converter already present in the widely available Commodore 64 or Commodore 128 microcomputer, we have developed a 2-D gel densitometer (GELSCAN) which adds only $20.00 to the cost of the Commodore system (currently around $700.00). The system is designed to work with autoradiograms of 2-D gels. Spots of interest are identified visually and then positioned manually over a light source. A pinhole photoelectric sensor mounted in a hand-held, Plexiglas holder, or "mouse," is briefly rubbed over each spot. Maximum density of the spot is determined and its value is converted to counts per minute via an internal calibration curve which corrects for the nonlinear response of film to radiation. Local spot backgrounds can be subtracted and values can be normalized between gels to adjust for variation in amount of radioactivity applied or in exposure time. Reproducibility is excellent and the technique has some practical as well as theoretical advantages over other more complicated approaches to 2-D gel densitometry. In addition, the GELSCAN system can also be used for scanning individual bands in 1-D gels, quantitation of "dot-blot" autoradiograms and other tasks involving transmission densitometry.

  12. Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A

    2016-05-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.

  13. Photonics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponraj, Joice Sophia; Xu, Zai-Quan; Chander Dhanabalan, Sathish; Mu, Haoran; Wang, Yusheng; Yuan, Jian; Li, Pengfei; Thakur, Siddharatha; Ashrafi, Mursal; Mccoubrey, Kenneth; Zhang, Yupeng; Li, Shaojuan; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-11-01

    Apart from conventional materials, the study of two-dimensional (2D) materials has emerged as a significant field of study for a variety of applications. Graphene-like 2D materials are important elements of potential optoelectronics applications due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. The processing of these materials towards the realization of devices has been one of the main motivations for the recent development of photonics and optoelectronics. The recent progress in photonic devices based on graphene-like 2D materials, especially topological insulators (TIs) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with the methodology level discussions from the viewpoint of state-of-the-art designs in device geometry and materials are detailed in this review. We have started the article with an overview of the electronic properties and continued by highlighting their linear and nonlinear optical properties. The production of TIs and TMDs by different methods is detailed. The following main applications focused towards device fabrication are elaborated: (1) photodetectors, (2) photovoltaic devices, (3) light-emitting devices, (4) flexible devices and (5) laser applications. The possibility of employing these 2D materials in different fields is also suggested based on their properties in the prospective part. This review will not only greatly complement the detailed knowledge of the device physics of these materials, but also provide contemporary perception for the researchers who wish to consider these materials for various applications by following the path of graphene.

  14. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  15. Relativistic two-component jet evolutions in 2D and 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of astrophysical jets and theoretical arguments suggest a transverse stratification with two components induced by intrinsic features of the central engine (accretion disk + black hole). We study two-component jet dynamics for an inner fast low density jet, surrounded by a slower, dense

  16. Oriented Two-Dimensional Porous Organic Cage Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Song, Qilei; Massey, Alan; Chong, Samantha Y; Chen, Linjiang; Sun, Shijing; Hasell, Tom; Raval, Rasmita; Sivaniah, Easan; Cheetham, Anthony K; Cooper, Andrew I

    2017-08-01

    The formation of two-dimensional (2D) oriented porous organic cage crystals (consisting of imine-based tetrahedral molecules) on various substrates (such as silicon wafers and glass) by solution-processing is reported. Insight into the crystallinity, preferred orientation, and cage crystal growth was obtained by experimental and computational techniques. For the first time, structural defects in porous molecular materials were observed directly and the defect concentration could be correlated with crystal growth rate. These oriented crystals suggest potential for future applications, such as solution-processable molecular crystalline 2D membranes for molecular separations. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Design of two-dimensional digital filters using neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohua; He Yigang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach for the design of two-dimensional (2-D) linear phase FIR digital filters based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA) is provided. A compact expression for the transfer function of a 2-D linear phase FIR filter is derived based on its frequency response characteristic, and the NNA, based on minimizing the square-error in the frequency-domain, is established according to the compact expression. To illustrate the stability of the NNA, the convergence theorem is presented and proved. Design examples are also given, and the results show that the ripple is considerably small in passband and stopband, and the NNA-based method is of powerful stability and requires quite little amount of computations.

  18. Two-dimensional spatial patterning in developmental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Keiko U

    2012-08-01

    Multicellular organisms produce complex tissues with specialized cell types. During animal development, numerous cell-cell interactions shape tissue patterning through mechanisms involving contact-dependent cell migration and ligand-receptor-mediated lateral inhibition. Owing to the presence of cell walls, plant cells neither migrate nor undergo apoptosis as a means to correct for mis-specified cells. How can plants generate functional tissue patterns? This review aims to deduce fundamental principles of pattern formation through examining two-dimensional (2-D) spatial tissue patterning in plants and animals. Turing's mathematical framework will be introduced and applied to classic examples of de novo 2-D patterning in both animal and plant systems. By comparing their regulatory circuits, new insights into the similarities and differences of the basic principles governing tissue patterning will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Transition-Metal Oxide for Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Erjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Shuanglin; Xiao, Chuanyun; Xiang, Hongjun; Deng, Kaiming

    2013-04-04

    Two-dimensional materials have been the hot subject of studies due to their great potential in applications. However, their applications in spintronics have been blocked by the difficulty in producing ordered spin structures in 2D structures. Here we demonstrated that the ultrathin films of recently experimentally realized wurtzite MnO can automatically transform into a stable graphitic structure with ordered spin arrangement via density functional calculation, and the stability of graphitic structure can be enhanced by external strain. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic ordering of graphitic MnO single layer can be switched into half-metallic ferromagnetism by small hole-doping, and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than 300 K. Thus, our results highlight a promising way toward 2D magnetic materials.

  20. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2016-07-02

    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  1. The two dimensional fold test in paleomagnetism using ipython notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Piper, John D. A.

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of paleomagnetic analysis prone to controversy is the result of the fold test used to evaluate the age of a magnetisation component relative to the age of a structural event. Initially, the fold test was conducted by comparing the Fisherian precision parameter (k) to results from different limbs of a fold structure before and after tilt adjustment. To accommodate synfolding magnetisation, the tilt correction can be performed in stepwise fashion to both limbs simultaneously, here called one dimensional (1D) fold test. The two dimensional (2D) fold test described in this paper is carried out by applying stepwise tilt adjustment to each limb of the fold separately. The rationale for this is that tilts observed on contrasting limbs of deformed structure may not be synchronous or even belong to the same episode of deformation. A program for the procedure is presented here which generates two dimensional values of the k-parameter visually presented in contoured form. The use of ipython notebook enables this 2D fold test to be performed interactively and yield a more precise evaluation than the primitive 1D fold test.

  2. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-12-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ω-ψ, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of those final states, is merely a sufficient but not necessary condition; moreover, it is not proper to use it as the definition. It is found that the method through the value of the effective area S covered by the scatter ω-ψ plot, initially suggested by Read, Rhines, and White ["Geostrophic scatter diagrams and potential vorticity dynamics," J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 3226 (1986)] is more general and suitable for the definition. Based on this concept, a definition is presented, which covers all existing results in late states of decaying 2D flows (including some previous unexplainable weird double-valued ω-ψ scatter plots). The remaining part of the paper is trying to further study 2D decaying turbulence with the assistance of this definition. Some numerical results, leading to "bar" final states and further verifying the predictive ability of statistical mechanics [Yin, Montgomery, and Clercx, "Alternative statistical-mechanical descriptions of decaying two-dimensional turbulence in terms of patches and points," Phys. Fluids 15, 1937 (2003)], are reported. It is realized that some simulations with narrow-band energy spectral initial conditions result in some final states that cannot be very well interpreted by the statistical theory (meanwhile, those final states are still in the scope of the definition).

  3. Two-Dimensional Core-Collapse Supernova Models with Multi-Dimensional Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Dolence, Joshua C; Zhang, Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant $\\mathcal{O}(v/c)$ terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate $\\mathcal{O}(v/c)$ terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 milliseconds after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying ``ray-by-ray' approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that ``ray-by-ray' calculations greatly exaggerate the ...

  4. Preterm neonatal lateral ventricle volume from three-dimensional ultrasound is not strongly correlated to two-dimensional ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Jessica; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Salehi, Fateme; Romano, Walter; Lee, David S C; Fenster, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare longitudinal two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (US) estimates of ventricle size in preterm neonates with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) using quantitative measurements of the lateral ventricles. Cranial 2-D US and 3-D US images were acquired from neonatal patients with diagnosed PHVD within 10 min of each other one to two times per week and analyzed offline. Ventricle index, anterior horn width, third ventricle width, and thalamo-occipital distance were measured on the 2-D images and ventricle volume (VV) was measured from 3-D US images. Changes in the measurements between successive image sets were also recorded. No strong correlations were found between VV and 2-D US measurements ([Formula: see text] between 0.69 and 0.36). Additionally, weak correlations were found between changes in 2-D US measurements and 3-D US VV ([Formula: see text] between 0.13 and 0.02). A trend was found between increasing 2-D US measurements and 3-D US-based VV, but this was not the case when comparing changes between 3-D US VV and 2-D US measurements. If 3-D US-based VV provides a more accurate estimate of ventricle size than 2-D US measurements, moderate-weak correlations with 3-D US suggest that monitoring preterm patients with PHVD using 2-D US measurements alone might not accurately represent whether the ventricles are progressively dilating. A volumetric measure (3-D US or MRI) could be used instead to more accurately represent changes.

  5. Complex Saddles in Two-dimensional Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V; Valgushev, S N

    2015-01-01

    We study numerically the saddle point structure of two-dimensional (2D) lattice gauge theory, represented by the Gross-Witten-Wadia unitary matrix model. The saddle points are in general complex-valued, even though the original integration variables and action are real. We confirm the trans-series/instanton gas structure in the weak-coupling phase, and identify a new complex-saddle interpretation of non-perturbative effects in the strong-coupling phase. In both phases, eigenvalue tunneling refers to eigenvalues moving off the real interval, into the complex plane, and the weak-to-strong coupling phase transition is driven by saddle condensation.

  6. Recent advances in optoelectronic properties and applications of two-dimensional metal chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congxin, Xia; Jingbo, Li

    2016-05-01

    Since two-dimensional (2D) graphene was fabricated successfully, many kinds of graphene-like 2D materials have attracted extensive attention. Among them, the studies of 2D metal chalcogenides have become the focus of intense research due to their unique physical properties and promising applications. Here, we review significant recent advances in optoelectronic properties and applications of 2D metal chalcogenides. This review highlights the recent progress of synthesis, characterization and isolation of single and few layer metal chalcogenides nanosheets. Moreover, we also focus on the recent important progress of electronic, optical properties and optoelectronic devices of 2D metal chalcogenides. Additionally, the theoretical model and understanding on the band structures, optical properties and related physical mechanism are also reviewed. Finally, we give some personal perspectives on potential research problems in the optoelectronic characteristics of 2D metal chalcogenides and related device applications.

  7. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  8. Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON 2-D WATER-AIR TWO-PHASE FLOW OVER TOP OUTLET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Flood discharge over top outlet of dam is simu-lated by 2-dimension water-air two-phase mathematical model.Distribution of dynamic pressure, turbulent kinetic energy (k), turbulent dissipation rate (ε) , free water surface and veloci-ty field have been obtained. The simulated results were testedby physical model, which shows that the computed results areidentical with that of the physical model.

  10. Comparing the photophysics of the two forms of the Orange Carotenoid Protein using 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathies R.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is applied to investigate the photophysics of the photoactive orange carotenoid protein, which is involved in nonphotochemical quenching in cyanobacteria. Differences in dynamics between the light and dark forms arise from the different structure of the carotenoid in the protein pocket, with consequences for the biological role of the two forms.

  11. A Comparative Study of Stability Testing Approaches of Two-Dimensional Recursive Digital Filters

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Santhi; M.Ponnavaikko; N. Gangatharan

    2008-01-01

    There are many problems in science and engineering whose solution is applied in the design of Multi-Dimensional (MD) digital filters. Digital filtering finds an important position in the field of digital signal and image processing. Recently there had been a great deal of interest in the design and stability analysis of Two-Dimensional (2-D) recursive digital filters. The design techniques for stable One Dimensional (1-D) digital filters are relatively well developed; but their extension to 2...

  12. Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as

  13. Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubich, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.

  14. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  15. One, Two, Three and N Dimensional String Search Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bagadi, Ramesh C; Moses, Gregory; Strikwerda, John; Sahay, Pankaj; P, Uppaliah; Coppersmith, Susan N; Oliva, Michael; Miller, Ryan; Holloway, Robert; Johnson, Millard; Bais, Abhishek; Corradini, Micheal L; Wood, David A; Witt, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In this research endeavor, some Sequence Alignment Algorithms are detailed that are useful for finding or comparing 1 dimensional (1-D), 2 dimensional (2-D), 3 dimensional (3-D) sequences in or against a parent or mother database which is 1 dimensional (1-D), 2 dimensional (2-D), 3 dimensional (3-D) sequence. Inner Product [1], [2] based schemes are used to lay down such algorithms. Also,in this research, a Sequence Alignment Algorithms is detailed that is useful for finding or comparing an N-Dimensional (N-D) sequence in or against a parent or mother database which N-Dimensional (N-D) sequence. Inner Product [1], [2] based schemes are used to lay down such an algorithm.

  16. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica

  17. Influence of anthraquinone scaffold on E/Z isomer distribution of two thiosemicarbazone derivatives. 2D NMR and DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Violeta; Joksović, Milan D.; Marković, Svetlana; Jakovljević, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A distribution of possible isomeric and tautomeric forms of two tautomerizable anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazones with pronounced cytotoxic potential was investigated using 2D NMR and DFT studies. Conformational analysis of the E and Z isomers of both thiosemicarbazones was performed to find out the most stable conformation for each molecule. It was found that superior stability of E-isomers results from ten-membered intramolecular hydrogen bond between thiosemicarbazone N2H and anthraquinone carbonyl group. This hydrogen bond is stronger than that between thiosemicarbazone N2H and ester oxygen, owing to the large partial negative charge on the anthraquinone oxygen.

  18. Femtosecond X-ray diffraction from two-dimensional protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Carlson, David B; Hunter, Mark S; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Barty, Anton; Benner, W Henry; Chu, Kaiqin; Graf, Alexander T; Hau-Riege, Stefan P; Kirian, Richard A; Padeste, Celestino; Pardini, Tommaso; Pedrini, Bill; Segelke, Brent; Seibert, M Marvin; Spence, John C H; Tsai, Ching-Ju; Lane, Stephen M; Li, Xiao-Dan; Schertler, Gebhard; Boutet, Sebastien; Coleman, Matthew; Evans, James E

    2014-03-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from two-dimensional (2-D) protein crystals obtained using femtosecond X-ray pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) are presented. To date, it has not been possible to acquire transmission X-ray diffraction patterns from individual 2-D protein crystals due to radiation damage. However, the intense and ultrafast pulses generated by an XFEL permit a new method of collecting diffraction data before the sample is destroyed. Utilizing a diffract-before-destroy approach at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Bragg diffraction was acquired to better than 8.5 Å resolution for two different 2-D protein crystal samples each less than 10 nm thick and maintained at room temperature. These proof-of-principle results show promise for structural analysis of both soluble and membrane proteins arranged as 2-D crystals without requiring cryogenic conditions or the formation of three-dimensional crystals.

  19. Differentiating Fragmentation Pathways of Cholesterol by Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agthoven, Maria A.; Barrow, Mark P.; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A.; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a data-independent analytical method that records the fragmentation patterns of all the compounds in a sample. This study shows the implementation of atmospheric pressure photoionization with two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated. This study shows the use of fragment ion lines, precursor ion lines, and neutral loss lines in the 2D mass spectrum to determine fragmentation mechanisms of known compounds and to gain information on unknown ion species in the spectrum. In concert with high resolution mass spectrometry, 2D Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry can be a useful tool for the structural analysis of small molecules.

  20. Halogen bonded two-dimensional supramolecul arassemblies studied by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XunYu; WANG Fang; CHEN QiuXia; WANG LiYan; WANG ZhiQiang

    2007-01-01

    We described the formation of self-organized two-dimensional (2D) assemblies of N-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro- 4-iodophenyl)hexadecylamine and 1-dodecyl-imidazole at the liquid/HOPG interface. The two-dimen- sional assemblies showed a fishbone-like pattern structure as revealed by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. Although different interactions can drive the formation of 2D assemblies,as far as we know,this is the first report on halogen bond-driven 2D assemblies.

  1. Simulated annealing applied to two-dimensional low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikasue, Y., E-mail: chikasue@ppl.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Furukawa, M., E-mail: furukawa@damp.tottori-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Minami 4-101, Koyama-cho, Tottori-shi, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The simulated annealing (SA) method is applied to two-dimensional (2D) low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD). We have successfully obtained stationary states of the system numerically by the SA method with Casimir invariants preserved. Since the 2D low-beta R-MHD has two fields, the relaxation process becomes complex compared to a single field system such as 2D Euler flow. The obtained stationary state can have fine structure. We have found that the fine structure appears because the relaxation processes are different between kinetic energy and magnetic energy.

  2. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  3. Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.

  4. Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal

    2006-07-01

    The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.

  5. Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications: Emerging Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimene, David; Alge, Daniel L; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-12-02

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are ultrathin nanomaterials with a high degree of anisotropy and chemical functionality. Research on 2D nanomaterials is still in its infancy, with the majority of research focusing on elucidating unique material characteristics and few reports focusing on biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent rapid advances in 2D nanomaterials have raised important and exciting questions about their interactions with biological moieties. 2D nanoparticles such as carbon-based 2D materials, silicate clays, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and transition metal oxides (TMOs) provide enhanced physical, chemical, and biological functionality owing to their uniform shapes, high surface-to-volume ratios, and surface charge. Here, we focus on state-of-the-art biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials as well as recent developments that are shaping this emerging field. Specifically, we describe the unique characteristics that make 2D nanoparticles so valuable, as well as the biocompatibility framework that has been investigated so far. Finally, to both capture the growing trend of 2D nanomaterials for biomedical applications and to identify promising new research directions, we provide a critical evaluation of potential applications of recently developed 2D nanomaterials.

  6. Elucidation of Chemical Reactions by Two-Dimensional Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew

    Two-dimensional (2D) Raman spectroscopies were proposed by Mukamel and Loring in1985 as a method for resolving line broadening mechanisms of vibrational motions in liquids. Significant technical issues challenged the development of both five- and seven-pulse 2D Raman spectroscopies. For this reason, 2D Raman experiments were largely abandoned in 2002 following the first demonstrations of 2D infrared spectroscopies (i.e., an alternate approach for obtaining similar information). We have recently shown that 2D Raman experiments conducted under electronically resonant conditions are much less susceptible to the problems encountered in the earlier 2D Raman work, which was carried out off-resonance. In effect, Franck-Condon activity obviates the problematic selection rules encountered under electronically off-resonant conditions. In this presentation, I will discuss applications of 2D resonance Raman spectroscopies to photodissocation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. It will be shown that vibrational resonances of the reactants and products can be displayed in separate dimensions of a 2D resonance Raman spectrum when the photo-dissociation reaction is fast compared to the vibrational period. Such 2D spectra expose correlations between the nonequilibrium geometry of the reactant and the distribution of vibrational quanta in the product, thereby yielding insight in the photo-dissociation mechanism. Our results suggest that the ability of 2D resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect correlations between reactants and products will generalize to other ultrafast processes such as electron transfer and energy transfer.

  7. Non-Linear Non Stationary Analysis of Two-Dimensional Time-Series Applied to GRACE Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative two-dimensional (2D) adaptive analysis will be tested NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission database in phase I in...

  8. Non-Linear Non Stationary Analysis of Two-Dimensional Time-Series Applied to GRACE Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative two-dimensional (2D) empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis was applied to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)...

  9. Multi-Symplectic Splitting Method for Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Schriidinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚铭; 朱华君; 宋松和

    2011-01-01

    Using the idea of splitting numerical methods and the multi-symplectic methods, we propose a multisymplectic splitting (MSS) method to solve the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation (2D-NLSE) in this paper. It is further shown that the method constructed in this way preserve the global symplectieity exactly. Numerical experiments for the plane wave solution and singular solution of the 2D-NLSE show the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Feasibility and Limitations of Vaccine Two-Dimensional Barcoding Using Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Cameron; Guerinet, Julien; Atkinson, Katherine M.; Wilson, Kumanan

    2016-01-01

    Background Two-dimensional (2D) barcoding has the potential to enhance documentation of vaccine encounters at the point of care. However, this is currently limited to environments equipped with dedicated barcode scanners and compatible record systems. Mobile devices may present a cost-effective alternative to leverage 2D vaccine vial barcodes and improve vaccine product-specific information residing in digital health records. Objective Mobile devices have the potential to capture product-spec...

  11. Two-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a four-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Ping; Ge Qiang; Ruan Yu-Hua; Yu Ben-Li

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via probe absorption in a coherently driven fourlevel atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition.It is found that the detecting probability and precision of 2D atom localization can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters.As a result,our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization.

  12. First-principles study of two-dimensional van der Waals heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    Research on graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as silicene, germanene, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), graphitic zinc oxide (g-ZnO) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), has recently received considerable interest owing to their outstanding properties and wide applications. Looking beyond this field, combining the electronic structures of 2D materials in ultrathin van der Waals heterojunctions has also emerged to widely study th...

  13. Design of two-dimensional recursive filters by using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, V M; Mastorakis, N E

    2001-01-01

    A new design method for two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital filters is investigated. The design of the 2-D filter is reduced to a constrained minimization problem the solution of which is achieved by the convergence of an appropriate neural network. The method is tested on a numerical example and compared with previously published methods when applied to the same example. Advantages of the proposed method over the existing ones are discussed as well.

  14. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers.

  15. Two-Dimensional (2-D) Acoustic Fish Tracking at River Mile 85, Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    be recovered rather than being lost due to sediment dunes, large woody material floating downstream, and vandalism. The RM 85 site was a relatively...growth rate among PIT, PIT+acoustic tag, and sham+PIT treatments . VEMCO V7 tags ERDC/EL TR-13-7 40 in the study represented a tag burden of 2.6–5.6...W. Dawley, M. Russell, A. Whiting, and D. J. Teel. 2010. Juvenile salmonid use of reconnected tidal freshwater wetlands in Grays River, lower

  16. Two-dimensional (2-D) deformation measurements with ASAR and PHARUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S.; Halsema, D. van; Maarseveen, R.A. van; Blommaart, P.J.L.; Kruse, G.A.M.; Loon, D. van; Hanssen, R.F.; Samson, J.; Striegel, A.J.; Visser, J.M.P.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Deformation measurements are important in the field of ground engineering. Deformation can have a non-natural cause (e.g., surface deformation due to tunnel construction) or a natural one (e.g., dike deformation due to a high water level). Radar interferometry can in principle provide deformations w

  17. Phase coding by grid cells in unconstrained environments: Two-dimensional (2D) phase precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climer, Jason R.; Newman, Ehren L.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Action potential timing is thought to play a critical role in neural representation. For example, theta phase precession is a robust phenomenon exhibited by spatial cells of the rat entorhinal-hippocampal circuit. In phase precession, the time a neuron fires relative to the phase of theta rhythm (6-10Hz) oscillations in the local field potential reduces uncertainty about the position of the animal. This relationship between neural firing and behavior has made precession an important constraint for hypothetical mechanisms of temporal coding. However, challenges exist in identifying what regulates the spike timing of these cells. We have developed novel analytical techniques for mapping between behavior and neural firing that provide sufficient sensitivity to examine features of grid cell phase coding in open environments. Here, we show robust, omnidirectional phase precession by entorhinal grid cells in openfield enclosures. We present evidence that full phase precession persists regardless of how close the animal comes to the center of a firing field. We found many conjunctive grid cells, previously thought to be phase locked, also exhibit phase coding. However, we were unable to detect directional or field specific phase coding predicted by some variants of models. Finally, we present data that suggests bursting of layer II grid cells contributes to the bimodality of phase precession. We discuss implications of these observations for models of temporal coding and propose the utility of these techniques in other domains where behavior is aligned to neural spiking. PMID:23718553

  18. Lawrence-Doniach model in London approximation as a system of 2D Coulomb particles of two kinds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemov, A.N., E-mail: artemov@fti.dn.ua [Donetsk Physical and Technology Institute, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)

    2011-12-15

    We examine the Lawrence-Doniach model with Josephson coupling between layers. We represent the model as a system of 2D Coulomb particles of two kinds. The model was studied in the mean field and renormalization group approaches. The system investigated does not undergo a second order phase transition. Thermodynamical properties of layered superconductors with Josephson coupling in zero magnetic field are discussed. It is shown that the Lawrence-Doniach model of layered superconductors in the London approximation can be presented as a system of classical Coulomb particles of two kinds. This representation includes both Josephson and 2D vortex subsystems in absolutely symmetrical way. The model was analyzed by means of the real-space renormalization group approach and in the mean field approximation. It is found that there is no a second order phase transition in the system. Instead of this the model demonstrates the qualitative change of the system properties which can look as a phase transition for experimental purposes.

  19. Quark-Antiquark and Diquark Condensates in Vacuum in a 2D Two-Flavor Gross-Neveu Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bang-Rong

    2007-01-01

    The analysis based on the renormalized effective potential indicates that, similar to in the 4D two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, in a 2D two-flavor Gross-Neveu model, the interplay between the quark-antiquark and the diquark condensates in vacuum also depends on Gs/Hs, the ratio of the coupling constants in scalar quark antiquark and scalar diquark channel. Only the pure quark-antiquark condensates exist if Gs/Hs > 2/3, which is just the ratio of the color numbers of the quarks participating in the diquark and quark-antiquark condensates. The two condensates will coexist if 0 < Gs/Hs < 2/3. However, different from the 4D NJL model, the pure diquark condensates arise only at Gs/Hs = 0 and are not in a possibly finite region of Gs/Hs below 2/3.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Endosperm Proteins Separated by 2-D Electrophoresis for Two Cultivars of Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingfang Yang; Shihua Shen; Tingyun Kuang

    2006-01-01

    Liangyoupeijiu is a two-parental-line, and Shanyou63 is a three-parental-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).Although both belong to the indica subspecies, they have obvious differences with respect to morphology,physiology and grain quality. Variations in endosperm protein compositions were studied by comparing the 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE) maps for these two cultivars of hybrid rice. After matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, a 21-kDa precursor of 19-kDa globulin was identified as the major storage protein for both cultivars. Some isoforms of peroxiredoxin and seed maturation protein were found to only exist in Shanyou63, whereas aldose reductase and starch granule-bound starch synthase were only detected in Liangyoupeijiu. These data might provide a foundation for further comparative studies of these two cultivars of hybrid rice.

  1. Analysis of the high Reynolds number 2D tests on a wind turbine airfoil performed at two different wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Madsen, J.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    2D wind tunnel tests at high Reynolds numbers have been done within the EU FP7 AVATAR project (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools of lArge Rotors) on the DU00-W-212 airfoil and at two different test facilities: the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG) and the LM Wind Power in-house wind tunnel. Two conditions of Reynolds numbers have been performed in both tests: 3 and 6 million. The Mach number and turbulence intensity values are similar in both wind tunnels at the 3 million Reynolds number test, while they are significantly different at 6 million Reynolds number. The paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two wind tunnels, showing good repeatability at 3 million Reynolds number and differences at 6 million Reynolds number that are consistent with the different Mach number and turbulence intensity values.

  2. Anisotropic dielectric properties of two-dimensional matrix in pseudo-spin ferroelectric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The anisotropic dielectric properties of a two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric system were studied using the statistical calculation of the pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian model. It is necessary to delay the time for measurements of the observable and the independence of the new spin configuration under Monte Carlo sampling, in which the thermal equilibrium state depends on the temperature and size of the system. The autocorrelation time constants of the normalized relaxation function were determined by taking temperature and 2D lattice size into account. We discuss the dielectric constants of a two-dimensional ferroelectric system by using the Metropolis method in view of the Slater-Takagi defect energies.

  3. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-01-01

    In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...

  5. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  6. Fitting of two and three variant polynomials from experimental data through the least squares method. (Using of the codes AJUS-2D, AJUS-3D and LEGENDRE-2D); Ajuste de polinomios en dos y tres variables independientes por el metodo de minimos cuadrados. (Desarrollo de los codigos AJUS-2D, AJUS-3D y LEGENDRE-2D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Miro, J. J.; Sanz Martin, J. C.

    1994-07-01

    Obtaining polynomial fittings from observational data in two and three dimensions is an interesting and practical task. Such an arduous problem suggests the development of an automatic code. The main novelty we provide lies in the generalization of the classical least squares method in three FORTRAN 77 programs usable in any sampling problem. Furthermore, we introduce the orthogonal 2D-Legendre function in the fitting process. These FORTRAN 77 programs are equipped with the options to calculate the approximation quality standard indicators, obviously generalized to two and three dimensions (correlation nonlinear factor, confidence intervals, cuadratic mean error, and so on). The aim of this paper is to rectify the absence of fitting algorithms for more than one independent variable in mathematical libraries. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. Theory of two-dimensional ESR with nuclear modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.

    A formalism for computing 2D ESR lineshapes with nuclear modulation is developed in a form which is useful for planning phase cycles for particular purposes. A simple method of processing spectra, utilizing quadrature detection, is shown to enhance the selectivity of the phase cycling techniques. Computed ESR-COSY, ESR-SECSY, and 2D ELDOR lineshapes are presented for several kinds of polycrystalline and single-crystal samples which exhibit nuclear modulation, due to one or several nuclei. The two-dimensional methods are found to give more detailed structural information than the corresponding ESEEM spectra. New phase cycles are found to eliminate completely all transverse and axial peaks in 2D ELDOR and in ESR-COSY, and at the same time eliminate all artifacts arising from incomplete image rejection. Other phase cycles are presented for selecting in those experiments only axial peaks, for measuring T1. It is also shown how selective phase cycles may help to distinguish between coherent and exchange cross peaks. In the special case of nitroxides in typical Zeeman fields, there are no significant nuclear modulation effects from the 14N nuclear spin interaction, but those from the protons (or deuterons) will, in general, be significant.

  8. Interactions between lasers and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Tok, Eng Soon; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2016-05-03

    The recent increasing research interest in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has led to an explosion of in the discovery of novel physical and chemical phenomena in these materials. Among the 2D family, group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as represented by MoS2 and WSe2, are remarkable semiconductors with sizable energy band gaps, which make the TMDs promising building blocks for new generation optoelectronics. On the other hand, the specificity and tunability of the band gaps can generate particularly strong light-matter interactions between TMD crystals and specific photons, which can trigger complex and interesting phenomena such as photo-scattering, photo-excitation, photo-destruction, photo-physical modification, photochemical reaction and photo-oxidation. Herein, we provide an overview of the phenomena explained by various interactions between lasers and the 2D TMDs. Characterizations of the optical fundamentals of the TMDs via laser spectroscopies are reviewed. Subsequently, photoelectric conversion devices enabled by laser excitation and the functionality extension and performance improvement of the TMDs materials via laser modification are comprehensively summarized. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the prospects for further development in this research area.

  9. Transparent Conductive Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide Epitaxial Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Joseph; Lukatskaya, Maria R; Cook, Kevin M; Lu, Jun; Smith, Cole R; Näslund, Lars-Åke; May, Steven J; Hultman, Lars; Gogotsi, Yury; Eklund, Per; Barsoum, Michel W

    2014-04-08

    Since the discovery of graphene, the quest for two-dimensional (2D) materials has intensified greatly. Recently, a new family of 2D transition metal carbides and carbonitrides (MXenes) was discovered that is both conducting and hydrophilic, an uncommon combination. To date MXenes have been produced as powders, flakes, and colloidal solutions. Herein, we report on the fabrication of ∼1 × 1 cm(2) Ti3C2 films by selective etching of Al, from sputter-deposited epitaxial Ti3AlC2 films, in aqueous HF or NH4HF2. Films that were about 19 nm thick, etched with NH4HF2, transmit ∼90% of the light in the visible-to-infrared range and exhibit metallic conductivity down to ∼100 K. Below 100 K, the films' resistivity increases with decreasing temperature and they exhibit negative magnetoresistance-both observations consistent with a weak localization phenomenon characteristic of many 2D defective solids. This advance opens the door for the use of MXenes in electronic, photonic, and sensing applications.

  10. Reference data representative of normal findings at two-dimensional and three-dimensional gray-scale ultrasound examination of the cervix from 17 to 41 weeks' gestation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rovas, Linas; Sladkevicius, Povilas; Strobel, E; Valentin, Lil

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To create reference values representative of normal findings on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) examination of the cervix from 17 to 41 weeks' gestation and to determine the agreement between cervical measurements taken by 2D and 3D TVS. Methods Cross-sectional study covering 17 to 41 weeks in 419 nulliparous and 360 parous women who delivered at term and who underwent 2D and 3D TVS examination of the uterine cervix. We examined app...

  11. Bounds on the Capacity of Weakly constrained two-dimensional Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Upper and lower bounds are presented for the capacity of weakly constrained two-dimensional codes. The maximum entropy is calculated for two simple models of 2-D codes constraining the probability of neighboring 1s as an example. For given models of the coded data, upper and lower bounds...

  12. Two Dimensional Electronic Correlation Spectroscopy of the npi* and pipi* Protein Backbone Transitions: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Abramavicius, Darius; Zhuang, Wei; Mukamel, Shaul

    2007-11-15

    The two dimensional (2D) photon echo spectrum of the amide ultraviolet (UV) bands of proteins are simulated. Two effective exciton Hamiltonian parameter sets developed by Woody and Hirst, which predict similar CD spectra, may be distinguished by their very different 2DUV spectra. These differences are enhanced in specific configurations of pulse polarizations which provide chirality-induced signals.

  13. Mapping of 34 minisatellite loci resolved by two-dimensional DNA typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Anders; Nyegaard, Mette; Kvistgaard, AB

    1997-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing is based on electrophoretic separation of genomic DNA fragments in two dimensions according to independent criteria (size and base-pair sequence), followed by hybridization analysis using multilocus probes. The technique allows simultaneous visualization of severa...

  14. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...

  15. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-12-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.

  16. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...

  17. Two-dimensional Fibonacci grating for far-field super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2016-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) Fibonacci grating is used to transform evanescent waves into propagating waves for far-field super-resolution imaging. By detecting far-field intensity distributions of light field through objects in front of the 2D Fibonacci grating in free space at once, we can retrieve the image of objects with beyond λ/7 spatial resolution. We also find that the coherent illumination case can give a better resolution than incoherent illumination case by such 2D grating-assisted imaging system. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulation.

  18. Entropy of Bit-Stuffing-Induced Measures for Two-Dimensional Checkerboard Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Vaarby, Torben Strange

    2007-01-01

    A modified bit-stuffing scheme for two-dimensional (2-D) checkerboard constraints is introduced. The entropy of the scheme is determined based on a probability measure defined by the modified bit-stuffing. Entropy results of the scheme are given for 2-D constraints on a binary alphabet....... The constraints considered are 2-D RLL (d, infinity) for d = 2, 3 and 4 as well as for the constraint with a minimum 1-norm distance of 3 between Is. For these results the entropy is within 1-2% of an upper bound on the capacity for the constraint. As a variation of the scheme, periodic merging arrays are also...

  19. Temperature derivative of the chemical potential and its magnetooscillations in two-dimensional system

    OpenAIRE

    Tupikov, Y.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Pudalov, V. M.; Burmistrov, I. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report first thermodynamic measurements of the temperature derivative of chemical potential (d{\\mu}/dT) in two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. In order to test the technique we have chosen Schottky gated GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunctions and detected experimentally in this 2D system quantum magnetooscillations of d{\\mu}/dT. We also present a Lifshits-Kosevitch type theory for the d{\\mu}/dT magnetooscillations in 2D systems and compare the theory with experimental data. The magnetic field depe...

  20. Fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for two-dimensional Thue-Morse quasicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming-yang; ZHOU Jun; L Petti; S De Nicola; P Mormile

    2011-01-01

    We report a numerical method to analyze the fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for two-dimensional Thue-Morse(2-D TM) structures.The far-field diffraction patterns of the 2-D TM structures can be obtained by the numerical method,and they have a good agreement with the experimental ones.The analysis shows that the fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for the 2-D TM structures are determined by the inflation rule,which have potential applications in the design of optical diffraction devices.

  1. The PLSI Method of Stabilizing Two-Dimensional Nonsymmetric Half-Plane Recursive Digital Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Gangatharan N; Reddy PS

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) recursive digital filters find applications in image processing as in medical X-ray processing. Nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) filters have definitely positive magnitude characteristics as opposed to quarter-plane (QP) filters. In this paper, we provide methods for stabilizing the given 2D NSHP polynomial by the planar least squares inverse (PLSI) method. We have proved in this paper that if the given 2D unstable NSHP polynomial and its PLSI are of the same degree, the P...

  2. Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher order modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Thomas K.

    2017-02-01

    We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.

  3. Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher-order modes

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (CE-TAS), the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.

  4. The two-dimensional alternative binary L-J system: liquid-gas phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张陟; 陈立溁

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) binary system without considering the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential has been studied by using the Collins model. In this paper, we introduce the L-J potential into the 2D binary system and consider the existence of the holes that are called the "molecular fraction". The liquid-gas phase diagram of the 2D alternative binary L-J system is obtained. The results are quite analogous to the behaviour of 3D substances.

  5. Spatiotemporal vector pulse shaping of femtosecond laser pulses with a multi-pass two-dimensional spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esumi, Y; Kabir, M D; Kannari, F

    2009-10-12

    A novel non-interferometric vector pulse-shaping scheme is developed for femtosecond laser pulses using a two-dimensional spatial light modulator (2D-SLM). By utilizing spatiotemporal pulse shaping obtainable by the 2D-SLM, we demonstrate spatiotemporal vector pulse shaping for the first time.

  6. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-04-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  7. Two-dimensional graphene as a matrix for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, William L; Schultz, Brian J; Destino, Joel F; Alivio, Theodore E G; Steet, Joseph R; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wood, Troy D

    2015-11-01

    Here, a matrix using two-dimensional (2D) graphene is demonstrated for the first time in the context of MALDI IMS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Although graphene flakes have been used previously in MALDI, it is described here how a single 2D layer of graphene is applied directly on top of rat brain sections and soybean leaves. Several classes of molecules are desorbed and ionized off of the surface of the tissues examined using 2D graphene, with minimal background interference from the matrix. Moreover, no solvents are employed in application of 2D graphene, eliminating the potential for analyte diffusion in liquid droplets during matrix application. Because 2D graphene is an elemental form of carbon, an additional advantage is its high compatibility with the long duration needed for many IMS experiments. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Novel two-dimensional DOA estimation with L-shaped array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofei, Zhang; Jianfeng, Li; Lingyun, Xu

    2011-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation has played an important role in array signal processing. In this article, we address a problem of bind 2D-DOA estimation with L-shaped array. This article links the 2D-DOA estimation problem to the trilinear model. To exploit this link, we derive a trilinear decomposition-based 2D-DOA estimation algorithm in L-shaped array. Without spectral peak searching and pairing, the proposed algorithm employs well. Moreover, our algorithm has much better 2D-DOA estimation performance than the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique algorithms and propagator method. Simulation results illustrate validity of the algorithm.

  9. Two-dimensional novel optical lattices with multi-well traps for cold atoms or molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfa Lu; Xianming Ji; Jianping Yin

    2006-01-01

    We propose some new schemes to constitute two-dimensional (2D) array of multi-well optical dipole traps for cold atoms (or molecules) by using an optical system consisting of a binary π-phase grating and a 2D array of rectangle microlens. We calculate the intensity distribution of each optical well in 2D array of multi-well traps and its geometric parameters and so on. The proposed 2D array of multi-well traps can be used to form novel 2D optical lattices with cold atoms (or molecules), and form various novel optical crystals with cold atoms (or molecules), or to perform quantum computing and quantum information processing on an atom chip, even to realize an array of all-optical multi-well atomic (or molecular) BoseEinstein condensates (BECs) on an all-optical integrated atom (or molecule) chip.

  10. Novel two-dimensional DOA estimation with L-shaped array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two-dimensional (2D direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation has played an important role in array signal processing. In this article, we address a problem of bind 2D-DOA estimation with L-shaped array. This article links the 2D-DOA estimation problem to the trilinear model. To exploit this link, we derive a trilinear decomposition-based 2D-DOA estimation algorithm in L-shaped array. Without spectral peak searching and pairing, the proposed algorithm employs well. Moreover, our algorithm has much better 2D-DOA estimation performance than the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique algorithms and propagator method. Simulation results illustrate validity of the algorithm.

  11. A Ternary Solvent Method for Large-Sized Two-Dimensional Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junnian; Gan, Lin; Zhuge, Fuwei; Li, Huiqiao; Song, Jizhong; Zeng, Haibo; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-02-20

    Recent reports demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) structural characteristic can endow perovskites with both remarkable photoelectric conversion efficiency and high stability, but the synthesis of ultrathin 2D perovskites with large sizes by facile solution methods is still a challenge. Reported herein is the controlled growth of 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBr4 perovskites by a chlorobenzene-dimethylformide-acetonitrile ternary solvent method. The critical factors, including solvent volume ratio, crystallization temperature, and solvent polarity on the growth dynamics were systematically studied. Under optimum reaction condition, 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBr4 perovskites, with the largest lateral dimension of up to 40 μm and smallest thickness down to a few nanometers, were fabricated. Furthermore, various iodine doped 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBrx I4-x perovskites were accessed to tune the optical properties rationally.

  12. Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Their Charge Carrier Mobilities in Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sohail; Yi, Jiabao

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted extensive interest due to their excellent electrical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. Graphene has been one of the most explored 2D materials. However, its zero band gap has limited its applications in electronic devices. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), another kind of 2D material, has a nonzero direct band gap (same charge carrier momentum in valence and conduction band) at monolayer state, promising for the efficient switching devices (e.g., field-effect transistors). This review mainly focuses on the recent advances in charge carrier mobility and the challenges to achieve high mobility in the electronic devices based on 2D-TMDC materials and also includes an introduction of 2D materials along with the synthesis techniques. Finally, this review describes the possible methodology and future prospective to enhance the charge carrier mobility for electronic devices.

  13. Two-Dimensional Graphene as a Matrix for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, William L.; Schultz, Brian J.; Destino, Joel F.; Alivio, Theodore E. G.; Steet, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wood, Troy D.

    2015-11-01

    Here, a matrix using two-dimensional (2D) graphene is demonstrated for the first time in the context of MALDI IMS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Although graphene flakes have been used previously in MALDI, it is described here how a single 2D layer of graphene is applied directly on top of rat brain sections and soybean leaves. Several classes of molecules are desorbed and ionized off of the surface of the tissues examined using 2D graphene, with minimal background interference from the matrix. Moreover, no solvents are employed in application of 2D graphene, eliminating the potential for analyte diffusion in liquid droplets during matrix application. Because 2D graphene is an elemental form of carbon, an additional advantage is its high compatibility with the long duration needed for many IMS experiments.

  14. APPLICATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL WAVELET TRANSFORM IN NEAR-SHORE X-BAND RADAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiang-bo; YAN Yi-xin; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Among existing remote sensing applications, land-based X-band radar is an effective technique to monitor the wave fields,and spatial wave information could be obtained from the radar images.Two-dimensional Fourier Transform (2-D FT) is the common algorithm to derive the spectra of radar images.However, the wave field in the nearshore area is highly non-homogeneous due to wave refraction, shoaling, and other coastal mechanisms.When applied in nearshore radar images, 2-D FT would lead to ambiguity of wave characteristics in wave number domain.In this article, we introduce two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (2-D WT) to capture the non-homogeneity of wave fields from nearshore radar images.The results show that wave number spectra by 2-D WT at six parallel space locations in the given image clearly present the shoaling of nearshore waves.Wave number of the peak wave energy is increasing along the inshore direction, and dominant direction of the spectra changes from South South West (SSW) to West South West (WSW).To verify the results of2-D WT, wave shoaling in radar images is calculated based on dispersion relation.The theoretical calculation results agree with the results of 2-D WT on the whole.The encouraging performance of 2-D WT indicates its strong capability of revealing the non-homogeneity of wave fields in nearshore X-band radar images.

  15. Materials synthesis: Two-dimensional gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratkar, Nikhil A.

    2016-11-01

    Graphene is used as a capping sheet to synthesize 2D gallium nitride by means of migration-enhanced encapsulation growth. This technique may allow the stabilization of 2D materials that are not amenable to synthesis by traditional methods.

  16. Nonstationarity of a two-dimensional perpendicular shock: Competing mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembège, Bertrand; Savoini, Philippe; Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2009-03-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used for analyzing in detail different nonstationary behaviors of a perpendicular supercritical shock. A recent study by Hellinger et al. (2007) has shown that the front of a supercritical shock can be dominated by the emission of large-amplitude whistler waves. These waves inhibit the self-reformation driven by the reflected ions; then, the shock front appears almost ``quasi-stationary.'' The present study stresses new complementary results. First, for a fixed β i value, the whistler waves emission (WWE) persists for high M A above a critical Mach number (i.e., M A >= M A WWE). The quasi-stationarity is only apparent and disappears when considering the full 3-D field profiles. Second, for lower M A , the self-reformation is retrieved and becomes dominant as the amplitude of the whistler waves becomes negligible. Third, there exists a transition regime in M A within which both processes compete each other. Fourth, these results are observed for a strictly perpendicular shock only as B 0 is within the simulation plane. When B 0 is out of the simulation plane, no whistler waves emission is evidenced and only self-reformation is recovered. Fifth, the occurrence and disappearance of the nonlinear whistler waves are well recovered in both 2-D PIC and 2-D hybrid simulations. The impacts on the results of the mass ratio (2-D PIC simulations), of the resistivity and spatial resolution (2-D hybrid simulations), and of the size of the simulation box along the shock front are analyzed in detail.

  17. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  18. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  19. Mechanical stretching for tissue engineering: two-dimensional and three-dimensional constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Brandon D; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Lim, Jung Yul

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical cell stretching may be an attractive strategy for the tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues. It has been demonstrated that cell growth and differentiation can be guided by cell stretch with minimal help from soluble factors and engineered tissues that are mechanically stretched in bioreactors may have superior organization, functionality, and strength compared with unstretched counterparts. This review explores recent studies on cell stretching in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) setups focusing on the applications of stretch stimulation as a tool for controlling cell orientation, growth, gene expression, lineage commitment, and differentiation and for achieving successful tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues, including cardiac, muscle, vasculature, ligament, tendon, bone, and so on. Custom stretching devices and lab-specific mechanical bioreactors are described with a discussion on capabilities and limitations. While stretch mechanotransduction pathways have been examined using 2D stretch, studying such pathways in physiologically relevant 3D environments may be required to understand how cells direct tissue development under stretch. Cell stretch study using 3D milieus may also help to develop tissue-specific stretch regimens optimized with biochemical feedback, which once developed will provide optimal tissue engineering protocols.

  20. Mechanical Stretching for Tissue Engineering: Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Brandon D.; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical cell stretching may be an attractive strategy for the tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues. It has been demonstrated that cell growth and differentiation can be guided by cell stretch with minimal help from soluble factors and engineered tissues that are mechanically stretched in bioreactors may have superior organization, functionality, and strength compared with unstretched counterparts. This review explores recent studies on cell stretching in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) setups focusing on the applications of stretch stimulation as a tool for controlling cell orientation, growth, gene expression, lineage commitment, and differentiation and for achieving successful tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues, including cardiac, muscle, vasculature, ligament, tendon, bone, and so on. Custom stretching devices and lab-specific mechanical bioreactors are described with a discussion on capabilities and limitations. While stretch mechanotransduction pathways have been examined using 2D stretch, studying such pathways in physiologically relevant 3D environments may be required to understand how cells direct tissue development under stretch. Cell stretch study using 3D milieus may also help to develop tissue-specific stretch regimens optimized with biochemical feedback, which once developed will provide optimal tissue engineering protocols. PMID:22335794

  1. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  2. Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John

    2016-07-01

    Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.

  3. Intrinsic spin Hall conductivity in one-, two-, and three-dimensional trivial and topological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, L.; Küfner, S.; Furthmüller, J.; Bechstedt, F.

    2016-08-01

    Ab initio relativistic band structure calculations are performed for the frequency-dependent spin Hall conductivity of three- (3D), two- (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) materials such as bulk semiconductors, atomically thin crystals, and their nanoribbons. Besides the influence of the dimensionality we also study differences between trivial and topological insulators (TIs). The frequency dependence of the conductivity is governed by the band-structure details, while its static value scales with the spin-orbit interaction in 3D but is quantized in units of e2/h for 2D TIs. 1D topological edge states influence the conductivity mainly for vanishing frequencies.

  4. Mathematical description of the two-dimensional Gabor transform. Application to image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ronal; Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, Cesar O.

    2017-01-01

    Information security with optical processing, such as the double random phase encoding and the Gabor transform (GT) has been investigated by various researchers. We present a two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of the one-dimensional GT. This 2-D GT is applied to encrypt digital images in this paper. The scaling factors of the GT can be used as new keys, providing a new encryption system with a high security characteristics. This method can encrypt and protect the information of the digital images with a high security for information processing systems.

  5. Development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code TFC2D for fluid flow with various turbulence models and numerical schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Yeop; In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    The development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code is made. The present code contains 9 kinds of turbulence models that are widely used. They include a standard k-{epsilon} model and 8 kinds of low Reynolds number ones. They also include 6 kinds of numerical schemes including 5 kinds of low order schemes and 1 kind of high order scheme such as QUICK. To verify the present numerical code, pipe flow, channel flow and expansion pipe flow are solved by this code with various options of turbulence models and numerical schemes and the calculated outputs are compared to experimental data. Furthermore, the discretization error that originates from the use of standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model with wall function is much more diminished by introducing a new grid system than a conventional one in the present code. 23 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  6. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and antenatal fetal development in Beetal goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to compare two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D study of the pregnant uterus and antenatal development of the fetus. Materials and Methods: 2D and 3D ultrasound were performed from day 20 to 120 of gestation, twice in week from day 20 to 60 and once in week from day 60 to 120 of gestation on six goats. The ultrasonographic images were obtained using Toshiba, Nemio-XG (Japan 3D ultrasound machine. Results: On the 20th day of gestation, earliest diagnosis of pregnancy was done. First 3D ultrasonographic image of the conceptus, through transabdominal approach, was obtained on day 24. On 39th day, clear pictures of conceptus, amniotic membrane, and umbilicus were seen. On 76th day of gestation, internal organs of fetus viz heart, kidney, liver, urinary bladder, and stomach were seen both in 2D and 3D images. 3D imaging showed better details of uterine structures and internal organs of the fetus. Conclusions: Comparing 3D images with 2D images, it is concluded that 2D was better in visualizing fluid while 3D images were better to view details of attachment of fetus with endometrium.

  7. 2-D deformation of two welded half-spaces due to a blind dip-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Rani; Neeru Bala

    2006-06-01

    The solution of two-dimensional problem of an interface breaking long inclined dip-slip fault in two welded half-spaces is well known.The purpose of this note is to obtain the corresponding solution for a blind fault.The solution is valid for arbitrary values of the fault-depth and the dip angle.Graphs showing the variation of the displacement field with the distance from the fault, for different values of fault depth and dip angle are presented.Contour maps showing the stress field around a long dip-slip fault are also obtained.

  8. Driving performance of a two-dimensional homopolar linear DC motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kano, Y. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents a novel two-dimensional homopolar linear de motor (LDM) which can realize two-dimensional (2-D) motion. For position control purposes, two kinds of position detecting methods are proposed. The position in one position is detected by means of a capacitive sensor which makes the output of the sensor partially immune to the variation of the gap between electrodes. The position in the other direction is achieved by exploiting the position dependent property of the driving coil inductance, instead of using an independent sensor. The position control is implemented on the motor and 2-D tracking performance is analyzed. Experiments show that the motor demonstrates satisfactory driving performance, 2-D tracking error being within 5.5% when the angular frequency of reference signal is 3.14 rad./s. 7 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Hybridized Abrikosov Flux-lines and Pancake Vortices in Two-band Superconductors with Mixed Dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Eschrig, M.

    2008-03-01

    We study electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of a two-band superconductor, in which one band is ballistic and quasi-two dimensional (2D), and the other is diffusive and three dimensional (3D). We assume that superconductivity in the 3D diffusive band is ``weak'', i.e., mostly induced, as is the case in MgB2. Hybridization with the ``weak'' 3D diffusive band has significant and intriguing influence on the electronic properties of the ``strong'' 2D ballistic band. In particular, the effects of Coulomb interactions in the diffusive band and unusual Kramer-Pesch effect are examined. Furthermore, based on a circular-cell approximation within the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity, we explore the effects of magnetic field on vortex structure in such a two-band superconductor. We discuss hybridization of Abrikosov flux lines in the 3D diffusive band with pancake vortices in the 2D ballistic band.

  10. Toward a two-dimensional barcode with visual information using perceptual shaping watermarking in mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Chang; Shieh, Hsiang-An

    2011-01-01

    Traditional two-dimensional (2-D) barcodes, such as the QR code and PDF417, do not carry visual information. This work proposes a visually meaningful 2-D barcode (or 2-D image code) that carries not only hidden information, but also visual information. Watermarking is employed to hide information in a meaningful cover image to produce the 2-D image code. The 2-D image code can be printed or displayed and then captured using a camera-equipped mobile device. The hidden information is extracted for innovative applications. To resist distortions in the print-and-photo process, a perceptual shaping algorithm, based on Watson's DCT-based perceptual model, is proposed for use in the data hiding procedure. The detection performance that can be achieved using two classes of position-detection patterns is evaluated, and the best pattern is then used as a part of the 2-D image code. A web service is provided for generating the 2-D image codes and a Java-based decoder is developed for mobile phones. The results of practical experiments reveal the applicability, robustness, and high capacity of the proposed 2-D image code.

  11. Two-dimensional inverse opal hydrogel for pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Meng, Zihui; Qi, Fenglian; Xue, Min; Wang, Fengyan; Chen, Wei; Yan, Zequn

    2014-12-01

    A novel hydrogel film with a highly ordered macropore monolayer on its surface was prepared by templated photo-polymerization of hydrogel monomers on a two-dimensional (2D) polystyrene colloidal array. The 2D inverse opal hydrogel has prominent advantages over traditional three-dimensional (3D) inverse opal hydrogels. First, the formation of the 2D array template through a self-assembly method is considerably faster and simpler. Second, the stable ordering structure of the 2D array template makes it easier to introduce the polymerization solution into the template. Third, a simple measurement, a Debye diffraction ring, is utilized to characterize the neighboring pore spacing of the 2D inverse opal hydrogel. Acrylic acid was copolymerized into the hydrogel; thus, the hydrogel responded to pH through volume change, which resulted from the formation of the Donnan potential. The 2D inverse opal hydrogel showed that the neighboring pore spacing increased by about 150 nm and diffracted color red-shifted from blue to red as the pH increased from pH 2 to 7. In addition, the pH response kinetics and ionic strength effect of this 2D mesoporous polymer film were also investigated.

  12. Trends in data processing of comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, João T V; Duarte, Regina M B O; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-12-01

    The operation of advanced chromatographic systems, namely comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) chromatography coupled to multidimensional detectors, allows achieving a great deal of data that need special care to be processed in order to characterize and quantify as much as possible the analytes under study. The aim of this review is to identify the main trends, research needs and gaps on the techniques for data processing of multidimensional data sets obtained from comprehensive 2D chromatography. The following topics have been identified as the most promising for new developments in the near future: data acquisition and handling, peak detection and quantification, measurement of overlapping of 2D peaks, and data analysis software for 2D chromatography. The rational supporting most of the data processing techniques is based on the generalization of one-dimensional (1D) chromatography although algorithms, such as the inverted watershed algorithm, use the 2D chromatographic data as such. However, for processing more complex N-way data there is a need for using more sophisticated techniques. Apart from using other concepts from 1D chromatography, which have not been tested for 2D chromatography, there is still room for new improvements and developments in algorithms and software for dealing with 2D comprehensive chromatographic data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exciton Migration and Amplified Quenching on Two-Dimensional Metal–Organic Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lingyun; Lin, Zekai; Shi, Wenjie; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Cankun; Hu, Xuefu; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2017-05-10

    The dimensionality dependency of resonance energy transfer is of great interest due to its importance in understanding energy transfer on cell membranes and in low-dimension nanostructures. Light harvesting two-dimensional metal–organic layers (2D-MOLs) and three-dimensional metal–organic frameworks (3D-MOFs) provide comparative models to study such dimensionality dependence with molecular accuracy. Here we report the construction of 2D-MOLs and 3D-MOFs from a donor ligand 4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(ethyne-2,1-diyl))tribenzoate (BTE) and a doped acceptor ligand 3,3',3''-nitro-4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(ethyne-2,1-diyl))tribenzoate (BTE-NO2). These 2D-MOLs and 3D-MOFs are connected by similar hafnium clusters, with key differences in the topology and dimensionality of the metal–ligand connection. Energy transfer from donors to acceptors through the 2D-MOL or 3D-MOF skeletons is revealed by measuring and modeling the fluorescence quenching of the donors. We found that energy transfer in 3D-MOFs is more efficient than that in 2D-MOLs, but excitons on 2D-MOLs are more accessible to external quenchers as compared with those in 3D-MOFs. These results not only provide support to theoretical analysis of energy transfer in low dimensions, but also present opportunities to use efficient exciton migration in 2D materials for light-harvesting and fluorescence sensing.

  14. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorcester, Jeff; Freed, Jack H.

    1988-04-01

    We describe our pulsed two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR experiment and demonstrate its applicabilty for the double resonance of motionally narrowed nitroxides. Multiple pulse irradiation of the entire nitroxide spectrum enables the correlation of two precessional periods, allowing observation of cross correlations between hyperfine lines introduced by magnetization transfer in the case of a three-pulse experiment (2D ELDOR), or coherence transfer in the case of a two-pulse experiment (COSY). Cross correlations are revealed by the presence of cross peaks which connect the autocorrelation lines appearing along the diagonal ω1=ω2. The amplitudes of these cross peaks are determined by the rates of magnetization transfer in the 2D ELDOR experiment. The density operator theory for the experiment is outlined and applied to the determination of Heisenberg exchange (HE) rates in 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl-d15 (PD-tempone) dissolved in toluene-d8. The quantitative accuracy of this experiment is established by comparison with the HE rate measured from the dependence of the spin echo T2 on nitroxide concentration.

  15. Diagnosis of pathological conditions of kidney by two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dehmiwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D ultrasonographic images of the kidney in different disease conditions. Materials and Methods: In this study, 11 clinical cases of different age groups of dogs suffering from kidney diseases were diagnosed by 2D and 3D ultrasonography at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar. The ultrasound (US machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan having four-dimensional (4D volumetric probe. The images were acquired with 3-6 MHz 2D curvilinear transducer and 4.2-6 MHz 4D volumetric curvilinear transducer. Results: Nephritis was diagnosed in four dogs aged between 5 months and 6 years. In all the cases of nephritis diffuse increase in echogenicity of kidney, parenchyma was observed. Two dogs with end-stage kidney disease were also diagnosed. In both 2D and 3D ultrasonography, the kidney size was decreased and architectural details were also lost in them. The cases of regional renal diseases diagnosed were hydronephrosis and nephrolithiasis. Dilated renal pelvis was the common finding in all the three cases of hydronephrosis in both 2D and 3D ultrasonogram. Nephroliths were observed in one case with the history of hematuria and oliguria. The multifocal renal disease diagnosed in this study was dysplastic polycystic kidney. In 2D ultrasonogram, six anechoic cavities appeared with thin strip of renal parenchyma. In 3D ultrasonogram, the cysts appeared as black anechoic areas. Conclusion: The result of the current study showed that the clinical conditions of kidney such as nephritis, end-stage kidney, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney, and nephrolithiasis can be diagnosed easily using 2D and 3D ultrasonography. Visualization of renal structures was clear in 2D ultrasonography in the conditions of nephritis and end-stage kidney. However, the conditions such as

  16. The use of virtual reality to reimagine two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    A familiar realm in the world of two-dimensional art is the craft of taking a flat canvas and creating, through color, size, and perspective, the illusion of a three-dimensional space. Using well-explored tricks of logic and sight, impossible landscapes such as those by surrealists de Chirico or Salvador Dalí seem to be windows into new and incredible spaces which appear to be simultaneously feasible and utterly nonsensical. As real-time 3D imaging becomes increasingly prevalent as an artistic medium, this process takes on an additional layer of depth: no longer is two-dimensional space restricted to strategies of light, color, line and geometry to create the impression of a three-dimensional space. A digital interactive environment is a space laid out in three dimensions, allowing the user to explore impossible environments in a way that feels very real. In this project, surrealist two-dimensional art was researched and reimagined: what would stepping into a de Chirico or a Magritte look and feel like, if the depth and distance created by light and geometry were not simply single-perspective illusions, but fully formed and explorable spaces? 3D environment-building software is allowing us to step into these impossible spaces in ways that 2D representations leave us yearning for. This art project explores what we gain--and what gets left behind--when these impossible spaces become doors, rather than windows. Using sketching, Maya 3D rendering software, and the Unity Engine, surrealist art was reimagined as a fully navigable real-time digital environment. The surrealist movement and its key artists were researched for their use of color, geometry, texture, and space and how these elements contributed to their work as a whole, which often conveys feelings of unexpectedness or uneasiness. The end goal was to preserve these feelings while allowing the viewer to actively engage with the space.

  17. Spin-Dependent Scattering Effects and Dimensional Crossover in a Quasi-Two-Dimensional Disordered Electron System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongHong; WANG YongGang; LIU Mei; WANG Jin

    2002-01-01

    Two kinds of spin-depcndcnt scattering effects (magnetic-iinpurity and spin-orbit scatterings) axe investi-gated theoretically in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) disordered electron system. By making use of the diagrammatictechniques in perturbation theory, we have calculated the dc conductivity and magnetoresistance due to weak-localizationeffects, the analytical expressions of them are obtained as functions of the interlayer hopping energy and the charac-teristic times: elastic, inelastic, magnetic and spin-orbit scattering times. The relevant dimensional crossover behaviorfrom 3D to 2D with decreasing the interlayer coupling is discussed, and the condition for the crossover is shown to bedependent on the aforementioned scattering times. At low temperature there exists a spin-dcpendent-scattering-induccddimensional crossover in this system.

  18. Proteome analysis of human colorectal cancer tissue using 2-D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... Laser capture microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis were used to establish ... As a technique with high-flux and high resolution, pro- teomics ... in which the protein sample was labeled before 2-D.

  19. Strategies for Ultrasound Imaging Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2010-02-01

    2D arrays are able to `view' a given defect from a range of angles leading to the possibility of obtaining richer characterization detail than possible with 1D arrays. This has clear benefits as real defects and engineering structures are three-dimensional. This paper describes different approaches to optimize 2D array design. Results are shown that illustrate the application of the proposed techniques to modeling and experimental data.

  20. Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.

  1. Quark-Antiquark and Diquark Condensates in Vacuum in a 2D Two-Flavor Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bang-Rong, Z

    2007-01-01

    The analysis based on the renormalized effective potential indicates that, similar to in the 4D two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, in a 2D two-flavor Gross-Neveu model, the interplay between the quark-antiquark and the diquark condensates in vacuum also depends on $G_S/H_S$, the ratio of the coupling constants in scalar quark-antiquark and scalar diquark channel. Only the pure quark-antiquark condensates exist if $G_S/H_S>2/3$ which is just the ratio of the color numbers of the quarks participating in the diquark and quark-antiquark condensates. The two condensates will coexist if $0

  2. Metallic ground state in an ion-gated two-dimensional superconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saito, Yu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nojima, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Recently emerging two-dimensional (2D) superconductors in atomically thin layers and at heterogeneous interfaces are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics. Here, we report that an ion-gated zirconium nitride chloride surface, exhibiting a dome-shaped phase diagram with a maximum cr

  3. Collective modes of a quasi-two-dimensional Bose condensate in large gas parameter regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Mishra; S P Ram; Arup Banerjee

    2007-06-01

    We have theoretically studied the collective modes of a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) Bose condensate in the large gas parameter regime by using a formalism which treats the interaction energy beyond the mean-field approximation. The results show that incorporation of this higher order term leads to significant modifications in the mode frequencies.

  4. Analysis of soybean embryonic axis proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) for protein separation and subsequent mass spectrometry (MS) for protein identification was applied to establish a proteomic reference map for the soybean embryonic axis. Proteins were extracted from dissecte...

  5. Quantitative analysis of target components by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mispelaar, V.G. van; Tas, A.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Asten, A.C. van

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC) is still rarely reported. This is largely due to a lack of suitable software. The objective of the present study is to generate quantitative results from a large GC x GC data set, consisting of 32 chromatograms. I

  6. High-flux two-dimensional magneto-optical-trap source for cold lithium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiecke, T.G.; Gensemer, S.D.; Ludewig, A.; Walraven, J.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT) as a beam source for cold Li-6 atoms. The source is side loaded from an oven operated at temperatures in the range 600 less than or similar to T less than or similar to 700 K. The performance is analyzed by loading the atoms into a

  7. Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Capture through Channel-Wall Functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, N.; Chen, X.; Krishna, R.; Jiang, D.

    2015-01-01

    Ordered open channels found in two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) could enable them to adsorb carbon dioxide. However, the frameworks' dense layer architecture results in low porosity that has thus far restricted their potential for carbon dioxide adsorption. Here we report a

  8. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, C.J.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, JPJ

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional imag

  9. Comparison of Yeast Cell Protein Solubilization Procedures for Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, A; Wildgruber, R; Nawrocki, A;

    1999-01-01

    Three different procedures for the solubilization of yeast (S. cerevisiae) cell proteins were compared on the basis of the obtained two-dimensional (2-D) polypeptide patterns. Major emphasis was laid on minimizing handling steps, protein modification or degradation, and quantitative loss of high ...

  10. A true order recursive algorithm for two-dimensional mean squared error linear prediction and filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glentis, George-Othon; Slump, Cornelis H.; Hermann, Otto E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a novel algorithm is presented for the efficient two-dimensional (2-D), mean squared error (MSE), FIR filtering and system identification. Filter masks of general boundaries are allowed. Efficient order updating recursions are developed by exploiting the spatial shift invariance

  11. Comparison of inverse dynamics calculated by two- and three-dimensional models during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, E B; Dyhre-Poulsen, P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare joint moments calculated by a two- (2D) and a three-dimensional (3D) inverse dynamics model to examine how the different approaches influenced the joint moment profiles. Fifteen healthy male subjects participated in the study. A five-camera video system rec...

  12. Two dimensional soft material: new faces of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaemyung; Cote, Laura J; Huang, Jiaxing

    2012-08-21

    Graphite oxide sheets, now called graphene oxide (GO), can be made from chemical exfoliation of graphite by reactions that have been known for 150 years. Because GO is a promising solution-processable precursor for the bulk production of graphene, interest in this old material has resurged. The reactions to produce GO add oxygenated functional groups to the graphene sheets on their basal plane and edges, and this derivatization breaks the π-conjugated network, resulting in electrically insulating but highly water-dispersible sheets. Apart from making graphene, GO itself has many intriguing properties. Like graphene, GO is a two-dimensional (2D) sheet with feature sizes at two abruptly different length scales. The apparent thickness of the functionalized carbon sheet is approximately 1 nm, but the lateral dimensions can range from a few nanometers to hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, researchers can think of GO as either a single molecule or a particle, depending on which length scale is of greater interest. At the same time, GO can be viewed as an unconventional soft material, such as a 2D polymer, highly anisotropic colloid, membrane, liquid crystal, or amphiphile. In this Account, we highlight the soft material characteristics of GO. GO consists of nanographitic patches surrounded by largely disordered, oxygenated domains. Such structural characteristics effectively make GO a 2D amphiphile with a hydrophilic periphery and largely hydrophobic center. This insight has led to better understanding of the solution properties of GO for making thin films and new applications of GO as a surfactant. Changes in pH and sheet size can tune the amphiphilicity of GO, leading to intriguing interfacial activities. In addition, new all-carbon composites made of only graphitic nanostructures using GO as a dispersing agent have potential applications in photovoltaics and energy storage. On the other hand, GO can function as a 2D random diblock copolymer, one block graphitic and

  13. Atmospheric turbulence not simply two-dimensional or three-dimensional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    A complete mathematical description of turbulence is one of the most sought-after prizes in physics, and although the research of Pinel et al. does not provide a full account, it does aim to pin down the answer to one subset of that effort: Are two-dimensional (2-D) or 3-D the main options for atmospheric turbulence? In the earliest statistical descriptions, scientists assumed that turbulence was direction independent (isotropic) but in two separate regimes: at large scales being horizontally isotropic, while at small scales being isotropic in 3-D space. In this view, only large-scale turbulence behaves differently in the vertical and horizontal directions, that is, with horizontally stratified vortices.

  14. Smart multi-channel two-dimensional micro-gas chromatography for rapid workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Seo, Jung Hwan; Li, Yubo; Chen, Di; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2013-03-07

    We developed a novel smart multi-channel two-dimensional (2-D) micro-gas chromatography (μGC) architecture that shows promise to significantly improve 2-D μGC performance. In the smart μGC design, a non-destructive on-column gas detector and a flow routing system are installed between the first dimensional separation column and multiple second dimensional separation columns. The effluent from the first dimensional column is monitored in real-time and decision is then made to route the effluent to one of the second dimensional columns for further separation. As compared to the conventional 2-D μGC, the greatest benefit of the smart multi-channel 2-D μGC architecture is the enhanced separation capability of the second dimensional column and hence the overall 2-D GC performance. All the second dimensional columns are independent of each other, and their coating, length, flow rate and temperature can be customized for best separation results. In particular, there is no more constraint on the upper limit of the second dimensional column length and separation time in our architecture. Such flexibility is critical when long second dimensional separation is needed for optimal gas analysis. In addition, the smart μGC is advantageous in terms of elimination of the power intensive thermal modulator, higher peak amplitude enhancement, simplified 2-D chromatogram re-construction and potential scalability to higher dimensional separation. In this paper, we first constructed a complete smart 1 × 2 channel 2-D μGC system, along with an algorithm for automated control/operation of the system. We then characterized and optimized this μGC system, and finally employed it in two important applications that highlight its uniqueness and advantages, i.e., analysis of 31 workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds, and rapid detection and identification of target gas analytes from interference background.

  15. Observation of asymmetrically imploded core plasmas with a two-dimensional sampling image x-ray streak camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Lee, Myongdok; Mahigashi, Norimitsu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    A shell target with a cone for guiding the heating beam has been proposed for the fast ignition scheme. Implosion of such target is no longer symmetric because of the cone. A fast two-dimensional x-ray imaging technique, two-dimensional (2D) sampling image x-ray streak camera was applied for the first time to observation of the dynamics of implosion and core plasma. X-ray emission image of the plasma was sampled with two-dimensionally distributed image sampling points, streaked with the tube, and the recorded signals were reconstructed as sequential 2D frame images. Shape and movement of the core plasma were clearly observed.

  16. Hilbert Statistics of Vorticity Scaling in Two-Dimensional Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, H S; Meng, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the scaling property of the inverse energy cascade and forward enstrophy cascade of the vorticity filed $\\omega(x,y)$ in two-dimensional (2D) turbulence is analyzed. This is accomplished by applying a Hilbert-based technique, namely Hilbert-Huang Transform, to a vorticity field obtained from a $8192^2$ grid-points direct numerical simulation of the 2D turbulence with a forcing scale $k_f=100$ and an Ekman friction. The measured joint probability density function $p(C,k)$ of mode $C_i(x)$ of the vorticity $\\omega$ and instantaneous wavenumber $k(x)$ is separated by the forcing scale $k_f$ into two parts, which corresponding to the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. It is found that all conditional pdf $p(C\\vert k)$ at given wavenumber $k$ has an exponential tail. In the inverse energy cascade, the shape of $p(C\\vert k)$ does collapse with each other, indicating a nonintermittent cascade. The measured scaling exponent $\\zeta_{\\omega}^I(q)$ is linear with the statistical ord...

  17. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Gordon, A.

    2014-11-01

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET)2X with X=Cu(NCS)2, KHg(SCN)4, I3, AuBr2, IBr2, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals.

  18. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

  19. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-03-06

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.

  20. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  1. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  2. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  3. Stiffer double-stranded DNA in two-dimensional confinement due to bending anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, H.; Eslami-Mossallam, B.; Ranjbar, H. F.; Ejtehadi, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Using analytical approach and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we study the elastic behavior of the intrinsically twisted elastic ribbons with bending anisotropy, such as double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), in two-dimensional (2D) confinement. We show that, due to the bending anisotropy, the persistence length of dsDNA in 2D conformations is always greater than three-dimensional (3D) conformations. This result is in consistence with the measured values for DNA persistence length in 2D and 3D in equal biological conditions. We also show that in two dimensions, an anisotropic, intrinsically twisted polymer exhibits an implicit twist-bend coupling, which leads to the transient curvature increasing with a half helical turn periodicity along the bent polymer.

  4. Canonical structure of 2D black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F

    1994-01-01

    We determine the canonical structure of two-dimensional black-hole solutions arising in $2D$ dilaton gravity. By choosing the Cauchy surface appropriately we find that the canonically conjugate variable to the black hole mass is given by the difference of local (Schwarzschild) time translations at right and left spatial infinities. This can be regarded as a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem.

  5. Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolei Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.

  6. String breaking in two-dimensional QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K J

    1999-01-01

    I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.

  7. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2013-05-07

    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mapping of 34 minisatellite loci resolved by two-dimensional DNA typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Anders; Nyegaard, Mette; Kvistgaard, AB

    1997-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing is based on electrophoretic separation of genomic DNA fragments in two dimensions according to independent criteria (size and base-pair sequence), followed by hybridization analysis using multilocus probes. The technique allows simultaneous visualization of several...... could be deduced, showing no evidence of clustering. In the analysis of spot patterns, use was made of a computerized image analysis system specifically designed for 2-D DNA typing. Since experimental variations between different separation patterns were automatically corrected for with this program......, rapid and reliable scorings could be obtained. The results presented demonstrate the availability of reliable genetic information throughout the 2-D separation pattern. Adding the use of semiautomated computerized pattern analysis, this study further substantiates the applicability of 2-D DNA typing...

  9. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.

  10. Applications of Barcode Images by Enhancing the Two-Dimensional Recognition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Hsien Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper not only proposed the latest Two-Dimensional Barcodes Image-processing Module, but also captured the smallest camera screens (320 240 with different focal distances and tried to find out “Finder Pattern” for positioning images. Further, use CROBU (Conversion Ratio of Basic Unit the thesis proposed to convert 2-D barcodes into 1-pixel ratio to match images before judging recognition rate of 2-D barcodes through matching. Normally speaking, 2-D barcodes are deciphered and recognized by software while the thesis recognizes 2-D barcodes and enhances implementation speed up to 10-cm accurate max. using image matching. The 2-D barcodes image-processing module the thesis proposed does capture and standardize image with complicated background or raw edge, which enhances 2-D barcodes recognition rate. The main point of this study is to construct a platform to manage or suggest nutrients human body needs. The Quick Response Code image of 2-D barcodes represents vitamin and calories information. 2-D barcodes taken instantly by MATLAB and CCD camera can be used to list nutrients from foods you eat recently and suggest what else you should eat for the purpose of health management.

  11. Two-dimensional MoS2: A promising building block for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaorong; Zhao, Huimin; Quan, Xie

    2017-03-15

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials have trigged intensive interest due to the intriguing physicochemical properties that stem from a quantum size effect connected with their ultra-thin structure. In particular, 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), as an emerging class of stable inorganic graphene analogs with intrinsic finite bandgap, would possibly complement or even surpass graphene in electronics and optoelectronics fields. In this review, we first discuss the historical development of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials. Then, we are concerned with 2D MoS2 including its structure-property relationships, synthesis methods, characterization for the layer thickness, and biosensor applications over the past five years. Thereinto, we are highlighting recent advances in 2D MoS2-based biosensors, especially emphasize the preparation of sensing elements, roles of 2D MoS2, and assay strategies. Finally, on the basis of the current achievements on 2D MoS2 and other ultrathin layered nanomaterials, perspectives on the challenges and opportunities for the exploration of 2D MoS2-based biosensors are put forward.

  12. Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S

    1981-11-01

    With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.

  13. Defect Characterization Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2011-06-01

    2D arrays are able to `view' a given defect from a range of angles leading to the possibility of obtaining richer characterization detail than possible with 1D arrays. In this paper a quantitative comparison of 2D arrays with different element layouts is performed. A technique for extracting the scattering matrix of a defect from the raw 2D array data is also presented. The method is tested on experimental data for characterization of various volumetric defects.

  14. Influence of ions on two-dimensional and three-dimensional atomic force microscopy at fluorite-water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, K.; Watkins, M.; Shluger, A. L.; Fukuma, T.

    2017-06-01

    Recent advancement in liquid-environment atomic force microscopy (AFM) has enabled us to visualize three-dimensional (3D) hydration structures as well as two-dimensional (2D) surface structures with subnanometer-scale resolution at solid-water interfaces. However, the influence of ions present in solution on the 2D- and 3D-AFM measurements has not been well understood. In this study, we perform atomic-scale 2D- and 3D-AFM measurements at fluorite-water interfaces in pure water and a supersaturated solution of fluorite. The images obtained in these two environments are compared to understand the influence of the ions in solution on these measurements. In the 2D images, we found clear difference in the nanoscale structures but no significant difference in the atomic-scale contrasts. However, the 3D force images show clear difference in the subnanometer-scale contrasts. The force contrasts measured in pure water largely agree with those expected from the molecular dynamics simulation and the solvent tip approximation model. In the supersaturated solution, an additional force peak is observed over the negatively charged fluorine ion site. This location suggests that the observed force peak may originate from cations adsorbed on the fluorite surface. These results demonstrate that the ions can significantly alter the subnanometer-scale force contrasts in the 3D-AFM images.

  15. Acoustic resonances in two-dimensional radial sonic crystal shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2010-07-01

    Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction that verify the Bloch theorem and are possible only if certain specially designed acoustic metamaterials with mass density anisotropy can be engineered (see Torrent and Sánchez-Dehesa 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 064301). A comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional (2D) RSC shells is reported here. A given shell is in fact a circular slab with a central cavity. These finite crystal structures contain Fabry-Perot-like resonances and modes strongly localized at the central cavity. Semi-analytical expressions are developed to obtain the quality factors of the different resonances, their symmetry features and their excitation properties. The results reported here are completely general and can be extended to equivalent 3D spherical shells and to their photonic counterparts.

  16. Dielectric-barrier discharges in two-dimensional lattice potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Josiah

    2011-01-01

    We use a pin-grid electrode to introduce a corrugated electrical potential into a planar dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) system, so that the amplitude of the applied electric field has the profile of a two-dimensional square lattice. The lattice potential provides a template for the spatial distribution of plasma filaments in the system and has pronounced effects on the patterns that can form. The positions at which filaments become localized within the lattice unit cell vary with the width of the discharge gap. The patterns that appear when filaments either overfill or under-fill the lattice are reminiscent of those observed in other physical systems involving 2d lattices. We suggest that the connection between lattice-driven DBDs and other areas of physics may benefit from the further development of models that treat plasma filaments as interacting particles.

  17. Two-dimensional NQR using ultra-broadband electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Song, Y.-Q.

    2014-03-01

    We have recently developed an ultra-broadband instrument that can effectively excite and detect NMR and NQR signals over a wide frequency range. Our current system operates between 100 kHz and 3.2 MHz using an un-tuned sample coil. The major benefits of this instrument compared to conventional NQR/NMR systems include increased robustness, ease of use (in particular for multi-frequency experiments), and elimination of the need for tuning adjustments in the hardware. Here we describe its use for performing two-dimensional (2D) scans, which allow improved interpretation of complex NQR spectra by detecting the connected resonances. Our method relies on population transfers between the three energy levels of spin-1 nuclei (such as 14N) by using multi-frequency excitation and a single RF coil. Experimental results on pure samples and mixtures are also presented.

  18. The random discrete action for two-dimensional spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Dowker, Fay; Schmitzer, Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    A one-parameter family of random variables, called the Discrete Action, is defined for a two-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime of finite volume. The single parameter is a discreteness scale. The expectation value of this discrete action is calculated for various regions of 2D Minkowski spacetime, {M}^2. When a causally convex region of {M}^2 is divided into subregions using null lines the mean of the discrete action is equal to the alternating sum of the numbers of vertices, edges and faces of the null tiling, up to corrections that tend to 0 as the discreteness scale is taken to 0. This result is used to predict that the mean of the discrete action of the flat Lorentzian cylinder is zero up to corrections, which is verified. The 'topological' character of the discrete action breaks down for causally convex regions of the flat trousers spacetime that contain the singularity and for non-causally convex rectangles.

  19. Reliability and concurrent validity between two-dimensional and three-dimensional evaluations of knee valgus during drop jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alexis; Rosario-Canales, Martin; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Seda, Alexie; Figueroa, Carla; Venegas-Ríos, Heidi L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to establish the concurrent validity and reliability of four different two-dimensional (2D) video-based techniques for quantifying frontal plane knee kinematics during a 40 cm double-legged drop jump. Participants and methods A convenience sample of 16 healthy participants (nine males and seven females; age: [mean ± standard deviation] 25.5±2 years; body mass index: 24.33±2.98 kg/m2) participated in this investigation. A total of five trials during a 40 cm drop jump maneuver with a countermovement jump were used as the functional task. Four knee valgus measures, such as two different frontal plane projection angle measures, knee-to-ankle separation ratio (KASR), and knee separation distance (KSD), were measured using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) systems. To generalize to the greater population of possible evaluators, the testers performing the biomechanical analyses were three novice physical therapists. Intra- and intertester intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated for 2D analysis variables. ICCs were estimated for all measures between systems to determine concurrent validity of the 2D system. Results All four 2D measures showed good to excellent reliability (ICC: 0.89–0.99). KASR and KSD showed excellent correlation (ICC: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82–0.98 and ICC: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90–0.96, respectively) with the 3D system, while both methods of frontal plane projection angle showed poor to moderate correlation (ICC: 0–0.57) with the 3D system. Conclusion 2D KASR and KSD measures are cost effective, reliable, and highly correlated with the same measures using 3D techniques for the evaluation of knee valgus. PMID:27313480

  20. Phase diagram of a two-dimensional liquid in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs biased double quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timofeev, V. B.; Larionov, A. V.; Alessi, M. G.;

    2000-01-01

    densities, P, and temperatures, T. For increasing P or decreasing T, a sharp transition from two gases of photoexcited electrons and holes, spatially separated and confined in the two wells, to two two-dimensional (2D) liquids has been observed. The gas-to-2D-liquid transition is evidenced by a strong...

  1. Structural Transformations in Two-Dimensional Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide MoS2 under an Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretschmer, Silvan; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Bøggild, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The polymorphism of two-dimensional (w2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and different electronic properties of the polymorphs make TMDs particularly promising materials in the context of applications in electronics. Recently, local transformations from the semiconducting trigonal prisma...... development and optimization of electron-beam-mediated engineering of the atomic structure and electronic properties of 2D TMDs with subnanometer resolution.......The polymorphism of two-dimensional (w2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and different electronic properties of the polymorphs make TMDs particularly promising materials in the context of applications in electronics. Recently, local transformations from the semiconducting trigonal...... prismatic H phase to the metallic octahedral T phase in 2D MoS2 have been induced by electron irradiation [Nat. Nanotech. 2014, 9, 391], but the mechanism of the transformations remains elusive. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the energetics of the stable and metastable phases of 2D...

  2. Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoukaz, A., E-mail: khoukaz@uni-muenster.de; Bonaventura, D.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.-K.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.

    2014-01-21

    An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in a vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCPs) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This information can directly be used for the reconstruction of vertex positions as well as for an input for numerical simulations of the reaction zone. The spatial resolution of the images is dominated by the granularity of the complete MCP device and was found to be in the order of σ≈100μm. -- Highlights: • We present a MCP system for a 2D real time visualization of cluster target beams. • With this device the vertex region of storage ring experiments can be investigated. • Time resolved 2D information about the target thickness distribution is accessible. • A spatial resolution of the MCP device of 0.1 mm was achieved. • The presented MCP system also allows for measurements on cluster masses.

  3. Compact triplexer in two-dimensional hexagonal lattice photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Ren; Jianping Ma; Hao Wen; Yali Qin; Zhefu Wu; Weisheng Hu; Chun Jiang; Yaohui Jin

    2011-01-01

    We design a contpact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs). A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides. Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained. The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finites-difference time-domain method. The footprint of the triplexer is about 12× 9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -4O dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device ii future fiber-to-the-home networks.%@@ We design a compact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs).A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides.Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained.The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.The footprint of the triplexer is about 12×9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -40 dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device in future fiber-to-the-home networks.

  4. Electronic nanobiosensors based on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jinglei

    Atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have tremendous potential to be applied as transduction elements in biosensors and bioelectronics. We developed scalable methods for synthesis and large-area transfer of two-dimensional nanomaterials, particularly graphene and metal dichalcogenides (so called ``MX2'' materials). We also developed versatile fabrication methods for large arrays of field-effect transistors (FETs) and micro-electrodes with these nanomaterials based on either conventional photolithography or innovative approaches that minimize contamination of the 2D layer. By functionalizing the FETs with a computationally redesigned water-soluble mu-opioid receptor, we created selective and sensitive biosensors suitable for detection of the drug target naltrexone and the neuropeptide enkephalin at pg/mL concentrations. We also constructed DNA-functionalized biosensors and nano-particle decorated biosensors by applying related bio-nano integration techniques. Our methodology paves the way for multiplexed nanosensor arrays with all-electronic readout suitable for inexpensive point-of-care diagnostics, drug-development and biomedical research. With graphene field-effect transistors, we investigated the graphene/solution interface and developed a quantitative model for the effect of ionic screening on the graphene carrier density based on theories of the electric double layer. Finally, we have developed a technique for measuring low-level Faradaic charge-transfer current (fA) across the graphene/solution interface via real-time charge monitoring of graphene microelectrodes in ionic solution. This technique enables the development of flexible and transparent pH sensors that are promising for in vivo applications. The author acknowledges the support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF1010093.

  5. Atom-Based Geometrical Fingerprinting of Conformal Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboudi, Mehrshad

    The shape of two-dimensional materials plays a significant role on their chemical and physical properties. Two-dimensional materials are basic meshes that are formed by mesh points (vertices) given by atomic positions, and connecting lines (edges) between points given by chemical bonds. Therefore the study of local shape and geometry of two-dimensional materials is a fundamental prerequisite to investigate physical and chemical properties. Hereby the use of discrete geometry to discuss the shape of two-dimensional materials is initiated. The local geometry of a surface embodied in 3D space is determined using four invariant numbers from the metric and curvature tensors which indicates how much the surface is stretched and curved under a deformation as compared to a reference pre-deformed conformation. Many different disciplines advance theories on conformal two-dimensional materials by relying on continuum mechanics and fitting continuum surfaces to the shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. However two-dimensional materials are inherently discrete. The continuum models are only applicable when the size of two-dimensional materials is significantly large and the deformation is less than a few percent. In this research, the knowledge of discrete differential geometry was used to tell the local shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. Three kind of two-dimensional materials are discussed: 1) one atom thickness structures such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride; 2) high and low buckled 2D meshes like stanene, leadene, aluminum phosphate; and, 3) multi layer 2D materials such as Bi2Se3 and WSe2. The lattice structures of these materials were created by designing a mechanical model - the mechanical model was devised in the form of a Gaussian bump and density-functional theory was used to inform the local height; and, the local geometries are also discussed.

  6. 3 dimensional distributions of NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO measured by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS during MAD-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    We present results of 2 dimensional Multi Axis-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) measurements to infer 3-dimensional measurements of trace gases by characterizing boundary layer vertical profiles and near surface azimuth horizontal distribution of NO2 (14 angles covering 360°). We combine the established optimal estimation inversion with a new parameterization approach; the first method to derive NO2 tropospheric vertical profiles and boundary layer height and the second one to retrieve the azimuth horizontal distribution of near surface NO2 mixing ratios, both at multiple wavelengths (350 nm, 450 nm, and 560 nm). This was conducted for three cloud-free days in the framework of the intensive Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany 2013. By retrieving NO2 at multiple wavelengths range-resolved distributions of NO2 are derived using an 'Onion-peeling' approach, i.e., exploiting the fact that the optical path lengths at different wavelengths probe different horizontal air masses. We also measure glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) distributions, and present to our knowledge the first 3-dimesional trace-gas distribution measurements of CHOCHO by a ground-based instrument. We expand the 2D-MAX-DOAS capabilities to calculate azimuth ratios of HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN) and CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN) to pinpoint volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation chemistry and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) ratios as an indicator of biogenic and/or anthropogenic VOC emissions. The results of RFN correlate well with RGN and we identify azimuth variations that indicate gradients in the VOC/NOx chemistry that leads to O3 and secondary aerosol production. While there is a clear diurnal pattern in the RFN and RGN, no such variations are observed in the RGF, which shows rather constant values below 0.04 throughout the day, consistent with previous measurements, and indicative of urban air masses.

  7. Two dimensional RG flows and Yang-Mills instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Gava, Edi; Narain, K S

    2010-01-01

    We study RG flow solutions in (1,0) six dimensional supergravity coupled to an anti-symmetric tensor and Yang-Mills multiplets corresponding to a semisimple group $G$. We turn on $G$ instanton gauge fields, with instanton number $N$, in the conformally flat part of the 6D metric. The solution interpolates between two (4,0) supersymmetric $AdS_3\\times S^3$ backgrounds with two different values of $AdS_3$ and $S^3$ radii and describes an RG flow in the dual 2D SCFT. For the single instanton case and $G=SU(2)$, there exist a consistent reduction ansatz to three dimensions, and the solution in this case can be interpreted as an uplifted 3D solution. Correspondingly, we present the solution in the framework of N=4 $(SU(2)\\ltimes \\mathbf{R}^3)^2$ three dimensional gauged supergravity. The flows studied here are of v.e.v. type, driven by a vacuum expectation value of a (not exactly) marginal operator of dimension two in the UV. We give an interpretation of the supergravity solution in terms of the D1/D5 system in ty...

  8. Accurate two-dimensional model of an arrayed-waveguide grating demultiplexer and optimal design based on the reciprocity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

    2004-12-01

    An accurate two-dimensional (2D) model is introduced for the simulation of an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexer by integrating the field distribution along the vertical direction. The equivalent 2D model has almost the same accuracy as the original three-dimensional model and is more accurate for the AWG considered here than the conventional 2D model based on the effective-index method. To further improve the computational efficiency, the reciprocity theory is applied to the optimal design of a flat-top AWG demultiplexer with a special input structure.

  9. 2D simulation and analysis of fluid flow between two sinusoidal parallel plates using lattice Bolzmann method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better heat transfer, it is important to enhance fluid mixing in heat exchangers. Since there are negative effects when heat exchangers are operating in turbulent regime (like significant pressure drop, increased size of the pump it is necessary to apply the techniques which would provide better fluid mixing when heat exchangers are operating in laminar regime. Investigations have shown that use of sinusoidal instead of flat plates results in this effect. This study is a result of two dimensional simulation of fluid flow between two parallel sinusoidal plates. Simulation was done with the use of modified Openlb code, based on lattice Boltzmann method. Reynolds number was varied from 200 to 1000, and space between the plates was varied from 3cm to 5 cm. Results showed that sinusoidal plates enhance fluid mixing, especially with greater values of Re and smaller space between the plates, which is in agreement with previous investigations.

  10. Subsurface imaging of two-dimensional materials at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinelli, Franco; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Kay, Nicholas D.; Kolosov, Oleg V.

    2017-02-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) represents a powerful tool that, in the past 30 years, has allowed for the investigation of material surfaces in unprecedented ways at the nanoscale level. However, SPM has shown very little capability for depth penetration, which several nanotechnology applications require. Subsurface imaging has been achieved only in a few cases, when subsurface features influence the physical properties of the surface, such as the electronic states or the heat transfer. Ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM), an adaption of the contact mode atomic force microscopy, can dynamically measure the stiffness of the elastic contact between the probing tip and the sample surface. In particular, UFM has proven highly sensitive to the near-surface elastic field in non-homogeneous samples. In this paper, we present an investigation of two-dimensional (2D) materials, namely flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide placed on structured polymeric substrates. We show that UFM can non-destructively distinguish suspended and supported areas and localise defects, such as buckling or delamination of adjacent monolayers, generated by residual stress. Specifically, UFM can probe small variations in the local indentation induced by the mechanical interaction between the tip and the sample. Therefore, any change in the elastic modulus within the volume perturbed by the applied load or the flexural bending of the suspended areas can be detected and imaged. These investigation capabilities are very promising in order to study the buried interfaces of nanostructured 2D materials such as in graphene-based devices.

  11. Mathematical modeling of the neuron morphology using two dimensional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajković, Katarina; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T; Jeremic, Sanja; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Rajković, Nemanja

    2016-02-01

    In this study mathematical analyses such as the analysis of area and length, fractal analysis and modified Sholl analysis were applied on two dimensional (2D) images of neurons from adult human dentate nucleus (DN). Using mathematical analyses main morphological properties were obtained including the size of neuron and soma, the length of all dendrites, the density of dendritic arborization, the position of the maximum density and the irregularity of dendrites. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modeling the size of neurons and the length of all dendrites. However, the RSM model based on the second-order polynomial equation was only possible to apply to correlate changes in the size of the neuron with other properties of its morphology. Modeling data provided evidence that the size of DN neurons statistically depended on the size of the soma, the density of dendritic arborization and the irregularity of dendrites. The low value of mean relative percent deviation (MRPD) between the experimental data and the predicted neuron size obtained by RSM model showed that model was suitable for modeling the size of DN neurons. Therefore, RSM can be generally used for modeling neuron size from 2D images.

  12. Two-dimensional investigation of forced bubble oscillation under microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Ruoyu; Masahiro KAWAJI

    2003-01-01

    Recent referential studies of fluid interfaces subjected to small vibration under microgravity conditions are reviewed. An experimental investigation was carried out aboard the American Space Shuttle Discovery. Two-dimensional (2-D) modeling and simulation were conducted to further understand the experimental results. The oscillation of a bubble in fluid under surface tension is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The SIMPLEC algorithm was used to solve the partial differential equations on an Eulerian mesh in a 2-D coordinate. Free surfaces were represented with the volume of fluid (VOF) obtained by solving a kinematic equation. Surface tension was modeled via a continuous surface force (CSF) algorithm that ensures robustness and accuracy. A new surface reconstruction scheme, alternative phase integration (API) scheme, was adopted to solve the kinematic equation, and was compared with referential schemes. Numerical computations were conducted to simulate the transient behavior of an oscillating gas bubble in mineral oil under different conditions. The bubble positions and shapes under different external vibrations were obtained numerically. The computed bubble oscillation amplitudes were compared with experimental data.

  13. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  14. Self-assembly of coherently dynamic, auxetic, two-dimensional protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuta; Cardone, Giovanni; Restrepo, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D; Baker, Timothy S; Tezcan, F Akif

    2016-05-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials possess unique structural, mechanical and electronic properties that make them highly attractive in many applications. Although there have been advances in preparing 2D materials that consist of one or a few atomic or molecular layers, bottom-up assembly of 2D crystalline materials remains a challenge and an active area of development. More challenging is the design of dynamic 2D lattices that can undergo large-scale motions without loss of crystallinity. Dynamic behaviour in porous three-dimensional (3D) crystalline solids has been exploited for stimuli-responsive functions and adaptive behaviour. As in such 3D materials, integrating flexibility and adaptiveness into crystalline 2D lattices would greatly broaden the functional scope of 2D materials. Here we report the self-assembly of unsupported, 2D protein lattices with precise spatial arrangements and patterns using a readily accessible design strategy. Three single- or double-point mutants of the C4-symmetric protein RhuA were designed to assemble via different modes of intermolecular interactions (single-disulfide, double-disulfide and metal-coordination) into crystalline 2D arrays. Owing to the flexibility of the single-disulfide interactions, the lattices of one of the variants ((C98)RhuA) are essentially defect-free and undergo substantial, but fully correlated, changes in molecular arrangement, yielding coherently dynamic 2D molecular lattices. (C98)RhuA lattices display a Poisson's ratio of -1-the lowest thermodynamically possible value for an isotropic material-making them auxetic.

  15. Interobserver and intraobserver variation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional anal endosonography in the evaluation of recurrent anal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A.F.; Nyhuus, B.; Nielsen, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    recurrent disease. They were investigated by using 3-D endosonography at Rigshospitalet from July 2001 to January 2005 because of suspected local recurrence. The 3-D endosonographic examinations were reviewed from the hard disc by two observers who twice reviewed all 2-D examinations (the axial projection.......34-0.62 vs. kappa 2-D 0.22-0.28. These differences showed P cancer. Three-dimensional endosonography seems...

  16. Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by two-dimensional inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovic, S.; van Noort, M.; Rempel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown because of rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. Aims: We address the matter by using the two-dimensional (2D) inversion code, which is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Methods: Performance of the code and the impact of various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real data obtained by Spectropolarimeter (SP) on board Hinode. Results: Tests on simulations show that: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters; (2) the code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field; (3) slightly different noise levels or slightly different defocus included in the spatial point spread function (PSF) produces no significant effect on the results; and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to a stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Conclusions: Although the contribution of the weak field is slightly overestimated owing to noise, 2D inversions are able to recover well the overall distribution of the magnetic field strength. Application of the 2D inversion code on the Hinode SP internetwork observations reveals a monotonic field strength distribution. The mean field strength at optical depth unity is ~ 130 G. At higher layers, field strength drops as the field becomes more horizontal. Regarding the distribution of the field inclination, tests show that we cannot directly retrieve it with the observations and tools at hand, however, the obtained distributions are consistent with those expected from simulations with a quasi-isotropic field inclination after accounting for observational effects.

  17. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA)3(TPPO)2/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe3O4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10(-2) S cm(-1), and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe3O4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  18. Synthesis of graphene and related two-dimensional materials for bioelectronics devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jilun; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Xuanye; Xiao, Yao; Fu, Lei

    2017-03-15

    In recent years, graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as exotic materials in nearly every fields of fundamental science and applied engineering. The latest progress has shown that these 2D materials could have a profound impact on bioelectronics devices. For the construction of these bioelectronics devices, these 2D materials were generally synthesized by the processes of exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition. In particular, the macrostructures of these 2D materials have also been realized by these two processes, which have shown great potentials in the self-supported and special-purpose biosensors. Due to the high specific surface area, subtle electron properties, abundant surface atoms of these 2D materials, the as-constructed bioelectronics devices have exhibited enhanced performance in the sensing of small biomolecules, heavy metals, pH, protein and DNA. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive scientific progress in the synthesis of 2D materials for the construction of five typical bioelectronics devices (electrochemical biosensors, FET-based biosensors, piezoelectric devices, electrochemiluminescence devices and supercapacitors) and to overview the present status and future perspective of the applications of these bioelectronics devices based on 2D materials.

  19. 2D Quantum Gravity on Compact Riemann Surfaces and Two-Loop Partition Function: Circumventing the c=1 Barrier?

    CERN Document Server

    Bilal, Adel

    2014-01-01

    We study two-dimensional quantum gravity on arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces in the Kaehler formalism where the basic quantum field is the (Laplacian of the) Kaehler potential. We do a careful first-principles computation of the fixed-area partition function $Z[A]$ up to and including all two-loop contributions. This includes genuine two-loop diagrams as determined by the Liouville action, one-loop diagrams resulting from the non-trivial measure on the space of metrics, as well as one-loop diagrams involving various counterterm vertices. Contrary to what is often believed, several such counterterms, in addition to the usual cosmological constant, do and must occur. We consistently determine the relevant counterterms from a one-loop computation of the full two-point Green's function of the Kaehler field. Throughout this paper we use the general spectral cutoff regularization developed recently and which is well-suited for multi-loop computations on curved manifolds. At two loops, while all "unwanted" contribut...

  20. Two- and Three-Dimensional All-Carbon Nanomaterial Assemblies for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Patel, Sunny C; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have gained significant interest in the fields of materials science, electronics and biomedicine due to their interesting physiochemical properties. Typically these carbon nanomaterials have been dispersed in polymeric matrices at low concentrations to improve the functional properties of nanocomposites employed as two-dimensional (2D) substrates or three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. There has been a growing interest in the assembly of these nanomaterials into 2D and 3D architectures without the use of polymeric matrices, surfactants or binders. In this article, we review recent advances in the development of 2D or 3D all-carbon assemblies using carbon nanotubes or graphene as nanoscale building-block biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  1. Scaling Universality between Band Gap and Exciton Binding Energy of Two-Dimensional Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zeyu; Liu, Zhirong; Li, Yuanchang; Duan, Wenhui

    2017-06-01

    Using first-principles G W Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations and the k .p theory, we unambiguously show that for two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, there exists a robust linear scaling law between the quasiparticle band gap (Eg) and the exciton binding energy (Eb), namely, Eb≈Eg/4 , regardless of their lattice configuration, bonding characteristic, as well as the topological property. Such a parameter-free universality is never observed in their three-dimensional counterparts. By deriving a simple expression for the 2D polarizability merely with respect to Eg, and adopting the screened hydrogen model for Eb, the linear scaling law can be deduced analytically. This work provides an opportunity to better understand the fantastic consequence of the 2D nature for materials, and thus offers valuable guidance for their property modulation and performance control.

  2. Generation and enumeration of compact conformations on the two-dimensional triangular and three-dimensional fcc lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peto, Myron; Sen, Taner Z.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2007-07-01

    We enumerated all compact conformations within simple geometries on the two-dimensional (2D) triangular and three-dimensional (3D) face centered cubic (fcc) lattice. These compact conformations correspond mathematically to Hamiltonian paths and Hamiltonian circuits and are frequently used as simple models of proteins. The shapes that were studied for the 2D triangular lattice included m ×n parallelograms, regular equilateral triangles, and various hexagons. On the 3D fcc lattice we generated conformations for a limited class of skewed parallelepipeds. Symmetries of the shape were exploited to reduce the number of conformations. We compared surface to volume ratios against protein length for compact conformations on the 3D cubic lattice and for a selected set of real proteins. We also show preliminary work in extending the transfer matrix method, previously developed by us for the 2D square and the 3D cubic lattices, to the 2D triangular lattice. The transfer matrix method offers a superior way of generating all conformations within a given geometry on a lattice by completely avoiding attrition and reducing this highly complicated geometrical problem to a simple algebraic problem of matrix multiplication.

  3. Generation and enumeration of compact conformations on the two-dimensional triangular and three-dimensional fcc lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peto, Myron; Sen, Taner Z; Jernigan, Robert L; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2007-07-28

    We enumerated all compact conformations within simple geometries on the two-dimensional (2D) triangular and three-dimensional (3D) face centered cubic (fcc) lattice. These compact conformations correspond mathematically to Hamiltonian paths and Hamiltonian circuits and are frequently used as simple models of proteins. The shapes that were studied for the 2D triangular lattice included mxn parallelograms, regular equilateral triangles, and various hexagons. On the 3D fcc lattice we generated conformations for a limited class of skewed parallelepipeds. Symmetries of the shape were exploited to reduce the number of conformations. We compared surface to volume ratios against protein length for compact conformations on the 3D cubic lattice and for a selected set of real proteins. We also show preliminary work in extending the transfer matrix method, previously developed by us for the 2D square and the 3D cubic lattices, to the 2D triangular lattice. The transfer matrix method offers a superior way of generating all conformations within a given geometry on a lattice by completely avoiding attrition and reducing this highly complicated geometrical problem to a simple algebraic problem of matrix multiplication.

  4. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability.

  5. Two-dimensional energy spectra in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Dileep; Baidya, Rio; Monty, Jason; Marusic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    The current study measures the two-dimensional (2D) spectra of streamwise velocity component (u) in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer for the first time. A 2D spectra shows the contribution of streamwise (λx) and spanwise (λy) length scales to the streamwise variance at a given wall height (z). 2D spectra could be a better tool to analyse spectral scaling laws as it is devoid of energy aliasing errors that could be present in one-dimensional spectra. A novel method is used to calculate the 2D spectra from the 2D correlation of u which is obtained by measuring velocity time series at various spanwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. At low Reynolds number, the shape of the 2D spectra at a constant energy level shows λy √{ zλx } behaviour at larger scales which is in agreement with the literature. However, at high Reynolds number, it is observed that the square-root relationship gradually transforms into a linear relationship (λy λx) which could be caused by the large packets of eddies whose length grows proportionately to the growth of its width. Additionally, we will show that this linear relationship observed at high Reynolds number is consistent with attached eddy predictions. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Australian Research Council.

  6. [Progress in Application of Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy for Detection of Food Quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren-jie; Yang, Yan-rong; Liu, Hai-xue; Dong, Gui-mei; Du, Yan-hong; Shan, Hui-yong; Zhang, Wei-yu

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the food safety and quality has always been a serious issue. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a rapid and widely available method to determine the quality of food. Due to high spectral resolution, good spectral selectivity and good ability of spectrogram analysis, the technology of two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is an effective method for solving three major problems encountered by the conventional one-dimensional (1D) spectrum: low selectivity of the spectra, difficulty in extracting the information of the spectral feature and difficulty in spectrogram analysis. Therefore, 2D correlation spectroscopy, which is suited to distinguish similar samples hardly distinguished by the conventional 1D spectroscopy, has been successfully applied in many complex biological systems. The developmental process, the experimental way to obtain spectrum, the fundamental mathematical principle and the properties of 2D correlation spectroscopy were introduced in this paper. At the same time, it is pointed out that the origin of weak characteristic bands of substance can be verified in terms of the positive or negative corss peaks in synchronous 2D correlation spectrum combined with the existence or inexistence of corss peaks in asynchronous 2D correlation spectrum. The application of 2D near-infrared, mid-infrared, fluorescence, and raman correlation spectroscopy in the detection of food quality and adulteration, concentrated specifically on diary product, wine, oil, meat, honey, and rice were reviewed. Finally, the limitations and future development prospects were pointed out.

  7. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  8. Two dimensional graphene nanogenerator by coulomb dragging: Moving van der Waals heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Huikai; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Zhijuan [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Hongsheng; Lin, Shisheng, E-mail: shishenglin@zju.edu.cn [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Harvesting energy from environment is the current focus of scientific community. Here, we demonstrate a graphene nanogenerator, which is based on moving van der Waals heterostructure formed between graphene and two dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO). This nanogenerator can convert mechanical energy into electricity with a voltage output of around 10 mV. Systematic experiments reveal the generated electricity originates from the coulomb interaction induced momentum transfer between 2D GO and holes in graphene. 2D boron nitride was also demonstrated to be effective in the framework of moving van der Waals heterostructure nanogenerator. This investigation of nanogenerator based on the interaction between 2D macromolecule materials will be important to understand the origin of the flow-induced potential in nanomaterials and may have great potential in practical applications.

  9. Two dimensional graphene nanogenerator by coulomb dragging: Moving van der Waals heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huikai; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Zhijuan; Chen, Hongsheng; Lin, Shisheng

    2015-06-01

    Harvesting energy from environment is the current focus of scientific community. Here, we demonstrate a graphene nanogenerator, which is based on moving van der Waals heterostructure formed between graphene and two dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO). This nanogenerator can convert mechanical energy into electricity with a voltage output of around 10 mV. Systematic experiments reveal the generated electricity originates from the coulomb interaction induced momentum transfer between 2D GO and holes in graphene. 2D boron nitride was also demonstrated to be effective in the framework of moving van der Waals heterostructure nanogenerator. This investigation of nanogenerator based on the interaction between 2D macromolecule materials will be important to understand the origin of the flow-induced potential in nanomaterials and may have great potential in practical applications.

  10. Clustering behavior of solid particles in two-dimensional liquid-solid fluidized-beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the clustering behavior of solid particles in a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-solid fluidized-bed was studied by using the charge coupled devices (CCD) imaging measuring and processing technique and was characterized by fractal analysis. CCD images show that the distribution of solid particles in the 2D liquid-solid fluidised-bed is not uniform and self-organization behavior of solid particles was observed under the present experimental conditions. The solid particles move up in the 2D fluidized-bed in groups or clusters whose configurations are often in the form of horizontal strands. The box fractal dimension of the cluster images in the 2D liquid-solid fluidized-bed increases with the rising of solid holdup and reduces with the increment of solid particle diameter and superficial liquid velocity. At given solid holdup and solid particle size,the lighter particles show smaller fractal dimensions.

  11. Two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase in quantum wells of trivial insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chengwang; Buhl, Patrick M.; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Wortmann, Daniel; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2016-06-01

    The realization of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) in HgTe/CdTe quantum wells (QWs) has generated an explosion of research on TIs and novel topologically nontrivial phases. Here we predict, based on first-principles calculations, that the newly discovered 2D topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) phase exists even in the QWs of trivial insulators, e.g. (Sn/Pb)Te and Na(Cl/Br), with mirror Chern number {n}{{M}}=-2. Tunable nontrivial energy gaps ranging from 4 to 238 meV are obtained, guaranteeing further room-temperature observations and applications. The combined effect of strain and electrostatic interaction that can be engineered by the cladding layers leads to a band inversion, resulting in the phase transition from trivial insulator to 2D TCIs. Our work provides a new strategy for engineering topological states in 2D materials.

  12. Two-Dimensional Porous Micro/Nano Metal Oxides Templated by Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailiang; Zhou, Xufeng; Zheng, Chao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-06-10

    Novel two-dimensional (2D) porous metal oxides with micro-/nanoarchitecture have been successfully fabricated using graphene oxide (GO) as a typical sacrificial template. GO as a 2D template ensures that the growth and fusion of metal oxides nanoparticles is restricted in the 2D plane. A series of metal oxides (NiO, Fe2O3, Co3O4, Mn2O3, and NiFe2O4) with similar nanostructure were investigated using this simple method. Some of these special nanostructured materials, such as NiO, when being used as anode for lithium-ion batteries, can exhibit high specific capacity, good rate performance, and cycling stability. Importantly, this strategy of creating a 2D porous micro/nano architecture can be easily extended to controllably synthesize other binary/polynary metal oxides nanostructures for lithium-ion batteries or other applications.

  13. The PLSI Method of Stabilizing Two-Dimensional Nonsymmetric Half-Plane Recursive Digital Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangatharan N

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D recursive digital filters find applications in image processing as in medical X-ray processing. Nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP filters have definitely positive magnitude characteristics as opposed to quarter-plane (QP filters. In this paper, we provide methods for stabilizing the given 2D NSHP polynomial by the planar least squares inverse (PLSI method. We have proved in this paper that if the given 2D unstable NSHP polynomial and its PLSI are of the same degree, the PLSI polynomial is always stable, irrespective of whether the coefficients of the given polynomial have relationship among its coefficients or not. Examples are given for 2D first-order and second-order cases to prove our results. The generalization is done for the th order polynomial.

  14. Existence and Stability of Two-Dimensional Compact-Like Discrete Breathers in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic Square Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.

  15. Quantum creep in a highly crystalline two-dimensional superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nojima, Tsutomu

    Conventional studies on quantum phase transitions, especially on superconductor-insulator or superconductor-metal-insulator transitions have been performed in deposited metallic thin films such as Bismuth or MoGe. Although the techniques of thin films deposition have been considerably improved, unintentional disorder such as impurities and deficiencies, generating the pinning centers, seems to still exist in such systems. The mechanical exfoliated highly crystalline two-dimensional material can be a good candidate to realize a less-disordered 2D superconductor with extremely weak pinning, combined with transfer method or ionic-liquid gating. We report on the quantum metal, namely, magnetic-field-induced metallic state observed in an ion-gated two-dimensional superconductor based on an ultra-highly crystalline layered band insulator, ZrNCl. We found that the superconducting state is extremely fragile against external magnetic fields; that is, zero resistance state immediately disappears, once an external magnetic field switches on. This is because the present system is relatively clean and the pinning potential is extremely weak, which cause quantum tunneling and flux flow of vortices, resulting in metallic ground state.

  16. Structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 刘艳红; 陈雁萍; 杨思泽; 王龙

    2003-01-01

    The structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma have been investigated in detail by molecular dynamics simulation. Pair correlation function, static structure factor, mean square displacement, and bond angle correlation function have been calculated to characterize the structural properties. The variation of internal energy, shear modulus, particle trajectories and structural properties with temperature has been monitored to study the phase transition of the 2D dusty plasma system. The simulation results are in favour of a two-step continuous transition for this kind of plasma.

  17. Brewster Angle Microscope Investigations of Two Dimensional Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Adam William

    The liquid-liquid interface is investigated by microscopic and thermodynamic means to image and measure interfacial properties when the system undergoes a two-dimensional (2D) phase transition of a Gibbs monolayer by varying the sample temperature. An in-house Brewster angle microscope (BAM) is constructed to visualize the interface during this transition while a quasi-elastic light scattering technique is used to determine the interfacial tension. These results complement x-ray investigations of the same systems. Evidence of interfacial micro-separated structure, microphases, comes from observations across a hexane-water interface with the inclusion of a long-chain fluorinated alcohol surfactant into the bulk hexane. Microphases take the form of spatially modulated structure to the density of the surfactant as it spans laterally across the interface. The surfactant monolayer exhibits microphase morphology over a range of a couple degrees as the temperature of the system is scanned through the 2D gas-solid phase transition. Microphase structure was observed for heating and cooling the hexane-water system and structural comparisons are given when the temperature step and quench depth of the cooling process is varied. A complete sequence of morphological structure was observed from 2D gas to cluster to labyrinthine stripe to a 2D solid mosaic pattern. Two characteristic length scales emerge giving rise to speculation of an elastic contribution to the standard repulsive and attractive competitive forces stabilizing the microphase. The benefit of BAM to laterally image very thin films across the surface of an interface on the micrometer length scale nicely complements x-ray reflectivity methods that average structural data transverse to the liquid interface on a molecular scale. To properly analyze x-ray reflectivity data, the interface is required to be laterally homogeneous. BAM can sufficiently characterize the interface for this purpose as is done for a Langmuir

  18. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atweh, Lamya A.; Dodd, Nicholas A.; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Chu, Zili D. [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Pednekar, Amol [Philips Healthcare, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  19. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atweh, Lamya A; Dodd, Nicholas A; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Pednekar, Amol; Chu, Zili D; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady--state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  20. Coarse error analysis and correction of a two-dimensional triangulation range finder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiao Gui; Liang Lü; Wei Huang; Jun Xu; Deyong He; Huanqin Wang; Jianping Xie; Tianpeng Zhao; Hai Ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ A real-time two-dimensional (2D) triangulation range finder is presented, which is composed of two linear complementary metal oxidation semiconductor (CMOS) chips, two camera lenses, and four light emitting diodes (LEDs). The high order distortion in image aberrations is the main factor responsible for the coarse errors. The theoretical prediction is in good agreement with experiments and the correction equation is used to obtain more reliable results with the unique distortion coefficient in the whole working region.

  1. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  3. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....

  4. Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  5. Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.

  6. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  7. A novel antibody overlay technique for two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebecq, J C; Salhi, S L; Bastide, J M

    1984-02-10

    A new antibody overlay technique for 2-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis (2-D-IEP) is described. After the first dimension electrophoresis of the antigen, the desired amount of antiserum is applied to the initial agarose layer and then evenly distributed over a defined surface of the gel with a PVC film. This modification of the conventional 2-D-IEP procedure makes it possible to perform tandem 2-D-IEPs comparing 2 antisera on the same gel plate, rocket IEPs where several antisera are compared by electrophoresis on the same gel plate, and 2-D-IEPs with an intermediate antiserum, avoiding the need to pour an intermediate gel. With this technique, 77 antigens have been demonstrated in a Candida albicans serotype A somatic antigen preparation. This is the first description of such a large number of immunoprecipitates on the same immunoplate.

  8. Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong

    2004-01-01

    The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  9. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  10. Localization of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate in a two-dimensional bichromatic optical lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Kui-Tian, E-mail: kuitianxi@gmail.com; Li, Jinbin, E-mail: jinbin@nuaa.edu.cn; Shi, Da-Ning, E-mail: shi@nuaa.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    We consider a weakly interacting two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) in a two-dimensional (2D) quasi-periodic bichromatic optical lattice (BOL). The problem is studied by means of split-step Crank–Nicolson method. The effects of weak intra- and inter-component interactions on localization of a two-component BEC are investigated. It is shown that in the quasi-2D regime, due to the enhanced disorder, there is no symmetry breaking like that in the one-dimensional (1D) case under a sine-typed potential, while configurations of density profiles are also quite different from that in the 1D case. By modulating interactions, the interplay of disorder and weak repulsive or attractive interactions is studied in detail. The cases with sine- and cosine-typed potentials acting on components 1 and 2 respectively are also discussed.

  11. Imaging hemodynamic changes in preterm infant brains with two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Yiwen; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Huijuan; Jiang, Jingying; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2008-02-01

    We present our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2-D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes of two preterm infant brains in different ventilation settings conditions. The investigations use the established two-wavelength, 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection, and the generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography may be a potent and relatively simple way of investigating the functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  12. Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-09-01

    In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.

  13. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional Doppler assessment of fetal growth restriction with different severity and onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Barnea, Ofer; Shalev, Josef; Barkat, Jonathan; Kovo, Michal; Golan, Abraham; Bar, Jacob

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the role of three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasonography in the assessment of fetal growth-restriction (FGR) with various degrees of severity and onset, and compare the results with the analysis of two-dimensional (2D) Doppler. Vascular indices extracted from 3D Doppler measurements of the placenta were compared with indices of flow-velocity waveforms extracted from 2D Doppler measurements of the major sites of the fetal circulation between FGR (study group) and uncomplicated pregnancies (control group) from 25 to 38 weeks' gestation. Three-dimensional indices were significantly lower in pregnancies complicated by FGR compared with uncomplicated pregnancies. When measured in placental periphery, vascularization index was 9.4 ± 9.6 in FGR pregnancies compared with 16 ± 14.7, P = 0.04. Flow index was 33.9 ± 6.9 compared with 38.7 ± 4.9, P = 0.03 and the vascularization-flow index was 3.8 ± 4.3 compared with 6.5 ± 6, respectively, P = 0.03. Among the conventional 2D indices, umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery pulsatility indices were not significantly different between the FGR and control groups. Higher rate of maternal or fetal compartment vascular lesions were detected in the FGR group. Three-dimensional Doppler was found to be more strongly associated with placental vascular compromise than conventional 2D Doppler, regardless of severity and onset of fetal growth restriction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cascades and spectra of a turbulent spinodal decomposition in two-dimensional symmetric binary liquid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, P. H.; Chacón, L.; Li, Hui

    2016-09-01

    We study the fundamental physics of cascades and spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes (CHNS) turbulence, and compare and contrast this system with 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The important similarities include basic equations, ideal quadratic invariants, cascades, and the role of linear elastic waves. Surface tension induces elasticity, and the balance between surface tension energy and turbulent kinetic energy determines a length scale (Hinze scale) of the system. The Hinze scale may be thought of as the scale of emergent critical balance between fluid straining and elastic restoring forces. The scales between the Hinze scale and dissipation scale constitute the elastic range of the 2D CHNS system. By direct numerical simulation, we find that in the elastic range, the mean square concentration spectrum Hkψ of the 2D CHNS system exhibits the same power law (-7 /3 ) as the mean square magnetic potential spectrum HkA in the inverse cascade regime of 2D MHD. This power law is consistent with an inverse cascade of Hψ, which is observed. The kinetic energy spectrum of the 2D CHNS system is EkK˜k-3 if forced at large scale, suggestive of the direct enstrophy cascade power law of 2D Navier-Stokes turbulence. The difference from the energy spectra of 2D MHD turbulence implies that the back reaction of the concentration field to fluid motion is limited. We suggest this is because the surface tension back reaction is significant only in the interfacial regions. The interfacial regions fill only a small portion of the 2D CHNS system, and their interface packing fraction is much smaller than that for 2D MHD.

  15. Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinelli, M. L.; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2001-08-15

    Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the construction of two-dimensional- (2D-) like defect modes in a recently proposed 3D photonic crystal structure. These modes, which are confined in all three dimensions by a complete photonic band gap, bear a striking similarity to those in 2D photonic crystals in terms of polarization, field profile, and projected band structures. It is expected that these results will greatly facilitate the observation of widely studied 2D photonic-crystal phenomena in a realistic, 3D physical system.

  16. Two-Dimensional Materials for Halide Perovskite-Based Optoelectronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan; Shi, Gaoquan

    2017-06-01

    Halide perovskites have high light absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths, intense photoluminescence, and slow rates of non-radiative charge recombination. Thus, they are attractive photoactive materials for developing high-performance optoelectronic devices. These devices are also cheap and easy to be fabricated. To realize the optimal performances of halide perovskite-based optoelectronic devices (HPODs), perovskite photoactive layers should work effectively with other functional materials such as electrodes, interfacial layers and encapsulating films. Conventional two-dimensional (2D) materials are promising candidates for this purpose because of their unique structures and/or interesting optoelectronic properties. Here, we comprehensively summarize the recent advancements in the applications of conventional 2D materials for halide perovskite-based photodetectors, solar cells and light-emitting diodes. The examples of these 2D materials are graphene and its derivatives, mono- and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), graphdiyne and metal nanosheets, etc. The research related to 2D nanostructured perovskites and 2D Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites as efficient and stable photoactive layers is also outlined. The syntheses, functions and working mechanisms of relevant 2D materials are introduced, and the challenges to achieving practical applications of HPODs using 2D materials are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Contact research strategy for emerging molybdenum disulfide and other two-dimensional field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Du

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Layered two-dimensional (2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs have been widely isolated, synthesized, and characterized recently. Numerous 2D materials are identified as the potential candidates as channel materials for future thin film technology due to their high mobility and the exhibiting bandgaps. While many TMD filed-effect transistors (FETs have been widely demonstrated along with a significant progress to clearly understand the device physics, large contact resistance at metal/semiconductor interface still remain a challenge. From 2D device research point of view, how to minimize the Schottky barrier effects on contacts thus reduce the contact resistance of metals on 2D materials is very critical for the further development of the field. Here, we present a review of contact research on molybdenum disulfide and other TMD FETs from the fundamental understanding of metal-semiconductor interfaces on 2D materials. A clear contact research strategy on 2D semiconducting materials is developed for future high-performance 2D FETs with aggressively scaled dimensions.

  18. Pseudo-two-dimensional random dimer lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naether, U., E-mail: naether@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Mejía-Cortés, C.; Vicencio, R.A. [Departamento de Física and MSI – Nucleus for Advanced Optics, Center for Optics and Photonics (CEFOP), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-05

    We study the long-time wave transport in correlated and uncorrelated disordered 2D arrays. When a separation of dimensions is applied to the model, we find that the previously predicted 1D random dimer phenomenology also appears in so-called pseudo-2D arrays. Therefore, a threshold behavior is observed in terms of the effective size for eigenmodes, as well as in long-time dynamics. A minimum system size is required to observe this threshold, which is very important when considering a possible experimental realization. For the long-time evolution, we find that for correlated lattices a super-diffusive long-range transport is observed. For completely uncorrelated disorder 2D transport becomes sub-diffusive within the localization length and for random binary pseudo-2D arrays localization is observed.

  19. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  20. On three-dimensional reconstruction of a neutron/x-ray source from very few two-dimensional projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volegov, P. L., E-mail: volegov@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Simpson, R.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the source of neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the stagnation phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Very few two-dimensional projections of neutron images are available to reconstruct the three-dimensional neutron source. In this paper, we present a technique that has been developed for the 3D reconstruction of neutron and x-ray sources from a minimal number of 2D projections. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from experimental data collected at Omega.

  1. A study to evaluate the reliability of using two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional images, and stereoscopic projected three-dimensional images for patient assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S; Yang, Y; Khambay, B

    2017-03-01

    Clinicians are accustomed to viewing conventional two-dimensional (2D) photographs and assume that viewing three-dimensional (3D) images is similar. Facial images captured in 3D are not viewed in true 3D; this may alter clinical judgement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of using conventional photographs, 3D images, and stereoscopic projected 3D images to rate the severity of the deformity in pre-surgical class III patients. Forty adult patients were recruited. Eight raters assessed facial height, symmetry, and profile using the three different viewing media and a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), and appraised the most informative viewing medium. Inter-rater consistency was above good for all three media. Intra-rater reliability was not significantly different for rating facial height using 2D (P=0.704), symmetry using 3D (P=0.056), and profile using projected 3D (P=0.749). Using projected 3D for rating profile and symmetry resulted in significantly lower median VAS scores than either 3D or 2D images (all Pstereoscopic 3D projection was the preferred method for rating. The reliability of assessing specific characteristics was dependent on the viewing medium. Clinicians should be aware that the visual information provided when viewing 3D images is not the same as when viewing 2D photographs, especially for facial depth, and this may change the clinical impression.

  2. Estimation of the two-dimensional presampled modulation transfer function of digital radiography devices using one-dimensional test objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jered R; Dobbins, James T

    2012-10-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) of medical imaging devices is commonly reported in the form of orthogonal one-dimensional (1D) measurements made near the vertical and horizontal axes with a slit or edge test device. A more complete description is found by measuring the two-dimensional (2D) MTF. Some 2D test devices have been proposed, but there are some issues associated with their use: (1) they are not generally available; (2) they may require many images; (3) the results may have diminished accuracy; and (4) their implementation may be particularly cumbersome. This current work proposes the application of commonly available 1D test devices for practical and accurate estimation of the 2D presampled MTF of digital imaging systems. Theory was developed and applied to ensure adequate fine sampling of the system line spread function for 1D test devices at orientations other than approximately vertical and horizontal. Methods were also derived and tested for slit nonuniformity correction at arbitrary angle. Techniques were validated with experimental measurements at ten angles using an edge test object and three angles using a slit test device on an indirect-detection flat-panel system [GE Revolution XQ∕i (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI)]. The 2D MTF was estimated through a simple surface fit with interpolation based on Delaunay triangulation of the 1D edge-based MTF measurements. Validation by synthesis was also performed with simulated images from a hypothetical direct-detection flat-panel device. The 2D MTF derived from physical measurements yielded an average relative precision error of 0.26% for frequencies below the cutoff (2.5 mm(-1)) and approximate circular symmetry at frequencies below 4 mm(-1). While slit analysis generally agreed with the results of edge analysis, the two showed subtle differences at frequencies above 4 mm(-1). Slit measurement near 45° revealed radial asymmetry in the MTF resulting from the square pixel aperture (0.2 mm × 0

  3. Comparison of three dimensional isotropic and two dimensional conventional indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Young Cheol; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoo, Jae Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Suk Kyoung [Joeun Madi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the accuracy between a three-dimensional (3D) indirect isotropic T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography and a conventional two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted sequences of indirect MR arthrography for diagnosing rotator cuff tears. The study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. In total, 205 patients who had undergone indirect shoulder MR arthrography followed by arthroscopic surgery for 206 shoulders were included in this study. Both conventional 2D T1-weighted FSE sequences and 3D isotropic T1-weighted FSE sequence were performed in all patients. Two radiologists evaluated the images for the presence of full- or partial-thickness tears in the supraspinatus-infraspinatus (SSP-ISP) tendons and tears in the subscapularis (SSC) tendons. Using the arthroscopic findings as the reference standard, the diagnostic performances of both methods were analyzed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Arthroscopy confirmed 165 SSP-ISP tendon tears and 103 SSC tendon tears. For diagnosing SSP-ISP tendon tears, the AUC values were 0.964 and 0.989 for the 2D sequences and 3D T1-weighted FSE sequence, respectively, in reader I and 0.947 and 0.963, respectively, in reader II. The AUC values for diagnosing SSC tendon tears were 0.921 and 0.925, respectively, for reader I and 0.856 and 0.860, respectively, for reader II. There was no significant difference between the AUC values of the 2D and 3D sequences in either reader for either type of tear. 3D indirect isotropic MR arthrography with FSE sequence and the conventional 2D arthrography are not significantly different in terms of accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff tears.

  4. Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer in a Heterogeneous Fracture Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, V. R.; Roubinet, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy harvesting requires extraction and injection of geothermal fluid. Doing so in an optimal way requires a quantitative understanding of site-specific heat transfer between geothermal fluid and the ambient rock. We develop a heat transfer particle-tracking approach to model that interaction. Fracture-network models of heat transfer in fractured rock explicitly account for the presence of individual fractures, ambient rock matrix, and fracture-matrix interfaces. Computational domains of such models span the meter scale, whereas fracture apertures are on the millimeter scale. The computations needed to model these multi-scale phenomenon can be prohibitively expensive, even for methods using nonuniform meshes. Our approach appreciably decreases the computational costs. Current particle-tracking methods usually assume both infinite matrix and one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer in the matrix blocks. They rely on 1D analytical solutions for heat transfer in a single fracture, which can lead to large predictive errors. Our two-dimensional (2D) heat transfer simulation algorithm is mesh-free and takes into account both longitudinal and transversal heat conduction in the matrix. It uses a probabilistic model to transfer particle to the appropriate neighboring fracture unless it returns to the fracture of origin or remains in the matrix. We use this approach to look at the impact of a fracture-network topology (e.g. the importance of smaller scale fractures), as well as the matrix block distribution on the heat transport in heterogeneous fractured rocks.

  5. Note: Unshielded bilateral magnetoencephalography system using two-dimensional gradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Ogata, Kuniomi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Konaka, Kuni; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2010-09-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures neuronal activity with high temporal resolution. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of MEG system that can measure bilateral MEG waveforms without a magnetically shielded room, which is an obstacle to reducing both the cost and size of an MEG system. An unshielded bilateral MEG system was developed using four two-dimensional (2D) gradiometers and two symmetric cryostats. The 2D gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device and wire-wound pickup coil detects a magnetic-field gradient in two orthogonal directions, or ∂/∂x(∂2Bz/∂z2), and reduces environmental magnetic-field noise by more than 50 dB. The cryostats can be symmetrically positioned in three directions: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. This makes it possible to detect bilateral neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex simultaneously. Bilateral auditory-evoked fields (AEF) of 18 elderly subjects were measured in an unshielded hospital environment using the MEG system. As a result, both the ipsilateral and the contralateral AEF component N100m, which is the magnetic counterpart of electric N100 in electroencephalography and appears about 100 ms after the onset of an auditory stimulus, were successfully detected for all the subjects. Moreover, the ipsilateral P50m and the contralateral P50m were also detected for 12 (67%) and 16 (89%) subjects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the unshielded bilateral MEG system can detect MEG waveforms, which are associated with brain dysfunction such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome.

  6. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  7. Two-Dimensional Multiferroics: Ferroelasticity, Ferroelectricity, Domain Wall, and Potential Mechano-Opto-Electronic Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer Group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with strongly coupled giant in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their ...

  8. Carrier plasmon induced nonlinear band gap renormalization in two-dimensional semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yufeng; Yang, Li

    2015-02-13

    In reduced-dimensional semiconductors, doping-induced carrier plasmons can strongly couple with quasiparticle excitations, leading to a significant band gap renormalization. However, the physical origin of this generic effect remains obscure. We develop a new plasmon-pole theory that efficiently and accurately captures this coupling. Using monolayer MoS(2) and MoSe(2) as prototype two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, we reveal a striking band gap renormalization above 400 meV and an unusual nonlinear evolution of their band gaps with doping. This prediction significantly differs from the linear behavior that is observed in one-dimensional structures. Notably, our predicted band gap renormalization for MoSe(2) is in excellent agreement with recent experimental results. Our developed approach allows for a quantitative understanding of many-body interactions in general doped 2D semiconductors and paves the way for novel band gap engineering techniques.

  9. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic imaging of live biofilms in a microchannel by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xin; Marshall, Matthew J; Xiong, Yijia; Ma, Xiang; Zhou, Yufan; Tucker, Abigail E; Zhu, Zihua; Liu, Songqin; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, SALVI (System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface), was employed for in situ chemical imaging of live biofilms using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Depth profiling by sputtering materials in sequential layers resulted in live biofilm spatial chemical mapping. Two-dimensional (2D) images were reconstructed to report the first three-dimensional images of hydrated biofilm elucidating spatial and chemical heterogeneity. 2D image principal component analysis was conducted among biofilms at different locations in the microchannel. Our approach directly visualized spatial and chemical heterogeneity within the living biofilm by dynamic liquid ToF-SIMS.

  10. Two-dimensional symbiotic solitons and vortices in binary condensates with attractive cross-species interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xuekai; Malomed, Boris A; Meier, Torsten; Schumacher, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) two-component spinor system with cubic attraction between the components and intra-species self-repulsion, which may be realized in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, as well as in a quasi-equilibrium condensate of microcavity polaritons. Including a 2D spatially periodic potential, which is necessary for the stabilization of the system against the critical collapse, we use detailed numerical calculations and an analytical variational approximation (VA) to predict the existence and stability of several types of 2D symbiotic solitons in the spinor system. Stability ranges are found for symmetric and asymmetric symbiotic fundamental solitons and vortices, including hidden-vorticity (HV) modes, with opposite vorticities in the two components. The VA produces exceptionally accurate predictions for the fundamental solitons and vortices. The fundamental solitons, both symmetric and asymmetric ones, are completely stable, in either case when they exist as gap solitons or regular one...

  11. Two-Dimensional Electron-Spin Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jack H.

    2000-03-01

    The extension of the concepts of 2D-NMR to ESR posed significant technological challenges, especially for liquids. ESR relaxation times are very short, as low as 10-15 ns. for T_2's. Spectral bandwidths are 100-250 MHz for nitroxide spin labels. Adequate coverage is obtained with 3-5 ns. π/2 (9-17 GHz) microwave pulses into a small low Q resonator. Dead-times are currently 25-30 ns. Additional requirements are rapid phase shifting for phase cycling, nsec. data acquisition, and fast repetition rates (10-100 kHz). 2D-ELDOR (electron-electron double resonance), which is a 3-pulse 2D-exchange experiment, takes about 30 minutes with just 0.5 nanomole spin-probe in solution (SNR 200). 2D-ELDOR is very useful in studies of molecular dynamics and local structure in complex fluids. For such media, the slow rotational dynamics requires a theory based upon the stochastic Liouville equation which enables quantitative interpretation of 2D-ELDOR experiments. In studies of spin-probes in a liquid crystal new insights could be obtained on the dynamic structure in different phases. One obtains, in addition to ordering and reorientation rates of the probes, details of the local dynamic cage: its orienting potential and (slow) relaxation rate. 2D-ELDOR overcomes the loss of resolution resulting from microscopically ordered but macroscopically disordered complex fluids. This is illustrated by studies of the dynamic structure of lipid membrane vesicles, and the effects of adding a peptide. The short dead times enable the observation of both the bulk lipids and the more immobilized lipids that coat (or are trapped) by the (aggregates of) peptides. Also, new developments of multi-quantum (2D) FT-ESR from nitroxide spin labels interacting by dipolar interactions show considerable promise in measuring distances of ca. 15-70A in macromolecules.

  12. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  13. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  14. Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials.

  15. Closed-form evaluation of two-dimensional static lattice sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovich, S.; Drygas, P.; Mityushev, V.

    2016-11-01

    Closed-form formulae for the conditionally convergent two-dimensional (2D) static lattice sums S2 (for conductivity) and T2 (for elasticity) are deduced in terms of the complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kind. The obtained formulae yield asymptotic analytical formulae for the effective tensors of 2D composites with circular inclusions up to the third order in concentration. Exact relations between S2 and T2 for different lattices are established. In particular, the value S2=π for the square and hexagonal arrays is discussed and T2=π/2 for the hexagonal is deduced.

  16. Towards complete integrability of two dimensional Poincar\\'e gauge gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W; Obukhov, Yu N; Tresguerres, R; Hehl, F W

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that gravity on the line can be described by the two dimensional (2D) Hilbert-Einstein Lagrangian supplemented by a kinetic term for the coframe and a translational {\\it boundary} term. The resulting model is equivalent to a Yang-Mills theory of local {\\it translations} and frozen Lorentz gauge degrees. We will show that this restricted Poincar\\'e gauge model in 2 dimensions is completely integrable. {\\it Exact} wave, charged black hole, and `dilaton' solutions are then readily found. In vacuum, the integrability of the {\\it general} 2D Poincar\\'e gauge theory is formally proved along the same line of reasoning.

  17. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A J; Oza, A T [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India)

    2007-12-05

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  18. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A. J.; Oza, A. T.

    2007-12-01

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  19. Two-dimensional gold nanostructures with high activity for selective oxidation of carbon–hydrogen bonds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang

    2015-04-22

    Efficient synthesis of stable two-dimensional (2D) noble metal catalysts is a challenging topic. Here we report the facile synthesis of 2D gold nanosheets via a wet chemistry method, by using layered double hydroxide as the template. Detailed characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that the nanosheets are negatively charged and [001] oriented with thicknesses varying from single to a few atomic layers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals unusually low gold–gold coordination numbers. These gold nanosheets exhibit high catalytic activity and stability in the solvent-free selective oxidation of carbon–hydrogen bonds with molecular oxygen.

  20. A compact chaotic laser device with a two-dimensional external cavity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunada, Satoshi, E-mail: sunada@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Masaaki [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Fukushima, Takehiro [Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Shinohara, Susumu; Arai, Kenichi [NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 2-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Harayama, Takahisa [NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 2-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    We propose a compact chaotic laser device, which consists of a semiconductor laser and a two-dimensional (2D) external cavity for delayed optical feedback. The overall size of the device is within 230 μm × 1 mm. A long time delay sufficient for chaos generation can be achieved with the small area by the multiple reflections at the 2D cavity boundary, and the feedback strength is controlled by the injection current to the external cavity. We experimentally demonstrate that a variety of output properties, including chaotic output, can be selectively generated by controlling the injection current to the external cavity.

  1. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole; Hassenkam, T.; Shiraki, I.; Hasegawa, S.; Bøggild, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1/15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the ...

  2. Modeling of pressure sensors based on two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehui XIONG; Ping LU; Deming LIU

    2009-01-01

    A pressure sensor based on the two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC) has been proposed. Under the condition of different pressure, the photonic band gap of the sensor has been studied by means of the plane wave expansion method (PWM). The results show that there is a good linear relation between the cutoff wavelength and the pressure. Apart from being easily implemented, the presented 2D PC pressure sensor holds many characteristics such as high-pressure sensitivity and convenience in achieving demanded pressure range.

  3. Two-dimensional gold nanostructures with high activity for selective oxidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Fudong; Huang, Jianfeng; Meng, Xiangju; Basset, Jean-Marie; Han, Yu; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2015-04-01

    Efficient synthesis of stable two-dimensional (2D) noble metal catalysts is a challenging topic. Here we report the facile synthesis of 2D gold nanosheets via a wet chemistry method, by using layered double hydroxide as the template. Detailed characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that the nanosheets are negatively charged and [001] oriented with thicknesses varying from single to a few atomic layers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals unusually low gold-gold coordination numbers. These gold nanosheets exhibit high catalytic activity and stability in the solvent-free selective oxidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds with molecular oxygen.

  4. A Two-Dimensional MagnetoHydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Livne, E; Burrows, A; Meakin, C A; Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.

    2007-01-01

    We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation-hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALE). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of $div(\\bB)$ by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for...

  5. Optical Spectroscopy of Two Dimensional Graphene and Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Long

    This dissertation describes the use of optical spectroscopy in studying the physical properties of two dimensional nano materials like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Compared to bulk materials, atomically thin two dimensional materials have a unique character that is the strong dependence of physical properties on external control. Both electronic band structure and chemical potential can be tuned in situ by electric field-which is a powerful knob in experiment. Therefore the optical study at atomic thickness scale can greatly benefit from modern micro-fabrication technique and electric control of the material properties. As will be shown in this dissertation, such control of both gemometric and physical properties enables new possibilities of optical spectroscopic measurement as well as opto-electronic studies. Other experimental techniques like electric transport and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are also combined with optical spectroscopy to reveal the physics that is beyond the reach of each individual technique. There are three major themes in the dissertation. The first one is focused on the study of plasmon excitation of Dirac electrons in monolayer graphene. Unlike plasmons in ordinary two dimensional electron gas, plasmons of 2D electrons as in graphene obey unusual scaling laws. We fabricate graphene micro-ribbon arrays with photolithography technique and use optical absorption spectroscopy to study its absorption spectrum. The experimental result demonstrates the extraordinarily strong light-plasmon coupling and its novel dependence on both charge doping and geometric dimensions. This work provides a first glance at the fundamental properties of graphene plasmons and forms the basis of an emerging subfield of graphene research and applications such as graphene terahertz metamaterials. The second part describes the opto-electronic response of heterostructures composed of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. We found that there is

  6. Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Navid C

    2010-01-01

    Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...

  7. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra

    2004-08-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.

  8. On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1975-01-01

    The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....

  9. Mesoscopic current transport in two-dimensional materials with grain boundaries: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the behavior of micro four-point probe (M4PP) measurements on two-dimensional (2D) sheets composed of grains of varying size and grain boundary resistivity by Monte Carlo based finite element (FE) modelling. The 2D sheet of the FE model was constructed using Voronoi tessellation......-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately......, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain boundary resistivity....

  10. Surface and Interface Engineering of Organometallic and Two Dimensional Semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Hong

    For over half a century, inorganic Si and III-V materials have led the modern semiconductor industry, expanding to logic transistor and optoelectronic applications. However, these inorganic materials have faced two different fundamental limitations, flexibility for wearable applications and scaling limitation as logic transistors. As a result, the organic and two dimensional have been studied intentionally for various fields. In the present dissertation, three different studies will be presented with followed order; (1) the chemical response of organic semiconductor in NO2 exposure. (2) The surface and stability of WSe2 in ambient air. (3) Deposition of dielectric on two dimensional materials using organometallic seeding layer. The organic molecules rely on the van der Waals interaction during growth of thin films, contrast to covalent bond inorganic semiconductors. Therefore, the morphology and electronic property at surface of organic semiconductor in micro scale is more sensitive to change in gaseous conditions. In addition, metal phthalocyanine, which is one of organic semiconductor materials, change their electronic property as reaction with gaseous analytes, suggesting as potential chemical sensing platforms. In the present part, the growth behavior of metal phthalocyanine and surface response to gaseous condition will be elucidated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In second part, the surface of layered transition metal dichalcogenides and their chemical response to exposure ambient air will be investigated, using STM. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted widespread attention in the scientific community for electronic device applications because improved electrostatic gate control and suppression of short channel leakage resulted from their atomic thin body. To fabricate the transistor based on TMDs, TMDs should be exposed to ambient conditions, while the effect of air exposure has not been understood fully. In this part

  11. Theoretical Discovery of a Superconducting Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yinong; Cui, Bin; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Feng

    2017-09-15

    Superconductivity is a fascinating quantum phenomenon characterized by zero electrical resistance and the Meissner effect. To date, several distinct families of superconductors (SCs) have been discovered. These include three-dimensional (3D) bulk SCs in both inorganic and organic materials as well as two-dimensional (2D) thin film SCs but only in inorganic materials. Here we predict superconductivity in 2D and 3D organic metal-organic frameworks by using first-principles calculations. We show that the highly conductive and recently synthesized Cu-benzenehexathial (BHT) is a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer SC. Remarkably, the monolayer Cu-BHT has a critical temperature (Tc) of 4.43 K, while Tc of bulk Cu-BHT is 1.58 K. Different from the enhanced Tc in 2D inorganic SCs which is induced by interfacial effects, the Tc enhancement in this 2D organic SC is revealed to be the out-of-plane soft-mode vibrations, analogous to surface mode enhancement originally proposed by Ginzburg. Our findings not only shed new light on better understanding 2D superconductivity but also open a new direction to search for SCs by interface engineering with organic materials.

  12. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2017-07-06

    Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches has also given rise to fascinating new physics, which could lead to exciting new applications. In this Review, we introduce the latest development of TMDC synthesis by CVD approaches and provide further insight for the controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs. Understanding of the vapor-phase growth mechanism of 2D TMDCs could benefit the formation of complicated heterostructures and novel artificial 2D lattices.

  13. Evaluation of the Chondromalacia Patella Using a Microscopy Coil: Comparison of the Two-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Techniques and the Three-Dimensional Fast Field Echo Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wanted to compare the two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques and the three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo techniques for the evaluation of the chondromalacia patella using a microscopy coil. Materials and Methods Twenty five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. Preoperative MRI evaluation of the patella was performed using a microscopy coil (47 mm). The proton density-weighted fast spin echo images (PD), the fat-suppressed PD...

  14. A belief-propagation-based decoding method for two-dimensional barcodes with monochrome auxiliary lines robust against non-uniform geometric distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamizuru, Kohei; Nakamura, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ono, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) codes are widely used for various fields such as production, logistics, and marketing thanks to their larger capacity than one-dimensional barcodes. However, they are subject to distortion when printed on non-rigid materials, such as papers and clothes. Although general 2D code decoders correct uniform distortion such as perspective distortion, it is difficult to correct non-uniform and irregular distortion of the 2D code itself. This paper proposes a decoding method for the 2D code, which models monochrome auxiliary line recognition as Markov random field, and solves it using belief propagation.

  15. Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...

  16. Green's function modeling of response of two-dimensional materials to point probes for scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, V. K.; Quardokus, Rebecca C.; DelRio, Frank W.

    2016-04-01

    A Green's function (GF) method is developed for interpreting scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements on new two-dimensional (2D) materials. GFs for the Laplace/Poisson equations are calculated by using a virtual source method for two separate cases of a finite material containing a rectangular defect and a hexagonal defect. The prescribed boundary values are reproduced almost exactly by the calculated GFs. It is suggested that the GF is not just a mathematical artefact but a basic physical characteristic of material systems, which can be measured directly by SPM for 2D solids. This should make SPM an even more powerful technique for characterization of 2D materials.

  17. Noncontact Cohesive Swimming of Bacteria in Two-Dimensional Liquid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Zhai, He; Sanchez, Sandra; Kearns, Daniel B.; Wu, Yilin

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial swimming in confined two-dimensional environments is ubiquitous in nature and in clinical settings. Characterizing individual interactions between swimming bacteria in 2D confinement will help to understand diverse microbial processes, such as bacterial swarming and biofilm formation. Here we report a novel motion pattern displayed by flagellated bacteria in 2D confinement: When two nearby cells align their moving directions, they tend to engage in cohesive swimming without direct cell body contact, as a result of hydrodynamic interaction but not flagellar intertwining. We further found that cells in cohesive swimming move with higher directional persistence, which can increase the effective diffusivity of cells by ˜3 times as predicted by computational modeling. As a conserved behavior for peritrichously flagellated bacteria, cohesive swimming in 2D confinement may be key to collective motion and self-organization in bacterial swarms; it may also promote bacterial dispersal in unsaturated soils and in interstitial space during infections.

  18. Symmetric two dimensional photonic crystal coupled waveguide with point defect for optical switch application

    CERN Document Server

    Hardhienata, Hendradi

    2012-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals are well known for its ability to manipulate the propagation of electromagnetic wave inside the crystal. 1D and 2D photonic crystals are relatively easier to fabricate than 3D because the former work in the microwave and far infrared regions whereas the later work in the visible region and requires smaller lattice constants. In this paper, simulation for a modified 2D PC with two symmetric waveguide channels where a defect is located inside one of the channel is performed. The simulation results show that optical switching is possible by modifying the refractive index of the defect. If more than one structure is applied this feature can potentially be applied to produce a cascade optical switch.

  19. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago, E-mail: srojas@cefop.cl [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Naether, Uta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Delgado, Aldo [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Vicencio, Rodrigo A. [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  20. Two-dimensional versus three-dimensional conceptualization in astronomy education, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Student pairs were provided cards depicting two cycles of lunar phases; Pairs who used three-dimensional models to explain phases were more likely to have a scientifically accurate explanation than those who used two-dimensional models.

  1. Two-dimensional superconductivity of SmFeAsO0.85 single crystals: A fluctuation-conductivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Yeap; Kim, Ju-Young; Sung, Nak-Heon; Cho, B. K.; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2010-12-01

    Temperature dependence of the in-plane conductance of a SmFeAsO0.85 single crystal is measured in c-axis and planar magnetic fields up to 7 T. The conductivity near the superconducting transition is well described by two-dimensional (2D) thermal-fluctuation theory. The 2D superconductivity arises as the c-axis coherence length is much shorter than the spacing between neighboring FeAs layers.

  2. Dynamic cortical activity during the perception of three-dimensional object shape from two-dimensional random-dot motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Sunao; Bonmassar, Giorgio; Belliveau, John W

    2013-09-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies implicate that both the dorsal and ventral visual pathways, as well as the middle temporal (MT) areas which are critical for the perception of visual motion, are involved in the perception of three-dimensional (3D) structure from two-dimensional (2D) motion (3D-SFM). However, the neural dynamics underlying the reconstruction of a 3D object from 2D optic flow is not known. Here we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) measurements to investigate the spatiotemporal brain dynamics during 3D-SFM. We manipulated parametrically the coherence of randomly moving groups of dots to create different levels of 3D perception and to study the associated changes in brain activity. At different latencies, the posterior infero-temporal (pIT), the parieto-occipital (PO), and the intraparietal (IP) regions showed increased neural activity during highly coherent motion conditions in which subjects perceived a robust 3D object. Causality analysis between these regions indicated significant causal influence from IP to pIT and from pIT to PO only in conditions where subjects perceived a robust 3D object. Current results suggest that the perception of a 3D object from 2D motion includes integration of global motion and 3D mental image processing, as well as object recognition that are accomplished by interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways.

  3. Modulating two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystal arrays by deformable soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Junhu; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhu, Difu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Yang, Bai

    2010-02-16

    We report a simple method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) periodic non-close-packed (ncp) arrays of colloidal microspheres with controllable lattice spacing, lattice structure, and pattern arrangement. This method combines soft lithography technique with controlled deformation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to convert 2D hexagonal close-packed (hcp) silica microsphere arrays into ncp ones. Self-assembled 2D hcp microsphere arrays were transferred onto the surface of PDMS stamps using the lift-up technique, and then their lattice spacing and lattice structure could be adjusted by solvent swelling or mechanical stretching of the PDMS stamps. Followed by a modified microcontact printing (microcp) technique, the as-prepared 2D ncp microsphere arrays were transferred onto a flat substrate coated with a thin film of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). After removing the PVA film by calcination, the ncp arrays that fell on the substrate without being disturbed could be lifted up, deformed, and transferred again by another PDMS stamp; therefore, the lattice feature could be changed step by step. Combining isotropic solvent swelling and anisotropic mechanical stretching, it is possible to change hcp colloidal arrays into full dimensional ncp ones in all five 2D Bravais lattices. This deformable soft lithography-based lift-up process can also generate patterned ncp arrays of colloidal crystals, including one-dimensional (1D) microsphere arrays with designed structures. This method affords opportunities and spaces for fabrication of novel and complex structures of 1D and 2D ncp colloidal crystal arrays, and these as-prepared structures can be used as molds for colloidal lithography or prototype models for optical materials.

  4. Bi-directional two-dimensional/three-dimensional convertible integral imaging using scattering polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jiwoon; Hong, Jisoo; Park, Soon-gi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2012-10-01

    A bi-directional 2D/3D convertible integral imaging system is proposed. Two optical modules composed of a scattering polarizer and a linear polarizer are adopted, and 2D or 3D mode operation is easily changed by converting polarization states of the projected images. In the 2D mode, the incident light is scattered at the scattering polarizer and the scattered light facing the lens-array is blocked, a 2D image is observable only at the same side as the projector. In the 3D mode, the incident light with the transmission polarization is directly projected onto a lens-array, and the 3D images are integrated. Our proposed system is able to display the 3D images as well as the 2D images for the observers who are placed in front and rear side of the system.

  5. Two-dimensional growth of germanium under a diffusion limited aggregation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejun; Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Youn Ho; Park, Jeong Min; Kim, Yeon Joo; Park, Sangwon; Yang, Jeen Moon; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of graphene has triggered immense interest in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. However, the 2D growth of several layerstructured crystals such as graphene, MoS2, and black phosphorus is difficult and limited. Here, we report the gas-phase 2D growth of germanium (Ge) with a cubic structure to form Ge nanosheets (GeNSs) using the chemical vapor deposition method. Our investigation revealed that a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) environment is essential for the 2D growth of Ge that induces a dendritic growth in the direction and suppresses the growth in the [111] direction. The growth behavior was similar to the 2D growth of silicon reported previously. Thus, it can be concluded that a DLA environment is essential for the 2D growth of cubic structured materials. The electron density and mobility of GeNSs were found to be 1.3 × 1015 cm-3 and 792 cm2/Vs, respectively, and their resistivity varied with the intensity of light. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Surface functionalization of two-dimensional metal chalcogenides by Lewis acid-base chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Sidong; Wang, Xifan; Li, Bo; Kang, Jiahao; He, Yongmin; George, Antony; Ge, Liehui; Gong, Yongji; Dong, Pei; Jin, Zehua; Brunetto, Gustavo; Chen, Weibing; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Baines, Robert; Galvão, Douglas S.; Lou, Jun; Barrera, Enrique; Banerjee, Kaustav; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-05-01

    Precise control of the electronic surface states of two-dimensional (2D) materials could improve their versatility and widen their applicability in electronics and sensing. To this end, chemical surface functionalization has been used to adjust the electronic properties of 2D materials. So far, however, chemical functionalization has relied on lattice defects and physisorption methods that inevitably modify the topological characteristics of the atomic layers. Here we make use of the lone pair electrons found in most of 2D metal chalcogenides and report a functionalization method via a Lewis acid-base reaction that does not alter the host structure. Atomic layers of n-type InSe react with Ti4+ to form planar p-type [Ti4+n(InSe)] coordination complexes. Using this strategy, we fabricate planar p-n junctions on 2D InSe with improved rectification and photovoltaic properties, without requiring heterostructure growth procedures or device fabrication processes. We also show that this functionalization approach works with other Lewis acids (such as B3+, Al3+ and Sn4+) and can be applied to other 2D materials (for example MoS2, MoSe2). Finally, we show that it is possible to use Lewis acid-base chemistry as a bridge to connect molecules to 2D atomic layers and fabricate a proof-of-principle dye-sensitized photosensing device.

  7. Hybrid nanostructures of metal/two-dimensional nanomaterials for plasmon-enhanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanhua; Zhu, Jinmeng; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-07

    Hybrid nanostructures composed of graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and plasmonic metal components have been extensively studied. The unusual properties of 2D materials are associated with their atomically thin thickness and 2D morphology, and many impressive structures enable the metal nanomaterials to establish various interesting hybrid nanostructures with outstanding plasmonic properties. In addition, the hybrid nanostructures display unique optical characteristics that are derived from the close conjunction of plasmonic optical effects and the unique physicochemical properties of 2D materials. More importantly, the hybrid nanostructures show several plasmonic electrical effects including an improved photogeneration rate, efficient carrier transfer, and a plasmon-induced "hot carrier", playing a significant role in enhancing device performance. They have been widely studied for plasmon-enhanced optical signals, photocatalysis, photodetectors (PDs), and solar cells. In this review, the developments in the field of metal/2D hybrid nanostructures are comprehensively described. Preparation of hybrid nanostructures is first presented according to the 2D material type, as well as the metal nanomaterial morphology. The plasmonic properties and the enabled applications of the hybrid nanostructures are then described. Lastly, possible future research in this promising field is discussed.

  8. Energy Dissipation and Landau Damping in Two- and Three-dimensional Plasma Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tak Chu; Howes, Gregory G.; Klein, Kristopher G.; TenBarge, Jason M.

    2016-12-01

    Plasma turbulence is ubiquitous in space and astrophysical plasmas, playing an important role in plasma energization, but the physical mechanisms leading to dissipation of the turbulent energy remain to be definitively identified. Kinetic simulations in two dimensions (2D) have been extensively used to study the dissipation process. How the limitation to 2D affects energy dissipation remains unclear. This work provides a model of comparison between two- and three-dimensional (3D) plasma turbulence using gyrokinetic simulations; it also explores the dynamics of distribution functions during the dissipation process. It is found that both 2D and 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of a low-beta plasma generate electron velocity-space structures with the same characteristics as that of the linear Landau damping of Alfvén waves in a 3D linear simulation. The continual occurrence of the velocity-space structures throughout the turbulence simulations suggests that the action of Landau damping may be responsible for the turbulent energy transfer to electrons in both 2D and 3D, and makes possible the subsequent irreversible heating of the plasma through collisional smoothing of the velocity-space fluctuations. Although, in the 2D case where variation along the equilibrium magnetic field is absent, it may be expected that Landau damping is not possible, a common trigonometric factor appears in the 2D resonant denominator, leaving the resonance condition unchanged from the 3D case. The evolution of the 2D and 3D cases is qualitatively similar. However, quantitatively, the nonlinear energy cascade and subsequent dissipation is significantly slower in the 2D case.

  9. Two dimensional dipolar coupling in monolayers of silver and gold nanoparticles on a dielectric substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoît P; Leuvrey, Cedric; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Rastei, Mircea; Schmerber, Guy; Vomir, Mircea; Bigot, Jean Yves

    2014-10-21

    The dimensionality of assembled nanoparticles plays an important role in their optical and magnetic properties, via dipolar effects and the interaction with their environment. In this work we develop a methodology for distinguishing between two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional collective interactions on the surface plasmon resonance of assembled metal nanoparticles. Towards that goal, we elaborate different sets of Au and Ag nanoparticles as suspensions, random 3D arrangements and well organized 2D arrays. Then we model their scattering cross-section using effective field methods in dimension n, including interparticle as well as particle-substrate dipolar interactions. For this modelling, two effective field medium approaches are employed, taking into account the filling factors of the assemblies. Our results are important for realizing photonic amplifier devices.

  10. Simple Screened Hydrogen Model of Excitons in Two-Dimensional Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Latini, Simone; Rasmussen, Filip Anselm;

    2016-01-01

    We present a generalized hydrogen model for the binding energies (EB) and radii of excitons in two-dimensional (2D) materials that sheds light on the fundamental differences between excitons in two and three dimensions. In contrast to the well-known hydrogen model of three-dimensional (3D) excitons...... the recently observed linear scaling of exciton binding energies with band gap. It is also shown that the model accurately reproduces the nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in WS2 and can account for screening from the environment....... that only depends on the excitonic mass and the 2D polarizability α. The model is shown to produce accurate results for 51 transition metal dichalcogenides. Remarkably, over a wide range of polarizabilities the binding energy becomes independent of the mass and we obtain E2DB≈3/(4πα), which explains...

  11. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-06

    The two-dimensional slope error of an X-ray mirror has been retrieved by employing the speckle scanning technique, which will be valuable at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes. In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  12. InAs/GaAs(001) epitaxy: kinetic effects in the two-dimensional to three-dimensional transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, E [CNR-INFM, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Arciprete, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Fanfoni, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Patella, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Orsini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Balzarotti, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy)

    2007-06-06

    Step instability and surface mass transport strongly influence the kinetics of the two- to three-dimensional (2D-3D) transition in InAs/GaAs self-assembly epitaxy. In this paper we report evidence of the step erosion of quantum dots (QDs) nucleated on step edges for samples having different surface morphologies and the explosive nucleation of 3D QDs triggered by it. Related issues such as the temperature dependence of the critical thickness, the volume dependence of the surface mass transport, and the scaling behaviour are illustrated by means of RHEED and AFM measurements and data analysis for small increments of InAs coverage throughout the 2D-3D transition.

  13. Two-dimensional Nutation Echo Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Gerard S.; Slokenbergs, Andris

    1990-04-01

    We discuss two new two-dimensional nuclear quadrupole resonance experiments, both based on the principle of nutation spectroscopy, which can be used to determine the asymmetry parameter, and thus the full quadrupolar tensor, of spin-3/2 nuclei at zero applied magnetic field. The first experiment is a simple nutation pulse sequence in which the first time period (t1) is the duration of the radiofrequency exciting pulse; and the second (t2) is the normal free-precession of a quadrupolar nucleus at zero-field. After double Fourier-transformation, the result is a 2 D spectrum in which the first frequency dimension is the nutation spectrum for the quadrupolar nucleus at zero-field. For polycrystalline samples this sequence generates powder lineshapes; the position of the singularities, in these lineshapes can be used to determine the asymmetry parameters η in a very straightforward manner, η has previously only been obtainable using Zeeman perturbed NQR methods. The second sequence is the same nutation experiment with a spin-echo pulse added. The virtue of this refocussing pulse is that it allows acquisition of nutation spectra from samples with arbitrary inhomogeneous linewidth; thus, asymmetry parameters can be determined even where the quadrupolar resonance is wider than the bandwidth of the spectrometer. Experimental examples of 35Cl, 81Br and 63Cu nutation and nutation-echo spectra are presented.

  14. Two dimensional discriminant neighborhood preserving embedding in face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Meng; Jiang, Jifeng; Lin, Chuang; Wang, Binghui

    2015-03-01

    One of the key issues of face recognition is to extract the features of face images. In this paper, we propose a novel method, named two-dimensional discriminant neighborhood preserving embedding (2DDNPE), for image feature extraction and face recognition. 2DDNPE benefits from four techniques, i.e., neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE), locality preserving projection (LPP), image based projection and Fisher criterion. Firstly, NPE and LPP are two popular manifold learning techniques which can optimally preserve the local geometry structures of the original samples from different angles. Secondly, image based projection enables us to directly extract the optimal projection vectors from twodimensional image matrices rather than vectors, which avoids the small sample size problem as well as reserves useful structural information embedded in the original images. Finally, the Fisher criterion applied in 2DDNPE can boost face recognition rates by minimizing the within-class distance, while maximizing the between-class distance. To evaluate the performance of 2DDNPE, several experiments are conducted on the ORL and Yale face datasets. The results corroborate that 2DDNPE outperforms the existing 1D feature extraction methods, such as NPE, LPP, LDA and PCA across all experiments with respect to recognition rate and training time. 2DDNPE also delivers consistently promising results compared with other competing 2D methods such as 2DNPP, 2DLPP, 2DLDA and 2DPCA.

  15. Models of Late-Type Disk Galaxies: 1-D Versus 2-D

    CERN Document Server

    Mineikis, Tadas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of stochasticity on the observed galaxy parameters by comparing our stochastic star formation two-dimensional (2-D) galaxy evolution models with the commonly used one-dimensional (1-D) models with smooth star formation. The 2-D stochastic models predict high variability of the star formation rate and the surface photometric parameters across the galactic disks and in time.

  16. Full molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and carbon tetrachloride for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-domain two-dimensional Raman signals, which are equivalent to coherent two-dimensional Raman scattering (COTRAS) signals, for liquid water and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using an equilibrium-nonequilibrium hybrid MD simulation algorithm. We elucidate mechanisms governing the 2D signal pro?les involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling and the nonlinearities of the polarizability for the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. The predicted signal pro?les and intensities can be utilized to analyze recently developed single-beam 2D spectra, whose signals are generated from a coherently controlled pulse, allowing the single-beam measurement to be carried out more efficiently.

  17. On the similarity of particle and photon tunneling and multiple internal reflections in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional photon tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovsky, V. S.

    2014-05-01

    The formal mathematical analogy between time-dependent quantum equation for the nonrelativistic particles and time-dependent equation for the propagation of electromagnetic waves had been studied in [A. I. Akhiezer and V. B. Berestezki, Quantum Electrodynamics (FM, Moscow, 1959) [in Russian] and S. Schweber, An Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Field Theory, Chap. 5.3 (Row, Peterson & Co, Ill, 1961)]. Here, we deal with the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for nonrelativistic particles and with time-dependent Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. Then, using this similarity, the tunneling and multiple internal reflections in one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) particle and photon tunneling are studied. Finally, some conclusions and future perspectives for further investigations are presented.

  18. Undamped relativistic magnetoplasmons in lossy two-dimensional electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Volkov, V A

    2016-01-01

    We address electrodynamic effects in plasma oscillations of a lossy 2D electron system whose dc 2D conductivity is comparable to the speed of light. We argue that the perpendicular dc magnetic field B causes astonishing features of magnetoplasma dynamics. We show that plasmon-polariton spectra can be classified using a "relativistic" phase diagram 2D conductivity divided by the speed of light versus B. A novel, extraordinarily low damping branch in magnetoplasmon-polariton spectra emerges at two phases of this diagram. Some magnetoplasmons at these phases are predicted to be undamped waves.

  19. Strain-modulated electronic and thermal transport properties of two-dimensional O-silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Qin, Guangzhao; Jungemann, Christoph; Hu, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Silica is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth’s crust and is a remarkably versatile and important engineering material in various modern science and technology. Recently, freestanding and well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) silica monolayers with octahedral (O-silica) building blocks were found to be theoretically stable by (Wang G et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 15654-60). In this paper, by performing first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and thermal transport properties of 2D O-silica and also studied how these properties can be tuned by simple mechanical stretching. Unstrained 2D O-silica is an insulator with an indirect band gap of 6.536 eV. The band gap decreases considerably with bilateral strain up to 29%, at which point a semiconductor-metal transition occurs. More importantly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of freestanding 2D O-silica is found to be unusually high, which is around 40 to 50 times higher than that of bulk α-quartz and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of amorphous silica. The thermal conductivity of O-silica decreases by almost two orders of magnitude when the bilateral stretching strain reaches 10%. By analyzing the mode-dependent phonon properties and phonon-scattering channel, the phonon lifetime is found to be the dominant factor that leads to the dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity under strain. The very sensitive response of both band gap and phonon transport properties to the external mechanical strain will enable 2D O-silica to easily adapt to the different environment of realistic applications. Our study is expected to stimulate experimental exploration of further physical and chemical properties of 2D silica systems, and offers perspectives on modulating the electronic and thermal properties of related low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices.

  20. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2007-08-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.