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Sample records for twisted magnetic annulus

  1. Twisted molecular magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inglis, Ross; Milios, Constantinos J.; Jones, Leigh F.

    2012-01-01

    The use of derivatised salicylaldoximes in manganese chemistry has led to the synthesis of a family of approximately fifty hexanuclear ([Mn(III)(6)]) and thirty trinuclear ([Mn(III)(3)]) Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs). Deliberate, targeted structural distortion of the metallic core afforded family...

  2. THE EFFECT OF A TWISTED MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE PERIOD RATIO P{sub 1}/P{sub 2} OF NONAXISYMMETRIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahari, K., E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: K.Bahari@razi.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    We consider nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a zero-beta cylindrical compressible thin magnetic flux tube modeled as a twisted core surrounded by a magnetically twisted annulus, with both embedded in a straight ambient external field. The dispersion relation is derived and solved analytically and numerically to obtain the frequencies of the nonaxisymmetric MHD waves. The main result is that the twisted magnetic annulus does affect the period ratio P{sub 1}/P{sub 2} of the kink modes. For the kink modes, the magnetic twist in the annulus region can achieve deviations from P{sub 1}/P{sub 2} = 2 of the same order of magnitude as in the observations. Furthermore, the effect of the internal twist on the fluting modes is investigated.

  3. Nonlinear physics of twisted magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zensho

    1998-01-01

    Twisted magnetic field lines appear commonly in many different plasma systems, such as magnetic ropes created through interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, magnetic clouds in the solar wind, solar corona, galactic jets, accretion discs, as well as fusion plasma devices. In this paper, we study the topological characterization of twisted magnetic fields, nonlinear effect induced by the Lorentz back reaction, length-scale bounds, and statistical distributions. (author)

  4. Electrically Controllable Magnetism in Twisted Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Arraga, Luis A; Lado, J L; Guinea, Francisco; San-Jose, Pablo

    2017-09-08

    Twisted graphene bilayers develop highly localized states around AA-stacked regions for small twist angles. We show that interaction effects may induce either an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic (FM) polarization of said regions, depending on the electrical bias between layers. Remarkably, FM-polarized AA regions under bias develop spiral magnetic ordering, with a relative 120° misalignment between neighboring regions due to a frustrated antiferromagnetic exchange. This remarkable spiral magnetism emerges naturally without the need of spin-orbit coupling, and competes with the more conventional lattice-antiferromagnetic instability, which interestingly develops at smaller bias under weaker interactions than in monolayer graphene, due to Fermi velocity suppression. This rich and electrically controllable magnetism could turn twisted bilayer graphene into an ideal system to study frustrated magnetism in two dimensions.

  5. Magnetization Modeling of Twisted Superconducting Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Satiramatekul, T; Devred, Arnaud; Leroy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new Finite Element numerical method to analyze the coupling between twisted filaments in a superconducting multifilament composite wire. To avoid the large number of elements required by a 3D code, the proposed method makes use of the energy balance principle in a 2D code. The relationship between superconductor critical current density and local magnetic flux density is implemented in the program for the Bean and modified Kim models. The modeled wire is made up of six filaments twisted together and embedded in a lowresistivity matrix. Computations of magnetization cycle and of the electric field pattern have been performed for various twist pitch values in the case of a pure copper matrix. The results confirm that the maximum magnetization depends on the matrix conductivity, the superconductor critical current density, the applied field frequency, and the filament twist pitch. The simulations also lead to a practical criterion for wire design that can be used to assess whether or not th...

  6. Control of Spin Wave Dynamics in Spatially Twisted Magnetic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    control the spin wave dynamics of magnetic structures twisted spatially, we prepared the exchange-coupled films with the hard magnetic L10-FePt and...information writing of magnetic storage and spintronic applications. Introduction and Objective: Recent rapid progress in the research field of nano...scaled bilayer elements is also an important aim of this project. Approach/Method: The exchange-coupled films with the hard magnetic L10-FePt and

  7. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF AXISYMMETRIC MODES IN TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G. [Solar Plasma Physics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fedun, V. [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Amy Johnson Building, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configuration of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.

  8. Effect of Magnetic Twist on Nonlinear Transverse Kink Oscillations of Line-tied Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Magyar, N.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in many structures of the solar atmosphere. One of the effects of twist is to modify the properties of the eigenmodes of magnetic tubes. In the linear regime standing kink solutions are characterized by a change in polarization of the transverse displacement along the twisted tube. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic twist affects the development of shear instabilities that appear at the tube boundary when it is oscillating laterally. These Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) are produced either by the jump in the azimuthal component of the velocity at the edge of the sharp boundary between the internal and external part of the tube or by the continuous small length scales produced by phase mixing when there is a smooth inhomogeneous layer. In this work the effect of twist is consistently investigated by solving the time-dependent problem including the process of energy transfer to the inhomogeneous layer. It is found that twist always delays the appearance of the shear instability, but for tubes with thin inhomogeneous layers the effect is relatively small for moderate values of twist. On the contrary, for tubes with thick layers, the effect of twist is much stronger. This can have some important implications regarding observations of transverse kink modes and the KHI itself.

  9. Magnetic Helicity Estimations in Models and Observations of the Solar Magnetic Field. III. Twist Number Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. [School of Astronomy and Space Science and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Pariat, E.; Moraitis, K. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-92190 Meudon (France); Valori, G. [University College London, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Anfinogentov, S. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS 664033, Irkutsk, P.O. box 291, Lermontov Street, 126a (Russian Federation); Chen, F. [Max-Plank-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Georgoulis, M. K. [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Athens, 4 Soranou Efesiou Street, 11527 Athens (Greece); Liu, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Thalmann, J. K. [Institute of Physics, Univeristy of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Yang, S., E-mail: guoyang@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-05-01

    We study the writhe, twist, and magnetic helicity of different magnetic flux ropes, based on models of the solar coronal magnetic field structure. These include an analytical force-free Titov–Démoulin equilibrium solution, non-force-free magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and nonlinear force-free magnetic field models. The geometrical boundary of the magnetic flux rope is determined by the quasi-separatrix layer and the bottom surface, and the axis curve of the flux rope is determined by its overall orientation. The twist is computed by the Berger–Prior formula, which is suitable for arbitrary geometry and both force-free and non-force-free models. The magnetic helicity is estimated by the twist multiplied by the square of the axial magnetic flux. We compare the obtained values with those derived by a finite volume helicity estimation method. We find that the magnetic helicity obtained with the twist method agrees with the helicity carried by the purely current-carrying part of the field within uncertainties for most test cases. It is also found that the current-carrying part of the model field is relatively significant at the very location of the magnetic flux rope. This qualitatively explains the agreement between the magnetic helicity computed by the twist method and the helicity contributed purely by the current-carrying magnetic field.

  10. Intermittent energy bursts and recurrent topological change of a twisting magnetic flux tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amo, Hiroyoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kageyama, Akira.

    1994-09-01

    When continuously twisted, a magnetic flux tube suffers a large kink distortion in the middle part of the tube, like a knot-of-tension instability of a bundle of twisted rubber strings, and reconnection is triggered starting with the twisted field lines and quickly proceeding to the untwisted field lines at the twist-untwist boundary, whereby a giant burst-like energy release takes place. Subsequently, bursts occur intermittently and reconnection advances deeper into the untwisted region. Then, a companion pair of the linked twist-untwist flux tubes reconnect with each other to return to the original axisymmetric tube. The process is thus repeatable. (author)

  11. A model for cytoplasmic rheology consistent with magnetic twisting cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J P; Kelly, S M

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic twisting cytometry is gaining wide applicability as a tool for the investigation of the rheological properties of cells and the mechanical properties of receptor-cytoskeletal interactions. Current technology involves the application and release of magnetically induced torques on small magnetic particles bound to or inside cells, with measurements of the resulting angular rotation of the particles. The properties of purely elastic or purely viscous materials can be determined by the angular strain and strain rate, respectively. However, the cytoskeleton and its linkage to cell surface receptors display elastic, viscous, and even plastic deformation, and the simultaneous characterization of these properties using only elastic or viscous models is internally inconsistent. Data interpretation is complicated by the fact that in current technology, the applied torques are not constant in time, but decrease as the particles rotate. This paper describes an internally consistent model consisting of a parallel viscoelastic element in series with a parallel viscoelastic element, and one approach to quantitative parameter evaluation. The unified model reproduces all essential features seen in data obtained from a wide variety of cell populations, and contains the pure elastic, viscoelastic, and viscous cases as subsets.

  12. On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuming; Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chi, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar physics, and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. So far it is unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Contrasting to the solar MFRs,...

  13. On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chi, Yutian

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar/space physics and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. Although the effect of the twist on the behavior of MFRs had been widely studied in observations, theory, modeling, and numerical simulations, it is still unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Contrasting to the solar MFRs, there are lots of in situ measurements of magnetic clouds (MCs), the large-scale MFRs in interplanetary space, providing some important information of the twist of MFRs. Thus, starting from MCs, we investigate the twist of interplanetary MFRs with the aid of a velocity-modified uniform-twist force-free flux rope model. It is found that most of MCs can be roughly fitted by the model and nearly half of them can be fitted fairly well though the derived twist is probably overestimated by a factor of 2.5. By applying the model to 115 MCs observed at 1 AU, we find that (1) the twist angles of interplanetary MFRs generally follow a trend of about 0.6l/R radians, where l/R is the aspect ratio of a MFR, with a cutoff at about 12π radians AU-1, (2) most of them are significantly larger than 2.5π radians but well bounded by 2l/R radians, (3) strongly twisted magnetic field lines probably limit the expansion and size of MFRs, and (4) the magnetic field lines in the legs wind more tightly than those in the leading part of MFRs. These results not only advance our understanding of the properties and behavior of interplanetary MFRs but also shed light on the formation and eruption of MFRs in the solar atmosphere. A discussion about the twist and stableness of solar MFRs are therefore given.

  14. Super-twisting sliding mode control of torque and flux in permanent magnet synchronous machine drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Christian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive controlled by a second-order variable structure control technique, known as the super-twisting sliding modes (STSM) control. The STSM controller is designed as a direct torque and flux controller and it works in the stator flux...

  15. Parametric study on kink instabilities of twisted magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Z. X.; Keppens, R.; Roussev, I. I.; Lin, J.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Twisted magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) in the solar atmosphere have been researched extensively because of their close connection to many solar eruptive phenomena, such as flares, filaments, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this work, we performed a set of 3D isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations, which use analytical twisted MFR models and study dynamical processes parametrically inside and around current-carrying twisted loops. We aim to generalize earlier findings by applying finite plasma β conditions. Methods: Inside the MFR, approximate internal equilibrium is obtained by pressure from gas and toroidal magnetic fields to maintain balance with the poloidal magnetic field. We selected parameter values to isolate best either internal or external kink instability before studying complex evolutions with mixed characteristics. We studied kink instabilities and magnetic reconnection in MFRs with low and high twists. Results: The curvature of MFRs is responsible for a tire tube force due to its internal plasma pressure, which tends to expand the MFR. The curvature effect of toroidal field inside the MFR leads to a downward movement toward the photosphere. We obtain an approximate internal equilibrium using the opposing characteristics of these two forces. A typical external kink instability totally dominates the evolution of MFR with infinite twist turns. Because of line-tied conditions and the curvature, the central MFR region loses its external equilibrium and erupts outward. We emphasize the possible role of two different kink instabilities during the MFR evolution: internal and external kink. The external kink is due to the violation of the Kruskal-Shafranov condition, while the internal kink requires a safety factor q = 1 surface inside the MFR. We show that in mixed scenarios, where both instabilities compete, complex evolutions occur owing to reconnections around and within the MFR. The S-shaped structures in current distributions

  16. Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ohuchi, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo. - Highlights: • The principal aim of this research is to contribute to the utilization of the twisted fields for the most effective blood-flow in vivo. • Two newly designed coil systems were used for producing a desirably twisted magnetic field under the measuring domain in the flow channel. • Further, we investigated the magnetohydrodynamic efficiencies of a prototype of a magnetic device, which was converted from use as a commercial alternating magnetic therapy apparatus. • The system was well-constructed with a successful application of a plural exposure coil; therefore, we were able to detect a maximum of induced electromotive force in a fluid of an artificial solution as a substitute for blood. • This new finding demonstrates that the process of blood massotherapy by magnetic stimuli is a therapy for many diseases.

  17. Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Hidenori, E-mail: hnakagawa-tdt@umin.ac.jp; Ohuchi, Mikio

    2017-06-01

    We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo. - Highlights: • The principal aim of this research is to contribute to the utilization of the twisted fields for the most effective blood-flow in vivo. • Two newly designed coil systems were used for producing a desirably twisted magnetic field under the measuring domain in the flow channel. • Further, we investigated the magnetohydrodynamic efficiencies of a prototype of a magnetic device, which was converted from use as a commercial alternating magnetic therapy apparatus. • The system was well-constructed with a successful application of a plural exposure coil; therefore, we were able to detect a maximum of induced electromotive force in a fluid of an artificial solution as a substitute for blood. • This new finding demonstrates that the process of blood massotherapy by magnetic stimuli is a therapy for many diseases.

  18. Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ohuchi, Mikio

    2017-06-01

    We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo.

  19. The Effect of a Twisted Magnetic Field on the Phase Mixing of the Kink Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Zanyar; Karami, Kayoomars [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, P.O. Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soler, Roberto, E-mail: z.ebrahimi@uok.ac.ir [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2017-08-10

    There is observational evidence for the existence of a twisted magnetic field in the solar corona. This inspires us to investigate the effect of a twisted magnetic field on the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in coronal loops. With this aim, we solve the incompressible linearized MHD equations in a magnetically twisted nonuniform coronal flux tube in the limit of long wavelengths. Our results show that a twisted magnetic field can enhance or diminish the rate of phase mixing of the Alfvén continuum modes and the decay rate of the global kink oscillation depending on the twist model and the sign of the longitudinal ( k{sub z} ) and azimuthal ( m ) wavenumbers. Also, our results confirm that in the presence of a twisted magnetic field, when the sign of one of the two wavenumbers m and k {sub z} is changed, the symmetry with respect to the propagation direction is broken. Even a small amount of twist can have an important impact on the process of energy cascading to small scales.

  20. Relation of twist of magnetic force tube and flare magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.

    1978-01-01

    The configuration of magnetic field and its development in the regions of big flare were investigated to study the features of magnetic force tubes. The photographs of delta type solar spots taken at Mt. Wilson Observatory were selected. 94 percent of the delta type spots belong to the class B activity or more active class. The features of delta type spots are the reverse configuration and the shear motion. The reverse configuration is divided into the p/f configuration and the f/p configuration. The shear motion is divided into the normal motion, the reverse motion, and the indefinite motion. Vortex structures appeared around the solar spots of reverse configuration showing normal motion. The relation among the direction of twist, reverse configuration and the direction of shear motion was deduced. In the region of normal motion, the p/f configuration corresponds to the reverse S type vortices and the f/p configuration to S type. In the region of reverse motion, the p/f configuration corresponds to the S type vortices and the f/p corresponds to the reverse S type vortices. The mechanism of development of delta type solar spots is discussed. (Kato, T.)

  1. Motion and twisting of magnetic particles ingested by alveolar macrophages in non-smokers and smokers: Implementation of viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Winfried; Felten, Kathrin; Kohlhaeufl, Martin; Haeussinger, Karl; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.

    2007-01-01

    Ferrimagnetic iron oxide particles were inhaled by 17 healthy volunteers (9 non-smokers, 8 smokers), and the retained particles were magnetized and detected by a SQUID. Stochastic particle transport due to cytoskeletal reorganizations within macrophages (relaxation) and directed particle motion in a weak magnetic twisting field were investigated with respect to viscous and elastic properties of the cytoskeleton. Relaxation and cytoskeletal stiffness were not influenced by cigarette smoking. Relaxation and particle twisting revealed a non-Newtonian viscosity with a pure viscous and a viscoelastic compartment. Viscous and elastic data obtained from relaxation correlated with particle twisting, indicating that the proposed simple model is a reasonable approximation of cytoskeletal mechanical properties

  2. Magnetic cloud fit by uniform-twist toroidal flux ropes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandas, Marek; Romashets, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 608, December (2017), A118/1-A118/12 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06065S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic fields * coronal mass ejections * solar wind Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  3. Lepton anomalous magnetic moments from twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Florian; Hotzel, Grit

    2014-11-01

    We present our results for the leading-order hadronic quark-connected contributions to the electron, the muon, and the tau anomalous magnetic moments obtained with four dynamical quarks. Performing the continuum limit and an analysis of systematic effects, full agreement with phenomenological results is found. To estimate the impact of omitting the quark-disconnected contributions to the hadronic vacuum polarisation we investigate them on one of the four-flavour ensembles. Additionally, the light quark contributions on the four-flavour sea are compared to the values obtained for N f =2 physically light quarks. In the latter case different methods to fit the hadronic vacuum polarisation function are tested.

  4. Dependence of spectrum on period and twist effect of the pulsars magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of flux depsities at 102, 408 and 2700 MHz shows that the mean spectral radio luminosity of pUlsars anti Lsub(ν) depends on their period P. The radio luminosity on the average, decreases with the increasing period at all three freqUercies. The character and power of the period dependence anti Lsub(ν)(P) are different at different freqUencies caUsing the corresponding period dependence of the mean radio spectrUm and, particularly, of the spectral index anti αsub(1-4)(102-408 MHz), anti αsub(1-4)(P) varies as Psup(1.7) for P 408 (P) varies as Psup(-1.3) in the period interval 0.3 408 and the period derivatives P, between αsub(1-4) and P. In this connection, the arthor draws the conclusion that period dependences of the spectral radio luminosity and of the spectrum of pulsars are caused by geometrical factors. Quantitative estimates show that the twist effect of magnetic field lines caused by the reaction of magnetic-dipole radiation may be such a geometrical factor, which increases the field line curvatUre (as compared to the dipole field). The twist curvature rhosub(rot)sup(-1) varies as PsUp(-3)xrsup(2) (r is the radial distance from a star) causes the observed period dependence anti Lsub(ν)(P) owing to the curvature emission mechanism. The twist effect of the magnetic field gives the possibility to estimate height levels r of the radio emission regions in a pulsar from the observed function anti Lsub(π)(P). At 408 MHz for an ''average statistic'' pulsar with P> or approximately 0.3 s the level r 408 =1x10 9 cm

  5. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  6. Multiscale evaluation of cellular adhesion alteration and cytoskeleton remodeling by magnetic bead twisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabey, Daniel; Pelle, Gabriel; André Dias, Sofia; Bottier, Mathieu; Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh; Filoche, Marcel; Louis, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Cellular adhesion forces depend on local biological conditions meaning that adhesion characterization must be performed while preserving cellular integrity. We presently postulate that magnetic bead twisting provides an appropriate stress, i.e., basically a clamp, for assessment in living cells of both cellular adhesion and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. A global dissociation rate obeying a Bell-type model was used to determine the natural dissociation rate ([Formula: see text]) and a reference stress ([Formula: see text]). These adhesion parameters were determined in parallel to the mechanical properties for a variety of biological conditions in which either adhesion or cytoskeleton was selectively weakened or strengthened by changing successively ligand concentration, actin polymerization level (by treating with cytochalasin D), level of exerted stress (by increasing magnetic torque), and cell environment (by using rigid and soft 3D matrices). On the whole, this multiscale evaluation of the cellular and molecular responses to a controlled stress reveals an evolution which is consistent with stochastic multiple bond theories and with literature results obtained with other molecular techniques. Present results confirm the validity of the proposed bead-twisting approach for its capability to probe cellular and molecular responses in a variety of biological conditions.

  7. EFFECT OF POLARIMETRIC NOISE ON THE ESTIMATION OF TWIST AND MAGNETIC ENERGY OF FORCE-FREE FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Gosain, Sanjay; Joshi, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    The force-free parameter α, also known as helicity parameter or twist parameter, bears the same sign as the magnetic helicity under some restrictive conditions. The single global value of α for a whole active region gives the degree of twist per unit axial length. We investigate the effect of polarimetric noise on the calculation of global α value and magnetic energy of an analytical bipole. The analytical bipole has been generated using the force-free field approximation with a known value of constant α and magnetic energy. The magnetic parameters obtained from the analytical bipole are used to generate Stokes profiles from the Unno-Rachkovsky solutions for polarized radiative transfer equations. Then we add random noise of the order of 10 -3 of the continuum intensity (I c ) in these profiles to simulate the real profiles obtained by modern spectropolarimeters such as Hinode (SOT/SP), SVM (USO), ASP, DLSP, POLIS, and SOLIS etc. These noisy profiles are then inverted using a Milne-Eddington inversion code to retrieve the magnetic parameters. Hundred realizations of this process of adding random noise and polarimetric inversion is repeated to study the distribution of error in global α and magnetic energy values. The results show that (1) the sign of α is not influenced by polarimetric noise and very accurate values of global twist can be calculated, and (2) accurate estimation of magnetic energy with uncertainty as low as 0.5% is possible under the force-free condition.

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF A SERIES OF FLARES AND ASSOCIATED JET-LIKE ERUPTIONS DRIVEN BY THE EMERGENCE OF TWISTED MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Kim, Sujin; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kumar, Pankaj; Kim, Yeon-Han [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung-Hong [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS), National Observatory of Athens, Penteli 15236 (Greece); Chae, Jongchul; Yang, Heesu; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Song, Donguk, E-mail: eklim@kasi.re.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-20

    We studied temporal changes of morphological and magnetic properties of a succession of four confined flares followed by an eruptive flare using the high-resolution New Solar Telescope (NST) operating at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms and Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) EUV images provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). From the NST/Hα and the SDO/AIA 304 Å observations we found that each flare developed a jet structure that evolved in a manner similar to evolution of the blowout jet: (1) an inverted-Y-shaped jet appeared and drifted away from its initial position; (2) jets formed a curtain-like structure that consisted of many fine threads accompanied by subsequent brightenings near the footpoints of the fine threads; and finally, (3) the jet showed a twisted structure visible near the flare maximum. Analysis of the HMI data showed that both the negative magnetic flux and the magnetic helicity have been gradually increasing in the positive-polarity region, indicating the continuous injection of magnetic twist before and during the series of flares. Based on these results, we suggest that the continuous emergence of twisted magnetic flux played an important role in producing successive flares and developing a series of blowout jets.

  9. Probing Twisted Magnetic Field Using Microwave Observations in an M Class Solar Flare on 11 February, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharykin, I. N.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Myshyakov, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of magnetic-field topology investigations using microwave polarimetric observations. We study a solar flare of GOES M1.7 class that occurred on 11 February, 2014. This flare revealed a clear signature of spatial inversion of the radio-emission polarization sign. We show that the observed polarization pattern can be explained by nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission from the twisted magnetic structure. Using observations of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Radio Solar Telescope Network, and Solar Dynamics Observatory, we have determined the parameters of nonthermal electrons and thermal plasma and identified the magnetic structure where the flare energy release occurred. To reconstruct the coronal magnetic field, we use nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) and potential magnetic-field approaches. Radio emission of nonthermal electrons is simulated by the GX Simulator code using the extrapolated magnetic field and the parameters of nonthermal electrons and thermal plasma inferred from the observations; the model radio maps and spectra are compared with observations. We have found that the potential-magnetic-field approach fails to explain the observed circular polarization pattern; on the other hand, the Stokes-V map is successfully explained by assuming nonthermal electrons to be distributed along the twisted magnetic structure determined by the NLFFF extrapolation approach. Thus, we show that the radio-polarization maps can be used for diagnosing the topology of the flare magnetic structures where nonthermal electrons are injected.

  10. Does T2 mapping of the posterior annulus fibrosus indicate the presence of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation? A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Alina; Stelzeneder, David; Trattnig, Stefan; Welsch, Götz H; Schinhan, Martina; Apprich, Sebastian; Brix, Martin; Windhager, Reinhard; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2017-03-01

    Indicating lumbar disc herniation via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping in the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF). Sagittal T2 maps of 313 lumbar discs of 64 patients with low back pain were acquired at 3.0 Tesla (3T). The discs were rated according to disc herniation and bulging. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on median, sagittal T2 maps. T2 values of the AF, in the most posterior 10% (PAF-10) and 20% of the disc (PAF-20), were compared. A significant increase in the T2 values of discs with herniations affecting the imaged area, compared to bulging discs and discs with lateral herniation, was shown in the PAF-10, where no association to the NP was apparent. The PAF-20 exhibited a moderate correlation to the nucleus pulposus (NP). High T2 values in the PAF-10 suggest the presence of disc herniation (DH). The results indicate that T2 values in the PAF-20 correspond more to changes in the NP.

  11. Bumpy torus annulus startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, J.L.; Hamasaki, S.; Krall, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    In order that a stable bumpy torus plasma configuration can be attained, it is first necessary to irradiate the plasma with sufficient external power to cause annulus formation. To estimate the power required to initiate annuli, it is assumed that quasilinear electron-cyclotron heating by microwaves is the dominant electron heating mechanism. A scaling law for required microwave power is derived which shows that annulus formation is assisted by smaller cross-section areas, lower density, lower microwave frequency, and higher C-mode temperature. The scaling law is quantitatively evaluated for NBT, EBT-1, EBT-S, EBT-P, and EBT-R parameters. The resulting power estimates are consistent with the available microwave power in previous and present experiments. In larger projected bumpy tori, like EBT-P and EBT-R, it may be necessary to initiate annulus formation at densities which are lower than in the stable T-mode so that the necessary microwave power can be reduced to reasonably modest levels. It is suggested that instabilities as well as rf heating can aid the formation of bumpy torus electron annuli. Rf experiments on NBT and EBT-S would be beneficial in determining the capability of rf power to assist annulus startup

  12. Interfacing 3D magnetic twisting cytometry with confocal fluorescence microscopy to image force responses in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejin; Wei, Fuxiang; Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Jia, Qiong; Chen, Junjian; Chen, Junwei; Luo, Junyu; Yao, Wenting; Zhou, Wenwen; Huang, Wei; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Ning

    2017-07-01

    Cells and tissues can undergo a variety of biological and structural changes in response to mechanical forces. Only a few existing techniques are available for quantification of structural changes at high resolution in response to forces applied along different directions. 3D-magnetic twisting cytometry (3D-MTC) is a technique for applying local mechanical stresses to living cells. Here we describe a protocol for interfacing 3D-MTC with confocal fluorescence microscopy. In 3D-MTC, ferromagnetic beads are bound to the cell surface via surface receptors, followed by their magnetization in any desired direction. A magnetic twisting field in a different direction is then applied to generate rotational shear stresses in any desired direction. This protocol describes how to combine magnetic-field-induced mechanical stimulation with confocal fluorescence microscopy and provides an optional extension for super-resolution imaging using stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy. This technology allows for rapid real-time acquisition of a living cell's mechanical responses to forces via specific receptors and for quantifying structural and biochemical changes in the same cell using confocal fluorescence microscopy or STED. The integrated 3D-MTC-microscopy platform takes ∼20 d to construct, and the experimental procedures require ∼4 d when carried out by a life sciences graduate student.

  13. A Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of the Formation of Solar Chromospheric Jets with Twisted Magnetic Field Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, H. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-0814 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: h.iijima@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    This paper presents a three-dimensional simulation of chromospheric jets with twisted magnetic field lines. Detailed treatments of the photospheric radiative transfer and the equations of state allow us to model realistic thermal convection near the solar surface, which excites various MHD waves and produces chromospheric jets in the simulation. A tall chromospheric jet with a maximum height of 10–11 Mm and lifetime of 8–10 minutes is formed above a strong magnetic field concentration. The magnetic field lines are strongly entangled in the chromosphere, which helps the chromospheric jet to be driven by the Lorentz force. The jet exhibits oscillatory motion as a natural consequence of its generation mechanism. We also find that the produced chromospheric jet forms a cluster with a diameter of several Mm with finer strands. These results imply a close relationship between the simulated jet and solar spicules.

  14. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  15. Characterisation of superconducting capillaries for magnetic shielding of twisted-wire pairs in a neutron electric dipole moment experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, S., E-mail: s.henry@physics.ox.ac.uk; Pipe, M.; Cottle, A.; Clarke, C.; Divakar, U.; Lynch, A.

    2014-11-01

    The cryoEDM neutron electric dipole moment experiment requires a SQUID magnetometry system with pick-up loops inside a magnetically shielded volume connected to SQUID sensors by long (up to 2 m) twisted-wire pairs (TWPs). These wires run outside the main shield, and therefore must run through superconducting capillaries to screen unwanted magnetic pick-up. We show that the average measured transverse magnetic pick-up of a set of lengths of TWPs is equivalent to a loop area of 5.0×10{sup −6} m{sup 2}/m, or 14 twists per metre. From this we set the requirement that the magnetic shielding factor of the superconducting capillaries used in the cryoEDM system must be greater than 8.0×10{sup 4}. The shielding factor—the ratio of the signal picked-up by an unshielded TWP to that induced in a shielded TWP—was measured for a selection of superconducting capillaries made from solder wire. We conclude the transverse shielding factor of a uniform capillary is greater than 10{sup 7}. The measured pick-up was equal to, or less than that due to direct coupling to the SQUID sensor (measured without any TWP attached). We show that discontinuities in the capillaries substantially impair the magnetic shielding, yet if suitably repaired, this can be restored to the shielding factor of an unbroken capillary. We have constructed shielding assemblies for cryoEDM made from lengths of single core and triple core solder capillaries, joined by a shielded Pb cylinder, incorporating a heater to heat the wires above the superconducting transition as required.

  16. Direct evidence for an orbital magnetic quadrupole twist mode in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, B.; Frekers, D.

    2002-02-01

    The reactions 58 Ni(e,e') and 58 Ni(p,p') have been studied at kinematics favorable for the excitation of J π = 2 - states by isovector spin-flip transitions with ΔL = 1. There are states at an excitation energy E x ∼ 10 MeV which are strongly excited in electron scattering but not in proton scattering, suggesting a predominantly orbital character. This is taken as direct evidence for the so-called twist mode in nuclei in which different layers of nuclear fluid in the upper and lower hemisphere counterrotate against each other. Microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model calculations which predict sizable orbital M2 strength at his excitation energy yield indeed a current flow pattern of the strongest transitions consistent with a twist-like motion. (orig.)

  17. The classical theory of the bumpy torus relativistic annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, S.; Krall, N.A.; Sperling, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The relativistic electron annulus is a critical component of the bumpy torus magnetic fusion concept. An analysis of the annulus is presented in which the ring steady state is determined by the explicit balance of quasi-linear heating and classical losses, i.e. collisions and synchrotron radiation. Both anisotropy and loss-cone effects are included in the formalism. It is demonstrated that a large number of electron cyclotron harmonics, not just the first and second, contribute in an appreciable way to annulus steady state and power balance. Without a loss cone, the analysis reproduces the relativistic passing electron population observed in bumpy tori on confined drift surfaces near the centre of the bumpy torus cross-section. Loss-cone effects permit an annulus population with large perpendicular pressure to exist. It is shown that the balance between quasi-linear heating and the classical losses cannot account for the experimental scaling of bumpy torus annulus temperature; therefore, processes not included in the classical ring power balance model must contribute in a non-trivial way to observed annulus properties. (author)

  18. Radio emission from a helical electron beam-plasma system in a twisted magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishan, V.

    1982-01-01

    The excitation of electromagnetic radiation near the harmonics of electron plasma frequency from a helical electron beam travelling parallel to a helical magnetic field through a stationary inhomogeneous plasma is studied. The motivation behind this study is to explain the observed characteristics of the type III solar radio bursts and thus to predict the nature of the plasma system responsible for the generation of these radio bursts. (author)

  19. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  20. Left ventricular regional myocardial motion and twist function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot evaluated by magnetic resonance tissue phase mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Meng-Chu; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Wu, Ming-Ting; Weng, Ken-Pen; Su, Mao-Yuan; Menza, Marius; Huang, Hung-Chieh

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to characterise regional myocardial motion and twist function in the left ventricles (LV) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and preserved LV global function. We recruited 47 rTOF patients and 38 age-matched normal volunteers. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) was performed for evaluating the LV myocardial velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential (Vz, Vr, and VOe) directions in basal, middle, and apical slices. The VOe peak-to-peak (PTP) during systolic phases, the rotation angle of each slice, and VOe inconsistency were computed for evaluating LV twist function and VOe dyssynchrony. As compared to the controls, the rTOF patients presented decreased RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.002) and preserved global LV ejection fraction (LVEF). They also demonstrated decreased systolic and diastolic Vz in several LV segments and higher diastolic Vr in the septum (all p < 0.05). A lower VOe PTP, higher VOe inconsistency, and reduced peak net rotation angle (all p < 0.05) were observed. The aforementioned indices demonstrated an altered LV twist function in rTOF patients in an early disease stage. MR TPM could provide information about early abnormalities of LV regional motion and twist function in rTOF patients with preserved LV global function. (orig.)

  1. Left ventricular regional myocardial motion and twist function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot evaluated by magnetic resonance tissue phase mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Meng-Chu; Peng, Hsu-Hsia [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Weng, Ken-Pen [National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung (China); Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Department of Physical Therapy, Kaohsiung (China); Su, Mao-Yuan [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Menza, Marius [Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Huang, Hung-Chieh [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China)

    2018-01-15

    We aimed to characterise regional myocardial motion and twist function in the left ventricles (LV) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and preserved LV global function. We recruited 47 rTOF patients and 38 age-matched normal volunteers. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) was performed for evaluating the LV myocardial velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential (Vz, Vr, and VOe) directions in basal, middle, and apical slices. The VOe peak-to-peak (PTP) during systolic phases, the rotation angle of each slice, and VOe inconsistency were computed for evaluating LV twist function and VOe dyssynchrony. As compared to the controls, the rTOF patients presented decreased RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.002) and preserved global LV ejection fraction (LVEF). They also demonstrated decreased systolic and diastolic Vz in several LV segments and higher diastolic Vr in the septum (all p < 0.05). A lower VOe PTP, higher VOe inconsistency, and reduced peak net rotation angle (all p < 0.05) were observed. The aforementioned indices demonstrated an altered LV twist function in rTOF patients in an early disease stage. MR TPM could provide information about early abnormalities of LV regional motion and twist function in rTOF patients with preserved LV global function. (orig.)

  2. On the peculiarities of galvanomagnetic effects in high magnetic fields in twisting bicrystals of the 3D topological insulator Bi{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntyanu, F. M., E-mail: muntean-teodor@yahoo.com [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Electronic Engineering and Industrial Technologies (Moldova, Republic of); Gheorghitsa, E. I. [Technical University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Gilewski, A. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures (Poland); Chistol, V. [Tiraspol State University (Moldova, Republic of); Bejan, V. [Technical University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Munteanu, V. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Electronic Engineering and Industrial Technologies (Moldova, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Galvanomagnetic effects in twisting bicrystals of Bi{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} alloys (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) at low temperatures and in magnetic fields up to 40 T are studied. It is found that, at small crystallite misorientation angles, the semiconductor–semimetal transition is induced in the central layer (~60-nm-thick) and two adjacent layers (each ~20-nm-thick) of the interface at different values of ultraquantum magnetic field. Bicrystals with large misorientation angles, being located in strong magnetic fields, exhibit quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistance and the Hall effect, thus indicating that the density of states is higher and charge carriers are heavier in the adjacent layers of the interfaces than in the crystallites. Our results show also that twisting bicrystals contain regions with different densities of quantum electronic states, which are determined by the crystallite misorientation angle and magnetic-field strength.

  3. Transverse kink oscillations in the presence of twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in coronal loops. The effects of magnetic twist on stable magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves is poorly understood because they are seldom studied for relevant cases. Aims: The goal of this work is to study the fingerprints of magnetic twist on stable transverse kink oscillations. Methods: We numerically calculated the eigenmodes of propagating and standing MHD waves for a model of a loop with magnetic twist. The azimuthal component of the magnetic field was assumed to be small in comparison to the longitudinal component. We did not consider resonantly damped modes or kink instabilities in our analysis. Results: For a nonconstant twist the frequencies of the MHD wave modes are split, which has important consequences for standing waves. This is different from the degenerated situation for equilibrium models with constant twist, which are characterised by an azimuthal component of the magnetic field that linearly increases with the radial coordinate. Conclusions: In the presence of twist standing kink solutions are characterised by a change in polarisation of the transverse displacement along the tube. For weak twist, and in the thin tube approximation, the frequency of standing modes is unaltered and the tube oscillates at the kink speed of the corresponding straight tube. The change in polarisation is linearly proportional to the degree of twist. This has implications with regard to observations of kink modes, since the detection of this variation in polarisation can be used as an indirect method to estimate the twist in oscillating loops.

  4. Twisted supersymmetry: Twisted symmetry versus renormalizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, Marija; Nikolic, Biljana; Radovanovic, Voja

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a deformation of superspace based on a Hermitian twist. The twist implies a *-product that is noncommutative, Hermitian and finite when expanded in a power series of the deformation parameter. The Leibniz rule for the twisted supersymmetry transformations is deformed. A minimal deformation of the Wess-Zumino action is proposed and its renormalizability properties are discussed. There is no tadpole contribution, but the two-point function diverges. We speculate that the deformed Leibniz rule, or more generally the twisted symmetry, interferes with renormalizability properties of the model. We discuss different possibilities to render a renormalizable model.

  5. Simple annulus power balance in EBT-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.; Uckan, N.A.; Jaeger, E.F.; Kammash, T.

    1979-09-01

    An essential feature of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept is the presence of a relativistic electron annulus in each of the toroidal mirror sectors. These high beta annuli are formed and sustained by microwave heating and are of sufficient density and temperature that diamagnetic currents produce the necessary minimum in the magnetic field required for MHD stability of the toroidal core plasma. Because electron rings play an important role in confinement characteristics and performance of EBT, the trade-off between the quality of the confinement afforded by the rings and the power required to sustain the rings represents an important problem in a fusion reactor. Theoretical estimates of the microwave power required to sustain the annulus are found to be within a factor of 2 of the experimentally determined value. Scaling projections that are shown for both EBT-I and EBT-S enable one to examine the sensitivity of the annulus electron temperature as a function of core plasma density for various microwave power levels. The results are found to be sensitive to the details of the hot electron distribution function as well as geometric and scaling parameters. Improvements to the model are under way in order to increase its capability and accuracy in assessing the overall power balance

  6. Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama

    2001-01-01

    Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed

  7. Functional myelographic differentiation of lumbar bulging annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Kim, Hong Kil; Park, Sang Gyu; Lee, Young Jung; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Herniated disk and bulging annulus are the major causes of lower back pain. It is necessary to differentiate bulging annulus from herniated disk because of their different methods of treatment. Myelography is one of the useful diagnostic methods for disk diseases even though advanced diagnostic modalities such as CT and MRI are more accurate. Functional myelography is not a new technology expect for two additional views, flexion and extension, are obtained with conventional myelography. Differentiation between bulging annulus and herniated disk by conventional myelography is based on the extent and multiplicity of extradural deformity of the contrast filled dural sac and neural sleeve as well as the changes of nerve root. There is no previous report about differential points between bulging annulus and herniated disk according to functional myelography. It is the purpose of this study to find any additional differential points on functional myelography between bulging annulus and herniated disk over convectional myelography. Authors analysed functional myelographic findings of 152 cases from July 1986 to July 1987. Among them, 22 cases who had been suffered from cervical abnormality or vague lower back pain were diagnosed as normal by myelography, and 30 cases of L4-5 herniated disk and 21 cases of L4-5 bulging annulus which had been finally diagnosed by operation were studied. The results were as follows. 1. In normal group, anterior epidural space was gradually widened from the upper lumbar vertebra downward. And anterior epidural space was more sidened at the disk level in extension view than in flexion except for L5-S1 lever. 2. In bulging annulus group, the shape of anterior epidural space in flexion state was as similar as normal. Anoterior epidural space in extension state was more sidened at the buldging annulus than normal, but lesser than herniated disk. 3. In herniated disk group, widening of anterior epidural space at the herniated disk level was

  8. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  9. Twisted network programming essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fettig, Abe

    2005-01-01

    Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s

  10. Time Deployment Study for Annulus Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from processing irradiated uranium fuels have been stored as alkaline slurries in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) of various sizes were used for waste storage. Of the total 177 tanks, there are 28 DSTs. DSTs are located in AN, AP, AW, AY, AZ, and SY tank farms in the 200 East (200E) and 200-West (200W) Areas. The storage capacities of the DSTs vary from 980,000 to 1,140,000 gal. DSTs are designed and constructed as an integral steel structure, i.e., an inner shell within an outer shell, so that any leak from the inner shell is confined within the annulus without impacting the environment. The inner shell provides primary containment for the wastes and the outer shell provides secondary containment in the form of an annulus. The annulus of a DST is equipped with a pump pit, leak detection probes, and other accessories. The existing annulus pumps in the DSTs need to be revamped with a new system to reduce operating costs and reduce the time to deploy a pumping system. The new pumping system will minimize the likelihood of a release of waste into the environment; improve capability of waste removal to the maximum extent possible to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640 and Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 CFR 265.193. This study addresses the time required to deploy an annulus pumping system designed to fit any DST after detection of a leak in the inner shell of the DST

  11. Deployment Plan for Small Roving Annulus Inspection Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minichan, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Small Roving Annulus Inspection Vehicle (SRAIV) is a modified commercially available wall crawler designed to supplement the In-Service Inspection (ISI) of Savannah River Site (SRS) Waste tanks. The SRAIV provides an improved capability to achieve a more complete inspection of the tank walls than existing methods. The SRAIV will be deployed through annulus risers in the tank to gain access to tank walls requiring inspection. The SRAIV will be deployed using a manually operated deployment pole and will be coupled to the wall using permanent magnet wheels. Navigation will be performed from the remote console where pictorial views can be displayed from the on-board cameras. The unit will incorporate multiple UT transducers for traditional weld examination. In addition, a specially developed Tandem Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (TSAFT) UT scanning bridge can be attached to provide further investigation of the knuckle region while the vehicle remains on the vertical surface of the tank wall. In summary, the SRAIV will provide features that enhance and expand the capability of the SRS ISI program

  12. Braid group and anyons on an annulus and a torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsugai, Y.; Kohmoto, M.; Wu Yongshi

    1992-01-01

    We present an examination of anyons on a cylinder (or annulus) starting from a braid group analysis. The rule for putting anyons on a lattice has to be modified when the periodic boundary condition is imposed on one direction. In contrast to the annulus, one extra restriction is needed for the cylinder geometry to recover its symmetry. The mean-field (MF) treatment is found to be good until level crossing occurs, and to be better if one starts from the hard-core boson rather than fermion. We also present a construction of anyons on a torus starting from a braid group analysis. The rules of Wen, Dagotto and Fradkin for putting anyons on a torus are reproduced and supplemented. The representation of the braid group is characterized by the anyon statistics θ and the magnetic fluxes Φ x and Φ y threading through the holes. It is shown that the anyon system has a smaller period in Φ x and Φ y than the natural period 1. We perform numerical calculations to investigate the spectral flow and find interesting features in understanding the Fractional Quantum Hall (FQH) effect. (orig.)

  13. Aortic annulus and ascending aorta: Comparison of preoperative and periooperative measurement in patients with aortic stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, Michal; Ferda, Jiri; Baxa, Jan; Cech, Jakub; Hajek, Tomas; Kreuzberg, Boris; Rokyta, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Precise determination of the aortic annulus size constitutes an integral part of the preoperative evaluation prior to aortic valve replacement. It enables the estimation of the size of prosthesis to be implanted. Knowledge of the size of the ascending aorta is required in the preoperative analysis and monitoring of its dilation enables the precise timing of the operation. Our goal was to compare the precision of measurement of the aortic annulus and ascending aorta using magnetic resonance (MR), multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis. Methods and results: A total of 15 patients scheduled to have aortic valve replacement were enrolled into this prospective study. TTE was performed in all patients and was supplemented with TEE, CT and MR in the majority of patients. The values obtained were compared with perioperative measurements. For the measurement of aortic annulus, MR was found to be the most precise technique, followed by MDCT, TTE, and TEE. For the measurement of ascending aorta, MR again was found to be the most precise technique, followed by MDCT, TEE, and TTE. Conclusion: In our study, magnetic resonance was found to be the most precise technique for the measurement of aortic annulus and ascending aorta in patients with severe degenerative aortic stenosis.

  14. Laguna Verde annulus pressurization loads evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, M. A.; Cruz, M. A.; Cardenas, J. B.; Vargas, A.; Cruz, H. J.; Mercado, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    Annulus pressurization, jet impingement, pipe whip restraint and jet thrust are phenomena related to postulated pipe ruptures. A postulated pipe rupture at the weld between recirculation, or feedwater piping and a reactor nozzle safe end, will lead to a high flow rate of flashing water/steam mixture into the annulus between the reactor pressure vessel and the biological shield wall. The total effect of the vessel and pipe inventory blowdown from the break being postulated must be accounted for in the evaluation. A recirculation line break will give rise to an angular dependent short term pressure differential around the vessel, followed by a longer term pressure buildup in the annulus. A recirculation line postulated rupture may not produce worst case conditions and reference to time intervals for only the recirculation break should be treated superficially. A postulated rupture of the feedwater piping may produce the extreme case for determining: 1) the shield wall and reactor vessel to pedestal interactions, 2) loading on the reactor vessel internals, or 3) responses for the balance of piping attached to the vessel. Recently it was identified a potential issue regarding the criteria used to determine which cases were evaluated for Annulus Pressurization (A P) loads for new loads plants. The original A P loads methodology in the late 1970 and early 1980 years separated the mass/energy release calculation from the structural response calculation based on the implicit assumption that the maximum overall mass/energy release will result in maximizing the structural response and corresponding stresses on the reactor pressure vessel, internals, and containment structures. This process did not consider the dynamic response in the primary and secondary safety related structures, components and equipment. Consequently, the A P loads used as input for design adequacy evaluations of Nuclear Steam Supply System safety related components for new loads plants might have

  15. Duality and braiding in twisted quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, Mauro; Szabo, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    We re-examine various issues surrounding the definition of twisted quantum field theories on flat noncommutative spaces. We propose an interpretation based on nonlocal commutative field redefinitions which clarifies previously observed properties such as the formal equivalence of Green's functions in the noncommutative and commutative theories, causality, and the absence of UV/IR mixing. We use these fields to define the functional integral formulation of twisted quantum field theory. We exploit techniques from braided tensor algebra to argue that the twisted Fock space states of these free fields obey conventional statistics. We support our claims with a detailed analysis of the modifications induced in the presence of background magnetic fields, which induces additional twists by magnetic translation operators and alters the effective noncommutative geometry seen by the twisted quantum fields. When two such field theories are dual to one another, we demonstrate that only our braided physical states are covariant under the duality

  16. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  17. WORKSHOP: Let's twist again..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalobos Baillie, Orlando

    1988-12-15

    In the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) candidate theory of interquark forces, calculations involve summing the effects from many different possible quark/gluon interactions. In addition to the 'leading term' frequently used as the basis for QCD calculations, additional contributions — so-called 'higher twists' — are modulated by powers of kinematical factors. An illuminating international workshop to discuss higher twist QCD was held at the College de France, Paris, from 21-23 September.

  18. Quantum communication through a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Jin, B.-Q.; Korepin, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate quantum communication between the sites of a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions. Such boundary conditions can be achieved by a magnetic flux through the ring. We find that a nonzero twist can improve communication through finite odd-numbered rings and enable high-fidelity multiparty quantum communication through spin rings (working near perfectly for rings of five and seven spins). We show that in certain cases, the twist results in the complete blockage of quantum-information flow to a certain site of the ring. This effect can be exploited to interface and entangle a flux qubit and a spin qubit without embedding the latter in a magnetic field

  19. Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-06-08

    The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T{sub h} and inside cold T{sub c} temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.

  20. Radiation and viscous dissipation effect on square porous annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of radiation and viscous dissipation in a square porous annulus subjected to outside hot T h and inside cold T c temperature. The square annulus has a hollow section of dimension D×D at the interior of annulus. The flow is assumed to obey Darcy law. The governing equations are non-dimensionalised and solved with the help of finite element method. Results are discussed with respect to viscous dissipation parameter, radiation parameter and size of the hollow section of annulus.

  1. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-06-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative solar instrumentation that allowed him to make narrow-band images. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Using the concept of magnetic helicity, physicists and mathematicians describe the topology of magnetic fields, including twisting and writhing. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on a key property of helicity: conservation. I will describe the critical role that this property plays, when applied to twist and writhe, in a fundamental aspect of global solar magnetism: the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of active region electric currents with respect to magnetic fields. With the advent of unbroken sequences of high-resolution magnetic images, such as those presently available from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere can be observed quantitatively. As magnetic flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone, buffeted and shredded by turbulence, they break up into fragments by repeated random bifurcation. We track these rising flux fragments in the photosphere, and calculate the flux of energy and magnetic helicity there. Using a quantitative model of coronal currents, we also track connections between these fragments to calculate the energy and magnetic helicity stored at topological interfaces that are in some ways analogous to the storage of stress at faults in the Earth's crust. Comparison of these values to solar flares and interplanetary coronal mass ejections implies that this is the primary storage mechanism for energy and magnetic helicity released in those phenomena, and suggests a useful tool for quantitative prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  2. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.

  3. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  4. SpaceTwist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Xuegang, Huang

    2008-01-01

    -based matching generally fall short in offering practical query accuracy guarantees. Our proposed framework, called SpaceTwist, rectifies these shortcomings for k nearest neighbor (kNN) queries. Starting with a location different from the user's actual location, nearest neighbors are retrieved incrementally...

  5. Twisting the Mirror TBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.; de Leeuw, M.; van Tongeren, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    We study finite-size corrections to the magnon dispersion relation in three models which differ from string theory on AdS5 x S5 in their boundary conditions. Asymptotically, this is accomplished by twisting the transfer matrix in a way which manifestly preserves integrability. In model I all

  6. Simulating QCD at the physical point with Nf=2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rehim, A.; Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ. Nicosia; Burger, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present simulations of QCD using N f =2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at a∼0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces O(a 2 ) cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.

  7. Twisted quantum doubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Fukuda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using diagrammatic pictures of tensor contractions, we consider a Hopf algebra (Aop⊗ℛλA** twisted by an element ℛλ∈A*⊗Aop corresponding to a Hopf algebra morphism λ:A→A. We show that this Hopf algebra is quasitriangular with the universal R-matrix coming from ℛλ when λ2=idA, generalizing the quantum double construction which corresponds to the case λ=idA.

  8. A Waving Horn on the Big Mitral Annulus Calcification: Caseous Calcification of the Mitral Annulus with Abscess Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tan Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA is a rare variant of mitral annular calcification. It comprises a combination of calcium, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and is characterized by heterogeneity in echocardiographic images, with peripheral areas of calcification surrounding a central area of echolucency, resembling a periannular mass. Here, we describe a case of CCMA combined with a mitral annulus abscess, manifesting as a waving, horn-like structure. Although the image characteristics of the posterior mitral annulus suggested CCMA, additional findings warranted further work-up and studies.

  9. Flow instability and critical heat flux in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.W.; Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Kokolis, S.; Reddy, G.D.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Coutts, A.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to determine the onset of flow instability point in a heated annulus which is divided into four sub channels by non-conducting ribs. The onset of flow instability is identified by the minimum point in the pressure drop-velocity curve. Comparison with a ribless annulus show that the presence of ribs increases the minimum point velocity. In addition, data are presented which show that under certain conditions premature CHF can be induced by the ribs

  10. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindler, A.

    2007-07-01

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Twist limits for late twisting double somersaults on trampoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, M R; Hiley, M J

    2017-06-14

    An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that could be produced in the second somersault of a double somersault on trampoline using asymmetrical movements of the arms and hips. Lower bounds were placed on the durations of arm and hip angle changes based on performances of a world trampoline champion whose inertia parameters were used in the simulations. The limiting movements were identified as the largest possible odd number of half twists for forward somersaulting takeoffs and even number of half twists for backward takeoffs. Simulations of these two limiting movements were found using simulated annealing optimisation to produce the required amounts of somersault, tilt and twist at landing after a flight time of 2.0s. Additional optimisations were then run to seek solutions with the arms less adducted during the twisting phase. It was found that 3½ twists could be produced in the second somersault of a forward piked double somersault with arms abducted 8° from full adduction during the twisting phase and that three twists could be produced in the second somersault of a backward straight double somersault with arms fully adducted to the body. These two movements are at the limits of performance for elite trampolinists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical Analysis of Heat transfer Enhancement in a double pipe heat exchanger with a holed twisted tape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Akarsh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study numerical analysis of enhancement in heat transfer characteristics in a double pipe heat exchanger is studied using a holed twisted tape.The twisted tape with a constant twist ratio is inserted in a double pipe heat exchanger. Holes of diameter 1mm, 3 mm and 5 mm were drilled at regular pitch throughout the length of the tape. Numerical modeling of a double pipe heat exchanger with the holed twisted tape was constructed considering hot fluid flowing in the inner pipe and cold fluid through the annulus.Simulation was done for varied mass flow rates of hot fluid in the turbulent condition keeping the mass flow rate of cold fluid being constant. Thermal properties like Outlet temperatures, Nusselt number, overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer rate and pressure drop were determined for all the cases. Results indicated that normaltwisted tape without holes performed better than the bare tube. In the tested range of mass flow rates the average Nusselt number and heat transfer rate were increased by 85% and 34% respectively. Performance of Twisted tape with holes was slightly reduced than the normal twisted tape and it deteriorated further for higher values hole diameter. Pressure drop was found to be higher for the holed twisted tape than the normal tape.

  14. TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.

  15. Teaching Spatial Awareness for Better Twisting Somersaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Jeff T.

    1985-01-01

    The barani (front somersault with one-half twist) and the back somersault with one twist are basic foundation skills necessary for more advanced twisting maneuvers. Descriptions of these movements on a trampoline surface are offered. (DF)

  16. Terrestrial Planet Formation from an Annulus -- Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J.; Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, Harold F.

    2018-04-01

    Numerous recent theories of terrestrial planet formation suggest that, in order to reproduce the observed large Earth to Mars mass ratio, planets formed from an annulus of material within 1 au. The success of these models typically rely on a Mars sized embryo being scattered outside 1 au (to ~1.5 au) and starving, while those remaining inside 1 au continue growing, forming Earth and Venus. In some models the scattering is instigated by the migration of giant planets, while in others an embryo-instability naturally occurs due to the dissipation of the gaseous solar nebula. While these models can typically succeed in reproducing the overall mass ratio among the planets, the final angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the present terrestrial planets in our Solar System, and their radial mass concentration (RMC), namely the position where Mars end up in the simulations, are not always well reproduced. Assuming that the gas nebula may not be entirely dissipated when such an embryo-instability happens, here, we study the effects that the time of such an instability can have on the final AMD and RMC. In addition, we also included energy dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions by assuming a given coefficient of restitution for collisions. Our results show that: i) dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions do not play any important role in the final terrestrial planetary system; ii) the final AMD decreases only when the number of final planets formed increases; iii) the RMC tends to always be lower than the present value no matter the number of final planets; and iv) depending on the time that the embryo-instability happen, if too early, with too much gas still present, a second instability will generally happen after the dissipation of the gas nebula.

  17. Characteristics of steam jet impingement on annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Kim, Won J.; Suh, Kune Y.; Song, Chul H.

    2004-01-01

    The steam jet impingement occurs when the steam through the cold leg from the steam generator strikes the inner reactor barrel during the reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), which is a characteristic behavior for the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In the cold leg break LOCA, the steam and water flows in the downcomer are truly multidimensional. The azimuthal velocity distribution of the steam flow has an important bearing on the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as the emergency coolant water direct bypass, sweepout, steam condensation, and so forth. The investigation of jet flow is required to determine the steam path and momentum reduction rate after the impingement. For the observation of the steam behavior near the break, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis has been carried out using CFX5.6. The flow visualization and analysis demonstrate the velocity profiles of the steam flow in the annulus region for the same boundary conditions. Pursuant to the CFD results, the micro-Pitot tubes were positioned at varying angles, and corrected for their sensitivity. The experiments were carried out to directly measure the pressure differential and to visualize the flow utilizing a smoke injection method. Results from this study are slated to be applied to MARS, which is a thermal hydraulic system code for the best-estimate analysis. The current one- or two-dimensional analysis in MARS was known to distort the local flow behavior. To enhance prediction capability of MARS, it is necessary to inspect the steam path in the break flow and mechanically simulate the momentum variation. The present experimental and analytical results can locally be applied to developing the engineering models of specific and essential phenomena. (author)

  18. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION FROM AN ANNULUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Levison, Harold F., E-mail: kwalsh@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that some aspects of the terrestrial planets can be explained, particularly the Earth/Mars mass ratio, when they form from a truncated disk with an outer edge near 1.0 au. This has been previously modeled starting from an intermediate stage of growth utilizing pre-formed planetary embryos. We present simulations that were designed to test this idea by following the growth process from km-sized objects located between 0.7 and 1.0 au up to terrestrial planets. The simulations explore initial conditions where the solids in the disk are planetesimals with radii initially between 3 and 300 km, alternately including effects from a dissipating gaseous solar nebula and collisional fragmentation. We use a new Lagrangian code known as LIPAD, which is a particle-based code that models the fragmentation, accretion, and dynamical evolution of a large number of planetesimals, and can model the entire growth process from km-sizes up to planets. A suite of large (∼ Mars mass) planetary embryos is complete in only ∼1 Myr, containing most of the system mass. A quiescent period then persists for 10–20 Myr characterized by slow diffusion of the orbits and continued accretion of the remaining planetesimals. This is interrupted by an instability that leads to embryos crossing orbits and embryo–embryo impacts that eventually produce the final set of planets. While this evolution is different than that found in other works exploring an annulus, the final planetary systems are similar, with roughly the correct number of planets and good Mars-analogs.

  19. Twisting perturbed parafermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The near-collinear expansion of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory at strong coupling is governed by the dynamics of stings propagating on the five sphere. The pentagon transitions in the operator product expansion which systematize the series get reformulated in terms of matrix elements of branch-point twist operators in the two-dimensional O(6 nonlinear sigma model. The facts that the latter is an asymptotically free field theory and that there exists no local realization of twist fields prevents one from explicit calculation of their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. This complication is bypassed making use of the equivalence of the sigma model to the infinite-level limit of WZNW models perturbed by current–current interactions, such that one can use conformal symmetry and conformal perturbation theory for systematic calculations. Presently, to set up the formalism, we consider the O(3 sigma model which is reformulated as perturbed parafermions.

  20. Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)

  1. Radio frequency sputtering equipment: design considerations for the disc and annulus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.M.; Cox, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basic equations important in the design of rf sputtering equipment are presented. Attention is restricted to the 'disc and annulus' system and simple techniques in lead-through fabrication and electrode shielding are described. Also rf power oscillator theory is used to derive the important parameters of power generation. Load coupling and power matching techniques are discussed. Problems of the magnetic field coil design are analysed and a value for the thermal conductivity of coils wound from polyurethane coated wire is given, namely k = 0.64 W m -1 / 0 C -1 , permitting the steady state temperature distribution inside such coils to be predicted. (author)

  2. How to Twist a Knot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas; Røgen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    is an invariant of ambient isotopy measuring the topological twist of the closed strip. We classify closed strips in euclidean 3-space by their knots and their twisting number. We prove that this classification exactly divides closed strips into isotopy classes. Using this classification we point out how some...

  3. Two-phase magnetoconvection flow of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in a horizontal composite porous annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zaheer; Hasnain, Jafar

    A numerical study is performed to examine the two-phase magnetoconvection and heat transfer phenomena of Fe3O4 -kerosene nanofluid flow in a horizontal composite porous annulus with an external magnetic field. The annulus is filled with immiscible fluids flowing between two concentric cylinders. The governing equations of the flow problem are obtained using Darcy-Brinkman model. Heat transfer is analyzed in the presence of viscous and Darcian dissipation terms. The shooting method is used as a tool to solve the obtained non-linear ordinary differential equations for the velocity and temperature profiles. The velocity and temperature distributions are analyzed and discussed under the influence of involved flow parameters with the aid of graphs. It is found that both velocity and temperature of fluid are decreased with ferroparticle volume fraction. In addition to that, it is also presented that the existence of magnetic field decreases the benefit of ferrofluids in heat transfer progression.

  4. Thermal convection in dielectric liquids in a cylindrical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Kang, Changwoo; Meyer, Antoine; Meier, Martin; Egbers, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Thermal convection is investigated in a dielectric liquid of thermal expansion coefficient α, kinematic viscosity ν, thermal diffusivity κ and electric permittivity ɛ in a cylindrical annulus of inner radius a and outer radius bwith a radial temperature gradient and a high-frequency electric tension. The coupling between the electric field and the gradient of the permittivity yields the dielectrophoretic force. The control parameters are η = a/b, Pr = ν / κ, the classic Rayleigh number Ra = αΔ T gd3 / νκ , and the electric Rayleigh number L = αΔ T ged3 / νκ The electric gravity ge is the gradient of the electric energy in the condenser. Linear stability analysis shows that for infinite annulus, depending on values of η, Ra and L, critical modes are either hydrodynamic or thermal modes, helical electric modes or columnar vortices. Experiments in an annulus of aspect ratio Γ = 19.6 during parabolic flight campaigns indicate the existence of columns. Columnar vortices result from the competition between Archimedean buoyancy and dielectrophoretic force. Direct numerical simulations in the annulus of Γ = 20 show that the columnar vortices occupy the central part of the annulus, while near the end-zones the flow is laminar and dominated by an azimuthal vorticity. This work was supported by CNRS (LIA ISTROF), CNES and DLR.

  5. Study of Implosion of Twisted Nested Arrays at the Angara-5-1 Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Gribov, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the implosion of twisted nested arrays in which the wires of the outer and inner arrays are twisted about the array axis in opposite directions (clockwise and counterclockwise). Experiments with twisted arrays were carried out at the Angara-5-1 facility at currents of up to 4 MA. The currents through the arrays were switched either simultaneously or the current pulse through the outer array was delayed by 10-15 ns with the help of an anode spark gap. It is shown that, in such arrays, the currents flow along the inclined wires and, accordingly, there are both the azimuthal and axial components of the discharge current. The process of plasma implosion in twisted arrays depends substantially on the value of the axial (longitudinal) magnetic field generated inside the array by the azimuthal currents. Two-dimensional simulations of the magnetic field in twisted nested arrays were performed in the ( r, z) geometry with allowance for the skin effect in the discharge electrodes. It is shown that, depending on the geometry of the discharge electrodes, different configurations of the magnetic field can be implemented inside twisted nested arrays. The calculated magnetic configurations are compared with the results of measurements of the magnetic field inside such arrays. It is shown that the configuration of the axial magnetic field inside a twisted nested array depends substantially on the distribution of the azimuthal currents between the inner and outer arrays.

  6. Intervertebral Disc Degeneration : The Role of the Mitochondrial Pathway in Annulus Fibrosus Cell Apoptosis Induced by Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Rannou, François; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Zhou, Rui-Hai; Chin, Jennie; Lotz, Jeffrey C.; Mayoux-Benhamou, Marie-Anne; Barbet, Jacques Patrick; Chevrot, Alain; Shyy, John Y.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disk (IVD) is a major pathological process implicated in low back pain and is a prerequisite to disk herniation. Although mechanical stress is an important modulator of the degeneration, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The association of human IVD degeneration, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, with annulus fibrosus cell apoptosis and anti-cytochrome c staining revealed that the activation of the mitochondria-dependent apoptosome wa...

  7. A method to estimate the necessary twist pitch in multi-filamentary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, S; Magnusson, N; Taxt, H

    2014-01-01

    Twisting of multi-filamentary superconductors is an important step in the development of wires with AC losses at an acceptable level for AC applications. The necessary twist pitch depends on wire architecture, critical current density, matrix material, and external factors such as temperature, frequency and applied magnetic field. The development of an AC optimized MgB 2 superconductor would be facilitated by a fast method to set the requirements for the twist pitch. A problem often encountered when comparing wires with different twist pitches is the degradation in critical current occurring at small twist pitches due to mechanical deformation. In this work we propose to use a non-twisted conductor to estimate the influence of twisting on the AC losses. A long superconductor is cut into smaller lengths, each simulating one third of the twist pitch, and the AC losses due to applied magnetic fields are compared between samples of different lengths. With this method, the effect of reducing the size of the loop of the coupling currents is studied without changing the superconducting parameters. AC loss measurement results are presented for a round titanium matrix MgB 2 wire with simulated twist pitches between 9 mm and 87 mm.

  8. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D 2 O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ''power tilt'' or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H 2 O rather than D 2 O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of data plots and summary files of temperature measurements

  9. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D 2 O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ''power tilt'' or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H 2 O rather than D 2 O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of a summary of temperature measurements to include recorded minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations

  10. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of a summary of temperature measurements to include recorded minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations.

  11. Partial twisting for scalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given

  12. Photophysics of internal twisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.; Lippert, E.; Rettig, W.; Bonacic-Koutecky, V.

    1987-01-01

    The formation and characteristics of the ''twisted intermolecular charge transfer'' is studied. Basic concepts on dual fluorescence, steady-state fluorescence, kinetic investigations and cage effects are discussed. The theoretical treatment on the electronic structure of the bonded π - donor - π acceptor pairs is outlined. The two-electron, two-orbital model, the ab initio CI models of simple double, charged and dative π - bonds as well as complex dative π - bonds and the origin of the dual fluorescence of 9.9'-Bianthryl are shown. Concerning the stochastic description of chemical reactions, Master equation, Markov, Birth-Death and Diffusion processes, Kramers-Moyal expansion, Langevin equation, Kramers' approach to steady-state rates of reaction and its extension to non-Markovian processes, and also unimolecular reactions in the absence of potential barrier are considered. Experimental results and interpretation on dynamics of DMABN in the excited state, kinetics of other dialkylanilines, extended donor-acceptor systems with anomalous fluorescence and donor-acceptor systems without anomalous fluorescence are given

  13. Windings of twisted strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.

  14. Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Hisao; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.

  15. Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known Δ' stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting Δ' for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces

  16. ANALYSIS OF FLOW IN A CONCENTRIC ANNULUS USING FINITE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents the computational modelling of the velocity distribution of an incompressible fluid flowing in a cylindrical annulus pipe, using the finite element method. The result shows that the velocity distribution increases from the boundaries until midway between the boundaries where it was maximum. Also, the ...

  17. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...

  18. Leading-order hadronic contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon from N_f=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Florian [Humboldt U. Berlin; Feng, Xu [KEK; Hotzel, Grit [Humboldt U. Berlin; Jansen, Karl [DESY; Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute; Renner, Dru B. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    We present results for the leading order QCD correction to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon including the first two generations of quarks as dynamical degrees of freedom. Several light quark masses are examined in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We analyse ensembles for three different lattice spacings and several volumes in order to investigate lattice artefacts and finite-size effects, respectively. We also provide preliminary results for this quantity for two flavours of mass-degenerate quarks at the physical value of the pion mass.

  19. Leading-order hadronic contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon from N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Florian; Hotzel, Grit [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Feng, Xu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Renner, Dru B. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We present results for the leading order QCD correction to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon including the first two generations of quarks as dynamical degrees of freedom. Several light quark masses are examined in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We analyse ensembles for three different lattice spacings and several volumes in order to investigate lattice artefacts and finite-size effects, respectively. We also provide preliminary results for this quantity for two flavours of mass-degenerate quarks at the physical value of the pion mass.

  20. Removal of 14C from nitrogen annulus gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A dry, ambient temperature process using Ca(OH) 2 as the sorbent to remove 14 CO 2 from moderator cover gas was further developed to remove 14 C from the extremely dry nitrogen annulus gas. Thermal gravimetric analysis was carried out to study the thermal stability of Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 -Ca(OH) 2 reaction at elevated temperatures under extremely low humidity conditions. Results shows that to achieve high utilization and avoid decomposition of Ca(OH) 2 , humidification of the annulus gas was necessary at high or low temperatures. Results of the bench scale (1-10 L/min) oxidizer study showed that, with 0.5% Pd or alumina as the catalyst, it was possible to achieve complete oxidation of CO and over 80% oxidation of CH 4 with 1% hydrogen in the nitrogen. The gas superficial velocity should be less than or equal to30 cm/s and the residence time greater than or equal to0.5 s. A pilot scale (up to 160 L/min) system including a catalytic oxidizer, a humidifier/demister, a Ca(OH) 2 reactor, a condenser/demister and regenerable molecular sieve dryers, was assembled and tested with simulated nitrogen annulus gas. Results showed that complete oxidation of the CO and 60-100% oxidation of the CH 4 with 0.5% H 2 in the simulated gas were achieved in the pilot plant. The CO 2 concentration was reduced from 30-60 μL/L at the inlet of the Ca(OH) 2 reactor to 1 μL/L or less at the outlet. After modifications of the dryer to overcome the problems encountered, the simulated annulus gas was dried to 0 C dew point before recirculation. Equipment specifications and operating conditions of a 14 C removal system for nitrogen annulus gas are summarized

  1. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  2. Twisting the N=2 string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Parkes, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    The most general homogeneous monodromy conditions in N= 2 string theory are classified in terms of the conjugacy classes of the global symmetry group U(1, 1) x Z 2 . For classes which generate a discrete subgroup Γ, the corresponding target space backgrounds C 1,1 /Γ include half spaces, complex orbifolds and tori. We propose a generalization of the intercept formula to matrix-valued twists, and find massless physical states in a number of twisted cases. In particular, the sixteen Z 2 -twisted sectors of the N = 2 string are investigated, and the corresponding ground states are identified via bosonization and BRST cohomology. We find enough room for an extended multiplet of 'spacetime' supersymmetry, with the number of supersymmetries being dependent on global 'spacetime' topology. Unfortunately, world-sheet locality for the chiral vertex operators does not permit interactions for the massless 'spacetime' fermions; however possibly, an asymmetric GSO projection could evade this problem. (orig.)

  3. Introduction to twisted conformal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development

  4. Nematic Equilibria on a Two-Dimensional Annulus

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, A. H.; Aarts, D. G. A. L.; Howell, P. D.; Majumdar, A.

    2017-01-01

    We study planar nematic equilibria on a two-dimensional annulus with strong and weak tangent anchoring, in the Oseen–Frank theoretical framework. We analyze a radially invariant defect-free state and compute analytic stability criteria for this state in terms of the elastic anisotropy, annular aspect ratio, and anchoring strength. In the strong anchoring case, we define and characterize a new spiral-like equilibrium which emerges as the defect-free state loses stability. In the weak anchoring case, we compute stability diagrams that quantify the response of the defect-free state to radial and azimuthal perturbations. We study sector equilibria on sectors of an annulus, including the effects of weak anchoring and elastic anisotropy, giving novel insights into the correlation between preferred numbers of boundary defects and the geometry. We numerically demonstrate that these sector configurations can approximate experimentally observed equilibria with boundary defects.

  5. Nematic Equilibria on a Two-Dimensional Annulus

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, A. H.

    2017-01-16

    We study planar nematic equilibria on a two-dimensional annulus with strong and weak tangent anchoring, in the Oseen–Frank theoretical framework. We analyze a radially invariant defect-free state and compute analytic stability criteria for this state in terms of the elastic anisotropy, annular aspect ratio, and anchoring strength. In the strong anchoring case, we define and characterize a new spiral-like equilibrium which emerges as the defect-free state loses stability. In the weak anchoring case, we compute stability diagrams that quantify the response of the defect-free state to radial and azimuthal perturbations. We study sector equilibria on sectors of an annulus, including the effects of weak anchoring and elastic anisotropy, giving novel insights into the correlation between preferred numbers of boundary defects and the geometry. We numerically demonstrate that these sector configurations can approximate experimentally observed equilibria with boundary defects.

  6. Flow of viscoplastic fluids in a rotating concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Bittleston, Simon H.

    1992-01-01

    pressure gradient is small compared to the yield stress of the fluid then the full solution predicts the existence of plugs attached to the outer wall of the annulus. The slot approximation fails to predict this feature. For larger pressure gradients the two solutions are in good agreement. The analytical...... calculation gives a simple expression for the critical rate at which the wall has to move to reduce the plug size to zero....

  7. Waveguides with asymptotically diverging twisting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, AUG (2015), s. 7-10 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguide * exploding twisting * Quasi-bounded * Quasi-cylindrical * discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2015

  8. Obstructions for twist star products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Esposito, Chiara; Waldmann, Stefan; Weber, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    In this short note, we point out that not every star product is induced by a Drinfel'd twist by showing that not every Poisson structure is induced by a classical r-matrix. Examples include the higher genus symplectic Pretzel surfaces and the symplectic sphere S^2.

  9. A twisted flux-tube model for solar prominences. I. General properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.; Hood, A.W.; Anzer, U.

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that a solar prominence consists of cool plasma supported in a large-scale curved and twisted magnetic flux tube. As long as the flux tube is untwisted, its curvature is concave toward the solar surface, and so it cannot support dense plasma against gravity. However, when it is twisted sufficiently, individual field lines may acquire a convex curvature near their summits and so provide support. Cool plasma then naturally tends to accumulate in such field line dips either by injection from below or by thermal condensation. As the tube is twisted up further or reconnection takes place below the prominence, one finds a transition from normal to inverse polarity. When the flux tube becomes too long or is twisted too much, it loses stability and its true magnetic geometry as an erupting prominence is revealed more clearly. 56 refs

  10. Twist deformations of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.G.; Chakraborty, B.; Toppan, F., E-mail: pgcastro@cbpf.b, E-mail: biswajit@bose.res.i, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kuznetsova, Z., E-mail: zhanna.kuznetsova@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The N-extended supersymmetric quantum mechanics is deformed via an abelian twist which preserves the super-Hopf algebra structure of its universal enveloping superalgebra. Two constructions are possible. For even N one can identify the 1D N-extended superalgebra with the fermionic Heisenberg algebra. Alternatively, supersymmetry generators can be realized as operators belonging to the Universal Enveloping Superalgebra of one bosonic and several fermionic oscillators. The deformed system is described in terms of twisted operators satisfying twist deformed (anti)commutators. The main differences between an abelian twist defined in terms of fermionic operators and an abelian twist defined in terms of bosonic operators are discussed. (author)

  11. Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlock, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra

  12. Electric currents induced by twisted light in Quantum Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, G F; Berakdar, J

    2009-10-26

    We theoretically investigate the generation of electric currents in quantum rings resulting from the optical excitation with twisted light. Our model describes the kinetics of electrons in a two-band model of a semiconductor-based mesoscopic quantum ring coupled to light having orbital angular momentum (twisted light). We find the analytical solution, which exhibits a "circular" photon-drag effect and an induced magnetization, suggesting that this system is the circular analog of that of a bulk semiconductor excited by plane waves. For realistic values of the electric field and material parameters, the computed electric current can be as large as microA; from an applied perspective, this opens new possibilities to the optical control of the magnetization in semiconductors.

  13. Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Panagopoulos, H.; Stylianou, F.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to β=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a 2 ) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to O(a 2 ). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI ' -MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors.

  14. Stability of coupled tearing and twisting modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1994-03-01

    A dispersion relation is derived for resistive modes of arbitrary parity in a tokamak plasma. At low mode amplitude, tearing and twisting modes which have nonideal MHD behavior at only one rational surface at a time in the plasma are decoupled via sheared rotation and diamagnetic flows. At higher amplitude, more unstable open-quote compound close-quote modes develop which have nonideal behavior simultaneously at many surfaces. Such modes possess tearing parity layers at some of the nonideal surfaces, and twisting parity layers at others, but mixed parity layers are generally disallowed. At low mode number, open-quote compound close-quote modes are likely to have tearing parity layers at all of the nonideal surfaces in a very low-β plasma, but twisting parity layers become more probable as the plasma β is increased. At high mode number, unstable twisting modes which exceed a critical amplitude drive conventional magnetic island chains on alternate rational surfaces, to form an interlocking structure in which the O-points and X-points of neighboring chains line up

  15. Numerical analysis of laminar forced convection in a spherical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuft, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of steady laminar incompressible fluid-flow and heat transfer in a spherical annulus are presented. Steady pressures, temperatures, velocities, and heat transfer coefficients are calculated for an insulated outer sphere and a 0 0 C isothermal inner sphere with 50 0 C heated water flowing in the annulus. The inner sphere radius is 13.97 cm, the outer sphere radius is 16.83 cm and the radius ratio is 1.2. The transient axisymmetric equations of heat, mass, and momentum conservation are solved numerically in spherical coordinates. The transient solution is carried out in time until steady state is achieved. A variable mesh is used to improve resolution near the inner sphere where temperature and velocity gradients are steep. It is believed that this is the first fully two-dimensional analysis of forced flow in a spherical annulus. Local and bulk Nusselt numbers are presented for Reynolds numbers from 4.4 to 440. Computed bulk Nusselt numbers ranged from 2 to 50 and are compared to experimental results from the literature. Inlet flow jetting off the inner sphere and flow separation are predicted by the analysis. The location of wall jet separation was found to be a function of Reynolds number, indicating the location of separation depends upon the ratio of inertia to viscous forces. Wall jet separation has a pronounced effect on the distribution of local heat flux. The area between inlet and separation was found to be the most significant area for heat transfer. Radial distributions of azimuthal velocity and temperature are presented for various angles beginning at the inlet. Inner sphere pressure distribution is presented and the effect on flow separation is discussed

  16. Effective potentials for twisted fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banach, R.

    1981-01-01

    Minus the density of the effective action, evaluated at the lowest eigenfunction of the (space-time) derivative part of the second (functional) derivative of the classical action, is proposed as a generalised definition of the effective potential, applicable to twisted as well as untwisted sectors of a field theory. The proposal is corroborated by several specific calculations in the twisted sector, namely phi 4 theory (real and complex) and wrong-sign-Gordon theory, in an Einstein cylinder, where the exact integrability of the static solutions confirms the effective potential predictions. Both models exhibit a phase transition, which the effective potential locates, and the one-loop quantum shift in the critical radius is computed for the real phi 4 model, being a universal result. Topological mass generation at the classical level is pointed out, and the exactness of the classical effective potential approximation for complex phi 4 is discussed. (author)

  17. Approximate furthest neighbor with application to annulus query

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco; Sivertsen, Johan von Tangen

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional Euclidean space. The method builds on the technique of Indyk (SODA 2003), storing random projections to provide sublinear query time for AFN. However, we introduce a different query algorithm, improving on Indyk׳s approximation factor and reducing the running time by a logarithmic factor. We also present......, the query-dependent approach is used for deriving a data structure for the approximate annulus query problem, which is defined as follows: given an input set S and two parameters r>0 and w≥1, construct a data structure that returns for each query point q a point p∈S such that the distance between p and q...

  18. Double-shell tank annulus pumping alternative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIESENWEBER, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This engineering evaluation compares five alternative schemes for maintaining emergency annulus pumping equipment in a reliable condition. The five schemes are: (1) continue status quo; (2) periodic pump removal and run-in; (3) periodic in-place limited maintenance; (4) uninstalled ready spares; and (5) expanded mission of Single-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Trailer. Each alternative is described, the pros and cons identified, and rough order of magnitude life-cycle costs computed. The alternatives are compared using weighted evaluation criteria. The evaluation concludes that staging adjustable length submersible pumps in the Single-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Trailer has the best cost-benefit characteristics

  19. Twisting formula of epsilon factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sazzad Ali Biswas

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... In this article, we give a generalized twisting formula for ϵ(χ1χ2,ψ), when both χ1 and χ2 are ramified via the following local Jacobi sums. Let UF be the group of units in OF (ring of integers of F). For characters χ1, χ2 of F. × and a positive integer n, we define the local Jacobi sum. Jt(χ1,χ2, n) = ∑ x∈UF. Un.

  20. New twist on artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-10-18

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.

  1. PARTIAL ERUPTION OF A FILAMENT WITH TWISTING NON-UNIFORM FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yi; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Xiang, Yongyuan; Cai, Yunfang; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The eruption of a filament in a kinklike fashion is often regarded as a signature of kink instability. However, the kink instability threshold for the filament’s magnetic structure is not widely understood. Using Hα observations from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present a partial eruptive filament. During the eruption, the filament thread appeared to split from its middle and to break out in a kinklike fashion. In this period, the remaining filament material stayed below and erupted without the kinking motion later on. The coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament are obtained from nonlinear force-free field extrapolations using the twelve-minute-cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We studied the extrapolated field lines passing through the magnetic dips which are in good agreement with the observed filament. The field lines are non-uniformly twisted and appear to be composed of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. One of them has a higher twist than the other, and the flux rope with the higher twist has its dips aligned with the kinking eruptive thread at the beginning of its eruption. Before the eruption, moreover, the flux rope with the higher twist was found to expand with an approximately constant field twist. In addition, the helicity flux maps deduced from the HMI magnetograms show that some helicity is injected into the overlying magnetic arcade, but no significant helicity is injected into the flux ropes. Accordingly, we suggest that the highly twisted flux rope became kink unstable when the instability threshold declined with the expansion of the flux rope

  2. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D 2 O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. Nineteen test series and a total of 178 tests were performed. Testing addressed the effects of: Heat flux; pressure; helium gas; power tilt; ribs; asymmetric heat flux. This document consists solely of the plato file index from 11/87 to 11/90

  3. Thermal convection in a co-rotating cylindrical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changwoo; Meyer, Antoine; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2017-11-01

    We investigate thermal convection in a fluid of thermal expansion coefficient α, kinematic viscosity ν, thermal diffusivity κ in a cylindrical annulus of inner radius a and outer radius bwith a solid body rotation of angular frequency Ω and an inward heating with a temperature difference ΔT. The control parameters are η = a/b, Pr = ν / κ and the Rayleigh number Ra = αΔ T gd3 / νκ where the centrifugal gravity gc =Ω2 (a +b)/2. We adopt the generalized Boussinesq approximation. Linear stability analysis shows that for infinite annulus, the threshold Rac decreases with η and tends to the value Rac = 1708 when η -> 1 and that critical modes are columnar vortices. Direct numerical simulations using periodic boundary conditions in the axial direction, show that the columnar vortices appear via a supercritical bifurcation. Higher modes of columnar vortices have been determined using the frequency spectra and the Nusselt number for Pr =1 and η = 0.5 : drifting vortices, vacillation modes and chaotic modes have been identified from Ra =1700 to Ra =107 The contribution of the centrifugal buoyancy to the variation of the kinetic energy in the flow is analysed. This work was supported by the project BIOENGINE (CPER-FEDER, Normandie) and CNES.

  4. Measurement of local void fraction in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code FLOWTRAN-TF is used to analyze hypothetical hydraulic accidents for the nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. During a hypothetical Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), reactor assemblies would contain a two-phase mixture of air and water which flows downward. Reactor assemblies consist of nested, ribbed annuli. Longitudinal ribs divide each annulus into four subchannels. For accident conditions, air and water can flow past ribs from one subchannel to another. For FLOWTRAN-TF to compute the size of those flows, it is necessary to know the local void fraction in the region of the rib. Measurements have previously been made of length-average void fraction in a ribbed annulus. However, no direct measurements were available of local void fraction. Due to the lack of data, a test was designed to measure local void fraction at the rib. One question addressed by the test was whether void fraction at the rib is solely a function of azimuthal-average void fraction or a function of additional variables such as pressure boundary conditions. This report provides a discussion of this test

  5. Dufour and Soret Effects on Square Porous Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nik-Ghazali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on heat and mass transfer behaviour on porous medium embedded in a square annulus is conducted. The inner surface wall is considered to have a cool temperature Tc while the outer surface is exposed to a hot temperature Th. Finite element method (FEM is used to solve the governing partial differential equations. The results present the influences of the Dufour and Soret effects on the heat and mass transfer of a square annulus. The effects of various physical parameters on the temperature and concentration profiles together with the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented graphically. It is found that when Dufour parameter is increased, Nusselt number increases. Dufour effect has more influences on velocity profile, while it has no significant effect on the concentration and can be deemed negligible. It is observed that the local Nusselt number is highest at the bottom wall for low values of Dufour parameter; however, the top wall Nusselt number is highest for higher values of Dufour parameter. Soret effect tends to make more significant contribution to the concentration profile than Dufour effect.

  6. Modeling and control of active twist aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Nicholas Bryan

    The Wright Brothers marked the beginning of powered flight in 1903 using an active twist mechanism as their means of controlling roll. As time passed due to advances in other technologies that transformed aviation the active twist mechanism was no longer used. With the recent advances in material science and manufacturability, the possibility of the practical use of active twist technologies has emerged. In this dissertation, the advantages and disadvantages of active twist techniques are investigated through the development of an aeroelastic modeling method intended for informing the designs of such technologies and wind tunnel testing to confirm the capabilities of the active twist technologies and validate the model. Control principles for the enabling structural technologies are also proposed while the potential gains of dynamic, active twist are analyzed.

  7. Twisting dependent properties of twisted carbon nanotube fibers: microstructure and strain transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinyuan; Xie, Erqing; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-01-01

    The dependences of twisting parameters on the electric and mechanical properties of twisted CNT fibers were systematically studied. Results from electric and mechanical measurements showed that twisting intensity is very effective to improve the electric and mechanical properties of CNT fibers. Further calculations combined with Raman results indicate that the twisting treatments, to a certain extent, can greatly enhance the strain transfer factors of the samples, which dominates the mechanical properties of CNT fibers. In addition, studies on the effect of twisting speeds suggested that lower twisting speed can lead to higher uniformity but lower performances in the electric and mechanical properties, higher twisting speed to higher Young’s modulus and higher conductance but lower uniformities. Ultra-strong uniform CNT fibers need to be prepared with a suitable twisting speed. (paper)

  8. Superconducting flat tape cable magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto

    2015-08-11

    A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.

  9. Remarks on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-04-15

    We review recent results on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory by embedding it into a general framework for the quantization of systems with a twisted symmetry. We discuss commutation relations in this setting and show that the twisted structure is so rigid that it is hard to derive any predictions, unless one gives up general principles of quantum theory. It is also shown that the twisted structure is not responsible for the presence or absence of UV/IR-mixing, as claimed in the literature. (Orig.)

  10. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term

  11. Device for measuring well twistings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, Yu S; Golubin, S V; Keller, V F; Merzheyevskiy, A B; Zdorov, V P

    1982-01-01

    The device for measuring the well twistings with the use of fluids (poured into a vessel and which leave an imprint on the walls), containing a housing and adapter, is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the accuracy of measurement by obtaining a clear imprint, it is equipped with cylinder that is spring-loaded in relation to the adapter, forming a vessel for fluid with the adapter. The adapter is made of two parts, one of which is made of neutral metal in relation to the fluid, and the other, from active in relation to the same fluid.

  12. Turbulent heat transfer studies in annulus with inner cylinder rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Scott, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental investigations of turbulent heat transfer are made in a large-gap annulus with both rotating and nonrotating inner cylinder. The vertical annular channel has an electrically heated outer wall; the inner wall i thermally and electrically insulated. The axial air flow is allowed to develop before rotation and heating are imparted. The resulting temperature fields are investigated using thermocouple probes located near the channel exit. The wall heat flux, wall axial temperature development, and radial temperature profiles are measured. For each axial Reynolds number, three heat flux rates are used. Excellent correlation is established between rotational and nonrotational Nusselt number. The proper correlation parameter is a physical quantity characterizing the flow helix. This parameter is the inverse of the ratio of axial travel of the flow helix in terms of hydraulic diameter, per half revolution of the spinning wall

  13. Opposing flow in square porous annulus: Influence of Dufour effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athani, Abdulgaphur; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Khaleed, H. M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium is very important area of research which is also termed as double diffusive convection or thermo-solutal convection. The buoyancy ratio which is the ratio of thermal to concentration buoyancy can have negative values thus leading to opposing flow. This article is aimed to study the influence of Dufour effect on the opposing flow in a square porous annulus. The partial differential equations that govern the heat and mass transfer behavior inside porous medium are solved using finite element method. A three node triangular element is used to divide the porous domain into smaller elements. Results are presented with respect to geometric and physical parameters such as duct diameter ratio, Rayleigh number, radiation parameter etc. It is found that the heat transfer increase with increase in Rayleigh number and radiation parameter. It is observed that Dufour coefficient has more influence on velocity profile.

  14. Opposing flow in square porous annulus: Influence of Dufour effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athani, Abdulgaphur, E-mail: abbu.bec@gmail.com [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Anjuman Institute of Technology & Management, Bhatkal (India); Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A., E-mail: aa.alrashed@paaet.edu.kw [Dept. of Automotive and Marine Engineering Technology, College of Technological Studies, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (Kuwait); Khaleed, H. M. T., E-mail: khalid-tan@yahoo.com [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University, Madinah Munawwarra (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-21

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium is very important area of research which is also termed as double diffusive convection or thermo-solutal convection. The buoyancy ratio which is the ratio of thermal to concentration buoyancy can have negative values thus leading to opposing flow. This article is aimed to study the influence of Dufour effect on the opposing flow in a square porous annulus. The partial differential equations that govern the heat and mass transfer behavior inside porous medium are solved using finite element method. A three node triangular element is used to divide the porous domain into smaller elements. Results are presented with respect to geometric and physical parameters such as duct diameter ratio, Rayleigh number, radiation parameter etc. It is found that the heat transfer increase with increase in Rayleigh number and radiation parameter. It is observed that Dufour coefficient has more influence on velocity profile.

  15. Bovine annulus fibrosus cell lines isolated from intervertebral discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kraus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult bovine (Bos taurus intervertebral disc is primarily comprised of two major tissue types: The outer annulus fibrosus (AF and the central nucleus pulposus (NP. We isolated several primary cell lineages of passage (P 0 cells from the AF tissue omitting typically used enzymatic tissue digestion protocols. The cells grow past p10 without signs of senescence in DMEM + 10% FCS on 0.1% gelatin coated/uncoated surfaces of standard cell culture plates and survive freeze-thawing. Preliminary analysis of the AF derived cells for expression of the two structural genes Col1a1 and Col2a1 was performed by PISH recapitulating the expression observed in vivo.

  16. Critical heat flux determination in an annulus section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes C, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The present report explains the phenomenon of Critical heat flux. The study of this physical phenomenon is carried out during the boiling of a liquid and is of supreme importance for the calculation and operation of a nuclear reactor even in the moderns generators of steam (thermoelectric and nucleoelectrics), industrial cooling and in all those industrial process that use a liquid subject to sources of heating and to conditions of work excessively high (temperatures and pressures) so that stay in operation in an appropriate manner and sure. Once well-known this value, the equipment used in these process works with a maximum heat that is smaller than the Critical Heat Flux. The study of the Critical Heat Flux has achieved important advances in the last years, mainly for the enormous obligation that in this moment involved the safety to world level, this has forced to researchers and designers of this type of equipment to center their attention in the obtaining of a correlation which of general way explains it. In this reports two correlations will be compared that they contribute to the evaluation of the Critical Heat Flux in annulus and that they try to be generals in this type of geometry, the Shah correlation's and the Katto correlation's. The same as most of the correlations, these have been calculated so that the fluid of work is water, although they have also been proven with others fluids. The results obtained in this report only will show the degree of advance which the investigation of this phenomenon has achieved in annulus and to low amounts of flow of liquid, like which they are in the Experimental Heat Transfer Circuit located in the Department of Physics of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  17. Saturated Pool Boiling in Vertical Annulus with Reduced Outflow Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied extensively to design efficient heat transfer devices or to assure the integrity of safety related systems. However, knowledge on pool boiling heat transfer in a confined space is still quite limited. The confined nucleate boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Improved heat transfer might be attributed to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient due to vaporization from the thin liquid film on the heating surface or increased bubble activity. According to Cornwell and Houston, the bubbles sliding on the heated surface agitate environmental liquid. In a confined space a kind of pulsating flow due to the bubbles is created and, as a result very active liquid agitation is generated. The increase in the intensity of liquid agitation results in heat transfer enhancement. Sometimes a deterioration of heat transfer appears at high heat fluxes for confined boiling. The cause of the deterioration is suggested as active bubble coalescence. Recently, Kang published inflow effects on pool boiling heat transfer in a vertical annulus with closed bottoms. Kang regulated the gap size at the upper regions of the annulus and identified that effects of the reduced gaps on heat transfer become evident as the heat flux increases. This kind of geometry is found in an in-pile test section. Since more detailed analysis is necessary, effects of the outflow area on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer are investigated in this study. Up to the author's knowledge, no previous results concerning to this effect have been published yet

  18. Challenges and strategies in the repair of ruptured annulus fibrosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Guterl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar discectomy is the surgical procedure most frequently performed for patients suffering from low back pain and sciatica. Disc herniation as a consequence of degenerative or traumatic processes is commonly encountered as the underlying cause for the painful condition. While discectomy provides favourable outcome in a majority of cases, there are conditions where unmet requirements exist in terms of treatment, such as large disc protrusions with minimal disc degeneration; in these cases, the high rate of recurrent disc herniation after discectomy is a prevalent problem. An effective biological annular repair could improve the surgical outcome in patients with contained disc herniations but otherwise minor degenerative changes. An attractive approach is a tissue-engineered implant that will enable/stimulate the repair of the ruptured annulus. The strategy is to develop three-dimensional scaffolds and activate them by seeding cells or by incorporating molecular signals that enable new matrix synthesis at the defect site, while the biomaterial provides immediate closure of the defect and maintains the mechanical properties of the disc. This review is structured into (1 introduction, (2 clinical problems, current treatment options and needs, (3 biomechanical demands, (4 cellular and extracellular components, (5 biomaterials for delivery, scaffolding and support, (6 pre-clinical models for evaluation of newly developed cell- and material-based therapies, and (7 conclusions. This article highlights that an interdisciplinary approach is necessary for successful development of new clinical methods for annulus fibrosus repair. This will benefit from a close collaboration between research groups with expertise in all areas addressed in this review.

  19. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  20. Quantisation of monotonic twist maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasman, P.A.; Smilansky, U.

    1993-08-01

    Using an approach suggested by Moser, classical Hamiltonians are generated that provide an interpolating flow to the stroboscopic motion of maps with a monotonic twist condition. The quantum properties of these Hamiltonians are then studied in analogy with recent work on the semiclassical quantization of systems based on Poincare surfaces of section. For the generalized standard map, the correspondence with the usual classical and quantum results is shown, and the advantages of the quantum Moser Hamiltonian demonstrated. The same approach is then applied to the free motion of a particle on a 2-torus, and to the circle billiard. A natural quantization condition based on the eigenphases of the unitary time--development operator is applied, leaving the exact eigenvalues of the torus, but only the semiclassical eigenvalues for the billiard; an explanation for this failure is proposed. It is also seen how iterating the classical map commutes with the quantization. (authors)

  1. Tank 16 Annulus Cleanout Analysis Doses at Seepline from Transport of Residual Tc-99 Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of residual Tc-99 in the Tank 16 annulus was conducted to assess the potential benefit from cleaning the annulus. One analysis was performed for the as-is case to determine seepline doses if no clean out occurs. Another analysis was performed assuming that ninety percent of existing contaminants are removed. Characterization data for samples retrieved from the annulus were used in the analysis. Only Tc-99 was analyzed because preliminary modeling identified it as the highest dose contributor. The effect of residual waste in piping was not analyzed

  2. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.; Humboldt Univ. Berlin

    2011-02-01

    We present results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon magnetic moment, Dirac and Pauli radii are obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass allowing for a comparison with experiment. (orig.)

  3. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.; Constantinou, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cutoff effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon magnetic moment, Dirac and Pauli radii are obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass allowing for a comparison with experiment.

  4. Nucleon form factors with NF=2 twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Korzec, T.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P.A.; Jansen, K.

    2009-10-01

    We present results on the electromagnetic and axial nucleon form factors using two degenerate flavors of twisted mass fermions on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm and 2.7 fm and a lattice spacing of about 0.09 fm. We consider pion masses in the range of 260-470MeV.We chirally extrapolate results on the nucleon axial charge, the isovector Dirac and Pauli root mean squared radii and magnetic moment to the physical point and compare to experiment. (orig.)

  5. Four-point functions with a twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargheer, Till [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2017-01-15

    We study the OPE of correlation functions of local operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The considered operators have an explicit spacetime dependence that is defined by twisting the translation generators with certain R-symmetry generators. We restrict to operators that carry a small number of excitations above the twisted BMN vacuum. The OPE limit of the four-point correlator is dominated by internal states with few magnons on top of the vacuum. The twisting directly couples all spacetime dependence of the correlator to these magnons. We analyze the OPE in detail, and single out the extremal states that have to cancel all double-trace contributions.

  6. Euclidean supersymmetry, twisting and topological sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.; Lindstroem, U.; Santos, L. Melo dos; Zabzine, M.; Unge, R. von

    2008-01-01

    We discuss two dimensional N-extended supersymmetry in Euclidean signature and its R-symmetry. For N = 2, the R-symmetry is SO(2) x SO(1, 1), so that only an A-twist is possible. To formulate a B-twist, or to construct Euclidean N = 2 models with H-flux so that the target geometry is generalised Kahler, it is necessary to work with a complexification of the sigma models. These issues are related to the obstructions to the existence of non-trivial twisted chiral superfields in Euclidean superspace.

  7. Molecular Imaging Agents Specific for the Annulus Fibrosus of the Intervertebral Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer L. Gibbs-Strauss

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is a prevalent medical condition that is difficult to diagnose and treat. Current imaging methods are unable to correlate pain reliably with spinal structures, and surgical removal of painful damaged or degenerating disks is technically challenging. A contrast agent specific for the intervertebral disk could assist in the detection, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of low back pain. The styryl pyridinium (FM fluorophores were characterized and structure-activity relationships between chemical structure and in vivo uptake were established. Two novel FM fluorophores with improved optical properties for imaging the intervertebral disks were synthesized and evaluated in mice, rats, and pigs. After a single systemic injection, eight of eight FM fluorophores provided high-contrast imaging of the trigeminal ganglia, whereas six of eight provided high-contrast imaging of the dorsal root ganglia. Unexpectedly, three of eight FM fluorophores provided high-contrast imaging of annulus fibrosus tissue of the intervertebral disks, confirmed histologically. We present the first known contrast agent specific for the intervertebral disks and identify the chemical structural motif that mediates uptake. FM fluorophores could be used for image-guided surgery to assist in the removal of intervertebral disk and lay the foundation for derivatives for magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography.

  8. analysis of flow in a concentric annulus using finite element method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. This work presents the computational modelling of the velocity distribution of an incompressible fluid flowing in a ... The flow of fluids is important for many engineering applications. ... on an annulus shaped channel. Annular flow ...

  9. A combined biomaterial and cellular approach for annulus fibrosus rupture repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirvu, T.; Blanquer, Sebastien; Benneker, L.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Richards, R.; Alini, M.; Eglin, D.; Grad, S.; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation and degenerative disc disease have been identified as the most important factors contributing to persistent pain and disability after surgical discectomy. An annulus fibrosus (AF) closure device that provides immediate closure of the AF rupture,

  10. A combined biomaterial and cellular approach for annulus fibrosus rupture repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirvu, Tatiana; Blanquer, Sebastien B. G.; Benneker, Lorin M.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Richards, Robert G.; Alini, Mauro; Eglin, David; Grad, Sibylle; Li, Zhen

    Recurrent intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation and degenerative disc disease have been identified as the most important factors contributing to persistent pain and disability after surgical discectomy. An annulus fibrosus (AF) closure device that provides immediate closure of the AF rupture,

  11. The optimal project position for demonstrating tricuspid annulus in angiography: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yuan; Zong Gongjun; Wang Hongru; Qin Yongwen; Huang Xinmiao; Jiang Haibin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the optimal project position for demonstrating tricuspid annulus angiographically in experimental goats. Methods: Eight healthy goats underwent right atrial angiography by using 6 F pig tail catheters. Under fluoroscopic monitoring the contrast media (total 110 ml, flow rate 12 ml/ s, pressure 800 psi) was injected continuously while a serious exposures were performed from RAO position to LAO position (totally 180 degree rotation). The maximum diameter of the tricuspid annulus in every picture was measured and the results were compared with that obtained from sonography. Results: The procedure was successful in all 8 experimental goats. The optimal project position to display the tricuspid annulus was at 27 degree ± 3 degree in RAO position. Conclusion: In angiography, the tricuspid annulus can be best demonstrated at the project position of 27 degree ± 3 degree in RAO. (authors)

  12. The cyclicity of period annulus of a quadratic reversible Lotka–Volterra system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chengzhi; Llibre, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    We prove that by perturbing the periodic annulus of the quadratic polynomial reversible Lotka–Volterra differential system, inside the class of all quadratic polynomial differential systems we can obtain at most two limit cycles

  13. Identification of rabbit annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available Annulus fibrosus (AF injuries can lead to substantial deterioration of intervertebral disc (IVD which characterizes degenerative disc disease (DDD. However, treatments for AF repair/regeneration remain challenging due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of AF tissue at cellular, biochemical, and biomechanical levels. In this study, we isolated and characterized a sub-population of cells from rabbit AF tissue which formed colonies in vitro and could self-renew. These cells showed gene expression of typical surface antigen molecules characterizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, including CD29, CD44, and CD166. Meanwhile, they did not express negative markers of MSCs such as CD4, CD8, and CD14. They also expressed Oct-4, nucleostemin, and SSEA-4 proteins. Upon induced differentiation they showed typical osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis potential. Together, these AF-derived colony-forming cells possessed clonogenicity, self-renewal, and multi-potential differentiation capability, the three criteria characterizing MSCs. Such AF-derived stem cells may potentially be an ideal candidate for DDD treatments using cell therapies or tissue engineering approaches.

  14. On the twist-2 and twist-3 contributions to the spin-dependent electroweak structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.

    1997-01-01

    The twist-2 and twist-3 contributions of the polarized deep-inelastic structure functions are calculated both for neutral and charged current interactions using the operator product expansion in lowest order in QCD. The relations between the different structure functions are determined. New integral relations are derived between the twist-2 contributions of the structure functions g 3 (x,Q 2 ) and g 5 (x,Q 2 ) and between combinations of the twist-3 contributions to the structure functions g 2 (x,Q 2 ) and g 3 (x,Q 2 ). The sum rules for polarized deep-inelastic scattering are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  15. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  16. Twisted covariant noncommutative self-dual gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-01-01

    A twisted covariant formulation of noncommutative self-dual gravity is presented. The formulation for constructing twisted noncommutative Yang-Mills theories is used. It is shown that the noncommutative torsion is solved at any order of the θ expansion in terms of the tetrad and some extra fields of the theory. In the process the first order expansion in θ for the Plebanski action is explicitly obtained.

  17. OAM mode converter in twisted fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Cordeiro, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA.......We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA....

  18. Further Generalisations of Twisted Gabidulin Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann; Sheekey, John

    2017-01-01

    We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes.......We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes....

  19. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.

    2001-01-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  20. Knockdown of asporin affects transforming growth factor-β1-induced matrix synthesis in human intervertebral annulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our results have verified a functional feedback loop between TGF-β1 and asporin in human intervertebral annulus cells indicating that TGF-β1-induced annulus matrix biosynthesis can be significantly upregulated by knockdown of asporin. Therefore, asporin could be a potential new therapeutic target and inhibition of asporin could be adopted to enhance the anabolic effect of TGF-β1 in human intervertebral annulus cells in degenerative IVD diseases.

  1. Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q_e_f_f accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.

  2. Saturated flow boiling heat transfer in water-heated vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Licheng; Yan Changqi; Sun Zhonning

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the saturated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of water at 1 atm and low velocities in water-heated vertical annuli with equivalent diameters of 10 mm and 6 mm. Test section is consisted of two concentric circular tubes outer of which is made of quartz, so the whole test courses can be visualized. There are three main flow patterns of bubble flow, churn flow and churn-annular flow in the annuli, most important of which is churn flow. Flooding is the mechanism of churn flow and churn can enhance the heat transport between steam and water; Among the three factors of mass flux, inlet subcooling and annulus width, the last one has great effect on heat transport, moderately decreasing the annulus width can enhance the heat transfer; Combined annular flow model with theory of flooding and turbulent Prandtl Number, the numerical value of heat flux is given, the shape of test boiling curve and that of calculated by model is very alike, but there is large discrepancy between test data and calculated results, the most possible reason is that some parameters given by fluid flooding model are based on experimental data of common circular tubes, but not of annuli. Doing more research on flooding in annulus, particularly narrow annulus, is necessary for calculating the saturated boiling in annulus. (authors)

  3. Higher-twist correlations in polarized hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangerman, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the response of polarized hadrons to several high-energy probes, working in the framework of the field theoretic model. Emphasis is laid upon higher-twist effects such as quark transverse momentum. The inclusive DIS process is very well suited to study QCD. From general principles we were able to derive four positivity constraints on the structure functions without invoking the helicity formalism. The on-shell quark model is used to illustrate these constraints. Subseqeuently, we concentrated on the higher-twist structure function g 2 (x,Q 2 ). (orig./HSI)

  4. Factorising the 3D topologically twisted index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on {S}_2 times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the 3D topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on {S}_2 times halves of {S}_1 , second as TTCSM on {S}_2 times {S}_1 — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on {S}_2× {S}_1 . In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is constrained to be anti-hermitian.

  5. Technical Information to Support Double Shell Tank (DST) Emergency Annulus Pumping [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-09-14

    This document provides the design calculations for the DST Annulus Emergency Pumping Project. This document also contains essential information relative to DST annulus emergency pumping that may not be found in other documents. This information consists of the following: Index drawing for annulus pumping; References to the Acceptance Test Report, DST Emergency Pumping Guide, Time Deployment study, etc.; Statements of work; and Reference CEIS and RMIS numbers. A Vendor Information document, VI-50121, is not included in this document, but a copy can be obtained by contacting Document Control Services. This document contains various information regarding the Hydrostar pumps, such as the air motor, cylinder size, pump installation and operation manual. It also contains information regarding the Flygt BS2060 submersible pump, such as parts list, pump handling, preventative maintenance, overhaul and repair. In addition, this document also has information on 3-way PM ball valves, electrical skid components and the alternate Gurman-Rupp stainless steel submersible pump.

  6. Experimental Study of Annulus Flow for Can Combustor with Vibration Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami. Y. Dahham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrate on studying the behavior of velocity profile under the influence of different frequency (34, 48, 65 and 80 Hz in each of the upper and lower annulus of Can Combustor.An experimental rig was designed to simulate the annulus flow inside a Can Combustor.The Can Combustor tested in this study is real part collected from Al-Khairat/Iraq gas turbine power station.The velocity profiles are investigated at three positions in the annular for upper and lower region.The axial velocity and turbulence intensity are calculating with different frequency for upper and lower annulus.The results were shown that the increase of frequency lead to increase the velocity profile and large recirculation zone will build in some points.Reynolds number increasing with raise of axial velocity. Also the increasing in vibration level cause non-uniform velocity profile which affect on distribution of cooling effectiveness.

  7. Design of modified annulus air sampling system for the detection of leakage in waste transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, U.V; Khot, A.R.; Mathew, P.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.; Srivastava, Srishti

    2018-01-01

    Various liquid waste streams are generated during the operation of reprocessing plant. The High Level (HL), Intermediate Level (IL) and Low Level (LL) liquid wastes generated, are transferred from reprocessing plant to Waste Management Facility. These respective waste streams are transferred through pipe-in-pipe lines along the shielded concrete trench. For detection of radioactive leakage from primary waste transfer line into secondary line, sampling of the annulus air between the two pipes is carried out. The currently installed pressurized annulus air sampling system did not have online leakage detection provision. Hence, there are chances of personal exposure and airborne activity in the working area. To overcome these design flaws, free air flow modified online annulus air sampling system with more safety features is designed

  8. Experimental study of the steady natural convection in a horizontal annulus with irregular boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The natural convective heat transfer across an annulus with irregular boundaries was studied using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The annulus was formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. This configuration models, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor spent fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. During the test, the annulus was filled with a single gas, either neon, air, argon, krypton, or xenon, at a pressure of about 0.5 MPa. From temperature measurements, both local and mean Nusselt numbers (Nu/sub Δ/) at the surface of the inner cylinder were evaluated, with the mean Rayleigh number (anti Ra/sub Δ/) varying from 4.54 x 10 4 to 0.915 x 10 6 (Δ is the local gas width). The data correlation for the mean Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers is given by anti Nu/sub Δ/ = 0.183 anti Ra/sub Δ/ 0 310

  9. A higher twist correction to heavy quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Soper, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    The leading twist prediction for heavy quark production and a model for a higher twist correction that may be important for charm production was discussed. The correction arises from the interaction of the charm quark with spectator quarks

  10. Regimes of Axisymmetric Flow and Scaling Laws in a Rotating Annulus with Local Convective Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Wright

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study of axisymmetric flow in a rotating annulus in which local thermal forcing, via a heated annular ring on the outside of the base and a cooled circular disk in the centre of the top surface, drives convection. This new configuration is a variant of the classical thermally-driven annulus, where uniform heating and cooling are applied through the outer and inner sidewalls respectively. The annulus provides an analogue to a planetary circulation and the new configuration, with its more relaxed vertical thermal boundary conditions, is expected to better emulate vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions as well as baroclinic instability in the mid-latitude baroclinic zone. Using the Met Office/Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory (MORALS code, we have investigated a series of equilibrated, two dimensional axisymmetric flows across a large region of parameter space. These are characterized in terms of their velocity and temperature fields. When rotation is applied several distinct flow regimes may be identified for different rotation rates and strengths of differential heating. These regimes are defined as a function of the ratio of the horizontal Ekman layer thickness to the non-rotating thermal boundary layer thickness and are found to be similar to those identified in previous annulus experiments. Convection without rotation is also considered and the scaling of the heat transport with Rayleigh number is calculated. This is then compared with existing work on the classical annulus as well as horizontal and Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As with previous studies on both rotating and non-rotating convection the system’s behaviour is found to be aspect ratio dependent. This dependence is seen in the scaling of the non-rotating Nusselt number and in transitions between regimes in the rotating case although further investigation is required to fully explain these observations.

  11. Experimental investigation on subcooled boiling heat transfer in a vertical double-face heated narrow annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Mingyu; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    2005-01-01

    Experimental investigation on the subcooled boiling heat transfer was carried out in a vertical up-flow double narrow annulus with 1.5 mm gap. The working fluid is deionized water. The ranges of parameters as follows: pressure 0.84-6.09 MPa, mass flux 41.9-300.2 kg/(m 2 ·s), heat flux 2.61-114.41kW/m 2 . An empiric correlation used to predict the heat transfer of subcooled boiling in narrow annulus is induced from the experimental data. (author)

  12. Extraordinary acoustic transmission through annuluses in air and its applications in acoustic beam splitter and concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Yong; Liu, Shu-sen; Yuan, Shou-qi; Xia, Jian-ping; Guan, Yi-jun; Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2016-01-01

    We report an extraordinary acoustic transmission through two layer annuluses made of metal cylinders in air both numerically and experimentally. The effect arises from the enhancement and reconstruction of the incident source induced by different Mie-resonance modes of the annuluses. The proposed system takes advantages of the consistency in the waveform between the input and output waves, the high amplitude amplification of output waves, and the easy adjustment of structure. More interestingly, we investigate the applications of the extraordinary acoustic transmission in the acoustic beam splitter and acoustic concentrator. Our finding should have an impact on ultrasonic applications.

  13. Twist operators in N=4 beta-deformed theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.; Łukowski, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we derive both the leading order finite size corrections for twist-2 and twist-3 operators and the next-to-leading order finite-size correction for twist-2 operators in beta-deformed SYM theory. The obtained results respect the principle of maximum transcendentality as well as

  14. Twisted Frobenius Identities from Vertex Operator Superalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zuevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the continuous orbifold partition function and a generating function for all n-point correlation functions for the rank two free fermion vertex operator superalgebra on the self-sewing torus, we introduce the twisted version of Frobenius identity.

  15. Hilbert's Grand Hotel with a series twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Chanakya; Mamolo, Ami; Zazkis, Rina

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new twist on a familiar paradox, linking seemingly disparate ideas under one roof. Hilbert's Grand Hotel, a paradox which addresses infinite set comparisons is adapted and extended to incorporate ideas from calculus - namely infinite series. We present and resolve several variations, and invite the reader to explore his or her own variations.

  16. On the Compton Twist-3 Asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkiyan, V.M.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1994-01-01

    The 'fermionic poles' contribution to the twist-3 single asymmetry in the gluon Compton process is calculated. The 'gluonic poles' existence seems to contradict the density matrix positivity. Qualitative predictions for the direct photon and jets asymmetries are presented. 13 refs., 2 figs

  17. Generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonskyi, I. A.; Feigin, E. B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce the notion of generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras. We study their representation-theoretic and combinatorial properties and also their connection with nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials. As an application, we compute the dimension of the classical Weyl modules in the remaining unknown case.

  18. Hardy Inequalities in Globally Twisted Waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briet, Ph.; Hammedi, H.; Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 7 (2015), s. 939-958 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguides * twisted tubes * Dirichlet Laplacian * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  19. Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending-twist coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Bergamini, Andrea; Ermanni, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending-twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated.

  20. Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending–twist coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Ermanni, Paolo; Bergamini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending–twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated. (paper)

  1. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in annulus laminar flow of multi tubes-in-tube helical coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, S. A.; Elattar, H. F.; Fouda, A.; Refaey, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, a CFD analysis using ANSYS-FLUENT 14.5 CFD package is used to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer of laminar flow in annulus formed by multi tubes in tube helically coiled heat exchanger. The numerical results are validated by comparison with previous experimental data and fair agreements were existed. The influences of the design and operation parameters such as heat flux, Reynolds numbers and annulus geometry on the heat transfer characteristics are investigated. Different annulus of different numbers of inner tubes, specifically 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 tubes, are tested. The Results showed that for all the studied annulus, the heat flux has no effect on the Nusselt number and compactness parameter. The annulus formed by using five inner tubes showed the best heat transfer performance and compactness parameter. Correlation of predicting Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds number and number of inner tubes are presented.

  2. Effective electrical and thermal conductivity of multifilament twisted superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechetkin, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    The effective electrical and thermal conductivity of composite wire with twisted superconducting filaments embedded into normal metal matrix is calculated using the extension of Bruggeman method. The resistive conductivity of superconducting filaments is described in terms of symmetric tensor, whereas the conductivity of a matrix is assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous. The dependence of the resistive electrical conductivity of superconducting filaments on temperature, magnetic field, and current density is implied to be parametric. The resulting effective conductivity tensor proved to be non-diagonal and symmetric. The non-diagonal transverse–longitudinal components of effective electrical conductivity tensor are responsible for the redistribution of current between filaments. In the limits of high and low electrical conductivity of filaments the transverse effective conductivity tends to that of obtained previously by Carr. The effective thermal conductivity of composite wires is non-diagonal and radius-dependent even for the isotropic and homogeneous thermal conductivities of matrix and filaments.

  3. MHD mixed convection in a vertical annulus filled with Al2O3–water nanofluid considering nanoparticle migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvandi, A.; Safaei, M.R.; Kaffash, M.H.; Ganji, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, an MHD mixed convection of alumina/water nanofluid inside a vertical annular pipe is investigated theoretically. The model used for the nanofluid mixture involves Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusivities in order to take into account the effects of nanoparticle migration. Since the thermophoresis is the main mechanism of the nanoparticle migration, different temperature gradients have been imposed using the asymmetric heating. Considering hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed flow, the governing equations have been reduced to two-point ordinary boundary value differential equations and they have been solved numerically. It is revealed that the imposed thermal asymmetry would change the direction of nanoparticle migration and distorts the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration profiles. Moreover, it is shown that the advantage of nanofluids in heat transfer enhancement is reduced in the presence of a magnetic field. - Highlights: • MHD mixed convection of alumina/water nanofluid inside a vertical annulus. • The effects of nanoparticle migration on rheological and thermophysical characteristics. • The effects of asymmetric heating on nanoparticle migration. • The effects of asymmetric heating on the heat transfer enhancement. • Inclusion of nanoparticles in presence of a magnetic field has a negative effect on performance

  4. Calculation of laminar incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer during spherical annulus filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuft, D.B.

    1979-04-01

    A method of computing laminar incompressible fluid-flow and heat transfer during the filling of a spherical annulus is presented. Transient fluid temperatures and heat flux rates in the spherical annulus are calculated for an insulated outer sphere and a constant temperature inner sphere with heated water filling the annulus from the bottom. To achieve a solution, laminar axially symmetric flow is assumed and the Marker-and-Cell (MAC) free surface computational method is applied to this problem in spherical coordinates. Changes in the standard MAC treatment are incorporated and special methods for handling the free surface are introduced. A variable mesh is used to improve resolution near the inner sphere where temperature and velocity gradients are steep and the governing equations are derived for variable fluid properties to allow an eddy viscosity turbulence model to be applied later. Calculations of velocity, temperature, and inner sphere heat flux in a spherical annulus of 139.7 mm inner radius, and 168.3 mm outer radius within an inlet tube diameter of 38.1 mm are presented

  5. First bulk and surface results for the ATLAS ITk Strip stereo annulus sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; The ATLAS collaboration; Affolder, Tony; Bohm, Jan; Botte, James Michael; Ciungu, Bianca; Dette, Karola; Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Fadeyev, Vitaliy

    2018-01-01

    A novel microstrip sensor geometry, the stereo annulus, has been developed for use in the end-cap of the ATLAS experiment's strip tracker upgrade at the HL-LHC. Its first implementation is in the ATLAS12EC sensors a large-area, radiation-hard, single-sided, ac-coupled, \

  6. On the Linearized Darboux Equation Arising in Isometric Embedding of the Alexandrov Positive Annulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhe LI

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper,the solvability condition of the linearized Gauss-Codazzi system and the solutions to the homogenous system are given.In the meantime,the Solvability of a relevant linearized Darboux equation is given.The equations are arising in a geometric problem which is concerned with the realization of the Alexandrov's positive annulus in R3.

  7. In Shop Acceptance Test Report for the SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following test report was written for the SY tank farm annulus leak detectors. The test plan used was HNF-4546, Revision 1. The purpose of the test plan was to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation. The test plan set various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  8. Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus: unmasking a master of disguise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yale Tung-Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus is an underdiagnosed disease, which can be associated with aging and cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia or end-stage renal disease. This disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in order to avoid unnecessary tests or even surgery.

  9. Mechanical restoration and failure analyses of a hydrogel and scaffold composite strategy for annulus fibrosus repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, R.G.; Bürki, A.; Zysset, P.; Eglin, D.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Blanquer, Sebastien; Hecht, A.C.; Iatridis, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Unrepaired defects in the annulus fibrosus of intervertebral disks are associated with degeneration and persistent back pain. A clinical need exists for a disk repair strategy that can seal annular defects, be easily delivered during surgical procedures, and restore biomechanics with low risk of

  10. Development of poly(trimethylene carbonate) network implants for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquer, Sebastien; Sharifi, Shahriar; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Intervertebral disk degeneration is the main cause of chronic back pain. Disk degeneration often leads to tearing of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and extrusion of the nucleus pulposus (NP), which compresses the nerves. Current treatment involves removing the herniated NP and suturing the

  11. Structural analysis and evaluation of the 241SY101 tank annulus heat-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the structural analysis (static and thermal loads) of the 241SY101 tank to determine the maximum allowable temperature and rate of heating that could be applied to tank 241SY101 through annulus air heating without detrimental effects to the structural integrity of the concrete and steel liner of the tank

  12. An annulus fibrosus closure device based on a biodegradable shape-memory polymer network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; van Kooten, Theo G.; Kranenburg, Hendrik-Jan C.; Meij, Bjorn P.; Behl, Marc; Lendlein, Andreas; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    Injuries to the intervertebral disc caused by degeneration or trauma often lead to tearing of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and extrusion of the nucleus pulposus (NP). This can compress nerves and cause lower back pain. In this study, the characteristics of poly(D,L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate)

  13. Numerical analysis of thermal behavior of a heat exchanger made of double-finned annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz Junior, M.; Colle, S.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper reports a boundary integral solution analysis of a countercurrent heat exchanger made of a double-finned annulus. The enhancement of the heat transfer surface is obtained by longitudinal straight finns which are placed on the intermediate surface. The Nusselt number is compared with data obtained from analytical solution available for limiting-cases. (author) [pt

  14. A mitral annulus tracking approach for navigation of off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng P; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a real-time mitral valve annulus (MVA) tracking approach based on biplane transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) data and magnetic tracking systems (MTS) to be used in minimally invasive off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair (MVR). The authors' guidance system consists of three major components: TEE, magnetic tracking system, and an image guidance software platform. TEE provides real-time intraoperative images to show the cardiac motion and intracardiac surgical tools. The magnetic tracking system tracks the TEE probe and the surgical tools. The software platform integrates the TEE image planes and the virtual model of the tools and the MVA model on the screen. The authors' MVA tracking approach, which aims to update the MVA model in near real-time, comprises of three steps: image based gating, predictive reinitialization, and registration based MVA tracking. The image based gating step uses a small patch centered at each MVA point in the TEE images to identify images at optimal cardiac phases for updating the position of the MVA. The predictive reinitialization step uses the position and orientation of the TEE probe provided by the magnetic tracking system to predict the position of the MVA points in the TEE images and uses them for the initialization of the registration component. The registration based MVA tracking step aims to locate the MVA points in the images selected by the image based gating component by performing image based registration. The validation of the MVA tracking approach was performed in a phantom study and a retrospective study on porcine data. In the phantom study, controlled translations were applied to the phantom and the tracked MVA was compared to its "true" position estimated based on a magnetic sensor attached to the phantom. The MVA tracking accuracy was 1.29 ± 0.58 mm when the translation distance is about 1 cm, and increased to 2.85 ± 1.19 mm when the translation distance is about 3 cm. In the study on

  15. Saturation of SERCA's lipid annulus may protect against its thermal inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Trojanowski, Natalie; Castelli, Laura M.; Miotto, Paula M.; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E.; Tupling, A. Russell; LeBlanc, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the active transport of Ca 2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby eliciting muscle relaxation. SERCA pumps are highly susceptible to oxidative damage, and cytoprotection of SERCA dampens thermal inactivation and is a viable therapeutic strategy in combating diseases where SERCA activity is impaired, such as muscular dystrophy. Here, we sought to determine whether increasing the percent of saturated fatty acids (SFA) within SERCA's lipid annulus through diet could protect SERCA pumps from thermal inactivation. Female Wistar rats were fed either a semi-purified control diet (AIN93G, 7% soybean oil by weight) or a modified AIN93G diet containing high SFA (20% lard by weight) for 17 weeks. Soleus muscles were extracted and SERCA lipid annulus and activity under thermal stress were analyzed. Our results show that SERCA's lipid annulus is abundant with short-chain (12–14 carbon) fatty acids, which corresponds well with SERCA's predicted bilayer thickness of 21 Å. Under control-fed conditions, SERCA's lipid annulus was already highly saturated (79%), and high-fat feeding did not increase this any further. High-fat feeding did not mitigate the reductions in SERCA activity seen with thermal stress; however, correlational analyses revealed significant and strong associations between % SFA and thermal stability of SERCA activity with greater %SFA being associated with lower thermal inactivation and greater % polyunsaturation and unsaturation index being associated with increased thermal inactivation. Altogether, these findings show that SERCA's lipid annulus may influence its susceptibility to oxidative damage, which could have implications in muscular dystrophy and age-related muscle wasting. - Highlights: • SERCA's lipid annulus in rat soleus was measured after immunoconcentration. • Short fatty acid chains surround SERCA and

  16. A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N

    2007-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.

  17. A topologically twisted index for three-dimensional supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benini, Francesco; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We provide a general formula for the partition function of three-dimensional N=2 gauge theories placed on S 2 ×S 1 with a topological twist along S 2 , which can be interpreted as an index for chiral states of the theories immersed in background magnetic fields. The result is expressed as a sum over magnetic fluxes of the residues of a meromorphic form which is a function of the scalar zero-modes. The partition function depends on a collection of background magnetic fluxes and fugacities for the global symmetries. We illustrate our formula in many examples of 3d Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theories with matter, including Aharony and Giveon-Kutasov dualities. Finally, our formula generalizes to Ω-backgrounds, as well as two-dimensional theories on S 2 and four-dimensional theories on S 2 ×T 2 . In particular this provides an alternative way to compute genus-zero A-model topological amplitudes and Gromov-Witten invariants.

  18. A New Twisting Somersault: 513XD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, William; Dullin, Holger R.

    2017-12-01

    We present the mathematical framework of an athlete modelled as a system of coupled rigid bodies to simulate platform and springboard diving. Euler's equations of motion are generalised to non-rigid bodies and are then used to innovate a new dive sequence that in principle can be performed by real-world athletes. We begin by assuming that shape changes are instantaneous so that the equations of motion simplify enough to be solved analytically, and then use this insight to present a new dive (513XD) consisting of 1.5 somersaults and five twists using realistic shape changes. Finally, we demonstrate the phenomenon of converting pure somersaulting motion into pure twisting motion by using a sequence of impulsive shape changes, which may have applications in other fields such as space aeronautics.

  19. Chiral tunneling in a twisted graphene bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-08-09

    The perfect transmission in a graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in a Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in a twisted graphene bilayer show an adjustable probability of chiral tunneling for normal incidence: they can be changed from perfect tunneling to partial or perfect reflection, or vice versa, by controlling either the height of the barrier or the incident energy. As well as addressing basic physics about how the chiral fermions with different chiralities tunnel through a barrier, our results provide a facile route to tune the electronic properties of the twisted graphene bilayer.

  20. Factorising the 3D topologically twisted index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-04-20

    We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on S{sub 2} times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the 3D topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on S{sub 2} times halves of S{sub 1}, second as TTCSM on S{sub 2} times S{sub 1} — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on S{sub 2}×S{sub 1}. In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is constrained to be anti-hermitian.

  1. IRONY IN CHARLES DICKEN'S OLIVER TWIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the types of irony used by Charles Dickens in his notable early work, Oliver Twist, as well as the reasons the irony was chosen. As a figurative language, irony is utilized to express one’s complex feelings without truly saying them. In Oliver Twist, Dickens brought the readers some real social issues wrapped in dark, deep written expressions of irony uttered by the characters of his novel. Undoubtedly, the novel had left an impact to the British society at the time. The irony Dickens displayed here includes verbal, situational, and dramatic irony. His choice of irony made sense as he intended to criticize the English Poor Laws and to touch the public sentiment. He wanted to let the readers go beyond what was literally written and once they discovered what the truth was, they would eventually understand Dickens’ purposes.

  2. Leibniz algebroids, twistings and exceptional generalized geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraglia, D.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate a class of Leibniz algebroids which are invariant under diffeomorphisms and symmetries involving collections of closed forms. Under appropriate assumptions we arrive at a classification which in particular gives a construction starting from graded Lie algebras. In this case the Leibniz bracket is a derived bracket and there are higher derived brackets resulting in an L∞-structure. The algebroids can be twisted by a non-abelian cohomology class and we prove that the twisting class is described by a Maurer-Cartan equation. For compact manifolds we construct a Kuranishi moduli space of this equation which is shown to be affine algebraic. We explain how these results are related to exceptional generalized geometry.

  3. Valve-aided twisted Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Rajkumar, M.; Saha, U.K.

    2006-05-15

    Accessories, such as end plates, deflecting plates, shielding and guide vanes, may increase the power of a Savonius rotor, but make the system structurally complex. In such cases, the rotor can develop a relatively large torque at small rotational speeds and is cheap to build, however it harnesses only a small fraction of the incident wind energy. Another proposition for increasing specific output is to place non-return valves inside the concave side of the blades. Such methods have been studied experimentally with a twisted-blade Thus improving a Savonius rotor's energy capture. This new concept has been named as the 'Valve-Aided Twisted Savonius'rotor. Tests were conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel to evaluate performance. This mechanism is found to be independent of flow direction, and shows potential for large machines. [Author].

  4. Chiral Tunnelling in Twisted Graphene Bilayer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The perfect transmission in graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in twisted graphene bilayer shows adjustable probability of chiral tunnelling for normal incidence: they can be changed fr...

  5. Vacuum expectation value of twist fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Twist fields emerge in a number of physical applications ranging from entanglement entropy to scattering amplitudes in four-dimensional gauge theories. In this work, their vacuum expectation values are studied in the path integral framework. By performing a gauge transformation, their correlation functions are reduced to field theory of matter fields in external Aharonov-Bohm vortices. The resulting functional determinants are then analyzed within the zeta-function regularization for the spectrum of Bessel zeros, and concise formulas are derived.

  6. Leibniz algebroids, twistings and exceptional generalized geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Baraglia, David

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a class of Leibniz algebroids which are invariant under diffeomorphisms and symmetries involving collections of closed forms. Under appropriate assumptions we arrive at a classification which in particular gives a construction starting from graded Lie algebras. In this case the Leibniz bracket is a derived bracket and there are higher derived brackets resulting in an $L_\\infty$-structure. The algebroids can be twisted by a non-abelian cohomology class and we prove that the twis...

  7. Helical Siberian snakes using dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.

    1990-09-01

    A family of multi-twist transverse-field spin rotators using discrete bending magnets is described that can be used as Siberian snakes. By varying the number of twists, snakes with quite small excursions can be constructed at only a small penalty in the overall field integral. Examples for a 1/4-twist snake and a 3-twist snake are presented, the first suitable for a very high energy machine and the second for use in the proposed TRIUMF Kaon Factory. (Author) (3 refs.)

  8. Exploring exotic states with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    he goal of this thesis is to develop methods to study the nature and properties of exotic hadrons from lattice simulations. The main focus lies in the application of twisted boundary conditions. The thesis consists of a general introduction and the collection of three papers, represented respectively in three chapters. The introduction of the thesis reviews the theoretical background, which is further used in the rest of the thesis. Further implementing partially twisted boundary conditions in the scalar sector of lattice QCD is studied. Then we develop a method to study the content of the exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant from lattice simulations, exploiting the dependence of the spectrum on the twisted boundary conditions. The final chapter deals with a novel method to study the multi-channel scattering problem in a finite volume, which is relevant for exotic states. Its key idea is to extract the complex hadron-hadron optical potential, avoiding the difficulties, associated with the solution of the multi-channel Luescher equation.

  9. Exploring exotic states with twisted boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri

    2017-09-11

    he goal of this thesis is to develop methods to study the nature and properties of exotic hadrons from lattice simulations. The main focus lies in the application of twisted boundary conditions. The thesis consists of a general introduction and the collection of three papers, represented respectively in three chapters. The introduction of the thesis reviews the theoretical background, which is further used in the rest of the thesis. Further implementing partially twisted boundary conditions in the scalar sector of lattice QCD is studied. Then we develop a method to study the content of the exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant from lattice simulations, exploiting the dependence of the spectrum on the twisted boundary conditions. The final chapter deals with a novel method to study the multi-channel scattering problem in a finite volume, which is relevant for exotic states. Its key idea is to extract the complex hadron-hadron optical potential, avoiding the difficulties, associated with the solution of the multi-channel Luescher equation.

  10. Metastable states in magnetic nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, F. J.; Ross, C. A.; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    Magnetization states and hysteresis behavior of small ferromagnetic rings, of diameters 180-520 nm, have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the expected bi-domain ("onion") and flux-closed ("vortex") magnetization states, a metastable state has been found. This "twi......Magnetization states and hysteresis behavior of small ferromagnetic rings, of diameters 180-520 nm, have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the expected bi-domain ("onion") and flux-closed ("vortex") magnetization states, a metastable state has been found....... This "twisted" state contains a 360degrees domain wall which can exist over a wide range of applied fields. Four possible configurations of the twisted state are possible. Micromagnetic modeling shows that the twisted state is stabilised in small diameter, narrow rings. Additionally, more complex configurations...

  11. Quantitative experiments on thermal hydraulic characteristics of an annular tube with twisted fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Taniguchi, Masaki; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato

    2003-11-01

    Thermal hydraulic experiments measuring critical heat flux (CHF) and pressure drop of an annular tube with twisted fins, ''annular swirl tube'', has been performed to examine its applicability to the ITER divertor cooling structure. The annular swirl tube consists of two concentric circular tubes, the outer and inner tubes. The outer tube with outer and inner diameters (OD and ID) of 21 mm and 15 mm is made of Cu-alloy that is CuCrZr and oe of candidate materials of the ITER divertor cooling tube. The inner tube with OD of 11 mm and ID of 9 mm is made of stainless steal. It has an external swirl fin with twist ratio (y) of three to enhance its heat transfer performance. In this tube, cooling water flows inside of the inner tube first, and then returns into an annulus between the outer and inner tubes with a swirl flow at an end-return of the cooling tube. The CHF experiments show that no degradation of CHF of the annular swirl tube in comparison with the conventional swirl tube whose dimensions are similar to those of the outer tube of the annular swirl tube. A minimum axial velocity of 7.1 m/s is required to remove the incident heat flux of 28MW/m 2 , the ITER design value. Applicability of the JAERI's correlation for the heat transfer to the annular swirl tube is also demonstrated by comparing the experimental results with those of the numerical analysis. The friction factor correlation for the annular flow with the twisted fins is also proposed for the hydrodynamic design of the ITER vertical target. The least pressure drop at the end-return is obtained by using the hemispherical end-plug. Its radius is the same as that of ID of the outer cooling tube. These results show that thermal-hydraulic performance of the annular swirl tube is promising in application to the cooling structure for the ITER vertical target. (author)

  12. Design optimization for active twist rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ji Won

    This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to

  13. Most recent developments for monitoring and controlling the annulus conditions of Marlim-Sul flexible risers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Alexandre S.; Motta, Antonio; Romero, Antonio; Nunes, Joao P.; Zaganelli Junior, Jose L.; Brack, Marcelo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the recent developments for monitoring and controlling the annulus conditions of flexible risers. PETROBRAS has been monitoring the pressure of permeated gas in the annulus region of some risers in order to infer the eventual occurrence of non-conformities as damage on the riser external sheath, for example. Such occurrence would affect the permeated gas flow pattern, the gas pressurization period and the relief valve opening frequencies. Furthermore, the mentioned occurrence would increase the susceptibility of the steel armors to experience the potential failure mechanism of corrosion. In PETROBRAS, the current monitoring method is characterized by visual and periodic manometer readings from a manometer set installed near each riser end-fitting. The data is recorded in a daily report and analyzed by personnel onshore, who are in charge of comparing data and requesting relief valve's actuation, whenever necessary. The paper illustrates Marlim-Sul Asset experience on monitoring and data processing to control the annulus conditions of flexible risers during operation. It presents the in-house developed methodology to data management and processing. This methodology is based on a daily analysis of the permeated gas data worksheet. Some examples are given to illustrate it. The paper also summarizes current developments, in progress, in order to improve riser integrity management. The first development is being done to implement, in the future, automatic data acquisition and control systems. The purpose of automating this process is to improve methods and techniques for data acquisition, transmission and processing. The second development focuses on applications in which riser top end-fittings are submerged. In this particular scenario, a special system - with a quick connection sub sea device - is under development to allow the connection, by divers, after the riser pull-in, of the riser annulus to the platform gas

  14. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  15. Ten helical twist angles of B-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabsch, W; Sander, C; Trifonov, E N

    1982-01-01

    On the assumption that the twist angles between adjacent base-pairs in the DNA molecule are additive a linear system of 40 equations was derived from experimental measurements of the total twist angles for different pieces of DNA of known sequences. This system of equations is found to be statistically consistent providing a solution for all ten possible twist angles of B-DNA by a least squares fitting procedure. Four of the calculated twist angles were not known before. The other six twist angles calculated are very close to the experimentally measured ones. The data used were obtained by the electrophoretic band-shift method, crystallography and nuclease digestion of DNA adsorbed to mica or Ca-phosphate surface. The validity of the principle of additivity of the twist angles implies that the angle between any particular two base-pairs is a function of only these base-pairs, independent of nearest neighbors.

  16. Twisted Vanes Would Enhance Fuel/Air Mixing In Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. Lee; Micklow, Gerald J.; Dogra, Anju S.

    1994-01-01

    Computations of flow show performance of high-shear airblast fuel injector in gas-turbine engine enhanced by use of appropriately proportioned twisted (instead of flat) dome swirl vanes. Resultant more nearly uniform fuel/air mixture burns more efficiently, emitting smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides. Twisted-vane high-shear airblast injectors also incorporated into paint sprayers, providing advantages of low pressure drop characteristic of airblast injectors in general and finer atomization of advanced twisted-blade design.

  17. Minimizing coupling loss by selection of twist pitch lengths in multi-stage cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolando, G; Nijhuis, A; Devred, A

    2014-01-01

    The numerical code JackPot-ACDC (van Lanen et al 2010 Cryogenics 50 139–48, van Lanen et al 2011 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21 1926–9, van Lanen et al 2012 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 025012) allows fast parametric studies of the electro-magnetic performance of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs). In this paper the code is applied to the analysis of the relation between twist pitch length sequence and coupling loss in multi-stage ITER-type CICCs. The code shows that in the analysed conductors the coupling loss is at its minimum when the twist pitches of the successive cabling stages have a length ratio close to one. It is also predicted that by careful selection of the stage-to-stage twist pitch ratio, CICCs cabled according to long twist schemes in the initial stages can achieve lower coupling loss than conductors with shorter pitches. The result is validated by AC loss measurements performed on prototype conductors for the ITER Central Solenoid featuring different twist pitch sequences. (paper)

  18. Dual reciprocity boundary element analysis for the laminar forced heat convection problem in concentric annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Yong

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method (DRBEM) for the laminar heat convection problem in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux boundary condition. DRBEM is one of the most successful technique used to transform the domain integrals arising from the nonhomogeneous term of the poisson equation into equivalent boundary only integrals. This recently developed and highly efficient numerical method is tested for the solution accuracy of the fluid flow and heat transfer study in a concentric annulus. Since their exact solutions are available, DRBEM solutions are verified with different number of boundary element discretization and internal points. The results obtained in this study are discussed with the relative error percentage of velocity and temperature solutions, and potential applicability of the method for the more complicated heat convection problems with arbitrary duct geometries

  19. Cues used by the black fly, Simulium annulus, for attraction to the common loon (Gavia immer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinandt, Meggin L; Meyer, Michael; Strand, Mac; Lindsay, Alec R

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic relationship between a black fly, Simulium annulus, and the common loon (Gavia immer) has been considered one of the most exclusive relationships between any host species and a black fly species. To test the host specificity of this blood-feeding insect, we made a series of bird decoy presentations to black flies on loon-inhabited lakes in northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. To examine the importance of chemical and visual cues for black fly detection of and attraction to hosts, we made decoy presentations with and without chemical cues. Flies attracted to the decoys were collected, identified to species, and quantified. Results showed that S. annulus had a strong preference for common loon visual and chemical cues, although visual cues from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrynchos) did attract some flies in significantly smaller numbers. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Project Turnover Deliverables for the SY Farm Enraf Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document identifies the deliverables that ensure the end user of the SY Farm Enraf Annulus Leak Detectors (ALD) has all the documentation and training required for operating and maintaining the new system. All deliverable items checked on the Acceptance For Beneficial Use (ABU) form have been completed and are available to the end user. This document was written as required by HNF-IP-0842, Volume IV section 3.12 Acceptance of Structures, Systems, and Components for Beneficial Use. This document applies to the deliverable documentation required to operate and maintain the SY Farm Enraf ALD System. Appendix A provides a copy of the ABU form as listed in the appendix of TWR-4092, Engineering Task Plan for the New SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors. This document attests that all required deliverable items checked on the ABU have been completed and are available to the end user

  1. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  2. Twisted rudder for reducing fuel-oil consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three twisted rudders fit for large container ships have been developed; 1 the Z-twisted rudder that is an asymmetry type taking into consideration incoming flow angles of the propeller slipstream, 2 the ZB-twisted rudder with a rudder bulb added onto the Z-twisted rudder, and 3 the ZB-F twisted rudder with a rudder fin attached to the ZB-twisted rudder. The twisted rudders have been designed computationally with the hydrodynamic characteristics in a self-propulsion condition in mind. The governing equation is the Navier-Stokes equations in an unsteady turbulent flow. The turbulence model applied is the Reynolds stress. The calculation was carried out in towing and self-propulsion conditions. The sliding mesh technique was employed to simulate the flow around the propeller. The speed performances of the ship with the twisted rudders were verified through model tests in a towing tank. The twisted versions showed greater performance driven by increased hull efficiency from less thrust deduction fraction and more effective wake fraction and decreased propeller rotating speed.

  3. Higher twist contributions to deep-inelastic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.

    2008-07-01

    We report on a recent extraction of the higher twist contributions to the deep inelastic structure functions F ep,ed 2 (x,Q 2 ) in the large x region. It is shown that the size of the extracted higher twist contributions is strongly correlated with the higher order corrections applied to the leading twist part. A gradual lowering of the higher twist contributions going from NLO to N 4 LO is observed, where in the latter case only the leading large x terms were considered. (orig.)

  4. Twisted sigma-model solitons on the quantum projective line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    On the configuration space of projections in a noncommutative algebra, and for an automorphism of the algebra, we use a twisted Hochschild cocycle for an action functional and a twisted cyclic cocycle for a topological term. The latter is Hochschild-cohomologous to the former and positivity in twisted Hochschild cohomology results into a lower bound for the action functional. While the equations for the critical points are rather involved, the use of the positivity and the bound by the topological term lead to self-duality equations (thus yielding twisted noncommutative sigma-model solitons, or instantons). We present explicit nontrivial solutions on the quantum projective line.

  5. Bound states on the lattice with partially twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, D.; Guo, F.-K.; Ríos, G.; Rusetsky, A.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to study the nature of exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant Z from lattice simulations. It is shown that, instead of studying the volume-dependence of the spectrum, one may investigate the dependence of the spectrum on the twisting angle, imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermion fields on the lattice. In certain cases, e.g., the case of the DK bound state which is addressed in detail, it is demonstrated that the partial twisting is equivalent to the full twisting up to exponentially small corrections.

  6. Nucleon structure by Lattice QCD computations with twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harraud, P.A.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the structure of the nucleon from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is one of the greatest challenges of hadronic physics. Only lattice QCD allows to determine numerically the values of the observables from ab-initio principles. This thesis aims to study the nucleon form factors and the first moments of partons distribution functions by using a discretized action with twisted mass fermions. As main advantage, the discretization effects are suppressed at first order in the lattice spacing. In addition, the set of simulations allows a good control of the systematical errors. After reviewing the computation techniques, the results obtained for a wide range of parameters are presented, with lattice spacings varying from 0.0056 fm to 0.089 fm, spatial volumes from 2.1 up to 2.7 fm and several pion masses in the range of 260-470 MeV. The vector renormalization constant was determined in the nucleon sector with improved precision. Concerning the electric charge radius, we found a finite volume effect that provides a key towards an explanation of the chiral dependence of the physical point. The results for the magnetic moment, the axial charge, the magnetic and axial charge radii, the momentum and spin fractions carried by the quarks show no dependence on the lattice spacing nor volume. In our range of pion masses, their values show a deviation from the experimental values. Their chiral behaviour do not exhibit the curvature predicted by the chiral perturbation theory which could explain the apparent discrepancy. (author)

  7. Long-axis fractional shortening and mitral annulus motion in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Gonçalves Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular systolic dynamics involves the contraction of transverse and longitudinal myocardial fibers. Unfortunately, only the activity of the transverse myocardial fibers is foreseen by the standard systolic echocardiographic parameters. Although strain and strain rate have been used to assess the radial, circumferential and longitudinal planes of cardiac contraction, such analysis requires advanced equipment which is not always available in veterinary medicine. On the contrary, some unusual parameters may be recorded via standard methodology, allowing for the specific evaluation of left ventricular longitudinal contractility. In this study, the longitudinal contractile activity was evaluated using the long-axis fractional shortening and the mitral annulus motion, which were compared with several standard echocardiographic parameters in 14 beagles, including seven with asymptomatic mitral valve disease. The long-axis fractional shortening was positively correlated with both the mitral annulus motion and the end-diastolic left-ventricular diameter. Also, a significant correlation was found to exist between the mitral annulus motion and the left-ventricular end-diastolic diameter, which is likely supportive of its preload dependency. Even though no difference was documented in either mitral annulus motion or long-axis fractional shortening between healthy dogs and dogs with mitral valve disease, the latter only included animals with minimal cardiac remodeling, with no overt compromise of systolic function. Since it is possible to obtain these two parameters with any echocardiographic equipment, their inclusion in the routine exam would probably add information regarding the activity of the longitudinal myocardial fibers, whose functional deterioration supposedly occurs prior to the impairment of transverse fibers.

  8. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  9. The dew point response of the annulus gas system of Bruce NGS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchington, J.; Ellis, P.J.; Meranda, D.

    1983-01-01

    The dew point response of the Annulus Gas System in Bruce A, Units 1 and 2 has been modelled in order to alert the operator of the presence of heavy water and to estimate the leak rate into the annulus. The computer model can be easily adapted to determine the Annulus Gas System dew point response in any station. It models the complex arrangement of the system and the transportation of moisture through the annuli by a combination of plug flow and mixing of CO 2 and D 2 O vapor. It predicts the response of the dew point monitor for a range of specified leak rates and positions of a leaking channel in a string of channels. This model has been used to calculate the variation of dew point and rate of change of dew point with respect to time (t). It shows that there is a maximum in the rate of dew point change (dT/dt) with respect to the corresponding dew point (T). This maximum is unique for a given leak rate and channel position. It is independent of the starting time for the leak. The computer programme has been verified by an analytical solution for the model

  10. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of the Melting Process of Phase Change Material inside Horizontal Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiwei Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat storage (LHS technologies adopting phase change materials (PCMs are increasingly being used to bridge the spatiotemporal mismatch between energy production and demand, especially in industries like solar power, where strong cyclic fluctuations exist. The shell-and-tube configuration is among the most prevalent ones in LHS and thus draws special attention from researchers. This paper presents numerical investigations on the melting of PCM, a paraffin blend RT27, inside a horizontal annulus. The volume of fluid model was adopted to permit density changes with the solidification/melting model wherein natural convection was taken into account. The eccentricity and diameter of the inner tube, sub-cooling degree of the PCM, and the heating-surface temperature were considered as variables for study. Through the evaluation of the melting time and exergy efficiency, the optimal parameters of the horizontal annulus were obtained. The results showed that the higher the heating boundary temperature, the earlier the convection appeared and the shorter the melting time. Also, the different eccentricity and diameters of the inner tube influenced the annulus tube interior temperature distribution, which in turn determined the strength and distribution of the resulting natural convection, resulting in varying melting rates.

  11. SMART MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR REGULATING ANNULUS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE WHILE DRILLING OIL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vega

    Full Text Available Abstract Real time measurements and development of sensor technology are research issues associated with robustness and safety during oil well drilling operations, making feasible the diagnosis of problems and the development of a regulatory strategy. The major objective of this paper is to use an experimental plant and also field data, collected from a basin operation, offshore Brazil, for implementing smart monitoring and decision making, in order to assure drilling inside operational window, despite the commonly observed disturbances that produce fluctuations in the well annulus bottom hole pressure. Using real time measurements, the performance of a continuous automated drilling unit is analyzed under a scenario of varying levels of rate of penetration; aiming pressure set point tracking (inside the operational drilling window and also rejecting kick, a phenomenon that occurs when the annulus bottom hole pressure is inferior to the porous pressure, producing the migration of reservoir fluids into the annulus region. Finally, an empirical model was built, using real experimental data from offshore Brazil basins, enabling diagnosing and regulating a real drilling site by employing classic and advanced control strategies.

  12. Intercellular communication via gap junctions affected by mechanical load in the bovine annulus fibrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Jane; Duncan, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    Cells in the intervertebral disc, as in other connective tissues including tendon, ligament and bone, form interconnected cellular networks that are linked via functional gap junctions. These cellular networks may be necessary to affect a coordinated response to mechanical and environmental stimuli. Using confocal microscopy with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching methods, we explored the in situ strain environment of the outer annulus of an intact bovine disc and the effect of high-level flexion on gap junction signalling. The in situ strain environment in the extracellular matrix of the outer annulus under high flexion load was observed to be non-uniform with the extensive cellular processes remaining crimped sometimes at flexion angles greater than 25°. A significant transient disruption of intercellular communication via functional gap junctions was measured after 10 and 20 min under high flexion load. This study illustrates that in healthy annulus fibrosus tissue, high mechanical loads can impede the functioning of the gap junctions. Future studies will explore more complex loading conditions to determine whether losses in intercellular communication can be permanent and whether gap junctions in aged and degenerated tissues become more susceptible to load. The current research suggests that cellular structures such as gap junctions and intercellular networks, as well as other cell-cell and cell-matrix interconnections, need to be considered in computational models in order to fully understand how macroscale mechanical signals are transmitted across scales to the microscale and ultimately into a cellular biosynthetic response in collagenous tissues.

  13. Passive heat transfer augmentation in a cylindrical annulus utilizing multiple perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, S.V.; Vafai, K.

    1999-01-01

    The study of natural convection flow and heat transfer within a cylindrical annulus has received considerable attention because of its numerous applications, such as in nuclear reactor design, electronic component cooling, thermal storage systems, energy conservation, energy storage, and energy transmission. Here, the effects of multiple geometric perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders of an annulus with impermeable end walls are investigated in this work. A three-dimensional study was done using a numerical scheme based on a Galerkin method of finite element formulation. The nature of the buoyancy-induced flow field has been analyzed in detail. The flow fields for the cases considered were found to be qualitatively similar, and the introduction of each additional perturbation altered the flow field in a regular and recurring manner. The introduction of each perturbation on the outer cylinder causes clockwise and counterclock-wise rotating patterns on either side of the perturbation in the upper circumferential regions of the annulus. The motion of the fluid entrained by these circulatory patterns constitutes the key features of the flow pattern observed in the annulus. It is observed that the presence of multiple perturbations on the inner and outer cylinders substantially increases the overall heat transfer rate as compared to the regular annulus without any perturbation. Key qualitative and quantitative effects of the introduction of perturbations on both the inner and outer cylinders of the annulus are discussed

  14. Twisted Polynomials and Forgery Attacks on GCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed A. M. A.; Beelen, Peter; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Polynomial hashing as an instantiation of universal hashing is a widely employed method for the construction of MACs and authenticated encryption (AE) schemes, the ubiquitous GCM being a prominent example. It is also used in recent AE proposals within the CAESAR competition which aim at providing...... in an improved key recovery algorithm. As cryptanalytic applications of our twisted polynomials, we develop the first universal forgery attacks on GCM in the weak-key model that do not require nonce reuse. Moreover, we present universal weak-key forgeries for the nonce-misuse resistant AE scheme POET, which...

  15. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...... beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps...

  16. NMSBA - Twist Resist - Rotational Exercise Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Aaron [Twist Resist, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reece, Blake D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berger, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guido, Steven Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Linker, Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report contains a summary of the work completed to develop a modular, rotational exercise device. In the report are images, diagrams, and explanations of the efforts contributed to the project since its inception. The purpose of this document is to provide a walk-through of the progress on this project, from the initial design concepts to the final design and work done, so that the customer (Twist Resist), or individuals/firms who work on this project in the future will have a springboard of ideas/concepts to work from.

  17. Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhamy, Donia Said

    Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The

  18. Interobserver variability of CT angiography for evaluation of aortic annulus dimensions prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidkonz, C., E-mail: christian.schmidkonz@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Marwan, M.; Klinghammer, L.; Mitschke, M.; Schuhbaeck, A.; Arnold, M. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lell, M. [Radiological Institute, University of Erlangen, Maximiliansplatz 1, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, S.; Pflederer, T. [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cardiac CT provides highly reproducible measurements of aortic annulus and root dimensions prior to TAVI. • The perimeter-derived aortic annulus diameter shows the lowest interobserver variability. • If all three CT sizing methods are considered and stated as a “consensus result”, mismatches in prosthesis size selection can be further reduced. - Abstract: Objective: Assessment of aortic annulus dimensions prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is crucial for accurate prosthesis sizing in order to avoid prosthesis–annulus-mismatch possibly resulting in complications like valve dislodgement, paravalvular regurgitation or annulus rupture. Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography allows 3-dimensional assessment of aortic annulus dimensions. Only limited data exist about its interobserver variability. Methods: In 100 consecutive patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (51 male, BMI 27 ± 5 kg/m{sup 2}, age 81 ± 7 years, heart rate 72 ± 15 bpm, Logistic Euroscore 31 ± 14%, STS-Score 7 ± 4%), pre-interventional aortic annulus assessment was performed by dual source computed tomography (collimation 2 × 128 × 0.6 mm, high pitch spiral data acquisition mode, 40–60 ml contrast agents, radiation dose 3.5 ± 0.9 mSv). The following aortic annulus characteristics were determined by three independent observers: aortic annulus maximum, minimum and mean diameters (D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}), eccentricity index (EI), effective aortic annulus diameter according to its circumference (D{sub circ}), effective aortic annulus diameter according to its area (D{sub area}), distance from the aortic annulus plane to the left (LCA) and right coronary artery (RCA) ostia, maximum (D{sub max}AR) and minimum aortic root diameter (D{sub min}AR), maximum (D{sub max}STJ) and minimum diameter of the sinotubular junction (D{sub min}STJ). Subsequently, interobserver variabilities were assessed. Results: Correlation between

  19. On reflection algebras and twisted Yangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that integrable models associated to rational R matrices give rise to certain non-Abelian symmetries known as Yangians. Analogously boundary symmetries arise when general but still integrable boundary conditions are implemented, as originally argued by Delius, Mackay, and Short from the field theory point of view, in the context of the principal chiral model on the half-line. In the present study we deal with a discrete quantum mechanical system with boundaries, that is the N site gl(n) open quantum spin chain. In particular, the open spin chain with two distinct types of boundary condition known as soliton preserving and soliton nonpreserving is considered. For both types of boundaries we present a unified framework for deriving the corresponding boundary nonlocal charges directly at the quantum level. The nonlocal charges are simply coproduct realizations of particular boundary quantum algebras called boundary or twisted Yangians, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. Finally, with the help of linear intertwining relations between the solutions of the reflection equation and the generators of the boundary or twisted Yangians we are able to exhibit the exact symmetry of the open spin chain, namely we show that a number of the boundary nonlocal charges are in fact conserved quantities

  20. How the embryonic brain tube twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry

    2014-03-01

    During early development, the tubular brain of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This deformation is one of the major organ-level symmetry-breaking events in development. Available evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops in the same direction that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is virtually nonexistent, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. In addition, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model is used to interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''.

  1. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  2. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  3. Quadratic Twists of Rigid Calabi–Yau Threefolds Over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouvêa, Fernando Q.; Kiming, Ian; Yui, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N). We show that quadratic twisting of a threefold corresponds to twisting the attached newform by quadratic characters and illustrate with a number of obvious and not so obvious examples. The question is motivated by the deeper question of which newforms of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N...

  4. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling...

  5. A twisted generalization of Novikov-Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras, which are twisted generalizations of Novikov-Poisson algebras, are studied. Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras are shown to be closed under tensor products and several kinds of twistings. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given under which Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras give rise to Hom-Poisson algebras.

  6. Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daszkiewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)

  7. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    enhancement of heat transfer with twisted tape inserts as compared to plain ... studies for heat transfer and pressure drop of laminar flow in horizontal tubes ... flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts .... presence of the insert in the pipe causes resistance to flow and increases turbulence.

  8. Hadronic corrections to electroweak observables from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pientka, Grit

    2015-01-01

    For several benchmark quantities investigated to detect signs for new physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics, lattice QCD currently constitutes the only ab initio approach available at small momentum transfers for the computation of non-perturbative hadronic contributions. Among those observables are the lepton anomalous magnetic moments and the running of the electroweak coupling constants. We compute the leading QCD contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment by performing lattice QCD calculations on ensembles incorporating N f =2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions. Considering active up, down, strange, and charm quarks, admits for the first time a direct comparison of the lattice data for the muon anomaly with phenomenological results because both the latter as well as the experimentally obtained values are sensitive to the complete first two generations of quarks at the current level of precision. Recently, it has been noted that improved measurements of the electron and tau anomalous magnetic moments might also provide ways of detecting new physics contributions. Therefore, we also compute their leading QCD contributions, which simultaneously serve as cross-checks of the value obtained for the muon. Additionally, we utilise the obtained data to compute the leading hadronic contribution to the running of the fine structure constant, which enters all perturbative QED calculations. Furthermore, we show that even for the weak mixing angle the leading QCD contribution can be computed from this data. In this way, we identify a new prime observable in the search for new physics whose hadronic contributions can be obtained from lattice QCD. With the results obtained in this thesis, we are able to exclude unsuitable phenomenologically necessary flavour separations and thus directly assist the presently more precise phenomenological determinations of this eminent quantity.

  9. Electronic and Optical Properties of Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengqiang

    The ability to isolate single atomic layers of van der Waals materials has led to renewed interest in the electronic and optical properties of these materials as they can be fundamentally different at the monolayer limit. Moreover, these 2D crystals can be assembled together layer by layer, with controllable sequence and orientation, to form artificial materials that exhibit new features that are not found in monolayers nor bulk. Twisted bilayer graphene is one such prototype system formed by two monolayer graphene layers placed on top of each other with a twist angle between their lattices, whose electronic band structure depends on the twist angle. This thesis presents the efforts to explore the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We first synthesize twisted bilayer graphene with various twist angles via chemical vapor deposition. Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the twist angles are determined. The strength of the Raman G peak is sensitive to the electronic band structure of twisted bilayer graphene and therefore we use this peak to monitor changes upon doping. Our results demonstrate the ability to modify the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with doping. We also fabricate twisted bilayer graphene by controllable stacking of two graphene monolayers with a dry transfer technique. For twist angles smaller than one degree, many body interactions play an important role. It requires eight electrons per moire unit cell to fill up each band instead of four electrons in the case of a larger twist angle. For twist angles smaller than 0.4 degree, a network of domain walls separating AB and BA stacking regions forms, which are predicted to host topologically protected helical states. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, these states are confirmed to appear on the domain walls when inversion

  10. Analysis list: Twist1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Twist1 Embryo,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Tw...ist1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Neural.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml ...

  11. On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, U.K.; Rajkumar, M. Jaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The present investigation is aimed at exploring the feasibility of twisted bladed Savonius rotor for power generation. The twisted blade in a three-bladed rotor system has been tested in a low speed wind tunnel, and its performance has been compared with conventional semicircular blades (with twist angle of 0{sup o}). Performance analysis has been made on the basis of starting characteristics, static torque and rotational speed. Experimental evidence shows the potential of the twisted bladed rotor in terms of smooth running, higher efficiency and self-starting capability as compared to that of the conventional bladed rotor. Further experiments have been conducted in the same setup to optimize the twist angle. (author)

  12. Emergence of Twisted Magnetic Flux Related Sigmoidal Brightening ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    We have examined the morphological properties of a sigmoid associated with an SXR. (soft X ray) flare. The sigmoid is cospatial with the EUV (extreme ultra violet) images and in the optical part lies along an S shaped Hα filament. The photoheliogram shows flux emergence within an existing δ type sunspot which has.

  13. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in active regions also shows the butterfly pattern through the solar cycle. And, less than 30% of the active regions do not follow the general trend (Zhang & Bao 1998). The longitudinal distribution of current helicity parameter h|| of active regions in both the hemispheres in the last decade was presented by Zhang & Bao ...

  14. Characterization of Tank 16H Annulus Samples Part II: Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-01-01

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO 2 ) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na 8 (Al 6 Si 6 O 24 )(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ), sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), gibbsite (Al(OH) 3 ), hydrated sodium bicarbonate (Na 3 H(CO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O), and muscovite (KAl 2 (AlSi 3 O 10 )(OH) 2 ). Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and approximately 1/3 of the 99 Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The oxalic acid leaching test result indicate approximately 34-47% of the solids in the four annulus samples will dissolve after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of acid to solids at 45 C. The same sodium salts found in the water leaching test comprise the majority of dissolved material in the oxalic acid leaching test. However, the oxalic acid was somewhat more effective in dissolving radionuclides than the water leach. In

  15. Bianisotropic metamaterials based on twisted asymmetric crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Avendaño, J A; Sampedro, M P; Juárez-Ruiz, E; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The effective bianisotropic response of 3D periodic metal-dielectric structures, composed of crosses with asymmetrically-cut wires, is investigated within a general homogenization theory using the Fourier formalism and the form-factor division approach. It is found that the frequency dependence of the effective permittivity for a system of periodically-repeated layers of metal crosses exhibits two strong resonances, whose separation is due to the cross asymmetry. Besides, bianisotropic metamaterials, having a base of four twisted asymmetric crosses, are proposed. The designed metamaterials possess negative refractive index at frequencies determined by the cross asymmetry, the gap between the arms of adjacent crosses lying on the same plane, and the type of Bravais lattice. (papers)

  16. Band engineering in twisted molybdenum disulfide bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Liao, Chengwei; Ouyang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    In order to explore the theoretical relationship between interlayer spacing, interaction and band offset at the atomic level in vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) structures, we propose an analytical model to address the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling with random stacking configurations in MoS2 bilayers based on the atomic-bond-relaxation correlation mechanism. We found that interlayer spacing changes substantially with respect to the orientations, and the bandgap increases from 1.53 eV (AB stacking) to 1.68 eV (AA stacking). Our results reveal that the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling originates from the interlayer interaction, leading to interlayer separations and electronic properties changing with stacking configurations. Our predictions constitute a demonstration of twist engineering the band shift in the emergent class of 2D crystals, transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  17. Unusual presentation of twisted ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian torsion (also termed as adnexal torsion refers to partial or complete rotation of the ovary and a portion of fallopian tube along its supplying vascular pedicle. It occurs commonly in reproductive age group; more on the right side (60% and often presents with acute lower abdominal pain lasting for few hours and up to 24 h, accounting for 2.7% of acute gynecological conditions. It is one of the devastating conditions, hampering blood supply of ovary which may lead to total necrosis of ovarian tissue and complications, if not diagnosed and managed in time. Hence, we present a case on a twisted ovarian cyst in postmenopausal woman with unusual symptomatology leading to delayed diagnosis and loss of an ovary.

  18. Regular non-twisting S-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, Octavio; Quevedo, Hernando; Ryan, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    We construct a family of time and angular dependent, regular S-brane solutions which corresponds to a simple analytical continuation of the Zipoy-Voorhees 4-dimensional vacuum spacetime. The solutions are asymptotically flat and turn out to be free of singularities without requiring a twist in space. They can be considered as the simplest non-singular generalization of the singular S0-brane solution. We analyze the properties of a representative of this family of solutions and show that it resembles to some extent the asymptotic properties of the regular Kerr S-brane. The R-symmetry corresponds, however, to the general lorentzian symmetry. Several generalizations of this regular solution are derived which include a charged S-brane and an additional dilatonic field. (author)

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer from a narrow annulus to supercritical pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Han; Bi, Qincheng; Yang, Zhendong; Wang, Linchuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer of supercritical water in a narrow annulus is investigated. • Effects of system parameters and flow direction on heat transfer are studied. • Deteriorated heat transfer is analyzed both experimentally and numerically. - Abstract: Heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure water in a narrow annulus with vertically upward and downward flows were investigated experimentally and numerically. The outer diameter of the inner heated rod is 8 mm with an effective heated length of 620 mm. Experimental parameters covered the pressure of 23–28 MPa, mass flux of 400–1000 kg/m 2 s and heat flux on the outer surface of the heated rod from 200 to 1000 kW/m 2 . The general heat transfer behaviors were discussed with respect to various mass fluxes and pressures. According to the experimental data, it was found that the effect of flow direction on heat transfer depends on the heat-flux to mass-flux ratio (q/G). Heat transfer is much improved in the downward flow compared to that of upward flow at high q/G ratios. At the pressure of 25 MPa, low-mass-flux deteriorated heat transfer occurred in the upward flow but not in the downward flow. At the same test parameters, however, heat transfer deterioration was observed at both of the two flow directions when the pressure was lowered to 23 MPa. The experimental results indicate that buoyancy plays an important role for this type of deterioration, but is not the only mechanism that leads to the heat transfer deterioration. Three turbulence models were assessed against the annulus test data, it was found that the SST k-ω model gives a satisfying prediction of heat transfer deterioration especially for the case of downward flow. The mechanisms for the low-mass-flow heat transfer deterioration were investigated from the viewpoints of buoyancy and property variations of the supercritical water

  20. Effects of Mitral Annulus Remodeling Following MitraClip Procedure on Reduction of Functional Mitral Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco; Mesa, Dolores; Ruiz, Martín; Delgado, Mónica; Rodríguez, Sara; Pardo, Laura; Pan, Manuel; López, Amador; Romero, Miguel A; Suárez de Lezo, José

    2016-11-01

    The percutaneous mitral valve repair procedure (MitraClip) appears to reduce mitral annulus diameter in patients with functional mitral regurgitation, but the relationship between this and regurgitation severity has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of mitral annulus remodeling on the reduction of mitral regurgitation in patients with functional etiology. The study included all patients with functional mitral regurgitation treated with MitraClip at our hospital until January 2015. Echocardiogram (iE33 model, Philips) was performed in all patients immediately after device positioning. Changes in the mitral annulus correlated with mitral regurgitation severity, as assessed using the effective regurgitant orifice area. The study included 23 patients (age, 65±14 years; 74% men; left ventricular ejection fraction, 31%±13%; systolic pulmonary artery pressure, 47±10 mmHg). After the procedure, the regurgitant orifice area decreased by 0.30 cm 2 ±0.04 cm 2 (P<.0005), from a baseline of 0.49 cm 2 ±0.09 cm 2 . Anteroposterior diameter decreased by 3.14 mm±1.01 mm (P<.0005) from a baseline of 28.27 mm±4.9 mm, with no changes in the intercommissural diameter (0.50 mm±0.91 mm vs 40.68 mm±4.7 mm; P=.26). A significant association was seen between anteroposterior diameter reduction and regurgitant orifice area reduction (r=.49; P=.020). In patients with functional mitral regurgitation, the MitraClip device produces an immediate reduction in the anteroposterior diameter. This remodeling may be related to the reduction in mitral regurgitation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamical twisted mass fermions and baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drach, V.

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is an ab initio computation of the baryon masses starting from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This theory describes the interaction between quarks and gluons and has been established at high energy thanks to one of its fundamental properties: the asymptotic freedom. This property predicts that the running coupling constant tends to zero at high energy and thus that perturbative expansions in the coupling constant are justified in this regime. On the contrary the low energy dynamics can only be understood in terms of a non perturbative approach. To date, the only known method that allows the computation of observables in this regime together with a control of its systematic effects is called lattice QCD. It consists in formulating the theory on an Euclidean space-time and to evaluating numerically suitable functional integrals. First chapter is an introduction to the QCD in the continuum and on a discrete space time. The chapter 2 describes the formalism of maximally twisted fermions used in the European Twisted Mass (ETM) collaboration. The chapter 3 deals with the techniques needed to build hadronic correlator starting from gauge configuration. We then discuss how we determine hadron masses and their statistical errors. The numerical estimation of functional integral is explained in chapter 4. It is stressed that it requires sophisticated algorithm and massive parallel computing on Blue-Gene type architecture. Gauge configuration production is an important part of the work realized during my Ph.D. Chapter 5 is a critical review on chiral perturbation theory in the baryon sector. The two last chapter are devoted to the analysis in the light and strange baryon sector. Systematics and chiral extrapolation are extensively discussed. (author)

  2. Bioinspired twisted composites based on Bouligand structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F.; Iervolino, O.; Scarselli, G.; Ginzburg, D.; Meo, M.

    2016-04-01

    The coupling between structural support and protection makes biological systems an important source of inspiration for the development of advanced smart composite structures. In particular, some particular material configurations can be implemented into traditional composites in order to improve their impact resistance and the out-of-plane properties, which represents one of the major weakness of commercial carbon fibres reinforced polymers (CFRP) structures. Based on this premise, a three-dimensional twisted arrangement shown in a vast multitude of biological systems (such as the armoured cuticles of Scarabei, the scales of Arapaima Gigas and the smashing club of Odontodactylus Scyllarus) has been replicated to develop an improved structural material characterised by a high level of in-plane isotropy and a higher interfacial strength generated by the smooth stiffness transition between each layer of fibrils. Indeed, due to their intrinsic layered nature, interlaminar stresses are one of the major causes of failure of traditional CFRP and are generated by the mismatch of the elastic properties between plies in a traditional laminate. Since the energy required to open a crack or a delamination between two adjacent plies is due to the difference between their orientations, the gradual angle variation obtained by mimicking the Bouligand Structures could improve energy absorption and the residual properties of carbon laminates when they are subjected to low velocity impact event. Two different bioinspired laminates were manufactured following a double helicoidal approach and a rotational one and were subjected to a complete test campaign including low velocity impact loading and compared to a traditional quasi-isotropic panel. Fractography analysis via X-Ray tomography was used to understand the mechanical behaviour of the different laminates and the residual properties were evaluated via Compression After Impact (CAI) tests. Results confirmed that the biological

  3. Asymptotic behavior of positive solutions of a semilinear Dirichlet problem in the annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Dridi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish existence and asymptotic behavior of a positive classical solution to the following semilinear boundary value problem: \\[-\\Delta u=q(xu^{\\sigma }\\;\\text{in}\\;\\Omega,\\quad u_{|\\partial\\Omega}=0.\\] Here \\(\\Omega\\ is an annulus in \\(\\mathbb{R}^{n}\\, \\(n\\geq 3\\, \\(\\sigma \\lt 1\\ and \\(q\\ is a positive function in \\(\\mathcal{C}_{loc}^{\\gamma }(\\Omega \\, \\(0\\lt\\gamma \\lt 1\\, satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Our arguments combine a method of sub- and supersolutions with Karamata regular variation theory.

  4. Flow of Giesekus viscoelastic fluid in a concentric annulus with inner cylinder rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravanchi, Maryam Takht; Mirzazadeh, Mahmoud; Rashidi, Fariborz

    2007-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution is derived for the steady state, purely tangential flow of a viscoelastic fluid obeying the Giesekus constitutive equation in a concentric annulus with inner cylinder rotation. An approximation is used for the estimation of radial normal stress. The effect of Weissenberg number (We), radius ratio (κ) and mobility factor (α) on velocity distribution and fRe are investigated. The results show that the velocity gradient near the inner cylinder increases as the fluid elasticity increases. The results also show that fRe decreases with increasing fluid elasticity

  5. Analytical solutions to time-fractional partial differential equations in a two-dimensional multilayer annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanzhen; Jiang, Xiaoyun

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, analytical solutions to time-fractional partial differential equations in a multi-layer annulus are presented. The final solutions are obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler function by using the finite integral transform technique and Laplace transform technique. In addition, the classical diffusion equation (α=1), the Helmholtz equation (α→0) and the wave equation (α=2) are discussed as special cases. Finally, an illustrative example problem for the three-layer semi-circular annular region is solved and numerical results are presented graphically for various kind of order of fractional derivative.

  6. Steady and transient analyses of natural convection in a horizontal porous annulus with Galerkin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Fukuda, K.; Hasegawa, S.

    1986-01-01

    Steady and transient analytical investigation with the Galerkin method has been performed on natural convection in a horizontal porous annulus heated from the inner surface. Three families of convergent solutions, appearing one after another with increasing RaDa numbers, were obtained corresponding to different initial conditions. Despite the fact that the flow structures of two branching solutions are quite different, there exists a critical RaDa number at which their overall heat transfer rates have the same value. The bifurcation point was determined numerically, which coincided very well with that from experimental observation. The solutions in which higher wavenumber modes are dominant agree better with experimental data of overall heat transfer

  7. Kinetic theory of twisted waves: Application to space plasmas having superthermal population of species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Kashif; Poedts, Stefaan; Lazar, Marian

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays electromagnetic (EM) fields have various applications in fundamental research, communication, and home appliances. Even though, there are still some subtle features of electromagnetic field known to us a century ago, yet to be utilized. It is because of the technical complexities to sense three dimensional electromagnetic field. An important characteristic of electromagnetic field is its orbital angular momentum (OAM). The angular momentum consists of two distinct parts; intrinsic part associated with the wave polarization or spin, and the extrinsic part associated with the orbital angular momentum (OAM). The orbital angular momentum (OAM) is inherited by helically phased light or helical (twisted) electric field. The investigations of Allen on lasers carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), has initiated a new scientific and technological advancement in various growing fields, such as microscopy and imaging, atomic and nano-particle manipulation, ultra-fast optical communications, quantum computing, ionospheric radar facility to observe 3D plasma dynamics in ionosphere, photonic crystal fibre, OAM entanglement of two photons, twisted gravitational waves, ultra-intense twisted laser pulses and astrophysics. Recently, the plasma modes are also investigated with orbital angular momentum. The production of electron vortex beams and its applications are indicated by Verbeeck et al. The magnetic tornadoes (rotating magnetic field structures) exhibit three types of morphology i.e., spiral, ring and split. Leyser pumped helical radio beam carrying OAM into the Ionospheric plasma under High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) and characteristic ring shaped morphology is obtained by the optical emission spectrum of pumped plasma turbulence. The scattering phenomenon like (stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattering) is observed to be responsible for the interaction between electrostatic and electromagnetic waves through orbital angular momentum. The

  8. Twisted boundary states in c=1 coset conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    We study the mutual consistency of twisted boundary conditions in the coset conformal field theory G/H. We calculate the overlap of the twisted boundary states of G/H with the untwisted ones, and show that the twisted boundary states are consistently defined in the charge-conjugation modular invariant. The overlap of the twisted boundary states is expressed by the branching functions of a twisted affine Lie algebra. As a check of our argument, we study the diagonal coset theory so(2n) 1 +so(2n) 1 /so(2n) 2 , which is equivalent to the orbifold S 1 /Z 2 at a particular radius. We construct the boundary states twisted by the automorphisms of the unextended Dynkin diagram of so(2n), and show their mutual consistency by identifying their counterpart in the orbifold. For the triality of so(8), the twisted states of the coset theory correspond to neither the Neumann nor the Dirichlet boundary states of the orbifold and yield conformal boundary states that preserve only the Virasoro algebra. (author)

  9. Conical twist fields and null polygonal Wilson loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A.; Doyon, Benjamin; Fioravanti, Davide

    2018-06-01

    Using an extension of the concept of twist field in QFT to space-time (external) symmetries, we study conical twist fields in two-dimensional integrable QFT. These create conical singularities of arbitrary excess angle. We show that, upon appropriate identification between the excess angle and the number of sheets, they have the same conformal dimension as branch-point twist fields commonly used to represent partition functions on Riemann surfaces, and that both fields have closely related form factors. However, we show that conical twist fields are truly different from branch-point twist fields. They generate different operator product expansions (short distance expansions) and form factor expansions (large distance expansions). In fact, we verify in free field theories, by re-summing form factors, that the conical twist fields operator product expansions are correctly reproduced. We propose that conical twist fields are the correct fields in order to understand null polygonal Wilson loops/gluon scattering amplitudes of planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  11. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of the Twisted Magnetospheres of Magnetars. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alexander Y.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2017-08-01

    The magnetospheres of magnetars are believed to be filled with electron-positron plasma generated by electric discharge. We present a first numerical experiment demonstrating this process in an axisymmetric magnetosphere with a simple threshold prescription for pair creation, which is applicable to the inner magnetosphere with an ultrastrong field. The {e}+/- discharge occurs in response to the twisting of the closed magnetic field lines by a shear deformation of the magnetar surface, which launches electric currents into the magnetosphere. The simulation shows the formation of an electric “gap” with an unscreened electric field ({\\boldsymbol{E}}\\cdot {\\boldsymbol{B}}\

  12. Fine tuning of optical transition energy of twisted bilayer graphene via interlayer distance modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    del Corro, Elena; Peňa-Álvarez, Miriam; Sato, K.; Morales-García, A.; Bouša, Milan; Mračko, Michal; Kolman, Radek; Pacáková, Barbara; Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbáč, Martin; Frank, Otakar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 085138. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA MŠk LL1301; GA ČR GA16-03823S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388998 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : twisted bilayer graphene * tuning * silicon Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  13. Conformal invariance and pion wave functions of nonleading twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.M.; Filyanov, I.E.

    1989-01-01

    The restrictions are studied for the general structure of pion wave functions of twist 3 and twist 4 imposed by the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion. A systematic expansion of wave functions in the conformal spin is built and the first order corrections to asymptotic formulae are calculated by the QCD sum rule method. In particular, we have found a multiplicatively renormalizable contribution into the two-particle wave function of twist 4 which cannot be expanded in a finite set of Gegenbauer polynomials. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  14. TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakimoto Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is

  15. Twist deformation in anticlinic antiferroelectric structure in smectic B.sub.2./sub. imposed by the surface anchoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Lubor; Novotná, Vladimíra; Glogarová, Milada

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2008), s. 11-19 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0431 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : smectic liquid crystals * bent-shaped molecules * anticlinic antiferroelectric structure * ferroelectric structure * twist deformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2008

  16. Numerical study of evaporation in a vertical annulus heated at the inner wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Radhia, R.; Ben Jabrallah, S.; Ben Jabrallah, S.; Corriou, J.P.; Harmand, S.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed convection during evaporation of a water falling film in a vertical concentric annulus was studied numerically. The water thin film falls on the inner tube and is subjected to a constant heat flux density, whereas the outer cylinder is assumed to be insulated and dry. An imposed air flow circulates within the gap between the two concentric tubes. The objective of this work is to understand the evaporation phenomenon in order to improve the average evaporated mass flux density and heat and mass transfer. Conservative equations governing the gas phase are solved numerically using the finite volume method. In the liquid phase, a method based on local heat and mass balances on each level is used. Thus, the following liquid film parameters, feed water mass flow, feed temperature and heat flux density, are taken into account. The obtained results are analyzed to emphasize and evaluate the influence of the previous operating parameters and the annulus curvature on the effective evaporation surface and on the mass flux density of evaporated water. (authors)

  17. Numerical Investigation of Compressor Non-Synchronous Vibration with Full Annulus Rotor-Stator Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal, Daniel

    The objective of this research is to investigate and confirm the periodicity of the Non-Synchronous Vibration (NSV) mechanism of a GE axial compressor with a full-annulus simulation. A second objective is to develop a high fidelity single-passage tool with time-accurate unsteady capabilities able to capture rotor-stator interactions and NSV excitation response. A high fidelity methodology for axial turbomachinery simulation is developed using the low diffusion shock-capturing Riemann solver with high order schemes, the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence closure model, the fully conservative unsteady sliding BC for rotor-stator interaction with extension to full-annulus and single-passage configurations, and the phase lag boundary conditions applied to rotor-stator interface and circumferential BC. A URANS solver is used and captures the NSV flow excitation frequency of 2439 Hz, which agrees reasonably well with the measured NSV frequency of 2600 Hz from strain gage test data. It is observed that the circumferentially traveling vortex formed in the vicinity of the rotor tip propagates at the speed of a non-engine order frequency and causes the NSV. The vortex travels along the suction surface of the blade and crosses the passage outlet near blade trailing edge. Such a vortex motion trajectory repeats in each blade passage and generates two low pressure regions due to the vortex core positions, one at the leading edge and one at the trailing edge, both are oscillating due to the vortex coming and leaving. These two low pressure regions create a pair of coupling forces that generates a torsion moment causing NSV. The full-annulus simulation shows that the circumferentially traveling vortex has fairly periodical behavior and is a full annulus structure. Also, frequencies below the NSV excitation frequency of 2439 Hz with large amplitudes in response to flow-separation related phenomena are present. This behavior is consistent with experimental measurements. For

  18. Melting of a phase change material in a horizontal annulus with discrete heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Hooshyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials have found many industrial applications such as cooling of electronic devices and thermal energy storage. This paper investigates numerically the melting process of a phase change material in a two-dimensional horizontal annulus with different arrangements of two discrete heat sources. The sources are positioned on the inner cylinder of the annulus and assumed as constant-temperature boundary conditions. The remaining portion of the inner cylinder wall as well as the outer cylinder wall is considered to be insulated. The emphasis is mainly on the effects of the arrangement of the heat source pair on the fluid flow and heat transfer features. The governing equations are solved on a non-uniform O type mesh using a pressure-based finite volume method with an enthalpy porosity technique to trace the solid and liquid interface. The results are obtained at Ra=104 and presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms, melting phase front, liquid fraction and dimensionless heat flux. It is observed that, depending on the arrangement of heat sources, the liquid fraction increases both linearly and non-linearly with time but will slow down at the end of the melting process. It can also be concluded that proper arrangement of discrete heat sources has the great potential in improving the energy storage system. For instance, the arrangement C3 where the heat sources are located on the bottom part of the inner cylinder wall can expedite the melting process as compared to the other arrangements.

  19. Electrical and electronic subsystems of a nuclear waste tank annulus inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, R.J.

    1981-06-01

    The nuclear waste tank annulus inspection system is designed specifically for use at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Fuel Services Facility at West Valley, New York. This system sends a television and photographic camera into the space between the walls of a double-shell nuclear waste tank to obtain images of the inner and outer walls at precisely known locations. The system is capable of inspecting a wall section 14 ft wide by 27 ft high. Due to the high temperature and radiation of the annulus environment, the operating life for the inspection device is uncertain, but is expected to be at least 100 h, with 1000 R/h at 82 0 C. The film camera is shielded with 1/2 in. of lead to minimize radiation fogging of the film during a 25-min picture taking excursion. The operation of the inspection system is semiautomated with remote manual prepositioning of the camera, followed by a computer controlled wall scan. This apparatus is currently set up to take an array of contiguous pictures, but is adaptable to other modes of operation

  20. First bulk and surface results for the ATLAS ITk stereo annulus sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Abidi, Syed Haider; The ATLAS collaboration; Bohm, Jan; Botte, James Michael; Ciungu, Bianca; Dette, Karola; Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez-Tejero, Xavi; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Gillberg, Dag; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub

    2018-01-01

    A novel microstrip sensor geometry, the “stereo annulus”, has been developed for use in the end-cap of the ATLAS experiment’s strip tracker upgrade at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL- LHC). The radiation-hard, single-sided, ac-coupled, n + -in-p microstrip sensors are designed by the ITk Strip Sensor Collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. The stereo annulus design has the potential to revolutionize the layout of end-cap microstrip trackers promising better tracking performance and more complete coverage than the contemporary configurations. These advantages are achieved by the union of equal length, radially oriented strips with a small stereo angle implemented directly into the sensor surface. The first-ever results for the stereo annulus geometry have been collected across several sites world- wide and are presented here. A number of full-size, unirradiated sensors were evaluated for their mechanical, bulk, and surface properties. The new device, the ATLAS12EC, is compared ag...

  1. Local interfacial structure of subcooled boiling flow in a heated annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Seong-O; Yun, Byong-Jo; Park, Goon-Cherl; Hibiki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Local measurements of flow parameters were performed for vertical upward subcooled boiling flows in an internally heated annulus. The annulus channel consisted of an inner heater rod with a diameter of 19.0 mm and an outer round tube with an inner diameter of 37.5 mm, and the hydraulic equivalent diameter was 18.5 mm. The double-sensor conductivity probe method was used for measuring the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble Sauter mean diameter and gas velocity, whereas the miniature Pitot tube was used for measuring the local liquid velocity. A total of 32 data sets were acquired consisting of various combinations of heat flux, 88.1-350.9 kW/m 2 , mass flux, 469.7-1061.4kg(m 2 s) and inlet liquid temperature, 83.8-100.5degC. Six existing drift-flux models, six exiting correlations of the interfacial area concentration and bubble layer thickness model were evaluated using the data obtained in the experiment. (author)

  2. Postpneumonectomy Compression of the Mitral Annulus: Rare Vascular Complication in Sportive Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeaumont, David; Bota, Susana; Baste, Jean-Marc; Bellefleur, Marie; Stepowski, Dimitri; Vincent, Florence; Bonnevie, Tristan; Gravier, Francis-Edouard; Netchitailo, Marie; Tardif, Catherine; Boutry, Alain; Muir, Jean-François; Coquart, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Numerous postpneumonectomy complications exist. We present a rare clinical case of postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea revealing compression of the mitral annulus by the descending aorta. The patient was 42-year-old former smoker with pulmonary emphysema. He has been operated on, in 2012 (i.e., right pneumonectomy). Before the surgery, the patient was a recreational runner. However, after some months, it was difficult for the patient to resume running. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing indicated moderate exercise intolerance with important oxygen desaturation. More interestingly, a decrease of low oxygen pulse was noticed from the first ventilatory threshold with no electrical modification on the electrocardiogram. This decrease was indicative of a decline in stroke volume. The thoracic scan revealed a right pneumonectomy pocket with a liquid abnormal content. Moreover, the mediastinum had shifted toward the pneumonectomy space and the left lung was distended and emphysematous. Echocardiography revealed a major change in the mediastinal anatomy. The mitral annulus was observed to be compressed by the rear wall of the descending aorta. The diagnosis of postpneumonectomy syndrome or platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome was ruled out in this patient. Mitral annular compression by the descending aorta is rare complication, which must be researched in patients with postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea.

  3. Postpneumonectomy Compression of the Mitral Annulus: Rare Vascular Complication in Sportive Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Debeaumont

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous postpneumonectomy complications exist. We present a rare clinical case of postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea revealing compression of the mitral annulus by the descending aorta. The patient was 42-year-old former smoker with pulmonary emphysema. He has been operated on, in 2012 (i.e., right pneumonectomy. Before the surgery, the patient was a recreational runner. However, after some months, it was difficult for the patient to resume running. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing indicated moderate exercise intolerance with important oxygen desaturation. More interestingly, a decrease of low oxygen pulse was noticed from the first ventilatory threshold with no electrical modification on the electrocardiogram. This decrease was indicative of a decline in stroke volume. The thoracic scan revealed a right pneumonectomy pocket with a liquid abnormal content. Moreover, the mediastinum had shifted toward the pneumonectomy space and the left lung was distended and emphysematous. Echocardiography revealed a major change in the mediastinal anatomy. The mitral annulus was observed to be compressed by the rear wall of the descending aorta. The diagnosis of postpneumonectomy syndrome or platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome was ruled out in this patient. Mitral annular compression by the descending aorta is rare complication, which must be researched in patients with postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea.

  4. Creeping gaseous flows through elastic tube and annulus micro-configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Shai; Jacob, Hila; Gat, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Gaseous flows in elastic micro-configurations is relevant to biological systems (e.g. alveolar ducts in the lungs) as well as to applications such as gas actuated soft micro-robots. We here examine the effect of low-Mach-number compressibility on creeping gaseous axial flows through linearly elastic tube and annulus micro-configurations. For steady flows, the leading-order effects of elasticity on the pressure distribution and mass-flux are obtained. For transient flow in a tube with small deformations, elastic effects are shown to be negligible in leading order due to compressibility. We then examine transient flows in annular configurations where the deformation is significant compared with the gap between the inner and outer cylinders defining the annulus. Both compressibility and elasticity are obtained as dominant terms interacting with viscosity. For a sudden flux impulse, the governing non-linear leading order diffusion equation is initially approximated by a porous-medium-equation of order 2.5 for the pressure square. However, as the fluid expand and the pressure decreases, the governing equation degenerates to a porous-medium-equation of order 2 for the pressure.

  5. Bubble boundary estimation in an annulus two-phase flow using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Seong

    2008-02-01

    For the visualization of the phase boundary in an annulus two-phase flows, the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) technique is introduced. In EIT, a set of predetermined electrical currents is injected trough the electrodes placed on the boundary of the flow passage and the induced electrical potentials are measured on the electrode. With the relationship between the injected currents and the induced voltages, the electrical conductivity distribution across the flow domain is estimated through the image reconstruction algorithm. In this, the conductivity distribution corresponds to the phase distribution. In the application of EIT to two-phase flows where there are only two conductivity values, the conductivity distribution estimation problem can be transformed into the boundary estimation problem. This paper considers a bubble boundary estimation with EIT in an annulus two-phase flows. And in many industrial cases there are a priori known internal structures inside the vessels which could be used as internal electrodes in tomographical imaging. In this paper internal electrodes were considered in electrical impedance tomography. As the image reconstruction algorithm, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is adopted since from the control theory it is reported that the UKF shows better performance than the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that has been commonly used. The UKF algorithm was formulated to be incorporate into the image reconstruction algorithm for the present problem. Also, phantom experiments have been conducted to evaluate the improvement by UKF

  6. Die berekening van vloeiing in ’n roterende annulus deur die metode van kunsmatige saamdrukbaarheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Grobler

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vloeiing van ’n onsaamdrukbare, viskeuse vloeier word ondersoek aan die hand van die numeriese oplossing van die gediskretiseerde Navier-Stokes- en kontinuiteitsbeheervergelykings. In die besonder word vloeiing in ’n annulus bestaande uit twee koaksiale silinders wat elk ten opsigte van die ander kan roteer, en met ’n voorgeskrewe drukval oor die lengte van die silinder, beskou. Die oplossings word bereken deur die toepassing van Chorin se metode van kunsmatige saamdrukbaarheid, waarin die tydonafhanklike beheervergelykings getransformeer word na tydafhanklike hulpvergelykings deur die invoering van ’n kunsmatige toestandsvergelyking. Die oplossing van die hulpvergelykings konvergeer na ’n stasionêre oplossing, wat ooreenstem met die oplossing van die oorspronklike tydonafhanklike beheervergelykings. Die gedrag van die vloeier, wanneer ten voile ontwikkelde laminêre vloeiing bereik word, is met sukses bereken. ’n Eenvoudige model vir die bepaling van ontwikkeling van vloeiing langs die annulus vir enige gegewe invloeisnelheidsprofiel word voorgestel. Die berekende resultate stem ooreen met die resultate wat uit die fisika van die probleem verwag word.

  7. Renormalization of quark propagator, vertex functions, and twist-2 operators from twisted-mass lattice QCD at Nf=4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossier, Benoît.; Brinet, Mariane; Guichon, Pierre; Morénas, Vincent; Pène, Olivier; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2015-06-01

    We present a precise nonperturbative determination of the renormalization constants in the mass independent RI'-MOM scheme. The lattice implementation uses the Iwasaki gauge action and four degenerate dynamical twisted-mass fermions. The gauge configurations are provided by the ETM Collaboration. Renormalization constants for scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial operators, as well as the quark propagator renormalization, are computed at three different values of the lattice spacing, two volumes and several twisted-mass parameters. The method we developed allows for a precise cross-check of the running, thanks to the particular proper treatment of hypercubic artifacts. Results for the twist-2 operator O44 are also presented.

  8. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  9. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  11. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted tape inserts with air as the working fluid.

  12. Periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Rong [Coll. of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Tech., Nanjing (China); Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Zhang Dongfeng [Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2010-05-15

    In dynamical system theory, especially in many fields of applications from mechanics, Hamiltonian systems play an important role, since many related equations in mechanics can be written in an Hamiltonian form. In this paper, we study the existence of periodic solutions for a class of Hamiltonian systems. By applying the Galerkin approximation method together with a result of critical point theory, we establish the existence of periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions. Twist conditions play crucial roles in the study of periodic solutions for asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems. The lack of twist conditions brings some difficulty to the study. To the authors' knowledge, very little is known about the case, where twist conditions do not hold. (orig.)

  13. The geometric Langlands twist in five and six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abelian 6d (2,0) theory has SO(5) R symmetry. We twist this theory by identifying the R symmetry group with the SO(5) subgroup of the SO(1,5) Lorentz group. This twisted theory can be put on any five-manifold M, times R, while preserving one scalar supercharge. We subsequently assume the existence of one unit normalized Killing vector field on M, and we find a corresponding SO(4) twist that preserves two supercharges and is a generalization of the geometric Langlands twist of 4d SYM. We generalize the story to non-Abelian gauge group for the corresponding 5d SYM theories on M. We derive a vanishing theorem for BPS contact instantons by identifying the 6d potential energy and its BPS bound, in the 5d theory. To this end we need to perform a Wick rotation that complexifies the gauge field.

  14. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS S mesons. (orig.)

  15. Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Alero

    2009-01-01

    A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x # perpendicular# = 2p # perpendicular#/√s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p # perpendicular# hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.

  16. Flux Density through Guides with Microstructured Twisted Clad DB Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baqir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of flux density through a newly proposed twisted clad guide containing DB medium. The inner core and the outer clad sections are usual dielectrics, and the introduced twisted windings at the core-clad interface are treated under DB boundary conditions. The pitch angle of twist is supposed to greatly contribute towards the control over the dispersion characteristics of the guide. The eigenvalue equation for the guiding structure is deduced, and the analytical investigations are made to explore the propagation patterns of flux densities corresponding to the sustained low-order hybrid modes under the situation of varying pitch angles. The emphasis has been put on the effects due to the DB twisted pitch on the propagation of energy flux density through the guide.

  17. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  18. Study of twist boundaries in aluminium. Structure and intergranular diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemuet, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of grain boundaries in oriented crystals, and more particularly the systematic calculation of intergranular structures and energies of twist boundaries of <001> axis in aluminium, the determination of intergranular diffusion coefficients of zinc in a set of twist bi-crystals of same axis encompassing a whole range of disorientations, and the search for a correlation between these experimental results and calculated structures

  19. 'Twisted' strings and higher level Kac-Moody representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1989-01-01

    Using an orbifold-like construction the twisted sector of a closed string moving on GxG (with G simply laced) is determined. A level-two G current operating there is constructed explicitly. The decomposition of the twisted sector into products between appropriate conformal and level-two G representations is given if 2 rank G-2 dim G/(2+g)<1. (orig.)

  20. New look at the dynamics of twisted accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchett, S.P.; Begelman, M.C.; Sarazin, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    We reexamine the dynamic response of a thin, accretion disk to twisting torques, guided by the earlier analyses by Bardeen and Petterson. We make several corrections to this earlier work, and present a new version of the twist equations consistent with their physical assumptions. By describing the distortion of the disk in terms Cartesian direction cosines rather than the Euler angles used by the earlier authors, we are able to transform the twist equations from a pair of coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations to a single, linear, complex one. We write down formulae for the external twisting torques likley to be encountered in astrophysic, and we show that even with these driving torques our twist equation remains linear. We find exact, analytic solutions for steady state structure of a disk subject to Lense-Thirring torques by a nonaligned central Kerr black hole and also for the time-dependent problem of the structure of a slaved disk with its oscillating boundary conditions. Finally, we discuss the stability of disks against twisting modes and show that undriven disks and disks subject to time-independent driving torques are stable

  1. Observations on discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    I make a number of observations concerning discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD that can be deduced by applying chiral perturbation theory including lattice artifacts. (1) The line along which the partially conserved axial current quark mass vanishes in the untwisted-mass-twisted-mass plane makes an angle to the twisted-mass axis which is a direct measure of O(a) terms in the chiral Lagrangian, and is found numerically to be large; (2) Numerical results for pionic quantities in the mass plane show the qualitative properties predicted by chiral perturbation theory, in particular, an asymmetry in slopes between positive and negative untwisted quark masses; (3) By extending the description of the 'Aoki regime' (where m q ∼a 2 Λ QCD 3 ) to next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory I show how the phase-transition lines and lines of maximal twist (using different definitions) extend into this region, and give predictions for the functional form of pionic quantities; (4) I argue that the recent claim that lattice artifacts at maximal twist have apparent infrared singularities in the chiral limit results from expanding about the incorrect vacuum state. Shifting to the correct vacuum (as can be done using chiral perturbation theory) the apparent singularities are summed into nonsingular, and furthermore predicted, forms. I further argue that there is no breakdown in the Symanzik expansion in powers of lattice spacing, and no barrier to simulating at maximal twist in the Aoki regime

  2. Twisting short dsDNA with applied tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The twisting deformation of mechanically stretched DNA molecules is studied by a coarse grained Hamiltonian model incorporating the fundamental interactions that stabilize the double helix and accounting for the radial and angular base pair fluctuations. The latter are all the more important at short length scales in which DNA fragments maintain an intrinsic flexibility. The presented computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible molecule conformations characterized by a specific average twist and determines the energetically most convenient helical twist by free energy minimization. As this is done for any external load, the method yields the characteristic twist-stretch profile of the molecule and also computes the changes in the macroscopic helix parameters i.e. average diameter and rise distance. It is predicted that short molecules under stretching should first over-twist and then untwist by increasing the external load. Moreover, applying a constant load and simulating a torsional strain which over-twists the helix, it is found that the average helix diameter shrinks while the molecule elongates, in agreement with the experimental trend observed in kilo-base long sequences. The quantitative relation between percent relative elongation and superhelical density at fixed load is derived. The proposed theoretical model and computational method offer a general approach to characterize specific DNA fragments and predict their macroscopic elastic response as a function of the effective potential parameters of the mesoscopic Hamiltonian.

  3. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of twisted trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei-Jie; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Ma, Dong-Lin; Yin, Long-Jing; Sun, Gan; Zhang, Jun-Yang; Guan, Li-Yang; He, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Twist, as a simple and unique degree of freedom, could lead to enormous novel quantum phenomena in bilayer graphene. A small rotation angle introduces low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) approaching the Fermi level, which result in unusual correlated states in the bilayer graphene. It is reasonable to expect that the twist could also affect the electronic properties of few-layer graphene dramatically. However, such an issue has remained experimentally elusive. Here, by using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), we systematically studied a twisted trilayer graphene (TTG) with two different small twist angles between adjacent layers. Two sets of VHSs, originating from the two twist angles, were observed in the TTG, indicating that the TTG could be simply regarded as a combination of two different twisted bilayers of graphene. By using high-resolution STS, we observed a split of the VHSs and directly imaged the spatial symmetry breaking of electronic states around the VHSs. These results suggest that electron-electron interactions play an important role in affecting the electronic properties of graphene systems with low-energy VHSs.

  4. Detecting Poor Cement Bonding and Zonal Isolation Problems Using Magnetic Cement Slurries

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Sriramya D.; Patzek, Tadeusz; van Oort, Eric

    2017-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of magnetorheological fluids to improve displacement efficiency of fluids (drilling fluids, spacer fluids, cement slurries) in the eccentric casing annuli. When magnetic particles are mixed with the cement slurry for improved displacement, they provide an excellent opportunity for sensing the presence and quality of cement in the annulus. This work focuses on using sophisticated 3D computational electromagnetics to simulate the use of a magnetic cement slurry for well cement monitoring. The main goal is to develop a new tool, which is capable of locating magnetic cement slurry that is placed behind a stainless steel casing. An electromagnetic coil was used to generate a magnetic field inside the borehole. It was found that when a current was passed through the electric coils, magnetic field lines passed through the stainless steel casing, the cement annulus and the rock formation. Three sensors were placed inside the cased borehole and the magnetic field strength variations were observed at these locations. Various factors that have a significant influence on zonal isolation were considered. These include, effect of debonding between casing and cement annulus, effect of changing annuli thickness, influence of a fracture in the rock formation, effect of changing magnetic permeability of cement and finally influence of annuli eccentricity. Based on the results shown in the paper along with the next generation of supersensitive magnetic sensors that are being developed, the magnetic approach appears to be a viable alternative for evaluating the quality of the cement annulus to ensure good zonal isolation.

  5. Detecting Poor Cement Bonding and Zonal Isolation Problems Using Magnetic Cement Slurries

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Sriramya D.

    2017-10-02

    There has been growing interest in the use of magnetorheological fluids to improve displacement efficiency of fluids (drilling fluids, spacer fluids, cement slurries) in the eccentric casing annuli. When magnetic particles are mixed with the cement slurry for improved displacement, they provide an excellent opportunity for sensing the presence and quality of cement in the annulus. This work focuses on using sophisticated 3D computational electromagnetics to simulate the use of a magnetic cement slurry for well cement monitoring. The main goal is to develop a new tool, which is capable of locating magnetic cement slurry that is placed behind a stainless steel casing. An electromagnetic coil was used to generate a magnetic field inside the borehole. It was found that when a current was passed through the electric coils, magnetic field lines passed through the stainless steel casing, the cement annulus and the rock formation. Three sensors were placed inside the cased borehole and the magnetic field strength variations were observed at these locations. Various factors that have a significant influence on zonal isolation were considered. These include, effect of debonding between casing and cement annulus, effect of changing annuli thickness, influence of a fracture in the rock formation, effect of changing magnetic permeability of cement and finally influence of annuli eccentricity. Based on the results shown in the paper along with the next generation of supersensitive magnetic sensors that are being developed, the magnetic approach appears to be a viable alternative for evaluating the quality of the cement annulus to ensure good zonal isolation.

  6. Flux compactifications, twisted tori and doubled geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Edwards, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In [1] an O(D,D)-covariant sigma model describing the embedding of a closed world-sheet into the 2D-dimensional twisted torus X was proposed. Such sigma models provide a universal description of string theory with target spaces related by the action of T-duality. In this article a six-dimensional toy example is studied in detail. Different polarisations of the six-dimensional target space give different three-dimensional string backgrounds including a nilmanifold with H-flux, a T-fold with R-flux and a new class of T-folds. Global issues and connections with the doubled torus formalism are discussed. Finally, the sigma model introduced in [1], describing the embedding of a world-sheet into X, is generalised to one describing a target space which is a bundle of X over a base M d , allowing for a more complete description of the associated gauged supergravity from the world-sheet perspective to be given.

  7. Twisted conformal field theories and Morita equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adelenaddeo@yahoo.it

    2009-04-01

    The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter {theta} (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure [V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863], and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings {nu}=m/(2pm+1) is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems [A.P. Polychronakos, arXiv: 0706.1095].

  8. How the embryonic chick brain twists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A

    2016-11-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion. Our theoretical analysis showed that the force is of the order of 10 micronewtons. We also designed an experiment to use fluid surface tension to replace the mechanical role of the VM, and the estimated magnitude of the force owing to surface tension was shown to be consistent with the above theoretical analysis. We further discovered that the asymmetry of the looping heart determines the chirality of the twisted brain via physical mechanisms, demonstrating the mechanical transfer of left-right asymmetry between organs. Our experiments also implied that brain flexure is a necessary condition for torsion. Our work clarifies the mechanical origin of torsion and the development of left-right asymmetry in the early embryonic brain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Complex Toda theories and twisted reality conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Toda equations (based on a finite-dimensional or affine Lie algebra of superalgebra) are discussed as integrable non-linear differential equations for a set of complex scalar fields. We show that such complex Toda fields can either be restricted to take real values in the standard way or else they can be subjected to a 'twisted' reality condition associated to any Z 2 symmetry of the Cartan matrix or Dynkin diagram of the underlying algebra. Different reality conditions give rise to different lagrangian field theories. In the conformal case, however, these theories have the same central charge, while in the affine case they have the same mass spectrum. The construction of N=2 superconformal theories based on the superalgebras A(n, n-1) is clarified, and a new class of conformal field theories with positive kinetic energy based on the superalgebras C(n) is presented. The ideas developed are also relevant to understanding solition solutions in affine Toda theories with imaginary coupling constant. (orig.)

  10. The Latest Twists in Chromatin Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, Ralf; Schiessel, Helmut

    2018-01-05

    In its most restrictive interpretation, the notion of chromatin remodeling refers to the action of chromatin-remodeling enzymes on nucleosomes with the aim of displacing and removing them from the chromatin fiber (the effective polymer formed by a DNA molecule and proteins). This local modification of the fiber structure can have consequences for the initiation and repression of the transcription process, and when the remodeling process spreads along the fiber, it also results in long-range effects essential for fiber condensation. There are three regulatory levels of relevance that can be distinguished for this process: the intrinsic sequence preference of the histone octamer, which rules the positioning of the nucleosome along the DNA, notably in relation to the genetic information coded in DNA; the recognition or selection of nucleosomal substrates by remodeling complexes; and, finally, the motor action on the nucleosome exerted by the chromatin remodeler. Recent work has been able to provide crucial insights at each of these three levels that add new twists to this exciting and unfinished story, which we highlight in this perspective. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  15. FINE MAGNETIC FEATURES AND CHIRALITY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongqi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present fine magnetic features near the magnetic inversion line in the solar active region NOAA 10930. The high-resolution vector magnetograms obtained by Hinode allow detailed analyses around magnetic fibrils in the active region. The analyses are based on the fact that the electric current density can be divided into two components: the shear component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity and the twist component caused by the magnetic field twist. The relationships between magnetic field, electric current density, and its two components are examined. It is found that the individual magnetic fibrils are dominated by the current density component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity, while the large-scale magnetic region is generally dominated by the electric current component associated with the magnetic twist. The microstructure of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere is far from the force-free field. The current mainly flows around the magnetic flux fibrils in the active regions.

  16. Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 x l0 -4 m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble

  17. New Boundary-Driven Twist States in Systems with Broken Spatial Inversion Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, Kjetil M. D.; Everschor-Sitte, Karin

    2017-09-01

    A full description of a magnetic sample includes a correct treatment of the boundary conditions (BCs). This is in particular important in thin film systems, where even bulk properties might be modified by the properties of the boundary of the sample. We study generic ferromagnets with broken spatial inversion symmetry and derive the general micromagnetic BCs of a system with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We demonstrate that the BCs require the full tensorial structure of the third-rank DMI tensor and not just the antisymmetric part, which is usually taken into account. Specifically, we study systems with C∞ v symmetry and explore the consequences of the DMI. Interestingly, we find that the DMI already in the simplest case of a ferromagnetic thin film leads to a purely boundary-driven magnetic twist state at the edges of the sample. The twist state represents a new type of DMI-induced spin structure, which is completely independent of the internal DMI field. We estimate the size of the texture-induced magnetoresistance effect being in the range of that of domain walls.

  18. Reaction mechanism of the acidic hydrolysis of highly twisted amides: Rate acceleration caused by the twist of the amide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Jon I; Formoso, Elena; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier

    2006-08-03

    We present an ab initio study of the acid hydrolysis of a highly twisted amide and a planar amide analogue. The aim of these studies is to investigate the effect that the twist of the amide bond has on the reaction barriers and mechanism of acid hydrolysis. Concerted and stepwise mechanisms were investigated using density functional theory and polarizable continuum model calculations. Remarkable differences were observed between the mechanism of twisted and planar amide, due mainly to the preference for N-protonation of the former and O-protonation of the latter. In addition, we were also able to determine that the hydrolytic mechanism of the twisted amide will be pH dependent. Thus, there is a preference for a stepwise mechanism with formation of an intermediate in the acid hydrolysis, whereas the neutral hydrolysis undergoes a concerted-type mechanism. There is a nice agreement between the characterized intermediate and available X-ray data and a good agreement with the kinetically estimated rate acceleration of hydrolysis with respect to analogous undistorted amide compounds. This work, along with previous ab initio calculations, describes a complex and rich chemistry for the hydrolysis of highly twisted amides as a function of pH. The theoretical data provided will allow for a better understanding of the available kinetic data of the rate acceleration of amides upon twisting and the relation of the observed rate acceleration with intrinsic differential reactivity upon loss of amide bond resonance.

  19. Studies on the separation between higher-twist and minimum-twist in the photoproduction experiment WA69 at the CERN-OMEGA spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingler, J.

    1990-01-01

    A Lund type Monte Carlo program (LUCIFER) is used to describe in perturbative QCD the pointlike component of the photon interacting on a hydrogen target. Kinematical and topological variables are developed to enhance higher twist events on the lowest order minimum twist background. The emphasis is laid on π ± , K ± higher twist mesons. (orig.)

  20. MHD mixed convection in a vertical annulus filled with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–water nanofluid considering nanoparticle migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvandi, A., E-mail: amirmalvandi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safaei, M.R. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kaffash, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganji, D.D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the current study, an MHD mixed convection of alumina/water nanofluid inside a vertical annular pipe is investigated theoretically. The model used for the nanofluid mixture involves Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusivities in order to take into account the effects of nanoparticle migration. Since the thermophoresis is the main mechanism of the nanoparticle migration, different temperature gradients have been imposed using the asymmetric heating. Considering hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed flow, the governing equations have been reduced to two-point ordinary boundary value differential equations and they have been solved numerically. It is revealed that the imposed thermal asymmetry would change the direction of nanoparticle migration and distorts the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration profiles. Moreover, it is shown that the advantage of nanofluids in heat transfer enhancement is reduced in the presence of a magnetic field. - Highlights: • MHD mixed convection of alumina/water nanofluid inside a vertical annulus. • The effects of nanoparticle migration on rheological and thermophysical characteristics. • The effects of asymmetric heating on nanoparticle migration. • The effects of asymmetric heating on the heat transfer enhancement. • Inclusion of nanoparticles in presence of a magnetic field has a negative effect on performance.

  1. Burn-out, Circumferential Film Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop for an Eccentric Annulus with Heated Rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P. S.; Jensen, A.; Mannov, G.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of (1) burn-out, (2) circumferential film flow distribution, and (3) pressure drop in a 17 × 27.2 × 3500 mm concentric and eccentric annulus geometry are presented. The eccentric displacement was varied between 0 and 3 mm. The working fluid was water. Burn-out curves at 70 bar...... flow variation on burn-out is discussed....

  2. Analysis of optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using modified Bessel-like function and trapezoid annulus modulation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Wei, Zhongchao; Liu, Yuebo; Huang, Aili

    2015-02-01

    Two amplitude modulation methods, including modified Bessel-like function modulation structure and trapezoid annulus structure, for suppressing sidelobes of optical vortices are studied. In the former approach, we propose that the order of the Bessel-like function can be an additional parameter to modulate diffraction patterns of optical vortices motivated by the idea of conventional annulus structures. Furthermore, new Bessel-like modulation functions are introduced to solve the problem of low diffraction efficiency of the original one. Trapezoid annulus structure is proposed as a compromise structure between the modified Bessel-like modulation structure and the conventional annulus one, and has advantages of both. It is demonstrated that these two approaches can achieve high-quality optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes effectively, and the relative structures behave as more flexible and applicable structures for producing optical vortices with large coverage of topological charges, which suggests great potential in simplifying the structure designing procedure. These reliable and generalized structures for generating high-quality optical vortices will help to promote the development of future optical communication and optical manipulation significantly.

  3. In vitro and biomechanical screening of polyethylene glycol and poly(trimethylene carbonate) block copolymers for annulus fibrosus repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, R.G.; Rotman, Stijn Gerard; Hom, H.W.; Assael, D.J.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Latridis, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Herniated intervertebral discs are a common cause of back and neck pain. There is an unmet clinical need to seal annulus fibrosus (AF) defects, since discectomy surgeries address acute pain but are complicated by reherniation and recurrent pain. Copolymers of polyethylene glycol with trimethylene

  4. Assessment of tricuspid valve annulus size, shape and function using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Anwar (Ashraf); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTricuspid annulus (TA) evaluation continues to be a major problem in the surgical decision-making process. Obviously, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D TTE) is limited in TA visualization due to its complex 3D shape. The study aimed to determine TA morphology, size and

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  6. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, F.R. [CTS-NA, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO{sub 2} gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  7. Unsteady three-dimensional behavior of natural convection in horizontal annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Toshizo; Miki, Yasutomi; Morita, Kouji; Fukuda, Kenji; Hasegawa, Shu

    1988-01-01

    An numerical analysis has been performed on unsteady three-dimensional natural convection in a concentric horizontal annulus filled with air. The explicit leap-frog scheme is used for integrating three-dimensional time-dependent equations and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) for solving the Poisson equations for pressure. An oscillatory flow is found to occur at high Rayleigh numbers, which agree qualitatively with the experimental observation made by Bishop et al. An experiment is also conducted to measure temperature fluctuations; a comparison between periods of fluctuations obtained numerically and experimentally shows a good agreement. Numerical calculations yield various statistical parameters of turbulence at higher Rayleigh numbers, which wait experimental verificaions, however. (author)

  8. Design of improved detection instrumentation for the annulus gas system for wolsong 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Nam; Koo, Jun Mo; Chang, Ik Ho; Jung, Ho Chang; Han, Sang Joon

    1996-01-01

    The improved and advanced Annulus Gas System (AGS) has been developed for Wolsong 2 to satisfy the requirements of the regulatory body. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) required a shorter detection time following a small leak from a pressure tube and/or calandria tube. This paper describes licensing requirements, functional requirements and detail design description for the AGS. The Wolsong unit No. 1 AGS was designed to operate as a stagnant system normally requiring only pressure regulation and having provisions for purging. The improved AGS involves the adoption of gas recirculation in AGS, duplication of dew point indicators with additional instrumentation and sampling provisions to prompt operator action. The improved system operates in the recirculation mode with continuous dew point measurement for leak detection. An AGS with improved detection instrumentation is provided. 8 refs., 3 figs. (author)

  9. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greening, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO_2 gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  10. Limits on Annulus Air Outages in Types 1, 2, and 3 Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Sindelar, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation was performed on the impact of abnormal air flow conditions on the structural integrity of Types 1, 2, and 3 waste tanks. Warm, dry air in the annular space is necessary to preclude low temperature embrittlement and corrosive conditions for the carbon steel materials. For Type 1 and 2 tanks the annulus air system should be repaired within a month to minimize the potential for low temperature embrittlement and corrosive conditions, for Tanks 29-34, which are Type 3 tanks, it is recommended that the system be repaired within two months to minimize the potential for low temperature embrittlement. For all other Type 3 tanks repair of the system within six months is adequate to minimize general corrosion

  11. Unsteady flow of fractional Oldroyd-B fluids through rotating annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Madeeha; Naeem, Muhammad Nawaz; Javaid, Maria; Younas, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Sadiq, Naeem; Safdar, Rabia

    2018-04-01

    In this paper exact solutions corresponding to the rotational flow of a fractional Oldroyd-B fluid, in an annulus, are determined by applying integral transforms. The fluid starts moving after t = 0+ when pipes start rotating about their axis. The final solutions are presented in the form of usual Bessel and hypergeometric functions, true for initial and boundary conditions. The limiting cases for the solutions for ordinary Oldroyd-B, fractional Maxwell and Maxwell and Newtonian fluids are obtained. Moreover, the solution is obtained for the fluid when one pipe is rotating and the other one is at rest. At the end of this paper some characteristics of fluid motion, the effect of the physical parameters on the flow and a correlation between different fluid models are discussed. Finally, graphical representations confirm the above affirmation.

  12. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow in the inlet region of an eccentric annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartz, U.

    1983-08-01

    In a fully eccentric annulus with a radius-ratio of Rsub(i)/Rsub(a)=0.86 the mean flow components anti U, anti V, anti W and the 6 components of the Reynolds stress tensor have been measured. These measurements have been made with hot-wire-probes. Besides this the static pressure and the total pressure have been determined by means of static pressure probes and Pitot-tubes. Beginning with X/Dsub(H)=14 (Dsub(H)=14 mm) wallshearstress-measurements have been conducted also using a Pitot-tube with Preston's method. Additionally computations have been made with the codes VELASCO and BODYFIT. The 11 axial plains reached from X/Dsub(H)=0.05 from the entrance to X/Dsub(H)=357 with logarithmic scale. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Critical heat-flux experiments under low-flow conditions in a vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

    1982-03-01

    An experimental study was performed on critical heat flux (CHF) at low flow conditions for low pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The test section was transparent, therefore, visual observations of dryout as well as various instrumentations were made. The data indicated that a premature CHF occurred due to flow regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the critical heat flux observed in the experiment is essentially similar to a flooding-limited burnout and the critical heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow regime transition. The observed CHF values are much smaller than the standard high quality CHF criteria at low flow, corresponding to the annular flow film dryout. This result is very significant, because the coolability of a heater surface at low flow rates can be drastically reduced by the occurrence of this mode of CHF

  14. Experimental study on natural-convection boiling burnout in an annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study was performed on burnout heat flux at low flow rates for low-pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The data indicated that a premature burnout occurred due to flow-regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the burnout observed in the experiment is essentially a flooding-limited burnout and the burnout heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow-regime transition. It is also shown that the conventional correlations for burnout heat flux at low mass velocities agree well with the data on circulation and entrainment-limited burnout

  15. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air-water mixtures in an isoflux vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.; El-Sallak, M.; Morcos, S.M.; Salama, A.

    1996-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop in flows of air-water mixtures have been investigated experimentally in an isoflux vertical annulus. The superficial liquid Reynolds number, as a reference parameter, varied from 4500 to 30 000, at different values of gas-to-liquid superficial velocity ratios up to 20 and surface heat fluxes from 50 to 240 kW/m 2 . Enhancement of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient is pronounced particularly at low liquid superficial velocities. The results are correlated and compared with some models of two-phase, two-component flows for air-water mixtures within their range of validity. Satisfactory agreement is obtained from the trend of the experimental data. (orig.) [de

  16. Geometric effects of spacer grid in an annulus flow channel during reflooding period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.; Chun, S. Y.; Kim, B. D.; Park, J. K.; Yun, Y. J.; Baek, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies on the reflooding phase were actively carried out from the early 70's due to its importance for the safety of the nuclear reactor. (Martini et al., 1973; Henry, 1974; Chung, 1978;) However, few studies have presented the spacer grid effect during the reflooding period. Since the grid is an obstruction in the flow passage, it causes an increased pressure drop due to form and skin friction losses. On the other hand, the spacer grid tends to increase the local wall heat transfer. The present work has been performed in a vertical annulus flow channel with various flow conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a swirl-vane spacer grid on the rewetting phenomena during the reflooding phase

  17. Helicity and Filament Channels? The Straight Twist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at special locations, photospheric polarity inversions lines where the non-potentiality is observed as a filament channel. This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that photospheric motions continuously tangle its magnetic field. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. We propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries, polarity inversion lines, creating filament channels. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. We argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field.

  18. Interfacial area transport of subcooled boiling flow in a vertical annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Caleb S.; Ozar, Basar; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru, E-mail: ishii@purdue.edu

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Discussion of boiling and wall nucleation dataset obtained in a vertical annulus. • Overview of the interfacial area transport equation modeling in boiling flow. • Comparison of bubble departure diameter and frequency with existing models. • Evaluation of the interfacial area transport equation prediction in boiling flow. - Abstract: In an effort to improve the prediction of void fraction and heat transfer characteristics in two-phase systems, the two-group interfacial area transport equation has been developed for use with the two-group two-fluid model. The two-group approach treats spherical/distorted bubbles as Group-1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group-2. Therefore, the interfacial area transport of steam-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus has been investigated experimentally, including bulk flow parameters and wall nucleation characteristics. The theoretical modeling of interfacial area transport equation with phase change terms is introduced and discussed along with the experimental results. Benchmark of the interfacial area transport equation is performed considering the effects of bubble interaction mechanisms such as bubble break-up and coalescence, as well as, effects of phase change mechanisms such as wall nucleation and condensation for subcooled boiling. From the benchmark, sensitivity in the constitutive relations for Group-1 phase change mechanisms, such as wall nucleation and condensation is clear. The Group-2 interfacial area transport is shown to be dominated by the interfacial heat transfer mechanism causing expansion of Group-1 bubbles into Group-2 bubbles in the boiling flow.

  19. Assessment of leak detection capability of Candu 6 annulus gas system using moisture injection tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Ki Man; Kim, Wang Bae

    1998-01-01

    The Candu 6 reactor assembly consists of an array of 380 pressure tubes, which are installed horizontally in a large cylindrical vessel, the Calandria, containing the low pressure heavy water moderator. The pressure tube is located inside calandria tube and the annulus between these tubes, which forms a closed loop with CO 2 gas recirculating, is called the Annulus Gas System (AGS). It is designed to give an alarm to the operator even for a small pressure tube leak by a very sensitive dew point meter so that he can take a preventive action for the pressure tbe rupture incident. To judge whether the operator action time is enough or not in the design of Wolsung 2, 3, and 4, the Leak Before Break (LBB) assessment is required for the analysis of the pressure tube failure accident. In order to provide the required data for the LBB assessment of Wolsung Units 2, 3, 4, a series of leak detection capability tests was performed by injecting controlled rates of heavy water vapour. The data of increased dew point and rates of rise were measured to determine the alarm set point for dew point rate of rise of Wolsung Unit 2. It was found that the response of the dew point depends on the moisture injection rate, CO 2 gas flow rate and the leak location. The test showed that Candu 6 AGS can detect the very small leaks less than few g/hr and dew point rate of rise alarm can be the most reliable alarm signal to warn the operator. Considering the present results, the first response time of dew point to the AGS CO 2 flow rate is approximated. (author)

  20. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuteri Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC and aortic annular calcification (AVC may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT, are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness. Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p 0.0001. Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.

  1. Phosphorylation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gongda; Hemmings, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    The transcription factor Twist plays vital roles during embryonic development through regulating/controlling cell migration. However, postnatally, in normal physiological settings, Twist is either not expressed or inactivated. Increasing evidence shows a strong correlation between Twist reactivation and both cancer progression and malignancy, where the transcriptional activities of Twist support cancer cells to disseminate from primary tumours and subsequently establish a secondary tumour growth in distant organs. However, it is largely unclear how this signalling programme is reactivated or what signalling pathways regulate its activity. The present review discusses recent advances in Twist regulation and activity, with a focus on phosphorylation-dependent Twist activity, potential upstream kinases and the contribution of these factors in transducing biological signals from upstream signalling complexes. The recent advances in these areas have shed new light on how phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the Twist proteins promotes or suppresses Twist activity, leading to differential regulation of Twist transcriptional targets and thereby influencing cell fate.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of collagen and elastin in annulus fibrosus of the physiologic and scoliotic intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobielarz, Magdalena; Szotek, Sylwia; Głowacki, Maciej; Dawidowicz, Joanna; Pezowicz, Celina

    2016-09-01

    The biophysical properties of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc are determined by collagen and elastin fibres. The progression of scoliosis is accompanied by a number of pathological changes concerning these structural proteins. This is a major cause of dysfunction of the intervertebral disc. The object of the study were annulus fibrosus samples excised from intervertebral discs of healthy subjects and patients treated surgically for scoliosis in the thoracolumbar or lumbar spine. The research material was subjected to structural analysis by light microscopy and quantitative analysis of the content of collagen types I, II, III and IV as well as elastin by immunoenzymatic test (ELISA). A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the sampling site (Mann-Whitney test, α=0.05) and scoliosis (Wilcoxon matched pairs test, α=0.05) on the obtained results. The microscopic studies conducted on scoliotic annulus fibrosus showed a significant architectural distortion of collagen and elastin fibres. Quantitative biochemical assays demonstrated region-dependent distribution of only collagen types I and II in the case of healthy intervertebral discs whereas in the case of scoliotic discs region-dependent distribution concerned all examined proteins of the extracellular matrix. Comparison of scoliotic and healthy annulus fibrosus revealed a significant decrease in the content of collagen type I and elastin as well as a slight increase in the proportion of collagen types III and IV. The content of collagen type II did not differ significantly between both groups. The observed anomalies are a manifestation of degenerative changes affecting annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc in patients suffering from scoliosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Cardy limit of the topologically twisted index and black strings in AdS{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Nedelin, Anton; Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2017-04-04

    We evaluate the topologically twisted index of a general four-dimensional N=1 gauge theory in the “high-temperature' limit. The index is the partition function for N=1 theories on S{sup 2}×T{sup 2}, with a partial topological twist along S{sup 2}, in the presence of background magnetic fluxes and fugacities for the global symmetries. We show that the logarithm of the index is proportional to the conformal anomaly coefficient of the two-dimensional N=(0,2) SCFTs obtained from the compactification on S{sup 2}. We also present a universal formula for extracting the index from the four-dimensional conformal anomaly coefficient and its derivatives. We give examples based on theories whose holographic duals are black strings in type IIB backgrounds AdS{sub 5}×SE{sub 5}, where SE{sub 5} are five-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein spaces.

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  8. Extension-twist coupling of composite circular tubes with application to tilt rotor blade design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine if twist deformation required for the design of full-scale extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blades can be achieved within material design limit loads, and to demonstrate the accuracy of a coupled-beam analysis in predicting twist deformations. Two extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blade designs were developed based on theoretically optimum aerodynamic twist distributions. The designs indicated a twist rate requirement of between .216 and .333 deg/in. Agreement between axial tests and analytical predictions was within 10 percent at design limit loads. Agreement between the torsion tests and predictions was within 11 percent.

  9. Finite element and analytical models for twisted and coiled actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xintian; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Kai; Chen, Weishan; Zhao, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Twisted and coiled actuator (TCA) is a class of recently discovered artificial muscle, which is usually made by twisting and coiling polymer fibers into spring-like structures. It has been widely studied since discovery due to its impressive output characteristics and bright prospects. However, its mathematical models describing the actuation in response to the temperature are still not fully developed. It is known that the large tensile stroke is resulted from the untwisting of the twisted fiber when heated. Thus, the recovered torque during untwisting is a key parameter in the mathematical model. This paper presents a simplified model for the recovered torque of TCA. Finite element method is used for evaluating the thermal stress of the twisted fiber. Based on the results of the finite element analyses, the constitutive equations of twisted fibers are simplified to develop an analytic model of the recovered torque. Finally, the model of the recovered torque is used to predict the deformation of TCA under varying temperatures and validated against experimental results. This work will enhance our understanding of the deformation mechanism of TCAs, which will pave the way for the closed-loop position control.

  10. AKT-ions with a TWIST between EMT and MET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huifang; Massi, Daniela; Hemmings, Brian A; Mandalà, Mario; Hu, Zhengqiang; Wicki, Andreas; Xue, Gongda

    2016-09-20

    The transcription factor Twist is an important regulator of cranial suture during embryogenesis. Closure of the neural tube is achieved via Twist-triggered cellular transition from an epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype, a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by a remarkable increase in cell motility. In the absence of Twist activity, EMT and associated phenotypic changes in cell morphology and motility can also be induced, albeit moderately, by other transcription factor families, including Snail and Zeb. Aberrant EMT triggered by Twist in human mammary tumour cells was first reported to drive metastasis to the lung in a metastatic breast cancer model. Subsequent analysis of many types of carcinoma demonstrated overexpression of these unique EMT transcription factors, which statistically correlated with worse outcome, indicating their potential as biomarkers in the clinic. However, the mechanisms underlying their activation remain unclear. Interestingly, increasing evidence indicates they are selectively activated by distinct intracellular kinases, thereby acting as downstream effectors facilitating transduction of cytoplasmic signals into nucleus and reprogramming EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) transcription to control cell plasticity. Understanding these relationships and emerging data indicating differential phosphorylation of Twist leads to complex and even paradoxical functionalities, will be vital to unlocking their potential in clinical settings.

  11. The Twist Tensor Nuclear Norm for Video Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenrui; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Wensheng; Xie, Yuan; Yang, Yehui

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new low-rank tensor model based on the circulant algebra, namely, twist tensor nuclear norm (t-TNN). The twist tensor denotes a three-way tensor representation to laterally store 2-D data slices in order. On one hand, t-TNN convexly relaxes the tensor multirank of the twist tensor in the Fourier domain, which allows an efficient computation using fast Fourier transform. On the other, t-TNN is equal to the nuclear norm of block circulant matricization of the twist tensor in the original domain, which extends the traditional matrix nuclear norm in a block circulant way. We test the t-TNN model on a video completion application that aims to fill missing values and the experiment results validate its effectiveness, especially when dealing with video recorded by a nonstationary panning camera. The block circulant matricization of the twist tensor can be transformed into a circulant block representation with nuclear norm invariance. This representation, after transformation, exploits the horizontal translation relationship between the frames in a video, and endows the t-TNN model with a more powerful ability to reconstruct panning videos than the existing state-of-the-art low-rank models.

  12. Academic Training - Pulsed SC Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 2, 3, June 29, 30, 31 May, 1, 2 June 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Pulsed SC Magnets by M. Wilson Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mech...

  13. Physics of magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Priest, E. R.; Lee, L. C.

    The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations.

  14. Current-induced rotational torques in the skyrmion lattice phase of chiral magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everschor, K.; Garst, M.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Rosch, A.

    2011-01-01

    In chiral magnets without inversion symmetry, the magnetic structure can form a lattice of magnetic whirl lines, a two-dimensional skyrmion lattice, stabilized by spin-orbit interactions in a small range of temperatures and magnetic fields. The twist of the magnetization within this phase gives rise

  15. Fast Torsional Artificial Muscles from NiTi Twisted Yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W

    2017-05-17

    Torsional artificial muscles made of multiwalled carbon nanotube/niobium nanowire yarns have shown remarkable torsional speed and gravimetric torque. The muscle structure consists of a twisted yarn with half of its length infiltrated with a stimuli-responsive guest material such as paraffin wax. The volumetric expansion of the guest material creates the torsional actuation in the yarn. In the present work, we show that this type of actuation is not unique to wax-infiltrated carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWCNT) or niobium nanowire yarns and that twisted yarn of NiTi alloy fibers also produces fast torsional actuation. By gold-plating half the length of a NiTi twisted yarn and Joule heating it, we achieved a fully reversible torsional actuation of up to 16°/mm with peak torsional speed of 10 500 rpm and gravimetric torque of 8 N·m/kg. These results favorably compare to those of MWCNTs and niobium nanowire yarns.

  16. From starproducts to Drinfeld-twists. Present and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Physics comes up with models that invoke noncommutative structures in configuration space. Such structures are dual to the deformed coalgebra sector of a represented symmetry algebra. In the mean time such deformations are performed in terms of the symmetry algebra itself via twists or quasitriangular structures. One might thus find oneself in the bad situation that the symmetry algebra is not large enough to provide the required twist that dually matches the noncommutative structure found. It thus has to remain in the unpleasant state of being without any notion of symmetry. We show how starproducts can be pushed to twists by introducing a larger algebra that accommodates any finite dimensional representation of a Lie-algebra. This new algebra is similar to a Heisenberg-algebra but in contrast to the latter can be enhanced to a Hopf-algebra. Some Examples are given. (author)

  17. Twisted vertex algebras, bicharacter construction and boson-fermion correspondences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguelova, Iana I.

    2013-01-01

    The boson-fermion correspondences are an important phenomena on the intersection of several areas in mathematical physics: representation theory, vertex algebras and conformal field theory, integrable systems, number theory, cohomology. Two such correspondences are well known: the types A and B (and their super extensions). As a main result of this paper we present a new boson-fermion correspondence of type D-A. Further, we define a new concept of twisted vertex algebra of order N, which generalizes super vertex algebra. We develop the bicharacter construction which we use for constructing classes of examples of twisted vertex algebras, as well as for deriving formulas for the operator product expansions, analytic continuations, and normal ordered products. By using the underlying Hopf algebra structure we prove general bicharacter formulas for the vacuum expectation values for two important groups of examples. We show that the correspondences of types B, C, and D-A are isomorphisms of twisted vertex algebras

  18. Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarappa, T.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I.; Scorzato, L.; Urbach, C.; Wenger, U.

    2006-09-01

    We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)

  19. Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, T. [Univ. di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Nagai, K.I. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Papinutto, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Scorzato, L. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villazzano (Italy); Urbach, C. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Wenger, U. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-09-15

    We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)

  20. Template preparation of twisted nanoparticles of mesoporous silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Niu; Zhongbin Ni; Chengwu Fu; Tatsuo Kaneko; Mingqing Chen

    2011-01-01

    Optical isomers of N-lauroyl-L-(or-D-) alanine sodium salt {C12-L-(or-D-)AlaS} surfactants were used for the preparation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a twisted hexagonal rod-like morphology. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the temperature for template removal. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the surfactant solution with various compositions illustrated the formation and supramolecular assembly of protein-like molecular architecture leading to formation of twisted nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of these as-synthesized mesoporous silica confirmed that the twisted morphology of these nanoparticles was closely related to the supramolecular-assembled complex of amino acid surfactants.

  1. Twisted spin Sutherland models from quantum Hamiltonian reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, L; Pusztai, B G

    2008-01-01

    Recent general results on Hamiltonian reductions under polar group actions are applied to study some reductions of the free particle governed by the Laplace-Beltrami operator of a compact, connected, simple Lie group. The reduced systems associated with arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representations of the group by using the symmetry induced by twisted conjugations are described in detail. These systems generically yield integrable Sutherland-type many-body models with spin, which are called twisted spin Sutherland models if the underlying twisted conjugations are built on non-trivial Dynkin diagram automorphisms. The spectra of these models can be calculated, in principle, by solving certain Clebsch-Gordan problems, and the result is presented for the models associated with the symmetric tensorial powers of the defining representation of SU(N)

  2. Reversible Twisting of Primary Amides via Ground State N-C(O) Destabilization: Highly Twisted Rotationally Inverted Acyclic Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal

    2018-01-17

    Since the seminal studies by Pauling in 1930s, planarity has become the defining characteristic of the amide bond. Planarity of amides has central implications for the reactivity and chemical properties of amides of relevance to a range of chemical disciplines. While the vast majority of amides are planar, nonplanarity has a profound effect on the properties of the amide bond, with the most common method to restrict the amide bond relying on the incorporation of the amide function into a rigid cyclic ring system. In a major departure from this concept, here, we report the first class of acyclic twisted amides that can be prepared, reversibly, from common primary amides in a single, operationally trivial step. Di-tert-butoxycarbonylation of the amide nitrogen atom yields twisted amides in which the amide bond exhibits nearly perpendicular twist. Full structural characterization of a range of electronically diverse compounds from this new class of twisted amides is reported. Through reactivity studies we demonstrate unusual properties of the amide bond, wherein selective cleavage of the amide bond can be achieved by a judicious choice of the reaction conditions. Through computational studies we evaluate structural and energetic details pertaining to the amide bond deformation. The ability to selectively twist common primary amides, in a reversible manner, has important implications for the design and application of the amide bond nonplanarity in structural chemistry, biochemistry and organic synthesis.

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  5. Borel resummation of soft gluon radiation and higher twists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Joan; Ubiali, Maria

    2006-01-01

    We show that the well-known divergence of the perturbative expansion of resummed results for processes such as deep-inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan in the soft limit can be treated by Borel resummation. The divergence in the Borel inversion can be removed by the inclusion of suitable higher twist terms. This provides us with an alternative to the standard 'minimal prescription' for the asymptotic summation of the perturbative expansion, and it gives us some handle on the role of higher twist corrections in the soft resummation region

  6. Modeling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by color forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects; indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author)

  7. Modelling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Penna Firme, A.; Soares, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de

    1994-08-01

    The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by colour forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects: indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  8. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  9. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M 24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M 24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M 24 . In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  10. Gerbes over posets and twisted C*-dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    A base $\\Delta$ generating the topology of a space $M$ becomes a partially ordered set (poset), when ordered under inclusion of open subsets. Given a precosheaf over $\\Delta$ of fixed-point spaces (typically C*-algebras) under the action of a group $G$, in general one cannot find a precosheaf of $G$-spaces having it as fixed-point precosheaf. Rather one gets a gerbe over $\\Delta$, that is, a "twisted precosheaf" whose twisting is encoded by a cocycle with coefficients in a suitable 2-group. W...

  11. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. Huyghe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of are sponse to a change instrain, is one of a jumpin stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.A mecânica in vivo do anel fibroso do disco intervertebral é baseada em carregamento biaxial ao invés de uniaxial. As propriedades materiais do anel estão intimamente ligadas à osmolaridade no tecido. O artigo apresenta experimentos de relaxação biaxiais do anel fibroso de um tecido canino sob mudanças abruptas na concentração externa de sal. A assinatura da força devido à mudança brusca de salinidade resulta em uma progressiva e monótona mudança na tensão em direção a um novo valor de equilíbrio. Embora o número de amostras não permita nenhuma conclusão quantitativa, as tendências podem abrir uma luz no entendimento das intera

  12. Formation of field-twisting flux tubes on the magnetopause and solar wind particle entry into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Shimada, T.; Tanaka, M.; Hayashi, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1986-01-01

    A global interaction between the solar wind with a southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the magnetosphere is studied using a semi-global simulation model. A magnetic flux tube in which field lines are twisted is created as a result of repeated reconnection between the IMF and the outermost earth-rooted magnetic field near the equatorial plane and propagates to higher latitudes. When crossing the polar cusp, the flux tube penetrates into the magnetosphere reiterating reconnection with the earth-rooted higher latitude magnetic field, whereby solar wind particles are freely brought inside the magnetosphere. The flux tube structure has similarities in many aspects to the flux transfer events (FTEs) observed near the dayside magnetopause

  13. Precision Measurement of the Neutron Twist-3 Matrix Element dn2: Probing Color Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posik, Matthew; Flay, David; Parno, Diana; Allada, Kalyan; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Chiranjib; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Franklin, Gregg; Friend, Megan; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Gomez, Javier; Guo, Lei; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, J; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jin, Ge; Katich, Joseph; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lukhanin, Oleksandr; Mamyan, Vahe; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mihovilovic, Miha; Moffit, Bryan; Muangma, Navaphon; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Oh, Yongseok; Peng, Jen-chieh; Qian, Xin; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Troth, Wolfgang; Wang, Diancheng; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Zhihong; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2014-07-01

    Double-spin asymmetries and absolute cross sections were measured at large Bjorken x (0.25 lte x lte 0.90), in both the deep-inelastic and resonance regions, by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons at beam energies of 4.7 and 5.9 GeV from a transversely and longitudinally polarized 3He target. In this dedicated experiment, the spin structure function g2 on 3He was determined with precision at large x, and the neutron twist-three matrix element dn2 was measured at ?Q2? of 3.21 and 4.32 GeV2/c2, with an absolute precision of about 10?5. Our results are found to be in agreement with lattice QCD calculations and resolve the disagreement found with previous data at ?Q2?= 5 GeV2/c2. Combining dn2 and a newly extracted twist-four matrix element, fn2, the average neutron color electric and magnetic forces were extracted and found to be of opposite sign and about 60 MeV/fm in magnitude.

  14. The hadronic vacuum polarization and automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Florian; Hotzel, Grit

    2014-12-01

    The vacuum polarization tensor and the corresponding vacuum polarization function are the basis for calculations of numerous observables in lattice QCD. Examples are the hadronic contributions to lepton anomalous magnetic moments, the running of the electroweak and strong couplings and quark masses. Quantities which are derived from the vacuum polarization tensor often involve a summation of current correlators over all distances in position space leading thus to the appearance of short-distance terms. The mechanism of O(a) improvement in the presence of such short-distance terms is not directly covered by the usual arguments of on-shell improvement of the action and the operators for a given quantity. If such short-distance contributions appear, the property of O(a) improvement needs to be reconsidered. We discuss the effects of these short-distance terms on the vacuum polarization function for twisted mass lattice QCD and find that even in the presence of such terms automatic O(a) improvement is retained if the theory is tuned to maximal twist.

  15. Propagation of Local Bubble Parameters of Subcooled Boiling Flow in a Pressurized Vertical Annulus Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In-Cheol; Lee, Seung Jun; Youn, Young Jung; Park, Jong Kuk; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong Jin

    2015-01-01

    CMFD (Computation Multi-Fluid Dynamics) tools have been being developed to simulate two-phase flow safety problems in nuclear reactor, including the precise prediction of local bubble parameters in subcooled boiling flow. However, a lot of complicated phenomena are encountered in the subcooled boiling flow such as bubble nucleation and departure, interfacial drag of bubbles, lateral migration of bubbles, bubble coalescence and break-up, and condensation of bubbles, and the constitutive models for these phenomena are not yet complete. As a result, it is a difficult task to predict the radial profile of bubble parameters and its propagation along the flow direction. Several experiments were performed to measure the local bubble parameters for the validation of the CMFD code analysis and improvement of the constitutive models of the subcooled boiling flow, and to enhance the fundamental understanding on the subcooled boiling flow. The information on the propagation of the local flow parameters along the flow direction was not provided because the measurements were conducted at the fixed elevation. In SUBO experiments, the radial profiles of local bubble parameters, liquid velocity and temperature were obtained for steam-water subcooled boiling flow in a vertical annulus. The local flow parameters were measured at six elevations along the flow direction. The pressure was in the range of 0.15 to 0.2 MPa. We have launched an experimental program to investigate quantify the local subcooled boiling flow structure under elevated pressure condition in order to provide high precision experimental data for thorough validation of up-to-date CMFD codes. In the present study, the first set of experimental data on the propagation of the radial profile of the bubble parameters was obtained for the subcooled boiling flow of R-134a in a pressurized vertical annulus channel. An experimental program was launched for an in-depth investigation of a subcooled boiling flow in an elevated

  16. Geometry of the toroidal N-helix: optimal-packing and zero-twist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Two important geometrical properties of N-helix structures are influenced by bending. One is maximizing the volume fraction, which is called optimal-packing, and the other is having a vanishing strain-twist coupling, which is called zero-twist. Zero-twist helices rotate neither in one nor...... helix. General N-helices are discussed, as well as zero-twist helices for N > 1. The derived geometrical restrictions are gradually modified by changing the aspect ratio of the torus....

  17. Superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.

  18. Analytical solution for pulsatile viscous flow in a straight elliptic annulus and application to the motion of the cerebrospinal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2008-09-01

    We present here the analytical solution of transient, laminar, viscous flow of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid driven by a harmonically oscillating pressure gradient in a straight elliptic annulus. The analytical formulation is based on the exact solution of the governing fluid flow equations known as Navier-Stokes equations. We validate the analytical solution using a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics approach. As the analytical solution includes Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions, we also present a stepwise procedure for their evaluation for large complex arguments typically associated with viscous flows. We further outline the procedure for evaluating the associated Fourier coefficients and their eigenvalues. We finally apply the analytical solution to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid flow in the human spinal cavity, which features a shape similar to an elliptic annulus.

  19. Technical modification enabling pulmonary valve-sparing repair of a severely hypoplastic pulmonary annulus in patients with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroki; Ota, Noritaka; Murata, Masaya; Tosaka, Yuko; Ide, Yujiro; Tachi, Maiko; Sugimoto, Ai; Sakamoto, Kisaburo

    2013-06-01

    Although pulmonary valve-sparing repair is preferable for patients with tetralogy of Fallot, the repair of very small pulmonary valves is challenging. The present study evaluates our modification for preserving severely hypoplastic pulmonary valves in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Sixty-eight consecutive patients who underwent complete repair of a tetralogy of Fallot between 2005 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with pulmonary atresia, absence of a pulmonary valve, atrioventricular septal defect and/or subarterial ventricular septal defect were excluded. There were 19 (28%) patients with a severely hypoplastic pulmonary annulus determined by preoperative echocardiography (z-score -4 group. In the z tetralogy of Fallot could not be applied in all patients, this strategy enabled acceptable growth of the valve annulus, with only mild stenosis during the early to mid-term follow-up. This modification seems to be an option, even for a very small pulmonary valve.

  20. Study on heat transfer and hydraulic model of spiral-fin fuel rods based on equivalent annulus method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dan; Liu Changwen; Lu Jianchao

    2011-01-01

    Tight lattice fuel assembly usually adopts spiral-fin fuel elements. Compared with the traditional PWR fuel rods, the closely packed and spiral fin spacers make the heat transfer and hydraulic phenomena in sub-channels very complicated, and: there was no suitable model and correlation to study it. This paper studied the effect of spiral spacers on the channel geometry in the equivalent annulus and physical performance based on the Rehme equivalent annulus methods, and the heat transfer of the spiral fin fuel rods and hydraulic model were obtained. The new model was verified with the traditional one, and the verification showed that two new models agreed well, which could provide certain theoretical explanation to the effect of the spiral spacer on the thermal hydraulics. (authors)

  1. Twisting null geodesic congruences and the Einstein-Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Ezra T; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, we returned to the study of asymptotically flat solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations with a rather unconventional point of view. The essential observation in that work was that from a given asymptotically flat vacuum spacetime with a given Bondi shear, one can find a class of asymptotically shear-free (but, in general, twisting) null geodesic congruences where the class was uniquely given up to the arbitrary choice of a complex analytic 'worldline' in a four-dimensional complex space. By imitating certain terms in the Weyl tensor that are found in the algebraically special type II metrics, this complex worldline could be made unique and given-or assigned-the physical meaning as the complex centre of mass. Equations of motion for this case were found. The purpose of the present work is to extend those results to asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. Once again, in this case, we get a class of asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences depending on a complex worldline in the same four-dimensional complex space. However in this case there will be, in general, two distinct but uniquely chosen worldlines, one of which can be assigned as the complex centre of charge while the other could be called the complex centre of mass. Rather than investigating the situation where there are two distinct complex worldlines, we study instead the special degenerate case where the two worldlines coincide, i.e., where there is a single unique worldline. This mimics the case of algebraically special Einstein-Maxwell fields where the degenerate principle null vector of the Weyl tensor coincides with a Maxwell principle null vector. Again we obtain equations of motion for this worldline-but explicitly found here only in an approximation. Though there are ambiguities in assigning physical meaning to different terms it appears as if reliance on the Kerr and charged Kerr metrics and classical electromagnetic radiation theory helps

  2. On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei, Francesco; Waterstraat, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large

  3. Twisting failure of centrally loaded open-section columns in the elastic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Robert

    1938-01-01

    In the following report a complete theory of twisting failure by the energy method is developed, based on substantially the same assumptions as those employed by Wagner and Bleich. Problems treated in detail are: the stress and strain condition under St. Venant twist and in twist with axial constraint; the concept of shear center and the energy method for problems of elastic stability.

  4. On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bei, Francesco, E-mail: bei@math.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Waterstraat, Nils, E-mail: n.waterstraat@kent.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, Statistics & Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large.

  5. Heat Transfer Characteristics for an Upward Flowing Supercritical Pressure CO2 in a Vertical Annulus Passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Deog Ji; Kim, Sin; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer experiments at a vertical annulus passage were carried out in the SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation) to investigate the heat transfer behaviors of supercritical CO 2 . The collected test data are to be used for the reactor core design of the SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). The mass flux was in the range of 400 ∼1200 kg/m 2 s and the heat flux was chosen up to 150 kW/m 2 . The selected pressures were 7.75 and 8.12 MPa. The heat transfer data were analyzed and compared with the previous tube test data. The test results showed that the heat transfer characteristics were similar to those of the tube in case of a normal heat transfer mode and degree of heat transfer deterioration became smaller than that in the tube. Comparison of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted ones by the existing correlations showed that there was not a distinct difference between the correlations

  6. Estimates of the Hyperbolic Radius Gradient and Schwarz–Pick Inequalities for the Eccentric Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Kh. Giniyatova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Let Ω and Π be hyperbolic domains in the complex plane C. By A(Ω, Π we shall designate the class of functions f which are holomorphic or meromorphic in Ω and such that f(Ω ϲ Π. Estimates of the higher derivatives |f(n(z| of the analytic functions from the class A(Ω, Π with the punishing factor Cn(Ω, Π is one of the main problems of geometric theory of functions. These estimates are commonly referred to as Schwarz–Pick inequalities. Many results concerning this problem have been obtained for simply connected domains. Therefore, the research interest in such problems for finitely connected domains is natural. As known, the constant C2(Ω, Π for any pairs of hyperbolic domains depends only on the hyperbolic radius gradient of the corresponding domains. The main result of this paper is estimates of the hyperbolic radius gradient and the punishing factor in the Schwarz–Pick inequality for the eccentric annulus. We also consider the extreme case – the randomly punctured circle.

  7. Chaotic micromixer utilizing electro-osmosis and induced charge electro-osmosis in eccentric annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Huicheng; Wong, Teck Neng; Marcos; Che, Zhizhao

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mixing is of significant importance in numerous chemical and biomedical applications but difficult to realize rapidly in microgeometries due to the lack of turbulence. We propose to enhance mixing by introducing Lagrangian chaos through electro-osmosis (EO) or induced charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) in an eccentric annulus. The analysis reveals that the created Lagrangian chaos can achieve a homogeneous mixing much more rapidly than either the pure EO or the pure ICEO. Our systematic investigations on the key parameters, ranging from the eccentricity, the alternating time period, the number of flow patterns in one time period, to the specific flow patterns utilized for the Lagrangian chaos creation, present that the Lagrangian chaos is considerably robust. The system can obtain a good mixing effect with wide ranges of eccentricity, alternating time period, and specific flow patterns utilized for the Lagrangian chaos creation as long as the number of flow patterns in one time period is two. As the electric field increases, the time consumption for homogenous mixing is reduced more remarkably for the Lagrangian chaos of the ICEO than that of the EO.

  8. Chaotic micromixer utilizing electro-osmosis and induced charge electro-osmosis in eccentric annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Huicheng; Wong, Teck Neng, E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg; Marcos [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Che, Zhizhao [State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Efficient mixing is of significant importance in numerous chemical and biomedical applications but difficult to realize rapidly in microgeometries due to the lack of turbulence. We propose to enhance mixing by introducing Lagrangian chaos through electro-osmosis (EO) or induced charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) in an eccentric annulus. The analysis reveals that the created Lagrangian chaos can achieve a homogeneous mixing much more rapidly than either the pure EO or the pure ICEO. Our systematic investigations on the key parameters, ranging from the eccentricity, the alternating time period, the number of flow patterns in one time period, to the specific flow patterns utilized for the Lagrangian chaos creation, present that the Lagrangian chaos is considerably robust. The system can obtain a good mixing effect with wide ranges of eccentricity, alternating time period, and specific flow patterns utilized for the Lagrangian chaos creation as long as the number of flow patterns in one time period is two. As the electric field increases, the time consumption for homogenous mixing is reduced more remarkably for the Lagrangian chaos of the ICEO than that of the EO.

  9. Mechanics of oriented electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Nandan L; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2007-08-01

    Engineering a functional replacement for the annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disc is contingent upon recapitulation of AF structure, composition, and mechanical properties. In this study, we propose a new paradigm for AF tissue engineering that focuses on the reconstitution of anatomic fiber architecture and uses constitutive modeling to evaluate construct function. A modified electrospinning technique was utilized to generate aligned nanofibrous polymer scaffolds for engineering the basic functional unit of the AF, a single lamella. Scaffolds were tested in uniaxial tension at multiple fiber orientations, demonstrating a nonlinear dependence of modulus on fiber angle that mimicked the nonlinearity and anisotropy of native AF. A homogenization model previously applied to native AF successfully described scaffold mechanical response, and parametric studies demonstrated that nonfibrillar matrix, along with fiber connectivity, are key contributors to tensile mechanics for engineered AF. We demonstrated that AF cells orient themselves along the aligned scaffolds and deposit matrix that contributes to construct mechanics under loading conditions relevant to the in vivo environment. The homogenization model was applied to cell-seeded constructs and provided quantitative measures for the evolution of matrix and interfibrillar interactions. Finally, the model demonstrated that at fiber angles of the AF (28 degrees -44 degrees ), engineered material behaved much like native tissue, suggesting that engineered constructs replicate the physiologic behavior of the single AF lamella. Constitutive modeling provides a powerful tool for analysis of engineered AF neo-tissue and native AF tissue alike, highlighting key mechanical design criteria for functional AF tissue engineering.

  10. CFD Calculation of Internal Natural Convection in the Annulus between Horizontal Concentric Cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, N.D. Jr.; Itamura, M.T.; Webb, S.W.; James, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this heat transfer and fluid flow study is to assess the ability of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to reproduce the experimental results, numerical simulation results, and heat transfer correlation equations developed in the literature for natural convection heat transfer within the annulus of horizontal concentric cylinders. In the literature, a variety of heat transfer expressions have been developed to compute average equivalent thermal conductivities. However, the expressions have been primarily developed for very small inner and outer cylinder radii and gap-widths. In this comparative study, interest is primarily focused on large gap widths (on the order of half meter or greater) and large radius ratios. From the steady-state CFD analysis it is found that the concentric cylinder models for the larger geometries compare favorably to the results of the Kuehn and Goldstein correlations in the Rayleigh number range of about 10 5 to 10 8 (a range that encompasses the laminar to turbulent transition). For Rayleigh numbers greater than 10 8 , both numerical simulations and experimental data (from the literature) are consistent and result in slightly lower equivalent thermal conductivities than those obtained from the Kuehn and Goldstein correlations

  11. A numerical study on the non-Boussinesq effect in the natural convection in horizontal annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Cao, Yuhui

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, the non-Boussinesq effect in the thermal convection in an air-filled horizontal concentric annulus is studied numerically by using the variable property-based lattice Boltzmann flux solver (VPLBFS), with the radial temperature difference ratio of 1.0, the radius ratio of 2.0, and the Rayleigh number in the range 104 ≤ Ra ≤ 106. Several solutions are obtained by using the standard form or simplified versions of the VPLBFS, including the real solution with the total variation in fluid properties considered, named as the variable property solution (VPS), the constant property solution (CPS) based on the Boussinesq approximation, the solution with variable dynamic viscosity (VVS), the solution based on the partial Boussinesq approximation (PBAS), the solution with variable thermal conductivity (VCS) and the solution with variable fluid density (VDS). The discrepancy between these solutions is analyzed to illuminate the influence of the non-Boussinesq effects induced by partial or total variation in fluid properties on flow instability behaviors and heat transfer characteristics. The present study reveals the complicated flow instability behavior under non-Boussinesq conditions and its tight association with heat transfer characteristics. Also, it demonstrates the necessity of considering the integral effect of the total variation in fluid properties and highlights the essential role of the fluid density variation.

  12. Numerical Study of Mixed Convection of Nanofluid in a Concentric Annulus with Rotating Inner Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Sheikhzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the steady and laminar mixed convection of nanofluid in horizontal concentric annulus withrotating inner cylinder is investigated numerically. The inner and outer cylinders are kept at constanttemperature Ti and To respectively, where Ti>To. The annular space is filled with Alumina-water nanofluid.The governing equations with the corresponded boundary conditions in the polar coordinate are discretizedusing the finite volume method where pressure-velocity coupling is done by the SIMPLER algorithm.Numerical results have been obtained for Rayleigh number ranging from 102 to 105, Reynolds number from 1 to 300 and nanoparticles volume fraction from 0.01 to 0.06. The effects of the Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers, average diameter of nanoparticles and the volume fraction of the nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the annuli are investigated. According to the results, the average Nusselt number decreases with increasing the Reynolds number. However, the average Nusselt number increases by increasing the Rayleigh number. Moreover, the maximum average Nusselt number occurs for an optimal nanoparticle volume fraction except situations that heat conduction predominates over the heat convection. In these conditions the average Nusselt number is close to unity.

  13. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of ethanol aqueous solutions in vertical annulus space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafraz M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subcooled flow boiling heat-transfer characteristics of water and ethanol solutions in a vertical annulus have been investigated up to heat flux 132kW/m2. The variations in the effects of heat flux and fluid velocity, and concentration of ethanol on the observed heat-transfer coefficients over a range of ethanol concentrations implied an enhanced contribution of nucleate boiling heat transfer in flow boiling, where both forced convection and nucleate boiling heat transfer occurred. Increasing the ethanol concentration led to a significant deterioration in the observed heat-transfer coefficient because of a mixture effect, that resulted in a local rise in the saturation temperature of ethanol/water solution at the vapor-liquid interface. The reduction in the heat-transfer coefficient with increasing ethanol concentration is also attributed to changes in the fluid properties (for example, viscosity and heat capacity of tested solutions with different ethanol content. The experimental data were compared with some well-established existing correlations. Results of comparisons indicate existing correlations are unable to obtain the acceptable values. Therefore a modified correlation based on Gnielinski correlation has been proposed that predicts the heat transfer coefficient for ethanol/water solution with uncertainty about 8% that is the least in comparison to other well-known existing correlations.

  14. Radiation effects on bifurcation and dual solutions in transient natural convection in a horizontal annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Kang; Yi, Hong-Liang, E-mail: yihongliang@hit.edu.cn; Tan, He-Ping, E-mail: tanheping@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Transitions and bifurcations of transient natural convection in a horizontal annulus with radiatively participating medium are numerically investigated using the coupled lattice Boltzmann and direct collocation meshless (LB-DCM) method. As a hybrid approach based on a common multi-scale Boltzmann-type model, the LB-DCM scheme is easy to implement and has an excellent flexibility in dealing with the irregular geometries. Separate particle distribution functions in the LBM are used to calculate the density field, the velocity field and the thermal field. In the radiatively participating medium, the contribution of thermal radiation to natural convection must be taken into account, and it is considered as a radiative term in the energy equation that is solved by the meshless method with moving least-squares (MLS) approximation. The occurrence of various instabilities and bifurcative phenomena is analyzed for different Rayleigh number Ra and Prandtl number Pr with and without radiation. Then, bifurcation diagrams and dual solutions are presented for relevant radiative parameters, such as convection-radiation parameter Rc and optical thickness τ. Numerical results show that the presence of volumetric radiation changes the static temperature gradient of the fluid, and generally results in an increase in the flow critical value. Besides, the existence and development of dual solutions of transient convection in the presence of radiation are greatly affected by radiative parameters. Finally, the advantage of LB-DCM combination is discussed, and the potential benefits of applying the LB-DCM method to multi-field coupling problems are demonstrated.

  15. Steady flow instability in an annulus with deflectors at rotational vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, Nikolai V [Lab. Vibrational Hydromechanics, Perm State-Humanitarian Pedagogical University 24 Sibirskaya av., 614990 Perm (Russian Federation); Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef [Lab. Chemical Engineering, CentraleSupélec-Université Paris Saclay, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Ivantsov, Andrey, E-mail: kozlov.n@icmm.ru [Lab. Computational Hydrodynamics Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UB RAS1 Acad. Korolev st., 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Experimental study and direct numerical simulation of the dynamics of an isothermal low-viscosity fluid are done in a coaxial gap of a cylindrical container making rotational vibrations relative to its axis. On the inner surface of the outer wall of the container, semicircular deflectors are regularly situated, playing the role of flow activators. As a result of vibrations, the activators oscillate tangentially. In the simulation, a 2D configuration is considered, excluding the end-wall effects. In the experiment, a container with a large aspect ratio is used. Steady streaming is generated in the viscous boundary layers on the activators. On each of the latter, beyond the viscous domain, a symmetric vortices pair is formed. The steady streaming in the annulus has an azimuthal periodicity. With an increase in the vibration intensity, a competition between the vortices occurs, as a result of which one of the vortices (let us call it even) approaches the activator and the other one (odd) rolls away and couples with the vortices from the neighbouring pairs. Streamlines of the odd vortices close on each other, forming a cog-wheel shaped flow that encircles the inner wall. Comparison of the experiment and the simulation reveals an agreement at moderate vibration intensity. (paper)

  16. Experimental study on two-phase flow parameters of subcooled boiling in inclined annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Moon Oh; Park, Goon Cherl

    1999-01-01

    Local two-phase flow parameters of subcooled flow boiling in inclined annulus were measured to investigate the effect of inclination on the internal flow structure. Two-conductivity probe technique was applied to measured local gas phasic parameters, including void by fraction, vapor bubble frequency, chord length, vapor bubble velocity and interfacial area concentration. Local liquid velocity was measured by Pitot tube. Experiments were conducted for three angles of inclination: 0 o (vertical), 30 o , 60 o . The system pressure was maintained at atmospheric pressure. The range of average void fraction was up to 10 percent and the average liquid superficial velocities were less than 1.3 m/sec. The results of experiments showed that the distributions of two-phase flow parameters were influenced by the angle of channel inclination. Especially, the void fraction and chord length distributions were strongly affected by the increase of inclination angle, and flow pattern transition to slug flow was observed depending on the flow conditions. The profiles of vapor velocity, liquid velocity and interfacial area concentration were found to be affected by the non-symmetric bubble size distribution in inclined channel. Using the measured distributions of local phasic parameters, an analysis for predicting average void fraction was performed based on the drift flux model and flowing volumetric concentration. And it was demonstrated that the average void fraction can be more appropriately presented in terms of flowing volumetric concentration. (Author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  17. Experimental evaluation of local bubble parameters of subcooled boiling flow in a pressurized vertical annulus channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, In-Cheol, E-mail: chuic@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Seung-Jun; Youn, Young Jung; Park, Jong Kuk; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2017-02-15

    Experiments were performed to quantify the local bubble parameters such as void fraction, bubble velocity, interfacial area concentration, and Sauter mean diameter for the subcooled boiling flow of a refrigerant R-134a in a pressurized vertical annulus channel. Optical fiber void probe and double pressure boundary visualization windows were installed at four measurement stations with different elevations, thus enabling the quantification of local bubble parameters and observation of global boiling structure. Using high-resolution traverse systems for the optical fiber void probes and the heating tube, the radial profiles of the bubble parameters and their axial propagation can be evaluated at any elevation of the whole heating region. At this first phase of the experiments, three tests were conducted by varying the pressure, heat flux, mass flux, and local liquid subcooling. The radial profiles of the bubble parameters were obtained at seven elevations. The pressure condition of the present experiments covered the normal operating pressure of PWRs according to the similarity criteria. The present experimental data will be useful for thorough validation and improvement of the CMFD (Computation Multi-Fluid Dynamics) codes and constitutive relations.

  18. Ultrastructure of inclusion bodies in annulus cells in the degenerating human intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N

    2009-06-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of the cell has an architectural editing function that checks whether protein structure and three-dimensional assembly have occurred properly prior to export of newly synthesized material out of the cell. If these have been faulty, the material is retained within the rER as an inclusion body. Inclusion bodies have been identified previously in chondrocytes and osteoblasts in chondrodysplasias and osteogenesis imperfecta. Inclusion bodies in intervertebral disc cells, however, have only recently been recognized. Our objectives were to use transmission electron microscopy to analyze more fully inclusion bodies in the annulus pulposus and to study the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding cells containing inclusion bodies. ECM frequently encapsulated cells with inclusion bodies, and commonly contained prominent banded aggregates of Type VI collagen. Inclusion body material had several morphologies, including relatively smooth, homogeneous material, or a rougher, less homogeneous feature. Such findings expand our knowledge of the fine structure of the human disc cell and ECM during disc degeneration, and indicate the potential utility of ultrastructural identification of discs with intracellular inclusion bodies as a screening method for molecular studies directed toward identification of defective gene products in degenerating discs.

  19. A numerical study of Taylor vortex flow in a finite length tapered annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noui-Mehidi, M N; Ohmura, N; Wu, J

    2005-01-01

    The transient evolution and steady state analysis of Taylor vortex flow in a tapered annulus was conducted by numerical experiments in the case where the inner cylinder was rotated and the outer one fixed. The gap between the cylinders was linearly tapered from a supercritical value at the upper base to the critical value at the lower base. The wavelength adjustment depended on the variation of Reynolds number in the spatially ramped gap. The axisymmetric conservative governing equations were solved by the use of an simplified marker and cell (SMAC) algorithm. A coordinate transformation function allowed us to numerically solve the problem in a rectangular computational domain. The results have shown that Taylor vortices growth was sensitive to the spatial ramp of the gap even with tapering angle values less than one degree. The interaction between the inflow and outflow boundaries could be clearly seen as the taper angle was increased. The investigation of the transient dynamics related to the flow system also revealed a characteristic dependence on the taper angle

  20. Oil flow in the oil well tube annulus of vertical bearing assemblies (leakage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Yinghu

    1997-01-01

    A numerical simulation and experimental flow visualization study was conducted to better understand oil well leakage, particularly in the annular clearance space surrounding the oil well tube. A test rig was developed to simulate the bearing's oil well tube annulus. A major feature of this rig was to allow visual access to the annular clearance space and to the region beneath the rotating runner where strong secondary flow effects are known to exist. The main method for tracing the secondary flow pathlines was a light sheet visualization technique using micro air bubbles as the tracer. The effect of runner speed on the pathlines was studied. The velocity of the oil flow was measured experimentally and the results were compared with numerical data. A numerical technique was developed to trace the micro air bubbles in the oil flow field using a three dimensional CFD code for laminar, axisymmetric flow with a free surface. The buoyancy effects of gravitational and centrifugal forces were considered when determining the pathline of air bubbles. Bubble size, oil viscosity and runner speed were some of the parameters that affect the path of the air bubbles

  1. Relationship between high quality CHF and boiling length in annulus geometry with uniformly heated rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, S. Y.; Mun, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Yang, S. K.; Jung, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between the boiling length and the CHF in annulus geometry with uniformly heated rod has been studied. In this study the CHF data under pressure of 0.57∼15.01 MPa, flow rate of 200∼650 kg/m 2 s, inlet subcooling of 85∼353 kJ/kg and exit quality of 0.106∼0.536 have been applied. As a result of examining the flow pattern over the heated section, all of the CHF data were the dryout type CHF in annular flow and the locations of the churn to annular flow transition moved down stream of the heated section with increasing the pressure. The effect of pressure on the boiling length under the CHF conditions showed the trends similar to the effect of pressure on the CHF. The relationship between the non-dimensional CHF, q CHF and mass flux taking into account of the boiling length, G ( L h / L B ) indicated the linear relationship without scatter and regardless of pressure and inlet subcooling. The CHF calculated by using the relationship between the non-dimensionless CHF, q CHF and mass flux, G ( L h / L B ) predicted very well the experimental CHF data with the pressure dependence

  2. Mechanisms of Twist 1-Induced Invasion in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    affect breast cancer metastasis with a subcutaneous mouse tumor implantation model of breast cancer metastasis. HMLE -Twist1 cells expressing shRNAs...13 4 Introduction Distant metastases are responsible for the vast majority of breast cancer deaths. This process...to migrate and invade is therefore essential to the metastatic process. The initial steps of breast cancer metastasis, local invasion and

  3. Determinant of twisted chiral Dirac operator on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosco, C.D.; Randjbar Daemi, S.

    1995-04-01

    Using the overlap formulation, we calculate the fermionic determinant on the lattice for chiral fermions with twisted boundary conditions in two dimensions. When the lattice spacing tends to zero we recover the results on the usual string-theory continuum calculations. (author). 13 refs

  4. Spectral estimates for Dirichlet Laplacians on perturbed twisted tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Barseghyan, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 167-183 ISSN 1846-3886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Drichlet Laplacian * twisted tube * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue estimates Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2014

  5. Casimir energy for twisted piecewise uniform bosonic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Shanghai, Teachers Univ.

    1998-01-01

    The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of piecewise uniform bosonic strings with either untwisted or twisted continuous conditions is discussed. After calculating the analytic values of zeros of the dispersion function under certain conditions, is obtained the Casimir energy for both open and closed bosonic strings composed of two or three segments

  6. Twisted equivariant K-theory, groupoids and proper actions

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarero, Jose

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we define twisted equivariant K-theory for actions of Lie groupoids. For a Bredon-compatible Lie groupoid, this defines a periodic cohomology theory on the category of finite CW-complexes with equivariant stable projective bundles. A classification of these bundles is shown. We also obtain a completion theorem and apply these results to proper actions of groups.

  7. Fermionic construction of vertex operators for twisted affine algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Sorba, P.; Sciarrino, A.

    1988-03-01

    We construct vertex operator representations of the twisted affine algebras in terms of fermionic (or parafermionic in some cases) elementary fields. The folding method applied to the extended Dynkin diagrams of the affine algebras allows us to determine explicitly these fermionic fields as vertex operators

  8. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-01-01

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need. (orig.)

  9. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-08-16

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need.

  10. Twisted mass lattice QCD with non-degenerate quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Gernot; Sudmann, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics on a lattice with Wilson fermions and a chirally twisted mass term is considered in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. For two and three numbers of quark flavours, respectively, with non-degenerate quark masses the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants are calculated in next-to-leading order including lattice effects quadratic in the lattice spacing a

  11. Twist-2 Light-Cone Pion Wave Function

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaev, V. M.; Johnson, Mikkel B.

    1997-01-01

    We present an analysis of the existing constraints for the twist-2 light-cone pion wave function. We find that existing information on the pion wave function does not exclude the possibility that the pion wave function attains its asymptotic form. New bounds on the parameters of the pion wave function are presented.

  12. The Development of a Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Sensor Applicable to CBM Wellbore Annulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Wen, Guojun; Han, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-11-18

    The measurement of wellbore annulus gas-liquid two-phase flow in CBM (coalbed methane) wells is of great significance for reasonably developing gas drainage and extraction processes, estimating CBM output, judging the operating conditions of CBM wells and analyzing stratum conditions. Hence, a specially designed sensor is urgently needed for real-time measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow in CBM wellbore annulus. Existing flow sensors fail to meet the requirements of the operating conditions of CBM wellbore annulus due to such factors as an inapplicable measurement principle, larger size, poor sealability, high installation accuracy, and higher requirements for fluid media. Therefore, based on the principle of a target flowmeter, this paper designs a new two-phase flow sensor that can identify and automatically calibrate different flow patterns of two-phase flows. Upon the successful development of the new flow sensor, lab and field tests were carried out, and the results show that the newly designed sensor, with a measurement accuracy of ±2.5%, can adapt to the operating conditions of CBM wells and is reliable for long-term work.

  13. The Development of a Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow Sensor Applicable to CBM Wellbore Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of wellbore annulus gas–liquid two-phase flow in CBM (coalbed methane wells is of great significance for reasonably developing gas drainage and extraction processes, estimating CBM output, judging the operating conditions of CBM wells and analyzing stratum conditions. Hence, a specially designed sensor is urgently needed for real-time measurement of gas–liquid two-phase flow in CBM wellbore annulus. Existing flow sensors fail to meet the requirements of the operating conditions of CBM wellbore annulus due to such factors as an inapplicable measurement principle, larger size, poor sealability, high installation accuracy, and higher requirements for fluid media. Therefore, based on the principle of a target flowmeter, this paper designs a new two-phase flow sensor that can identify and automatically calibrate different flow patterns of two-phase flows. Upon the successful development of the new flow sensor, lab and field tests were carried out, and the results show that the newly designed sensor, with a measurement accuracy of ±2.5%, can adapt to the operating conditions of CBM wells and is reliable for long-term work.

  14. The Development of a Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow Sensor Applicable to CBM Wellbore Annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Wen, Guojun; Han, Lei; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of wellbore annulus gas–liquid two-phase flow in CBM (coalbed methane) wells is of great significance for reasonably developing gas drainage and extraction processes, estimating CBM output, judging the operating conditions of CBM wells and analyzing stratum conditions. Hence, a specially designed sensor is urgently needed for real-time measurement of gas–liquid two-phase flow in CBM wellbore annulus. Existing flow sensors fail to meet the requirements of the operating conditions of CBM wellbore annulus due to such factors as an inapplicable measurement principle, larger size, poor sealability, high installation accuracy, and higher requirements for fluid media. Therefore, based on the principle of a target flowmeter, this paper designs a new two-phase flow sensor that can identify and automatically calibrate different flow patterns of two-phase flows. Upon the successful development of the new flow sensor, lab and field tests were carried out, and the results show that the newly designed sensor, with a measurement accuracy of ±2.5%, can adapt to the operating conditions of CBM wells and is reliable for long-term work. PMID:27869708

  15. Annulus Fibrosus Can Strip Hyaline Cartilage End Plate from Subchondral Bone: A Study of the Intervertebral Disk in Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkovec, Christian; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Biomechanical study on cadaveric spines. Objective Spinal bending causes the annulus to pull vertically (axially) on the end plate, but failure mechanisms in response to this type of loading are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the weak point of the intervertebral disk in tension. Methods Cadaveric motion segments (aged 79 to 88 years) were dissected to create midsagittal blocks of tissue, with ∼10 mm of bone superior and inferior to the disk. From these blocks, 14 bone-disk-bone slices (average 4.8 mm thick) were cut in the frontal plane. Each slice was gripped by its bony ends and stretched to failure at 1 mm/s. Mode of failure was recorded using a digital camera. Results Of the 14 slices, 10 failed by the hyaline cartilage being peeled off the subchondral bone, with the failure starting opposite the lateral annulus and proceeding medially. Two slices failed by rupturing of the trabecular bone, and a further two failed in the annulus. Conclusions The hyaline cartilage-bone junction is the disk's weak link in tension. These findings provide a plausible mechanism for the appearance of bone and cartilage fragments in herniated material. Stripping cartilage from the bony end plate would result in the herniated mass containing relatively stiff cartilage that does not easily resorb.

  16. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  17. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  20. Spontaneous twisting and shrinking of carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubský, Vít; Peréz-Obiol Castaneda, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 24 (2017), č. článku 245431. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04301S; GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-07674Y Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : tight-binding model * energies * zero temperature Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  1. Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance

  2. Multi-band circular polarizer based on a twisted triple split-ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Song; Huang Xiao-Jun; Yang He-Lin; Xiao Bo-Xun; Jin Yan

    2014-01-01

    A multi-band circular polarizer using a twisted triple split-ring resonator (TSRR) is presented and studied numerically and experimentally. At four distinct resonant frequencies, the incident linearly polarized wave can be transformed into left/right-handed circularly polarized waves. Numerical simulation results show that a y-polarized wave can be converted into a right-handed circularly polarized wave at 5.738 GHz and 9.218 GHz, while a left-handed circularly polarized wave is produced at 7.292 GHz and 10.118 GHz. The experimental results are in agreement with the numerical results. The surface current distributions are investigated to illustrate the polarization transformation mechanism. Furthermore, the influences of the structure parameters of the circular polarizer on transmission spectra are discussed as well. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Thermodynamic properties of the S =1 /2 twisted triangular spin tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuya; Iino, Chihiro; Shibata, Naokazu

    2018-05-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the twisted three-leg spin tube under magnetic field are studied by the finite-T density-matrix renormalization group method. The specific heat, spin, and chiral susceptibilities of the infinite system are calculated for both the original and its low-energy effective models. The obtained results show that the presence of the chirality is observed as a clear peak in the specific heat at low temperature and the contribution of the chirality dominates the low-temperature part of the specific heat as the exchange coupling along the spin tube decreases. The peak structures in the specific heat, spin, and chiral susceptibilities are strongly modified near the quantum phase transition where the critical behaviors of the spin and chirality correlations change. These results confirm that the chirality plays a major role in characteristic low-energy behaviors of the frustrated spin systems.

  4. Automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass QCD in the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sinya; Baer, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a proof for automatic O(a) improvement in twisted mass lattice QCD at maximal twist, which uses only the symmetries of the leading part in the Symanzik effective action. In the process of the proof we clarify that the twist angle is dynamically determined by vacuum expectation values in the Symanzik theory. For maximal twist according to this definition, we show that scaling violations of all quantities which have nonzero values in the continuum limit are even in a. In addition, using Wilson chiral perturbation theory, we investigate this definition for maximal twist and compare it to other definitions which were already employed in actual simulations

  5. Unique CCT repeats mediate transcription of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Mizue; Funato, Noriko; Higashihori, Norihisa; Murakami, Masanori; Ohyama, Kimie; Nakamura, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays critical roles in embryo development, cancer metastasis and mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Little is known about transcriptional regulation of TWIST1 expression. Here we identified DNA sequences responsible for TWIST1 expression in mesenchymal lineage cell lines. Reporter assays with TWIST1 promoter mutants defined the -102 to -74 sequences that are essential for TWIST1 expression in human and mouse mesenchymal cell lines. Tandem repeats of CCT, but not putative CREB and NF-κB sites in the sequences substantially supported activity of the TWIST1 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that the DNA sequences with the CCT repeats formed complexes with nuclear factors, containing, at least, Sp1 and Sp3. These results suggest critical implication of the CCT repeats in association with Sp1 and Sp3 factors in sustaining expression of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cells

  6. The safe removal of frozen air from the annulus of an LH2 storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modelling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  7. ISSLS prize winner: integrating theoretical and experimental methods for functional tissue engineering of the annulus fibrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Nandan L; Mauck, Robert L; Elliott, Dawn M

    2008-12-01

    Integrating theoretical and experimental approaches for annulus fibrosus (AF) functional tissue engineering. Apply a hyperelastic constitutive model to characterize the evolution of engineered AF via scalar model parameters. Validate the model and predict the response of engineered constructs to physiologic loading scenarios. There is need for a tissue engineered replacement for degenerate AF. When evaluating engineered replacements for load-bearing tissues, it is necessary to evaluate mechanical function with respect to the native tissue, including nonlinearity and anisotropy. Aligned nanofibrous poly-epsilon-caprolactone scaffolds with prescribed fiber angles were seeded with bovine AF cells and analyzed over 8 weeks, using experimental (mechanical testing, biochemistry, histology) and theoretical methods (a hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model). The linear region modulus for phi = 0 degrees constructs increased by approximately 25 MPa, and for phi = 90 degrees by approximately 2 MPa from 1 day to 8 weeks in culture. Infiltration and proliferation of AF cells into the scaffold and abundant deposition of s-GAG and aligned collagen was observed. The constitutive model had excellent fits to experimental data to yield matrix and fiber parameters that increased with time in culture. Correlations were observed between biochemical measures and model parameters. The model was successfully validated and used to simulate time-varying responses of engineered AF under shear and biaxial loading. AF cells seeded on nanofibrous scaffolds elaborated an organized, anisotropic AF-like extracellular matrix, resulting in improved mechanical properties. A hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model characterized the functional evolution of engineered AF constructs, and was used to simulate physiologically relevant loading configurations. Model predictions demonstrated that fibers resist shear even when the shearing direction does not coincide with the fiber direction

  8. Atmospheric-like rotating annulus experiment: gravity wave emission from baroclinic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Costanza; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale balanced flows can spontaneously radiate meso-scale inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) and are thus in fact unbalanced. While flow-dependent parameterizations for the radiation of IGWs from orographic and convective sources do exist, the situation is less developed for spontaneously emitted IGWs. Observations identify increased IGW activity in the vicinity of jet exit regions. A direct interpretation of those based on geostrophic adjustment might be tempting. However, directly applying this concept to the parameterization of spontaneous imbalance is difficult since the dynamics itself is continuously re-establishing an unbalanced flow which then sheds imbalances by GW radiation. Examining spontaneous IGW emission in the atmosphere and validating parameterization schemes confronts the scientist with particular challenges. Due to its extreme complexity, GW emission will always be embedded in the interaction of a multitude of interdependent processes, many of which are hardly detectable from analysis or campaign data. The benefits of repeated and more detailed measurements, while representing the only source of information about the real atmosphere, are limited by the non-repeatability of an atmospheric situation. The same event never occurs twice. This argues for complementary laboratory experiments, which can provide a more focused dialogue between experiment and theory. Indeed, life cycles are also examined in rotating- annulus laboratory experiments. Thus, these experiments might form a useful empirical benchmark for theoretical and modelling work that is also independent of any sort of subgrid model. In addition, the more direct correspondence between experimental and model data and the data reproducibility makes lab experiments a powerful testbed for parameterizations. Joint laboratory experiment and numerical simulation have been conducted. The comparison between the data obtained from the experiment and the numerical simulations shows a very good

  9. LES of turbulent flow in a concentric annulus with rotating outer wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadžiabdić, M.; Hanjalić, K.; Mullyadzhanov, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High rotation up to N = 2 dampens progressively the turbulence near the rotating outer wall. • At 2 2.8, while tending to laminarize, the flow exhibits distinct Taylor-Couette vortical rolls. -- Abstract: Fully-developed turbulent flow in a concentric annulus, r 1 /r 2 = 0.5, Re h = 12,500, with the outer wall rotating at a range of rotation rates N = U θ,wall /U b from 0.5 up to 4 is studied by large-eddy simulations. The focus is on the effects of moderate to very high rotation rates on the mean flow, turbulence statistics and eddy structure. For N up to ∼2, an increase in the rotation rate dampens progressively the turbulence near the rotating outer wall, while affecting only mildly the inner-wall region. At higher rotation rates this trend is reversed: for N = 2.8 close to the inner wall turbulence is dramatically reduced while the outer wall region remains turbulent with discernible helical vortices as the dominant turbulent structure. The turbulence parameters and eddy structures differ significantly for N = 2 and 2.8. This switch is attributed to the centrifuged turbulence (generated near the inner wall) prevailing over the axial inertial force as well as over the counteracting laminarizing effects of the rotating outer wall. At still higher rotation, N = 4, the flow gets laminarized but with distinct spiralling vortices akin to the Taylor–Couette rolls found between the two counter-rotating cylinders without axial flow, which is the limiting case when N approaches to infinity. The ratio of the centrifugal to axial inertial forces, Ta/Re 2 ∝ N 2 (where Ta is the Taylor number) is considered as a possible criterion for defining the conditions for the above regime change

  10. Critical heat flux in a vertical annulus under low upward flow and near atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoesse, T.; Aritomi, Masanori; Lee, Sang-Ryoul; Kataoka, Yoshiaki; Yoshioka, Yuzuru; Chung, Moon-Ki.

    1997-01-01

    As future boiling water reactors (BWR), concepts of evolutional ABWR (ABWR-IER) and natural circulation BWR (JSBWR) have been investigated in order to reduce their construction cost and simplify their maintenance and inspection procedures. One of the promised features of the design of the evolutional ABWR is to reduce the number of internal pumps and to remove the Motor Generation (MG) sets. These design changes may induce boiling transition in the fuel rods of reactor core during a pump trip transient due to the more rapid flow coastdown characteristics than these of the present design. In addition, the understanding of critical heat flux (CHF) is one important subject to grasp safety margin during the start-up for the natural circulation BWR and to establish the rational start-up procedure in which thermo-hydraulic instabilities can be suppressed. The present study is to clarify CHF characteristics under low velocity conditions. CHF measurements were conducted in a vertical upward annulus channel composed of an inner heated rod and an outer tube made of glass. CHF data were obtained repeatedly under the condition of stable inlet flow to examine statistically their reproducibility. The flow regime was investigated from flow observation and measurement of differential pressure fluctuation. The CHF data are correlated with the flow regime transition. It was clear from the obtained flow pattern and the CHF data that the CHF behavior could be classified into specified regions by the mass flux and inlet subcooling conditions. A CHF correlation was developed and agreed with other researchers' data within acceptable error. (author)

  11. Extra-fibrillar matrix mechanics of annulus fibrosus in tension and compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Daniel H; Elliott, Dawn M

    2012-07-01

    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the disk is a highly nonlinear and anisotropic material that undergoes a complex combination of loads in multiple orientations. The tensile mechanical behavior of AF in the lamellar plane is dominated by collagen fibers and has been accurately modeled using exponential functions. On the other hand, AF mechanics perpendicular to the lamella, in the radial direction, depend on the properties of the ground matrix with little to no fiber contribution. The ground matrix is mainly composed of proteoglycans (PG), which are negatively charged macromolecules that maintain the tissue hydration via osmotic pressure. The mechanical response of the ground matrix can be divided in the contribution of osmotic pressure and an elastic solid part known as extra-fibrillar matrix (EFM). Mechanical properties of the ground matrix have been measured using tensile and confined compression tests. However, EFM mechanics have not been measured directly. The objective of this study was to measure AF nonlinear mechanics of the EFM in tension and compression. To accomplish this, a combination of osmotic swelling and confined compression in disk radial direction, perpendicular to the lamella, was used. For this type of analysis, it was necessary to define a stress-free reference configuration. Thus, a brief analysis on residual stress in the disk and a procedure to estimate the reference configuration are presented. The proposed method was able to predict similar swelling deformations when using different loading protocols and models for the EFM, demonstrating its robustness. The stress-stretch curve of the EFM was linear in the range 0.9 disk and can be applied to differentiate between functional degeneration effects such as PG loss and stiffening due to cross-linking.

  12. Calcification of the mitral valve and annulus: systematic evaluation of effects on valve anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Rajesh; Murthy, Kinnari; Romero-Corral, Abel; Seetha Rammohan, Harish Raj; Fumo, Peter; Pressman, Gregg S

    2013-10-01

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is common in chronic kidney disease. It is associated with cardiovascular events and can cause valvular dysfunction, but it has not been systematically characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of MAC, its effects on leaflet motion, and its association with mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation (MR) in a hemodialysis population. Echocardiograms were obtained in 75 consecutive hemodialysis outpatients. MAC extent and distribution were graded semiquantitatively using two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Associations with the presence and severity of mitral stenosis and MR were explored. The mean age was 60 ± 14 years; 60% were men, and 87% were African American. MAC was present in 64% (moderate to severe in 48%). Calcium extended more than halfway onto the leaflet in 37% and beyond the annulus in 40%. Leaflet motion was restricted in 37%. Mitral stenosis was present in 28%, and the extent of calcification was associated with mean mitral valve gradient (P < .0001). MR was prevalent (present in 81%) but was severe in none. The severity of MAC was greater in patients with moderate MR than in those with no or mild MR (P = .04). Three-dimensional analysis suggested an uneven distribution of annular calcium; the middle and lateral anterior segments were less often calcified than the anterior-medial or posterior segments. Calcification in any annular segment was highly associated with restricted motion of the attached leaflet segment. MAC is common and often extensive in hemodialysis patients. Calcium may be unevenly distributed among the annular segments. When present, annular calcification reduces the angle of leaflet opening and can cause valvular dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A torsional artificial muscle from twisted nitinol microwire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Hunter, Ian W.

    2017-04-01

    Nitinol microwires of 25 μm in diameter can have tensile actuation of up to 4.5% in less than 100 ms. A work density of up to 480 MPa can be achieved from these microwires. In the present work, we are showing that by twisting the microwires in form of closed-loop two-ply yarn we can create a torsional actuator. We achieved a revisable torsional stroke of 46°/mm with peak rotational speed of up to 10,000 rpm. We measured a gravimetric torque of up to 28.5 N•m/kg which is higher than the 3 - 6 N•m/kg for direct-drive commercial electric motors. These remarkable performance results are comparable to those of guest-infiltrated carbon nanotube twisted yarns.

  14. Twisted-Light-Ion Interaction: The Role of Longitudinal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, G. F.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Schmiegelow, Christian T.

    2017-12-01

    The propagation of light beams is well described using the paraxial approximation, where field components along the propagation direction are usually neglected. For strongly inhomogeneous or shaped light fields, however, this approximation may fail, leading to intriguing variations of the light-matter interaction. This is the case of twisted light having opposite orbital and spin angular momenta. We compare experimental data for the excitation of a quadrupole transition in a single trapped 40Ca+ ion from Schmiegelow et al. [Nat. Commun. 7, 12998 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12998] with a complete model where longitudinal components of the electric field are taken into account. Our model matches the experimental data and excludes by 11 standard deviations the approximation of a complete transverse field. This demonstrates the relevance of all field components for the interaction of twisted light with matter.

  15. Nonsnaking doubly diffusive convectons and the twist instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaume, Cédric, E-mail: ced.beaume@gmail.com; Knobloch, Edgar, E-mail: knobloch@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bergeon, Alain, E-mail: alain.bergeon@imft.fr [Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse, France and CNRS, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-11-15

    Doubly diffusive convection in a three-dimensional horizontally extended domain with a square cross section in the vertical is considered. The fluid motion is driven by horizontal temperature and concentration differences in the transverse direction. When the buoyancy ratio N = −1 and the Rayleigh number is increased the conduction state loses stability to a subcritical, almost two-dimensional roll structure localized in the longitudinal direction. This structure exhibits abrupt growth in length near a particular value of the Rayleigh number but does not snake. Prior to this filling transition the structure becomes unstable to a secondary twist instability generating a pair of stationary, spatially localized zigzag states. In contrast to the primary branch these states snake as they grow in extent and eventually fill the whole domain. The origin of the twist instability and the properties of the resulting localized structures are investigated for both periodic and no-slip boundary conditions in the extended direction.

  16. Helicity conservation and twisted Seifert surfaces for superfluid vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hayder

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the continuum definition of helicity, we derive from first principles its different contributions for superfluid vortices. Our analysis shows that an internal twist contribution emerges naturally from the mathematical derivation. This reveals that the spanwise vector that is used to characterize the twist contribution must point in the direction of a surface of constant velocity potential. An immediate consequence of the Seifert framing is that the continuum definition of helicity for a superfluid is trivially zero at all times. It follows that the Gauss-linking number is a more appropriate definition of helicity for superfluids. Despite this, we explain how a quasi-classical limit can arise in a superfluid in which the continuum definition for helicity can be used. This provides a clear connection between a microscopic and a macroscopic description of a superfluid as provided by the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov equations. This leads to consistency with the definition of helicity used for classical vortices.

  17. The dipole representation of vector meson electroproduction beyond leading twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2013-01-01

    We link the recent computation beyond leading twist of the impact factor of the transition γ T ⁎ →ρ T performed in the light-cone collinear approach, to the dipole picture by expressing the hard part of the process through its Fourier transform in coordinate space. We show that in the Wandzura–Wilczek approximation the impact factor up to twist 3 factorises in the wave function of the photon combined with the distribution amplitudes of the ρ-meson and the colour dipole scattering amplitude with the t-channel gluons. We show also that beyond the Wandzura–Wilczek approximation, the hard contribution of the amplitude still exhibits the signature of the interaction of a single colour dipole with the t-channel gluons. This result allows a phenomenological approach of the helicity amplitudes of the leptoproduction of vector meson, by combining our results to a dipole/target scattering amplitude model.

  18. BK-parameter from Nf=2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, M.; Dimopoulos, P.; Frezzotti, R.; INFN, Rome

    2011-01-01

    We present an unquenched N f = 2 lattice computation of the B K parameter which controls K 0 - anti K 0 oscillations. A partially quenched setup is employed with two maximally twisted dynamical (sea) light Wilson quarks, and valence quarks of both the maximally twisted and the Osterwalder-Seiler variety. Suitable combinations of these two kinds of valence quarks lead to a lattice definition of the B K parameter which is both multiplicatively renormalizable and O(a) improved. Employing the non-perturbative RI-MOM scheme, in the continuum limit and at the physical value of the pion mass we get B RGI K =0.729±0.030, a number well in line with the existing quenched and unquenched determinations. (orig.)

  19. Overlap valence quarks on an twisted mass sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Drach, V.; Garcia-Ramos, E.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC

    2010-12-15

    We present the results of an investigation of a mixed action approach of overlap valence and maximally twisted mass sea quarks. Employing a particular matching condition on the pion mass, we analyze the continuum limit scaling of the pion decay constant and the role of chiral zero modes of the overlap operator in this process. We employ gauge field configurations generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with linear lattice size L ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 fm. The continuum limit is taken at a fixed value of L=1.3 fm, employing three values of the lattice spacing and two values of the pion mass constructed from sea quarks only. (orig.)

  20. Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-02-01

    Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.

  1. Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omel' chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias [Weierstrass Institute, Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Laing, Carlo R. [INMS, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904 NSMC, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2014-06-15

    We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system.

  2. Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias; Laing, Carlo R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system

  3. Twisted tachyon condensation in closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Yuji; Zwiebach, Barton

    2004-01-01

    We consider twisted tachyons on C/Z N orbifolds of bosonic closed string theory. It has been conjectured that these tachyonic instabilities correspond to decays of the orbifolds into flat space or into orbifolds with smaller deficit angles. We examine this conjecture using closed string field theory, with the string field truncated to low-level tachyons. We compute the tachyon potentials for C/Z 2 and C/Z 3 orbifolds and find critical points at depths that generate about 70% of the expected change in the deficit angle. We find that both twisted fields and untwisted modes localized near the apex of the cone acquire vacuum expectation values and contribute to the potential. (author)

  4. Stability of Medium-Bridged Twisted Amides in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Michal; Yao, Lei; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    “Twisted” amides containing non-standard dihedral angles are typically hypersensitive to hydrolysis, a feature that has stringently limited their utility in water. We have synthesized a series of bridged lactams that contain a twisted amide linkage but which exhibit enhanced stability in aqueous environments. Many of these compounds were extracted unchanged from aqueous mixtures ranging from the strongly basic to the strongly acidic. NMR experiments showed that tricyclic lactams undergo reversible hydrolysis at extreme pH ranges, but that a number of compounds in this structure class are indefinitely stable under physiologically relevant pH conditions; one bicyclic example was additionally water-soluble. We examined the effect of structure on the reversibility of amide bond hydrolysis, which we attributed to the transannular nature of the amino acid analogs. These data suggest that medium-bridged lactams of these types should provide useful platforms for studying the behavior of twisted amides in aqueous systems. PMID:19178141

  5. Influence of pinches on magnetic reconnection in turbulent space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Divin, Andrey

    A generally accepted scenario of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas is the breakage of magnetic field lines in X-points. In laboratory, reconnection is widely studied in pinches, current channels embedded into twisted magnetic fields. No model of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas considers both null-points and pinches as peers. We have performed a particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional configuration where null-points are present nitially, and Z-pinches are formed during the simulation. The X-points are relatively stable, and no substantial energy dissipation is associated with them. On contrary, turbulent magnetic reconnection in the pinches causes the magnetic energy to decay at a rate of approximately 1.5 percent per ion gyro period. Current channels and twisted magnetic fields are ubiquitous in turbulent space plasmas, so pinches can be responsible for the observed high magnetic reconnection rates.

  6. New twists to QCD at large-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    The recently discovered reduced models of Quantum Chromodynamics in the limit of a large number (N) of colors are discussed, in particular the version that employs appropriate Z(N) twists. Some preliminary numerical data are presented, together with some new analytic results (saddle-points). This may be of some help for understanding the mechanism of confinement, which presumably is the same for all N. Also, the reduced chiral model in two dimensions is discussed

  7. Twisted bilayer blue phosphorene: A direct band gap semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, D. A.; Duque, C. A.; Correa, J. D.; Suárez Morell, Eric

    2016-09-01

    We report that two rotated layers of blue phosphorene behave as a direct band gap semiconductor. The optical spectrum shows absorption peaks in the visible region of the spectrum and in addition the energy of these peaks can be tuned with the rotational angle. These findings makes twisted bilayer blue phosphorene a strong candidate as a solar cell or photodetection device. Our results are based on ab initio calculations of several rotated blue phosphorene layers.

  8. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  9. Topological susceptibility from twisted mass fermions using spectral projectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IAS; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IKP; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JCHP; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We discuss the computation of the topological susceptibility using the method of spectral projectors and dynamical twisted mass fermions. We present our analysis concerning the O(a)- improvement of the topological susceptibility and we show numerical results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours, performing a study of the quark mass dependence in terms of leading order chiral perturbation theory.

  10. Leading Twist GPDs and Transverse Spin Densities in a Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Chandan; Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar; Zhao, Xingbo

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of both chirally even and odd generalized parton distributions in the leading twist for the quarks in a proton using the light-front wavefunctions of a quark-diquark model predicted by the holographic QCD. For transversely polarized proton, both chiral even and chiral odd GPDs contribute to the spin densities which are related to the GPDs in transverse impact parameter space. Here, we also present a study of the spin densities for transversely polarized quark and proton.

  11. Twisted boundary states and representation of generalized fusion algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tani, Taro

    2006-01-01

    The mutual consistency of boundary conditions twisted by an automorphism group G of the chiral algebra is studied for general modular invariants of rational conformal field theories. We show that a consistent set of twisted boundary states associated with any modular invariant realizes a non-negative integer matrix representation (NIM-rep) of the generalized fusion algebra, an extension of the fusion algebra by representations of the twisted chiral algebra associated with the automorphism group G. We check this result for several concrete cases. In particular, we find that two NIM-reps of the fusion algebra for su(3) k (k=3,5) are organized into a NIM-rep of the generalized fusion algebra for the charge-conjugation automorphism of su(3) k . We point out that the generalized fusion algebra is non-commutative if G is non-Abelian and provide some examples for G-bar S 3 . Finally, we give an argument that the graph fusion algebra associated with simple current extensions coincides with the generalized fusion algebra for the extended chiral algebra, and thereby explain that the graph fusion algebra contains the fusion algebra of the extended theory as a subalgebra

  12. Microwave modulation characteristics of twisted liquid crystals with chiral dopant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding a chiral dopant in twisted nematic (TN liquid crystal cell can stabilize the orientation of liquid crystal molecules, particularly in high TN (HTN or super TN (STN liquid crystal cells. The difference in pitches in liquid crystal is induced by the chiral dopant, and these different pitches affect the orientation of liquid crystal director under an external applied voltage and influence the characteristics of microwave modulation. To illustrate this point, the microwave phase shift per unit length (MPSL versus voltage is calculated on the basis of the elastic theory of liquid crystal and the finite-difference iterative method. Enhancing the pitch induced by the chiral dopant in liquid crystal increases the MPSLs, but the stability of the twisted structures is decreased. Thus, appropriate pitches of 100d, 4d, and 2d can be applied in TN, HTN, and STN cells with cell gap d to enhance the characteristics of microwave modulation and stabilize the structures in twisted cell. This method can improve the characteristics of liquid crystal microwave modulators such that the operating voltage and the size of such phase shifters can be decreased.

  13. Twist operator correlation functions in O(n) loop models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Jacob J H; Cardy, John

    2009-01-01

    Using conformal field theoretic methods we calculate correlation functions of geometric observables in the loop representation of the O(n) model at the critical point. We focus on correlation functions containing twist operators, combining these with anchored loops, boundaries with SLE processes and with double SLE processes. We focus further upon n = 0, representing self-avoiding loops, which corresponds to a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT) with c = 0. In this limit the twist operator plays the role of a 0-weight indicator operator, which we verify by comparison with known examples. Using the additional conditions imposed by the twist operator null states, we derive a new explicit result for the probabilities that an SLE 8/3 winds in various ways about two points in the upper half-plane, e.g. that the SLE passes to the left of both points. The collection of c = 0 logarithmic CFT operators that we use deriving the winding probabilities is novel, highlighting a potential incompatibility caused by the presence of two distinct logarithmic partners to the stress tensor within the theory. We argue that both partners do appear in the theory, one in the bulk and one on the boundary and that the incompatibility is resolved by restrictive bulk-boundary fusion rules

  14. Twisted Bilayer Graphene. Interlayer configuration and magnetotransport signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Belke, Christopher; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hannover (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Twisted Bilayer Graphene may be viewed as very first representative of the now booming class of artificially layered 2D materials. Consisting of two sheets from the same structure and atomic composition, its decisive degree of freedom lies in the rotation between crystallographic axes in the individual graphene monolayers. Geometrical consideration finds angle-dependent Moire patterns as well as commensurate superlattices of opposite sublattice exchange symmetry. Beyond the approach of rigidly interposed lattices, this review takes focus on the evolving topic of lattice corrugation and distortion in response to spatially varying lattice registry. The experimental approach to twisted bilayers requires a basic control over preparation techniques; important methods are summarized and extended on in the case of bilayers folded from monolayer graphene via AFM nanomachining. Central morphological parameters to the twisted bilayer, rotational mismatch and interlayer separation are studied in a broader base of samples. Finally, experimental evidence for a number of theoretically predicted, controversial electronic scenarios are reviewed; magnetotransport signatures are discussed in terms of Fermi velocity, van Hove singularities and Berry phase and assessed with respect to the underlying experimental conditions, thereby referring back to the initially considered variations in relaxed lattice structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Wrinkles, loops, and topological defects in twisted ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Julien

    Nature abounds with elastic ribbon like shapes including double-stranded semiflexible polymers, graphene and metal oxide nanoribbons which are examples of elongated elastic structures with a strongly anisotropic cross-section. Due to this specific geometry, it is far from trivial to anticipate if a ribbon should be considered as a flat flexible filament or a narrow thin plate. We thus perform an experiment in which a thin elastic ribbon is loaded using a twisting and traction device coupled with a micro X-ray computed tomography machine allowing a full 3D shape reconstruction. A wealth of morphological behaviors can be observed including wrinkled helicoids, curled and looped configurations, and faceted ribbons. In this talk, I will show that most morphologies can be understood using a far-from-threshold approach and simple scaling arguments. Further, we find that the various shapes can be organized in a phase diagram using the twist, the tension, and the geometry of the ribbon as control parameters. Finally, I will discuss the spontaneous formation of topological defects with negatively-signed Gaussian charge at large twist and small but finite stretch.

  16. The SU(∞) twisted gradient flow running coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Margarita García [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); González-Arroyo, Antonio [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, C-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Keegan, Liam [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Okawa, Masanori [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-01-09

    We measure the running of the SU(∞) ’t Hooft coupling by performing a step scaling analysis of the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions. The computation relies on the conjecture that finite volume effects for SU(N) gauge theories defined on a 4-dimensional twisted torus are controlled by an effective size parameter l-tilde=l√N, with l the torus period. We set the scale for the running coupling in terms of l-tilde and use the gradient flow to define a renormalized ’t Hooft coupling λ(l-tilde). In the TEK model, this idea allows the determination of the running of the coupling through a step scaling procedure that uses the rank of the group as a size parameter. The continuum renormalized coupling constant is extracted in the zero lattice spacing limit, which in the TEK model corresponds to the large N limit taken at fixed value of λ(l-tilde). The coupling constant is thus expected to coincide with that of the ordinary pure gauge theory at N=∞. The idea is shown to work and permits us to follow the evolution of the coupling over a wide range of scales. At weak coupling we find a remarkable agreement with the perturbative two-loop formula for the running coupling.

  17. The $SU(\\infty)$ twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    We measure the running of the $SU(\\infty)$ 't Hooft coupling by performing a step scaling analysis of the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU($N$) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions. The computation relies on the conjecture that finite volume effects for SU(N) gauge theories defined on a 4-dimensional twisted torus are controlled by an effective size parameter $\\tilde l = l \\sqrt{N}$, with $l$ the torus period. We set the scale for the running coupling in terms of $\\tilde l$ and use the gradient flow to define a renormalized 't Hooft coupling $\\lambda(\\tilde l)$. In the TEK model, this idea allows the determination of the running of the coupling through a step scaling procedure that uses the rank of the group as a size parameter. The continuum renormalized coupling constant is extracted in the zero lattice spacing limit, which in the TEK model corresponds to the large $N$ limit taken at fixed value of $\\lambda(\\tilde l)$. The coupling constant is thus expected to coinc...

  18. 'Twisted tape sign': Its significance in recurrent sigmoid volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, K.; Lim, Y.; Banerjee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in the elderly. Mild attacks of sigmoid volvulus may be more difficult to diagnose due to the lack of severity of symptoms which may resolve spontaneously only to recur after an interval. This study was a review of patients to assess the incidence of the 'twisted tape sign' and to evaluate the significance of its presence in cases of recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Methods and materials: A retrospective study over eight years revealed six cases of surgically confirmed recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Case records and barium enemas of all patients were reviewed. Results: Six patients were identified, including four men and two women, with a median age of 56 years. Diagnostic difficulties were encountered in four (67%) patients with a delay ranging between 10 and 37 months with a mean 17.3 months. Twisted tape sign was confirmed on all barium examinations retrospectively. Conclusion: Recognition of twisted tape sign on barium enema examination along with an appropriate clinical history would suggest a diagnosis of recurrent sigmoid volvulus

  19. Twist effects in quantum vortices and phase defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we show that twist, defined in terms of rotation of the phase associated with quantum vortices and other physical defects effectively deprived of internal structure, is a property that has observable effects in terms of induced axial flow. For this we consider quantum vortices governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) and perform a number of test cases to investigate and compare the effects of twist in two different contexts: (i) when this is artificially superimposed on an initially untwisted vortex ring; (ii) when it is naturally produced on the ring by the simultaneous presence of a central straight vortex. In the first case large amplitude perturbations quickly develop, generated by the unnatural setting of the initial condition that is not an analytical solution of the GPE. In the second case much milder perturbations emerge, signature of a genuine physical process. This scenario is confirmed by other test cases performed at higher twist values. Since the second setting corresponds to essential linking, these results provide new evidence of the influence of topology on physics.

  20. Enhancement of turbulent flow heat transfer in a tube with modified twisted tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y.G.; Zhao, C.H.; Song, C.F. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Numerical simulations were performed to study the fluid flow and heat transfer in a tube with staggered twisted tapes with central holes. In the range of Reynolds numbers between 6000 and 28 000, the modified twisted tapes increased the Nusselt number by 76.2 {proportional_to} 149.7 % and the friction factor by 380.2 {proportional_to} 443.8 % compared to the smooth tube. Compared to the typical twisted tapes, the modified twisted tapes produced an acceleration flow through the triangle regions leading to the enhancement of heat transfer, and the holes in the modified tapes reduced the severe pressure loss. It was found that the modified twisted tapes decreased the friction factor by 8.0 {proportional_to} 16.1 % and enhanced the heat transfer by 34.1 {proportional_to} 46.8 % in comparison with the typical tapes. These results indicated that the performance ratio values of the tube with modified twisted tapes were higher than 1.0 in the range of Reynolds numbers studied. The computed performance ratios of the tube with modified twisted tapes were much higher than those of the tube with typical twisted tapes. This means that the integrated performance of the tube with staggered twisted tapes with central holes is superior to that of the tube with typical twisted tapes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Twist1 suppresses senescence programs and thereby accelerates and maintains mutant Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuoc T Tran

    Full Text Available KRAS mutant lung cancers are generally refractory to chemotherapy as well targeted agents. To date, the identification of drugs to therapeutically inhibit K-RAS have been unsuccessful, suggesting that other approaches are required. We demonstrate in both a novel transgenic mutant Kras lung cancer mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting the progression from benign adenomas to adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the suppression of Twist1 to physiological levels is sufficient to cause Kras mutant lung tumors to undergo senescence and lose their neoplastic features. Finally, we analyzed more than 500 human tumors to demonstrate that TWIST1 is frequently overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy.

  2. Aortic annulus eccentricity before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Comparison of balloon-expandable and self-expanding prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Weingartner, Christina; Arnold, Martin; Schmid, Jasmin; Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger; Schneider, Christian; Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan; Feyrer, Richard; Weyand, Michael; Achenbach, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses is influenced by aortic valve calcification. • Balloon-expandable prostheses are more circular as compared to self-expanding prostheses. • The impact of post-implant geometry on valve function needs to be investigated. - Abstract: Introduction: The geometry of the aortic annulus and implanted transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis might influence valve function. We investigated the influence of valve type and aortic valve calcification on post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (mean age 82 ± 6 years) underwent computed tomography before and after TAVI. Aortic annulus diameters were determined. Influence of prosthesis type and degree of aortic valve calcification on post-implant eccentricity were analysed. Results: Aortic annulus eccentricity was reduced in patients after TAVI (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.08 ± 0.06, p < 0.0001). Post-TAVI eccentricity was significantly lower in 65 patients following implantation of a balloon-expandable prosthesis as compared to 15 patients who received a self-expanding prosthesis (0.06 ± 0.05 vs. 0.15 ± 0.07, p < 0.0001), even though the extent of aortic valve calcification was not different. After TAVI, patients with a higher calcium amount retained a significantly higher eccentricity compared to patients with lower amounts of calcium. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TAVI with a balloon-expandable prosthesis show a more circular shape of the implanted prosthesis as compared to patients with a self-expanding prosthesis. Eccentricity of the deployed prosthesis is affected by the extent of aortic valve calcification

  3. Exclusive processes beyond leading twist: {gamma}*T {yields} {rho}T impact factor with twist three accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland); Anikin, Igor V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Joliot-Curie st., 6, Moskovskaya obl., 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Dmitry Yu [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Acad. Koptyug pr., 4, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method is based on the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light-cone. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised {rho}-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy. (Phys.Lett.B682:413-418,2010 and Nucl.Phys.B828:1-68,2010.). (authors)

  4. Steady natural convection heat transfer experiments in a horizontal annulus for the United States Spent Fuel Shipping Cask Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This experimental study deals with the measurement of the heat transfer across a horizontal annulus which is formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. The geometry simulates, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor radioactive fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. This geometry is also similar to a radioactive fuel pin inside a horizontal reactor subassembly. The objective of the experiments is to measure the local and mean heat transfer at the surface of the inner hexagonal cylinder

  5. Topological twist in four dimensions, R-duality and hyperinstantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, D.; Fre, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we continue the programme of topologically twisting N=2 theories in D=4, focusing on the coupling of vector multiplets to N=2 supergravity. We show that in the minimal case, namely when the special gometry prepotential F(X) is a quadratic polynomial, the theory has a so far unknown on-shell U(1) symmetry, that we name R-duality. R-duality is a generalization of the chiral-dual on-shell symmetry of N=2 pure supergravity and of the R-symmetry of N=2 super Yang-Mills theory. Thanks to this, the theory can be topologically twisted and topologically shifted, precisely as pure N=2 supergravity, to yield a natural coupling of topological gravity to topological Yang-Mills theory. The gauge-fixing condition that emerges from the twisting is the self-duality condition on the gauge field strength and on the spin connection. Hence our theory reduces to intersection theory in the moduli-space of gauge instantons living in gravitational instanton backgrounds. We remark that, for deep properties of the parent N=2 theory, the topological Yang-Mills theory we obtain by taking the flat space limit of our gravity-coupled lagrangian is different from the Donaldson theory constructed by Witten. Whether this difference is substantial and what its geometrical implications may be is yet to be seen. We also discuss the topological twist of the hypermultiplets leading to topological quaternionic sigma-models. The instantons of these models, named by us hyperinstantons, correspond to a notion of triholomorphic mappings discussed in the paper. In all cases the new ghost number is the sum of the old ghost number plus the R-duality charge. The observables described by the theory are briefly discussed. In conclusion, the topological twist of the complete N=2 theory defines intersection theory in the moduli-space of gauge instantons plus gravitational instantons plus hyperinstantons. This is possibly a new subject for further mathematical investigation. (orig.)

  6. Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, SangJoon; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2001-01-01

    Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework is developed to examine integrally-twisted blades and their aeroelastic response during different flight conditions: frequency domain analysis for hover, and time domain analysis for forward flight. Both stem from the same three-dimensional electroelastic beam formulation with geometrical-exactness, and axe coupled with a finite-state dynamic inflow aerodynamics model. A prototype Active Twist Rotor blade was designed with this framework using Active Fiber Composites as the actuator. The ATR prototype blade was successfully tested under non-rotating conditions. Hover testing was conducted to evaluate structural integrity and dynamic response. In both conditions, a very good correlation was obtained against the analysis. Finally, a four-bladed ATR system is built and tested to demonstrate its concept in forward flight. This experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Tansonic Dynamics Tunnel and represents the first-of-a-kind Mach-scaled fully-active-twist rotor system to undergo forward flight test. In parallel, the impact upon the fixed- and rotating-system loads is estimated by the analysis. While discrepancies are found in the amplitude of the loads under actuation, the predicted trend of load variation with respect to its control phase correlates well. It was also shown, both experimentally and numerically, that the ATR blade design has the potential for hub vibratory load reduction of up to 90% using individual blade control actuation. Using the numerical framework, system identification is performed to estimate the harmonic transfer functions. The linear time-periodic system can be represented by a linear time-invariant system under the three modes of blade actuation: collective, longitudinal cyclic, and lateral cyclic. A vibration

  7. Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) and a ``Twist'' on Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation (NMOR) with Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.

  8. Assessment of the interface of beating heart with total artificial heart using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoda, Tsuyoshi; Maeta, Hajime; Uyama, Chikao; Sanou, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied three-dimensionally (3-D) reconstructed images of atrioventricular (AV) annuli based on four-chamber magnetic resonance (MR) images for total artificial heart (TAH) implantation. To assess the interrelationship among the AV annuli and the thorax, we applied the frame of reference of the vertebral canal to these images. The Z-axis was along the vertebral canal, the Y-axis in the anteroposterior direction. The angle alpha was defined as the angle between the X-axis and the intersection between the plane of the annulus and the X-Y plane. The angle beta was defined as the angle between the Z-axis and the intersection between the plane of annulus and X-Z plane. The angle gamma was defined as the angle between the plane of the annulus and the anterior thoracic wall. We determined each angle for the mitral annulus (MVA) and tricuspid annulus (TVA) in four normal subjects to be as follows: alpha-MVA, 20.5-39.5 degrees; alpha-TVA, 26.1-43.5 degrees; beta-MVA, 4.7-49.4 degrees; beta-TVA, 4.4-40.9 degrees; and gamma-TVA, 35.2-44.1 degrees. It is suggested that reconstruction of the thoracic wall and AV annuli using the frame of reference of the diaphragmatic surface of the heart would facilitate evaluation of the spacial requirements for TAH implantation. Research to define this new frame of reference is in progress. (author)

  9. Magnetic Fluxtube Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Antiochos,, Spiro K.; Norton, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of two initially orthogonal, twisted, force free field magnetic fluxtubes. The simulations were carried out using a new three dimensional explicit parallelized Fourier collocation algorithm for solving the viscoresistive equations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the fluxtubes can 'tunnel' through each other. Two key conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch much greater than 1, and the magnetic Lundquist number must be somewhat large, greater than or equal to 2880. This tunneling behavior has not been seen previously in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic fluxtube interactions. An examination of magnetic field lines shows that tunneling is due to a double reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections and 'pass' through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed.

  10. Effect of Twisting and Stretching on Magneto Resistance and Spin Filtration in CNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent quantum transport properties in twisted carbon nanotube and stretched carbon nanotube are calculated using density functional theory (DFT and non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF formulation. Twisting and stretching have no effect on spin transport in CNTs at low bias voltages. However, at high bias voltages the effects are significant. Stretching restricts any spin-up current in antiparallel configuration (APC, which results in higher magneto resistance (MR. Twisting allows spin-up current almost equivalent to the pristine CNT case, resulting in lower MR. High spin filtration is observed in PC and APC for pristine, stretched and twisted structures at all applied voltages. In APC, at low voltages spin filtration in stretched CNT is higher than in pristine and twisted ones, with pristine giving a higher spin filtration than twisted CNT.

  11. Twisted entire cyclic cohomology, J-L-O cocycles and equivariant spectral triples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.

    2002-07-01

    We study the 'quantized calculus' corresponding to the algebraic ideas related to 'twisted cyclic cohomology'. With very similar definitions and techniques, we define and study 'twisted entire cyclic cohomology' and the 'twisted Chern character' associated with an appropriate operator theoretic data called 'twisted spectral data', which consists of a spectral triple in the conventional sense of noncommutative geometry and an additional positive operator having some specified properties. Furthermore, it is shown that given a spectral triple (in the conventional sense) which is equivariant under the action of a compact matrix pseudogroup, it is possible to obtain a canonical twisted spectral data and hence the corresponding (twisted) Chern character, which will be invariant under the action of the pseudogroup, in contrast to the fact that the Chern character coming from the conventional noncommutative geometry need not be invariant under the above action. (author)

  12. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR WATER HEATER SYSTEM FITTED WITH NAIL TWISTED TAPES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SYED JAFAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.

  13. Performance improvement of small-scale rotors by passive blade twist control

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Peng; Prothin, Sebastien; Mohd Zawawi, Fazila; Bénard, Emmanuel; Morlier, Joseph; Moschetta, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    A passive twist control is proposed as an adaptive way to maximize the overall efficiency of the small-scale rotor blade for multifunctional aircrafts. Incorporated into a database of airfoil characteristics, Blade Element Momentum Theory is implemented to obtain the blade optimum twist rates for hover and forward flight. In order to realize the required torsion of blade between hover and forward flight, glass/epoxy laminate blade is proposed based on Centrifugal Force Induced Twist concept. ...

  14. Higher-Twist Distribution Amplitudes of the K Meson in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, P; Lenz, A; Ball, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic study of twist-3 and twist-4 light-cone distribution amplitudes of the K meson in QCD. The structure of SU(3)-breaking corrections is studied in detail. Non-perturbative input parameters are estimated from QCD sum rules and renormalons. As a by-product, we give a complete reanalysis of the twist-3 and -4 parameters of the pi-meson distribution amplitudes; some of the results differ from those usually quoted in the literature.

  15. Analysis of a Caenorhabditis elegans Twist homolog identifies conserved and divergent aspects of mesodermal patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Harfe, Brian D.; Gomes, Ana Vaz; Kenyon, Cynthia; Liu, Jun; Krause, Michael; Fire, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Mesodermal development is a multistep process in which cells become increasingly specialized to form specific tissue types. In Drosophila and mammals, proper segregation and patterning of the mesoderm involves the bHLH factor Twist. We investigated the activity of a Twist-related factor, CeTwist, during Caenorhabditis elegans mesoderm development. Embryonic mesoderm in C. elegans derives from a number of distinct founder cells that are specified during the early lineages; in contrast, a singl...

  16. Orbital magnetism and dynamics in alkali metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.O.; Kleinig, W.; Souza Cruz, FF. de; Marinelli, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Two remarkable orbital magnetic resonances, M1 scissor mode and M2 twist mode, are predicted in deformed and spherical metal clusters, respectively. We show that these resonances provide a valuable information about many cluster properties (quadrupole deformation, magnetic susceptibility, single-particle spectrum, etc.)

  17. Flux ropes in the magnetic solar convection zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, S. B. F.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution results are presented on how twisted magnetic flux ropes interact with a magnetized model envelope similar to the solar convection zone. Both the flux ropes and the atmosphere are modelled as idealized 2.5-dimensional concepts using high resolution numerical MHD simulations (on...

  18. Measurement of curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wen; Quan Chenggen; Cho Jui Tay

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of curvature and twist is an important aspect in the study of object deformation. In recent years, several methods have been proposed to determine curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital shearography. Here we propose a novel method to determine the curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography and a complex phasor. A sine/cosine transformation method and two-dimensional short time Fourier transform are proposed subsequently to process the wrapped phase maps. It is shown that high-quality phase maps corresponding to curvature and twist can be obtained. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method

  19. Dynamical twisted mass fermions with light quarks. Simulation and analysis details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, P.; Dimopoulos, P.; Farchioni, F.

    2008-03-01

    In a recent paper (2007) we presented precise lattice QCD results of our European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). They were obtained by employing two mass-degenerate flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. In the present paper we give details on our simulations and the computation of physical observables. In particular, we discuss the problem of tuning to maximal twist, the techniques we have used to compute correlators and error estimates. In addition, we provide more information on the algorithm used, the autocorrelation times and scale determination, the evaluation of disconnected contributions and the description of our data by means of chiral perturbation theory formulae. (orig.)

  20. Dynamical twisted mass fermions with light quarks. Simulation and analysis details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucaud, P. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Dimopoulos, P. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Farchioni, F. [Muenster Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    In a recent paper (2007) we presented precise lattice QCD results of our European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). They were obtained by employing two mass-degenerate flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. In the present paper we give details on our simulations and the computation of physical observables. In particular, we discuss the problem of tuning to maximal twist, the techniques we have used to compute correlators and error estimates. In addition, we provide more information on the algorithm used, the autocorrelation times and scale determination, the evaluation of disconnected contributions and the description of our data by means of chiral perturbation theory formulae. (orig.)

  1. Magneto-optical observation of twisted vortices in type-II superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indenbom, M. V.; van der Beek, C. J.; Berseth, V.; Benoit, W.; D'Anna, G.; Erb, A.; Walker, E.; Flükiger, R.

    1997-02-01

    When magnetic flux penetrates a type-II superconductor, it does so as quantized flux lines or vortex lines, so called because each is surrounded by a supercurrent vortex. Interactions between such vortices lead to a very rich and well characterized phenomenology for this 'mixed state'. But an outstanding question remains: are individual vortex lines 'strong', or can they easily be cut and made to pass through one another? The concept of vortex cutting was originally proposed to account for dissipation observed in superconducting wires oriented parallel to an applied magnetic field, where the vortex lines and transport current should be in a force-free configuration1-6. Previous experiments, however, have been unable to establish the vortex topology in the force-free configuration or the size of the energy barrier for vortex cutting. Here we report magneto-optical images of YBa2Cu3O7-δ samples in the force-free configuration which show that thousands of vortex lines can twist together to form highly stable structures. In some cases, these 'vortex twisters' interact with one another to produce wave-like dynamics. Our measurements also determine directly the current required to initiate vortex cutting, and show that it is much higher than that needed to overcome the pinning of vortices by material defects. This implies that thermodynamic phases of entangled vortices7-10 are intrinsically stable and may occupy a significant portion of the mixed-state phase diagram for type-II superconductors.

  2. Influence of the Quantity of Aortic Valve Calcium on the Agreement Between Automated 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography and Multidetector Row Computed Tomography for Aortic Annulus Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnikar, Tomaz; Prihadi, Edgard A; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Vollema, E Mara; van der Kley, Frank; de Weger, Arend; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Naji, Franjo; Fras, Zlatko; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Accurate aortic annulus sizing is key for selection of appropriate transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) prosthesis size. The present study compared novel automated 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) software and multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) for aortic annulus sizing and investigated the influence of the quantity of aortic valve calcium (AVC) on the selection of TAVI prosthesis size. A total of 83 patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI were evaluated. Maximal and minimal aortic annulus diameter, perimeter, and area were measured. AVC was assessed with computed tomography. The low and high AVC burden groups were defined according to the median AVC score. Overall, 3D TEE measurements slightly underestimated the aortic annulus dimensions as compared with MDCT (mean differences between maximum, minimum diameter, perimeter, and area: -1.7 mm, 0.5 mm, -2.7 mm, and -13 mm 2 , respectively). The agreement between 3D TEE and MDCT on aortic annulus dimensions was superior among patients with low AVC burden (AVC burden (≥3,025 arbitrary units). The interobserver variability was excellent for both methods. 3D TEE and MDCT led to the same prosthesis size selection in 88%, 95%, and 81% of patients in the total population, the low, and the high AVC burden group, respectively. In conclusion, the novel automated 3D TEE imaging software allows accurate and highly reproducible measurements of the aortic annulus dimensions and shows excellent agreement with MDCT to determine the TAVI prosthesis size, particularly in patients with low AVC burden. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic reconnection during eruptive magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Z. X.; Keppens, R.; Roussev, I. I.; Lin, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We perform a three-dimensional (3D) high resolution numerical simulation in isothermal magnetohydrodynamics to study the magnetic reconnection process in a current sheet (CS) formed during an eruption of a twisted magnetic flux rope (MFR). Because the twist distribution violates the Kruskal-Shafranov condition, the kink instability occurs, and the MFR is distorted. The centre part of the MFR loses its equilibrium and erupts upward, which leads to the formation of a 3D CS underneath it. Methods: In order to study the magnetic reconnection inside the CS in detail, mesh refinement has been used to reduce the numerical diffusion and we estimate a Lundquist number S = 104 in the vicinity of the CS. Results: The refined mesh allows us to resolve fine structures inside the 3D CS: a bifurcating sheet structure signaling the 3D generalization of Petschek slow shocks, some distorted-cylindrical substructures due to the tearing mode instabilities, and two turbulence regions near the upper and the lower tips of the CS. The topological characteristics of the MFR depend sensitively on the observer's viewing angle: it presents as a sigmoid structure, an outwardly expanding MFR with helical distortion, or a flare-CS-coronal mass ejection symbiosis as in 2D flux-rope models when observed from the top, the front, or the side. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Chiral condensate from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of our computation of the chiral condensate with N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions. The condensate is determined from the Dirac operator spectrum, applying the spectral projector method proposed by Giusti and Luescher. We use 3 lattice spacings and several quark masses at each lattice spacing to reliably perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. We study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavours.

  5. Position Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Using Super Twisting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafiq Mufti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent problem of chattering in traditional sliding mode control is harmful for practical application of control system. This paper pays a considerable attention to a chattering-free control method, that is, higher-order sliding mode (super twisting algorithm. The design of a position controller for switched reluctance motor is presented and its stability is assured using Lyapunov stability theorem. In order to highlight the advantages of higher-order sliding mode controller (HOSMC, a classical first-order sliding mode controller (FOSMC is also applied to the same system and compared. The simulation results reflect the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  6. Twisting, supercoiling and stretching in protein bound DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2018-04-01

    We have calculated theoretical results for the torque and slope of the twisted DNA, with various proteins bound on it, using the Neukirch-Marko model, in the regime where plectonemes exist. We found that the torque in the protein bound DNA decreases compared to that in the bare DNA. This is caused by the decrease in the free energy g(f) , and hence the smaller persistence lengths, in the case of protein bound DNA. We hope our results will encourage experimental investigations of supercoiling in protein bound DNA, which can provide further tests of the Neukirch-Marko model.

  7. Analysis of the British Industrial Revolution in cinema: Oliver Twist

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente Diez, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    La Revolución Industrial británica fue un fenómeno histórico que incluso a día de hoy continúa atrayendo miradas. Sus dimensiones fueron tales que actualmente sus consecuencias aún son visibles. El objetivo de este proyecto es analizar el impacto social de la Revolución Industrial británica y las causas que llevaron a este punto como retrata Oliver Twist, la película seleccionada. Desde la perspectiva de las injusticias laborales y las desigualdades sociales, el estudio se centra en las conse...

  8. Chiral condensate from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of our computation of the chiral condensate with N f =2 and N f =2+1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions. The condensate is determined from the Dirac operator spectrum, applying the spectral projector method proposed by Giusti and Luescher. We use 3 lattice spacings and several quark masses at each lattice spacing to reliably perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. We study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N f =2 and N f =2+1+1 dynamical flavours.

  9. Wigner oscillators, twisted Hopf algebras and second quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.G.; Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: pgcastro@cbpf.br; toppan@cbpf.br; Chakraborty, B. [S. N. Bose National Center for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India)]. E-mail: biswajit@bose.res.in

    2008-07-01

    By correctly identifying the role of central extension in the centrally extended Heisenberg algebra h, we show that it is indeed possible to construct a Hopf algebraic structure on the corresponding enveloping algebra U(h) and eventually deform it through Drinfeld twist. This Hopf algebraic structure and its deformed version U{sup F}(h) is shown to be induced from a more 'fundamental' Hopf algebra obtained from the Schroedinger field/oscillator algebra and its deformed version, provided that the fields/oscillators are regarded as odd-elements of a given superalgebra. We also discuss the possible implications in the context of quantum statistics. (author)

  10. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu

    2009-01-01

    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  11. ABOUT THE GEOMETRY AND THE APPLICATIONS OF THE TWISTED SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÂRZA Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The helical and spiral surfaces are used in various fields. These surfaces are obtained by rotating a segment line called generatrix around directrices lines, respectively the spiral surfaces are obtained by composing simultaneously the movements of translation and rotation of a plane figure around an axis - which can be a straight line or a curved line, or around a real or imaginary surface - called core. After an overview of these surfaces, the attention of the authors will be focused on the geometrical and graphical analysis of the twisted surfaces in civil engineering branch, such as: columns, helical ramps and stairs, respectively buildings having a futuristic design.

  12. Compactifications of 5d SCFTs with a twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafrir, Gabi [Department of Physics, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology,32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2017-01-23

    We study the compactification of 5d SCFTs to 4d on a circle with a twist in a discrete global symmetry element of these SCFTs. We present evidence that this leads to various 4dN=2 isolated SCFTs. These include many known theories as well as seemingly new ones. The known theories include the recently discovered rank 1SU(4) SCFT and its mass deformations. One application of the new SCFTs is in the dual descriptions of the 4d gauge theory SU(N)+1S+(N−2)F. Also interesting is the appearance of a theory with rank 1 and F{sub 4} global symmetry.

  13. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P. [Paris XI Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT)] (and others)

    2009-12-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N{sub f}=2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280

  14. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N f =2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280 PS < or similar 650 MeV we control the major systematic effects of our calculation. This enables us to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract low energy constants of the effective chiral Lagrangian and derived quantities, such as the light quark mass, with high precision. (orig.)

  15. The gradient flow running coupling with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    We study the gradient flow for Yang-Mills theories with twisted boundary conditions. The perturbative behavior of the energy density left angle E(t) right angle is used to define a running coupling at a scale given by the linear size of the finite volume box. We compute the non-perturbative running of the pure gauge SU(2) coupling constant and conclude that the technique is well suited for further applications due to the relatively mild cutoff effects of the step scaling function and the high numerical precision that can be achieved in lattice simulations. We also comment on the inclusion of matter fields.

  16. Twisting dirac fermions: circular dichroism in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Morell, E.; Chico, Leonor; Brey, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene is a chiral system which has been recently shown to present circular dichroism. In this work we show that the origin of this optical activity is the rotation of the Dirac fermions’ helicities in the top and bottom layer. Starting from the Kubo formula, we obtain a compact expression for the Hall conductivity that takes into account the dephasing of the electromagnetic field between the top and bottom layers and gathers all the symmetries of the system. Our results are based in both a continuum and a tight-binding model, and they can be generalized to any two-dimensional Dirac material with a chiral stacking between layers.

  17. Five-loop anomalous dimension of twist-two operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukowski, T. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Rej, A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Velizhanin, V.N., E-mail: velizh@mail.desy.d [Theoretical Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-21

    In this article we calculate the five-loop anomalous dimension of twist-two operators in the planar N=4 SYM theory. Firstly, using reciprocity, we derive the contribution of the asymptotic Bethe ansatz. Subsequently, we employ the first finite-size correction for the AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} sigma model to determine the wrapping correction. The anomalous dimension found in this way passes all known tests provided by the NLO BFKL equation and double-logarithmic constraints. This result thus furnishes an infinite number of experimental data for testing the veracity of the recently proposed spectral equations for planar AdS/CFT correspondence.

  18. Traveling waves in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.V.; Vakulenko, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    We have described a novel reorientation mechanism in the form of the traveling waves, under influence of an external electric field, directed parallel to both glass plates, which occur in the twisted nematic cell (TNC). It is found that the slowest velocity of the traveling front is proportional to the field strength, and, approximately, in three times higher than the front velocity corresponding to the non-traveling solution. The value of the critical electric field E cr which may excite the traveling waves in the TNC in π times less than the value of the threshold electric field E th corresponding to the untwisted geometry

  19. Modal properties and stability of bend–twist coupled wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Stäblein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coupling between bending and twist has a significant influence on the aeroelastic response of wind turbine blades. The coupling can arise from the blade geometry (e.g. sweep, prebending, or deflection under load or from the anisotropic properties of the blade material. Bend–twist coupling can be utilized to reduce the fatigue loads of wind turbine blades. In this study the effects of material-based coupling on the aeroelastic modal properties and stability limits of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine are investigated. The modal properties are determined by means of eigenvalue analysis around a steady-state equilibrium using the aero-servo-elastic tool HAWCStab2 which has been extended by a beam element that allows for fully coupled cross-sectional properties. Bend–twist coupling is introduced in the cross-sectional stiffness matrix by means of coupling coefficients that introduce twist for flapwise (flap–twist coupling or edgewise (edge–twist coupling bending. Edge–twist coupling can increase or decrease the damping of the edgewise mode relative to the reference blade, depending on the operational condition of the turbine. Edge–twist to feather coupling for edgewise deflection towards the leading edge reduces the inflow speed at which the blade becomes unstable. Flap–twist to feather coupling for flapwise deflections towards the suction side increase the frequency and reduce damping of the flapwise mode. Flap–twist to stall reduces frequency and increases damping. The reduction of blade root flapwise and tower bottom fore–aft moments due to variations in mean wind speed of a flap–twist to feather blade are confirmed by frequency response functions.

  20. Cerclage handling for improved fracture treatment. A biomechanical study on the twisting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähnert, D; Lenz, M; Schlegel, U; Perren, S; Windolf, M

    2011-01-01

    Twisting is clinically the most frequently applied method for tightening and maintaining cerclage fixation. The twisting procedure is controversially discussed. Several factors during twisting affect the mechanical behaviour of the cerclage. This in vitro study investigated the influence of different parameters of the twisting procedure on the fixation strength of the cerclage in an experimental setup with centripetal force application. Cortical half shells of the femoral shaft were mounted on a testing fixture. 1.0 mm, 1.25 mm and 1.5 mm stainless ste- el wire cerclages as well as a 1.0mm cable cerclage were applied to the bone. Pretension of the cerclage during the installation was measured during the locking procedure. Subsequently, cyclic testing was performed up to failure. Higher pretension could be achieved with increasing wire diameter. However, with larger wire diameter the drop of pre- tension due to the bending and cutting the twist also increased. The cable cerclage showed the highest pretension after locking. Cerclages twisted under traction revealed significantly higher initial cerclage tension. Plastically deformed twists offered higher cerclage pretension compared to twists which were deformed in the elastic region of the material. Cutting the wire within the twist caused the highest loss of cerclage tension (44% initial tension) whereas only 11 % was lost when cutting the wire ends separately. The bending direction of the twist significantly influenced the cerclage pretension. 45% pretension was lost in forward bending of the twist, 53% in perpendicular bending and 90% in backward bending. Several parameters affect the quality of a cerclage fixation. Adequate installation of cerclage wires could markedly improve the clinical outcome of cerclage.