Optics of twisted nematic and supertwisted nematic liquid-crystal displays
Leenhouts, F.; Schadt, M.
1986-11-01
For the first time calculations of the off-state transmission of twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays (LCD's) are presented which exhibit twist angles greater than the conventional 90 °. The transmission has been calculated using a treatment introduced by Priestley. In addition, the CIE (Commission Internationale d'Eclairage) color coordinates were evaluated which, together with the brightness, determine the optical appearance of an LCD. The finite efficiency of the polarizers was taken into account. The results are compared with those obtained for conventional 90 ° twisted nematic LCD's. From the calculations follow the conditions required to obtain optimal contrast and steep electro-optical characteristics in 180 ° supertwisted LCD's designed for high information content applications.
Tanaka, Shingo; Dhara, Surajit; Sadashiva, B K; Shimbo, Yoshio; Takanishi, Yoichi; Araoka, Fumito; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo
2008-04-01
We report an unusual electroconvection in the nematic phase of a bent-core liquid crystal. In a voltage-frequency diagram, two frequency regions exhibiting prewavy stripe patterns were found, as reported by Wiant We found that these stripes never show extinction dark when cells were rotated under crossed polarizers. Based on the color interchange in between neighboring stripes by the rotation of the cells or an analyzer, twisted molecular orientation is suggested; i.e., the directors are alternately twisted from the top to the bottom surfaces with a pretilt angle in adjacent stripes, which is an analogue of the twisted (splayed) structure observed in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells. The transmittance spectra calculated using the 4x4 matrix method from the model structure are consistent with the experimental observation.
Flicker in a twisted nematic spatial light modulator
Calderón-Hermosillo, Yuliana; García-Márquez, Jorge; Espinosa-Luna, Rafael; Ochoa, Noé Alcalá; López, Víctor; Aguilar, Alberto; Noé-Arias, Enrique; Alayli, Yasser
2013-06-01
Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are widely used for their capability to control beams howbeit fluctuations in phase and amplitude. It is then necessary to understand the negative effects of these fluctuations, also known as flicker, and the means to mitigate them. The flicker is observed either as high frequency variations of polarization, attenuation or high phase fluctuations on the wave front modulated by the LCoS device. Here, we compare the flicker behavior in a twisted nematic (TN) LCoS-SLM for different polarization schemes and temperatures. The quantitative evaluation shows that flicker is effectively reduced only by chilling the LCoS panel to temperatures just below 0 °C but, the LCoS modulation capability is also affected.
Dynamic wavefront sensing and correction with low-cost twisted nematic spatial light modulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, Vicente; Climent, Vicent; Lancis, Jesus; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Bara, Salvador; Arines, Justo; Ares, Jorge; Andres, Pedro; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew
2010-01-01
Off-the-shelf twisted nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCDs) show some interesting features such as high spatial resolution, easy handling, wide availability, and low cost. We describe a compact adaptive optical system using just one TNLCD to measure and compensate optical aberrations. The current system operates at a frame rate of the order of 10 Hz with a four level codification scheme. Wavefront estimation is performed through conventional Hartmann-Shack sensing architecture. The system has proved to work properly with a maximum rms aberration of 0.76 microns and wavefront gradient of 50 rad/mm at a wavelength of 514 nm. These values correspond to typical aberrations found in human eyes. The key of our approach is careful characterization and optimization of the TNLCD for phase-only modulation. For this purpose, we exploit the so-called retarder-rotator approach for twisted nematic liquid crystal cells. The optimization process has been successfully applied to SLMs working either in transmissive or in reflective mode, even when light depolarization effects are observed.
Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal
Potisk, Tilen; Mertelj, Alenka; Sebastián, Nerea; Osterman, Natan; Lisjak, Darja; Brand, Helmut R.; Pleiner, Harald; Svenšek, Daniel
2018-01-01
We investigate dynamic magneto-optic effects in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally we measure the magnetization and the phase difference of the transmitted light when an external magnetic field is applied. As a model we study the coupled dynamics of the magnetization, M , and the director field, n , associated with the liquid crystalline orientational order. We demonstrate that the experimentally studied macroscopic dynamic behavior reveals the importance of a dynamic cross-coupling between M and n . The experimental data are used to extract the value of the dissipative cross-coupling coefficient. We also make concrete predictions about how reversible cross-coupling terms between the magnetization and the director could be detected experimentally by measurements of the transmitted light intensity as well as by analyzing the azimuthal angle of the magnetization and the director out of the plane spanned by the anchoring axis and the external magnetic field. We derive the eigenmodes of the coupled system and study their relaxation rates. We show that in the usual experimental setup used for measuring the relaxation rates of the splay-bend or twist-bend eigenmodes of a nematic liquid crystal one expects for a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal a mixture of at least two eigenmodes.
Composite material bend-twist coupling for wind turbine blade applications
Walsh, Justin M.
Current efforts in wind turbine blade design seek to employ bend-twist coupling of composite materials for passive power control by twisting blades to feather. Past efforts in this area of study have proved to be problematic, especially in formulation of the bend-twist coupling coefficient alpha. Kevlar/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy specimens were manufactured to study bend-twist coupling, from which numerical and analytical models could be verified. Finite element analysis was implemented to evaluate fiber orientation and material property effects on coupling magnitude. An analytical/empirical model was then derived to describe numerical results and serve as a replacement for the commonly used coupling coefficient alpha. Through the results from numerical and analytical models, a foundation for aeroelastic design of wind turbines blades utilizing biased composite materials is provided.
Witte, van de P.; Neuteboom, E.E.; Brehmer, M.; Lub, Johan
1999-01-01
A method for the production of polarization sensitive recordings in liquid crystalline polymers is presented. The system is based on local modification of the twist angle of chiral nematic polymer films. The twist angle of the polymer film is varied by modifying the chemical structure of the chiral
Biaxiality in Nematic and Smectic Liquid Crystals. Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Satyendra [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States); Li, Quan [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States); Srinivasarao, Mohan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Agra-Kooijman, Dena M. [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States); Rey, Alejandro [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)
2017-01-24
During the award period, the project team explored several phenomena in a diverse group of soft condensed matter systems. These include understanding of the structure of the newly discovered twist-bend nematic phase, solving the mystery of de Vries smectic phases, probing of interesting associations and defect structures in chromonic liquid crystalline systems, dispersions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in smectic liquid crystals, investigations of newly synthesized light sensitive and energy harvesting materials with highly desirable transport properties. Our findings are summarized in the following report followed by a list of 36 publications and 37 conference presentations. We achieved this with the support of Basic Sciences Division of the US DOE for which we are thankful.
Saddle-splay screening and chiral symmetry breaking in toroidal nematics
Koning, Vinzenz; van Zuiden, Benjamin C.; Kamien, Randall D.; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2013-01-01
We present a theoretical study of director fields in toroidal geometries with degenerate planar boundary conditions. We find spontaneous chirality: despite the achiral nature of nematics the director configuration show a handedness if the toroid is thick enough. In the chiral state the director field displays a double twist, whereas in the achiral state there is only bend deformation. The critical thickness increases as the difference between the twist and saddle-splay moduli grows. A positiv...
Huang, Chien-Yueh; Petschek, R. G.
1998-03-01
We investigate the possible mesophases in emulsions of chiral nematic liquid crystals with immiscible isotropic fluids and surfactants. The interactions between the orientational fields of the chiral nematics and the surfactant membranes together with the topological constraints affect stability of micellar geometries and produce a new phase diagram. We compare the free energies of various candidate phases. Appropriate, likely realizable conditions on the surfactant and the pitch of the liquid crystal result in thermodynamically stable blue-phase like phases for a relatively wide range of parameters. Processing such emulsions may result in materials with photonic band gaps.
Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian
2014-01-01
-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling...
Traveling waves in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, A.V.; Vakulenko, A.A.
2007-01-01
We have described a novel reorientation mechanism in the form of the traveling waves, under influence of an external electric field, directed parallel to both glass plates, which occur in the twisted nematic cell (TNC). It is found that the slowest velocity of the traveling front is proportional to the field strength, and, approximately, in three times higher than the front velocity corresponding to the non-traveling solution. The value of the critical electric field E cr which may excite the traveling waves in the TNC in π times less than the value of the threshold electric field E th corresponding to the untwisted geometry
Novel cell parameter determination of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal display
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Xia; Jing Hai; Fu Guozhu
2008-01-01
In this paper a novel method is proposed to determine the cell parameters including the twist angle, optic retardation and rubbing direction of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCD) by rotating the TNLCD. It is a single-wavelength method. Because using subtraction equation of transmittance as curve fitting equation, the influence of the light from environment and the absorption by polarizer, the sample of TNLCD and analyser on the transmittance is eliminated. Accurate results can also be obtained in imperfect darkness. By large numbers of experiments, we found that not only the experimental setup is quite simple and can be easily adopted to be carried out, but also the results are accurate
Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing
Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris
2018-05-01
The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance
Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending-twist coupling
Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Bergamini, Andrea; Ermanni, Paolo
2013-06-01
A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending-twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated.
Nematic liquid crystals on sinusoidal channels: the zigzag instability.
Silvestre, Nuno M; Romero-Enrique, Jose M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M
2017-01-11
Substrates which are chemically or topographically patterned induce a variety of liquid crystal textures. The response of the liquid crystal to competing surface orientations, typical of patterned substrates, is determined by the anisotropy of the elastic constants and the interplay of the relevant lengths scales, such as the correlation length and the surface geometrical parameters. Transitions between different textures, usually with different symmetries, may occur under a wide range of conditions. We use the Landau-de Gennes free energy to investigate the texture of nematics in sinusoidal channels with parallel anchoring bounded by nematic-air interfaces that favour perpendicular (hometropic) anchoring. In micron size channels 5CB was observed to exhibit a non-trivial texture characterized by a disclination line, within the channel, which is broken into a zigzag pattern. Our calculations reveal that when the elastic anisotropy of the nematic does not favour twist distortions the defect is a straight disclination line that runs along the channel, which breaks into a zigzag pattern with a characteristic period, when the twist elastic constant becomes sufficiently small when compared to the splay and bend constants. The transition occurs through a twist instability that drives the defect line to rotate from its original position. The interplay between the energetically favourable twist distortions that induce the defect rotation and the liquid crystal anchoring at the surfaces leads to the zigzag pattern. We investigate in detail the dependence of the periodicity of the zigzag pattern on the geometrical parameters of the sinusoidal channels, which in line with the experimental results is found to be non-linear.
Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso
2017-07-10
Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced birefringence, we can readily extract the twist elastic coefficient K 22 of thermotropic and lyotropic chiral nematics (N*). The value of K 22 we obtain for chiral doped 5CB thermotropic N* well matches those reported in the literature. With this same strategy, we could determine for the first time K 22 of the N* phase of concentrated aqueous solutions of DNA oligomers, bypassing the limitations that so far prevented measuring the elastic constants of this class of liquid crystalline materials. The present study also enlightens the significant nonlinear optical response of DNA liquid crystals.
Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa
2015-01-01
An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour. (paper)
Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor
Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa
2015-12-01
An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour.
Modal Properties and Stability of Bend-Twist Coupled Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stäblein, Alexander R.; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Verelst, David Robert
2017-01-01
a steady-state equilibrium using the aero-servo-elastic tool HAWCStab2 which has been extended by a beam element that allows for fully coupled cross-sectional properties. Bend-twist coupling is introduced in the cross-sectional stiffness matrix by means of coupling coefficients that introduce twist...
Fang, Angbo
2008-12-08
Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
Investigation of Structural Behavior due to Bend-Twist Couplings in Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fedorov, Vladimir; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Berggreen, Christian
2010-01-01
for predicting the torsional response of the wind turbine blades with built-in bend-twist couplings. Additionally, a number of improved full-scale tests using an advanced bi-axial servo-hydraulic load control have been performed on a wind turbine blade section provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. In the present......One of the problematic issues concerning the design of future large composite wind turbine blades is the prediction of bend-twist couplings and torsion behaviour. The current work is a continuation of a previous work [1,2], and it examines different finite element modelling approaches...... of the blade cross section as the defining surface, off-setting the location of the shell elements according to the specified thickness. The experimental full-scale tests were carried out on an 8 m section of a 23 m wind turbine blade with specially implemented bend-twist coupling. The blade was tested under...
Effect of Turbulence on Power for Bend-Twist Coupled Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2016-01-01
that it might be related to the dynamic response of bend-twist coupled blades in turbulent flow. This paper contains estimations of the power curve from nonlinear time simulations, a linear frequency domain based method and a normal distribution weighted average method. It is shown that the frequency domain...... that changes in power due to turbulence are similar for coupled and uncoupled blades. Power gains at low wind speeds are related to the curvature of the steady state power curve. Losses around rated wind speed are caused by the effects of controller switching between partial and full power operation.......Bend-twist coupling of wind turbine blades reduces the structural loads of the turbine but it also results in a decrease of the annual energy production. The main part of the power loss can be mitigated by pretwisting the blade, but some power loss remains and previous studies indicate...
Investigation of structural behaviour due to bend-twist couplings in wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fedorov, Vladimir; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimiroy; Berggreen, Christian
2009-01-01
The structural behaviour of a composite wind turbine blade with implemented bend-twist coupling is examined in this paper. Several shell finite element models of the blade have been developed and validated against full-scale tests. All shell models performed well for flap-wise bending......, but performed poorly in torsion, when employing material off-sets....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You, Yue; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Xu, Changwei
2012-01-01
A photo-chromic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) is a smart material for large light-activated variation or bending to transfer luminous energy into mechanical energy. We study the light induced behavior by modeling planar and homeotropic nematic network polymer plates. We effectively illustrate some reported experimental outcomes and theoretically predict some possible bending patterns. This paper constructs an understanding between the bending behaviors and interactions among the alignments, aspect ratios and boundary conditions, etc. Our work provides information on optimizing light induced bending in the process of micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) design. (paper)
Indigenous unit for bending and twisting tests of ultra-thin films on a flexible substrate
D'souza, Slavia Deeksha; Hazarika, Pratim; Prakasarao, Ch Surya; Kovendhan, M.; Kumar, R. Arockia; Joseph, D. Paul
2018-04-01
An indigenous unit is designed to test the stability of thin films deposited on to a flexible substrate by inducing a required number of bending and twisting under specific conditions. The unit is designed using aluminum and automated by sending pulse width modulated signals to servo motors using ATmega328 microcontroller. We have tested the unit by imparting stress on to a commercial ITO film deposited on a PET substrate. After a definite number of bending and twisting cycles, the electrical and surface properties are studied and the results are discussed.
Using Pretwist to Reduce Power Loss of Bend-Twist Coupled Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stäblein, Alexander; Tibaldi, Carlo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2016-01-01
Bend-twist coupling of wind turbine blades is known as a means to reduce the structural loads of the turbine. While the load reduction is desirable, bend-twist coupling also leads to a decrease in the annual energy production of the turbine. The reduction is mainly related to a no longer optimal......, and fatigue load for the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine. The analysis was carried out by calculating the nonlinear steady state rotor deflection in an uniform inflow over the operational range of the turbine. The steady state power curve together with a Rayleigh wind speed distribution has been used...... to estimate the annual energy production. The turbine model was then linearised around the steady state and the power spectral density of the blade response, which was computed from transfer functions and the wind speed variations in the frequency domain, was used to estimate the fatigue loads by a spectral...
Dynamical Properties of a Living Nematic
Genkin, Mikhail
The systems, which are made of a large number or interacting particles, or agents that convert the energy stored in the environment into mechanical motion, are called active systems, or active matter. The examples of active matter include both living and synthetic systems. The size of agents varies significantly: bird flocks and fish schools represent macroscopic active systems, while suspensions of living organisms or artificial colloidal particles are examples of microscopic ones. In this work, I studied one of the simplest realization of active matter termed living (or active) nematics, that can be conceived by mixing swimming bacteria and nematic liquid crystal. Using modeling, numerical simulations and experiments I studied various dynamical properties of active nematics. This work hints into new methods of control and manipulation of active matter. Active nematic exhibits complex spatiotemporal behavior manifested by formation, proliferation, and annihilation of topological defects. A new computational 2D model coupling nematic liquid crystal and swimming bacteria dynamics have been proposed. We investigated the developed system of partial differential equations analytically and integrated it numerically using the highly efficient parallel GPU code. The integration results are in a very good agreement with other theoretical and experimental studies. In addition, our model revealed a number of testable phenomena. The major model prediction (bacteria accumulation in positive and depletion in negative topological defects) was tested by a dedicated experiment. We extended our model to study active nematics in a biphasic state, where nematic and isotropic phases coexist. Typically this coexistence is manifested by formation of tactoids - isotropic elongated regions surrounded by nematic phase, or nematic regions surrounded by isotropic phase. Using numerical integration, we revealed fundamental properties of such systems. Our main model outcome - spontaneous
Evidence of a fractional quantum Hall nematic phase in a microscopic model
Regnault, N.; Maciejko, J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.
2017-07-01
At small momenta, the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman (GMP) mode in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect can be identified with gapped nematic fluctuations in the isotropic FQH liquid. This correspondence would be exact as the GMP mode softens upon approach to the putative point of a quantum phase transition to a FQH nematic. Motivated by these considerations as well as by suggestive evidence of an FQH nematic in tilted field experiments, we have sought evidence of such a nematic FQHE in a microscopic model of interacting electrons in the lowest Landau level at filling factor 1/3. Using a family of anisotropic Laughlin states as trial wave functions, we find a continuous quantum phase transition between the isotropic Laughlin liquid and the FQH nematic. Results of numerical exact diagonalization also suggest that rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken, and that the phase diagram of the model contains both a nematic and a stripe phase.
Spin nematic and orthogonal nematic states in S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridman, Yu.A.; Kosmachev, O.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.
2013-01-01
Phases of S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet at various relationships between the exchange integrals are studied in the mean-field limit at zero temperature. It is shown that four phases can be realized in the system under consideration: the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, nematic, and the orthogonal nematic states. The phase diagram is constructed. It is shown that the phase transitions between the ferromagnetic phase and the orthogonal nematic phase and between the antiferromagnetic phase and the orthogonal nematic phase are the degenerated first-order transitions. For the first time the spectra of elementary excitations in all phases are obtained within the mean-field limit. - Highlights: ► We investigated phases of S=1 non-Heisenberg magnet. ► Found four phases: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, nematic, and orthogonal nematic. ► The phase diagram is determined. ► The spectra of elementary excitations are obtained in all phases for the first time.
Mitchell, Michael R.; Leibler, Stanislas
2018-05-01
The abundance of available static protein structural data makes the more effective analysis and interpretation of this data a valuable tool to supplement the experimental study of protein mechanics. Structural displacements can be difficult to analyze and interpret. Previously, we showed that strains provide a more natural and interpretable representation of protein deformations, revealing mechanical coupling between spatially distinct sites of allosteric proteins. Here, we demonstrate that other transformations of displacements yield additional insights. We calculate the divergence and curl of deformations of the transmembrane channel KcsA. Additionally, we introduce quantities analogous to bend, splay, and twist deformation energies of nematic liquid crystals. These transformations enable the decomposition of displacements into different modes of deformation, helping to characterize the type of deformation a protein undergoes. We apply these calculations to study the filter and gating regions of KcsA. We observe a continuous path of rotational deformations physically coupling these two regions, and, we propose, underlying the allosteric interaction between these regions. Bend, splay, and twist distinguish KcsA gate opening, filter opening, and filter-gate coupling, respectively. In general, physically meaningful representations of deformations (like strain, curl, bend, splay, and twist) can make testable predictions and yield insights into protein mechanics, augmenting experimental methods and more fully exploiting available structural data.
Krishnamurthy, K S; Kumar, Pramoda; Kumar, M Vijay
2013-02-01
We report, for a rodlike nematic liquid crystal with small positive dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, and in the 90°-twisted configuration, low frequency (wave electric field generated Carr-Helfrich director modulation appearing transiently over a few seconds at each polarity reversal and vanishing almost completely under steady field conditions. Significantly, the instability is polarity sensitive, with the maximum distortion localized in the vicinity of the negative electrode, rather than in the midplane of the layer. This is revealed by the wave vector alternating in the two halves of the driving cycle between the alignment directions at the two substrates. Besides the Carr-Helfrich mechanism, quadrupolar flexoelectric polarization arising under electric field gradient is strongly indicated as being involved in the development of the transient periodic order. Similar transient instability is also observed in other nematic compounds with varying combinations of dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, showing its general nature. The study also deals with various characteristics of the electro-optic effect that emerge from the temporal variation of optical response for different driving voltages, frequencies, and temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gözcü, M O; Kayran, A
2014-01-01
Bending-twisting coupling in the composite blades is exploited for load alleviation in the whole turbine system. For the purpose of the study, inverse design of a reference blade is performed such that sectional beam properties of the 3D blade design approximately match the sectional beam properties of NREL's 5MW turbine blade. In order to appropriately account for the bending-twisting coupling effect, dynamic superelement of the blade is created and introduced into the multi-body dynamic model of the wind turbine system. Initially, a comparative study is conducted on the performance of wind turbines which have blades defined as superelements and geometrically nonlinear beams, and conclusions are inferred with regard to the appropriateness of the use of superelement blade definition in the transient analysis of the 5MW wind turbine system that is set up in the present study. Multi-body dynamic simulations of the wind turbine system are performed for the power production load case with the constant wind and the normal turbulence model as external wind loadings. For the internal loads, fatigue damage equivalent load is used as the metric to assess the effect of bending-twisting coupling on the load alleviation in the whole wind turbine system. Results show that in the overall, through the bending-twisting coupling induced with the use of off-axis plies in the main spar caps of the blade, damage equivalent loads associated with the critical load components can be reduced in the wind turbine system
35 Hz shape memory alloy actuator with bending-twisting mode.
Song, Sung-Hyuk; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Rodrigue, Hugo; Choi, Ik-Seong; Kang, Yeon June; Ahn, Sung-Hoon
2016-02-19
Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) materials are widely used as an actuating source for bending actuators due to their high power density. However, due to the slow actuation speed of SMAs, there are limitations in their range of possible applications. This paper proposes a smart soft composite (SSC) actuator capable of fast bending actuation with large deformations. To increase the actuation speed of SMA actuator, multiple thin SMA wires are used to increase the heat dissipation for faster cooling. The actuation characteristics of the actuator at different frequencies are measured with different actuator lengths and results show that resonance can be used to realize large deformations up to 35 Hz. The actuation characteristics of the actuator can be modified by changing the design of the layered reinforcement structure embedded in the actuator, thus the natural frequency and length of an actuator can be optimized for a specific actuation speed. A model is used to compare with the experimental results of actuators with different layered reinforcement structure designs. Also, a bend-twist coupled motion using an anisotropic layered reinforcement structure at a speed of 10 Hz is also realized. By increasing their range of actuation characteristics, the proposed actuator extends the range of application of SMA bending actuators.
Krishnamurthy, Kanakapura S; Palakurthy, Nani Babu; Yelamaggad, Channabasaveshwar V
2017-06-01
We report wormlike flexoelectric structures evolving deep in the Freedericksz state of a nematic layer of the liquid crystal cyanobiphenyl-(CH2) 7 -cyanobiphenyl. They form in the predominantly splay-bend thin boundary layers and are built up of solitary flexoelectric domains of the Bobylev-Pikin type. Their formation is possibly triggered by the gradient flexoelectric surface instability that remains optically discernible up to unusually high frequencies. The threshold voltage at which the worms form scales as square root of the frequency; in their extended state, worms often appear as labyrinthine structures on a section of loops that separate regions of opposite director deviation. Such asymmetric loops are also derived through pincement-like dissociation of ring-shaped walls. Formation of isolated domains of bulk electroconvection precedes the onset of surface instabilities. In essence, far above the Freedericksz threshold, the twisted nematic layer behaves as a combination of two orthogonally oriented planar half-layers destabilized by localized flexoelectric distortion.
35 Hz shape memory alloy actuator with bending-twisting mode
Song, Sung-Hyuk; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Rodrigue, Hugo; Choi, Ik-Seong; Kang, Yeon June; Ahn, Sung-Hoon
2016-01-01
Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) materials are widely used as an actuating source for bending actuators due to their high power density. However, due to the slow actuation speed of SMAs, there are limitations in their range of possible applications. This paper proposes a smart soft composite (SSC) actuator capable of fast bending actuation with large deformations. To increase the actuation speed of SMA actuator, multiple thin SMA wires are used to increase the heat dissipation for faster cooling. The actuation characteristics of the actuator at different frequencies are measured with different actuator lengths and results show that resonance can be used to realize large deformations up to 35 Hz. The actuation characteristics of the actuator can be modified by changing the design of the layered reinforcement structure embedded in the actuator, thus the natural frequency and length of an actuator can be optimized for a specific actuation speed. A model is used to compare with the experimental results of actuators with different layered reinforcement structure designs. Also, a bend-twist coupled motion using an anisotropic layered reinforcement structure at a speed of 10 Hz is also realized. By increasing their range of actuation characteristics, the proposed actuator extends the range of application of SMA bending actuators. PMID:26892438
An IPMC-enabled bio-inspired bending/twisting fin for underwater applications
Palmre, Viljar; Hubbard, Joel J.; Fleming, Maxwell; Pugal, David; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang J.; Leang, Kam K.
2013-01-01
This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and characterization of an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator-based bio-inspired active fin capable of bending and twisting motion. It is pointed out that IPMC strip actuators are used in the simple cantilever configuration to create simple bending (flapping-like) motion for propulsion in underwater autonomous systems. However, the resulting motion is a simple 1D bending and performance is rather limited. To enable more complex deformation, such as the flapping (pitch and heaving) motion of real pectoral and caudal fish fins, a new approach which involves molding or integrating IPMC actuators into a soft boot material to create an active control surface (called a ‘fin’) is presented. The fin can be used to realize complex deformation depending on the orientation and placement of the actuators. In contrast to previously created IPMCs with patterned electrodes for the same purpose, the proposed design avoids (1) the more expensive process of electroless plating platinum all throughout the surface of the actuator and (2) the need for specially patterning the electrodes. Therefore, standard shaped IPMC actuators such as those with rectangular dimensions with varying thicknesses can be used. One unique advantage of the proposed structural design is that custom shaped fins and control surfaces can be easily created without special materials processing. The molding process is cost effective and does not require functionalizing or ‘activating’ the boot material similar to creating IPMCs. For a prototype fin (90 mm wide × 60 mm long × 1.5 mm thick), the measured maximum tip displacement was approximately 44 mm and the twist angle of the fin exceeded 10°. Lift and drag measurements in water where the prototype fin with an airfoil profile was dragged through water at a velocity of 21 cm s-1 showed that the lift and drag forces can be affected by controlling the IPMCs embedded into the fin structure. These
Chromonic liquid crystalline nematic phase exhibited in binary mixture of two liquid crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Govindaiah, T. N., E-mail: tngovi.phy@gmail.com; Sreepad, H. R. [Post-Graduate Department of Physics, Government College (Autonomous), Mandya-571401 (India); Sridhar, K. N.; Sridhara, G. R.; Nagaraja, N. [Government College for Boys, Kolar-563101 (India)
2015-06-24
A binary mixture of abietic acid and orthophosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) exhibits co-existence of biphasic region of Nematic+Isotropic (N+I), lyotropic Nematic (ND) and Smectic-G (SmG) phases. The mixture exhibits N+I, N and SmG phases at different concentrations and at different temperatures. Mixtures with all concentrations of abietic acid exhibit I→N+I→N→SmG phases sequentially when the specimen is cooled from its isotropic melt. These phases have been characterized by using differential scanning calorimetric, X-ray diffraction, and optical texture studies.
An IPMC-enabled bio-inspired bending/twisting fin for underwater applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang J; Hubbard, Joel J; Fleming, Maxwell; Leang, Kam K
2013-01-01
This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and characterization of an ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) actuator-based bio-inspired active fin capable of bending and twisting motion. It is pointed out that IPMC strip actuators are used in the simple cantilever configuration to create simple bending (flapping-like) motion for propulsion in underwater autonomous systems. However, the resulting motion is a simple 1D bending and performance is rather limited. To enable more complex deformation, such as the flapping (pitch and heaving) motion of real pectoral and caudal fish fins, a new approach which involves molding or integrating IPMC actuators into a soft boot material to create an active control surface (called a ‘fin’) is presented. The fin can be used to realize complex deformation depending on the orientation and placement of the actuators. In contrast to previously created IPMCs with patterned electrodes for the same purpose, the proposed design avoids (1) the more expensive process of electroless plating platinum all throughout the surface of the actuator and (2) the need for specially patterning the electrodes. Therefore, standard shaped IPMC actuators such as those with rectangular dimensions with varying thicknesses can be used. One unique advantage of the proposed structural design is that custom shaped fins and control surfaces can be easily created without special materials processing. The molding process is cost effective and does not require functionalizing or ‘activating’ the boot material similar to creating IPMCs. For a prototype fin (90 mm wide × 60 mm long × 1.5 mm thick), the measured maximum tip displacement was approximately 44 mm and the twist angle of the fin exceeded 10°. Lift and drag measurements in water where the prototype fin with an airfoil profile was dragged through water at a velocity of 21 cm s −1 showed that the lift and drag forces can be affected by controlling the IPMCs embedded into the fin structure
Phase separation and disorder in doped nematic elastomers
Kö pf, M. H.; Pismen, L. M.
2013-01-01
We formulate and analyse a model describing the combined effect of mechanical deformation, dynamics of the nematic order parameter, and concentration inhomogeneities in an elastomeric mixture of a mesogenic and an isotropic component. The uniform nematic state may exhibit a long-wave instability corresponding to nematic-isotropic demixing. Numerical simulations starting from either a perfectly ordered nematic state or a quenched isotropic state show that coupling between the mesogen concentration and the nematic order parameter influences the shape and orientation of the domains formed during the demixing process. © EDP Sciences/ Società Italiana di Fisica/ Springer-Verlag 2013.
Phase separation and disorder in doped nematic elastomers
Köpf, M. H.
2013-10-01
We formulate and analyse a model describing the combined effect of mechanical deformation, dynamics of the nematic order parameter, and concentration inhomogeneities in an elastomeric mixture of a mesogenic and an isotropic component. The uniform nematic state may exhibit a long-wave instability corresponding to nematic-isotropic demixing. Numerical simulations starting from either a perfectly ordered nematic state or a quenched isotropic state show that coupling between the mesogen concentration and the nematic order parameter influences the shape and orientation of the domains formed during the demixing process. © EDP Sciences/ Società Italiana di Fisica/ Springer-Verlag 2013.
Microwave modulation characteristics of twisted liquid crystals with chiral dopant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Yuan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Adding a chiral dopant in twisted nematic (TN liquid crystal cell can stabilize the orientation of liquid crystal molecules, particularly in high TN (HTN or super TN (STN liquid crystal cells. The difference in pitches in liquid crystal is induced by the chiral dopant, and these different pitches affect the orientation of liquid crystal director under an external applied voltage and influence the characteristics of microwave modulation. To illustrate this point, the microwave phase shift per unit length (MPSL versus voltage is calculated on the basis of the elastic theory of liquid crystal and the finite-difference iterative method. Enhancing the pitch induced by the chiral dopant in liquid crystal increases the MPSLs, but the stability of the twisted structures is decreased. Thus, appropriate pitches of 100d, 4d, and 2d can be applied in TN, HTN, and STN cells with cell gap d to enhance the characteristics of microwave modulation and stabilize the structures in twisted cell. This method can improve the characteristics of liquid crystal microwave modulators such that the operating voltage and the size of such phase shifters can be decreased.
Koška, Pavel; Peterka, Pavel; Doya, Valérie; Aubrecht, Jan; Kasik, Ivan; Podrazký, Ondřej
2017-05-01
High-power operation of fiber lasers was enabled by the invention of cladding-pumping in a double-clad fiber structure. Because of existence of so called skew rays in the inner clad of the fiber, pump absorption saturates along the fiber and pumping becomes inefficient. First studies of pump absorption efficiency enhancement were focused on fibers with broken circular symmetry of inner cladding eliminating skew rays [1,2]. Later, techniques of unconventional fiber coiling were proposed [3]. However, theoretical studies were limited to the assumption of a straight fiber. Even recently, the rigorous model accounting for fiber bending and twisting was described [4-6]. It was found that bending of the fiber influences modal spectra of the pump radiation and twisting provides quite efficient mode-scrambling. These effects in a synergic manner significantly enhances pump absorption rate in double clad fibers and improves laser system efficiency. In our contribution we review results of numerical modelling of pump absorption in various types of double-clad fibers, e.g., with cross section shape of hexagon, stadium, and circle; two-fiber bundle (so-called GTWave fiber structure) a panda fibers are also analyzed. We investigate pump field modal spectra evolution in hexagonally shaped fiber in straight, bended, and simultaneously bended and twisted fiber which brings new quality to understanding of the mode-scrambling and pump absorption enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the impact of enhanced pump absorption on signal gain in the fiber. These results can have practical impact in construction of fiber lasers: with pump absorption efficiency optimized by our new model (the other models did not take into account fiber twist), the double-clad fiber of shorter length can be used in the fiber lasers and amplifiers. In such a way the harmful influence of background losses and nonlinear effects can be minimized. [1] Doya, V., Legrand, O., Mortessagne, F., "Optimized absorption in a
DNA looping by FokI: the impact of twisting and bending rigidity on protein-induced looping dynamics
Laurens, Niels; Rusling, David A.; Pernstich, Christian; Brouwer, Ineke; Halford, Stephen E.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.
2012-01-01
Protein-induced DNA looping is crucial for many genetic processes such as transcription, gene regulation and DNA replication. Here, we use tethered-particle motion to examine the impact of DNA bending and twisting rigidity on loop capture and release, using the restriction endonuclease FokI as a test system. To cleave DNA efficiently, FokI bridges two copies of an asymmetric sequence, invariably aligning the sites in parallel. On account of the fixed alignment, the topology of the DNA loop is set by the orientation of the sites along the DNA. We show that both the separation of the FokI sites and their orientation, altering, respectively, the twisting and the bending of the DNA needed to juxtapose the sites, have profound effects on the dynamics of the looping interaction. Surprisingly, the presence of a nick within the loop does not affect the observed rigidity of the DNA. In contrast, the introduction of a 4-nt gap fully relaxes all of the torque present in the system but does not necessarily enhance loop stability. FokI therefore employs torque to stabilise its DNA-looping interaction by acting as a ‘torsional’ catch bond. PMID:22373924
Sebastián, Nerea; López, David Orencio; Diez-Berart, Sergio; de la Fuente, María Rosario; Salud, Josep; Pérez-Jubindo, Miguel Angel; Ros, María Blanca
2011-01-01
In this work, a study of the nematic (N)–isotropic (I) phase transition has been made in a series of odd non-symmetric liquid crystal dimers, the α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4’-yloxy)-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4’-oxy) alkanes, by means of accurate calorimetric and dielectric measurements. These materials are potential candidates to present the elusive biaxial nematic (NB) phase, as they exhibit both molecular biaxiality and flexibility. According to the theory, the uniaxial nematic (NU)–isotropic (I) phase transition is first-order in nature, whereas the NB–I phase transition is second-order. Thus, a fine analysis of the critical behavior of the N–I phase transition would allow us to determine the presence or not of the biaxial nematic phase and understand how the molecular biaxiality and flexibility of these compounds influences the critical behavior of the N–I phase transition. PMID:28824100
Possibility of the field-induced spin-nematic phase in LiCuVO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagiwara, M; Fujita, T; Yamaguchi, H; Kimura, S; Omura, K; Svistov, L E; Smirnov, A I; Prokofiev, A; Honda, Z
2011-01-01
We report on the magnetization of the frustrated S = 1/2 chain compound LiCuVO 4 . In addition to the transition from a planar spiral to a spin modulated structure observed recently by NMR, another transition was observed just below the saturation field. This magnetic phase could be a spin nematic, namely a condensation of two magnon bound states, phase which was predicted theoretically in the S = 1/2 linear chain model with the nearest neighbor ferromagnetic and the next nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The slope of magnetization in this phase is in good agreement with a calculated one in a realistic quasi 2-dimensional model (M. E. Zhitomirsky and H. Tsunetsugu, Europhys. Lett. 92 37001 (2010)). We compare the observed phase diagram with a numerically calculated one and discuss the possibility of the spin nematic phase.
Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains
Zoli, Marco
2017-06-01
Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.
Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taira, Hisao; Shima, Hiroyuki
2010-01-01
The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.
Isotropic–Nematic Phase Transitions in Gravitational Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roupas, Zacharias; Kocsis, Bence [Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2017-06-20
We examine dense self-gravitating stellar systems dominated by a central potential, such as nuclear star clusters hosting a central supermassive black hole. Different dynamical properties of these systems evolve on vastly different timescales. In particular, the orbital-plane orientations are typically driven into internal thermodynamic equilibrium by vector resonant relaxation before the orbital eccentricities or semimajor axes relax. We show that the statistical mechanics of such systems exhibit a striking resemblance to liquid crystals, with analogous ordered-nematic and disordered-isotropic phases. The ordered phase consists of bodies orbiting in a disk in both directions, with the disk thickness depending on temperature, while the disordered phase corresponds to a nearly isotropic distribution of the orbit normals. We show that below a critical value of the total angular momentum, the system undergoes a first-order phase transition between the ordered and disordered phases. At a critical point, the phase transition becomes second order, while for higher angular momenta there is a smooth crossover. We also find metastable equilibria containing two identical disks with mutual inclinations between 90° and 180°.
Olmsted, Peter D.; Goldbart, Paul M.
1992-10-01
Macroscopic fluid motion can have dramatic consequences near the isotropic-nematic transition in fluids of nematogens. We explore some of these consequences using both deterministic and stochastic descriptions involving coupled hydrodynamic equations of motion for the nematic order parameter and fluid velocity fields. By analyzing the deterministic equations of motion we identify the locally stable states of homogeneous nematic order and strain rate, thus determining the homogeneous nonequilibrium steady states which the fluid may adopt. By examining inhomogeneous steady states we construct the analog of a first-order phase boundary, i.e., a line in the nonequilibrium phase diagram spanned by temperature and applied stress, at which nonequilibrium states may coexist, and which terminates in a nonequilibrium analog of a critical point. From an analysis of the nematic order-parameter discontinuity across the coexistence line, along with properties of the interface between homogeneous states, we extract the analog of classical equilibrium critical behavior near the nonequilibrium critical point. We develop a theory of fluctuations about biaxial nonequilibrium steady states by augmenting the deterministic description with noise terms, to simulate the effect of thermal fluctuations. We use this description to discuss the scattering of polarized light by order-parameter fluctuations near the nonequilibrium critical point and also in weak shear flow near the equilibrium phase transition. We find that fluids of nematogens near an appropriate temperature and strain rate exhibit the analog of critical opalescence, the intensity of which is sensitive to the polarizations of the incident and scattered light, and to the precise form of the critical mode.
Flexoelectricity in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal
Kaur, Sarabjot; Panov, V. P.; Greco, C.; Ferrarini, A.; Görtz, Verena; Goodby, John W.; Gleeson, Helen F.
2014-01-01
We have determined experimentally the magnitude of the difference in the splay and bend flexoelectric coefficients, |e 1 − e 3|, of an oxadiazole bent-core liquid crystal by measuring the critical voltage for the formation of flexodomains together with their wave number. The coefficient |e 1 − e 3| is found to be a factor of 2–3 times higher than in most conventional calamitic nematic liquid crystals, varying from 8 pCm−1 to 20 pCm−1 across the ∼60 K—wide nematic regime. We have also calculat...
Kinetic attractor phase diagrams of active nematic suspensions: the dilute regime.
Forest, M Gregory; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Ruhai
2015-08-28
Large-scale simulations by the authors of the kinetic-hydrodynamic equations for active polar nematics revealed a variety of spatio-temporal attractors, including steady and unsteady, banded (1d) and cellular (2d) spatial patterns. These particle scale activation-induced attractors arise at dilute nanorod volume fractions where the passive equilibrium phase is isotropic, whereas all previous model simulations have focused on the semi-dilute, nematic equilibrium regime and mostly on low-moment orientation tensor and polarity vector models. Here we extend our previous results to complete attractor phase diagrams for active nematics, with and without an explicit polar potential, to map out novel spatial and dynamic transitions, and to identify some new attractors, over the parameter space of dilute nanorod volume fraction and nanorod activation strength. The particle-scale activation parameter corresponds experimentally to a tunable force dipole strength (so-called pushers with propulsion from the rod tail) generated by active rod macromolecules, e.g., catalysis with the solvent phase, ATP-induced propulsion, or light-activated propulsion. The simulations allow 2d spatial variations in all flow and orientational variables and full spherical orientational degrees of freedom; the attractors correspond to numerical integration of a coupled system of 125 nonlinear PDEs in 2d plus time. The phase diagrams with and without the polar interaction potential are remarkably similar, implying that polar interactions among the rodlike particles are not essential to long-range spatial and temporal correlations in flow, polarity, and nematic order. As a general rule, above a threshold, low volume fractions induce 1d banded patterns, whereas higher yet still dilute volume fractions yield 2d patterns. Again as a general rule, varying activation strength at fixed volume fraction induces novel dynamic transitions. First, stationary patterns saturate the instability of the isotropic
Cerclage handling for improved fracture treatment. A biomechanical study on the twisting procedure.
Wähnert, D; Lenz, M; Schlegel, U; Perren, S; Windolf, M
2011-01-01
Twisting is clinically the most frequently applied method for tightening and maintaining cerclage fixation. The twisting procedure is controversially discussed. Several factors during twisting affect the mechanical behaviour of the cerclage. This in vitro study investigated the influence of different parameters of the twisting procedure on the fixation strength of the cerclage in an experimental setup with centripetal force application. Cortical half shells of the femoral shaft were mounted on a testing fixture. 1.0 mm, 1.25 mm and 1.5 mm stainless ste- el wire cerclages as well as a 1.0mm cable cerclage were applied to the bone. Pretension of the cerclage during the installation was measured during the locking procedure. Subsequently, cyclic testing was performed up to failure. Higher pretension could be achieved with increasing wire diameter. However, with larger wire diameter the drop of pre- tension due to the bending and cutting the twist also increased. The cable cerclage showed the highest pretension after locking. Cerclages twisted under traction revealed significantly higher initial cerclage tension. Plastically deformed twists offered higher cerclage pretension compared to twists which were deformed in the elastic region of the material. Cutting the wire within the twist caused the highest loss of cerclage tension (44% initial tension) whereas only 11 % was lost when cutting the wire ends separately. The bending direction of the twist significantly influenced the cerclage pretension. 45% pretension was lost in forward bending of the twist, 53% in perpendicular bending and 90% in backward bending. Several parameters affect the quality of a cerclage fixation. Adequate installation of cerclage wires could markedly improve the clinical outcome of cerclage.
Spin nematics next to spin singlets
Yokoyama, Yuto; Hotta, Chisa
2018-05-01
We provide a route to generate nematic order in a spin-1/2 system. Unlike the well-known magnon-binding mechanism, our spin nematics requires neither the frustration effect nor spin polarization in a high field or in the vicinity of a ferromagnet, but instead appears next to the spin singlet phase. We start from a state consisting of a quantum spin-1/2 singlet dimer placed on each site of a triangular lattice, and show that interdimer ring exchange interactions efficiently dope the SU(2) triplets that itinerate and interact, easily driving a stable singlet state to either Bose-Einstein condensates or a triplet crystal, some hosting a spin nematic order. A variety of roles the ring exchange serves includes the generation of a bilinear-biquadratic interaction between nearby triplets, which is responsible for the emergent nematic order separated from the singlet phase by a first-order transition.
Harter, J. W.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Yan, J.-Q.; Mandrus, D. G.; Hsieh, D.
Strong interactions between electrons are known to drive metallic systems toward a variety of well-known symmetry-broken phases, including superconducting, electronic liquid crystalline, and charge- and spin-density wave ordered states. In contrast, the electronic instabilities of correlated metals with strong spin-orbit coupling have only recently begun to be explored. We uncover a novel multipolar nematic phase of matter in the metallic pyrochlore Cd2Re2O7 using spatially-resolved second-harmonic optical anisotropy measurements. Like previously discovered electronic liquid crystalline phases, this multipolar nematic phase spontaneously breaks rotational symmetry while preserving translational invariance. However, it has the distinguishing property of being odd under spatial inversion, which is allowed only in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. By examining the critical behavior of the multipolar nematic order parameter, we show that it drives the thermal phase transition near 200 K in Cd2Re2O7 and induces a parity-breaking lattice distortion as a secondary order parameter.
Positional short-range order in the nematic phase of n BABAs
Usha Deniz, K.; Pepy, G.; Parette, G.; Keller, P.
1991-10-01
The positional short-range order, SRO ⊥, perpendicular to the nematic director n̂ has been studied in the fibre-type nematics, nBABAs, by neutron diffraction. SRO ⊥ is found to be dependent on other types of nematic short-range order but not on the orientational long-range order.
Defect Proliferation in Active Nematic Suspensions
Mishra, Prashant; Bowick, Mark J.; Giomi, Luca; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2014-03-01
The rich structure of equilibrium nematic suspensions, with their characteristic disclination defects, is modified when active forces come into play. The uniform nematic state is known to be unstable to splay (extensile) or bend (contractile) deformations above a critical activity. At even higher activity the flow becomes oscillatory and eventually turbulent. Using hydrodynamics, we classify the active flow regimes as functions of activity and order parameter friction for both contractile and extensile systems. The turbulent regime is marked by a non-zero steady state density of mobile defect pairs. The defect density itself scales with an ``active Ericksen number,'' defined as the ratio of the rate at which activity is injected into the system to the relaxation rate of orientational deformations. The work at Syracuse University was supported by the NSF on grant DMR-1004789 and by the Syracuse Soft Matter Program.
Fang, Angbo; Qian, Tiezheng; Sheng, Ping
2008-01-01
rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
Persistence of Smectic-A Oily Streaks into the Nematic Phase by UV Irradiation of Reactive Mesogens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ines Gharbi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Thin smectic liquid crystal films with competing boundary conditions (planar and homeotropic at opposing surfaces form well-known striated structures known as “oily streaks”, which are a series of hemicylindrical caps that run perpendicular to the easy axis of the planar substrate. The streaks vanish on heating into the nematic phase, where the film becomes uniform and exhibits hybrid alignment. On adding sufficient reactive mesogen and polymerizing, the oily streak texture is maintained on heating through the entire nematic phase until reaching the bulk isotropic phase, above which the texture vanishes. Depending on the liquid crystal thickness, the oily streak structure may be retrieved after cooling, which demonstrates the strong impact of the polymer backbone on the liquid crystal texture. Polarizing optical, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy data are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serbina, M. I.; Kasian, N. A.; Lisetski, L. N., E-mail: lisetski@isma.kharkov.ua [NAS of Ukraine, Institute for Scintillation Materials, STC ' Institute for Single Crystals' (Ukraine)
2013-01-15
For cholesteric liquid crystal systems containing photosensitive nematic ZhK-440 and a mixture of cholesterol derivatives, changes in helical twisting induced by UV radiation were studied. The UV-induced shift of selective reflection maximum {lambda}{sub max} was shown to depend upon concentration of the nematic component. For low concentrations of ZhK-440, {lambda}{sub max} increases, which correlates with corresponding changes with increasing temperature. For higher concentrations, {lambda}{sub max} decreases, regardless of the temperature behavior of the system. A theoretical description of the available experimental data is proposed on the basis of development of molecular models of helical twisting, including an assumed possibility of ordered orientation of short molecular axes of cis-isomers formed as a result of UV irradiation, which is determined by the sense of the cholesteric helix already present in the system.
Negative stiffness and modulated states in active nematics.
Srivastava, Pragya; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M Cristina
2016-10-04
We examine the dynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal on a frictional substrate. When frictional damping dominates over viscous dissipation, we eliminate flow in favor of active stresses to obtain a minimal dynamical model for the nematic order parameter, with elastic constants renormalized by activity. The renormalized elastic constants can become negative at large activity, leading to the selection of spatially inhomogeneous patterns via a mechanism analogous to that responsible for modulated phases arising at an equilibrium Lifshitz point. Tuning activity and the degree of nematic order in the passive system, we obtain a linear stability phase diagram that exhibits a nonequilibrium tricritical point where ordered, modulated and disordered phases meet. Numerical solution of the nonlinear equations yields a succession of spatial structures of increasing complexity with increasing activity, including kink walls and active turbulence, as observed in experiments on microtubule bundles confined at an oil-water interface. Our work provides a minimal model for an overdamped active nematic that reproduces all the nonequilibrium structures seen in simulations of the full active nematic hydrodynamics and provides a framework for understanding some of the mechanisms for selection of the nonequilibrium patterns in the language of equilibrium critical phenomena.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dan, Kaustabh, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com; Roy, Madhusudan, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com; Datta, Alokmay, E-mail: kaustabhdan@gmail.com [Surface Physics and Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar Block, Sector 1, Kolkata-700064 (India)
2014-04-24
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies on phase transitions of the pure liquid crystalline material N-4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA) and mixtures of MBBA and the amphiphile Stearic Acid (StA) show significant changes in the behavior of mixture from pure MBBA, as regards the nematic-isotropic (N-I) transition temperature (T{sub c}) and other thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy, specific heat and activation energy with concentration of StA. In particular, the convexity of the Arrhenius plot in pure MBBA vanishes with StA concentration pointing to the formation of a new, perhaps 'nematic-like', phase in the mixtures.
Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meljanac, Daniel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Materials Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia)
2017-12-15
Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincare-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ-Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ-Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)
Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel
2017-01-01
Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincare-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ-Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ-Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)
Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries
Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel
2017-12-01
Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincaré-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ -Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ -Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed.
Nematic order on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator
Lundgren, Rex; Yerzhakov, Hennadii; Maciejko, Joseph
2017-12-01
We study the spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in the helical surface state of three-dimensional topological insulators due to strong electron-electron interactions, focusing on time-reversal invariant nematic order. Owing to the strongly spin-orbit coupled nature of the surface state, the nematic order parameter is linear in the electron momentum and necessarily involves the electron spin, in contrast with spin-degenerate nematic Fermi liquids. For a chemical potential at the Dirac point (zero doping), we find a first-order phase transition at zero temperature between isotropic and nematic Dirac semimetals. This extends to a thermal phase transition that changes from first to second order at a finite-temperature tricritical point. At finite doping, we find a transition between isotropic and nematic helical Fermi liquids that is second order even at zero temperature. Focusing on finite doping, we discuss various observable consequences of nematic order, such as anisotropies in transport and the spin susceptibility, the partial breakdown of spin-momentum locking, collective modes and induced spin fluctuations, and non-Fermi-liquid behavior at the quantum critical point and in the nematic phase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lettinga, M Paul; Kang, Kyongok; Imhof, Arnout; Derks, Didi; Dhont, Jan K G
2005-01-01
We investigate the kinetics of phase separation for a mixture of rod-like viruses (fd) and polymer (dextran), which effectively constitutes a system of attractive rods. This dispersion is quenched from a flow-induced fully nematic state into the region where the nematic and the isotropic phase coexist. We show experimental evidence that the kinetic pathway depends on the overall concentration. When the quench is made at high concentrations, the system is meta-stable and we observe typical nucleation-and-growth. For quenches at low concentration the system is unstable and the system undergoes a spinodal decomposition. At intermediate concentrations we see the transition between both demixing processes, where we locate the spinodal point
Solar radiation control using nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystal technology
vanKonynenburg, Peter; Marsland, Stephen; McCoy, James
1987-11-01
A new, advanced liquid crystal technology has made economical, large area, electrically-controlled windows a commercial reality. The new technology, Nematic Curvilinear Aligned Phase (NCAP), is based on a polymeric material containing small droplets of nematic liquid crystal which is coated and laminated between transparent electrodes and fabricated into large area field effect devices. NCAP windows feature variable solar transmission and reflection through a voltage-controlled scattering mechanism. Laminated window constructions provide the excellent transmission and visibility of glass in the powered condition. In the unpowered condition, the windows are highly translucent, and provide 1) blocked vision for privacy, security, and obscuration of information, and 2) glare control and solar shading. The stability is excellent during accelerated aging tests. Degradation mechanisms which can limit performance and lifetime are discussed. Maximum long term stability is achieved by product designs that incorporate the appropriate window materials to provide environmental protection.
Nematic fluctuations and resonance in iron-based superconductors
Gallais, Yann
The spontaneous appearance of nematicity, a state of matter that breaks rotation but not translation symmetry, is ubiquitous in many iron based superconductors (Fe SC), and has relevance for the cuprates as well. Here I will review recent electronic Raman scattering experiments which report the presence of critical nematic fluctuations in the charge channel in the tetragonal phase of several Fe SC systems. In electron doped Co-BaFe2As2 (Co-Ba122), these fluctuations extend over most of the superconducting dome. Their associated nematic susceptibility shows Curie-Weiss behavior, and its doping dependence suggests the presence of a nematic quantum critical point near optimal TC Similar nematic fluctuations are also observed in FeSe despite the absence of magnetic order, raising the question of the link between nematicity and magnetism in Fe SC. In FeSe I will further contrast the evolution of nematic fluctuations under isoelectronic S substitution and hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa, with only the former showing evidence for a nematic quantum critical point. In the superconducting state of Co-Ba122, I will show that a resonance emerges in the Raman spectra near the nematic quantum critical point. This nematic resonance is a clear fingerprint of the coupling between nematic fluctuations and Bogoliubov quasiparticles, and can be thought as the nematic counterpart of the spin resonance observed in neutron scattering experiments. Support from Agence Nationale de la Recherche via ANR Grant ''Pnictides'' is acknowledged.
Dynamical patterns in nematic active matter on a sphere
Henkes, Silke; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Sknepnek, Rastko
2018-04-01
Using simulations of self-propelled agents with short-range repulsion and nematic alignment, we explore the dynamical phases of a dense active nematic confined to the surface of a sphere. We map the nonequilibrium phase diagram as a function of curvature, alignment strength, and activity. Our model reproduces several phases seen in recent experiments on active microtubule bundles confined the surfaces of vesicles. At low driving, we recover the equilibrium nematic ground state with four +1 /2 defects. As the driving is increased, geodesic forces drive the transition to a polar band wrapping around an equator, with large empty spherical caps corresponding to two +1 defects at the poles. Upon further increasing activity, the bands fold onto themselves, and the system eventually transitions to a turbulent state marked by the proliferation of pairs of topological defects. We highlight the key role of the nematic persistence length in controlling pattern formation in these confined systems with positive Gaussian curvature.
Krishnamurthy, K S
2015-09-01
The electric Freedericksz transition is a second-order quadratic effect, which, in a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer, manifests above a threshold field as a homogeneous symmetric distortion with maximum director-tilt in the midplane. We find that, upon excitation by a low frequency (wave field, the instability becomes spatially and temporally varying. This is demonstrated using calamitic liquid crystals, initially in the 90°-twisted planar configuration. The distortion occurs close to the negative electrode following each polarity switch and, for low-voltage amplitudes, decays completely in time. We use the elastically favorable geometry of Brochard-Leger walls to establish the location of maximum distortion. Thus, at successive polarity changes, the direction of extension of both annular and open walls switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For high voltages, this direction is largely along the midplane director, while remaining marginally oscillatory. These results are broadly understood by taking into account the time-varying and inhomogeneous field conditions that prevail soon after the polarity reverses. Polarity dependence of the instability is traced to the formation of intrinsic double layers that lead to an asymmetry in field distribution in the presence of an external bias. Momentary field elevation near the negative electrode following a voltage sign reversal leads to locally enhanced dielectric and gradient flexoelectric torques, which accounts for the surface-like phenomenon observed at low voltages. These spatiotemporal effects, also found earlier for other instabilities, are generic in nature.
Dynamics of phase ordering of nematics in a pore
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharya, A.; Chakrabarti, A.
1994-06-01
We study the kinetics of phase ordering of a nematic liquid crystal, modeled by a spin-rotor Hamiltonian, confined within a parallel piped pore. The dynamics of the rotor obeys the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. We study the generation and evolution of a variety of defect structures, and the growth of domains, with different anchoring conditions at the pore surface. Unlike in binary fluids, mere confinement with no anchoring field, does not result in slow dynamics. Homeotropic anchoring, however, leads to slow logarithmic growth. Interestingly, homogeneous anchoring dynamically generates wall defects, resulting in an Ising like structure factor at late times. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs
Coulomb-like elastic interaction induced by symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystal colloids.
Lee, Beom-Kyu; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lev, Bohdan
2017-11-21
It is generally thought that colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal do not generate the first multipole term called deformation elastic charge as it violates the mechanical equilibrium. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that this is not the case, and deformation elastic charges, as well as dipoles and quadrupoles, can be induced through anisotropic boundary conditions. We report the first direct observation of Coulomb-like elastic interactions between colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal. The behaviour of two spherical colloidal particles with asymmetric anchoring conditions induced by asymmetric alignment is investigated experimentally; the interaction of two particles located at the boundary of twist and parallel aligned regions is observed. We demonstrate that such particles produce deformation elastic charges and interact by Coulomb-like interactions.
Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belli, S; Van Roij, R; Dijkstra, M
2012-01-01
With the aim of investigating the stability conditions of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we study the effect of adding a non-adsorbing ideal depletant on the phase behavior of colloidal hard boardlike particles. We take into account the presence of the depletant by introducing an effective depletion attraction between a pair of boardlike particles. At fixed depletant fugacity, the stable liquid-crystal phase is determined through a mean-field theory with restricted orientations. Interestingly, we predict that for slightly elongated boardlike particles a critical depletant density exists, where the system undergoes a direct transition from an isotropic liquid to a biaxial nematic phase. As a consequence, by tuning the depletant density, an easy experimental control parameter, one can stabilize states of high biaxial nematic order even when these states are unstable for pure systems of boardlike particles. (paper)
Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals
Barbero, Giovanni
2005-01-01
Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...
Twist effects in quantum vortices and phase defects
Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L.
2018-02-01
In this paper we show that twist, defined in terms of rotation of the phase associated with quantum vortices and other physical defects effectively deprived of internal structure, is a property that has observable effects in terms of induced axial flow. For this we consider quantum vortices governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) and perform a number of test cases to investigate and compare the effects of twist in two different contexts: (i) when this is artificially superimposed on an initially untwisted vortex ring; (ii) when it is naturally produced on the ring by the simultaneous presence of a central straight vortex. In the first case large amplitude perturbations quickly develop, generated by the unnatural setting of the initial condition that is not an analytical solution of the GPE. In the second case much milder perturbations emerge, signature of a genuine physical process. This scenario is confirmed by other test cases performed at higher twist values. Since the second setting corresponds to essential linking, these results provide new evidence of the influence of topology on physics.
Numerical method of lines for the relaxational dynamics of nematic liquid crystals.
Bhattacharjee, A K; Menon, Gautam I; Adhikari, R
2008-08-01
We propose an efficient numerical scheme, based on the method of lines, for solving the Landau-de Gennes equations describing the relaxational dynamics of nematic liquid crystals. Our method is computationally easy to implement, balancing requirements of efficiency and accuracy. We benchmark our method through the study of the following problems: the isotropic-nematic interface, growth of nematic droplets in the isotropic phase, and the kinetics of coarsening following a quench into the nematic phase. Our results, obtained through solutions of the full coarse-grained equations of motion with no approximations, provide a stringent test of the de Gennes ansatz for the isotropic-nematic interface, illustrate the anisotropic character of droplets in the nucleation regime, and validate dynamical scaling in the coarsening regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen, F.
1981-10-01
High resolution X-ray diffraction on liquid crystals, with a triple-axis spectrometer, was initiated 4-5 years ago, using rotating-anode sources. The triple-axis spectrometer, built at Risoe, is permanently positioned at the DORIS storage ring. Triple-axis X-ray spectrometer work in general and especially at the synchrotron source is a new field and a description of the techniques used is given. The experiments described are studies of the nematic to smectic-A phase transition in liquid crystals. The first is a study of the monomolecular liquid crystal 8-barS5 (C 8 H 17 O-phi-COS-phi-C 5 H 11 , where phi denotes a benzene ring). The second experimental study is one of the reentrance phenomenon in the ternary mixture: 5CTsub(.09):7CBsub(.x):80CBsub(.91-x); where 5CT(C 5 H 11 -phi-phi-phi-CN) and 7CB(C 7 H 15 -phi-phi-CN) have only a nematic phase and not the smectic-A phase. The results are interpreted in terms of Landau theory. Finally, a frame is given for discussing the nature of the smectic-A phase and an experiment is proposed to explore the nature of the smectic-A phase together with detailed calculations of (001)- and (002)-lineshapes for the smectic-A phase. (Auth.)
Quantum Hall Electron Nematics
MacDonald, Allan
In 2D electron systems hosted by crystals with hexagonal symmetry, electron nematic phases with spontaneously broken C3 symmetry are expected to occur in the quantum Hall regime when triplets of Landau levels associated with three different Fermi surface pockets are partially filled. The broken symmetry state is driven by intravalley Coulombic exchange interactions that favor spontaneously polarized valley occupations. I will discuss three different examples of 2D electron systems in which this type of broken symmetry state is expected to occur: i) the SnTe (111) surface, ii) the Bi (111) surface. and iii) unbalanced bilayer graphene. This type of quantum Hall electron nematic state has so far been confirmed only in the Bi (111) case, in which the anisotropic quasiparticle wavefunctions of the broken symmetry state were directly imaged. In the SnTe case the nematic state phase boundary is controlled by a competition between intravalley Coulomb interactions and intervalley scattering processes that increase in relative strength with magnetic field. An in-plane Zeeman field alters the phase diagram by lifting the three-fold Landau level degeneracy, yielding a ground state energy with 2 π/3 periodicity as a function of Zeeman-field orientation angle. I will comment on the possibility of observing similar states in the absence of a magnetic field. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03-02ER45958.
How the embryonic brain tube twists
Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry
2014-03-01
During early development, the tubular brain of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This deformation is one of the major organ-level symmetry-breaking events in development. Available evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops in the same direction that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is virtually nonexistent, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. In addition, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model is used to interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''.
Occipital bending in schizophrenia.
Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2017-01-01
To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.
Collauto, Alberto; Zerbetto, Mirco; Brustolon, Marina; Polimeno, Antonino; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante
2012-03-07
In this paper we report on the characterization by continuous wave electron spin resonance spectroscopy (cw-ESR) of a nitronyl nitroxide radical in a nematic phase. A detailed analysis is performed by exploiting an innovative modeling strategy alternative to the usual spectral simulation approach: most of the molecular parameters needed to calculate the spectrum are evaluated a priori and the ESR spectrum is obtained by direct application of the stochastic Liouville equation. Allowing a limited set of fitting parameters it is possible to reproduce satisfactorily ESR spectra in the temperature range 260 K-340 K including the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition (325.1 K). Our results open the way to a more quantitative understanding of the ordering and mobility of nitronyl nitroxide radicals in nanostructured environments.
Geometry of the toroidal N-helix: optimal-packing and zero-twist
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob
2012-01-01
Two important geometrical properties of N-helix structures are influenced by bending. One is maximizing the volume fraction, which is called optimal-packing, and the other is having a vanishing strain-twist coupling, which is called zero-twist. Zero-twist helices rotate neither in one nor...... helix. General N-helices are discussed, as well as zero-twist helices for N > 1. The derived geometrical restrictions are gradually modified by changing the aspect ratio of the torus....
Nematic quantum liquid crystals of bosons in frustrated lattices
Zhu, Guanyu; Koch, Jens; Martin, Ivar
2016-04-01
The problem of interacting bosons in frustrated lattices is an intricate one due to the absence of a unique minimum in the single-particle dispersion where macroscopic number of bosons can condense. Here, we consider a family of tight-binding models with macroscopically degenerate lowest energy bands, separated from other bands by a gap. We predict the formation of exotic states that spontaneously break rotational symmetry at relatively low filling. These states belong to three nematic phases: Wigner crystal, supersolid, and superfluid. The Wigner crystal phase is established exactly at low filling. Supersolid and superfluid phases, at larger filling, are obtained by making use of a projection onto the flat band, construction of an appropriate Wannier basis, and subsequent mean-field treatment. The nematic superfluid that we predict is uniform in real space but has an anisotropic momentum distribution, providing a novel scenario for Bose condensation with an additional nematic order. Our findings open up a promising direction of studying microscopic quantum liquid crystalline phases of bosons.
Optical twists in phase and amplitude
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper
2011-01-01
where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...... beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps...
Twist limits for late twisting double somersaults on trampoline.
Yeadon, M R; Hiley, M J
2017-06-14
An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that could be produced in the second somersault of a double somersault on trampoline using asymmetrical movements of the arms and hips. Lower bounds were placed on the durations of arm and hip angle changes based on performances of a world trampoline champion whose inertia parameters were used in the simulations. The limiting movements were identified as the largest possible odd number of half twists for forward somersaulting takeoffs and even number of half twists for backward takeoffs. Simulations of these two limiting movements were found using simulated annealing optimisation to produce the required amounts of somersault, tilt and twist at landing after a flight time of 2.0s. Additional optimisations were then run to seek solutions with the arms less adducted during the twisting phase. It was found that 3½ twists could be produced in the second somersault of a forward piked double somersault with arms abducted 8° from full adduction during the twisting phase and that three twists could be produced in the second somersault of a backward straight double somersault with arms fully adducted to the body. These two movements are at the limits of performance for elite trampolinists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Žukovič, Milan; Kalagov, Georgii
2018-05-01
Critical properties of the two-dimensional X Y model involving solely nematic-like terms of the second and third orders are investigated by spin-wave analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that, even though neither of the nematic-like terms alone can induce magnetic ordering, their coexistence and competition leads to an extended phase of the magnetic quasi-long-range-order phase, wedged between the two nematic-like phases induced by the respective couplings. Thus, except for the multicritical point, at which all the phases meet, for any finite value of the coupling parameters ratio there are two phase transition: one from the paramagnetic phase to one of the two nematic-like phases followed by another one at lower temperatures to the magnetic phase. The finite-size scaling analysis indicates that the phase transitions between the magnetic and nematic-like phases belong to the Ising and three-state Potts universality classes. Inside the competition-induced algebraic magnetic phase, the spin-pair correlation function is found to decay even much more slowly than in the standard X Y model with purely magnetic interactions. Such a magnetic phase is characterized by an extremely low vortex-antivortex pair density attaining a minimum close to the point at which the two couplings are of about equal strength.
Nanoscale interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet.
Gurevich, Sebastian; Provatas, Nikolas; Rey, Alejandro
2017-08-01
Interfacial defect shedding is the most recent known mechanism for defect formation in a thermally driven isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. It manifests in nematic-isotropic interfaces going through an anchoring switch. Numerical computations in planar geometry established that a growing nematic droplet can undergo interfacial defect shedding, nucleating interfacial defect structures that shed into the bulk as +1/2 point defects. By extending the study of interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet to larger length and time scales, and to three dimensions, we unveil an oscillatory growth mode involving shape and anchoring transitions that results in a controllable regular distributions of point defects in planar geometry, and complex structures of disclination lines in three dimensions.
Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten
2016-01-26
Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle
Modal properties and stability of bend–twist coupled wind turbine blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. R. Stäblein
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Coupling between bending and twist has a significant influence on the aeroelastic response of wind turbine blades. The coupling can arise from the blade geometry (e.g. sweep, prebending, or deflection under load or from the anisotropic properties of the blade material. Bend–twist coupling can be utilized to reduce the fatigue loads of wind turbine blades. In this study the effects of material-based coupling on the aeroelastic modal properties and stability limits of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine are investigated. The modal properties are determined by means of eigenvalue analysis around a steady-state equilibrium using the aero-servo-elastic tool HAWCStab2 which has been extended by a beam element that allows for fully coupled cross-sectional properties. Bend–twist coupling is introduced in the cross-sectional stiffness matrix by means of coupling coefficients that introduce twist for flapwise (flap–twist coupling or edgewise (edge–twist coupling bending. Edge–twist coupling can increase or decrease the damping of the edgewise mode relative to the reference blade, depending on the operational condition of the turbine. Edge–twist to feather coupling for edgewise deflection towards the leading edge reduces the inflow speed at which the blade becomes unstable. Flap–twist to feather coupling for flapwise deflections towards the suction side increase the frequency and reduce damping of the flapwise mode. Flap–twist to stall reduces frequency and increases damping. The reduction of blade root flapwise and tower bottom fore–aft moments due to variations in mean wind speed of a flap–twist to feather blade are confirmed by frequency response functions.
Critical linear thermal expansion in the smectic-A phase near the nematic-smectic phase transition.
Anesta, E; Iannacchione, G S; Garland, C W
2004-10-01
Recent high-resolution x-ray investigations of the smectic- A (SmA) phase near the nematic-to-SmA transition provide information about the critical behavior of the linear thermal expansion coefficient alpha// parallel to the director. Combining such data with available volume thermal expansion alpha(V) data yields the in-plane linear expansion coefficient alpha(perpendicular) . The critical behaviors of alpha// and alpha(perpendicular) are the same as those for alpha(V) and the heat capacity Cp. However, for any given liquid crystal, alpha//(crit) and alpha(perpendicular)(crit) differ in sign. Furthermore, the quantity alpha// (crit) is positive for SmAd partial bilayer smectics, while it is negative for nonpolar SmAm monomeric smectics. This feature is discussed in terms of the molecular structural aspects of these smectic phases.
SANS study of deformation and relaxation of a comb-like liquid crystal polymer in the nematic phase
Brûlet, A.; Boué, F.; Keller, P.; Davidson, P.; Strazielle, C.; Cotton, J. P.
1994-06-01
A comb-like liquid crystal polymer is stretched and quenched after a certain time in the nematic phase. The conformation of the deformed chain is determined using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) as a function of the temperature of stretching, the stretching ratio and the duration of the relaxation. The scattering data are well fitted to junction affine and phantom network models. Some data are even well fitted by a totally affine model that we call “ pseudo affine ” because the only parameter, the stretching ratio, is found to be well below the macroscopic stretching ratio. The latter result, never encountered with amorphous polymers, is attributed to the cooperative effects of the nematic phase. We also note that the form factors of the chain in the underformed sample remain similar in the isotropic, nematic and glassy state ; they correspond to a Gaussian chain. The same samples were studied by wide angle X-ray scattering. On one hand, the orientation of the mesogenic groups is found to be parallel or perpendicular to the stretching direction depending on the stretching temperature. This result is discussed as a function of the presence of smectic fluctuations. On the other hand, longer relaxations at constant elongation ratio do not lead to a disorganization of the mesogenic group orientation whereas the polymer chains are partly relaxed.
Milchev, Andrey; Egorov, Sergei A; Binder, Kurt
2017-03-01
Semiflexible polymers under good solvent conditions interacting with attractive planar surfaces are investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and classical Density Functional Theory (DFT). A bead-spring type potential complemented by a bending potential is used, allowing variation of chain stiffness from completely flexible coils to rod-like polymers whose persistence length by far exceeds their contour length. Solvent is only implicitly included, monomer-monomer interactions being purely repulsive, while two types of attractive wall-monomer interactions are considered: (i) a strongly attractive Mie-type potential, appropriate for a strictly structureless wall, and (ii) a corrugated wall formed by Lennard-Jones particles arranged on a square lattice. It is found that in dilute solutions the former case leads to the formation of a strongly adsorbed surface layer, and the profile of density and orientational order in the z-direction perpendicular to the wall is predicted by DFT in nice agreement with MD. While for very low bulk densities a Kosterlitz-Thouless type transition from the isotropic phase to a phase with power-law decay of nematic correlations is suggested to occur in the strongly adsorbed layer, for larger densities a smectic-C phase in the surface layer is detected. No "capillary nematization" effect at higher bulk densities is found in this system, unlike systems with repulsive walls. This finding is attributed to the reduction of the bulk density (in the center of the slit pore) due to polymer adsorption on the attractive wall, for a system studied in the canonical ensemble. Consequently in a system with two attractive walls nematic order in the slit pore can occur only at a higher density than for a bulk system.
Molecular reorientations in the nematic and rotatory phases of di-n-pentyloxyazoxybenzene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, X.P.; Krawczyk, J.; Chrusciel, D.
1986-04-01
Results of dielectric relaxation (DR), quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS), calorimetric DSC and preliminary X-ray measurements on the fifth member - 5.OAOB - of the alkoxyazoxybenzene homologous series are presented. It has been found that 5.OAOB exhibits two mesophases: a nematic (N) and an ''intermediate'' crystalline phase (Cr I) just below it. From comparison of the DR and QNS studies one can conclude that in the N phase the molecule as a whole performs rotational diffusion around the long axis (τ perpendicular DR ∼150 ps) and at the same time the two moieties perform faster independent reorientations around N - benzene rings bonds with τ QNS ∼5 ps. The Cr I phase is identified as a solid unaxial rotational phase in which fast molecular reorientations exist. It seems that the fast reorientations observed in the N phase to some extent survive to the Cr I phase. A model of molecular arrangements in the Cr I phase is proposed and it explains the reduction of the dielectric increment observed on passing from the N phase to this phase. (author)
High Efficiency Large-Angle Pancharatnam Phase Deflector Based on Dual Twist Design
2016-12-16
construction and characterization of a ±40° beam steering device with 90% diffraction efficiency based on our dual-twist design at 633nm wavelength...N. & Escuti, M. J. Achromatic Wollaston prism beam splitter using polarization gratings. Opt. Lett. 41, 4461–4463 (2016). 13. Slussarenko, S., et...High-efficiency large-angle Pancharatnam phase deflector based on dual-twist design Kun Gao1, Colin McGinty1, Harold Payson2, Shaun Berry2, Joseph
Quenched disorder and spin-glass correlations in XY nematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petridis, L; Terentjev, E M
2006-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the equilibrium ordering in a 3D XY nematic system with quenched random disorder. Within this model, treated with the replica trick and Gaussian variational method, the correlation length is obtained as a function of the local nematic order parameter Q and the effective disorder strength Γ. These results, ξ ∼ Q 2 e 1/Q 2 and ξ ∼ (1/Γ) e -Γ , clarify what happens in the limiting cases of diminishing Q and Γ, that is near a phase transition of a pure system. In particular, it is found that quenched disorder is irrelevant as Q → 0 and hence does not change the character of the continuous XY nematic-isotropic phase transition. We discuss how these results compare with experiments and simulations
Molecular engineering of discotic nematic liquid crystals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Connecting two columnar phase forming discotic mesogens via a short rigid spacer leads to the formation of a -conjugated discotic dimer showing discotic nematic (D) phase. Attaching branched-alkyl chains directly to the core in hexaalkynylbenzene resulted in the stabilisation of D phase at ambient temperature.
Dynamics of Active Nematic Liquid Crystals
DeCamp, Stephen J.
Active matter systems exist in a state far from equilibrium due to the motion of their constituent particles. They exhibit complex phenomena such as collective motion, internally driven flows, and spontaneous pattern formation. Understanding the basic rules which govern these materials is an extraordinarily difficult task due to the wide variety of phenomenology they exhibit and a lack of tunable and tractable experimental systems in the field. In this thesis, we use reconstituted biological components to build a model active matter system from the ground-up and explore two different classes of active matter systems; active gels and active nematics. First we examine a bulk, 3D active gel composed of extensile bundles of microtubules and kinesin motor clusters. Upon the addition of ATP, we find that the gel undergoes percolation dynamics through cycles of bundle extension, bending, buckling and merging. The motion of microtubule bundles generates large-scale flows which we characterize by embedding passive micron-sized tracer particles into the fluid. We demonstrate that the activity of the gel can be continuously tuned by varying the ATP concentration in the system. Mean squared displacements (MSDs) show that the tracer particles are ballistically transported through the sample at high ATP concentration and become diffusive at low ATP concentration. By measuring two-point spatial velocity-velocity correlations, a characteristic length scale representative of vorticity in the fluid and therefore buckling of the microtubule bundles is found to be independent of the ATP concentration. The active gel is composed of numerous components which affect the gel dynamics. We vary each component in turn and measure the resulting characteristic length and speed of the active gel. The length scale can be tuned between 100 mum to 200 mum and the speed from 0 to 4 mu/s by varying the concentration of PEG, kinesin motors, and microtubules. We then characterize an active nematic
Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors.
Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada
2016-07-19
In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near [Formula: see text], the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.
Strong-coupling approach to nematicity in the cuprates
Orth, Peter Philipp; Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Schmalian, Joerg; Fernandes, Rafael
The underdoped cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ is known to exhibit an electronic nematic phase in proximity to antiferromagnetism. While nematicity sets in at large temperatures of T ~ 150 K, static spin density wave order only emerges at much lower temperatures. The magnetic response shows a strong in-plane anisotropy, displaying incommensurate Bragg peaks along one of the crystalline directions and a commensurate peak along the other one. Such an anisotropy persists even in the absence of long-range magnetic order at higher temperatures, marking the onset of nematic order. Here we theoretically investigate this situation using a strong-coupling method that takes into account both the localized Cu spins and the holes doped into the oxygen orbitals. We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian and show that charge fluctuations promote an enhancement of the nematic susceptibility near the antiferromagnetic transition temperature.
Nguyen, Dung Xuan; Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh
2018-05-01
We perform a detailed comparison of the Dirac composite fermion and the recently proposed bimetric theory for a quantum Hall Jain states near half filling. By tuning the composite Fermi liquid to the vicinity of a nematic phase transition, we find that the two theories are equivalent to each other. We verify that the single mode approximation for the response functions and the static structure factor becomes reliable near the phase transition. We show that the dispersion relation of the nematic mode near the phase transition can be obtained from the Dirac brackets between the components of the nematic order parameter. The dispersion is quadratic at low momenta and has a magnetoroton minimum at a finite momentum, which is not related to any nearby inhomogeneous phase.
Optical modulation in nematic phase of halogen substituted hydrogen bonded liquid crystals
Vijayakumar, V. N.; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.
2012-01-01
A series of halogen-substituted hydrogen-bonded liquid crystalline complexes have been designed and synthesised. A successful attempt has been made to form complementary hydrogen bonding between the dodecyloxy benzoic acid (12BAO) and halogen-substituted benzoic acids and the physical properties exhibited by the individual complexes are studied. The complexes obtained are analysed by polarising optical microscope (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dielectric studies. The formation of complementary hydrogen bond is confirmed through FTIR spectra. An interesting feature of this series is the observation of a field-induced transition (FiT) in nematic phase. Another interesting phenomenon is the observation of a new smectic X phase (worm-like texture) in all the synthesised complexes. Dielectric relaxation studies in the smectic C phase of these hydrogen bonded complexes along with the Arrhenius and the Cole-Cole plots are discussed. Optical tilt angle in smectic C phase and the corresponding fitted data analysis concur with the Mean field theory prediction.
Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omel' chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias [Weierstrass Institute, Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Laing, Carlo R. [INMS, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904 NSMC, Auckland (New Zealand)
2014-06-15
We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system.
Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias; Laing, Carlo R.
2014-01-01
We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system
Bending-Twisting Motions and Main Interactions in Nucleoplasmin Nuclear Import.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcos Tadeu Geraldo
Full Text Available Alpha solenoid proteins play a key role in regulating the classical nuclear import pathway, recognizing a target protein and transporting it into the nucleus. Importin-α (Impα is the solenoid responsible for cargo protein recognition, and it has been extensively studied by X-ray crystallography to understand the binding specificity. To comprehend the main motions of Impα and to extend the information about the critical interactions during carrier-cargo recognition, we surveyed different conformational states based on molecular dynamics (MD and normal mode (NM analyses. Our model of study was a crystallographic structure of Impα complexed with the classical nuclear localization sequence (cNLS from nucleoplasmin (Npl, which was submitted to multiple 100 ns of MD simulations. Representative conformations were selected for calculating the 87 lowest frequencies NMs of vibration, and a displacement approach was applied along each NM. Based on geometric criteria, using the radius of curvature and inter-repeat angles as the reference metrics, the main motions of Impα were described. Moreover, we determined the salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in the Impα-NplNLS interface. Our results show the bending and twisting motions participating in the recognition of nuclear proteins, allowing the accommodation and adjustment of a classical bipartite NLS sequence. The essential contacts for the nuclear import were also described and were mostly in agreement with previous studies, suggesting that the residues in the cNLS linker region establish important contacts with Impα adjusting the cNLS backbone. The MD simulations combined with NM analysis can be applied to the Impα-NLS system to help understand interactions between Impα and cNLSs and the analysis of non-classic NLSs.
Krishnamurthy, K S
2014-05-01
The Bobylev-Pikin striped-pattern state induced by a homogeneous electric field is a volume flexoelectric instability, originating in the midregion of a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer. We find that the instability acquires a spatiotemporal character upon excitation by a low frequency (0.5 Hz) square wave field. This is demonstrated using a bent-core liquid crystal, initially in the 90°-twisted planar configuration. The flexoelectric modulation appears close to the cathode at each polarity reversal and, at low voltage amplitudes, decays completely as the field becomes steady. Correspondingly, at successive polarity changes, the stripe direction switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For large voltages, the stripes formed nearly along the alignment direction at the cathode gradually reorient toward the midplane director. These observations are generally attributed to inhomogeneous and time-dependent field conditions that come to exist after each polarity reversal. Polarity dependence of the instability is attributed to the formation of intrinsic double layers that bring about an asymmetry in surface fields. Momentary field elevation near the cathode following a voltage sign reversal and concomitant gradient flexoelectric polarization are considered the key factors in accounting for the surfacelike modulation observed at low voltages.
Study of intrinsic anchoring in nematic liquid crystals based on modified Gruhn-Hess pair potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhidong; Zhang Yanjun
2008-01-01
A nematic liquid crystal slab composed of N molecular layers is investigated using a simple cubic lattice model, based upon the molecular pair potential which is spatially anisotropic and dependent on elastic constants of liquid crystals. A perfect nematic order is assumed in the theoretical treatment, which means the orientation of the molecular long axis coincides with the director of liquid crystal and the total free energy equals to the total interaction energy. We present a modified Gruhn-Hess model, which is relative to the splay-bend elastic constant K 13 . Furthermore, we have studied the free nematic interfacial behavior (intrinsic anchoring) by this model in the assumption of the perfect nematic order. We find that the preferred orientation at the free interface and the intrinsic anchoring strength change with the value of modification, and that the director profile can be determined by the competition of the intrinsic anchoring with external forces present in the system. Also we simulate the intrinsic anchoring at different temperatures using Monte Carlo method and the simulation results show that the intrinsic anchoring favors planar alignment and the free interface is more disordered than the bulk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Avazpour
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Density functional approach was used to study the isotropic- nematic (I-N transition and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay- Berne liquid crystal model. New direct and pair correlation functions of a molecular fluid with Gay- Berne pair potential were used. These new functions were used in density functional theory as input to calculate the isotropic- nematic transition densities for elongation at various reduced temperatures. It was observed that the isotropic- nematic transition densities increase as the temperature increases. It was found that the new direct correlation function is suitable to study the isotropic- nematic transition of Gay- Berne liquids. Comparison to other works showed qualitative agreement
Li, M. H.; Brûlet, A.; Keller, P.; Cotton, J. P.
1996-09-01
This article describes the conformation of two species of liquid crystalline polymers as revealed by small angle neutron scattering. The results obtained with side chain polymers are recalled. The procedure used to analyze the scattering data of main chains in the nematic phase is reported in this paper. It permits a demonstration of the existence of hairpins. Comparison of both polymer species shows that in the isotropic phase, the two polymers adopt a random coil conformation. In the nematic phase, the conformations are very different; the side chains behave as a melt of penetrable random coils whereas the main chains behave as a nematic phase of non penetrable cylinders.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purdy, Kirstin R.; Dogic, Zvonimir; Fraden, Seth; Ruehm, Adrian; Lurio, Lawrence; Mochrie, Simon G. J.
2003-01-01
The orientational distribution function of the nematic phase of suspensions of the semiflexible rodlike virus fd is measured by x-ray diffraction as a function of concentration and ionic strength. X-ray diffraction from a single-domain nematic phase of fd is influenced by interparticle correlations at low angle, while only intraparticle scatter contributes at high angle. Consequently, the angular distribution of the scattered intensity arises from only the single-particle orientational distribution function at high angle but it also includes spatial and orientational correlations at low angle. Experimental measurements of the orientational distribution function from both the interparticle (structure factor) and intraparticle (form factor) scattering were made to test whether the correlations present in interparticle scatter influence the measurement of the single-particle orientational distribution function. It was found that the two types of scatter yield consistent values for the nematic order parameter. It was also found that x-ray diffraction is insensitive to the orientational distribution function's precise form, and the measured angular intensity distribution is described equally well by both Onsager's trial function and a Gaussian. At high ionic strength, the order parameter S of the nematic phase coexisting with the isotropic phase approaches theoretical predictions for long semiflexible rods S=0.55, but deviations from theory increase with decreasing ionic strength. The concentration dependence of the nematic order parameter also better agrees with theoretical predictions at high ionic strength indicating that electrostatic interactions have a measurable effect on the nematic order parameter. The x-ray order parameters are shown to be proportional to the measured birefringence, and the saturation birefringence of fd is determined enabling a simple, inexpensive way to measure the order parameter. Additionally, the spatial ordering of nematic fd was probed
Meissner effects, vortex core states, and the vortex glass phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Ming.
1991-01-01
This thesis covers three topics involving Meissner effects and the resulting defect structures. The first is a study of Meissner effects in superconductivity and in systems with broken translational symmetry. The Meissner effect in the superconductors is a rigidity against external magnetic field caused by the breaking of the gauge symmetry. Other condensed matter systems also exhibit rigidities like this: The breaking of the translational symmetry in a cubic-liquid-crystal causes the system to expel twist deformations and the breaking of the translational symmetry in a nematic liquid crystal gives it a tendency to expel twist and bend deformations. In this thesis, the author studies these generalized Meissner effects in detail. The second is a study of the quasiparticle states bound to the vortex defect in superconductors. Scanning-tunneling-microscope measurements by Harald Hess et al. of the local density of states in a vortex core show a pronounced peak at small bias. These measurements contradict with previous theoretical calculations. Here, he solves the Bogoliubov equations to obtain the local density of states in the core and satisfactorily explain the experimental observations. He also predicted additional structure in the local density of states which were later observed in experiments. The third is a study of vortex dynamics in the presence of disorder. A mean field theory is developed for the recently proposed normal to superconducting vortex glass transition. Using techniques developed to study the critical dynamics of spin glasses, he calculates the mean field vortex glass phase boundary and the critical exponents
Analysis of Twisting of Cellulose Nanofibrils in Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paavilainen, S.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.
2011-01-01
We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study the crystal structure of cellulose nanofibrils, whose sizes are comparable with the crystalline parts in commercial nanocellulose. The simulations show twisting, whose rate of relaxation is strongly temperature dependent. Meanwhile......, no significant bending or stretching of nanocellulose is discovered. Considerations of atomic-scale interaction patterns bring about that the twisting arises from hydrogen bonding within and between the chains in a fibril....
Self-assembled structures of Gaussian nematic particles.
Nikoubashman, Arash; Likos, Christos N
2010-03-17
We investigate the stable crystalline configurations of a nematic liquid crystal made of soft parallel ellipsoidal particles interacting via a repulsive, anisotropic Gaussian potential. For this purpose, we use genetic algorithms (GA) in order to predict all relevant and possible solid phase candidates into which this fluid can freeze. Subsequently we present and discuss the emerging novel structures and the resulting zero-temperature phase diagram of this system. The latter features a variety of crystalline arrangements, in which the elongated Gaussian particles in general do not align with any one of the high-symmetry crystallographic directions, a compromise arising from the interplay and competition between anisotropic repulsions and crystal ordering. Only at very strong degrees of elongation does a tendency of the Gaussian nematics to align with the longest axis of the elementary unit cell emerge.
Demixing by a Nematic Mean Field: Coarse-Grained Simulations of Liquid Crystalline Polymers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo; Hur, Su-Mi; Armas-Pérez, Julio; Cruz, Monica; de Pablo, Juan
2017-03-01
Liquid crystalline polymers exhibit a particular richness of behaviors that stems from their rigidity and their macromolecular nature. On the one hand, the orientational interaction between liquid-crystalline motifs promotes their alignment, thereby leading to the emergence of nematic phases. On the other hand, the large number of configurations associated with polymer chains favors formation of isotropic phases, with chain stiffness becoming the factor that tips the balance. In this work, a soft coarse-grained model is introduced to explore the interplay of chain stiffness, molecular weight and orientational coupling, and their role on the isotropic-nematic transition in homopolymer melts. We also study the structure of polymer mixtures composed of stiff and flexible polymeric molecules. We consider the effects of blend composition, persistence length, molecular weight and orientational coupling strength on the melt structure at the nano-and mesoscopic levels. Conditions are found where the systems separate into two phases, one isotropic and the other nematic. We confirm the existence of non-equilibrium states that exhibit sought-after percolating nematic domains, which are of interest for applications in organic photovoltaic and electronic devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munro, Troy R.; Koeln, Justin P.; Fassmann, Andrew W.; Barnett, Robert J.; Ban, Heng
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Subcooled water boiled in microgravity on twists of thin wires. • Wire twisting creates heat transfer enhancements because of high local temperatures. • A preliminary version of a new bubble dynamics method is discussed. • A critical distance that fluid must be superheated for boiling onset is presented. - Abstract: Phase change is an effective method of transferring heat, yet its application in microgravity thermal management systems requires greater understanding of bubble behavior. To further this knowledge base, a microgravity boiling experiment was performed (floating) onboard an aircraft flying in a parabolic trajectory to study the effect of surface geometry and heat flux on phase change heat transfer in a pool of subcooled water. A special emphasis was the investigation of heat transfer enhancement caused by modifying the surface geometry through the use of a twist of three wires and a twist of four wires. A new method for bubble behavior analysis was developed to quantify bubble growth characteristics, which allows a quantitative comparison of bubble dynamics between different data sets. It was found that the surface geometry of the three-wire twist enhanced heat transfer by reducing the heat flux needed for bubble incipience and the average wire temperature in microgravity. Simulation results indicated that increased local superheating in wire crevices may be responsible for the change of bubble behavior seen as the wire geometry configuration was varied. The convective heat transfer rate, in comparison to ground experiments, was lower for microgravity at low heating rates, and higher at high heating rates. This study provides insights into the role of surface geometry on superheating behavior and presents an initial version of a new bubble behavior analysis method. Further research on these topics could lead to new designs of heater surface geometries using phase change heat transfer in microgravity applications
Spontaneous topological charging of tactoids in a living nematic
Genkin, Mikhail M.; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.
2018-04-01
Living nematic is a realization of an active matter combining a nematic liquid crystal with swimming bacteria. The material exhibits a remarkable tendency towards spatio-temporal self-organization manifested in formation of dynamic textures of self-propelled half-integer topological defects (disclinations). Here we report on the study of such living nematic near normal inclusions, or tactoids, naturally realized in liquid crystals close to the isotropic-nematic (I–N) phase transition. On the basis of the computational analysis, we have established that tactoid’s I–N interface spontaneously acquire negative topological charge which is proportional to the tactoid’s size and depends on the concentration of bacteria. The observed negative charging is attributed to the drastic difference in the mobilities of +1/2 and ‑1/2 topological defects in active systems. The effect is described in the framework of a kinetic theory for point-like weakly-interacting defects with different mobilities. Our dedicated experiment fully confirmed the theoretical prediction. The results hint into new strategies for control of active matter.
Effects of molecular elongation on liquid crystalline phase behaviour: isotropic-nematic transition
Singh, Ram Chandra; Ram, Jokhan
2003-08-01
We present the density-functional approach to study the isotropic-nematic transitions and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, concentrating on the effects of varying the molecular elongation, x0. For this, we have solved the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory to calculate the pair-correlation functions of a fluid the molecules of which interact via a Gay-Berne pair potential. These results have been used in the density-functional theory as an input to locate the isotropic-nematic transition and calculate freezing parameters for a range of length-to-width parameters 3.0⩽ x0⩽4.0 at reduced temperatures 0.95 and 1.25. We observed that as x0 is increased, the isotropic-nematic transition is seen to move to lower density at a given temperature. We find that the density-functional theory is good to study the freezing transitions in such fluids. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available.
Nematicity, magnetism and superconductivity in FeSe.
Böhmer, Anna E; Kreisel, Andreas
2018-01-17
Iron-based superconductors are well known for their complex interplay between structure, magnetism and superconductivity. FeSe offers a particularly fascinating example. This material has been intensely discussed because of its extended nematic phase, whose relationship with magnetism is not obvious. Superconductivity in FeSe is highly tunable, with the superconducting transition temperature, T c , ranging from 8 K in bulk single crystals at ambient pressure to almost 40 K under pressure or in intercalated systems, and to even higher temperatures in thin films. In this topical review, we present an overview of nematicity, magnetism and superconductivity, and discuss the interplay of these phases in FeSe. We focus on bulk FeSe and the effects of physical pressure and chemical substitutions as tuning parameters. The experimental results are discussed in the context of the well-studied iron-pnictide superconductors and interpretations from theoretical approaches are presented.
Phase structure of thermal lattice QCD with N{sub f} = 2 twisted mass Wilson fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Lombardo, M. P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Mueller-Preussker, M.; Petschlies, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Philipsen, O.; Zeidlewicz, L. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Wilhelms-Univ. Muenster (Germany)
2009-09-15
We present numerical results for the phase diagram of lattice QCD at finite temperature in the formulation with twisted mass Wilson fermions and a tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action. Our simulations are performed on lattices with temporal extent N{sub {tau}}=8, and lattice coupling {beta} ranging from strong coupling to the scaling domain. Covering a wide range in the space spanned by the lattice coupling {beta} and the hopping and twisted mass parameters {kappa} and {mu}, respectively, we obtain a comprehensive picture of the rich phase structure of the lattice theory. In particular, we verify the existence of an Aoki phase in the strong coupling region and the realisation of the Sharpe-Singleton scenario at intermediate couplings. In the weak coupling region we identify the phase boundary for the physical finite temperature phase transition/crossover. Its shape in the three-dimensional parameter space is consistent with Creutz's conjecture of a cone-shaped thermal transition surface. (orig.)
Nematic fluctuations in iron arsenides NaFeAs and LiFeAs probed by 75As NMR
Toyoda, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Masayuki
2018-03-01
75As NMR measurements have been made on single crystals to study the nematic state in the iron arsenides NaFeAs, which undergoes a structural transition from a high-temperature (high-T ) tetragonal phase to a low-T orthorhombic phase at Ts=57 K and an antiferromagnetic transition at TN=42 K, and LiFeAs having a superconducting transition at Tc=18 K. We observe the in-plane anisotropy of the electric field gradient η even in the tetragonal phase of NaFeAs and LiFeAs, showing the local breaking of tetragonal C4 symmetry. Then, η is found to obey the Curie-Weiss (CW) law as well as in Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 . The good agreement between η and the nematic susceptibility obtained by electronic Raman spectroscopy indicates that η is governed by the nematic susceptibility. From comparing η in NaFeAs and LiFeAs with η in Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 , we discuss the carrier-doping dependence of the nematic susceptibility. The spin contribution to nematic susceptibility is also discussed from comparing the CW terms in η with the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by temperature 1 /T1T . Finally, we discuss the nematic transition in the paramagnetic orthorhombic phase of NaFeAs from the in-plane anisotropy of 1 /T1T .
Observation of hairpin defects in a nematic main-chain polyester
Li, M. H.; Brûlet, A.; Davidson, P.; Keller, P.; Cotton, J. P.
1993-04-01
The conformation of a main-chain liquid crystalline polyester in its oriented nematic phase has been determined by small-angle neutron scattering. The data are fitted by a model of rigid cylinder with orientational fluctuations. For a low degree of polymerization (~9) the chain is almost completely elongated in the direction of the nematic field. For a polymer 3 times longer, the existence of two hairpins is shown at high temperature; this number decreases with decreasing temperature.
Formation and field-driven dynamics of nematic spheroids.
Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin
2017-07-19
Unlike the canonical application of liquid crystals (LCs), LC displays, emerging technologies based on LC materials are increasingly leveraging the presence of nanoscale defects. The inherent nanoscale characteristics of LC defects present both significant opportunities as well as barriers for the application of this fascinating class of materials. Simulation-based approaches to the study of the effects of confinement and interface anchoring conditions on LC domains has resulted in significant progress over the past decade, where simulations are now able to access experimentally-relevant length scales while simultaneously capturing nanoscale defect structures. In this work, continuum simulations were performed in order to study the dynamics of micron-scale nematic LC spheroids of varying shape. Nematic spheroids are one of the simplest inherently defect-containing LC structures and are relevant to polymer-dispersed LC-based "smart" window technology. Simulation results include nematic phase formation and external field-switching dynamics of nematic spheroids ranging in shape from oblate to prolate. Results include both qualitative and quantitative insight into the complex coupling of nanoscale defect dynamics and structure transitions to micron-scale reorientation. Dynamic mechanisms are presented and related to structural transitions in LC defects present in the nematic domain. Domain-averaged metrics including order parameters and response times are determined for a range of experimentally-accessible electric field strengths. These results have both fundamental and technological relevance, in that increased understanding of LC dynamics in the presence of defects is a key barrier to continued advancement in the field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Yixi, E-mail: yxzhao@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Huang, Sheng [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Dan, Wenjiao; Zhang, Weigang [Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Shuhui [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2017-05-17
Dual phase (DP) steels consist of hard brittle martensite phase and soft ductile ferrite phase. With a novel bending under tension test system, in-situ symmetrical bending under tension experiments were carried out and photomicrographs of bending surface were recorded. The microstructure “earthquake” of DP780 dual phase steels was observed in the bending under tension process. By analyzing the in-situ images serious, the initiation, coalescence of cavities and propagation of micro-cracks until final fracture were analyzed. The micro-cracks form only in the outside surface of bending radius, and mainly appear near the phase boundary of ferrite and martensite. Micro-cracks coalesce and propagate in the direction perpendicular to the stretching direction approximately, and at the phase boundary of martensite and ferrite. Furthermore, digital image correlation technology was used in this study to analysis the strain distribution between ferrite and martensite during the bending under tension deformation and fracture.
Possible quadrupolar nematic phase in the frustrated spin chain LiCuSbO4: An NMR investigation
Bosiočić, M.; Bert, F.; Dutton, S. E.; Cava, R. J.; Baker, P. J.; Požek, M.; Mendels, P.
2017-12-01
The frustrated one-dimensional quantum magnet LiCuSbO4 is a rare realization of the J1-J2 spin chain model with an easily accessible saturation field, formerly estimated at 12 T. Exotic multipolar nematic phases were theoretically predicted in such compounds just below the saturation field, but without unambiguous experimental observation so far. In this paper we present extensive experimental research on the compound in a wide temperature (30 mK to 300 K) and field (0-13.3 T) range by muon spin rotation (μ SR ), 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and magnetic susceptibility (SQUID). μ SR experiments in zero magnetic field demonstrate the absence of long-range 3D ordering down to 30 mK. Together with former heat capacity data [Dutton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 187206 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.187206], magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest a short-range-correlated vector chiral phase in the field range 0-4 T. At the intermediate-field values (5-12 T), the system enters a 3D-ordered spin density wave phase with 0.75 μB per copper site at lowest temperatures (125 mK), estimated by NMR. At still higher field, the magnetization is found to be saturated above 13 T where the spin lattice T1-1 relaxation reveals a spin gap estimated at 3.2(2) K. We narrow down the possibility of observing a multipolar nematic phase to the range 12.5-13 T.
Sohn, Hayley; Ackerman, Paul; Smalyukh, Ivan
Three-dimensional (3D) topological solitons arise in field theories ranging from particle physics to condensed matter and cosmology. They are the 3D counterparts of 2D skyrmions (often called ``baby skyrmions''), which attract a great deal of interest in studies of chiral ferromagnets and enable the emerging field of skyrmionics. In chiral nematic liquid crystals, the stability of such solitons is enhanced by the chiral medium's tendency to twist the director field describing the 3D spatial patterns of molecular alignment. However, their experimental realization, control and detailed studies remain limited. We combine experimental realization and numerical modeling of such light-responsive solitonic structures, including elementary torons and hopfions, in confined chiral nematic liquid crystals with photo-tunable cholesteric pitch. We show that the optical tunability of the pitch allows for using low-intensity light to control the soliton stability, dimensions, spatial patterning and dynamics.
Transitions through critical temperatures in nematic liquid crystals
Majumdar, Apala; Ockendon, John; Howell, Peter; Surovyatkina, Elena
2013-01-01
We obtain estimates for critical nematic liquid crystal (LC) temperatures under the action of a slowly varying temperature-dependent control variable. We show that biaxiality has a negligible effect within our model and that these delay estimates are well described by a purely uniaxial model. The static theory predicts two critical temperatures: the supercooling temperature below which the isotropic phase loses stability and the superheating temperature above which the ordered nematic states do not exist. In contrast to the static problem, the isotropic phase exhibits a memory effect below the supercooling temperature in the dynamic framework. This delayed loss of stability is independent of the rate of change of temperature and depends purely on the initial value of the temperature. We also show how our results can be used to improve estimates for LC material constants. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Transitions through critical temperatures in nematic liquid crystals
Majumdar, Apala
2013-08-06
We obtain estimates for critical nematic liquid crystal (LC) temperatures under the action of a slowly varying temperature-dependent control variable. We show that biaxiality has a negligible effect within our model and that these delay estimates are well described by a purely uniaxial model. The static theory predicts two critical temperatures: the supercooling temperature below which the isotropic phase loses stability and the superheating temperature above which the ordered nematic states do not exist. In contrast to the static problem, the isotropic phase exhibits a memory effect below the supercooling temperature in the dynamic framework. This delayed loss of stability is independent of the rate of change of temperature and depends purely on the initial value of the temperature. We also show how our results can be used to improve estimates for LC material constants. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Shear flow simulations of biaxial nematic liquid crystals
Sarman, Sten
1997-08-01
We have calculated the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal phase of a variant of the Gay-Berne fluid [J. G. Gay and B. J. Berne, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3316 (1981)] by performing molecular dynamics simulations. The equations of motion have been augmented by a director constraint torque that fixes the orientation of the directors. This makes it possible to fix them at different angles relative to the stream lines in shear flow simulations. In equilibrium simulations the constraints generate a new ensemble. One finds that the Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities become linear combinations of time correlation function integrals in this ensemble whereas they are complicated rational functions in the conventional canonical ensemble. We have evaluated these Green-Kubo relations for all the shear viscosities and all the twist viscosities. We have also calculated the alignment angles, which are functions of the viscosity coefficients. We find that there are three real alignment angles but a linear stability analysis shows that only one of them corresponds to a stable director orientation. The Green-Kubo results have been cross checked by nonequilibrium shear flow simulations. The results from the different methods agree very well. Finally, we have evaluated the Miesowicz viscosities [D. Baalss, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 45, 7 (1990)]. They vary by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The viscosity is consequently highly orientation dependent.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Ram Chandra
2007-01-01
We have used the density-functional theory to study the effect of varying temperature on the isotropic-nematic transition of a fluid of molecules interacting via the Gay-Berne intermolecular potential. The nematic phase is found to be stable with respect to isotropic phase in the temperature range 0.80≤T*≤1.25. Pair correlation functions needed as input information in density-functional theory is calculated using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory. We find that the density-functional theory is good for studying the isotropic-nematic transition in molecular fluids if the values of the pair-correlation functions in the isotropic phase are known accurately. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available
Fluctuating dynamics of nematic liquid crystals using the stochastic method of lines
Bhattacharjee, A. K.; Menon, Gautam I.; Adhikari, R.
2010-07-01
We construct Langevin equations describing the fluctuations of the tensor order parameter Qαβ in nematic liquid crystals by adding noise terms to time-dependent variational equations that follow from the Ginzburg-Landau-de Gennes free energy. The noise is required to preserve the symmetry and tracelessness of the tensor order parameter and must satisfy a fluctuation-dissipation relation at thermal equilibrium. We construct a noise with these properties in a basis of symmetric traceless matrices and show that the Langevin equations can be solved numerically in this basis using a stochastic version of the method of lines. The numerical method is validated by comparing equilibrium probability distributions, structure factors, and dynamic correlations obtained from these numerical solutions with analytic predictions. We demonstrate excellent agreement between numerics and theory. This methodology can be applied to the study of phenomena where fluctuations in both the magnitude and direction of nematic order are important, as for instance, in the nematic swarms which produce enhanced opalescence near the isotropic-nematic transition or the problem of nucleation of the nematic from the isotropic phase.
Wilkie, W. Keats; Belvin, W. Keith; Park, K. C.
1996-01-01
A simple aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor blade incorporating embedded piezoelectric fiber composite, interdigitated electrode blade twist actuators is described. The analysis consists of a linear torsion and flapwise bending model coupled with a nonlinear ONERA based unsteady aerodynamics model. A modified Galerkin procedure is performed upon the rotor blade partial differential equations of motion to develop a system of ordinary differential equations suitable for dynamics simulation using numerical integration. The twist actuation responses for three conceptual fullscale blade designs with realistic constraints on blade mass are numerically evaluated using the analysis. Numerical results indicate that useful amplitudes of nonresonant elastic twist, on the order of one to two degrees, are achievable under one-g hovering flight conditions for interdigitated electrode poling configurations. Twist actuation for the interdigitated electrode blades is also compared with the twist actuation of a conventionally poled piezoelectric fiber composite blade. Elastic twist produced using the interdigitated electrode actuators was found to be four to five times larger than that obtained with the conventionally poled actuators.
Investigation of bending loss in a single-mode optical fibre
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
been studied. Twisting the optical fibre and its influence on power loss also have been investigated. ... been employed, to investigate their effects on bending loss. A simple semi-empirical .... optical correction factor [10]). This model (equation) ...
First order phase transition of a long polymer chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aristoff, David; Radin, Charles
2011-01-01
We consider a model consisting of a self-avoiding polygon occupying a variable density of the sites of a square lattice. A fixed energy is associated with each 90 0 bend of the polygon. We use a grand canonical ensemble, introducing parameters μ and β to control average density and average (total) energy of the polygon, and show by Monte Carlo simulation that the model has a first order, nematic phase transition across a curve in the β-μ plane.
Electron spin resonance for the detection of long-range spin nematic order
Furuya, Shunsuke C.; Momoi, Tsutomu
2018-03-01
Spin nematic phase is a quantum magnetic phase characterized by a quadrupolar order parameter. Since the quadrupole operators are directly coupled to neither the magnetic field nor the neutron, currently, it is an important issue to develop a method for detecting the long-range spin nematic order. In this paper, we propose that electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements enable us to detect the long-range spin nematic order. We show that the frequency of the paramagnetic resonance peak in the ESR spectrum is shifted by the ferroquadrupolar order parameter together with other quantities. The ferroquadrupolar order parameter is extractable from the angular dependence of the frequency shift. In contrast, the antiferroquadrupolar order parameter is usually invisible in the frequency shift. Instead, the long-range antiferroquadrupolar order yields a characteristic resonance peak in the ESR spectrum, which we call a magnon-pair resonance peak. This resonance corresponds to the excitation of the bound magnon pair at the wave vector k =0 . Reflecting the condensation of bound magnon pairs, the field dependence of the magnon-pair resonance frequency shows a singular upturn at the saturation field. Moreover, the intensity of the magnon-pair resonance peak shows a characteristic angular dependence and it vanishes when the magnetic field is parallel to one of the axes that diagonalize the weak anisotropic interactions. We confirm these general properties of the magnon-pair resonance peak in the spin nematic phase by studying an S =1 bilinear-biquadratic model on the square lattice in the linear flavor-wave approximation. In addition, we argue applications to the S =1/2 frustrated ferromagnets and also the S =1/2 orthogonal dimer spin system SrCu2(BO3)2, both of which are candidate materials of spin nematics. Our theory for the antiferroquadrupolar ordered phase is consistent with many features of the magnon-pair resonance peak experimentally observed in the low
Instabilities and chaos in a kinetic equation for active nematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Xia-qing; Ma, Yu-qiang; Chaté, Hugues
2014-01-01
We study dry active nematics at the kinetic equation level, stressing the differences with the well-known Doi theory for non-active rods near thermal equilibrium. By deriving hydrodynamic equations from the kinetic equation, we show analytically that these two description levels share the same qualitative phase diagram, as defined by the linear instability limits of spatially-homogeneous solutions. In particular, we show that the ordered, homogeneous state is unstable in a region bordering the linear onset of nematic order, and is only linearly stable deeper in the ordered phase. Direct simulations of the kinetic equation reveal that its solutions are chaotic in the region of linear instability of the ordered homogeneous state. The local mechanisms for this large-scale chaos are discussed. (paper)
Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P.; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso
2017-01-01
Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced bi...
The deconfinement phase transition at large N: A study of the hot twisted Eguchi-Kawai model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, S.R.; Kogut, J.B.
1984-01-01
The deconfinement phase transition for SU(54) gauge theory is studied using twisted Eguchi-Kawai methods. Expectation values of the action, the Wilson line and the energy density are measured. We find evidence for deconfining phase transition and compare our data with the naive string picture. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebrahimi, Zanyar; Karami, Kayoomars [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, P.O. Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soler, Roberto, E-mail: z.ebrahimi@uok.ac.ir [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2017-08-10
There is observational evidence for the existence of a twisted magnetic field in the solar corona. This inspires us to investigate the effect of a twisted magnetic field on the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in coronal loops. With this aim, we solve the incompressible linearized MHD equations in a magnetically twisted nonuniform coronal flux tube in the limit of long wavelengths. Our results show that a twisted magnetic field can enhance or diminish the rate of phase mixing of the Alfvén continuum modes and the decay rate of the global kink oscillation depending on the twist model and the sign of the longitudinal ( k{sub z} ) and azimuthal ( m ) wavenumbers. Also, our results confirm that in the presence of a twisted magnetic field, when the sign of one of the two wavenumbers m and k {sub z} is changed, the symmetry with respect to the propagation direction is broken. Even a small amount of twist can have an important impact on the process of energy cascading to small scales.
Correction for the twist and the conical defects of a sagittaly bent crystal
Ferrer, J L
1999-01-01
The symmetrical bending of the focusing crystal of a double X-ray monochromator is a difficult problem. Indeed, the slope due to the curvature is usually three orders of magnitude higher than the accepted slope error (typically, the Darwin width of the crystal). In these conditions, even a low parasitic slope error induced by the bending process may lead to quite a strong intensity decrease. When the bending moment is applied, the main parasitic distortions which may appear are typically the anticlastic curvature, the inhomogeneous sagittal curvature, the conical shape and the twist. On the D2AM beamline at the ESRF, a program called CHKC2 has been developed to correct on-line the latter two distortions: the conical shape and the twist. On this beamline the X-ray beam, which has been collimated by a grazing angle mirror, is monochromatized first by a flat silicon crystal, and then diffracted by the sagittaly curved crystal. A fluorescent screen gives an image of this diffracted beam. The CHKC2 program records...
Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals: From viscoelastic properties to living liquid crystals
Zhou, Shuang
Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) represents a broad range of molecules, from organic dyes and drugs to DNA, that self-assemble into linear aggregates in water through face-to-face stacking. These linear aggregates of high aspect ratio are capable of orientational order, forming, for example nematic phase. Since the microscopic properties (such as length) of the chromonic aggregates are results of subtle balance between energy and entropy, the macroscopic viscoelastic properties of the nematic media are sensitive to change of external factors. In the first part of this thesis, by using dynamic light scattering and magnetic Frederiks transition techniques, we study the Frank elastic moduli and viscosity coefficients of LCLC disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and sunset yellow (SSY) as functions of concentration c , temperature T and ionic contents. The elastic moduli of splay (K1) and bend (K3) are in the order of 10pN, about 10 times larger than the twist modulus (K2). The splay modulus K1 and the ratio K1/K3 both increase substantially as T decreases or c increases, which we attribute to the elongation of linear aggregates at lower T or higher c . The bend viscosity is comparable to that of thermotropic liquid crystals, while the splay and twist viscosities are several orders of magnitude larger, changing exponentially with T . Additional ionic additives into the system influence the viscoelastic properties of these systems in a dramatic and versatile way. For example, monovalent salt NaCl decreases bend modulus K3 and increases twist viscosity, while an elevated pH decreases all the parameters. We attribute these features to the ion-induced changes in length and flexibility of building units of LCLC, the chromonic aggregates, a property not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals form by covalently bound units of fixed length. The second part of the thesis studies a new active bio-mechanical hybrid system called living liquid crystal
A theory of the nematic liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazoume, R.P.
1980-09-01
A theory of the nematic phase of liquid crystals is presented, taking explicit account of the geometry of the molecule. The three broad peaks of the neutron scattering structure factor are explained. Expressions of the order parameters (average value of Psub(2L)) are given and they can be extracted by comparison with scattering experiments. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponce, T.C.
1988-08-01
We consider the nature of the nematic to isotropic phase transition in terms of the molecular orientational re-ordering, expressed by the variation of the order parameter, s, in the light of Landau's theory of second order phase transition. Then, we show how the de Gennes modification to the Landau thermodynamic potential converts the transition to first order which is in better agreement with the experimental observations. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab
Bend strain tolerances of a Nb3Sn conductor proposed for use in the magnetic fusion energy program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luhman, T.; Welch, D.O.; Suenaga, M.
1980-01-01
Bend strain tolerances were studied on a 2869 filament bronze-processed Nb 3 Sn wire conductor in magnetic fields to 8 T. Relative values of the wire's current transfer length to twist pitch were shown to influence the bend-strain tolerance. Low matrix resistivities, associated with Sn-depleted bronzes following heat-treatments of 48 h at 725 0 C, produce current transfer lengths less than the twist pitch, 10 mm. The resulting bend-strain tolerances, at 10 -12 ohm.cm, are improved over those found for shorter heat-treatment times. Results from bend-fatigue experiments were divided into two domains separated by the strain value required to produce compound cracking, epsilon/sub f//sup B/. Applied bending strains less than epsilon/sub f//sup B/ were found to increase zero strain critical current values and this increase was independent of the number of fatigue cycles. When applying strains large enough to produce cracking in the compounds critical currents decreased from their asreacted values tending to reach a minimum after several fatigue cycles. Evidence exists for a neutral axis shift during bending and slight differences between tensile and bend strain tolerances are accounted for in terms of such a shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M.; Bechtold, I.H.; Figueiredo Neto, A.M.
2012-01-01
We present an experimental study of the nonlinear optical absorption of the eutectic mixture E7 at the nematic-isotropic phase transition by the Z-scan technique, under continuous-wave excitation at 532 nm. In the nematic region, the effective nonlinear optical coefficient P, which vanishes in the isotropic phase, is negative for the extraordinary beam and positive for an ordinary beam. The parameter SNL, whose definition in terms of the nonlinear absorption coefficient follows the definition of the optical-order parameter in terms of the linear dichroic ratio, behaves like an order parameter with critical exponent 0.22 ± 0.05, in good agreement with the tricritical hypothesis for the nematic isotropic transition. (author)
Simulation experiments for hot-leg U-bend two-phase flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Hsu, J.T.; Tucholke, D.; Lambert, G.; Kataoka, I.
1986-01-01
In order to study the two-phase natural circulation and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed. Based on the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program, an adiabatic hot leg U-bend simulation loop using nitrogen gas and water and a Freon 113 boiling and condensation loop were built. The nitrogen-water system has been used to isolate key hydrodynamic phenomena from heat transfer problems, whereas the Freon loop has been used to study the effect of phase changes and fluid properties. Various tests were carried out to establish the basic mechanism of the flow termination and reestablishment as well as to obtain essential information on scale effects of parameters such as the loop frictional resistance, thermal center, U-bend curvature and inlet geometry. In addition to the above experimental study, a preliminary modeling study has been carried out for two-phase flow in a large vertical pipe at relatively low gas fluxes typical of natural circulation conditions
Fourmaux-Demange, V.; Brûlet, A.; Boué, F.; Davidson, P.; Keller, P.; Cotton, J. P.
2000-04-01
We have studied the rheology and the conformation of stretched comb-like liquid-crystalline polymers. Both the influence of the comb-like structure and the specific effect of the nematic interaction on the dynamics are investigated. For this purpose, two isomers of a comb-like polymetacrylate polymer, of well-defined molecular weights, were synthesized: one displays a nematic phase over a wide range of temperature, the other one has only an isotropic phase. Even with high degrees of polymerization N, between 40 and 1000, the polymer chains studied were not entangled. The stress-strain curves during the stretching and relaxation processes show differences between the isotropic and nematic comb-like polymers. They suggest that, in the nematic phase, the chain dynamics is more cooperative than for a usual linear polymer. Small-angle neutron scattering has been used in order to determine the evolution of the chain conformation after stretching, as a function of the duration of relaxation t_r. The conformation can be described with two parameters only: λ_p, the global deformation of the polymer chain, and p, the number of statistical units of locally relaxed sub-chains. For the comb-like polymer, the chain deformation is pseudo-affine: λ_p is always smaller than λ (the deformation ratio of the whole sample). In the isotropic phase, λ_p has a constant value, while p increases as t_r. This latter behavior is not that expected for non-entangled chains, in which p varies as {t_r}^{1/2} (Rouse model). In the nematic phase, λ_p decreases as a stretched exponential function of t_r, while p remains constant. The dynamics of the comb-like polymers is discussed in terms of living clusters from which junctions are produced by interactions between side chains. The nematic interaction increases the lifetime of these junctions and, strikingly, the relaxation is the same at all scales of the whole polymer chain.
Computer simulation study of the nematic-vapour interface in the Gay-Berne model
Rull, Luis F.; Romero-Enrique, José Manuel
2017-06-01
We present computer simulations of the vapour-nematic interface of the Gay-Berne model. We considered situations which correspond to either prolate or oblate molecules. We determine the anchoring of the nematic phase and correlate it with the intermolecular potential parameters. On the other hand, we evaluate the surface tension associated to this interface. We find a corresponding states law for the surface tension dependence on the temperature, valid for both prolate and oblate molecules.
Symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystals: analogy with cosmology and magnetism.
Repnik, R; Ranjkesh, A; Simonka, V; Ambrozic, M; Bradac, Z; Kralj, S
2013-10-09
Universal behavior related to continuous symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystals is studied using Brownian molecular dynamics. A three-dimensional lattice system of rod-like objects interacting via the Lebwohl-Lasher interaction is considered. We test the applicability of predictions originally derived in cosmology and magnetism. In the first part we focus on coarsening dynamics following the temperature driven isotropic-nematic phase transition for different quench rates. The behavior in the early coarsening regime supports predictions made originally by Kibble in cosmology. For fast enough quenches, symmetry breaking and causality give rise to a dense tangle of defects. When the degree of orientational ordering is large enough, well defined protodomains characterized by a single average domain length are formed. With time subcritical domains gradually vanish and supercritical domains grow with time, exhibiting a universal scaling law. In the second part of the paper we study the impact of random-field-type disorder on a range of ordering in the (symmetry broken) nematic phase. We demonstrate that short-range order is observed even for a minute concentration of impurities, giving rise to disorder in line with the Imry-Ma theorem prediction only for the appropriate history of systems.
Wilkie, W. Keats; Park, K. C.
1996-01-01
A simple aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor blade incorporating embedded piezoelectric fiber composite, interdigitated electrode blade twist actuators is described. The analysis consist of a linear torsion and flapwise bending model coupled with a nonlinear ONERA based unsteady aerodynamics model. A modified Galerkin procedure is performed upon the rotor blade partial differential equations of motion to develop a system of ordinary differential equations suitable for numerical integration. The twist actuation responses for three conceptual full-scale blade designs with realistic constraints on blade mass are numerically evaluated using the analysis. Numerical results indicate that useful amplitudes of nonresonant elastic twist, on the order of one to two degrees, are achievable under one-g hovering flight conditions for interdigitated electrode poling configurations. Twist actuation for the interdigitated electrode blades is also compared with the twist actuation of a conventionally poled piezoelectric fiber composite blade. Elastic twist produced using the interdigitated electrode actuators was found to be four to five times larger than that obtained with the conventionally poled actuators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, Chenhui; Turiv, Taras; Guo, Yubing; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Wei, Qi-Huo; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Zhang, Rui; De Pablo, Juan
2017-01-01
Placing colloidal particles in predesigned sites represents a major challenge of the current state-of-the-art colloidal science. Nematic liquid crystals with spatially varying director patterns represent a promising approach to achieve a well-controlled placement of colloidal particles thanks to the elastic forces between the particles and the surrounding landscape of molecular orientation. Here we demonstrate how the spatially varying director field can be used to control placement of non-spherical particles of boomerang shape. The boomerang colloids create director distortions of a dipolar symmetry. When a boomerang particle is placed in a periodic splay-bend director pattern, it migrates towards the region of a maximum bend. The behavior is contrasted to that one of spherical particles with normal surface anchoring, which also produce dipolar director distortions, but prefer to compartmentalize into the regions with a maximum splay. The splay-bend periodic landscape thus allows one to spatially separate these two types of particles. By exploring overdamped dynamics of the colloids, we determine elastic driving forces responsible for the preferential placement. Control of colloidal locations through patterned molecular orientation can be explored for future applications in microfluidic, lab on a chip, sensing and sorting devices. (paper)
Peng, Chenhui; Turiv, Taras; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Yubing; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Wei, Qi-Huo; de Pablo, Juan; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.
2017-01-01
Placing colloidal particles in predesigned sites represents a major challenge of the current state-of-the-art colloidal science. Nematic liquid crystals with spatially varying director patterns represent a promising approach to achieve a well-controlled placement of colloidal particles thanks to the elastic forces between the particles and the surrounding landscape of molecular orientation. Here we demonstrate how the spatially varying director field can be used to control placement of non-spherical particles of boomerang shape. The boomerang colloids create director distortions of a dipolar symmetry. When a boomerang particle is placed in a periodic splay-bend director pattern, it migrates towards the region of a maximum bend. The behavior is contrasted to that one of spherical particles with normal surface anchoring, which also produce dipolar director distortions, but prefer to compartmentalize into the regions with a maximum splay. The splay-bend periodic landscape thus allows one to spatially separate these two types of particles. By exploring overdamped dynamics of the colloids, we determine elastic driving forces responsible for the preferential placement. Control of colloidal locations through patterned molecular orientation can be explored for future applications in microfluidic, lab on a chip, sensing and sorting devices.
Self-regulation in self-propelled nematic fluids.
Baskaran, A; Marchetti, M C
2012-09-01
We consider the hydrodynamic theory of an active fluid of self-propelled particles with nematic aligning interactions. This class of materials has polar symmetry at the microscopic level, but forms macrostates of nematic symmetry. We highlight three key features of the dynamics. First, as in polar active fluids, the control parameter for the order-disorder transition, namely the density, is dynamically convected by the order parameter via active currents. The resulting dynamical self-regulation of the order parameter is a generic property of active fluids and destabilizes the uniform nematic state near the mean-field transition. Secondly, curvature-driven currents render the system unstable deep in the nematic state, as found previously. Finally, and unique to self-propelled nematics, nematic order induces local polar order that in turn leads to the growth of density fluctuations. We propose this as a possible mechanism for the smectic order of polar clusters seen in numerical simulations.
Depletion interactions in lyotropic nematics
Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.
2000-01-01
A theoretical study of depletion interactions between pairs of small, globular colloids dispersed in a lyotropic nematic of hard, rodlike particles is presented. We find that both the strength and range of the interaction crucially depends on the configuration of the spheres relative to the nematic
Lisetski, L N; Fedoryako, A P; Samoilov, A N; Minenko, S S; Soskin, M S; Lebovka, N I
2014-08-01
Comparative studies of optical transmission of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), dispersed in nematic liquid crystal matrix 5CB, were carried out. The data evidence violations of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer (BLB) law both in cell thickness and concentration dependencies. The most striking is the fact that optical transmission dependencies for SWCNTs and MWCNTs were quite different in the nematic phase, but they were practically indistinguishable in the isotropic phase. Monte Carlo simulations of the impact of aggregation on direct transmission and violation of BLB law were also done. The results were discussed accounting for the tortuous shape of CNTs, their physical properties and aggregation, as well as strong impact of perturbations of the nematic 5CB structure inside coils and in the vicinity of CNT aggregates.
A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.
2014-01-01
We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.
A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity
Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.
2014-10-01
We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4-5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.
A simple free energy for the isotropic-nematic phase transition of rods
Tuinier, R.
2016-01-01
A free energy expression is proposed that describes the isotropic-nematic binodal concentrations of hard rods. A simple analytical form for this free energy was yet only available using a Gaussian trial function for the orientation distribution function (ODF), leading, however, to a significant
Fente, Antón; Correa-Orellana, Alexandre; Böhmer, Anna E.; Kreyssig, Andreas; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Mompean, Federico J.; García-Hernández, Mar; Munuera, Carmen; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann
2018-01-01
We show that biaxial strain induces alternating tetragonal superconducting and orthorhombic nematic domains in Co-substituted CaFe2As2 . We use atomic force, magnetic force, and scanning tunneling microscopy to identify the domains and characterize their properties, finding in particular that tetragonal superconducting domains are very elongated, more than several tens of micrometers long and about 30 nm wide; have the same Tc as unstrained samples; and hold vortices in a magnetic field. Thus, biaxial strain produces a phase-separated state, where each phase is equivalent to what is found on either side of the first-order phase transition between antiferromagnetic orthorhombic and superconducting tetragonal phases found in unstrained samples when changing Co concentration. Having such alternating superconducting domains separated by normal conducting domains with sizes of the order of the coherence length opens opportunities to build Josephson junction networks or vortex pinning arrays and suggests that first-order quantum phase transitions lead to nanometric-size phase separation under the influence of strain.
Lu, Da-Chuan; Lv, Yang-Yang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Bei-Yi; Wang, Qiang-Hua; Wang, Hua-Bing; Wu, Pei-Heng
2018-03-01
The electronic nematic phase is characterized as an ordered state of matter with rotational symmetry breaking, and has been well studied in the quantum Hall system and the high-Tc superconductors, regardless of cuprate or pnictide family. The nematic state in high-Tc systems often relates to the structural transition or electronic instability in the normal phase. Nevertheless, the electronic states below the superconducting transition temperature is still an open question. With high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope measurements, direct observation of vortex core in FeSe thin films revealed the nematic superconducting state by Song et al. Here, motivated by the experiment, we construct the extended Ginzburg-Landau free energy to describe the elliptical vortex, where a mixed s-wave and d-wave superconducting order is coupled to the nematic order. The nematic order induces the mixture of two superconducting orders and enhances the anisotropic interaction between the two superconducting orders, resulting in a symmetry breaking from C4 to C2. Consequently, the vortex cores are stretched into an elliptical shape. In the equilibrium state, the elliptical vortices assemble a lozenge-like vortex lattice, being well consistent with experimental results.
Determination and demarcation of fatigue crack initiation phase in rotating bending condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasha, R.A.; Rehman, K.; Shah, M.
2012-01-01
In engineering applications, components often experience cyclic loading and therefore, have crack initiation propagation phase. In this research work experimental demarcation of fatigue crack initiation has been investigated. Initiation phase of fatigue life of Aluminium was determined by using single and two step fatigue loading test on four point rotating bending fatigue testing machine. Experimental data is used to determine the distinction between the initiation and propagation phase. Initiation phase is determined at different stress levels. The obtained results demonstrate the effect of stress level on initiation phase and propagation phase. (author)
Direct and inverted nematic dispersions for soft matter photonics.
Muševič, I; Skarabot, M; Humar, M
2011-07-20
General properties and recent developments in the field of nematic colloids and emulsions are discussed. The origin and nature of pair colloidal interactions in the nematic colloids are explained and an overview of the stable colloidal 2D crystalline structures and superstructures discovered so far is given. The nature and role of topological defects in the nematic colloids is discussed, with an emphasis on recently discovered entangled colloidal structures. Applications of inverted nematic emulsions and binding force mechanisms in nematic colloids for soft matter photonic devices are discussed.
Temperature Driven Topological Switch in 1T'-MoTe2 and Strain Induced Nematicity in NaFeAs
Berger, Ayelet Denise Notis
Quasiparticle interference (QPI) is a powerful technique within Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) that is used to probe the electronic bandstructure of materials. This thesis presents two examples using QPI to measure the bandstructure in materials with exotic electronic states that can be tuned via outside parameters (temperature and strain). In Part I of the thesis, we discuss the temperature dependence of Fermi Arcs in 1T'-MoTe 2, and then in Part II, the strain dependent nematic state in NaFeAs. The recent discovery of Weyl semimetals has introduced a new family of materials with topologically protected electronic properties and potential applications due to their anomalous transport effects. Even more useful is a Weyl semimetal that can be turned "on" and "off," switching between a topological and trivial state. One possible material is MoTe2, which undergoes a phase transition at 240K. This thesis consists of experiments using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Spectroscopy (STS) at different temperatures to visualize changes in the electronic bandstructure of MoTe2 across the topological phase transition. We show that a signature of topologically protected Fermi Arcs is present at low temperatures but disappears at room temperature, in the trivial phase. We include an in-depth discussion of how to account for thermal effects when comparing these two types of measurements. In Part II, we discuss strain induced nematicity in NaFeAs, an iron pnictide. Nematic fluctuations and spin correlations play an important role in the phase diagram of the iron pnictides, a family of unconventional superconductors. Illuminating the mechanism behind this symmetry breaking is key to understanding the superconducting state. Previous work has shown that nematicity in the iron pnictides responds strongly to applied strain [1, 2]. In this thesis, I present results from a new experimental technique, elasto-scanning tunneling microscopy (E-STM), which combines in situ strain
Biaxial nematic liquid crystals theory, simulation and experiment
Luckhurst, Geoffrey R
2015-01-01
Liquid Crystals are a state of matter that have properties between those of conventional liquid and those of a solid crystal. Thermotropic liquid crystals react to changes in temperature or, in some cases, pressure. The reaction of lyotropic liquid crystals, which are used in the manufacture of soaps and detergents, depends on the type of solvent they are mixed with. Since the accidental discovery of the chiral nematic (ordered) phase in 1888 many liquid crystal phases have been found, sometimes by chance and sometimes by design. The existence of one such phase was predicted by Freiser in 197
Zhao, Yan; Stratt, Richard M.
2018-05-01
Surprisingly long-ranged intermolecular correlations begin to appear in isotropic (orientationally disordered) phases of liquid crystal forming molecules when the temperature or density starts to close in on the boundary with the nematic (ordered) phase. Indeed, the presence of slowly relaxing, strongly orientationally correlated, sets of molecules under putatively disordered conditions ("pseudo-nematic domains") has been apparent for some time from light-scattering and optical-Kerr experiments. Still, a fully microscopic characterization of these domains has been lacking. We illustrate in this paper how pseudo-nematic domains can be studied in even relatively small computer simulations by looking for order-parameter tensor fluctuations much larger than one would expect from random matrix theory. To develop this idea, we show that random matrix theory offers an exact description of how the probability distribution for liquid-crystal order parameter tensors converges to its macroscopic-system limit. We then illustrate how domain properties can be inferred from finite-size-induced deviations from these random matrix predictions. A straightforward generalization of time-independent random matrix theory also allows us to prove that the analogous random matrix predictions for the time dependence of the order-parameter tensor are similarly exact in the macroscopic limit, and that relaxation behavior of the domains can be seen in the breakdown of the finite-size scaling required by that random-matrix theory.
Ouyang, Yang; Liu, Jianxia; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Yujia; Zhou, Ai
2018-04-11
A phase-shifted eccentric core fiber Bragg grating (PS-ECFBG) fabricated by electric arc discharge (EAD) is presented and demonstrated. It is composed of a fraction of eccentric core fiber fusion spliced in between two pieces of commercial single mode fibers, where a PS-FBG was written. The EAD in this work could flexibly change the amount of phase-shift by changing the discharge number or discharge duration. Because of the offset location of the eccentric core and the ultra-narrow resonant peak of the PS-ECFBG, it has a higher accuracy for measuring the directional bend. The elongation and compression of the eccentric core keep the magnitude of phase shift still unchanged during the bending process. The bending sensitivities of the PS-ECFBG at two opposite most sensitive directions are 57.4 pm/m -1 and -51.5 pm/m -1 , respectively. Besides, the PS-ECFBG has the potential to be a tunable narrow bandpass filter, which has a wider bi-directional adjustable range because of the bending responses. The strain and temperature sensitivities of the PS-ECFBG are experimentally measured as well, which are 0.70 pm/με and 8.85 pm/°C, respectively.
Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels.
Matsuyama, Akihiko
2015-05-07
We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.
Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuyama, Akihiko, E-mail: matuyama@bio.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kawazu 680-4, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan)
2015-05-07
We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Meng-Chu; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Wu, Ming-Ting; Weng, Ken-Pen; Su, Mao-Yuan; Menza, Marius; Huang, Hung-Chieh
2018-01-01
We aimed to characterise regional myocardial motion and twist function in the left ventricles (LV) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and preserved LV global function. We recruited 47 rTOF patients and 38 age-matched normal volunteers. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) was performed for evaluating the LV myocardial velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential (Vz, Vr, and VOe) directions in basal, middle, and apical slices. The VOe peak-to-peak (PTP) during systolic phases, the rotation angle of each slice, and VOe inconsistency were computed for evaluating LV twist function and VOe dyssynchrony. As compared to the controls, the rTOF patients presented decreased RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.002) and preserved global LV ejection fraction (LVEF). They also demonstrated decreased systolic and diastolic Vz in several LV segments and higher diastolic Vr in the septum (all p < 0.05). A lower VOe PTP, higher VOe inconsistency, and reduced peak net rotation angle (all p < 0.05) were observed. The aforementioned indices demonstrated an altered LV twist function in rTOF patients in an early disease stage. MR TPM could provide information about early abnormalities of LV regional motion and twist function in rTOF patients with preserved LV global function. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Meng-Chu; Peng, Hsu-Hsia [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Weng, Ken-Pen [National Yang-Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung (China); Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Department of Physical Therapy, Kaohsiung (China); Su, Mao-Yuan [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Menza, Marius [Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Huang, Hung-Chieh [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China)
2018-01-15
We aimed to characterise regional myocardial motion and twist function in the left ventricles (LV) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and preserved LV global function. We recruited 47 rTOF patients and 38 age-matched normal volunteers. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) was performed for evaluating the LV myocardial velocity in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential (Vz, Vr, and VOe) directions in basal, middle, and apical slices. The VOe peak-to-peak (PTP) during systolic phases, the rotation angle of each slice, and VOe inconsistency were computed for evaluating LV twist function and VOe dyssynchrony. As compared to the controls, the rTOF patients presented decreased RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.002) and preserved global LV ejection fraction (LVEF). They also demonstrated decreased systolic and diastolic Vz in several LV segments and higher diastolic Vr in the septum (all p < 0.05). A lower VOe PTP, higher VOe inconsistency, and reduced peak net rotation angle (all p < 0.05) were observed. The aforementioned indices demonstrated an altered LV twist function in rTOF patients in an early disease stage. MR TPM could provide information about early abnormalities of LV regional motion and twist function in rTOF patients with preserved LV global function. (orig.)
Contact force and mechanical loss of multistage cable under tension and bending
Ru, Yanyun; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe
2016-10-01
A theoretical model for calculating the stress and strain states of cabling structures with different loadings has been developed in this paper. We solve the problem for the first- and second-stage cable with tensile or bending strain. The contact and friction forces between the strands are presented by two-dimensional contact model. Several theoretical models have been proposed to verify the results when the triplet subjected to the tensile strain, including contact force, contact stresses, and mechanical loss. It is found that loadings will affect the friction force and the mechanical loss of the triplet. The results show that the contact force and mechanical loss are dependent on the twist pitch. A shorter twist pitch can lead to higher contact force, while the trend of mechanical loss with twist pitch is complicated. The mechanical loss may be reduced by adjusting the twist pitch reasonably. The present model provides a simple analysis method to investigate the mechanical behaviors in multistage-structures under different loads.
Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aman-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.
2016-01-01
In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q_e_f_f accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.
Theory of Electron Nematic Order in LaOFeAs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Chen
2010-04-06
We study a spin S quantum Heisenberg model on the Fe lattice of the rare-earth oxypnictide superconductors. Using both large S and large N methods, we show that this model exhibits a sequence of two phase transitions: from a high temperature symmetric phase to a narrow region of intermediate 'nematic' phase, and then to a low temperature spin ordered phase. Identifying phases by their broken symmetries, these phases correspond precisely to the sequence of structural (tetragonal to monoclinic) and magnetic transitions that have been recently revealed in neutron scattering studies of LaOFeAs. The structural transition can thus be identified with the existence of incipient ('fluctuating') magnetic order.
High Resolution Displays Using NCAP Liquid Crystals
Macknick, A. Brian; Jones, Phil; White, Larry
1989-07-01
Nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystals have been found useful for high information content video displays. NCAP materials are liquid crystals which have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix and which have a light transmission which is variable with applied electric fields. Because NCAP materials do not require polarizers, their on-state transmission is substantially better than twisted nematic cells. All dimensional tolerances are locked in during the encapsulation process and hence there are no critical sealing or spacing issues. By controlling the polymer/liquid crystal morphology, switching speeds of NCAP materials have been significantly improved over twisted nematic systems. Recent work has combined active matrix addressing with NCAP materials. Active matrices, such as thin film transistors, have given displays of high resolution. The paper will discuss the advantages of NCAP materials specifically designed for operation at video rates on transistor arrays; applications for both backlit and projection displays will be discussed.
Topological symmetry breakdown in cholesterics, nematics, and 3He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balachandran, A.P.; Lizzi, F.; Rodgers, V.G.J.
1984-01-01
Cholesterics, uniaxial and biaxial nematics, and the dipole-free A phase of superfluid 3 He are characterized by order parameters which are left invariant by suitable ''symmetry'' groups H. We show that in the presence of defects, the full group H may not be implementable on the states because of topological obstructions. Thus H is topologically broken in the presence of suitable defects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Ouyang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A phase-shifted eccentric core fiber Bragg grating (PS-ECFBG fabricated by electric arc discharge (EAD is presented and demonstrated. It is composed of a fraction of eccentric core fiber fusion spliced in between two pieces of commercial single mode fibers, where a PS-FBG was written. The EAD in this work could flexibly change the amount of phase-shift by changing the discharge number or discharge duration. Because of the offset location of the eccentric core and the ultra-narrow resonant peak of the PS-ECFBG, it has a higher accuracy for measuring the directional bend. The elongation and compression of the eccentric core keep the magnitude of phase shift still unchanged during the bending process. The bending sensitivities of the PS-ECFBG at two opposite most sensitive directions are 57.4 pm/m−1 and −51.5 pm/m−1, respectively. Besides, the PS-ECFBG has the potential to be a tunable narrow bandpass filter, which has a wider bi-directional adjustable range because of the bending responses. The strain and temperature sensitivities of the PS-ECFBG are experimentally measured as well, which are 0.70 pm/με and 8.85 pm/°C, respectively.
The Effect of Shear Flow on the Isotropic-Nematic Transition in Liquid Crystals.
Olmsted, Peter David
1991-08-01
In this thesis I will discuss the effects of shear flow on the Isotropic-Nematic phase transition in liquid crystals. Shear flow has dramatic orienting effects on the rod-like constituents of nematic liquid crystals, with the general effects of (1) inducing order in the high-temperature isotropic phase, and (2) dictating a direction of alignment for the low-temperature nematic phase. Shear flow also imposes a biaxial symmetry on both the high and low temperature phases, thereby changing the nature of the symmetry-breaking at the transition. We develop coupled deterministic dynamical equations for the 5-component nematic order parameter and the fluid velocity, which may be considered generalizations of the Leslie-Ericksen and Navier-Stokes equations, respectively. We examine the stable stationary solutions to these equations to determine the nature of the non-equilibrium phases, and discuss the analogies and differences between this system and equilibrium systems. From homogeneous solutions we obtain a state diagram analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid, including a two-state region and a discontinuous transition which terminates at a critical point. To resolve the question of the analog of the Maxwell construction to distinguish locally stable states, we construct stable inhomogeneous interfacial states. From an analysis of these states we determine a coexistence line and find exponents characterizing the shape of the coexistence curve and the interface thickness as the critical point is approached. We find mean-field critical behavior, and comment on the possibility of the analogs of spinodal decomposition and nucleation. Finally, we develop a formalism for describing light scattering from biaxial steady state, and investigate the Gaussian level fluctuations about these states. In the vicinity of the critical point we find singular behavior analogous to critical opalescence of a simple fluid at its critical point. We also find anisotropic correlations at the
Transient analysis of air-water two-phase flow in channels and bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, H.J.; Ye, W.; Pertmer, G.A.
1992-01-01
The algorithm used in this paper is the Newton Block Gauss Seidel method, which has been applied to both simple and complex flow conditions in two-phase flow. This paper contains a description of difference techniques and an iterative solution algorithm that is used to solve the field and constitutive equations of the two-fluid model. In practice, this solution procedure has been proven to be stable and capable of generating solutions in problems where other schemes have failed. The method converges rapidly for reasonable error tolerances and is easily extended to three-dimensional geometries. Using air-water as the two-phase medium, transient flow behavior in several geometries of interest are shown. Flow through a vertical channel with flow obstruction, large U bends, and 90-deg bends are being demonstrated with variation of inlet void fraction and slip ratio. Significant changes in the velocity and void distribution profiles have been observed. Various regions of flow recirculation are obtained in the flow domain for each phase. The phasic velocity and void distributions are dominated by gravity-induced phase separation causing air to accumulate in the upper region. The influence of inlet slip ratio and interfacial momentum transfer on the transient flow profile has been demonstrated in detail
Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids
Turzi, Stefano S.
2017-11-01
I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium. In a simple one-dimensional channel geometry, we show that the interaction between nonuniform nematic order and activity results in either a spontaneous flow of particles or a self-organization into subchannels flowing in opposite directions.
Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon
2016-04-01
Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.
Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon
2016-04-15
Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.
Twisted supersymmetry: Twisted symmetry versus renormalizability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimitrijevic, Marija; Nikolic, Biljana; Radovanovic, Voja
2011-01-01
We discuss a deformation of superspace based on a Hermitian twist. The twist implies a *-product that is noncommutative, Hermitian and finite when expanded in a power series of the deformation parameter. The Leibniz rule for the twisted supersymmetry transformations is deformed. A minimal deformation of the Wess-Zumino action is proposed and its renormalizability properties are discussed. There is no tadpole contribution, but the two-point function diverges. We speculate that the deformed Leibniz rule, or more generally the twisted symmetry, interferes with renormalizability properties of the model. We discuss different possibilities to render a renormalizable model.
Liquid crystal phase behaviour of attractive disc-like particles.
Wu, Liang; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A
2013-08-08
We employ a generalized van der Waals-Onsager perturbation theory to construct a free energy functional capable of describing the thermodynamic properties and orientational order of the isotropic and nematic phases of attractive disc particles. The model mesogen is a hard (purely repulsive) cylindrical disc particle decorated with an anisotropic square-well attractive potential placed at the centre of mass. Even for isotropic attractive interactions, the resulting overall inter-particle potential is anisotropic, due to the orientation-dependent excluded volume of the underlying hard core. An algebraic equation of state for attractive disc particles is developed by adopting the Onsager trial function to characterize the orientational order in the nematic phase. The theory is then used to represent the fluid-phase behaviour (vapour-liquid, isotropic-nematic, and nematic-nematic) of the oblate attractive particles for varying values of the molecular aspect ratio and parameters of the attractive potential. When compared to the phase diagram of their athermal analogues, it is seen that the addition of an attractive interaction facilitates the formation of orientationally-ordered phases. Most interestingly, for certain aspect ratios, a coexistence between two anisotropic nematic phases is exhibited by the attractive disc-like fluids.
Ferroelectric Nematic and Ferrielectric Smectic Mesophases in an Achiral Bent-Core Azo Compound.
Kumar, Jitendra; Prasad, Veena
2018-03-22
Here, we report the observation of ferroelectric nematic and ferrielectric smectic mesophases in an achiral bent-core azo compound consisting of nonsymmetrical molecules with a lateral fluoro substitution on one of the wings. These mesophases are enantiotropic in nature with fairly low transition temperatures and wide mesophase ranges. The liquid crystalline properties of this compound are investigated using polarizing optical microscope, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction, and electro-optical studies. As revealed by X-ray diffraction measurements, the nematic mesophase is composed of skewed cybotactic clusters and, in the smectic mesophase, the molecules are tilted with respect to the layer normal. The polar order in these mesophases was confirmed by the electro-optical switching and dielectric spectroscopy measurements. The dielectric study in the nematic mesophase shows a single relaxation process at low frequency ( f interest is the fact that the smectic phase exhibits a field induced ferrielectric state, which can be exploited for designing of the potential optical devices due to multistate switching.
Tokatli, A.; Ucun, F.; Sütçü, K.; Osmanoğlu, Y. E.; Osmanoğlu, Ş.
2018-02-01
In this study the conformational behavior of cycloheximide in the gas and solution (CHCl3) phases has theoretically been investigated by spectroscopic and quantum chemical properties using density functional theory (wB97X-D) method with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set, for the first time. The calculated IR results reveal that in the ground state the molecule exits as a mixture of the chair and twist-boat conformers in the gas phase, while the calculated NMR results reveal that it only exits as the chair conformer in the solution phase. In order to obtain the contributions coming from intramolecular interactions to the stability of the conformers in the gas and solution phases, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), noncovalent interactions (NCI) method, and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) have been employed. The QTAIM and NCI methods indicated that by intramolecular interactions with bond critical point (BCP) the twist-boat conformer is more stabilized than the chair conformer, while by steric interactions it is more destabilized. Considering that these interactions balance each other, the stabilities of the conformers are understood to be dictated by the van der Waals interactions. The NBO analyses show that the hyperconjugative and steric effects play an important role in the stabilization in the gas and solution phases. Furthermore, to get a better understanding of the chemical behavior of this important antibiotic drug we have evaluated and, commented the global and local reactivity descriptors of the both conformers. Finally, the EPR analysis of γ-irradiated cycloheximide has been done. The comparison of the experimental and calculated data have showed the inducement of a radical structure of (CH2)2ĊCH2 in the molecule. The experimental EPR spectrum has also confirmed that the molecule simultaneously exists in the chair and twist-boat conformers in the solid phase.
Uniform phases in fluids of hard isosceles triangles: One-component fluid and binary mixtures
Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Díaz-De Armas, Ariel; Velasco, Enrique
2018-05-01
We formulate the scaled particle theory for a general mixture of hard isosceles triangles and calculate different phase diagrams for the one-component fluid and for certain binary mixtures. The fluid of hard triangles exhibits a complex phase behavior: (i) the presence of a triatic phase with sixfold symmetry, (ii) the isotropic-uniaxial nematic transition is of first order for certain ranges of aspect ratios, and (iii) the one-component system exhibits nematic-nematic transitions ending in critical points. We found the triatic phase to be stable not only for equilateral triangles but also for triangles of similar aspect ratios. We focus the study of binary mixtures on the case of symmetric mixtures: equal particle areas with aspect ratios (κi) symmetric with respect to the equilateral one, κ1κ2=3 . For these mixtures we found, aside from first-order isotropic-nematic and nematic-nematic transitions (the latter ending in a critical point): (i) a region of triatic phase stability even for mixtures made of particles that do not form this phase at the one-component limit, and (ii) the presence of a Landau point at which two triatic-nematic first-order transitions and a nematic-nematic demixing transition coalesce. This phase behavior is analogous to that of a symmetric three-dimensional mixture of rods and plates.
Dalir, Nima; Javadian, Soheila
2018-03-01
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), CNT@Fe3O4, and Fe3O4 nanocomposites were doped to eutectic uniaxial nematic liquid crystal (NLC's) (E5CN7) to improve physiochemical properties such as phase transition temperature, activation energy (Ea), dielectric anisotropy, and electro-optical properties. The thermal study of nematic phase shows a decrease in the nematic to isotropic phase transition temperature as CNT is doped. However, higher doping concentration of CNTs leads to the further increase in transition temperature. The anchoring effect or π-π interaction plays a key role in N-I phase transition. The functionalization of SWCNTs with Fe3O4 diminishes the CNT aggregation while the magnetic susceptibility is increased. The functionalized CNT doping to NLC's decrease significantly the phase transition temperature compared to doping of non-functionalized CNTs. Attractive interaction between guest and host molecules by magnetic and geometry effect increased the enthalpy and entropy of phase transition in the SWCNT@Fe3O4 sample compared to non-functionalized CNT doped system. Also, the Ea values are decreased as SWCNT@Fe3O4 is doped to pure E5CN7. The difference of N-I phase transition temperature was observed in Fe3O4 and CNT@Fe3O4 compared to SWCNT doped systems. Finally, dielectric anisotropy was increased in the doped system compared to pure NLC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sridevi, S; Krishna Prasad, S; Shankar Rao, D S; Yelamaggad, C V
2008-01-01
The isotropic-nematic transition, being weakly first order, exhibits pretransitional effects signifying the appearance of the nematic-like regions in the isotropic phase. In the isotropic phase, strongly polar liquid crystals, such as the popular alkyl and alkoxy cyano biphenyl behave in a non-standard fashion: whereas far away from the transition the dielectric constant ε iso has a 1/T dependence (a feature also commonly seen in polar liquids), on approaching the nematic phase the trend reverses resulting in a maximum in ε iso , at a temperature slightly above the transition, an effect explained on the basis of short-range correlations with an antiparallel association of the neighbouring molecules. Recently, there has been a revival in studies on this behaviour to possibly associate it with the order of transition. Here we report dielectric measurements carried in the vicinity of this transition for a number of compounds having different molecular structures including a bent core system, but with a common feature that the molecules possess a strong terminal polar group, nitro in one case and cyano in the rest. Surprisingly, the convex shape of the thermal variation of ε iso was more an exception than the rule. In materials that exhibit such an anomaly we find a linear correlation between δε = (ε peak -ε IN )/ε IN and δT = T peak -T IN , where ε peak is the maximum value of the dielectric constant in the isotropic phase, ε IN the value at the transition, and T peak and T IN the corresponding temperatures.
Instabilities and patterns in an active nematic film
Srivastava, Pragya; Marchetti, Cristina
2015-03-01
Experiments on microtubule bundles confined to an oil-water interface have motivated extensive theoretical studies of two-dimensional active nematics. Theoretical models taking into account the interplay between activity, flow and order have remarkably reproduced several experimentally observed features of the defect-dynamics in these ``living'' nematics. Here, we derive minimal description of a two-dimensional active nematic film confined between walls. At high friction, we eliminate the flow to obtain closed equations for the nematic order parameter, with renormalized Frank elastic constants. Active processes can render the ``Frank'' constants negative, resulting in the instability of the uniformly ordered nematic state. The minimal model yields emergent patterns of growing complexity with increasing activity, including bands and turbulent dynamics with a steady density of topological defects, as obtained with the full hydrodynamic equations. We report on the scaling of the length scales of these patterns and of the steady state number of defects with activity and system size. National Science Foundation grant DMR-1305184 and Syracuse Soft Matter Program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosciszewski, K.
1979-01-01
The phase transitions between liquids and several of the simplest liquid crystalline phases (nematic, cholesteric, and the simplest types of smectic A and smectic C) were studied from the point of view of the group-theoretical arguments of Landau theory. It was shown that the only possible candidates for second-order phase transitions are those between nematic and smectic A, between centrosymmetric nematic and smectic C and between centrosymmetric smectic A and smectic C. Simple types of density functions for liquid crystalline phases are proposed. (author)
Droplet snap-off in fluids with nematic liquid crystalline ordering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verhoeff, A A; Lekkerkerker, H N W
2012-01-01
We studied the snap-off of nematic liquid crystalline droplets originating from the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the isotropic-nematic interface in suspensions of charged gibbsite in water and sterically stabilized gibbsite in bromotoluene. We found that droplet snap-off strongly depends on the director field structure inside the thinning neck, which is determined by the ratio of the splay elastic constant and the anchoring strength of the nematic phase to the droplet interface relative to the thickness of the thinning neck. If anchoring is weak, which is the case for aqueous gibbsite, this ratio is comparable to the thickness of the breaking thread. As a result, the thinning neck and pending drop have a uniform director field and droplet snap-off is determined by the viscous properties of the liquid crystal as well as by thermal fluctuations of the interface. On the other hand, in sterically stabilized gibbsite where anchoring is strong, this ratio is significantly smaller than the neck thickness. In this case, the neck has an escaped radial director field and the neck thinning is retarded close to snap-off due to a topological energy barrier involved in the separation of the droplet from the thread. (paper)
Measurement of curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Wen; Quan Chenggen; Cho Jui Tay
2008-01-01
Measurement of curvature and twist is an important aspect in the study of object deformation. In recent years, several methods have been proposed to determine curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital shearography. Here we propose a novel method to determine the curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography and a complex phasor. A sine/cosine transformation method and two-dimensional short time Fourier transform are proposed subsequently to process the wrapped phase maps. It is shown that high-quality phase maps corresponding to curvature and twist can be obtained. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method
Lagomarsino, M.C.; Dogterom, M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein
2003-01-01
We present computer simulations of long, thin, hard spherocylinders in a narrow planar slit. We observe a transition from the isotropic to a nematic phase with quasi-long-range orientational order upon increasing the density. This phase transition is intrinsically two-dimensional and of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Fang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available In geometrically frustrated clusters of polyhedra, gaps between faces can be closed without distorting the polyhedra by the long established method of discrete curvature, which consists of curving the space into a fourth dimension, resulting in a dihedral angle at the joint between polyhedra in 4D. An alternative method—the twist method—has been recently suggested for a particular case, whereby the gaps are closed by twisting the cluster in 3D, resulting in an angular offset of the faces at the joint between adjacent polyhedral. In this paper, we show the general applicability of the twist method, for local clusters, and present the surprising result that both the required angle of the twist transformation and the consequent angle at the joint are the same, respectively, as the angle of bending to 4D in the discrete curvature and its resulting dihedral angle. The twist is therefore not only isomorphic, but isogonic (in terms of the rotation angles to discrete curvature. Our results apply to local clusters, but in the discussion we offer some justification for the conjecture that the isomorphism between twist and discrete curvature can be extended globally. Furthermore, we present examples for tetrahedral clusters with three-, four-, and fivefold symmetry.
A finite-density calculation of the surface tension of isotropic-nematic interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, B.G.; McMullen, W.E.
1992-01-01
The surface tension of the isotropic-nematic interface in a fluid of intermediate-sized hard particles is studied and calculated. The transition from isotropic to nematic is fixed to occur in a continuous fashion by varying the biaxiality of the model particles. A reversal in the preferred orientation of the bulk nematic relative to the isotropic-nematic interface suggests an oblique orientation of the bulk nematic. 32 refs., 8 figs
Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal
Potisk, Tilen; Mertelj, Alenka; Sebastian, Nerea; Osterman, Natan; Lisjak, Darja; Brand, Helmut R.; Pleiner, Harald; Svenšek, Daniel
2018-01-01
We investigate dynamic magneto-optic effects in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally we measure the magnetization and the phase difference of the transmitted light when an external magnetic field is applied. As a model we study the coupled dynamics of the magnetization, M, and the director field, n, associated with the liquid crystalline orientational order. We demonstrate that the experimentally studied macroscopic dynamic behavior reveals t...
Confinement-induced liquid crystalline transitions in amyloid fibril cholesteric tactoids
Nyström, Gustav; Arcari, Mario; Mezzenga, Raffaele
2018-04-01
Chirality is ubiquitous in nature and plays crucial roles in biology, medicine, physics and materials science. Understanding and controlling chirality is therefore an important research challenge with broad implications. Unlike other chiral colloids, such as nanocellulose or filamentous viruses, amyloid fibrils form nematic phases but appear to miss their twisted form, the cholesteric or chiral nematic phases, despite a well-defined chirality at the single fibril level. Here we report the discovery of cholesteric phases in amyloids, using β-lactoglobulin fibrils shortened by shear stresses. The physical behaviour of these new cholesteric materials exhibits unprecedented structural complexity, with confinement-driven ordering transitions between at least three types of nematic and cholesteric tactoids. We use energy functional theory to rationalize these results and observe a chirality inversion from the left-handed amyloids to right-handed cholesteric droplets. These findings deepen our understanding of cholesteric phases, advancing their use in soft nanotechnology, nanomaterial templating and self-assembly.
Shrink, twist, ripple and melt: Studies of frustrated liquid crystals
Fernsler, Jonathan G.
Complex structures can arise out of a simple system with more than one competing influence on its behavior. The protypical example of this is the two-dimensional triangular lattice Ising model. The ferromagnetic model has two simple degenerate ground states of all spins up or down, but the antiferromagnetic model is a frustrated system. Its geometry does not allow satisfaction of the antiferro condition everywhere, which produces complex ordered structures with dimerization of the spins [1]. Without frustration, the complex structures and phase behavior are lost. All of the topics discussed in this thesis concern smectic liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are perhaps uniquely adept at manifesting frustrated phases. Their combination of periodicity in one or more dimensions allows ordered structures, yet their fluid nature in remaining dimensions allows creation of defects and extraordinarily complex structures in ways that a normal crystal could not tolerate. Liquid crystals contain a huge menagerie of frustrated phases and effects including the polarization modulated [2], vortex lattice [3], twist grain boundary [4], and blue [5] phases, as well as frustrated structures such as cholesteric or SmC* helix unwinding [6], defect lattices in thin films [7], and bend melted grain boundary defects [8], arising from boundary conditions and field effects. In this thesis, we study four liquid crystal systems that show unusual phase behavior or complex structures, deriving from the effects of frustration. Frustration, despite some human prejudices against the word, leaves nature all the more interesting and beautiful.
Phase Diagram of Binary Mixture E7:TM74A Liquid Crystals
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Serafin Delica
1999-12-01
Full Text Available Although there are many liquid crystalline materials, difficulty is often experienced in obtaining LCs that are stable and has a wide mesophase range. In this study, mixtures of two different LCs were used to formulate a technologically viable LC operating at room temperature. Nematic E7(BDH and cholesteric TM74A were mixed at different weight ratios at 10% increments. Transition temperatures were determined via Differential Scanning Calorimetry and phase identification was done using Optical Polarizing Microscopy. The phase diagram showed the existence of three different phases for the temperature range of 10-80°C. Mixtures with 0-20% E7 exhibit only the cholesteric-nematic mesophase, which could be due to the mixture's being largely TM74A and its behavior in the temperature range considered is similar to the behavior of pure TM74A. With an increase in the concentration of E7, the smectic phase of the pure cholesteric was enhanced, as seen from the increased transition to the cholesteric-nematic phase and a broader smectic range. The cholesteric-nematic to isotropic transition increased as the nematic concentration increases, following the behavior expected from LC mixtures. For mixtures that are largely nematic (more than 50% E7, the smectic phase has vanished and the cholesteric-nematic phase dominated from 30-60°C.
Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan
2014-01-01
It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)
Green-Kubo relations for the viscosity of biaxial nematic liquid crystals
Sarman, Sten
1996-09-01
We derive Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal. In this system there are seven shear viscosities, three twist viscosities, and three cross coupling coefficients between the antisymmetric strain rate and the symmetric traceless pressure tensor. According to the Onsager reciprocity relations these couplings are equal to the cross couplings between the symmetric traceless strain rate and the antisymmetric pressure. Our method is based on a comparison of the microscopic linear response generated by the SLLOD equations of motion for planar Couette flow (so named because of their close connection to the Doll's tensor Hamiltonian) and the macroscopic linear phenomenological relations between the pressure tensor and the strain rate. In order to obtain simple Green-Kubo relations we employ an equilibrium ensemble where the angular velocities of the directors are identically zero. This is achieved by adding constraint torques to the equations for the molecular angular accelerations. One finds that all the viscosity coefficients can be expressed as linear combinations of time correlation function integrals (TCFIs). This is much simpler compared to the expressions in the conventional canonical ensemble, where the viscosities are complicated rational functions of the TCFIs. The reason for this is, that in the constrained angular velocity ensemble, the thermodynamic forces are given external parameters whereas the thermodynamic fluxes are ensemble averages of phase functions. This is not the case in the canonical ensemble. The simplest way of obtaining numerical estimates of viscosity coefficients of a particular molecular model system is to evaluate these fluctuation relations by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.
UV response on dielectric properties of nano nematic liquid crystal
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Kamal Kumar Pandey
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the effect of UV light irradiation on the dielectric parameters of nematic liquid crystal (5CB and ZnO nanoparticles dispersed liquid crystal. With addition of nanoparticles in nematic LC are promising new materials for a variety of application in energy harvesting, displays and photonics including the liquid crystal laser. To realize many applications, however we optimize the properties of liquid crystal and understand how the UV light irradiation interact the nanoparticles and LC molecules in dispersed/doped LC. The dielectric permittivity and loss factor have discussed the pure nematic LC and dispersed/doped system after, during and before UV light exposure. The dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was carried out in the frequency range 100 Hz–10 MHz in the nematic mesophase range. Keywords: Dielectric permittivity, Relaxation frequency, Nematic liquid crystal, UV light irradiation
Different phases of a system of hard rods on three dimensional cubic lattice
Vigneshwar, N.; Dhar, Deepak; Rajesh, R.
2017-11-01
We study the different phases of a system of monodispersed hard rods of length k on a cubic lattice, using an efficient cluster algorithm able to simulate densities close to the fully-packed limit. For k≤slant 4 , the system is disordered at all densities. For k=5, 6 , we find a single density-driven transition, from a disordered phase to high density layered-disordered phase, in which the density of rods of one orientation is strongly suppressed, breaking the system into weakly coupled layers. Within a layer, the system is disordered. For k ≥slant 7 , three density-driven transitions are observed numerically: isotropic to nematic to layered-nematic to layered-disordered. In the layered-nematic phase, the system breaks up into layers, with nematic order in each layer, but very weak correlation between the ordering directions of different layers. We argue that the layered-nematic phase is a finite-size effect, and in the thermodynamic limit, the nematic phase will have higher entropy per site. We expect the systems of rods in four and higher dimensions will have a qualitatively similar phase diagram.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Forbes, A
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...
Photonic crystals, light manipulation, and imaging in complex nematic structures
Ravnik, Miha; Å timulak, Mitja; Mur, Urban; Čančula, Miha; Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan
2016-03-01
Three selected approaches for manipulation of light by complex nematic colloidal and non-colloidal structures are presented using different own custom developed theoretical and modelling approaches. Photonic crystals bands of distorted cholesteric liquid crystal helix and of nematic colloidal opals are presented, also revealing distinct photonic modes and density of states. Light propagation along half-integer nematic disclinations is shown with changes in the light polarization of various winding numbers. As third, simulated light transmission polarization micrographs of nematic torons are shown, offering a new insight into the complex structure characterization. Finally, this work is a contribution towards using complex soft matter in optics and photonics for advanced light manipulation.
Patterning nonisometric origami in nematic elastomer sheets
Plucinsky, Paul; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; White, Timothy J.; Bhattacharya, Kaushik
Nematic elastomers dramatically change their shape in response to diverse stimuli including light and heat. In this paper, we provide a systematic framework for the design of complex three dimensional shapes through the actuation of heterogeneously patterned nematic elastomer sheets. These sheets are composed of \\textit{nonisometric origami} building blocks which, when appropriately linked together, can actuate into a diverse array of three dimensional faceted shapes. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that: 1) the nonisometric origami building blocks actuate in the predicted manner, 2) the integration of multiple building blocks leads to complex multi-stable, yet predictable, shapes, 3) we can bias the actuation experimentally to obtain a desired complex shape amongst the multi-stable shapes. We then show that this experimentally realized functionality enables a rich possible design landscape for actuation using nematic elastomers. We highlight this landscape through theoretical examples, which utilize large arrays of these building blocks to realize a desired three dimensional origami shape. In combination, these results amount to an engineering design principle, which we hope will provide a template for the application of nematic elastomers to emerging technologies.
Particles with changeable topology in nematic colloids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravnik, Miha; Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan
2015-01-01
We show that nematic colloids can serve as a highly variable and controllable platform for studying inclusions with changeable topology and their effects on the surrounding ordering fields. We explore morphing of toroidal and knotted colloidal particles into effective spheres, distinctively changing their Euler characteristic and affecting the surrounding nematic field, including topological defect structures. With toroidal particles, the inner nematic defect eventually transitions from a wide loop to a point defect (a small loop). Trefoil particles become linked with two knotted defect loops, mutually forming a three component link, that upon tightening transform into a two-component particle-defect loop link. For more detailed topological analysis, Pontryagin-Thom surfaces are calculated and visualised, indicating an interesting cascade of defect rewirings caused by the shape morphing of the knotted particles. (paper)
Borgh, Magnus O.; Ruostekoski, Janne
2016-05-01
We demonstrate that multiple interaction-dependent defect core structures as well as dynamics of non-Abelian vortices can be realized in the biaxial nematic (BN) phase of a spin-2 atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). An experimentally simple protocol may be used to break degeneracy with the uniaxial nematic phase. We show that a discrete spin-space symmetry in the core may be reflected in a breaking of its spatial symmetry. The discrete symmetry of the BN order parameter leads to non-commuting vortex charges. We numerically simulate reconnection of non-Abelian vortices, demonstrating formation of the obligatory rung vortex. In addition to atomic BECs, non-Abelian vortices are theorized in, e.g., liquid crystals and cosmic strings. Our results suggest the BN spin-2 BEC as a prime candidate for their realization. We acknowledge financial support from the EPSRC.
BENDING BEHAVIOUR OF MAGNETIC COTTON YARNS
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LUPU Iuliana G.
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Magnetic yarns are composite yarns, i.e. they combine elements of various natures and properties, with proven potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. In this paper, different mixtures of hard and soft magnetic powder were chosen to cover materials made of cotton yarn. The physical properties and bending behavior of the produced composite yarns were investigated in order to evaluate the yarns for further textile processing.The cotton yarn used as base material was covered with hard (barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 and soft (Black Toner magnetic particles. An in-house developed laboratory equipment has been used to cover the twist cotton yarns with seven mixtures having different amounts of magnetic powder (30% – 50%. The bending behavior of the coated yarns was evaluated based on the average width of cracks which appeared on the yarn surface after repeated flexural tests. The obtained results revealed that usage of a polyurethane adhesive in the coating solution prevents crack formation on the surface of hard magnetic yarns after flexural tests. At the same time, the higher the mass percentage of hard magnetic powder in the mixture, the higher was the cracks’ width. The soft magnetic yarns are more flexible and a smaller crack width is observed on their surface. Both the coating solution composition and the powder diameter are expected to influence the bending behavior of coated yarns.
Polarization-independent nematic liquid crystal waveguides for optofluidic applications
d'Alessandro, A.; Martini, L.; Gilardi, G.; Beccherelli, R.; Asquini, R.
2015-01-01
We present the fabrication and the characterization of waveguides made of a nematic liquid crystal infiltrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) channels. They are made by means of cast and molding technique and patterned using soft photolithography. The orientation of the nematic liquid crystal molecules
Near-infrared dichroism of a mesogenic transition metal complex and its solubility in nematic hosts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshall, K.L.; Jacobs, S.D.
1987-01-01
A transition metal complex possessing the nematic phase, bis (p-n-butylstyryl-1, 2-dithiolato) nickel, was synthesized and its optical properties and solubility in the nematic hosts K15 and MBBA were investigated. The metal complex displayed a high solubility in both host materials (up to 10% wt/wt) and a strong near-infrared absorption band centered at 860 nm. A blocking extinction of greater than OD = 3 was obtained with a 100 micron pathlength of a 0.5% wt/wt mixture of the nematic metal complex in K15, suggesting its usefulness for passive blocking of near infrared radiation. A 24 micron thick, homogeneously aligned guest-host cell containing a 1% wt/wt mixture of the metal complex in K15 possessed a contrast ratio of nearly 5:1 and a blocking extinction of OD = 3.5 at 860 nm, demonstrating for the first time the existence of near-infrared dichroism in this class of materials. The solubility and blocking extinction of the mesogenic metal complex in K15 was considerably superior to the non-mesogenic near ir laser dye bis(dimethylaminodithiobenzil) nickel in the same host. An interaction of the nematic metal complex in mixtures with MBBA which resulted in the creation of a new absorption band at 1050 nm was also observed. 21 refs., 9 figs
Chen, Yu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Sung; Jiang, I-Min; Tsai, Ming-Shan
2008-03-17
This study investigates the optical nonlinearity of beam propagation in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells at a temperature close to the nematic-isotropic temperature (TNI). The undulate propagation mode with convergent and divergent loops appearing alternately is reported and the thermally enhanced optical reorientation nonlinearity at the focus is described. The optically induced phase transition exists along the pump beam direction. With the application of the conscopic technique, the arrangements of LC at the focus are proposed in this study. Results of this study demonstrate that the evolution of the LC configuration was affected by the pump beam based on the analysis of conoscopic patterns.
Ultrasound and orientational relaxation of nematic liquid crystals at high pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khabibullaev, P.K.; Oribjonov, Kh.J.; Lagunov, A.S.
2004-01-01
The acoustic properties of the nematic liquid crystal N-96 and its benzene solution in anisotropic phase are investigated in rotational magnetic field. The effects of concentration, temperature, pressure, and frequency of magnetic field rotation on ultrasonic absorption anisotropy are studied. Critical frequency values are experimentally determined. The relationship between the diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy rotational viscosities was calculated, and its dependences on the pressure and temperature are also discussed. (author)
Evidence for a jacketed nematic polymer
Hardouin, F.; Mery, S.; Achard, M. F.; Noirez, L.; Keller, P.
1991-05-01
The evidence for a “jacketed” structure at the scale of the chain dimensions in the nematic phase of a “side-on fixed” liquid crystal polysiloxane is reported by using small angle neutron scattering. We relate this anisotropy of chain conformation to the first measurements of the rotational viscosity coefficient in this new type of liquid crystal side-chain polymer. Par des mesures de diffusion des neutrons aux petits angles nous montrons l'existence, pour un polysiloxane “ en haltère ”, d'une structure “ chemisée ” à l'échelle de l'organisation global d'une chaîne en phase nématique. On constate que cette anisotropie de forme du polymère a des conséquences sur l'évolution du coefficient de viscosité de torsion mesuré pour la première fois dans ce nouveau type de polymère à chaînes latérales.
Influence of rubbing-alignment on microwave modulation induced by liquid crystal
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Wenjiang Ye
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The microwave modulation induced by liquid crystal is decided by the liquid crystal director distribution under an external applied voltage. The rubbing-alignment of substrate has an effect on the liquid crystal director, which must result in the change of microwave phase-shift. To illustrate the influence of rubbing-alignment on the microwave phase-shift, the microwave modulation property of twisted nematic liquid crystal is researched adopting the elastic theory of liquid crystal and the finite-difference iterative method. The variations of microwave phase-shift per unit-length for different pre-tilt and pre-twist angles of liquid crystal on the substrate surface and anchoring energy strengths with the applied voltage are numerically simulated. The result indicates that with the increase of pre-tilt angle and with the decrease of anchoring energy strength the weak anchoring twisted cell with pre-twisted angle 90° relative to the strong anchoring non-twisted cell can increase the microwave phase-shift per unit-length. As a result, for achieving the maximum microwave modulation, the weak anchoring twisted cell with pre-tilt angle 5° and anchoring energy strength 1×10−5J/m2 should be selected, which provides a reliably theoretical foundation for the design of liquid crystal microwave modulator.
How the embryonic chick brain twists.
Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A
2016-11-01
During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion. Our theoretical analysis showed that the force is of the order of 10 micronewtons. We also designed an experiment to use fluid surface tension to replace the mechanical role of the VM, and the estimated magnitude of the force owing to surface tension was shown to be consistent with the above theoretical analysis. We further discovered that the asymmetry of the looping heart determines the chirality of the twisted brain via physical mechanisms, demonstrating the mechanical transfer of left-right asymmetry between organs. Our experiments also implied that brain flexure is a necessary condition for torsion. Our work clarifies the mechanical origin of torsion and the development of left-right asymmetry in the early embryonic brain. © 2016 The Author(s).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Jinyuan; Xie, Erqing; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Zheng, Lianxi
2014-01-01
The dependences of twisting parameters on the electric and mechanical properties of twisted CNT fibers were systematically studied. Results from electric and mechanical measurements showed that twisting intensity is very effective to improve the electric and mechanical properties of CNT fibers. Further calculations combined with Raman results indicate that the twisting treatments, to a certain extent, can greatly enhance the strain transfer factors of the samples, which dominates the mechanical properties of CNT fibers. In addition, studies on the effect of twisting speeds suggested that lower twisting speed can lead to higher uniformity but lower performances in the electric and mechanical properties, higher twisting speed to higher Young’s modulus and higher conductance but lower uniformities. Ultra-strong uniform CNT fibers need to be prepared with a suitable twisting speed. (paper)
In Silico Measurement of Elastic Moduli of Nematic Liquid Crystals
Sidky, Hythem; de Pablo, Juan J.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.
2018-03-01
Experiments on confined droplets of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB have questioned long-established bounds imposed on the elastic free energy of nematic systems. This elasticity, which derives from molecular alignment within nematic systems, is quantified through a set of moduli which can be difficult to measure experimentally and, in some cases, can only be probed indirectly. This is particularly true of the surfacelike saddle-splay elastic term, for which the available experimental data indicate values on the cusp of stability, often with large uncertainties. Here, we demonstrate that all nematic elastic moduli, including the saddle-splay elastic constant k24, may be calculated directly from atomistic molecular simulations. Importantly, results obtained through in silico measurements of the 5CB elastic properties demonstrate unambiguously that saddle-splay elasticity alone is unable to describe the observed confined morphologies.
Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching
Tartan, Chloe C.; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J.
2016-05-01
Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10-100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.
Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tartan, Chloe C.; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J.
2016-01-01
Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10–100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.
Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tartan, Chloe C., E-mail: chloe.tartan@eng.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: steve.elston@eng.ox.ac.uk; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J., E-mail: chloe.tartan@eng.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: steve.elston@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)
2016-05-14
Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10–100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.
Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Different precursors inducing the bending angle of the banana-shaped molecules. Figure 2. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 61, No. 2, August ... isotropic liquid; N: nematic; SmA: smectic A; SmC: smectic C. For other phase assign- ments, see text.
Study of the chain conformation of thermotropic nematic main chain polyesters
Li, M. H.; Brûlet, A.; Cotton, J. P.; Davidson, P.; Strazielle, C.; Keller, P.
1994-10-01
The conformation of main chain mesomorphic polyesters is studied by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) in the isotropic and in the nematic phases, by using mixtures of deuterated and undeuterated polymers. Particular attention is given to neglect the transesterification effects occurring mainly at high temperature for these LC polymers. In the isotropic phase, despite the presence of long rigid mesogenic groups, the LC polyester chains have a Gaussian conformation shown by the variation of the radius of gyration as a function of the molecular weight. This result is confirmed from the scattering variation in the intermediate range of the scattering vector. In the nematic phase, the SANS data are well fitted to a model of cylinder, in which the main chain polymer is confined. In the unoriented phase, the measurements in the intermediate range give the values of the radii of cylinders : they lie in between 10 Å and 19 Å depending on the degree of polymerization of chains. In the oriented nematic phase, the scattering patterns are highly anisotropic : they correspond to very long, thin and well-oriented cylinders. We have calculated the fully extended chain lengths using for the monomer length that measured in situ by X-ray diffraction. Then the comparison of this length with the measured height of the cylinders gives the existence of hairpins and their number per chain. For the short chain, the conformation is almost completely elongated in the nematic direction, whereas hairpin defects appear in longer chains. Their number decreases slightly with decreasing temperature. The orientational fluctuations of cylinders relatively to the nematic director are weak as shown from the high values of their order parameter (P_2 > 0.9). These results are discussed for two spacer lengths as a function of the molecular weight and of the temperature. La conformation de polyesters linéaires mésomorphes est étudiée par diffusion de neutrons aux petits angles (DNPA) dans les
Post-Tanner spreading of nematic droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mechkov, S; Oshanin, G; Cazabat, A M
2009-01-01
The quasistationary spreading of a circular liquid drop on a solid substrate typically obeys the so-called Tanner law, with the instantaneous base radius R(t) growing with time as R∼t 1/10 -an effect of the dominant role of capillary forces for a small-sized droplet. However, for droplets of nematic liquid crystals, a faster spreading law sets in at long times, so that R∼t α with α significantly larger than the Tanner exponent 1/10. In the framework of the thin film model (or lubrication approximation), we describe this 'acceleration' as a transition to a qualitatively different spreading regime driven by a strong substrate-liquid interaction specific to nematics (antagonistic anchoring at the interfaces). The numerical solution of the thin film equation agrees well with the available experimental data for nematics, even though the non-Newtonian rheology has yet to be taken into account. Thus we complement the theory of spreading with a post-Tanner stage, noting that the spreading process can be expected to cross over from the usual capillarity-dominated stage to a regime where the whole reservoir becomes a diffusive film in the sense of Derjaguin.
Domain Structures in Nematic Liquid Crystals on a Polycarbonate Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasily F. Shabanov
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Alignment of nematic liquid crystals on polycarbonate films obtained with the use of solvents with different solvations is studied. Domain structures occurring during the growth on the polymer surface against the background of the initial thread-like or schlieren texture are demonstrated. It is established by optical methods that the domains are stable formations visualizing the polymer surface structures. In nematic droplets, the temperature-induced transition from the domain structure with two extinction bands to the structure with four bands is observed. This transition is shown to be caused by reorientation of the nematic director in the liquid crystal volume from the planar alignment to the homeotropic state with the pronounced radial configuration of nematic molecules on the surface. The observed textures are compared with different combinations of the volume LC orientations and the radial distribution of the director field and the disclination lines at the polycarbonate surface.
Multiple Order Diffractions by laser-Injured Transient Grating in Nematic MBBA Film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Seong Kyu; Kim, Hack Jin
1999-01-01
The laser-induced transient grating method is applied to study the dynamics of the nematic MBBA film. The nanosecond laser pulses of 355 nm are used to make the transient grating and the cw He-Ne laser of 633 nm is used to probe the dynamics. Strong multiple order diffractions are observed at high nematic temperatures. The reordering process induced by the phototransformed state, which is the locally melted state from the nematic sample, is attributed to the main origin of the multiple order diffractions from the nematic MBBA. The characteristics of the multiple order gratings are discussed with the grating profiles simulated from the multiple diffraction signals
Flexible polymers in a nematic medium : a Monte Carlo simulation
Vliet, J.H. van; Luyten, M.C.; Brinke, G. ten
Monte Carlo simulations of self-avoiding random walks surrounded by aligned rods on a square lattice and a simple cubic lattice were performed to address the topological constraints involved for dilute solutions of flexible polymers in a highly oriented nematic solvent. The nematic constraint
Xia, Z. M.; Wang, C. G.; Tan, H. F.
2018-04-01
A pseudo-beam model with modified internal bending moment is presented to predict elastic properties of graphene, including the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. In order to overcome a drawback in existing molecular structural mechanics models, which only account for pure bending (constant bending moment), the presented model accounts for linear bending moments deduced from the balance equations. Based on this pseudo-beam model, an analytical prediction is accomplished to predict the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of graphene based on the equation of the strain energies by using Castigliano second theorem. Then, the elastic properties of graphene are calculated compared with results available in literature, which verifies the feasibility of the pseudo-beam model. Finally, the pseudo-beam model is utilized to study the twisting wrinkling characteristics of annular graphene. Due to modifications of the internal bending moment, the wrinkling behaviors of graphene sheet are predicted accurately. The obtained results show that the pseudo-beam model has a good ability to predict the elastic properties of graphene accurately, especially the out-of-plane deformation behavior.
Negative stiffness and modulated states in active nematics
Srivastava, Pragya; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2016-01-01
We examine the dynamics of a compressible active nematic liquid crystal on a frictional substrate. When frictional damping dominates over viscous dissipation, we eliminate flow in favor of active stresses to obtain a minimal dynamical model for the nematic order parameter, with elastic constants renormalized by activity. The renormalized elastic constants can become negative at large activity, leading to the selection of spatially inhomogeneous patterns via a mechanism analogous to that respo...
Calorimetric Study of Phase Transitions Involving Twist-Grain-Boundary TGB{A} and TGB{C} Phases
Navailles, L.; Garland, C. W.; Nguyen, H. T.
1996-09-01
High-resolution calorimetry has been used to determine the heat capacity and latent heat associated with phase transitions in the homologous series of chiral liquid crystals nF_2BTFO_1M_7 [ 3-fluoro-4(1-methylheptyloxy)4'-(4''-alkoxy-2'', 3''-difluorobenzoyloxy)tolane] . These compounds exhibit smectic-C^* (SmC^*), twist-grain-boundary (TGBA for n=10, TGBC for n=11, 12) and cholesteric (N^*) phases. All the phase transitions are first order with small to moderate latent heats. There is a large rounded excess heat capacity peak in the N^* phase that is consistent with the predicted appearance of short-range TGB order (chiral line liquid character). This is analogous to the development of an Abrikosov flux vortex liquid in type-II superconductors. Both the n=11 and 12 homologs exhibit two closely spaced transitions in the region where a single TGBC - N^* transition was expected. This suggests the existence of two thermodynamically distinct TGBC phases. Des exprériences de calorimétrie haute résolution ont été réalisées pour déterminer les chaleurs spécifiques et les chaleurs latentes associées aux transitions de phase des homologues de la série crystal liquide nF_2BTFO_1M_7: 3-fluoro-4[1-methyl-heptyloxy]4'-(4''-alcoxy-2'', 3''-difluorobenzoyloxy)tolanes. Ces produits présentent la phase smectique C^* (SmC^*), les phases à torsion par joint de grain (TGBA pour n=10 et TGBC pour n=11, 12) et la phase cholestérique (N^*). Toutes les transitions de phase sont du premier ordre. La chaleur latente associée à ces transitions est faibles ou modérée. Nous observons, dans la phase N^*, un grand pic arrondi qui est en accord avec les prédictions de l'apparition d'un ordre TGB à courte distance (liquide de ligne de dislocation). Ce phénomène est l'analogue du liquide de vortex dans les supraconducteurs de type II. Les composés n=11 et 12 présentent, dans la région où nous attendions une transition TGBC - N^* unique, deux transitions sur un très faible
Study of uniaxial nematic lyomesophases by x-ray diffraction and auxiliary techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bittencourt, D.R.S.
1986-01-01
The uniaxial lyotropic nematic liquid crystals made of amphiphile/water/decanol/salt have been studied. The amphiphiles sodium decyl sulphate and sodium dodecil sulphate have been used. Characterization of samples conditioned in plane and cylindrical cells has been made by orthoscopic polarized optical microscopy (OM) and X.ray diffraction (XD) by observation of orientation under surface and magnetic field effects. It was possible to determine the director orientation of uniaxial discotic (N D ) and cylindrical (N C ) samples under surface and magnetic effects by both OM and XD techniques in independent ways. The homologous amphiphilies sodium octil, decil and dodecil sulfate, in powder form, have been studied by Debye-Scherrer technique. Observed reflexions have been indexed and crystallographic parameters determined. Good agreement between calculated and measured densities has been obtained. A crysostat for temperature variation in the interval- 10 0 /60 0 has been constructed, XD diagrams has been obtained for sodium decil sulfate samples allowing determination of phase transitions of two systems. Scattering curves at room temperatures have been obtained in a small-angle X-ray diffractometer. Analysis of profiles allowed determination of short range positional order and correlation ranges. Interference function between scattering objects have been obtained using structural models for the micelles of the uniaxial nematic phases. (author) [pt
Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yogesh K. Murugesan
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.
Spin Triplet Nematic Pairing Symmetry and Superconducting Double Transition in U1-xThxBe13
Machida, Kazushige
2018-03-01
Motivated by a recent experiment on U1-xThxBe13 with x = 3%, we develop a theory to narrow down the possible pair symmetry to consistently describe the double transition utilizing various theoretical tools, including group theory and Ginzburg-Landau theory. It is explained in terms of the two-dimensional representation Eu with spin triplet. Symmetry breaking causes the degenerate Tc to split into two. The low-temperature phase is identified as the cyclic p wave: d(k) = \\hat{x}kx + ɛ \\hat{y}ky + ɛ 2\\hat{z}kz with ɛ3 = 1, whereas the biaxial nematic phase: d(k) = √{3} (\\hat{x}kx - \\hat{y}ky) is the high-temperature one. This allows us to simultaneously identify the uniaxial nematic phase: d(k) = 2\\hat{z}kz - \\hat{x}kx - \\hat{y}ky for UBe13, which spontaneously breaks the cubic symmetry of the system. Those pair functions are fully consistent with this description and existing data. We comment on the accidental scenario in addition to this degeneracy scenario and the intriguing topological nature hidden in this long-known material.
Three-dimensional fluid mechanics of particulate two-phase flows in U-bend and helical conduits
Tiwari, Prashant; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.
2006-04-01
The results of numerous studies performed to date have shown that the performance of various hydraulic systems can be significantly improved by using curved conduit geometries instead of straight tubes. In particular, the formation of Dean vortices, which enhance the development of centrifugal instabilities, has been identified as a factor behind reducing the near-wall concentration buildup in particulate flow devices (e.g., in membrane filtration modules). Still, several issues regarding the effect of conduit curvature on local multidimensional phenomena governing fluid flow still remain open. A related issue is concerned with the impact that conduit geometry makes on the concentration distribution of a dispersed phase in two-phase flows in general, and in particulate flows (solid/liquid or solid/gas suspensions) in particular. It turns out that only very limited efforts have been made in the past to understand the fluid mechanics of such flows via advanced computer simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of full three-dimensional (3D) theoretical and numerical analyses of single- and two-phase dilute particle/liquid flows in U-bend and helical curved conduits. The numerical analysis is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed using a state-of-the-art multiphase flow computer code, NPHASE. The major issues discussed in the first part of the paper are concerned with the effect of curved/coiled geometry on the evolution of flow field and the associated wall shear. It has been demonstrated that the primary curvature (a common factor for both the U-bend and helix geometries) may cause a substantial asymmetry in the radial distribution of the main flow velocity. This, in turn, leads to a significant, albeit highly nonuniform, increase in the wall shear stress. Specifically, the wall shear around the outer half of tube circumference may become twice the corresponding value for a straight tube, and gradually decrease to
Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems
Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.
2010-03-01
We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.
New theories for smectic and nematic liquid crystalline polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowell, F.
1987-01-01
A summary of results from new statistical-physics theories for both backbone and side-chain liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) and for mixtures with LCPs is presented. Thermodynamic and molecular ordering properties (including odd-even effects) have been calculated as a function of pressure, density, temperature, and molecule chemical structures (including degree of polymerization and the following properties of the chemical structures of the repeat units: lengths and shapes, intra-chain rotation energies, dipole moments, site-site polarizabilities and Lennard-Jones potentials, etc.) in nematic and multiple smectic-A LC phases and in the isotropic liquid phase. These theories can also be applied to combined LCPs. Since these theories have no ad hoc or arbitrarily adjustable parameters, these theories have been used to design new LCPs and new solvents and to predict and explain properties
Modeling Defects, Shape Evolution, and Programmed Auto-origami in Liquid Crystal Elastomers
Konya, Andrew; Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Selinger, Robin
2016-06-01
Liquid crystal elastomers represent a novel class of programmable shape-transforming materials whose shape change trajectory is encoded in the material’s nematic director field. Using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element elastodynamics simulation, we model a variety of different actuation geometries and device designs: thin films containing topological defects, patterns that induce formation of folds and twists, and a bas-relief structure. The inclusion of finite bending energy in the simulation model reveals features of actuation trajectory that may be absent when bending energy is neglected. We examine geometries with a director pattern uniform through the film thickness encoding multiple regions of positive Gaussian curvature. Simulations indicate that heating such a system uniformly produces a disordered state with curved regions emerging randomly in both directions due to the film’s up/down symmetry. By contrast, applying a thermal gradient by heating the material first on one side breaks up/down symmetry and results in a deterministic trajectory producing a more ordered final shape. We demonstrate that a folding zone design containing cut-out areas accommodates transverse displacements without warping or buckling; and demonstrate that bas-relief and more complex bent/twisted structures can be assembled by combining simple design motifs.
Modeling Defects, Shape Evolution, and Programmed Auto-origami in Liquid Crystal Elastomers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew eKonya
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Liquid crystal elastomers represent a novel class of programmable shape-transforming materials whose shape change trajectory is encoded in the material’s nematic director field. Using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element elastodynamics simulation, we model a variety of different actuation geometries and device designs: thin films containing topological defects, patterns that induce formation of folds and twists, and a bas-relief structure. The inclusion of finite bending energy in the simulation model reveals features of actuation trajectory that may be absent when bending energy is neglected. We examine geometries with a director pattern uniform through the film thickness encoding multiple regions of positive Gaussian curvature. Simulations indicate that heating such a system uniformly produces a disordered state with curved regions emerging randomly in both directions due to the film’s up/down symmetry. By contrast, applying a thermal gradient by heating the material first on one side breaks up/down symmetry and results in a deterministic trajectory producing a more ordered final shape. We demonstrate that a folding zone design containing cut-out areas accommodates transverse displacements without warping or buckling; and demonstrate that bas-relief and more complex bent/twisted structures can be assembled by combining simple design motifs.
Patz, Aaron; Li, Tianqi; Ran, Sheng; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Schmalian, Joerg; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Perakis, Ilias E.; Wang, Jigang
2014-02-01
Many of the iron pnictides have strongly anisotropic normal-state characteristics, important for the exotic magnetic and superconducting behaviour these materials exhibit. Yet, the origin of the observed anisotropy is unclear. Electronically driven nematicity has been suggested, but distinguishing this as an independent degree of freedom from magnetic and structural orders is difficult, as these couple together to break the same tetragonal symmetry. Here we use time-resolved polarimetry to reveal critical nematic fluctuations in unstrained Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2. The femtosecond anisotropic response, which arises from the two-fold in-plane anisotropy of the complex refractive index, displays a characteristic two-step recovery absent in the isotropic response. The fast recovery appears only in the magnetically ordered state, whereas the slow one persists in the paramagnetic phase with a critical divergence approaching the structural transition temperature. The dynamics also reveal a gigantic magnetoelastic coupling that far exceeds electron-spin and electron-phonon couplings, opposite to conventional magnetic metals.
Nematic elastomers: from a microscopic model to macroscopic elasticity theory.
Xing, Xiangjun; Pfahl, Stephan; Mukhopadhyay, Swagatam; Goldbart, Paul M; Zippelius, Annette
2008-05-01
A Landau theory is constructed for the gelation transition in cross-linked polymer systems possessing spontaneous nematic ordering, based on symmetry principles and the concept of an order parameter for the amorphous solid state. This theory is substantiated with help of a simple microscopic model of cross-linked dimers. Minimization of the Landau free energy in the presence of nematic order yields the neoclassical theory of the elasticity of nematic elastomers and, in the isotropic limit, the classical theory of isotropic elasticity. These phenomenological theories of elasticity are thereby derived from a microscopic model, and it is furthermore demonstrated that they are universal mean-field descriptions of the elasticity for all chemical gels and vulcanized media.
Distinctive orbital anisotropy observed in the nematic state of a FeSe thin film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Yi, M.; Stanford University, CA; Liu, Z.-K.
2016-01-01
Nematic state, where the system is translationally invariant but breaks the rotational symmetry, has drawn great attentions recently due to experimental observations of such a state in both cuprates and iron-based superconductors. The mechanism of nematicity that is likely tied to the pairing mechanism of high-T c , however, still remains controversial. Here, we studied the electronic structure of multilayer FeSe film by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We found that the FeSe film enters the nematic state around 125 K, while the electronic signature of long range magnetic order has not been observed down to 20K indicating the non-magnetic origin of the nematicity. The band reconstruction in the nematic state is characterized by the splitting of the d xz and d yz bands. More intriguingly, such energy splitting is strong momentum dependent with the largest band splitting of ~80 meV at the zone corner. The simple on-site ferro-orbital ordering is insufficient to reproduce the nontrivial momentum dependence of the band reconstruction. Instead, our results suggest that the nearest-neighbor hopping of d xz and d yz is highly anisotropic in the nematic state, the origin of which holds the key in understanding the nematicity in iron-based superconductors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takemura, T.; Roko, K.; Shiraha, M.; Midoriyama, S.
1986-01-01
Experimental results are presented on the flow behavior, pressure drop characteristics, and dryout characteristics by joule heating for the gas-water flow through U-shaped and inverted U-shaped tubes invertical plane. The height of the vertical straight section of the test tube is 4100 mm, and two bend radii, 116 mm and 435 mm, are chosen for the experiments. The test tubes used are of transparent acrylic resin for the flow behavior test, and of stainless steel for the other tests, inside diameter being 18 mm for the former and 18.5 mm for the latter. Flow patterns in the vertical upflow and downflow sections are shown on the diagram of the superficial gas velocity versus liquid velocity. Further, the flow behavior in the bend section is made clear in relation to flow rates of gas and liquid. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the test tube for the made clear in relation to flow rates of gas and liquid. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the test tube for the two-phase flow is shown in comparison with that for the single-phase flow of water. The threshold conditions of dryout in the bend section by joule heatig are shown on the diagram of the superficial gas velocity versus liquid velocity. The location of the dryout in the bend section is also clarified. (orig.)
Thermically tuned nematic guide
Corella-Madueño, Adalberto; Reyes, Juan Adrián
2006-06-01
We consider a cylindrical fiber with a liquid crystal core satisfying homeotropic weak anchoring boundary conditions. We find the different textures of the nematic inside the cylinder obtained by changing the temperature. We calculate exactly the spatial distribution of the transverse magnetic modes in the guide as a function of temperature of the system by using a numerical scheme.
Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields
Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ohuchi, Mikio
2017-06-01
We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo.
Observations on discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, Stephen R.
2005-01-01
I make a number of observations concerning discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD that can be deduced by applying chiral perturbation theory including lattice artifacts. (1) The line along which the partially conserved axial current quark mass vanishes in the untwisted-mass-twisted-mass plane makes an angle to the twisted-mass axis which is a direct measure of O(a) terms in the chiral Lagrangian, and is found numerically to be large; (2) Numerical results for pionic quantities in the mass plane show the qualitative properties predicted by chiral perturbation theory, in particular, an asymmetry in slopes between positive and negative untwisted quark masses; (3) By extending the description of the 'Aoki regime' (where m q ∼a 2 Λ QCD 3 ) to next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory I show how the phase-transition lines and lines of maximal twist (using different definitions) extend into this region, and give predictions for the functional form of pionic quantities; (4) I argue that the recent claim that lattice artifacts at maximal twist have apparent infrared singularities in the chiral limit results from expanding about the incorrect vacuum state. Shifting to the correct vacuum (as can be done using chiral perturbation theory) the apparent singularities are summed into nonsingular, and furthermore predicted, forms. I further argue that there is no breakdown in the Symanzik expansion in powers of lattice spacing, and no barrier to simulating at maximal twist in the Aoki regime
Effective potentials for twisted fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banach, R.
1981-01-01
Minus the density of the effective action, evaluated at the lowest eigenfunction of the (space-time) derivative part of the second (functional) derivative of the classical action, is proposed as a generalised definition of the effective potential, applicable to twisted as well as untwisted sectors of a field theory. The proposal is corroborated by several specific calculations in the twisted sector, namely phi 4 theory (real and complex) and wrong-sign-Gordon theory, in an Einstein cylinder, where the exact integrability of the static solutions confirms the effective potential predictions. Both models exhibit a phase transition, which the effective potential locates, and the one-loop quantum shift in the critical radius is computed for the real phi 4 model, being a universal result. Topological mass generation at the classical level is pointed out, and the exactness of the classical effective potential approximation for complex phi 4 is discussed. (author)
Naked eye picometer resolution in a Michelson interferometer using conjugated twisted beams.
Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine
2017-01-15
Michelson interferometry is one of the most widely used techniques for accuracy measurements. Its main characteristic feature is to infer a displacement in one of the arms of the interferometer from a phase measurement. Two different twisted beams, also called vortex beams, with opposite twisted rotations in each arm of the interferometer interfere in a daisy flower-like pattern. The number of petals is twice the topological charge. Their position depends on the relative phase of the beams. Naked eye detection of 44 pm displacements is achieved. The sensitivity of such an interferometer together with possible further improvements, and applications are then discussed.
Results of two-phase natural circulation in hot-leg U-bend simulation experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Lee, S.Y.; Abou El-Seoud, S.
1987-01-01
In order to study the two-phase natural circulation and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed using two different thermal-hydraulic loops. The main focus of the experiment was the two-phase flow behavior in the hot-leg U-bend typical of BandW LWR systems. The first group of experiments was carried out in the nitrogen gas-water adiabatic simulation loop and the second in the Freon 113 boiling and condensation loop. Both of the loops have been designed as a flow visualization facility and built according to the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program. The nitrogen gas-water system has been used to isolate key hydrodynamic phenomena such as the phase distribution, relative velocity between phases, two-phase flow regimes and flow termination mechanisms, whereas the Freon loop has been used to study the effect of fluid properties, phase changes and coupling between hydrodynamic and heat transfer phenomena. Significantly different behaviors have been observed due to the non-equilibrium phase change phenomena such as the flashing and condensation in the Freon loop. The phenomena created much more unstable hydrodynamic conditions which lead to cyclic or oscillatory flow behaviors
Tasinkevych, Mykola; Campbell, Michael G; Smalyukh, Ivan I
2014-11-18
Topologically nontrivial field excitations, including solitonic, linked, and knotted structures, play important roles in physical systems ranging from classical fluids and liquid crystals, to electromagnetism, classic, and quantum field theories. These excitations can appear spontaneously during symmetry-breaking phase transitions. For example, in cosmological theories, cosmic strings may have formed knotted configurations influencing the Early Universe development, whereas in liquid crystals transient tangled defect lines were observed during isotropic-nematic transitions, eventually relaxing to defect-free states. Knotted and solitonic fields and defects were also obtained using optical manipulation, complex-shaped colloids, and frustrated cholesterics. Here we use confinement of nematic liquid crystal by closed surfaces with varied genus and perpendicular boundary conditions for a robust control of appearance and stability of such field excitations. Theoretical modeling and experiments reveal structure of defect lines as a function of the surface topology and material and geometric parameters, establishing a robust means of controlling solitonic, knotted, linked, and other field excitations.
Chiral-nematic liquid crystals as one dimensional photonic materials in optical sensors
Mulder, D.J.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.
2014-01-01
Current developments in the field of thermotropic chiral-nematic liquid crystals as sensors are discussed. These one dimensional photonic materials are based on low molecular weight liquid crystals and chiral-nematic polymeric networks. For both low molecular weight LCs and polymer networks,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shindler, A.
2007-07-01
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2007-07-15
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
Twisted network programming essentials
Fettig, Abe
2005-01-01
Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s
Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors.
Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-Feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang
2017-10-13
High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.
Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors
Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang
2017-10-01
High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.
Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri
2005-01-01
We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padilla, Miguel; Revellin, Rémi; Wallet, Jérémy; Bonjour, Jocelyn
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Visual observation of two-phase flow regimes during downward flow in a return bend. ► Bubble and vapor slug dynamical behaviors in downward slug flow are reported. ► Perturbation lengths up- and downstream of the return bend have been investigated. ► Measurement of 285 pressure drop data points for HFO-1234yf, R-134a and R-410A. -- Abstract: This paper provides a qualitative visual observation of the two-phase flow patterns for HFO-1234yf and R-134a during downward flow in a vertical 6.7 mm inner diameter glass return bend. The different flow regimes observed are: slug, intermittent and annular flows. Bubble and vapor slug dynamical behaviors in downward slug flow are reported for HFO-1234yf. In addition, to determine the perturbation lengths up- and downstream of the return bend, the total pressure drop has been measured at different pressure tap location up- and downstream of the singularity. Furthermore, 285 pressure drop data points measured for two-phase flow of HFO-1234yf, R-134a and R-410A in vertical downward flow return bends are presented. The flow behavior in the return bend, which is subjected to the complex combined actions of gravity and centrifugal force was expressed in terms of the vapor Froude number. This experimental pressure drop database, which is included in the appendix, is compared to four well-known prediction methods available in the literature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poursamad, J.B. [Physics & Optic Engineering Group, University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Phirouznia, A. [Department of Physics, Azerbaijan ShahidMadani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahrai, M. [Research Institue for Applied Physics and Astronomy, Univerity of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-11-01
Possibility of observing third thermomechanical (TM) effect in uniform nematic liquid crystals (NLC) with proper selection of boundary conditions on the cell walls is theoretically studied. Absorption of a light wave induces the needed temperature gradient for the TM effect. The molecular director reorientation due to third TM effect and the induced phase shift on the probe beam are calculated. The forth TM coefficient can be measured directly by the method proposed in this work.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of asymmetric flow in nematic liquid crystals with finite anchoring
Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; Aranson, Igor S.; de Pablo, Juan J.
2016-02-01
Liquid crystals (LCs) display many of the flow characteristics of liquids but exhibit long range orientational order. In the nematic phase, the coupling of structure and flow leads to complex hydrodynamic effects that remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics of a nematic LC in a hybrid cell, where opposite walls have conflicting anchoring boundary conditions, and we employ a 3D lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the time-dependent flow patterns that can arise. Due to the symmetry breaking of the director field within the hybrid cell, we observe that at low to moderate shear rates, the volumetric flow rate under Couette and Poiseuille flows is different for opposite flow directions. At high shear rates, the director field may undergo a topological transition which leads to symmetric flows. By applying an oscillatory pressure gradient to the channel, a net volumetric flow rate is found to depend on the magnitude and frequency of the oscillation, as well as the anchoring strength. Taken together, our findings suggest several intriguing new applications for LCs in microfluidic devices.
Twisted injectivity in projected entangled pair states and the classification of quantum phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buerschaper, Oliver, E-mail: obuerschaper@perimeterinstitute.ca
2014-12-15
We introduce a class of projected entangled pair states (PEPS) which is based on a group symmetry twisted by a 3-cocycle of the group. This twisted symmetry is expressed as a matrix product operator (MPO) with bond dimension greater than 1 and acts on the virtual boundary of a PEPS tensor. We show that it gives rise to a new standard form for PEPS from which we construct a family of local Hamiltonians which are gapped, frustration-free and include fixed points of the renormalization group flow. Based on this insight, we advance the classification of 2D gapped quantum spin systems by showing how this new standard form for PEPS determines the emergent topological order of these local Hamiltonians. Specifically, we identify their universality class as DIJKGRAAF–WITTEN topological quantum field theory (TQFT). - Highlights: • We introduce a new standard form for projected entangled pair states via a twisted group symmetry which is given by nontrivial matrix product operators. • We construct a large family of gapped, frustration-free Hamiltonians in two dimensions from this new standard form. • We rigorously show how this new standard form for low energy states determines the emergent topological order.
Lie-deformed quantum Minkowski spaces from twists: Hopf-algebraic versus Hopf-algebroid approach
Lukierski, Jerzy; Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel; Woronowicz, Mariusz
2018-02-01
We consider new Abelian twists of Poincare algebra describing nonsymmetric generalization of the ones given in [1], which lead to the class of Lie-deformed quantum Minkowski spaces. We apply corresponding twist quantization in two ways: as generating quantum Poincare-Hopf algebra providing quantum Poincare symmetries, and by considering the quantization which provides Hopf algebroid describing class of quantum relativistic phase spaces with built-in quantum Poincare covariance. If we assume that Lorentz generators are orbital i.e. do not describe spin degrees of freedom, one can embed the considered generalized phase spaces into the ones describing the quantum-deformed Heisenberg algebras.
Topological Nematic States and Non-Abelian Lattice Dislocations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maissam Barkeshli
2012-08-01
Full Text Available An exciting new prospect in condensed matter physics is the possibility of realizing fractional quantum Hall states in simple lattice models without a large external magnetic field. A fundamental question is whether qualitatively new states can be realized on the lattice as compared with ordinary fractional quantum Hall states. Here we propose new symmetry-enriched topological states, topological nematic states, which are a dramatic consequence of the interplay between the lattice translational symmetry and topological properties of these fractional Chern insulators. The topological nematic states are realized in a partially filled flat band with a Chern number N, which can be mapped to an N-layer quantum Hall system on a regular lattice. However, in the topological nematic states the lattice dislocations can act as wormholes connecting the different layers and effectively change the topology of the space. Consequently, lattice dislocations become defects with a nontrivial quantum dimension, even when the fractional quantum Hall state being realized is, by itself, Abelian. Our proposal leads to the possibility of realizing the physics of topologically ordered states on high-genus surfaces in the lab even though the sample has only the disk geometry.
Probing Active Nematic Films with Magnetically Manipulated Colloids
Rivas, David; Chen, Kui; Henry, Robert; Reich, Daniel; Leheny, Robert
We study microtubule-based extensile active nematic films using rod-like and disk-shaped magnetic colloids to probe the mechanical and hydrodynamic properties of this quasi-two dimensional out-of-equilibrium system. The active nematics are driven by molecular motors that hydrolyze ATP and cause sliding motion between microtubular bundles. This motion produces a dynamic nematic director field, which continuously creates pairs of +1/2 and -1/2 defects. In the absence of externally applied forces or torques, we observe that the magnetic rods in contact with the films align with the local director, indicating the existence of mechanical coupling between the film and probe. By applying known magnetic torques to the rods and observing their rotation with respect to the director, we gain insight into this coupling. We also find that by rotating magnetic microdisks using magnetic fields, hydrodynamic flows are produced that compete with the films' intrinsic flow, leading to significant effects on the director field and the defect landscape. At certain rotation rates, the disks produce a vortex-like structure in the director field and cause the creation and shedding of defects from the disk boundary.
Topological Nematic States and Non-Abelian Lattice Dislocations
Barkeshli, Maissam; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2012-07-01
An exciting new prospect in condensed matter physics is the possibility of realizing fractional quantum Hall states in simple lattice models without a large external magnetic field. A fundamental question is whether qualitatively new states can be realized on the lattice as compared with ordinary fractional quantum Hall states. Here we propose new symmetry-enriched topological states, topological nematic states, which are a dramatic consequence of the interplay between the lattice translational symmetry and topological properties of these fractional Chern insulators. The topological nematic states are realized in a partially filled flat band with a Chern number N, which can be mapped to an N-layer quantum Hall system on a regular lattice. However, in the topological nematic states the lattice dislocations can act as wormholes connecting the different layers and effectively change the topology of the space. Consequently, lattice dislocations become defects with a nontrivial quantum dimension, even when the fractional quantum Hall state being realized is, by itself, Abelian. Our proposal leads to the possibility of realizing the physics of topologically ordered states on high-genus surfaces in the lab even though the sample has only the disk geometry.
Role of electronic nematicity in the interplay between s- and d-wave broken-symmetry states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kee, Hae-Young
2010-01-01
To understand the role of electronic nematic order in the interplay between s- and d-wave particle-particle or particle-hole condensate states, relations between various s- and d-wave order parameters are studied. We find that the nematic operator transforms two independent six-dimensional vectors. The d-wave superconducting, d-density wave, and antiferromagnetic orders are organized into one vector, and the s-wave superconducting, charge density wave, and spin-triplet d-density wave orders into the other vector. Each vector acts as a superspin and transforms under the action of SO(6) where charge, spin, η- and π-pairing, spin-triplet nematic operators satisfy the SO(6) Lie algebra. Electronic nematic order is not a part of the SO(6) group. It commutes with all 15 generators. Our findings imply that nematic order does not affect the competition among the order parameters within the same superspin, while it strongly interferes the interplay between two order parameters that belong to different superspins. For example, nematicity allows a linear coupling between d- and s-wave superconducting order parameters which modifies the superconducting transition temperature. A generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory and further physical implications are discussed.
Composite beam analysis linear analysis of naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beams
Borri, Marco; Ghiringhelli, Gian L.; Merlini, Teodoro
1992-05-01
The aim of this report is to present a consistent theory for the deformation of a naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beam. The proposed formulation naturally extends the classical Saint-Venant approach to the case of curved and twisted anisotropic beams. The mathematical model developed under the assumption of span-wise uniform cross-section, curvature and twist, can take into account any kind of elastic coupling due to the material properties and the curved geometry. The consistency of the presented math-model and its generality about the cross-sectional shape, make it a useful tool even in a preliminary design optimization context such as the aeroelastic tailoring of helicopter rotor blades. The advantage of the present procedure is that it only requires a two-dimensional discretization; thus, very detailed analyses can be performed and interlaminar stresses between laminae can be evaluated. Such analyses would be extremely time consuming if performed with standard finite element codes: that prevents their recursive use as for example when optimizing a beam design. Moreover, as a byproduct of the proposed formulation, one obtains the constitutive law of the cross-section in terms of stress resultant and moment and their conjugate strain measures. This constitutive law takes into account any kind of elastic couplings, e.g., torsion-tension, tension-shear, bending-shear, and constitutes a fundamental input in aeroelastic analyses of helicopter blades. Four simple examples are given in order to show the principal features of the method.
Twisted classical Poincare algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.
1993-11-01
We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)
Electro-optic studies of the flexoelectric effect in chiral nematic liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musgrave, B.
2000-01-01
With the advent of global telecommunications networks and the Internet, the development of portable display technology has gained a new impetus. Liquid crystal devices have played a major role in this area, most conspicuously as displays in laptop computers. To date, these liquid crystalline devices have been generally based on the rather slow (∼ 30 ms) dielectric response of the achiral nematic liquid crystal phase, although more expensive devices based on the faster ( -1 m -1 , and are the highest measured to date: the highest value previously published is 0.12 C N -1 m -1 , measured for the commercial mixture TM216. In order to interpret the effect of the bimesogens' molecular structure, achiral nematic monomesogens and bimesogens have been doped with chiral additives and the resultant mixtures' flexoelectro-optic properties have been analysed. From this work it has been possible to determine that the polar cyanobiphenyl group is the key to the strong response in the estradiol-cyanobiphenyl materials. In conclusion, a recommendation is made, for the first time, for a general molecular structure likely to exhibit a strong flexoelectro-optic response: namely, bimesogenic materials composed of highly polar end groups separated by a flexible spacer. (author)
Generalised twisted partition functions
Petkova, V B
2001-01-01
We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.
Modulational instability of nematic phase
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-02-08
Feb 8, 2014 ... all phases show MI, but at the same time it has also been found that for antiferro- magnetic phase, MI depends on the relative .... with wave functions, time and spatial coordinates are measured in the units of. (¯h/2mωz)−3/2, ω−1 ... The manipulation of the resulting matrix gives eigenvalues. From the form of ...
Radiative capture of cold neutrons by protons and deuteron photodisintegration with twisted beams
Afanasev, Andrei; Serbo, Valeriy G.; Solyanik, Maria
2018-05-01
We consider two basic nuclear reactions: capture of neutrons by protons, n + p → γ + d, and its time-reversed counterpart, photodisintegration of the deuteron, γ + d → n + p. In both of these cases we assume that the incoming beam of neutrons or photons is ‘twisted’ by having an azimuthal phase dependence, i.e., it carries an additional angular momentum along its direction of propagation. Taking a low-energy limit of these reactions, we derive relations between corresponding transition amplitudes and cross sections with plane-wave beams and twisted beams. Implications for experiments with twisted cold neutrons and twisted photon beams are discussed.
Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim
2018-04-01
Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.
Topological transitions in unidirectional flow of nematic liquid crystal
Cummings, Linda; Anderson, Thomas; Mema, Ensela; Kondic, Lou
2015-11-01
Recent experiments by Sengupta et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2013) revealed interesting transitions that can occur in flow of nematic liquid crystal under carefully controlled conditions within a long microfluidic channel of rectangular cross-section, with homeotropic anchoring at the walls. At low flow rates the director field of the nematic adopts a configuration that is dominated by the surface anchoring, being nearly parallel to the channel height direction over most of the cross-section; but at high flow rates there is a transition to a flow-dominated state, where the director configuration at the channel centerline is aligned with the flow (perpendicular to the channel height direction). We analyze simple channel-flow solutions to the Leslie-Ericksen model for nematics. We demonstrate that two solutions exist, at all flow rates, but that there is a transition between the elastic free energies of these solutions: the anchoring-dominated solution has the lowest energy at low flow rates, and the flow-dominated solution has lowest energy at high flow rates. NSF DMS 1211713.
Arbab-Chirani, Reza; Chevalier, Valérie; Arbab-Chirani, Shabnam; Calloch, Sylvain
2011-01-01
The objectives of this study were to compare numerically the bending and torsional mechanical behavior of 5 endodontic rotary Ni-Ti instruments with equivalent size and various designs for tapers, pitch, and cutting blades.First, the geometries of Hero (20/0.06), HeroShaper (20/0.06), ProFile (20/0.06), Mtwo (20/0.06), and ProTaper F1 were generated by finite element code. Then, the 2 most representative clinical loadings, i.e., bending and torsion, were studied with an ad hoc model for the superelasticity of Ni-Ti. Bending was generated by tip deflection and torsion by a constant twist-angle of the tip. Mechanical behavior of these 5 endodontic rotary Ni-Ti instruments could be evaluated and compared. Protaper F1 presented the greatest level of bending stress and torque. Hero and HeroShaper were more rigid than ProFile and Mtwo. This numerical comparison evaluated the effects of the geometrical parameters on the instrumental mechanical behavior. The 5 endodontic instruments, investigated in the present study, do not have the same bending and torsional mechanical behavior. Each clinician must be aware of these behavior differences so as to use the adequate file according to the clinical situation and to the manufacturer's recommendations. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Jian; Wang, Huihui; Cao, Hui; Ding, Hangjun; Yang, Zhou; Yang, Huai; Wang, Ling; Xie, Hui; Luo, Xueyao; Xiao, Jiumei
2014-01-01
A smart polymer stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) thin film with temperature-controllable light transmittance was prepared based on a smectic-A (SmA)–chiral nematic (N*) phase transition, and then the effect of the composition and the preparation condition of the PSLC film on its thermo-optical (T-O) characteristics has been investigated in detail. Within the temperature range of the SmA phase, the PSLC shows a strong opaque state due to the focal conic alignment of liquid crystal (LC) molecules, while the film exhibits a transparent state result from the parallel alignment of N* phase LC molecules at a higher temperature. Importantly, the PSLC films with different temperature of phase transition and contrast ratio can be prepared by changing the composition of photo-polymerizable monomer/LC/chiral dopant. According to the competition between the polymerization of the curable monomers and the diffusion of LC molecules, the ultraviolet (UV) curing surrounding temperature and the intensity of UV irradiation play a critical role in tuning the size of the polymer network meshes, which in turn influence the contrast ratio and the switching speed of the film. Our observations are expected to pave the way for preparing smart PSLC thin films for applications in areas of smart windows, thermo-detectors and other information recording devices. (paper)
Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ohuchi, Mikio
2017-01-01
We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo. - Highlights: • The principal aim of this research is to contribute to the utilization of the twisted fields for the most effective blood-flow in vivo. • Two newly designed coil systems were used for producing a desirably twisted magnetic field under the measuring domain in the flow channel. • Further, we investigated the magnetohydrodynamic efficiencies of a prototype of a magnetic device, which was converted from use as a commercial alternating magnetic therapy apparatus. • The system was well-constructed with a successful application of a plural exposure coil; therefore, we were able to detect a maximum of induced electromotive force in a fluid of an artificial solution as a substitute for blood. • This new finding demonstrates that the process of blood massotherapy by magnetic stimuli is a therapy for many diseases.
Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakagawa, Hidenori, E-mail: hnakagawa-tdt@umin.ac.jp; Ohuchi, Mikio
2017-06-01
We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo. - Highlights: • The principal aim of this research is to contribute to the utilization of the twisted fields for the most effective blood-flow in vivo. • Two newly designed coil systems were used for producing a desirably twisted magnetic field under the measuring domain in the flow channel. • Further, we investigated the magnetohydrodynamic efficiencies of a prototype of a magnetic device, which was converted from use as a commercial alternating magnetic therapy apparatus. • The system was well-constructed with a successful application of a plural exposure coil; therefore, we were able to detect a maximum of induced electromotive force in a fluid of an artificial solution as a substitute for blood. • This new finding demonstrates that the process of blood massotherapy by magnetic stimuli is a therapy for many diseases.
Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matlock, Peter
2005-01-01
The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra
Coupling between shear and bending in the analysis of beam problems: Planar case
Shabana, Ahmed A.; Patel, Mohil
2018-04-01
The interpretation of invariants, such as curvatures which uniquely define the bending and twist of space curves and surfaces, is fundamental in the formulation of the beam and plate elastic forces. Accurate representations of curve and surface invariants, which enter into the definition of the strain energy equations, is particularly important in the case of large displacement analysis. This paper discusses this important subject in view of the fact that shear and bending are independent modes of deformation and do not have kinematic coupling; this is despite the fact that kinetic coupling may exist. The paper shows, using simple examples, that shear without bending and bending without shear at an arbitrary point and along a certain direction are scenarios that higher-order finite elements (FE) can represent with a degree of accuracy that depends on the order of interpolation and/or mesh size. The FE representation of these two kinematically uncoupled modes of deformation is evaluated in order to examine the effect of the order of the polynomial interpolation on the accuracy of representing these two independent modes. It is also shown in this paper that not all the curvature vectors contribute to bending deformation. In view of the conclusions drawn from the analysis of simple beam problems, the material curvature used in several previous investigations is evaluated both analytically and numerically. The problems associated with the material curvature matrix, obtained using the rotation of the beam cross-section, and the fundamental differences between this material curvature matrix and the Serret-Frenet curvature matrix are discussed.
Flow visualization study of two-phase flow in a single bend outlet feeder pipe of a CANDU reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savalaxs, S.-A.; Lister, D.H.; Steward, F.R.
2005-01-01
In CANDU reactors, the feeder piping that is used to direct the high-temperature water coolant between the fuel channels and the steam generators is made of carbon steel. Since 1996, several CANDU stations have reported excessive corrosion of their outlet feeders. The first metre is particularity vulnerable because the piping there consists of single or double bends, which have relatively thin walls produced by the bending process. Early studies related the attack to the hydrodynamics of the coolant and verified that it was a type of flow-accelerated corrosion. In order to understand the hydrodynamics of the coolant in the outlet feeders by flow visualization, a full-scale transparent test section simulating the geometry and orientation of an outlet feeder bend with its upstream components was fabricated. The feeder consisted of a 54 mm diameter acrylic pipe with a 73 degree bend. This was connected to the upstream component with an acrylic simulation of a Grayloc flanged fitting. A test loop supplied room temperature water to the test section at flow rates up to 0.019 m3/s. Air could be injected into the water to give a mean volume fraction of up to 0.56. In this preliminary investigation, the size and velocity of air bubbles at different flow conditions and their distribution within the pipe bend were studied. Particular attention was paid to the flow pattern at the inside of the bend, where a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) code - Fluent 6.1-had failed to predict a liquid film in an earlier study. A high-speed digital video camera was used to determine the relation between bubble size and velocity. Such a relation should help to explain the discrepancy in the CFD modelling and provide the basis for accurate predictions of phase distribution in complex geometries at high flow rates. (authors)
Optical security devices using nonuniform schlieren texture of UV-curable nematic liquid crystal.
Nakayama, Keizo; Ohtsubo, Junji
2016-02-10
We proposed and quantitatively evaluated an optical security device that provides nonuniform or random patterns of schlieren texture in nematic liquid crystal as unique identification information with a design by employing computer image processing and normalized cross correlation. Using the same photomask as the first author's university logo, the written patterns, which were composed of polymerized isotropic areas and polymerized nematic areas, were stable among different cells. Judging from the maximum correlation coefficient of 0.09, the patterns of the schlieren texture were unique in different cells. These results indicate that photocurable nematic liquid crystal materials have the potential to be applied to security devices for anticounterfeiting measures.
TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling
Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori
2014-01-01
We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.
On the twist-2 and twist-3 contributions to the spin-dependent electroweak structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.
1997-01-01
The twist-2 and twist-3 contributions of the polarized deep-inelastic structure functions are calculated both for neutral and charged current interactions using the operator product expansion in lowest order in QCD. The relations between the different structure functions are determined. New integral relations are derived between the twist-2 contributions of the structure functions g 3 (x,Q 2 ) and g 5 (x,Q 2 ) and between combinations of the twist-3 contributions to the structure functions g 2 (x,Q 2 ) and g 3 (x,Q 2 ). The sum rules for polarized deep-inelastic scattering are discussed in detail. (orig.)
Twisted rudder for reducing fuel-oil consumption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung-Hun Kim
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Three twisted rudders fit for large container ships have been developed; 1 the Z-twisted rudder that is an asymmetry type taking into consideration incoming flow angles of the propeller slipstream, 2 the ZB-twisted rudder with a rudder bulb added onto the Z-twisted rudder, and 3 the ZB-F twisted rudder with a rudder fin attached to the ZB-twisted rudder. The twisted rudders have been designed computationally with the hydrodynamic characteristics in a self-propulsion condition in mind. The governing equation is the Navier-Stokes equations in an unsteady turbulent flow. The turbulence model applied is the Reynolds stress. The calculation was carried out in towing and self-propulsion conditions. The sliding mesh technique was employed to simulate the flow around the propeller. The speed performances of the ship with the twisted rudders were verified through model tests in a towing tank. The twisted versions showed greater performance driven by increased hull efficiency from less thrust deduction fraction and more effective wake fraction and decreased propeller rotating speed.
Investigation of the liquid crystalline phase transitions using the new modified Pople Karasz model
Yazıcı, Mustafa; Özgan, Şükrü; Keskin, Mustafa
2005-09-01
Thermodynamics of solid nematic and nematic isotropic liquid transitions are studied by using a new modified model that combines the modified theories of Chandrasekhar et al. with those Keskin and Özgan which are based on the Pople Karasz theory. The thermodynamic properties of the disordered system are evaluated relative to those of the perfectly ordered one within the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method which is identical to the mean-field approximation. The results are compared with the some available experimental data, the predictions of the original Pople Karasz (PK) theory and its previous modified theories. For nematic isotropic and s(nematic) at the transition temperatures, the agreement is very good and much better than the predictions of the PK theory and its previous modified theories. For the solid nematic transition, all theories give very nearly the same results, but the values are significantly lower than the observed data. Moreover, one of the theoretical phase diagrams is also qualitatively similar to the experimental phase diagram for p-azoxyphenetole (PAA).
Investigation of the liquid crystalline phase transitions using the new modified Pople-Karasz model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yazici, Mustafa; Oezgan, Suekrue; Keskin, Mustafa
2005-01-01
Thermodynamics of solid-nematic and nematic-isotropic liquid transitions are studied by using a new modified model that combines the modified theories of Chandrasekhar et al. with those Keskin and Oezgan which are based on the Pople-Karasz theory. The thermodynamic properties of the disordered system are evaluated relative to those of the perfectly ordered one within the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method which is identical to the mean-field approximation. The results are compared with the some available experimental data, the predictions of the original Pople-Karasz (PK) theory and its previous modified theories. For nematic-isotropic and s(nematic) at the transition temperatures, the agreement is very good and much better than the predictions of the PK theory and its previous modified theories. For the solid-nematic transition, all theories give very nearly the same results, but the values are significantly lower than the observed data. Moreover, one of the theoretical phase diagrams is also qualitatively similar to the experimental phase diagram for p-azoxyphenetole (PAA)
Schoen, Martin; Haslam, Andrew J; Jackson, George
2017-10-24
The phase behavior and structure of a simple square-well bulk fluid with anisotropic interactions is described in detail. The orientation dependence of the intermolecular interactions allows for the formation of a nematic liquid-crystalline phase in addition to the more conventional isotropic gas and liquid phases. A version of classical density functional theory (DFT) is employed to determine the properties of the model, and comparisons are made with the corresponding data from Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles, providing a benchmark to assess the adequacy of the DFT results. A novel element of the DFT approach is the assumption that the structure of the fluid is dominated by intermolecular interactions in the isotropic fluid. A so-called augmented modified mean-field (AMMF) approximation is employed accounting for the influence of anisotropic interactions. The AMMF approximation becomes exact in the limit of vanishing density. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of the AMMF approximation with respect to an accurate description of isotropic and nematic branches of the phase diagram, the degree of orientational order, and orientation-dependent pair correlations. The performance of the AMMF approximations is found to be good in comparison with the MC data; the AMMF approximation has clear advantages with respect to an accurate and more detailed description of the fluid structure. Possible strategies to improve the DFT are discussed.
Cooper pair induced frustration and nematicity of two-dimensional magnetic adatom lattices
Schecter, Michael; Syljuâsen, Olav F.; Paaske, Jens
2018-05-01
We propose utilizing the Cooper pair to induce magnetic frustration in systems of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic adatom lattices on s -wave superconducting surfaces. The competition between singlet electron correlations and the RKKY coupling is shown to lead to a variety of hidden-order states that break the point-group symmetry of the 2D adatom lattice at finite temperature. The phase diagram is constructed using a newly developed effective bond theory [M. Schecter et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 157202 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.157202], and exhibits broad regions of long-range vestigial nematic order.
Solution of semi-flexible self-avoiding trails on a Husimi lattice built with squares
Oliveira, Tiago J.; Dantas, Wellington G.; Prellberg, Thomas; Stilck, Jürgen F.
2018-02-01
We study a model of semi-flexible self-avoiding trails, where the lattice paths are constrained to visit each lattice edge at most once, with configurations weighted by the number of collisions, crossings and bends, on a Husimi lattice built with squares. We find a rich phase diagram with five phases: a non-polymerised phase (NP), low density (P1) and high density (P2) polymerised phases, and, for sufficiently large stiffness, two additional anisotropic (nematic) (AN1 and AN2) polymerised phases within the P1 phase. Moreover, the AN1 phase which shows a broken symmetry with a preferential direction, is separated from the P1 phase by the other nematic AN2 phase. Although this scenario is similar to what was found in our previous calculation on the Bethe lattice, where the AN-P1 transition was discontinuous and critical, the presence of the additional nematic phase between them introduces a qualitative difference. Other details of the phase diagram are that a line of tri-critical points may separate the P1-P2 transition surface into a continuous and a discontinuous portion, and that the same may happen at the NP-P1 transition surface, details of which depend on whether crossings are allowed or forbidden. A critical end-point line is also found in the phase diagram.
Wrinkles, loops, and topological defects in twisted ribbons
Chopin, Julien
Nature abounds with elastic ribbon like shapes including double-stranded semiflexible polymers, graphene and metal oxide nanoribbons which are examples of elongated elastic structures with a strongly anisotropic cross-section. Due to this specific geometry, it is far from trivial to anticipate if a ribbon should be considered as a flat flexible filament or a narrow thin plate. We thus perform an experiment in which a thin elastic ribbon is loaded using a twisting and traction device coupled with a micro X-ray computed tomography machine allowing a full 3D shape reconstruction. A wealth of morphological behaviors can be observed including wrinkled helicoids, curled and looped configurations, and faceted ribbons. In this talk, I will show that most morphologies can be understood using a far-from-threshold approach and simple scaling arguments. Further, we find that the various shapes can be organized in a phase diagram using the twist, the tension, and the geometry of the ribbon as control parameters. Finally, I will discuss the spontaneous formation of topological defects with negatively-signed Gaussian charge at large twist and small but finite stretch.
Quantum mechanics in phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Frank
1984-01-01
A reformulation of quantum mechanics for a finite system is given using twisted multiplication of functions on phase space and Tomita's theory of generalized Hilbert algebras. Quantization of a classical observable h is achieved when the twisted exponential Exp0(-h) is defined as a tempered....... Generalized Weyl-Wigner maps related to the notion of Hamiltonian weight are studied and used in the formulation of a twisted spectral theory for functions on phase space. Some inequalities for Wigner functions on phase space are proven. A brief discussion of the classical limit obtained through dilations...
The Monte Carlo simulations of liquid crystal cell with bend distortions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Xuan; Zhang Zhidong
2010-01-01
Strong anchoring nematic liquid crystal cell with bend distortions is studied, This liquid crystal cell has fast response in application prospects. The continuum theory has given that the surface elastic energy k 13 term causes surface discontinuities of the liquid crystal director. Study based on molecular theory, the pair potential parameters link directly to the surface elastic energy coefficient k 13 . The effect of finite temperature is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The second rank ordering tensor is calculated, the largest eigenvalue gives the order parameter, and its corresponding eigenvector identifies the director in the continuum theory. It is shown that it doesn't present the surface discontinuities based on the molecular theory and the k 13 term in pair potential will increase the fluctuation in the middle of the cell. By inference, the boundary discontinuity caused by k 13 item in continuum theory is resulted from the neglecting of the higher items than the second rank of the elastic energy. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.F. Holovko
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The scaled particle theory is developed for the description of thermodynamical properties of a mixture of hard spheres and hard spherocylinders. Analytical expressions for free energy, pressure and chemical potentials are derived. From the minimization of free energy, a nonlinear integral equation for the orientational singlet distribution function is formulated. An isotropic-nematic phase transition in this mixture is investigated from the bifurcation analysis of this equation. It is shown that with an increase of concentration of hard spheres, the total packing fraction of a mixture on phase boundaries slightly increases. The obtained results are compared with computer simulations data.
Effect of Magnetic Twist on Nonlinear Transverse Kink Oscillations of Line-tied Magnetic Flux Tubes
Terradas, J.; Magyar, N.; Van Doorsselaere, T.
2018-01-01
Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in many structures of the solar atmosphere. One of the effects of twist is to modify the properties of the eigenmodes of magnetic tubes. In the linear regime standing kink solutions are characterized by a change in polarization of the transverse displacement along the twisted tube. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic twist affects the development of shear instabilities that appear at the tube boundary when it is oscillating laterally. These Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) are produced either by the jump in the azimuthal component of the velocity at the edge of the sharp boundary between the internal and external part of the tube or by the continuous small length scales produced by phase mixing when there is a smooth inhomogeneous layer. In this work the effect of twist is consistently investigated by solving the time-dependent problem including the process of energy transfer to the inhomogeneous layer. It is found that twist always delays the appearance of the shear instability, but for tubes with thin inhomogeneous layers the effect is relatively small for moderate values of twist. On the contrary, for tubes with thick layers, the effect of twist is much stronger. This can have some important implications regarding observations of transverse kink modes and the KHI itself.
Continuous director-field transformation of nematic tactoids
Prinsen, P.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.
2004-01-01
We theoretically investigate the director field inside spindle-shaped nematic droplets, known as tactoids. Tactoids typically form in dispersions of rod-like colloidal particles. By optimising the bulk elastic and surface energies, we find that the director field crosses over smoothly from a
Thermal diode made by nematic liquid crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melo, Djair, E-mail: djfmelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Av. Lourival Melo Mota, s/n, 57072-900 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Fernandes, Ivna [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Av. Lourival Melo Mota, s/n, 57072-900 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Moraes, Fernando [Departamento de Física, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Fumeron, Sébastien [Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, BP 239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Pereira, Erms [Escola Politécnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco, Rua Benfíca, 455, Madalena, 50720-001 Recife, PE (Brazil)
2016-09-07
This work investigates how a thermal diode can be designed from a nematic liquid crystal confined inside a cylindrical capillary. In the case of homeotropic anchoring, a defect structure called escaped radial disclination arises. The asymmetry of such structure causes thermal rectification rates up to 3.5% at room temperature, comparable to thermal diodes made from carbon nanotubes. Sensitivity of the system with respect to the heat power supply, the geometry of the capillary tube and the molecular anchoring angle is also discussed. - Highlights: • An escaped radial disclination as a thermal diode made by a nematic liquid crystal. • Rectifying effects comparable to those caused by carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. • Thermal rectification increasing with radius and decreasing with height of the tube. • Asymmetric BCs cause rectification from the spatial asymmetry produced by the escape. • Symmetric BCs provide rectifications smaller than those yields by asymmetric BCs.
Partial twisting for scalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki
2014-01-01
The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given
Phan, G. N.; Nakayama, K.; Sugawara, K.; Sato, T.; Urata, T.; Tanabe, Y.; Tanigaki, K.; Nabeshima, F.; Imai, Y.; Maeda, A.; Takahashi, T.
2017-06-01
One of central issues in iron-based superconductors is the role of structural change to the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). It was found in FeSe that the lattice strain leads to a drastic increase in Tc, accompanied by suppression of nematic order. By angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on tensile- or compressive-strained and strain-free FeSe, we experimentally show that the in-plane strain causes a marked change in the energy overlap (Δ Eh -e ) between the hole and electron pockets in the normal state. The change in Δ Eh -e modifies the Fermi-surface volume, leading to a change in Tc. Furthermore, the strength of nematicity is also found to be characterized by Δ Eh -e . These results suggest that the key to understanding the phase diagram is the fermiology and interactions linked to the semimetallic band overlap.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunfei eShi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The morphogenetic process of cardiac looping transforms the straight heart tube into a curved tube that resembles the shape of the future four-chambered heart. Although great progress has been made in identifying the molecular and genetic factors involved in looping, the physical mechanisms that drive this process have remained poorly understood. Recent work, however, has shed new light on this complicated problem. After briefly reviewing the current state of knowledge, we propose a relatively comprehensive hypothesis for the mechanics of the first phase of looping, termed c-looping, as the straight heart tube deforms into a c-shaped tube. According to this hypothesis, differential hypertrophic growth in the myocardium supplies the main forces that cause the heart tube to bend ventrally, while regional growth and contraction in the omphalomesenteric veins (primitive atria and compressive loads exerted by the splanchnopleuric membrane drive rightward torsion. A computational model based on realistic embryonic heart geometry is used to test this hypothesis. The behavior of the model is in reasonable agreement with available experimental data from control and perturbed embryos, offering support for our hypothesis. The results also suggest, however, that several other mechanisms contribute secondarily to normal looping, and we speculate that these mechanisms play backup roles when looping is perturbed. Finally, some outstanding questions are discussed for future study.
Deformable nematic droplets in a magnetic field
Otten, R.H.J.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.
2012-01-01
We present a Frank-Oseen elasticity theory for the shape and structure of deformable nematic droplets with homeotropic surface anchoring in the presence of a magnetic field. Inspired by recent experimental observations, we focus on the case where the magnetic susceptibility is negative, and find
Orientational Order of Carbon Nanotube Guests in a Nematic Host Suspension of Colloidal Viral Rods
Puech, N.; Dennison, M.; Blanc, C.; van der Schoot, P.; van Roij, R.; Poulin, P.; Grelet, E.
2012-01-01
In order to investigate the coupling between the degrees of alignment of elongated particles in binary nematic dispersions, surfactant stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been added to nematic suspensions of colloidal rodlike viruses in aqueous solution. We have independently
Orientational order of carbon nanotube guests in a nematic host suspension of colloidal viral rods
Puech, N.; Dennison, M.; Blanc, C.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Roij, van R.; Poulin, P.; Grelet, E.
2012-01-01
In order to investigate the coupling between the degrees of alignment of elongated particles in binary nematic dispersions, surfactant stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been added to nematic suspensions of colloidal rodlike viruses in aqueous solution. We have independently
Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okulov, A. Yu
2009-01-01
The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.
Dhar, Jayabrata; Chakraborty, Suman
2017-09-01
Electrorheological (ER) characteristics of Nematic Liquid Crystals (NLCs) have been a topic of immense interest in the field of soft matter physics owing to its rheological modulation capabilities. Here we explore the augmentation in rheological characteristics of the nematic fluid confined within the annular region of the concentric cylindrical space with an Electrical Double Layer (EDL) induced at the fluid-substrate interface due to certain physico-chemical interactions. Using a Taylor-Couette flow configuration associated with an EDL induced at the inner cylinder wall, we show that a spontaneous electrorheological effect is generated owing to the intrinsic director anisotropy and structural order of complex nematic fluids. We seek to find the enhancement in torque transfer capability due to the inherent electrorheological nature of the nematic medium, apart from exploiting the innate nature of such homogeneous media to remain free of coagulation, a fact which makes it an excellent candidate for the applications in microfluidic environment. Our analysis reveals that with stronger induced charge density within the EDL, the apparent viscosity enhances, which, in turn, augments torque transfer across the concentric cylinder. The velocity profile tends to flatten in comparison to the classical circular Couette flow in annular geometry as one increases the surface charge density. We further observe a more pronounced ER effect for the nematic medium having larger electrical permittivity anisotropy. Besides the torque transfer qualifications, we also explore the distinct scenarios, wherein the same NLC medium exhibits shear thinning and shear thickening characteristics. The present configuration of the efficient torque transfer mechanism may be proficiently downscaled to micro-level and is relevant in the fabrication of micro-clutch and micro-dampers.
Santos, Moliria V; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Napoli, Mariana; Nalin, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L
2017-07-15
The preparation of composite materials has gained tremendous attention due to the potential synergy of the combined materials. Here we fabricate novel thermal/electrical responsive photonic composite films combining cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with a low molecular weight nematic liquid crystal (NLC), 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC). The obtained composite material combines both intense structural coloration of photonic cellulose and thermal and conductive properties of NLC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed that liquid crystals coated CNC films maintain chiral nematic structure characteristic of CNC film and simultaneously, transversal cross-section scanning electron microscopy images indicated penetration of liquid crystals through the CNC layers. Investigated composite film maintain NLC optical properties being switchable as a function of temperature during heating/cooling cycles. The relationship between the morphology and thermoresponsive in the micro/nanostructured materials was investigated by using transmission optical microscopy (TOM). Conductive response of the composite films was proved by Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) measurement. Designed thermo- and electro-responsive materials open novel simple pathway of fabrication of CNC-based materials with tunable properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Orientational order of carbon nanotube guests in a nematic host suspension of colloidal viral rods
Puech, N.; Dennison, M; Blanc, C; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.; Dijkstra, M.; Van Roij, R.; Poulin, P.; Grelet, E
2012-01-01
In order to investigate the coupling between the degrees of alignment of elongated particles in binary nematic dispersions, surfactant stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been added to nematic suspensions of colloidal rodlike viruses in aqueous solution.We have independently measured
Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Ogiwara, Akifumi
2018-04-01
Polymer network liquid crystals (PNLCs) whose optical transmittance state switches between transparence at low temperatures and haze at high temperatures were fabricated from mixtures of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) and reactive mesogens (RMs). This PNLC structure is simple but effective, namely, consists of micro-scale domains of orientation-ordered LCs and anisotropically polymerized RMs. The domains form through photopolymerization induced phase separation with inhomogeneous irradiation projected by laser speckling techniques. This irradiation method enables you to control the size and shape of phase-separation domains, and these PNLCs can be applied to novel thermoresponsive optical devices; optical isolators, thermometric sheets, and smart windows.
Analysis list: Twist1 [Chip-atlas[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available Twist1 Embryo,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Tw...ist1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Neural.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml ...
Modeling and control of active twist aircraft
Cramer, Nicholas Bryan
The Wright Brothers marked the beginning of powered flight in 1903 using an active twist mechanism as their means of controlling roll. As time passed due to advances in other technologies that transformed aviation the active twist mechanism was no longer used. With the recent advances in material science and manufacturability, the possibility of the practical use of active twist technologies has emerged. In this dissertation, the advantages and disadvantages of active twist techniques are investigated through the development of an aeroelastic modeling method intended for informing the designs of such technologies and wind tunnel testing to confirm the capabilities of the active twist technologies and validate the model. Control principles for the enabling structural technologies are also proposed while the potential gains of dynamic, active twist are analyzed.
Flooding characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal U bend pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakaguchi, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Fujii, Y.
1995-01-01
For next-generation nuclear reactors, hybrid safety systems which consist of active and passive safety systems have been planned. Steam generators with horizontal U bend pipelines will be used as one of the passive safety systems. It is required to clarify flow characteristics, especially the onset of flooding, in the horizontal U bend pipelines in order to examine their safety. Flooding in vertical pipes has been studied extensively. However, there is little study on flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines. It is supposed that the onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines is different from that in vertical pipes. On the other hand, liquid is generated due to condensation of steam in pipes of the horizontal steam generators at the loss of coolant accident because the steam generators will be used as a condenser of a cooling system of steam from the reactor. It is necessary to simulate this situation by the supply of water at the middle of horizontal pipe. In the present paper, experiments were carried out using a horizontal U bend pipeline with a liquid supply section in the midway of pipeline. The onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipeline was measured. Effects of the length of horizontal pipe and the radius of U bend on the onset of flooding were discussed
Flooding characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal U bend pipe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakaguchi, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Fujii, Y. [Kobe Univ. (Japan)] [and others
1995-09-01
For next-generation nuclear reactors, hybrid safety systems which consist of active and passive safety systems have been planned. Steam generators with horizontal U bend pipelines will be used as one of the passive safety systems. It is required to clarify flow characteristics, especially the onset of flooding, in the horizontal U bend pipelines in order to examine their safety. Flooding in vertical pipes has been studied extensively. However, there is little study on flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines. It is supposed that the onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines is different from that in vertical pipes. On the other hand, liquid is generated due to condensation of steam in pipes of the horizontal steam generators at the loss of coolant accident because the steam generators will be used as a condenser of a cooling system of steam from the reactor. It is necessary to simulate this situation by the supply of water at the middle of horizontal pipe. In the present paper, experiments were carried out using a horizontal U bend pipeline with a liquid supply section in the midway of pipeline. The onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipeline was measured. Effects of the length of horizontal pipe and the radius of U bend on the onset of flooding were discussed.
Twisted Bilayer Graphene. Interlayer configuration and magnetotransport signatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Belke, Christopher; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hannover (Germany)
2017-11-15
Twisted Bilayer Graphene may be viewed as very first representative of the now booming class of artificially layered 2D materials. Consisting of two sheets from the same structure and atomic composition, its decisive degree of freedom lies in the rotation between crystallographic axes in the individual graphene monolayers. Geometrical consideration finds angle-dependent Moire patterns as well as commensurate superlattices of opposite sublattice exchange symmetry. Beyond the approach of rigidly interposed lattices, this review takes focus on the evolving topic of lattice corrugation and distortion in response to spatially varying lattice registry. The experimental approach to twisted bilayers requires a basic control over preparation techniques; important methods are summarized and extended on in the case of bilayers folded from monolayer graphene via AFM nanomachining. Central morphological parameters to the twisted bilayer, rotational mismatch and interlayer separation are studied in a broader base of samples. Finally, experimental evidence for a number of theoretically predicted, controversial electronic scenarios are reviewed; magnetotransport signatures are discussed in terms of Fermi velocity, van Hove singularities and Berry phase and assessed with respect to the underlying experimental conditions, thereby referring back to the initially considered variations in relaxed lattice structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Teaching Spatial Awareness for Better Twisting Somersaults.
Hennessy, Jeff T.
1985-01-01
The barani (front somersault with one-half twist) and the back somersault with one twist are basic foundation skills necessary for more advanced twisting maneuvers. Descriptions of these movements on a trampoline surface are offered. (DF)
Twist deformations of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, P.G.; Chakraborty, B.; Toppan, F., E-mail: pgcastro@cbpf.b, E-mail: biswajit@bose.res.i, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kuznetsova, Z., E-mail: zhanna.kuznetsova@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)
2009-07-01
The N-extended supersymmetric quantum mechanics is deformed via an abelian twist which preserves the super-Hopf algebra structure of its universal enveloping superalgebra. Two constructions are possible. For even N one can identify the 1D N-extended superalgebra with the fermionic Heisenberg algebra. Alternatively, supersymmetry generators can be realized as operators belonging to the Universal Enveloping Superalgebra of one bosonic and several fermionic oscillators. The deformed system is described in terms of twisted operators satisfying twist deformed (anti)commutators. The main differences between an abelian twist defined in terms of fermionic operators and an abelian twist defined in terms of bosonic operators are discussed. (author)
Ten helical twist angles of B-DNA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabsch, W; Sander, C; Trifonov, E N
1982-01-01
On the assumption that the twist angles between adjacent base-pairs in the DNA molecule are additive a linear system of 40 equations was derived from experimental measurements of the total twist angles for different pieces of DNA of known sequences. This system of equations is found to be statistically consistent providing a solution for all ten possible twist angles of B-DNA by a least squares fitting procedure. Four of the calculated twist angles were not known before. The other six twist angles calculated are very close to the experimentally measured ones. The data used were obtained by the electrophoretic band-shift method, crystallography and nuclease digestion of DNA adsorbed to mica or Ca-phosphate surface. The validity of the principle of additivity of the twist angles implies that the angle between any particular two base-pairs is a function of only these base-pairs, independent of nearest neighbors.
Dynamic Spin-Lattice Coupling and Nematic Fluctuations in NaFeAs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Li
2018-06-01
Full Text Available We use inelastic neutron scattering to study acoustic phonons and spin excitations in single crystals of NaFeAs, a parent compound of iron-pnictide superconductors. NaFeAs exhibits a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition at T_{s}≈58 K and a collinear antiferromagnetic order at T_{N}≈45 K. While longitudinal and out-of-plane transverse acoustic phonons behave as expected, the in-plane transverse acoustic phonons reveal considerable softening on cooling to T_{s} and then harden on approaching T_{N} before saturating below T_{N}. In addition, we find that spin-spin correlation lengths of low-energy magnetic excitations within the FeAs layer and along the c axis increase dramatically below T_{s} and show a weak anomaly across T_{N}. These results suggest that the electronic nematic phase present in the paramagnetic tetragonal phase is closely associated with dynamic spin-lattice coupling, possibly arising from the one-phonon–two-magnon mechanism.
Sundaram, S.; Jayaprakasam, R.; Praveena, R.; Rajasekaran, T. R.; Senthil, T. S.; Vijayakumar, V. N.
2018-01-01
Hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals (HBLCs) have been derived from nonmesogenic citric acid (CA) and mesogenic 4-heptyloxybenzoic acid (7OBA) yielding a highly ordered smectic C (Sm C) phase along with the new smectic X (Sm X) phase which has been identified as fingerprint-type texture. Optical (polarizing optical microscopy), thermal (differential scanning calorimetry) and structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) properties are studied. A noteworthy observation is that the intermolecular H-bond (between CA and 7OBA) influences on its melting point and clearing temperature of the HBLCs which exhibits lower value than those of the individual compounds. A typical extended mesophase region has been observed in the present complex while varying the mixture ratio (1:1 to 1:3) than those of individual compounds. The change in the ratio of the mesogenic compound in the mixture alters thermal properties such as enthalpy value and thermal span width in nematic (N) region of HBLC complex. Optical tilt angle measurement of CA+7OBA in Sm C phase has been discussed to identify the molecular position in the mesophase.
Quantum Hall Ferroelectrics and Nematics in Multivalley Systems
Sodemann, Inti; Zhu, Zheng; Fu, Liang
2017-10-01
We study broken symmetry states at integer Landau-level fillings in multivalley quantum Hall systems whose low-energy dispersions are anisotropic. When the Fermi surface of individual pockets lacks twofold rotational symmetry, like in bismuth (111) [Feldman et al. , Observation of a Nematic Quantum Hall Liquid on the Surface of Bismuth, Science 354, 316 (2016), 10.1126/science.aag1715] and in Sn1 -xPbxSe (001) [Dziawa et al., Topological Crystalline Insulator States in Pb1 -xSnxSe , Nat. Mater. 11, 1023 (2012), 10.1038/nmat3449] surfaces, interactions tend to drive the formation of quantum Hall ferroelectric states. We demonstrate that the dipole moment in these states has an intimate relation to the Fermi surface geometry of the parent metal. In quantum Hall nematic states, like those arising in AlAs quantum wells, we demonstrate the existence of unusually robust Skyrmion quasiparticles.
Electronic and Optical Properties of Twisted Bilayer Graphene
Huang, Shengqiang
The ability to isolate single atomic layers of van der Waals materials has led to renewed interest in the electronic and optical properties of these materials as they can be fundamentally different at the monolayer limit. Moreover, these 2D crystals can be assembled together layer by layer, with controllable sequence and orientation, to form artificial materials that exhibit new features that are not found in monolayers nor bulk. Twisted bilayer graphene is one such prototype system formed by two monolayer graphene layers placed on top of each other with a twist angle between their lattices, whose electronic band structure depends on the twist angle. This thesis presents the efforts to explore the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We first synthesize twisted bilayer graphene with various twist angles via chemical vapor deposition. Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the twist angles are determined. The strength of the Raman G peak is sensitive to the electronic band structure of twisted bilayer graphene and therefore we use this peak to monitor changes upon doping. Our results demonstrate the ability to modify the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with doping. We also fabricate twisted bilayer graphene by controllable stacking of two graphene monolayers with a dry transfer technique. For twist angles smaller than one degree, many body interactions play an important role. It requires eight electrons per moire unit cell to fill up each band instead of four electrons in the case of a larger twist angle. For twist angles smaller than 0.4 degree, a network of domain walls separating AB and BA stacking regions forms, which are predicted to host topologically protected helical states. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, these states are confirmed to appear on the domain walls when inversion
Remarks on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zahn, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2006-04-15
We review recent results on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory by embedding it into a general framework for the quantization of systems with a twisted symmetry. We discuss commutation relations in this setting and show that the twisted structure is so rigid that it is hard to derive any predictions, unless one gives up general principles of quantum theory. It is also shown that the twisted structure is not responsible for the presence or absence of UV/IR-mixing, as claimed in the literature. (Orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowell, F.
1983-01-01
Two average-environment simple cubic lattice models: a refined model and a simple model, both having site-site (segmental) pair Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions: for molecules composed of rigid cores having semiflexible tails are presented. The calculated values of the following properties at the nematic-isotropic transition for rigid rods of varying length are compared with relevant experimental data for PAA (p-azoxyanisole, or 4,4'-dimethoxyazoxybenzene): temperature, core orientational order parameter, nematic density and volume, relative density change, and relative entropy change. The temperature change as a function of volume change at constant order parameter is also discussed. In general, both LJ models give considerably better quantitative agreement with experiment, especially for the temperature and the relative density change, than do the earlier lattice models with hard repulsions, with or without constant segmental pair interaction energies. In most aspects, these LJ models give good quantitative agreement with experiment. These LJ models elucidate the importance of realistic intermolecular potentials, especially the role of soft repulsions, in describing an order-disorder transition between two condensed phases
3-sphere fibrations: a tool for analyzing twisted materials in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadoc, J F; Charvolin, J
2009-01-01
Chiral molecules, when densely packed in soft condensed matter or biological materials, build organizations which are most often spontaneously twisted. The crystals of 'blue' phases formed by small mesogenic molecules demonstrate the structural importance of such a twist or torsion, and its presence was also recently observed in finite toroidal aggregates formed by long DNA molecules. The formation of these organizations is driven by the fact that compactness, which tends to align the molecules, enters into conflict with torsion, which tends to disrupt this alignment. This conflict of topological nature, or frustration, arises because of the flatness of the Euclidean space, but does not exist in the curved space of the 3-sphere where particular lines, its fibres, can be drawn which are parallel and nevertheless twisted. As these fibrations conciliate compactness and torsion, they can be used as geometrical templates for the analysis of organizations in the Euclidean space. We describe these fibrations, with a particular emphasis on their torsion.
Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending–twist coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Ermanni, Paolo; Bergamini, Andrea
2013-01-01
A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending–twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated. (paper)
Conical twist fields and null polygonal Wilson loops
Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A.; Doyon, Benjamin; Fioravanti, Davide
2018-06-01
Using an extension of the concept of twist field in QFT to space-time (external) symmetries, we study conical twist fields in two-dimensional integrable QFT. These create conical singularities of arbitrary excess angle. We show that, upon appropriate identification between the excess angle and the number of sheets, they have the same conformal dimension as branch-point twist fields commonly used to represent partition functions on Riemann surfaces, and that both fields have closely related form factors. However, we show that conical twist fields are truly different from branch-point twist fields. They generate different operator product expansions (short distance expansions) and form factor expansions (large distance expansions). In fact, we verify in free field theories, by re-summing form factors, that the conical twist fields operator product expansions are correctly reproduced. We propose that conical twist fields are the correct fields in order to understand null polygonal Wilson loops/gluon scattering amplitudes of planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.
Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Panagopoulos, H.; Stylianou, F.; Korzec, T.
2011-01-01
Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to β=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a 2 ) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to O(a 2 ). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI ' -MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas; Røgen, Peter
1997-01-01
is an invariant of ambient isotopy measuring the topological twist of the closed strip. We classify closed strips in euclidean 3-space by their knots and their twisting number. We prove that this classification exactly divides closed strips into isotopy classes. Using this classification we point out how some...
Anisotropic stokes drag and dynamic lift on cylindrical colloids in a nematic liquid crystal.
Rovner, Joel B; Lapointe, Clayton P; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L
2010-11-26
We have measured the Stokes drag on magnetic nanowires suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB). The effective drag viscosity for wires moving perpendicular to the nematic director differs from that for motion parallel to the director by factors of 0.88 to 2.4, depending on the orientation of the wires and their surface anchoring. When the force on the wires is applied at an oblique angle to the director, the wires move at an angle to the force, demonstrating the existence of a lift force on particles moving in a nematic. This dynamic lift is significantly larger for wires with homeotropic anchoring than with longitudinal anchoring in the experiments, suggesting the lift force as a mechanism for sorting particles according to their surface properties.
Vogel-Fulcher dependence of relaxation rates in a nematic monomer and elastomer
Shenoy, D.; Filippov, S.; Aliev, F.; Keller, P.; Thomsen, D.; Ratna, B.
2000-12-01
Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy is used to study the relaxation processes in a nematic monomer and the corresponding cross-linked polymer nematic liquid crystal (elastomer). In the frequency window 10 mHz to 2 GHz the monomer liquid crystal shows a single relaxation whereas the polymer exhibits three relaxation processes, two of which are quantitatively analyzed. The temperature dependence of relaxation times in both the monomer and polymer follows a Vogel-Fulcher behavior. The relaxation processes are identified with specific molecular motions and activation energies are calculated in a linear approximation for comparison with literature data.
Transverse kink oscillations in the presence of twist
Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.
2012-12-01
Context. Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in coronal loops. The effects of magnetic twist on stable magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves is poorly understood because they are seldom studied for relevant cases. Aims: The goal of this work is to study the fingerprints of magnetic twist on stable transverse kink oscillations. Methods: We numerically calculated the eigenmodes of propagating and standing MHD waves for a model of a loop with magnetic twist. The azimuthal component of the magnetic field was assumed to be small in comparison to the longitudinal component. We did not consider resonantly damped modes or kink instabilities in our analysis. Results: For a nonconstant twist the frequencies of the MHD wave modes are split, which has important consequences for standing waves. This is different from the degenerated situation for equilibrium models with constant twist, which are characterised by an azimuthal component of the magnetic field that linearly increases with the radial coordinate. Conclusions: In the presence of twist standing kink solutions are characterised by a change in polarisation of the transverse displacement along the tube. For weak twist, and in the thin tube approximation, the frequency of standing modes is unaltered and the tube oscillates at the kink speed of the corresponding straight tube. The change in polarisation is linearly proportional to the degree of twist. This has implications with regard to observations of kink modes, since the detection of this variation in polarisation can be used as an indirect method to estimate the twist in oscillating loops.
Alignment of carbon nanotubes in nematic liquid crystals
Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Popa-Nita, V.; Kralj, S.
2008-01-01
The self-organizing properties of nematic liquid crystals can be used to align carbon nanotubes dispersed in them. Because the nanotubes are so much thinner than the elastic penetration length, the alignment is caused by the coupling of the unperturbed director field to the anisotropic interfacial
Cao, Pengfei; Fu, Wenyu
2017-10-01
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral formula and unified theory of coherence and polarization, we obtained the cross-spectral density matrix elements for a radially polarized partially coherent twist (RPPCT) beam in a uniaxial crystal. Moreover, compared with free space, we explore numerically the evolution properties of a RPPCT beam in a uniaxial crystal. The calculation results show that the evolution properties of a RPPCT beam in crystals are substantially different from its properties in free space. These properties in crystals are mainly determined by the twist factor and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index. In a uniaxial crystal, the distribution of the intensity of a RPPCT beam all exhibits non-circular symmetry, and these distributions change with twist factor and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index. The twist factor affects their rotation orientation angles, and the ratio of extraordinary index to ordinary refractive index impacts their twisted levels. This novel characteristics can be used for free-space optical communications, particle manipulation and nonlinear optics, where partially coherent beam with controlled profile and twist factor are required.
Superconducting flat tape cable magnet
Takayasu, Makoto
2015-08-11
A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.
Two-loop disorder effects on the nematic quantum criticality in d-wave superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jing
2015-01-01
The gapless nodal fermions exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviors at the nematic quantum critical point that is supposed to exist in some d-wave cuprate superconductors. This non-Fermi liquid state may be turned into a disorder-dominated diffusive metal if the fermions also couple to a disordered potential that generates a relevant perturbation in the sense of renormalization group theory. It is therefore necessary to examine whether a specific disorder is relevant or not. We study the interplay between critical nematic fluctuation and random chemical potential by performing renormalization group analysis. The parameter that characterizes the strength of random chemical potential is marginal at the one-loop level, but becomes marginally relevant after including the two-loop corrections. Thus even weak random chemical potential leads to diffusive motion of nodal fermions and the significantly critical behaviors of physical implications, since the strength flows eventually to large values at low energies. - Highlights: • The gapless nodal fermions exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviors at the nematic QCP. • The strength of random chemical potential is marginal at the one-loop level. • The strength becomes marginally relevant after including the two-loop corrections. • The diffusive metallic state is induced by the marginally relevant disorder. • The behaviors of some physical observables are presented at the nematic QCP
Nematicity and Magnetism in FeSe and Other Families of Fe-Based Superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youichi Yamakawa
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Nematicity and magnetism are two key features in Fe-based superconductors, and their interplay is one of the most important unsolved problems. In FeSe, the magnetic order is absent below the structural transition temperature T_{str}=90 K, in stark contrast to the fact that the magnetism emerges slightly below T_{str} in other families. To understand such amazing material dependence, we investigate the spin-fluctuation-mediated orbital order (n_{xz}≠n_{yz} by focusing on the orbital-spin interplay driven by the strong-coupling effect, called the vertex correction. This orbital-spin interplay is very strong in FeSe because of the small ratio between the Hund’s and Coulomb interactions (J[over ¯]/U[over ¯] and large d_{xz}, d_{yz}-orbital weight at the Fermi level. For this reason, in the FeSe model, the orbital order is established irrespective of the fact that the spin fluctuations are very weak, so the magnetism is absent below T_{str}. In contrast, in the LaFeAsO model, the magnetic order appears just below T_{str} both experimentally and theoretically. Thus, the orbital-spin interplay due to the vertex correction is the key ingredient in understanding the rich phase diagram with nematicity and magnetism in Fe-based superconductors in a unified way.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villalobos Baillie, Orlando
1988-12-15
In the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) candidate theory of interquark forces, calculations involve summing the effects from many different possible quark/gluon interactions. In addition to the 'leading term' frequently used as the basis for QCD calculations, additional contributions — so-called 'higher twists' — are modulated by powers of kinematical factors. An illuminating international workshop to discuss higher twist QCD was held at the College de France, Paris, from 21-23 September.
Liquid crystalline phase behavior of protein fibers in water: experiments versus theory.
Jung, Jin-Mi; Mezzenga, Raffaele
2010-01-05
We have developed a new method allowing the study of the thermodynamic phase behavior of mesoscopic colloidal systems consisting of amyloid protein fibers in water, obtained by heat denaturation and aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin, a dairy protein. The fibers have a cross section of about 5.2 nm and two groups of polydisperse contour lengths: (i) long fibers of 1-20 microm, showing semiflexible behavior, and (ii) short rods of 100-200 nm long, obtained by cutting the long fibers via high-pressure homogenization. At pH 2 without salt, these fibers are highly charged and stable in water. We have studied the isotropic-nematic phase transition for both systems and compared our results with the theoretical values predicted by Onsager's theory. The experimentally measured isotropic-nematic phase transition was found to occur at 0.4% and at 3% for the long and short fibers, respectively. For both systems, this phase transition occurs at concentrations more than 1 order of magnitude lower than what is expected based on Onsager's theory. Moreover, at low enough pH, no intermediate biphasic region was observed between the isotropic phase and the nematic phase. The phase diagrams of both systems (pH vs concentration) showed similar, yet complex and rich, phase behavior. We discuss the possible physical fundamentals ruling the phase diagram as well as the discrepancy we observe for the isotropic-nematic phase transition between our experimental results and the predicted theoretical results. Our work highlights that systems formed by water-amyloid protein fibers are way too complex to be understood based solely on Onsager's theories. Experimental results are revisited in terms of the Flory's theory (1956) for suspensions of rods, which allows accounting for rod-solvent hydrophobic interactions. This theoretical approach allows explaining, on a semiquantitative basis, most of the discrepancies observed between the experimental results and Onsager's predictions. The sources of
DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.
2000-01-01
The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term
The molecular ordering phenomenon in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prakash Yadav, Satya; Pandey, Kamal Kumar; Kumar Misra, Abhishek; Kumar Tripathi, Pankaj; Manohar, Rajiv
2011-01-01
The experimental results of this work point out the role of the guest dye molecules in the molecular ordering of nematic liquid crystals. We have discussed the changes in the energies of interactions between rod-like nematic molecules and anthraquinone dye by considering the presence of steric and dipole-dipole interactions in the dye-doped system. The concentration of the dye plays an important role in the determination of molecular ordering in such dye-doped systems. Below a certain concentration of dye (known as the critical concentration), where the interaction between the dye molecules can be neglected, the addition of dye molecules introduces some disorder into the system in the form of domain formation. Above this critical concentration, this disorder is small.
The molecular ordering phenomenon in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prakash Yadav, Satya; Pandey, Kamal Kumar; Kumar Misra, Abhishek; Kumar Tripathi, Pankaj; Manohar, Rajiv, E-mail: rajiv.manohar@gmail.com [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)
2011-03-15
The experimental results of this work point out the role of the guest dye molecules in the molecular ordering of nematic liquid crystals. We have discussed the changes in the energies of interactions between rod-like nematic molecules and anthraquinone dye by considering the presence of steric and dipole-dipole interactions in the dye-doped system. The concentration of the dye plays an important role in the determination of molecular ordering in such dye-doped systems. Below a certain concentration of dye (known as the critical concentration), where the interaction between the dye molecules can be neglected, the addition of dye molecules introduces some disorder into the system in the form of domain formation. Above this critical concentration, this disorder is small.
Self-organisation of semi-flexible rod-like particles
de Braaf, Bart; Oshima Menegon, Mariana; Paquay, Stefan; van der Schoot, Paul
2017-12-01
We report on a comprehensive computer simulation study of the liquid-crystal phase behaviour of purely repulsive, semi-flexible rod-like particles. For the four aspect ratios we consider, the particles form five distinct phases depending on their packing fraction and bending flexibility: the isotropic, nematic, smectic A, smectic B, and crystal phase. Upon increasing the particle bending flexibility, the various phase transitions shift to larger packing fractions. Increasing the aspect ratio achieves the opposite effect. We find two different ways in which the layer thickness of the particles in the smectic A phase may respond to an increase in concentration. The layer thickness may either decrease or increase depending on the aspect ratio and flexibility. For the smectic B and the crystalline phases, increasing the concentration always decreases the layer thickness. Finally, we find that the layer spacing jumps to a larger value on transitioning from the smectic A phase to the smectic B phase.
Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology
Elkhamy, Donia Said
Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The
Yang, Shuai; Liu, Ying
2018-08-01
Liquid crystal nematic elastomers are one kind of smart anisotropic and viscoelastic solids simultaneously combing the properties of rubber and liquid crystals, which is thermal sensitivity. In this paper, the wave dispersion in a liquid crystal nematic elastomer porous phononic crystal subjected to an external thermal stimulus is theoretically investigated. Firstly, an energy function is proposed to determine thermo-induced deformation in NE periodic structures. Based on this function, thermo-induced band variation in liquid crystal nematic elastomer porous phononic crystals is investigated in detail. The results show that when liquid crystal elastomer changes from nematic state to isotropic state due to the variation of the temperature, the absolute band gaps at different bands are opened or closed. There exists a threshold temperature above which the absolute band gaps are opened or closed. Larger porosity benefits the opening of the absolute band gaps. The deviation of director from the structural symmetry axis is advantageous for the absolute band gap opening in nematic state whist constrains the absolute band gap opening in isotropic state. The combination effect of temperature and director orientation provides an added degree of freedom in the intelligent tuning of the absolute band gaps in phononic crystals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modified dynamical equation for dye doped nematic liquid crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manohar, Rajiv, E-mail: rajlu1@rediffmail.co [Liquid Crystal Research Lab, Physics Department, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007 (India); Misra, Abhishek Kumar; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar [Liquid Crystal Research Lab, Physics Department, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007 (India)
2010-04-15
Dye doped liquid crystals show changed dielectric properties in comparison to pure liquid crystals. These changes are strongly dependent on the concentration of dye. In the present work we have measured dielectric properties of standard nematic liquid crystals E-24 and its two guest host mixtures of different concentrations with Anthraquinone dye D5. The experimental results are fitted using linear response and in the light of this we have proposed some modifications in the dynamical equation for the nematic liquid crystals by introducing two new variables as dye concentration coefficients. The limitations of the proposed equation in high temperature range have also been discussed. With the help of the proposed dynamical equation for the guest-host liquid crystals (GHLCs) it is possible to predict the various parameters like rotational viscosity, dielectric anisotropy and relaxation time for GHLCs at other concentrations of dye in liquid crystals theoretically.
Elastic and hydrodynamic torques on a colloidal disk within a nematic liquid crystal.
Rovner, Joel B; Borgnia, Dan S; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L
2012-10-01
The orientationally dependent elastic energy and hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal disks with homeotropic surface anchoring suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) have been investigated. In the absence of external torques, the disks align with the normal of the disk face â parallel to the nematic director n[over ^]. When a magnetic field is applied, the disks rotate â by an angle θ so that the magnetic torque and the elastic torque caused by distortion of the nematic director field are balanced. Over a broad range of angles, the elastic torque increases linearly with θ in quantitative agreement with a theoretical prediction based on an electrostatic analogy. When the disks are rotated to angles θ>π/2, the resulting large elastic distortion makes the disk orientation unstable, and the director undergoes a topological transition in which θ→π-θ. In the transition, a defect loop is shed from the disk surface, and the disks spin so that â sweeps through π radians as the loop collapses back onto the disk. Additional measurements of the angular relaxation of disks to θ=0 following removal of the external torque show a quasi-exponential time dependence from which an effective drag viscosity for the nematic can be extracted. The scaling of the angular time dependence with disk radius and observations of disks rotating about â indicate that the disk motion affects the director field at surprisingly modest Ericksen numbers.
Molecular Mechanics of the α-Actinin Rod Domain: Bending, Torsional, and Extensional Behavior
Golji, Javad; Collins, Robert; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.
2009-01-01
α-Actinin is an actin crosslinking molecule that can serve as a scaffold and maintain dynamic actin filament networks. As a crosslinker in the stressed cytoskeleton, α-actinin can retain conformation, function, and strength. α-Actinin has an actin binding domain and a calmodulin homology domain separated by a long rod domain. Using molecular dynamics and normal mode analysis, we suggest that the α-actinin rod domain has flexible terminal regions which can twist and extend under mechanical stress, yet has a highly rigid interior region stabilized by aromatic packing within each spectrin repeat, by electrostatic interactions between the spectrin repeats, and by strong salt bridges between its two anti-parallel monomers. By exploring the natural vibrations of the α-actinin rod domain and by conducting bending molecular dynamics simulations we also predict that bending of the rod domain is possible with minimal force. We introduce computational methods for analyzing the torsional strain of molecules using rotating constraints. Molecular dynamics extension of the α-actinin rod is also performed, demonstrating transduction of the unfolding forces across salt bridges to the associated monomer of the α-actinin rod domain. PMID:19436721
Twist operators in N=4 beta-deformed theory
de Leeuw, M.; Łukowski, T.
2010-01-01
In this paper we derive both the leading order finite size corrections for twist-2 and twist-3 operators and the next-to-leading order finite-size correction for twist-2 operators in beta-deformed SYM theory. The obtained results respect the principle of maximum transcendentality as well as
Higher twist contributions to deep-inelastic structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.
2008-07-01
We report on a recent extraction of the higher twist contributions to the deep inelastic structure functions F ep,ed 2 (x,Q 2 ) in the large x region. It is shown that the size of the extracted higher twist contributions is strongly correlated with the higher order corrections applied to the leading twist part. A gradual lowering of the higher twist contributions going from NLO to N 4 LO is observed, where in the latter case only the leading large x terms were considered. (orig.)
A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.
Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N
2007-10-01
The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.
Quercetin Suppresses Twist to Induce Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santhalakshmi Ranganathan
Full Text Available Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of quercetin in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, which differed in hormone receptor. IC50 value (37μM of quercetin showed significant cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, which was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells even at 100μM of quercetin treatment. To study the response of cancer cells to quercetin, with respect to different hormone receptors, both the cell lines were treated with a fixed concentration (40μM of quercetin. MCF-7 cells on quercetin treatment showed more apoptotic cells with G1 phase arrest. In addition, quercetin effectively suppressed the expression of CyclinD1, p21, Twist and phospho p38MAPK, which was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. To analyse the molecular mechanism of quercetin in exerting an apoptotic effect in MCF-7 cells, Twist was over-expressed and the molecular changes were observed after quercetin administration. Quercetin effectively regulated the expression of Twist, in turn p16 and p21 which induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, quercetin induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through suppression of Twist via p38MAPK pathway.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Xuegang, Huang
2008-01-01
-based matching generally fall short in offering practical query accuracy guarantees. Our proposed framework, called SpaceTwist, rectifies these shortcomings for k nearest neighbor (kNN) queries. Starting with a location different from the user's actual location, nearest neighbors are retrieved incrementally...
Possible bicollinear nematic state with monoclinic lattice distortions in iron telluride compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bishop, Christopher B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herbrych, Jacek W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moreo, Adriana [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2017-07-15
Here, iron telluride (FeTe) is known to display bicollinear magnetic order at low temperatures together with a monoclinic lattice distortion. Because the bicollinear order can involve two different wave vectors (π/2,π/2) and (π/2,–π/2), symmetry considerations allow for the possible stabilization of a nematic state with short-range bicollinear order coupled to monoclinic lattice distortions at a T_{S} higher than the temperature T_{N} where long-range bicollinear order fully develops. As a concrete example, the three-orbital spin-fermion model for iron telluride is studied with an additional coupling ˜λ_{12} between the monoclinic lattice strain and an orbital-nematic order parameter with B_{2g} symmetry. Monte Carlo simulations show that with increasing ˜λ_{12} the first-order transition characteristic of FeTe splits and bicollinear nematicity is stabilized in a (narrow) temperature range. In this new regime, the lattice is monoclinically distorted and short-range spin and orbital order breaks rotational invariance. A discussion of possible realizations of this exotic state is provided.
Magnetization Modeling of Twisted Superconducting Filaments
Satiramatekul, T; Devred, Arnaud; Leroy, Daniel
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new Finite Element numerical method to analyze the coupling between twisted filaments in a superconducting multifilament composite wire. To avoid the large number of elements required by a 3D code, the proposed method makes use of the energy balance principle in a 2D code. The relationship between superconductor critical current density and local magnetic flux density is implemented in the program for the Bean and modified Kim models. The modeled wire is made up of six filaments twisted together and embedded in a lowresistivity matrix. Computations of magnetization cycle and of the electric field pattern have been performed for various twist pitch values in the case of a pure copper matrix. The results confirm that the maximum magnetization depends on the matrix conductivity, the superconductor critical current density, the applied field frequency, and the filament twist pitch. The simulations also lead to a practical criterion for wire design that can be used to assess whether or not th...
High-resolution bistable nematic liquid crystal device realized on orientational surface patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi
2003-01-01
The four-fold symmetry of a checkerboard-like surface alignment consisted of square domains arrived at the macroscopic orientational bistability of nematic liquid crystals. Switching between the two orientations took place with an appropriate electric field. Here the threshold field of bistable switching decreased as temperature increased, and the light could heat only the selected region in the cell including a light-absorbing medium. Irradiating the laser concurrently with an electric field, we addressed a selected region in the alignment pattern without the disturbance of neighboring regions. Extending this process, we realized an extremely fine bistable device of nematic liquid crystal with a pixel size down to about 2 μm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Gorbunov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A new reference occultation processing system (rOPS will include a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS radio occultation (RO retrieval chain with integrated uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we focus on wave-optics bending angle (BA retrieval in the lower troposphere and introduce (1 an empirically estimated boundary layer bias (BLB model then employed to reduce the systematic uncertainty of excess phases and bending angles in about the lowest 2 km of the troposphere and (2 the estimation of (residual systematic uncertainties and their propagation together with random uncertainties from excess phase to bending angle profiles. Our BLB model describes the estimated bias of the excess phase transferred from the estimated bias of the bending angle, for which the model is built, informed by analyzing refractivity fluctuation statistics shown to induce such biases. The model is derived from regression analysis using a large ensemble of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC RO observations and concurrent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis fields. It is formulated in terms of predictors and adaptive functions (powers and cross products of predictors, where we use six main predictors derived from observations: impact altitude, latitude, bending angle and its standard deviation, canonical transform (CT amplitude, and its fluctuation index. Based on an ensemble of test days, independent of the days of data used for the regression analysis to establish the BLB model, we find the model very effective for bias reduction and capable of reducing bending angle and corresponding refractivity biases by about a factor of 5. The estimated residual systematic uncertainty, after the BLB profile subtraction, is lower bounded by the uncertainty from the (indirect use of ECMWF analysis fields but is significantly lower than the systematic uncertainty without BLB correction. The
Gorbunov, Michael E.; Kirchengast, Gottfried
2018-01-01
A new reference occultation processing system (rOPS) will include a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) retrieval chain with integrated uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we focus on wave-optics bending angle (BA) retrieval in the lower troposphere and introduce (1) an empirically estimated boundary layer bias (BLB) model then employed to reduce the systematic uncertainty of excess phases and bending angles in about the lowest 2 km of the troposphere and (2) the estimation of (residual) systematic uncertainties and their propagation together with random uncertainties from excess phase to bending angle profiles. Our BLB model describes the estimated bias of the excess phase transferred from the estimated bias of the bending angle, for which the model is built, informed by analyzing refractivity fluctuation statistics shown to induce such biases. The model is derived from regression analysis using a large ensemble of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) RO observations and concurrent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis fields. It is formulated in terms of predictors and adaptive functions (powers and cross products of predictors), where we use six main predictors derived from observations: impact altitude, latitude, bending angle and its standard deviation, canonical transform (CT) amplitude, and its fluctuation index. Based on an ensemble of test days, independent of the days of data used for the regression analysis to establish the BLB model, we find the model very effective for bias reduction and capable of reducing bending angle and corresponding refractivity biases by about a factor of 5. The estimated residual systematic uncertainty, after the BLB profile subtraction, is lower bounded by the uncertainty from the (indirect) use of ECMWF analysis fields but is significantly lower than the systematic uncertainty without BLB correction. The systematic and
Nematic fluctuations, fermiology and the pairing potential in iron-based superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kretzschmar, Florian
2015-08-18
The thesis comprises a systematic study on the doping, temperature and momentum dependent electron dynamics in iron-based superconductors using inelastic light scattering. The observation of Bardasis-Schrieffer modes in the excitation spectrum of superconducting Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} is reported and the energy and symmetry dependence of the modes are analyzed. The analysis yields the identification of a strong subdominant component of the interaction potential V(k,k{sup '}). Strong nematic fluctuations are investigated in Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}. The nature of the fluctuations and the origin of nematicity in Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} are identified.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elamain, Omaima; Komitov, Lachezar; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin
2013-01-01
The behaviour of bent core (BC) nematic liquid crystals was investigated under dc applied electric field. The optically isotropic state of a sample containing BC nematic was observed under application of low dc electric fields. The quality of the dark state when the sample was inserted between two crossed polarizers was found to be superb and it did not change when rotating the sample between the polarizers. The coupling between the net molecular dipole moment and the applied dc electric field was considered as the origin of the out-of-plane switching of the BC molecules resulting in switching from the field-off bright state to the field-on dark state. The field-induced optically isotropic state is an unambiguous proof of the field-induced biaxiality in the BC nematic liquid crystal. A simple model explaining the appearance of the isotropic optical state in BC nematics and the switching of the sample slow axis between three mutually orthogonal directions under dc applied electric field is proposed. (paper)
Twisting short dsDNA with applied tension
Zoli, Marco
2018-02-01
The twisting deformation of mechanically stretched DNA molecules is studied by a coarse grained Hamiltonian model incorporating the fundamental interactions that stabilize the double helix and accounting for the radial and angular base pair fluctuations. The latter are all the more important at short length scales in which DNA fragments maintain an intrinsic flexibility. The presented computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible molecule conformations characterized by a specific average twist and determines the energetically most convenient helical twist by free energy minimization. As this is done for any external load, the method yields the characteristic twist-stretch profile of the molecule and also computes the changes in the macroscopic helix parameters i.e. average diameter and rise distance. It is predicted that short molecules under stretching should first over-twist and then untwist by increasing the external load. Moreover, applying a constant load and simulating a torsional strain which over-twists the helix, it is found that the average helix diameter shrinks while the molecule elongates, in agreement with the experimental trend observed in kilo-base long sequences. The quantitative relation between percent relative elongation and superhelical density at fixed load is derived. The proposed theoretical model and computational method offer a general approach to characterize specific DNA fragments and predict their macroscopic elastic response as a function of the effective potential parameters of the mesoscopic Hamiltonian.
Self-bending elastic waves and obstacle circumventing in wireless power transfer
Tol, S.; Xia, Y.; Ruzzene, M.; Erturk, A.
2017-04-01
We demonstrate self-bending of elastic waves along convex trajectories by means of geometric and phased arrays. Potential applications include ultrasonic imaging and manipulation, wave focusing, and wireless power transfer around obstacles. The basic concept is illustrated through a geometric array, which is designed to implement a phase delay profile among the array elements that leads to self-bending along a specified circular trajectory. Experimental validation is conducted for the lowest asymmetric Lamb wave mode in a thin plate over a range of frequencies to investigate the bandwidth of the approach. Experiments also illustrate the functionality of the array as a transmitter to deliver elastic wave energy to a receiver/harvester located behind a large obstacle for electrical power extraction. It is shown that the trajectory is not distorted by the presence of the obstacle and circumventing is achieved. A linear phased array counterpart of the geometric array is then constructed to illustrate the concept by imposing proper time delays to the array elements, which allows the generation of different trajectories using the same line source. This capability is demonstrated by tailoring the path diameter in the phased array setting, which offers the flexibility and versatility to induce a variety of convex trajectories for self-bending elastic waves.
Four-point functions with a twist
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bargheer, Till [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2017-01-15
We study the OPE of correlation functions of local operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The considered operators have an explicit spacetime dependence that is defined by twisting the translation generators with certain R-symmetry generators. We restrict to operators that carry a small number of excitations above the twisted BMN vacuum. The OPE limit of the four-point correlator is dominated by internal states with few magnons on top of the vacuum. The twisting directly couples all spacetime dependence of the correlator to these magnons. We analyze the OPE in detail, and single out the extremal states that have to cancel all double-trace contributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kingler, J.
1990-01-01
A Lund type Monte Carlo program (LUCIFER) is used to describe in perturbative QCD the pointlike component of the photon interacting on a hydrogen target. Kinematical and topological variables are developed to enhance higher twist events on the lowest order minimum twist background. The emphasis is laid on π ± , K ± higher twist mesons. (orig.)
Finite Element Analysis for Bending Process of U-Bending Specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Won Dong; Bahn, Chi Bum [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
ASTM G30 suggests that the applied strain can be calculated by dividing thickness by a bend radius. It should be noted, however, that the formula is reliable under an assumption that the ratio of thickness to bend radius is less than 0.2. Typically, to increase the applied stress/strain, the ratio of thickness to bend radius becomes larger than 0.2. This suggests that the estimated strain values by ASTM G30 are not reliable to predict the actual residual strain state of the highly deformed U-bend specimen. For this reason, finite element analysis (FEA) for the bending process of Ubend specimens was conducted by using a commercial finite element analysis software ABAQUS. ver.6.14- 2;2014. From the results of FEA, PWSCC initiation time and U-bend specimen size can be determined exactly. Since local stress and strain have a significant effect on the initiation of PWSCC, it was inappropriate to apply results of ASTM G30 to the PWSCC test directly. According to results of finite element analysis (FEA), elastic relaxation can cause inaccuracy in intended final residual stress. To modify this inaccuracy, additional process reducing the spring back is required. However this additional process also may cause uncertainty of stress/strain state. Therefore, the U-bending specimen size which is not creating uncertainty should be optimized and selected. With the bending radius of 8.3 mm, the thickness of 3 mm and the roller distance of 32.6 mm, calculated maximum stress and strain were 670 MPa and 0.21, respectively.
In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.
1979-01-01
The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)
Yavuz, Aykut Evren; Masalci, Özgür; Kazanci, Nadide
2014-11-01
Morphological properties of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) + water + octanol system in different concentrations have been studied. In the process, isotropic phase (L1) and nematic calamitic (NC), nematic discotic (ND), hexagonal E and lamellar D anizotropic mesophases have been determined by polarizing microscopy method and partial ternary phase diagram of the system set up. Textural properties of the anisotropic mesophases of the system have been discussed and their birefringence values measured. Mechanical deformation has been applied to the mesophases. The textural properties and the birefringence values have been observed to be changed by the deformation, after and before which changes have been compared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hailian Li
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In order to realize a micro-mechanic performance test of biaxial tensile-bending-combined loading and solve the problem of incompatibility of test apparatus and observation apparatus, novel biaxial-combined tensile-bending micro-mechanical performance test apparatus was designed. The working principle and major functions of key constituent parts of test apparatus, including the servo drive unit, clamping unit and test system, were introduced. Based on the finite element method, biaxial tensile and tension-bending-combined mechanical performances of the test-piece were studied as guidance to learn the distribution of elastic deformation and plastic deformation of all sites of the test-piece and to better plan test regions. Finally, this test apparatus was used to conduct a biaxial tensile test under different pre-bending loading and a tensile test at different rates; the image of the fracture of the test-piece was acquired by a scanning electron microscope and analyzed. It was indicated that as the pre-bending force rises, the elastic deformation phase would gradually shorten and the slope of the elastic deformation phase curve would slightly rise so that a yield limit would appear ahead of time. Bending speed could exert a positive and beneficial influence on tensile strength but weaken fracture elongation. If bending speed is appropriately raised, more ideal anti-tensile strength could be obtained, but fracture elongation would decline.
DeBenedictis, Andrew; Atherton, Timothy J.; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Hirst, Linda S.
2018-03-01
A micrometer-scale elastic shell immersed in a nematic liquid crystal may be deformed by the host if the cost of deformation is comparable to the cost of elastic deformation of the nematic. Moreover, such inclusions interact and form chains due to quadrupolar distortions induced in the host. A continuum theory model using finite elements is developed for this system, using mesh regularization and dynamic refinement to ensure quality of the numerical representation even for large deformations. From this model, we determine the influence of the shell elasticity, nematic elasticity, and anchoring condition on the shape of the shell and hence extract parameter values from an experimental realization. Extending the model to multibody interactions, we predict the alignment angle of the chain with respect to the host nematic as a function of aspect ratio, which is found to be in excellent agreement with experiments.
Lossy effects in a nonlinear nematic optical fiber
Rodríguez, R. F.; Reyes, J. A.
2001-09-01
We use the multiple scales method to derive a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation that takes into account the dissipative effects in the reorientation of a nematic confined in a cylindrical waveguide. This equation has soliton-like solutions and predicts a decrease in the penetration length of the optical solitons for each propagating mode with respect to the dissipationless case.
Two-Dimensional Spatial Solitons in Nematic Liquid Crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Weiping; Xie Ruihua; Goong Chen; Belic, Milivoj; Yang Zhengping
2009-01-01
We study the propagation of spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals, using the self-similar method. Analytical solutions in the form of self-similar solitons are obtained exactly. We confirm the stability of these solutions by direct numerical simulation, and find that the stable spatial solitons can exist in various forms, such as Gaussian solitons, radially symmetric solitons, multipole solitons, and soliton vortices.
Pervasive electronic nematicity in a cuprate superconductor
Wu, J.; Bollinger, A. T.; He, X.; Božović, I.
2018-06-01
We describe an extensive experimental study of La2-xSrxCuO4 films synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated by angle-resolved measurements of transverse resistivity (without applied magnetic field). The data show that an unusual metallic state, in which the rotational symmetry of the electron fluid is spontaneously broken, occurs in a large temperature and doping region. The superconducting state always emerges out of this nematic metal state.
Simulating QCD at the physical point with Nf=2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Rehim, A.; Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ. Nicosia; Burger, F.
2015-12-01
We present simulations of QCD using N f =2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at a∼0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces O(a 2 ) cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.
A Study on U-bending Technology using Rotary Draw Bending
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Ok-gyu; Kim, Won-seok [BHI Co., Gyunsang-Namdo (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Tae-wan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
In the steam generator, heat transfer phenomenon for producing the steam between the primary system of the nuclear reactor and the secondary one occurs around the heat transfer tube. That is, the primary coolant with high temperature(320 .deg.. C) and high pressure(157Kgf/cm2) derived from the reactor flows in the heat transfer tube, and the secondary one runs out that tube. Therefore, it is able to mention that the heat transfer tube itself is a boundary of the heat transfer phenomenon. The heat transfer tube bundle of each steam generator used for the PWR and the PHWR(Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) is generally composed of about 8,000-13,000 U-tubes. And these tubes are the core component as the structural and heat transfer material in the steam generator, which is in charge of cooling about 70% of the cooling surface of the primary system. For achieving the U-bending process with the thin walled tube, generally, a mandrel could be inserted in the tube according to the bending radius. But when the bending radius is small, the tube U-bending process could be also performed without the mandrel. In this study, numerical and experimental investigations on the U-bending process for producing the heat transfer tubes by using the straight and long tubes were carried out with the consideration of the elastic recovery after the U-bending. In the numerical approach, finite element analysis scheme was adopted with a commercial code, ABAQUS Implicit/Explicit. As the precedent study, the related experiment was also performed to verify the predicted results on the ovality and the minimum wall thickness of the U-bending heat transfer tube. Furthermore, its bending process was also conducted to analyze the deformation behavior for the Alloy 690 tube. In this study, the U-bending process was considered to simulate and manufactured the heat transfer tube used for the steam generator. To investigate the deformation behavior of the U-bending process, and a series of the
Research on Flow Pattern of Nitrogen Tetroxide Liquid in the Different Bend Radii Pipes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Pengfei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available N2O4 is a common rocket fuel propellants, it has the characteristics of low boiling point and a large viscosity , the friction between viscosity fluids and pipeline dramatic leads to a huge sticky heat, therefore, the vaporization phenomenon often occurs in the pipeline, particularly in bending of the viscous heat. For this reason, the research of the different bending radii vaporized fluid conditions for optimizing the piping and precise the filling flow is significant. In this paper, the MIXTURE mixed flow model is used to achieve the numerical simulation the pipelines filling of the three different bending radii, it still have not solved the mass transfer problem between the different phases. Therefore, the custom functions are needed to define the mass transfer problems from the liquid phase to the vapor phase. Though the contrast among the volume phase cloud of six different elbow models , we have the following conclusions: 1 In the entire pipeline transportation, the distribution vaporization rate from the inlet pipe to the outlet pipe follows the distribution of the first increasing and then decreasing, the gas rates of the elbow area is highest; 2Analyzing the sticky heat for different bend radii, we have the conclusion that the lowest bending vaporization the of the optimal radius is 0.45m. The above conclusions are drawn in good agreement with the actual law, can effectively guide the engineering practice, have important significance for the future design for the optimization of the fuel pipeline transportation.
Global solution to the 3D inhomogeneous nematic liquid crystal flows with variable density
Hu, Xianpeng; Liu, Qiao
2018-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the global existence and uniqueness of solution to the 3D inhomogeneous incompressible nematic liquid crystal flows with variable density in the framework of Besov spaces. It is proved that there exists a global and unique solution to the nematic liquid crystal flows if the initial data (ρ0 - 1 ,u0 ,n0 -e3) ∈ M (B˙p,1 3/p - 1 (R3)) × B˙p,1 3/p - 1 (R3) × B˙p,1 3/p (R3) with 1 ≤ p < 6, and satisfies
Twist-1 Up-Regulation in Carcinoma Correlates to Poor Survival
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alimujiang Wushou
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT facilitates tumor metastasis. Twist is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that modulates many target genes through E-box-responsive elements. There are two twist-like proteins, Twist-1 and Twist-2, sharing high structural homology in mammals. Twist-1 was found to be a key factor in the promotion of metastasis of cancer cells, and is known to induce EMT. Twist-1 participation in carcinoma progression and metastasis has been reported in a variety of tumors. However, controversy exists concerning the correlation between Twist-1 and prognostic value with respect to carcinoma. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether the expression of Twist-1 was associated with the prognosis of carcinoma patients. This analysis included 17 studies: four studies evaluated lung cancer, three evaluated head and neck cancer, two evaluated breast cancer, two evaluated esophageal cancer, two evaluated liver cancer and one each evaluated osteosarcoma, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancer. A total of 2006 patients were enrolled in these studies, and the median trial sample size was 118 patients. Twist-1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (OS at both 3 years (hazard ratio “HR” for death = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.86 to 2.45, p < 0.001 and 5 years (HR for death = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.76 to 2.29, p < 0.001. Expression of Twist-1 is associated with worse survival in carcinoma.
Competing Phases of 2D Electrons at ν = 5/2 and 7/3
Xia, Jing
2011-03-01
The N=1 Landau level (LL) exhibits collective electronic phenomena characteristic of both fractional quantum Hall (FQHE) states seen in the lowest LL and anisotropic nematic states in the higher LLs. A modest in-plane magnetic field B| | is sufficient to destroy the fractional quantized Hall states at ν = 5 / 2 (and 7/2) and replace them with anisotropic compressible nematic phases, revealing the close competition between the two. We find that at larger B| | these anisotropic phases ν = 5 / 2 can themselves be replaced by a new isotropic state, dubbed re-entrant isotropic compressible (RIC) phase. We present strong evidence that this transition is a consequence of the mixing of Landau levels from different electric subbands in the confinement potential. In addition, we find that with B| | , the normally isotropic ν = 7 / 3 FQHE state can transform into an anisotropic phase with an accurately quantized Hall plateau but an anisotropic longitudinal resistivities. As temperature is lowered towards zero, ρxx diminishes while ρyy tends to diverge, reminiscent of the anisotropic nematic states, while surprisingly ρxy and ρyx remain quantized at 3 h / 7e2 , indicating a completely new quantum phase. This work represents a collaboration with J.P. Eisenstein (Caltech) and L.N. Pfeiffer and K.W West (Princeton), and is supported by Microsoft Project Q.
Pati, Akshaya K; Sahoo, N C
2017-07-01
This paper presents an adaptive super-twisting sliding mode control (STC) along with double-loop control for voltage tracking performance of three-phase differential boost inverter and DC-link capacitor voltage regulation in grid-connected PV system. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated under realistic scenarios such as variations in solar insolation, load power demand, grid voltage, and transition from grid-connected to standalone mode etc. Additional supplementary power quality control functions such as harmonic compensation, and reactive power management are also investigated with the proposed control strategy. The results are compared with conventional proportional-integral controller, and PWM sliding mode controller. The system performance is evaluated in simulation and in real-time. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young H. YOU
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The best active twist schedules exploiting various waveform types are sought taking advantage of the global search algorithm for the reduction of hub vibration and/or power required of a rotor in high-speed conditions. The active twist schedules include two non-harmonic inputs formed based on segmented step functions as well as the simple harmonic waveform input. An advanced Particle Swarm assisted Genetic Algorithm (PSGA is employed for the optimizer. A rotorcraft Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD code CAMRAD II is used to perform the rotor aeromechanics analysis. A Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD code is coupled with CSD for verification and some physical insights. The PSGA optimization results are verified against the parameter sweep study performed using the harmonic actuation. The optimum twist schedules according to the performance and/or vibration reduction strategy are obtained and their optimization gains are compared between the actuation cases. A two-phase non-harmonic actuation schedule demonstrates the best outcome in decreasing the power required while a four-phase non-harmonic schedule results in the best vibration reduction as well as the simultaneous reductions in the power required and vibration. The mechanism of reduction to the performance gains is identified illustrating the section airloads, angle-of-attack distribution, and elastic twist deformation predicted by the present approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stelzer, J.; Trebin, H.R.; Longa, L.
1994-08-01
We report NVT and NPT molecular dynamics simulations of a Gay-Berne nematic liquid crystal using generalization of recently proposed algorithm by Toxvaerd [Phys. Rev. E47, 343, 1993]. On the basis of these simulations the Oseen-Zoher-Frank elastic constants K 11 , K 22 and K 33 as well as the surface constants K 13 and K 24 have been calculated within the framework of the direct correlation function approach of Lipkin et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 82, 472 (1985)]. The angular coefficients of the direct pair correlation function, which enter the final formulas, have been determined from the computer simulation data for the pair correlation function of the nematic by combining the Ornstein-Zernike relation and the Wienier-Hopf factorization scheme. The unoriented nematic approximation has been assumed when constructing the reference, isotropic state of Lipkin et al. By an extensive study of the model over a wide range of temperatures, densities and pressures a very detailed information has been provided about elastic behaviour of the Gay-Berne nematic. Interestingly, it is found that the results for the surface elastic constants are qualitatively different than those obtained with the help of analytical approximations for the isotropic, direct pair correlation function. For example, the values of the surface elastic constants are negative and an order of magnitude smaller than the bulk elasticity. (author). 30 refs, 9 figs
New optical method for measuring the bending elasticity of lipid bilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minetti, C; Dubois, F; Vitkova, V; Bivas, I
2016-01-01
The knowledge of the elasticity of lipid bilayer structures is fundamental for new developments in biophysics, pharmacology and biomedical research. Lipid vesicles are readily prepared in laboratory conditions and employed for studying the physical properties of lipid membranes. The thermal fluctuation analysis of the shape of lipid vesicles (or flicker spectroscopy) is one of the experimental methods widely used for the measurement of the bending modulus of lipid bilayers. We present direct phase measurements performed on dilute vesicular suspensions by means of a new optical method exploiting holographic microscopy. For the bending constant of phosphatidylcholine bilayers we report the value of 23k B T in agreement with values previously measured by micropipette aspiration, electrodeformation and flicker spectroscopy of giant lipid vesicles. The application of this novel approach for the evaluation of the bending elasticity of lipid membranes opens the way to future developments in the phase measurements on lipid vesicles for the evaluation of their mechanical constants. (paper)
Schwarz, Jakob; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Schwaerz, Marc
2018-05-01
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations are highly accurate, long-term stable data sets and are globally available as a continuous record from 2001. Essential climate variables for the thermodynamic state of the free atmosphere - such as pressure, temperature, and tropospheric water vapor profiles (involving background information) - can be derived from these records, which therefore have the potential to serve as climate benchmark data. However, to exploit this potential, atmospheric profile retrievals need to be very accurate and the remaining uncertainties quantified and traced throughout the retrieval chain from raw observations to essential climate variables. The new Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS) at the Wegener Center aims to deliver such an accurate RO retrieval chain with integrated uncertainty propagation. Here we introduce and demonstrate the algorithms implemented in the rOPS for uncertainty propagation from excess phase to atmospheric bending angle profiles, for estimated systematic and random uncertainties, including vertical error correlations and resolution estimates. We estimated systematic uncertainty profiles with the same operators as used for the basic state profiles retrieval. The random uncertainty is traced through covariance propagation and validated using Monte Carlo ensemble methods. The algorithm performance is demonstrated using test day ensembles of simulated data as well as real RO event data from the satellite missions CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP); Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC); and Meteorological Operational Satellite A (MetOp). The results of the Monte Carlo validation show that our covariance propagation delivers correct uncertainty quantification from excess phase to bending angle profiles. The results from the real RO event ensembles demonstrate that the new uncertainty estimation chain performs robustly. Together
Euclidean supersymmetry, twisting and topological sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.; Lindstroem, U.; Santos, L. Melo dos; Zabzine, M.; Unge, R. von
2008-01-01
We discuss two dimensional N-extended supersymmetry in Euclidean signature and its R-symmetry. For N = 2, the R-symmetry is SO(2) x SO(1, 1), so that only an A-twist is possible. To formulate a B-twist, or to construct Euclidean N = 2 models with H-flux so that the target geometry is generalised Kahler, it is necessary to work with a complexification of the sigma models. These issues are related to the obstructions to the existence of non-trivial twisted chiral superfields in Euclidean superspace.
Creation and manipulation of topological states in chiral nematic microspheres
Orlova, Tetiana; Aßhoff, Sarah Jane; Yamaguchi, Tadatsugu; Katsonis, Nathalie; Brasselet, Etienne
2015-07-01
Topology is a universal concept that is encountered in daily life and is known to determine many static and dynamical properties of matter. Taming and controlling the topology of materials therefore constitutes a contemporary interdisciplinary challenge. Building on the controllable spatial properties of soft matter appears as a relevant strategy to address the challenge, in particular, because it may lead to paradigmatic model systems that allow checking theories experimentally. Here we report experimentally on a wealth of complex free-standing metastable topological architectures at the micron scale, in frustrated chiral nematic droplets. These results support recent works predicting the formation of free-standing knotted and linked disclination structures in confined chiral nematic fluids. We also demonstrate that various kinds of external fields (thermal, electrical and optical) can be used to achieve topological remote control. All this may foster the development of new devices based on topologically structured soft media.
Dickens, Charles
2005-01-01
Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and
Duality and braiding in twisted quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riccardi, Mauro; Szabo, Richard J.
2008-01-01
We re-examine various issues surrounding the definition of twisted quantum field theories on flat noncommutative spaces. We propose an interpretation based on nonlocal commutative field redefinitions which clarifies previously observed properties such as the formal equivalence of Green's functions in the noncommutative and commutative theories, causality, and the absence of UV/IR mixing. We use these fields to define the functional integral formulation of twisted quantum field theory. We exploit techniques from braided tensor algebra to argue that the twisted Fock space states of these free fields obey conventional statistics. We support our claims with a detailed analysis of the modifications induced in the presence of background magnetic fields, which induces additional twists by magnetic translation operators and alters the effective noncommutative geometry seen by the twisted quantum fields. When two such field theories are dual to one another, we demonstrate that only our braided physical states are covariant under the duality
NCAP projection displays: key issues for commercialization
Tomita, Akira; Jones, Philip J.
1992-06-01
Recently there has been much interest in a new polymer nematic dispersion technology, often called as NCAP, PDLC, PNLC, LCPC, etc., since projection displays using this technology have been shown to produce much brighter display images than projectors using conventional twisted nematic (TN) lightvalves. For commercializing projection displays based on this polymer nematic dispersion technology, the new materials must not only meet various electro- optic requirements, e.g., operational voltage, `off-state'' scattering angle, voltage holding ratio and hysteresis, but must also be stable over the lifetime of the product. This paper reports recent progress in the development of NCAP based projection displays and discusses some of the key commercialization issues.
Anderson, James; Chen, Cheng; Bos, Philip J.
2005-04-01
Single or dual panel microdisplay systems are becoming more popular in the marketplace. Consequently, Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) microdisplays are constantly being pushed to achieve faster switching times as well as higher contrast, while becoming simpler and allowing simpler optics engine design. Currently, most products use a Twisted Nematic (TN) mode with a retardation film. The most promising solution in research now is the Vertically Aligned Nematic (VAN) mode, which does not require a retarder.
Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daszkiewicz, M.
2010-01-01
Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Turiv
2015-06-01
Full Text Available As recently reported [Turiv T. et al., Science, 2013, Vol. 342, 1351], fluctuations in the orientation of the liquid crystal (LC director can transfer momentum from the LC to a colloid, such that the diffusion of the colloid becomes anomalous on a short time scale. Using video microscopy and single particle tracking, we investigate random thermal motion of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal for the time scales shorter than the expected time of director fluctuations. At long times, compared to the characteristic time of the nematic director relaxation we observe typical anisotropic Brownian motion with the mean square displacement (MSD linear in time τ and inversly proportional to the effective viscosity of the nematic medium. At shorter times, however, the dynamics is markedly nonlinear with MSD growing more slowly (subdiffusion or faster (superdiffusion than τ. These results are discussed in the context of coupling of colloidal particle's dynamics to the director fluctuation dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowell, F.
1987-01-01
A summary of results from a unique statistical-physics theory to predict and explain competing interactions and resulting microstructures in some partially-ordered [in this case, liquid-crystalline (LC)] phases is presented. The static aspects of both partial orientational and partial positional ordering of the molecules into various microstructures in these phases (including the incommensurate smectic-Ad phase) can be understood in terms of various competing interactions (both entropic and energetic) involved in the packing together of the different molecular sub-units at given pressures and temperatures. These microstructures are predicted and explained (using no ad hoc or arbitrarily adjustable parameter) as a function of molecule chemical structure [including lengths and shapes (from bond lengths and angles), intramolecular rotations, site-site polarizabilities and pair potentials, dipole moments, etc]. Theoretical results are presented for the nematic, re-entrant nematic, smectic-Ad, and smectic-Al LC phases and the isotropic phase
Nematic liquid crystal in a cylindrical sample: Theoretical analysis of the electrical response
Gomes, O. A.; Yednak, C. A. R.; da Silva, B. V. H. V.; Teixeira-Souza, R. T.
2018-02-01
The electrical responses of a nematic liquid crystal sample confined between two cylindrical surfaces are investigated in the framework of elastic continuum theory. The responses are the result of the molecular reorientation induced by both the applied electric field and the cylindrical geometry of the sample. The nematic medium is considered as a parallel RC circuit since the capacitance and the resistance are under the same difference of potential. The electrical properties, including the total electric current, are determined from the molecular reorientation of the director. The elastic anisotropy has been shown to influence substantially the profile of the electrical current, capacitance, and resistance characterizing the equivalent circuit for the medium.
TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma
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Wakimoto Hiroaki
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is
Hydrodynamics of defects in nematic liquid crystal films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurz, G.
1999-01-01
In this thesis I propose a new theory to deal with the presence of a macroscopic density of defects or disclinations in two-dimensional systems of uniaxial nematic liquid crystal. The static part of the Abelian-Higgs model is the basis for a gauge covariant form of the Frank free energy for distortions in nematics, where the gauge field models the screening due to the presence of the defects. Certain results for vortices in the Abelian-Higgs model are reformulated for use in my theory. The model suggests disclinations with an isotropic core region. The covariant Frank free energy is used to derive a new form of the Ericksen-Leslie equations describing the hydrodynamics off nematics. These equations are set up according to the concept of thermodynamic fluxes and forces. Detailed analytic results are derived for the case where the dynamics is due to director reorientations, but no liquid flow. The hydrodynamic equations are reduced to dynamic equations for disclination points assuming a quasi-static motion in moduli space. The static form of the disclinations is based on solutions in the Bogomol'nyi limit, their quasi-static motion is induced through a deviation from this limit. The resulting equations are valid for a configuration containing disclinations with winding numbers of the same sign. These general equations require a, specific ansatz to yield further results. I consider two regimes, for defects close together and far apart from one another. A set of disclinations with winding numbers of the same sign which are close to one another, i.e. with overlapping cores, can result from disintegration of a larger disclination, and they repel one another. The results for this case predict how the disintegration could occur. The interaction of disclinations, with winding numbers of the same sign, which are far apart from one another is repulsive and decreases exponentially with the distances between them. Two such disclinations move on a straight line where their
Blossier, BenoÃ®t.; Brinet, Mariane; Guichon, Pierre; Morénas, Vincent; Pène, Olivier; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2015-06-01
We present a precise nonperturbative determination of the renormalization constants in the mass independent RI'-MOM scheme. The lattice implementation uses the Iwasaki gauge action and four degenerate dynamical twisted-mass fermions. The gauge configurations are provided by the ETM Collaboration. Renormalization constants for scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial operators, as well as the quark propagator renormalization, are computed at three different values of the lattice spacing, two volumes and several twisted-mass parameters. The method we developed allows for a precise cross-check of the running, thanks to the particular proper treatment of hypercubic artifacts. Results for the twist-2 operator O44 are also presented.
Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.
DeSimone, Antonio
2018-01-01
We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.
Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake
Ellis, J. M.
1986-01-01
Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketov, S.V.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Parkes, A.J.
1993-12-01
The most general homogeneous monodromy conditions in N= 2 string theory are classified in terms of the conjugacy classes of the global symmetry group U(1, 1) x Z 2 . For classes which generate a discrete subgroup Γ, the corresponding target space backgrounds C 1,1 /Γ include half spaces, complex orbifolds and tori. We propose a generalization of the intercept formula to matrix-valued twists, and find massless physical states in a number of twisted cases. In particular, the sixteen Z 2 -twisted sectors of the N = 2 string are investigated, and the corresponding ground states are identified via bosonization and BRST cohomology. We find enough room for an extended multiplet of 'spacetime' supersymmetry, with the number of supersymmetries being dependent on global 'spacetime' topology. Unfortunately, world-sheet locality for the chiral vertex operators does not permit interactions for the massless 'spacetime' fermions; however possibly, an asymmetric GSO projection could evade this problem. (orig.)
Twisted Diff S sup 1 -action on loop groups and representations of the Virasoro algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harnad, J [Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada). Centre de Recherches Mathematiques (CRM); Kupershmidt, B A [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma (USA). Space Inst.
1990-05-01
A modified Hamiltonian action of Diff S{sup 1} on the phase space LG{sup C}/G{sup C}, where LG is a loop group, is defined by twisting the usual action by a left translation in LG. This twisted action is shown to be generated by a nonequivariant moment map, thereby defining a classical Poisson bracket realization of a central extension of the Lie algebra diff{sub C} S{sup 1}. The resulting formula expresses the Diff S{sup 1} generators in terms of the left LG translation generators, giving a shifted modification of both the classical and quantum versions of the Sugawara formula. (orig.).
Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of twisted trilayer graphene
Zuo, Wei-Jie; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Ma, Dong-Lin; Yin, Long-Jing; Sun, Gan; Zhang, Jun-Yang; Guan, Li-Yang; He, Lin
2018-01-01
Twist, as a simple and unique degree of freedom, could lead to enormous novel quantum phenomena in bilayer graphene. A small rotation angle introduces low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) approaching the Fermi level, which result in unusual correlated states in the bilayer graphene. It is reasonable to expect that the twist could also affect the electronic properties of few-layer graphene dramatically. However, such an issue has remained experimentally elusive. Here, by using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), we systematically studied a twisted trilayer graphene (TTG) with two different small twist angles between adjacent layers. Two sets of VHSs, originating from the two twist angles, were observed in the TTG, indicating that the TTG could be simply regarded as a combination of two different twisted bilayers of graphene. By using high-resolution STS, we observed a split of the VHSs and directly imaged the spatial symmetry breaking of electronic states around the VHSs. These results suggest that electron-electron interactions play an important role in affecting the electronic properties of graphene systems with low-energy VHSs.
A Numerical Study of the Spring-Back Phenomenon in Bending with a Rebar Bending Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang Hwan Choi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Recently, the rebar bending methodology started to change from field processing to utilizing rebar bending machines at plant sites prior to transport to the construction locations. Computerized control of rebar plant bending machines provides more accurate and faster bending of rebars than the low quality inefficient field processing alternative. The bending process involves plastic deformation of rebars, where bending stress beyond the yield point of the material is applied. When the bending stress is removed, spring back is caused by the elastic restoring stress. Therefore, an accurate numerical analysis of the spring-back process is required to reduce the bending process errors. The most sensitive factors affecting the spring-back process are the bending radius, the bending angle, the diameter of the rebar, the friction coefficient, and the yielding strength of material. In this paper, we suggest a numerical modeling method using these factors. The finite element modeling of the dynamic mechanical behavior of the material during bending is performed using a commercial dynamic analysis program “DAFUL.” We use the least squares approach to derive the spring-back deflection as a function of the rebar bending parameters.
Orientational behavior of a nematic liquid crystal filled with inorganic oxide nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrilko, T.; Kovalchuk, O.; Nazarenko, V.; Hauser, A.; Kresse, H.
2004-01-01
We report the results of dielectric spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies performed on the nematic liquid crystal (LC) mixture Merck ZLI-1132 filled with TiO 2 (rutile and anatase) and SiO 2 nanoparticles. The observed static dielectric permittivities are interpreted in terms of orientation of the LC with respect to the measuring electric field. Adding of SiO 2 particles mainly induces a statistical orientation of LC molecules, whereas TiO 2 particles promote the perpendicular orientation. The dynamics of LC molecules in all systems is very similar. The reason for the slightly faster reorientation observed in the mixtures may be connected with a disturbed nematic order near the surface of solid particles
Matoz-Fernandez, D A; Linares, D H; Ramirez-Pastor, A J
2012-09-04
The statistical thermodynamics of straight rigid rods of length k on triangular lattices was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the classical Guggenheim-DiMarzio approximation. In this scheme, the Helmholtz free energy and its derivatives were written in terms of the order parameter, δ, which characterizes the nematic phase occurring in the system at intermediate densities. Then, using the principle of minimum free energy with δ as a parameter, the main adsorption properties were calculated. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data were performed in order to evaluate the outcome and limitations of the theoretical model.
Curvature-induced defect unbinding and dynamics in active nematic toroids
Ellis, Perry W.; Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Chang, Ya-Wen; Goldsztein, Guillermo; Giomi, Luca; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto
2018-01-01
Nematic order on curved surfaces is often disrupted by the presence of topological defects, which are singular regions in which the orientational order is undefined. In the presence of force-generating active materials, these defects are able to migrate through space like swimming microorganisms. We use toroidal surfaces to show that despite their highly chaotic and non-equilibrium dynamics, pairs of defects unbind and segregate in regions of opposite Gaussian curvature. Using numerical simulations, we find that the degree of defect unbinding can be controlled by tuning the system activity, and even suppressed in strongly active systems. Furthermore, by using the defects as active microrheological tracers and quantitatively comparing our experimental and theoretical results, we are able to determine material properties of the active nematic. Our results illustrate how topology and geometry can be used to control the behaviour of active materials, and introduce a new avenue for the quantitative mechanical characterization of active fluids.
Twisted boundary states in c=1 coset conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi
2003-01-01
We study the mutual consistency of twisted boundary conditions in the coset conformal field theory G/H. We calculate the overlap of the twisted boundary states of G/H with the untwisted ones, and show that the twisted boundary states are consistently defined in the charge-conjugation modular invariant. The overlap of the twisted boundary states is expressed by the branching functions of a twisted affine Lie algebra. As a check of our argument, we study the diagonal coset theory so(2n) 1 +so(2n) 1 /so(2n) 2 , which is equivalent to the orbifold S 1 /Z 2 at a particular radius. We construct the boundary states twisted by the automorphisms of the unextended Dynkin diagram of so(2n), and show their mutual consistency by identifying their counterpart in the orbifold. For the triality of so(8), the twisted states of the coset theory correspond to neither the Neumann nor the Dirichlet boundary states of the orbifold and yield conformal boundary states that preserve only the Virasoro algebra. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y. B.; Zhu, X. W.; Dai, H. H.
2016-01-01
Though widely used in modelling nano- and micro- structures, Eringen’s differential model shows some inconsistencies and recent study has demonstrated its differences between the integral model, which then implies the necessity of using the latter model. In this paper, an analytical study is taken to analyze static bending of nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beams using Eringen’s two-phase local/nonlocal model. Firstly, a reduction method is proved rigorously, with which the integral equation in consideration can be reduced to a differential equation with mixed boundary value conditions. Then, the static bending problem is formulated and four types of boundary conditions with various loadings are considered. By solving the corresponding differential equations, exact solutions are obtained explicitly in all of the cases, especially for the paradoxical cantilever beam problem. Finally, asymptotic analysis of the exact solutions reveals clearly that, unlike the differential model, the integral model adopted herein has a consistent softening effect. Comparisons are also made with existing analytical and numerical results, which further shows the advantages of the analytical results obtained. Additionally, it seems that the once controversial nonlocal bar problem in the literature is well resolved by the reduction method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y. B. [Department of Mathematics, ShaoXing University, No.900, ChengNan Avenue 312000, ShaoXing, Zhejiang (China); Zhu, X. W., E-mail: xiaowuzhu1026@znufe.edu.cn [School of Statistics and Mathematics, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073 (China); Dai, H. H. [Department of Mathematics, City University of HongKong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)
2016-08-15
Though widely used in modelling nano- and micro- structures, Eringen’s differential model shows some inconsistencies and recent study has demonstrated its differences between the integral model, which then implies the necessity of using the latter model. In this paper, an analytical study is taken to analyze static bending of nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beams using Eringen’s two-phase local/nonlocal model. Firstly, a reduction method is proved rigorously, with which the integral equation in consideration can be reduced to a differential equation with mixed boundary value conditions. Then, the static bending problem is formulated and four types of boundary conditions with various loadings are considered. By solving the corresponding differential equations, exact solutions are obtained explicitly in all of the cases, especially for the paradoxical cantilever beam problem. Finally, asymptotic analysis of the exact solutions reveals clearly that, unlike the differential model, the integral model adopted herein has a consistent softening effect. Comparisons are also made with existing analytical and numerical results, which further shows the advantages of the analytical results obtained. Additionally, it seems that the once controversial nonlocal bar problem in the literature is well resolved by the reduction method.
Twisted covariant noncommutative self-dual gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.
2008-01-01
A twisted covariant formulation of noncommutative self-dual gravity is presented. The formulation for constructing twisted noncommutative Yang-Mills theories is used. It is shown that the noncommutative torsion is solved at any order of the θ expansion in terms of the tetrad and some extra fields of the theory. In the process the first order expansion in θ for the Plebanski action is explicitly obtained.
Curvature reduces bending strains in the quokka femur
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyle McCabe
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This study explores how curvature in the quokka femur may help to reduce bending strain during locomotion. The quokka is a small wallaby, but the curvature of the femur and the muscles active during stance phase are similar to most quadrupedal mammals. Our hypothesis is that the action of hip extensor and ankle plantarflexor muscles during stance phase place cranial bending strains that act to reduce the caudal curvature of the femur. Knee extensors and biarticular muscles that span the femur longitudinally create caudal bending strains in the caudally curved (concave caudal side bone. These opposing strains can balance each other and result in less strain on the bone. We test this idea by comparing the performance of a normally curved finite element model of the quokka femur to a digitally straightened version of the same bone. The normally curved model is indeed less strained than the straightened version. To further examine the relationship between curvature and the strains in the femoral models, we also tested an extra-curved and a reverse-curved version with the same loads. There appears to be a linear relationship between the curvature and the strains experienced by the models. These results demonstrate that longitudinal curvature in bones may be a manipulable mechanism whereby bone can induce a strain gradient to oppose strains induced by habitual loading.
Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.
2001-01-01
Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR
Mujika, Jon I; Formoso, Elena; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier
2006-08-03
We present an ab initio study of the acid hydrolysis of a highly twisted amide and a planar amide analogue. The aim of these studies is to investigate the effect that the twist of the amide bond has on the reaction barriers and mechanism of acid hydrolysis. Concerted and stepwise mechanisms were investigated using density functional theory and polarizable continuum model calculations. Remarkable differences were observed between the mechanism of twisted and planar amide, due mainly to the preference for N-protonation of the former and O-protonation of the latter. In addition, we were also able to determine that the hydrolytic mechanism of the twisted amide will be pH dependent. Thus, there is a preference for a stepwise mechanism with formation of an intermediate in the acid hydrolysis, whereas the neutral hydrolysis undergoes a concerted-type mechanism. There is a nice agreement between the characterized intermediate and available X-ray data and a good agreement with the kinetically estimated rate acceleration of hydrolysis with respect to analogous undistorted amide compounds. This work, along with previous ab initio calculations, describes a complex and rich chemistry for the hydrolysis of highly twisted amides as a function of pH. The theoretical data provided will allow for a better understanding of the available kinetic data of the rate acceleration of amides upon twisting and the relation of the observed rate acceleration with intrinsic differential reactivity upon loss of amide bond resonance.
Dynamics of optical signals in a nematic waveguide
Reyes, J. Adrian
2001-03-01
We study the modes in a nonlinear nematic waveguide above the Frederickz transition and calculate each of the thresholds associated with different optical and orientational modes. Then, we exhibit the presence of kink-like solutions for the orientational equation under the action of optical fields and study its propagation. Finally, we analyse the dynamics of optical signal in the presence of orientational kinks for different modes and type of signals.
A twisted generalization of Novikov-Poisson algebras
Yau, Donald
2010-01-01
Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras, which are twisted generalizations of Novikov-Poisson algebras, are studied. Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras are shown to be closed under tensor products and several kinds of twistings. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given under which Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras give rise to Hom-Poisson algebras.
Frohn, Peter; Engel, Bernd; Groth, Sebastian
2018-05-01
Kinematic forming processes shape geometries by the process parameters to achieve a more universal process utilizations regarding geometric configurations. The kinematic forming process Incremental Swivel Bending (ISB) bends sheet metal strips or profiles in plane. The sequence for bending an arc increment is composed of the steps clamping, bending, force release and feed. The bending moment is frictionally engaged by two clamping units in a laterally adjustable bending pivot. A minimum clamping force hindering the material from slipping through the clamping units is a crucial criterion to achieve a well-defined incremental arc. Therefore, an analytic description of a singular bent increment is developed in this paper. The bending moment is calculated by the uniaxial stress distribution over the profiles' width depending on the bending pivot's position. By a Coulomb' based friction model, necessary clamping force is described in dependence of friction, offset, dimensions of the clamping tools and strip thickness as well as material parameters. Boundaries for the uniaxial stress calculation are given in dependence of friction, tools' dimensions and strip thickness. The results indicate that changing the bending pivot to an eccentric position significantly affects the process' bending moment and, hence, clamping force, which is given in dependence of yield stress and hardening exponent. FE simulations validate the model with satisfactory accordance.
Hydrophobic matrix-free graphene-oxide composites with isotropic and nematic states
Wåhlander, Martin; Nilsson, Fritjof; Carlmark, Anna; Gedde, Ulf W.; Edmondson, Steve; Malmström, Eva
2016-08-01
We demonstrate a novel route to synthesise hydrophobic matrix-free composites of polymer-grafted graphene oxide (GO) showing isotropic or nematic alignment and shape-memory effects. For the first time, a cationic macroinitiator (MI) has been immobilised on anionic GO and subsequently grafted with hydrophobic polymer grafts. Dense grafts of PBA, PBMA and PMMA with a wide range of average graft lengths (MW: 1-440 kDa) were polymerised by surface-initiated controlled radical precipitation polymerisation from the statistical MI. The surface modification is designed similarly to bimodal graft systems, where the cationic MI generates nanoparticle repulsion, similar to dense short grafts, while the long grafts offer miscibility in non-polar environments and cohesion. The state-of-the-art dispersions of grafted GO were in the isotropic state. Transparent and translucent matrix-free GO-composites could be melt-processed directly using only grafted GO. After processing, birefringence due to nematic alignment of grafted GO was observed as a single giant Maltese cross, 3.4 cm across. Permeability models for composites containing aligned 2D-fillers were developed, which were compared with the experimental oxygen permeability data and found to be consistent with isotropic or nematic states. The storage modulus of the matrix-free GO-composites increased with GO content (50% increase at 0.67 wt%), while the significant increases in the thermal stability (up to 130 °C) and the glass transition temperature (up to 17 °C) were dependent on graft length. The tuneable matrix-free GO-composites with rapid thermo-responsive shape-memory effects are promising candidates for a vast range of applications, especially selective membranes and sensors.We demonstrate a novel route to synthesise hydrophobic matrix-free composites of polymer-grafted graphene oxide (GO) showing isotropic or nematic alignment and shape-memory effects. For the first time, a cationic macroinitiator (MI) has been
Closed-form plastic collapse loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2006-01-01
Based on three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit, collapse and instability load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide plastic collapse loads (using the twice-elastic-slope method) and instability loads. For the bending mode, both closing bending and opening bending are considered, and a wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and collapse load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and bending are proposed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, H.F.; Zhang, G.H.; Zheng, Yue; Wang, Biao; Chen, W.J.
2014-01-01
Based on first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the structural, ferroelectric (FE), energetic and electronic properties of bended ultrathin PbTiO 3 and BaTiO 3 nanobelts in between flat sheet and nanotube configurations. It is found that both PbTiO 3 and BaTiO 3 ultrathin nanobelts can possess axial antiferrodistortive structural distortion (AFD distortion), and the magnitude of the AFD rotation angle is obviously determined by the bending curvature of the nanobelts. Meanwhile, spontaneous polarization can be retained in these single-unit-cell-thick nanobelts with contributions from the axial improper ferroelectricity and the radial flexoelectricity, which indicates that ultrathin perovskite nanobelts do not have a critical thickness. On the other hand, we found that the AFD distortion is stable and significant in PbTiO 3 nanobelts while it is metastable in BaTiO 3 nanobelts in comparison with the stable non-AFD structure without AFD distortion. This is due to the competition between AFD distortion and circumferential lattice extension in releasing the elastic energy in BaTiO 3 material. Moreover, we found that the electronic structure and bandgap of the nanobelts can be tuned by the bending curvature, indicating potential control of transport properties by mechanical bending. Our results gave more insight into the inherence of improper ferroelectricity in low-dimensional perovskite ferroelectrics
Introduction to twisted conformal fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazama, Y.
1988-01-01
A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development
On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha, U.K.; Rajkumar, M. Jaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039 (India)
2006-09-15
The present investigation is aimed at exploring the feasibility of twisted bladed Savonius rotor for power generation. The twisted blade in a three-bladed rotor system has been tested in a low speed wind tunnel, and its performance has been compared with conventional semicircular blades (with twist angle of 0{sup o}). Performance analysis has been made on the basis of starting characteristics, static torque and rotational speed. Experimental evidence shows the potential of the twisted bladed rotor in terms of smooth running, higher efficiency and self-starting capability as compared to that of the conventional bladed rotor. Further experiments have been conducted in the same setup to optimize the twist angle. (author)
New look at the dynamics of twisted accretion disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatchett, S.P.; Begelman, M.C.; Sarazin, C.L.
1981-01-01
We reexamine the dynamic response of a thin, accretion disk to twisting torques, guided by the earlier analyses by Bardeen and Petterson. We make several corrections to this earlier work, and present a new version of the twist equations consistent with their physical assumptions. By describing the distortion of the disk in terms Cartesian direction cosines rather than the Euler angles used by the earlier authors, we are able to transform the twist equations from a pair of coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations to a single, linear, complex one. We write down formulae for the external twisting torques likley to be encountered in astrophysic, and we show that even with these driving torques our twist equation remains linear. We find exact, analytic solutions for steady state structure of a disk subject to Lense-Thirring torques by a nonaligned central Kerr black hole and also for the time-dependent problem of the structure of a slaved disk with its oscillating boundary conditions. Finally, we discuss the stability of disks against twisting modes and show that undriven disks and disks subject to time-independent driving torques are stable
Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal
2018-01-17
Since the seminal studies by Pauling in 1930s, planarity has become the defining characteristic of the amide bond. Planarity of amides has central implications for the reactivity and chemical properties of amides of relevance to a range of chemical disciplines. While the vast majority of amides are planar, nonplanarity has a profound effect on the properties of the amide bond, with the most common method to restrict the amide bond relying on the incorporation of the amide function into a rigid cyclic ring system. In a major departure from this concept, here, we report the first class of acyclic twisted amides that can be prepared, reversibly, from common primary amides in a single, operationally trivial step. Di-tert-butoxycarbonylation of the amide nitrogen atom yields twisted amides in which the amide bond exhibits nearly perpendicular twist. Full structural characterization of a range of electronically diverse compounds from this new class of twisted amides is reported. Through reactivity studies we demonstrate unusual properties of the amide bond, wherein selective cleavage of the amide bond can be achieved by a judicious choice of the reaction conditions. Through computational studies we evaluate structural and energetic details pertaining to the amide bond deformation. The ability to selectively twist common primary amides, in a reversible manner, has important implications for the design and application of the amide bond nonplanarity in structural chemistry, biochemistry and organic synthesis.
Twist2 Is Upregulated in Early Stages of Repair Following Acute Kidney Injury
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth A. Grunz-Borgmann
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The aging kidney is a marked by a number of structural and functional changes, including an increased susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that aging male Fischer 344 rats (24 month are more susceptible to apoptosis-mediated injury than young counterparts. In the current studies, we examined the initial injury and early recovery phases of mercuric chloride-induced AKI. Interestingly, the aging kidney had decreased serum creatinine compared to young controls 1 day following mercuric chloride injury, but by day 4, serum creatinine was significantly elevated, suggesting that the aging kidney did not recover from injury. This conclusion is supported by the findings that serum creatinine and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1 gene expression remain elevated compared to young controls at 10 days post-injury. To begin to elucidate mechanism(s underlying dysrepair in the aging kidney, we examined the expression of Twist2, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that may mediate renal fibrosis. Interestingly, Twist2 gene expression was elevated following injury in both young and aged rats, and Twist2 protein expression is elevated by mercuric chloride in vitro.
Twisted sigma-model solitons on the quantum projective line
Landi, Giovanni
2018-04-01
On the configuration space of projections in a noncommutative algebra, and for an automorphism of the algebra, we use a twisted Hochschild cocycle for an action functional and a twisted cyclic cocycle for a topological term. The latter is Hochschild-cohomologous to the former and positivity in twisted Hochschild cohomology results into a lower bound for the action functional. While the equations for the critical points are rather involved, the use of the positivity and the bound by the topological term lead to self-duality equations (thus yielding twisted noncommutative sigma-model solitons, or instantons). We present explicit nontrivial solutions on the quantum projective line.
Itou, Etsuko
2013-08-01
We report the nonperturbative behavior of the twisted Polyakov loop (TPL) coupling constant for the SU(3) gauge theories defined by the ratio of Polyakov loop correlators in finite volume with twisted boundary condition. We reveal the vacuum structures and the phase structure for the lattice gauge theory with the twisted boundary condition. Carrying out the numerical simulations, we determine the nonperturbative running coupling constant in this renormalization scheme for the quenched QCD and N_f=12 SU(3) gauge theories. First, we study the quenched QCD theory using the plaquette gauge action. The TPL coupling constant has a fake fixed point in the confinement phase. We discuss this fake fixed point of the TPL scheme and obtain the nonperturbative running coupling constant in the deconfinement phase, where the magnitude of the Polyakov loop shows the nonzero values. We also investigate the system coupled to fundamental fermions. Since we use the naive staggered fermion with the twisted boundary condition in our simulation, only multiples of 12 are allowed for the number of flavors. According to the perturbative two-loop analysis, the N_f=12 SU(3) gauge theory might have a conformal fixed point in the infrared region. However, recent lattice studies show controversial results for the existence of the fixed point. We point out possible problems in previous work, and present our careful study. Finally, we find the infrared fixed point (IRFP) and discuss the robustness of the nontrivial IRFP of a many-flavor system under the change of the analysis method. Some preliminary results were reported in the proceedings [E. Bilgici et al., PoS(Lattice 2009), 063 (2009); Itou et al., PoS(Lattice 2010), 054 (2010)] and the letter paper [T. Aoyama et al., arXiv:1109.5806 [hep-lat
Bistability induced by crossed electric and magnetic fields in a nematic film
Barbero, G.; Miraldi, E.; Oldano, C.
1988-09-01
The static distortions in a homogeneously aligned nematic liquid-crystal film in crossed electric and magnetic fields are theoretically analyzed. Both fields are orthogonal to the undistorted molecular alignment and destabilizing. In the limit of small distortions, a first-order transition between two distorted configurations, with bistability and hysteresis, is obtained if the dielectric anisotropy parameter 1-ɛ∥/ɛ⊥ is lower than the elastic anisotropy parameter (k3-k2)2/(4k1k2), where k1, k2, and k3 are the Frank elastic constants. This condition is satisfied by many commonly used nematic materials. At higher distortions an inversion point is found, above which the transition becomes of the second order. At this point a phenomenon similar to the critical opalescence of fluids is expected.
Metric approach for sound propagation in nematic liquid crystals
Pereira, E.; Fumeron, S.; Moraes, F.
2013-02-01
In the eikonal approach, we describe sound propagation near topological defects of nematic liquid crystals as geodesics of a non-Euclidian manifold endowed with an effective metric tensor. The relation between the acoustics of the medium and this geometrical description is given by Fermat's principle. We calculate the ray trajectories and propose a diffraction experiment to retrieve information about the elastic constants.
Extensional rheology of entangled polystyrene solutions suggests importance of nematic interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Qian; Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Matsumiya, Yumi
Local correlations in the orientation of neighboring molecules have been shown to exist both experimentally and theoretically for polymer melts, blends and networks. Such nematic interactions alter the stress-optic coefficient, but predict no change in the overall stress in long time scales...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Gui-Li; Xuan Li; Zhang Hui; Ye Wen-Jiang; Zhang Zhi-Dong; Song Hong-Wei
2016-01-01
Based on the experimental phenomena of flexoelectric response at defect sites in nematic inversion walls conducted by Kumar et al., we gave the theoretical analysis using the Frank elastic theory. When a direct-current electric field normal to the plane of the substrate is applied to the parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal cell with weak anchoring, the rotation of ±1 defects in the narrow inversion walls can be exhibited. The free energy of liquid crystal molecules around the +1 and –1 defect sites in the nematic inversion walls under the electric field was formulated and the electric-field-driven structural changes at the defect site characterized by polar and azimuthal angles of the local director were simulated. The results reveal that the deviation of azimuthal angle induced by flexoelectric effect are consistent with the switching of extinction brushes at the +1 and −1 defects obtained in the experiment conducted by Kumar et al. (paper)
Maleckis, Kaspars; Deegan, Paul; Poulson, William; Sievers, Cole; Desyatova, Anastasia; MacTaggart, Jason; Kamenskiy, Alexey
2017-11-01
High failure rates of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) stenting appear to be associated with the inability of certain stent designs to accommodate severe biomechanical environment of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA) that bends, twists, and axially compresses during limb flexion. Twelve Nitinol stents (Absolute Pro, Supera, Lifestent, Innova, Zilver, Smart Control, Smart Flex, EverFlex, Viabahn, Tigris, Misago, and Complete SE) were quasi-statically tested under bench-top axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsional deformations. Stents were compared in terms of force-strain behavior, stiffness, and geometrical shape under each deformation mode. Tigris was the least stiff stent under axial compression (6.6N/m axial stiffness) and bending (0.1N/m) deformations, while Smart Control was the stiffest (575.3N/m and 105.4N/m, respectively). Under radial compression Complete SE was the stiffest (892.8N/m), while Smart Control had the lowest radial stiffness (211.0N/m). Viabahn and Supera had the lowest and highest torsional stiffness (2.2μNm/° and 959.2μNm/°), respectively. None of the 12 PAD stents demonstrated superior characteristics under all deformation modes and many experienced global buckling and diameter pinching. Though it is yet to be determined which of these deformation modes might have greater clinical impact, results of the current analysis may help guide development of new stents with improved mechanical characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kuk Hee; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong
2007-01-01
Based on three-Dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit and TES(Twice- Elastic-Slope) loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic.perfectly-plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide TES plastic loads. A wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and TES plastic load solutions for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are proposed
A higher twist correction to heavy quark production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Soper, D.E.
1987-06-01
The leading twist prediction for heavy quark production and a model for a higher twist correction that may be important for charm production was discussed. The correction arises from the interaction of the charm quark with spectator quarks
The Twist Tensor Nuclear Norm for Video Completion.
Hu, Wenrui; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Wensheng; Xie, Yuan; Yang, Yehui
2017-12-01
In this paper, we propose a new low-rank tensor model based on the circulant algebra, namely, twist tensor nuclear norm (t-TNN). The twist tensor denotes a three-way tensor representation to laterally store 2-D data slices in order. On one hand, t-TNN convexly relaxes the tensor multirank of the twist tensor in the Fourier domain, which allows an efficient computation using fast Fourier transform. On the other, t-TNN is equal to the nuclear norm of block circulant matricization of the twist tensor in the original domain, which extends the traditional matrix nuclear norm in a block circulant way. We test the t-TNN model on a video completion application that aims to fill missing values and the experiment results validate its effectiveness, especially when dealing with video recorded by a nonstationary panning camera. The block circulant matricization of the twist tensor can be transformed into a circulant block representation with nuclear norm invariance. This representation, after transformation, exploits the horizontal translation relationship between the frames in a video, and endows the t-TNN model with a more powerful ability to reconstruct panning videos than the existing state-of-the-art low-rank models.
Estimates of plastic loads for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2008-01-01
This paper provides a method to estimate plastic loads (defined by twice-elastic-slope) for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment, based on detailed 3-D FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Because closing bending moment is always lower than opening bending moment, the combination of in-plane closing bending and out-of-plane bending moment becomes the most significant case. Due to conservatism of each bending moments, the resultant moment provided by ASME B and PV code is unduly conservative. However, the concept of the resultant moment is still valid. In this paper, FE results show that the accurate solutions of bending moments provide better estimates of plastic loads of pipe bend under combined in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending moment
Optical yarn assessment system for twist measurement in rotor-spun yarn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jhatial, R.A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the development of an optical yarn assessment system for evaluation of twist and structure of twisted yarn. The system comprises a yarn carriage unit, a video microscope and a personal computer. This system was used in conjunction with the well-known tracer fibre technique. This system enables digital images to be grabbed and continuous movies of the yarn to be recorded in order to facilitate the measurement of twist and the analysis of yarn structure. Yarn samples from polyester, viscose and cotton with 35 tex and 485 turns/meter were spun from the roving with 2.3% of black fibres on the SKF laboratory ring frame. In order to measure the twist in the rotor yarns with the optical yarn assessment system, a set of yarn samples from same fibres were spun on RU 14 rotor machine with 35 tex and 475 turns/meter. The twist was measured with the optical yarn assessment system and sixty tests of each sample were carried out on the Zweigle D301. It is clear from the results that there is consistency in the twist of ring-spun yarn measured by the optical yarn assessment system. However, the measured twist with the Zwiegle D301 is inconsistent in the different yarns. The difference in the mean twist measured with the optical twist measuring system and the double untwist-twist method was not significant at a 5% probability level when data was analyzed with t test by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukunaga, Hiroo; Takimoto, Jun-ichi; Doi, Masao
2004-01-01
To study the effect of the alkyl tail and the terminal dipole on the stability of the liquid crystalline phase of mesogens, we have carried out molecular dynamics simulations for 1CB(4-methyl-4 ' -cyanobiphenyl) and 5CB(4-n-pentyl-4 ' -cyanobiphenyl) by using a coarse-grained model. In the coarse-grained model, a 5CB molecule is divided into the rigid part of 1CB moiety, which is represented by an ellipsoid, and the remaining flexible part which is represented by a chain of united atoms. The nonbonded potential between coarse-grained segments is represented by the generalized Gay-Berne (GB) potential and the potential parameters are determined by directly comparing the GB potential with the atomistic potentials averaged over the rotation of the mesogen around its axis. In addition, a dipole moment is placed at one end of the ellipsoid opposite to the flexible tail. The ordered state obtained in the polar 5CB model was assigned as the nematic phase, and the experimental static and dynamical properties were reproduced well by using this coarse-grained model. Both the dipole-dipole interactions and the thermal fluctuation of the flexible tail increase the positional disorder in the director direction, and stabilize the nematic phase. Thus, the nematic phase in the polar 5CB is induced by a cooperative effect of the flexible tail and the terminal dipole. It is noted that a local bilayer structure with head-to-head association is formed in the nematic phase, as experimentally observed by x-ray diffraction measurements
Peripheral Protein Unfolding Drives Membrane Bending.
Siaw, Hew Ming Helen; Raghunath, Gokul; Dyer, R Brian
2018-06-20
Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins. We utilized histidine-tagged human serum albumin bound to Ni-NTA-DGS containing liposomes as our model system to test this hypothesis. We found that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the protein resulted in unfolding of HSA, which subsequently led to membrane tubule formation. The frequency of tubule formation was found to be significantly higher when the proteins were unfolded while being localized to a phase-separated domain as opposed to randomly distributed in fluid phase liposomes, indicating that the steric pressure generated from protein unfolding is directly responsible for membrane deformation. Our results are critical for the design of peripheral membrane protein-immobilization strategies and open new avenues for exploring mechanisms of membrane bending driven by conformational changes of peripheral membrane proteins.
Level-rank duality of untwisted and twisted D-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naculich, Stephen G.; Schnitzer, Howard J.
2006-01-01
Level-rank duality of untwisted and twisted D-branes of WZW models is explored. We derive the relation between D0-brane charges of level-rank dual untwisted D-branes of su-bar (N) K and sp-bar (n) k , and of level-rank dual twisted D-branes of su-bar (2n+1) 2k+1 . The analysis of level-rank duality of twisted D-branes of su-bar (2n+1) 2k+1 is facilitated by their close relation to untwisted D-branes of sp-bar (n) k . We also demonstrate level-rank duality of the spectrum of an open string stretched between untwisted or twisted D-branes in each of these cases
Bound states on the lattice with partially twisted boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, D.; Guo, F.-K.; Ríos, G.; Rusetsky, A.
2015-01-01
We propose a method to study the nature of exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant Z from lattice simulations. It is shown that, instead of studying the volume-dependence of the spectrum, one may investigate the dependence of the spectrum on the twisting angle, imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermion fields on the lattice. In certain cases, e.g., the case of the DK bound state which is addressed in detail, it is demonstrated that the partial twisting is equivalent to the full twisting up to exponentially small corrections.
Pulsatile turbulent flow through pipe bends at high Dean and Womersley numbers
Kalpakli, Athanasia; Örlü, Ramis; Tillmark, Nils; Alfredsson, P. Henrik
2011-12-01
Turbulent pulsatile flows through pipe bends are prevalent in internal combustion engine components which consist of bent pipe sections and branching conduits. Nonetheless, most of the studies related to pulsatile flows in pipe bends focus on incompressible, low Womersley and low Dean number flows, primarily because they aim in modeling blood flow, while internal combustion engine related flows have mainly been addressed in terms of integral quantities and consist of single point measurements. The present study aims at bridging the gap between these two fields by means of time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements in a pipe bend with conditions that are close to those encountered in exhaust manifolds. The time/phase-resolved three-dimensional cross-sectional flow-field 3 pipe diameters downstream the pipe bend is captured and the interplay between different secondary motions throughout a pulse cycle is discussed.
Pulsatile turbulent flow through pipe bends at high Dean and Womersley numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalpakli, Athanasia; Örlü, Ramis; Tillmark, Nils; Alfredsson, P Henrik
2011-01-01
Turbulent pulsatile flows through pipe bends are prevalent in internal combustion engine components which consist of bent pipe sections and branching conduits. Nonetheless, most of the studies related to pulsatile flows in pipe bends focus on incompressible, low Womersley and low Dean number flows, primarily because they aim in modeling blood flow, while internal combustion engine related flows have mainly been addressed in terms of integral quantities and consist of single point measurements. The present study aims at bridging the gap between these two fields by means of time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements in a pipe bend with conditions that are close to those encountered in exhaust manifolds. The time/phase-resolved three-dimensional cross-sectional flow-field 3 pipe diameters downstream the pipe bend is captured and the interplay between different secondary motions throughout a pulse cycle is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardhan, Munmun; Mandal, Paulami; De, Asish; Kumar De, Avijit; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ganguly, Tapan
2010-01-01
UV-vis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic investigations were made on photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination processes involved within a novel synthesized dyad, 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA) where the donor 1-methoxynaphthalene (MNT) and the acceptor p-choloroacetophenone (PCA) moieties are connected by a short unsaturated olefinic bond. The measurements were made within the pseudo-ordered domain (just above nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature, >308 K) of a nematic liquid crystal, 4-(n-pentyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). Results observed are compared with those obtained from the similar measurements in isotropic media. The charge separation and recombination rates remain more-or-less unchanged within the experimental error irrespective of the polarity of the environment, whether in pseudo-ordered domain (ε S ∼10.5) of a nematic liquid crystal 5CB or in highly polar isotropic medium ACN (ε S ∼37.5). The structural rigidity of the dyad MNCA having stable elongated form both in the ground as well as in the photoexcited states seems to be the reason for this unique behavior of solvent insensitivity. The theoretical predictions done by ab initio method density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) basis function correlate well with experimental observations of formations of only one stable elongated (E-type) conformer both in the ground and electronic excited state.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bardhan, Munmun; Mandal, Paulami; De, Asish; Kumar De, Avijit [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Joydeep [Sammilani Mahavidyalaya Baghajatin Station, West Bengal (India); Ganguly, Tapan, E-mail: sptg@mahendra.iacs.res.i [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India)
2010-06-15
UV-vis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic investigations were made on photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination processes involved within a novel synthesized dyad, 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA) where the donor 1-methoxynaphthalene (MNT) and the acceptor p-choloroacetophenone (PCA) moieties are connected by a short unsaturated olefinic bond. The measurements were made within the pseudo-ordered domain (just above nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature, >308 K) of a nematic liquid crystal, 4-(n-pentyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). Results observed are compared with those obtained from the similar measurements in isotropic media. The charge separation and recombination rates remain more-or-less unchanged within the experimental error irrespective of the polarity of the environment, whether in pseudo-ordered domain (epsilon{sub S}approx10.5) of a nematic liquid crystal 5CB or in highly polar isotropic medium ACN (epsilon{sub S}approx37.5). The structural rigidity of the dyad MNCA having stable elongated form both in the ground as well as in the photoexcited states seems to be the reason for this unique behavior of solvent insensitivity. The theoretical predictions done by ab initio method density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) basis function correlate well with experimental observations of formations of only one stable elongated (E-type) conformer both in the ground and electronic excited state.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Schwarz
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS radio occultation (RO observations are highly accurate, long-term stable data sets and are globally available as a continuous record from 2001. Essential climate variables for the thermodynamic state of the free atmosphere – such as pressure, temperature, and tropospheric water vapor profiles (involving background information – can be derived from these records, which therefore have the potential to serve as climate benchmark data. However, to exploit this potential, atmospheric profile retrievals need to be very accurate and the remaining uncertainties quantified and traced throughout the retrieval chain from raw observations to essential climate variables. The new Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS at the Wegener Center aims to deliver such an accurate RO retrieval chain with integrated uncertainty propagation. Here we introduce and demonstrate the algorithms implemented in the rOPS for uncertainty propagation from excess phase to atmospheric bending angle profiles, for estimated systematic and random uncertainties, including vertical error correlations and resolution estimates. We estimated systematic uncertainty profiles with the same operators as used for the basic state profiles retrieval. The random uncertainty is traced through covariance propagation and validated using Monte Carlo ensemble methods. The algorithm performance is demonstrated using test day ensembles of simulated data as well as real RO event data from the satellite missions CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP; Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC; and Meteorological Operational Satellite A (MetOp. The results of the Monte Carlo validation show that our covariance propagation delivers correct uncertainty quantification from excess phase to bending angle profiles. The results from the real RO event ensembles demonstrate that the new uncertainty estimation chain performs
Current progress and technical challenges of flexible liquid crystal displays
Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto
2009-02-01
We focused on several technical approaches to flexible liquid crystal (LC) display in this report. We have been developing flexible displays using plastic film substrates based on polymer-dispersed LC technology with molecular alignment control. In our representative devices, molecular-aligned polymer walls keep plastic-substrate gap constant without LC alignment disorder, and aligned polymer networks create monostable switching of fast-response ferroelectric LC (FLC) for grayscale capability. In the fabrication process, a high-viscosity FLC/monomer solution was printed, sandwiched and pressed between plastic substrates. Then the polymer walls and networks were sequentially formed based on photo-polymerization-induced phase separation in the nematic phase by two exposure processes of patterned and uniform ultraviolet light. The two flexible backlight films of direct illumination and light-guide methods using small three-primary-color light-emitting diodes were fabricated to obtain high-visibility display images. The fabricated flexible FLC panels were driven by external transistor arrays, internal organic thin film transistor (TFT) arrays, and poly-Si TFT arrays. We achieved full-color moving-image displays using the flexible FLC panel and the flexible backlight film based on field-sequential-color driving technique. Otherwise, for backlight-free flexible LC displays, flexible reflective devices of twisted guest-host nematic LC and cholesteric LC were discussed with molecular-aligned polymer walls. Singlesubstrate device structure and fabrication method using self-standing polymer-stabilized nematic LC film and polymer ceiling layer were also proposed for obtaining LC devices with excellent flexibility.
OAM mode converter in twisted fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Cordeiro, Cristiano
2014-01-01
We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA.......We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA....
Twisting perturbed parafermions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Belitsky
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The near-collinear expansion of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory at strong coupling is governed by the dynamics of stings propagating on the five sphere. The pentagon transitions in the operator product expansion which systematize the series get reformulated in terms of matrix elements of branch-point twist operators in the two-dimensional O(6 nonlinear sigma model. The facts that the latter is an asymptotically free field theory and that there exists no local realization of twist fields prevents one from explicit calculation of their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. This complication is bypassed making use of the equivalence of the sigma model to the infinite-level limit of WZNW models perturbed by current–current interactions, such that one can use conformal symmetry and conformal perturbation theory for systematic calculations. Presently, to set up the formalism, we consider the O(3 sigma model which is reformulated as perturbed parafermions.
Twisted Vanes Would Enhance Fuel/Air Mixing In Turbines
Nguyen, H. Lee; Micklow, Gerald J.; Dogra, Anju S.
1994-01-01
Computations of flow show performance of high-shear airblast fuel injector in gas-turbine engine enhanced by use of appropriately proportioned twisted (instead of flat) dome swirl vanes. Resultant more nearly uniform fuel/air mixture burns more efficiently, emitting smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides. Twisted-vane high-shear airblast injectors also incorporated into paint sprayers, providing advantages of low pressure drop characteristic of airblast injectors in general and finer atomization of advanced twisted-blade design.
Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers
Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre
2010-02-01
Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.
Intrinsic frame transport for a model of nematic liquid crystal
Cozzini, S.; Rull, L. F.; Ciccotti, G.; Paolini, G. V.
1997-02-01
We present a computer simulation study of the dynamical properties of a nematic liquid crystal model. The diffusional motion of the nematic director is taken into account in our calculations in order to give a proper estimate of the transport coefficients. Differently from other groups we do not attempt to stabilize the director through rigid constraints or applied external fields. We instead define an intrinsic frame which moves along with the director at each step of the simulation. The transport coefficients computed in the intrinsic frame are then compared against the ones calculated in the fixed laboratory frame, to show the inadequacy of the latter for systems with less than 500 molecules. Using this general scheme on the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, we evidence the natural motion of the director and attempt to quantify its intrinsic time scale and size dependence. Through extended simulations of systems of different size we calculate the diffusion and viscosity coefficients of this model and compare our results with values previously obtained with fixed director.
Comparison of split double and triple twists in pair figure skating.
King, Deborah L; Smith, Sarah L; Brown, Michele R; McCrory, Jean L; Munkasy, Barry A; Scheirman, Gary I
2008-05-01
In this study, we compared the kinematic variables of the split triple twist with those of the split double twist to help coaches and scientists understand these landmark pair skating skills. High-speed video was taken during the pair short and free programmes at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics and the 2003 International Skating Union Grand Prix Finals. Three-dimensional analyses of 14 split double twists and 15 split triple twists from eleven pairs were completed. In spite of considerable variability in the performance variables among the pairs, the main difference between the split double twists and split triple twists was an increase in rotational rate. While eight of the eleven pairs relied primarily on an increased rotational rate to complete the split triple twist, three pairs employed a combined strategy of increased rotational rate and increased flight time due predominantly to delayed or lower catches. These results were similar to observations of jumps in singles skating for which the extra rotation is typically due to an increase in rotational velocity; increases in flight time come primarily from delayed landings as opposed to additional height during flight. Combining an increase in flight time and rotational rate may be a good strategy for completing the split triple twist in pair skating.
Scattering of light from small nematic spheres with radial dielectric anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karacali, H.; Risser, S.M.; Ferris, K.F.
1997-01-01
We have calculated the scattering cross sections of small anisotropic nematic droplets embedded in a polymer matrix as a function of the dielectric constants of the nematic and the polymer. We have derived the general form for the Helmholtz wave equation for a droplet which has spatially varying radial anisotropy, and have explicitly solved this equation for three distinct models of the dielectric anisotropy, including one model where the anisotropy increases linearly with droplet radius. Numerical calculations of the scattering amplitudes for droplets much smaller than the wavelength of the incident radiation show that droplets with continual variation in the dielectric anisotropy have much larger scattering amplitude than droplets with fixed anisotropy. The scattering from droplets with linearly varying anisotropy exhibits a scattering minimum for much smaller polymer dielectric constants than the other models. These results show that the scattering from small anisotropic droplets is sensitive to details of the internal structure and anisotropy of the droplet. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Phosphorylation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist in development and disease.
Xue, Gongda; Hemmings, Brian A
2012-02-01
The transcription factor Twist plays vital roles during embryonic development through regulating/controlling cell migration. However, postnatally, in normal physiological settings, Twist is either not expressed or inactivated. Increasing evidence shows a strong correlation between Twist reactivation and both cancer progression and malignancy, where the transcriptional activities of Twist support cancer cells to disseminate from primary tumours and subsequently establish a secondary tumour growth in distant organs. However, it is largely unclear how this signalling programme is reactivated or what signalling pathways regulate its activity. The present review discusses recent advances in Twist regulation and activity, with a focus on phosphorylation-dependent Twist activity, potential upstream kinases and the contribution of these factors in transducing biological signals from upstream signalling complexes. The recent advances in these areas have shed new light on how phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the Twist proteins promotes or suppresses Twist activity, leading to differential regulation of Twist transcriptional targets and thereby influencing cell fate.
Occipital bending (Yakovlevian torque) in bipolar depression.
Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney; Thomson, Richard H; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2015-01-30
Differing levels of occipital lobe asymmetry and enlarged lateral ventricles have been reported within patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy controls, suggesting different rates of occipital bending (OB). This may exert pressure on subcortical structures, such as the hippocampus, reduced among psychiatric patients. We investigated OB prevalence in 35 patients with BD and 36 healthy controls, and ventricular and occipital volumes. Prevalence was four times higher among BD patients (12/35 [34.3%]) than in control subjects (3/36 [8.3%]), as well as larger lateral ventricular volumes (LVVs). Furthermore, we found OB to relate to left-to-right ventricular and occipital lobe volume (OLV) ratios. Those with OB also had reduced left-to-right hippocampal volume ratios. The results suggest that OB is more common among BD patients than healthy subjects, and prevalent in both BD Type I and Type II patients. We posit that anomalies in neural pruning or ventricular enlargement may precipitate OB, consequently resulting in one occipital lobe twisting around the other. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, the study suggests that asymmetrical ventricular volume matched with a pattern of oppositely asymmetrical occipital volume is related to OB and may be a marker of psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.
Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding
2003-09-01
This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.
Further Generalisations of Twisted Gabidulin Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann; Sheekey, John
2017-01-01
We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes.......We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes....
Equilibrium state of a cylindrical particle with flat ends in nematic liquid crystals.
Hashemi, S Masoomeh; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza
2015-01-01
A continuum theory is employed to numerically study the equilibrium orientation and defect structures of a circular cylindrical particle with flat ends under a homeotropic anchoring condition in a uniform nematic medium. Different aspect ratios of this colloidal geometry from thin discotic to long rodlike shapes and several colloidal length scales ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale are investigated. We show that the equilibrium state of this colloidal geometry is sensitive to the two geometrical parameters: aspect ratio and length scale of the particle. For a large enough mesoscopic particle, there is a specific asymptotic equilibrium angle associated to each aspect ratio. Upon reducing the particle size to nanoscale, the equilibrium angle follows a descending or ascending trend in such a way that the equilibrium angle of a particle with the aspect ratio bigger than 1:1 (a discotic particle) goes to a parallel alignment with respect to the far-field nematic, whereas the equilibrium angle for a particle with the aspect ratio 1:1 and smaller (a rodlike particle) tends toward a perpendicular alignment to the uniform nematic direction. The discrepancy between the equilibrium angles of the mesoscopic and nanoscopic particles originates from the significant differences between their defect structures. The possible defect structures related to mesoscopic and nanoscopic colloidal particles of this geometry are also introduced.
A method to estimate the necessary twist pitch in multi-filamentary superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindau, S; Magnusson, N; Taxt, H
2014-01-01
Twisting of multi-filamentary superconductors is an important step in the development of wires with AC losses at an acceptable level for AC applications. The necessary twist pitch depends on wire architecture, critical current density, matrix material, and external factors such as temperature, frequency and applied magnetic field. The development of an AC optimized MgB 2 superconductor would be facilitated by a fast method to set the requirements for the twist pitch. A problem often encountered when comparing wires with different twist pitches is the degradation in critical current occurring at small twist pitches due to mechanical deformation. In this work we propose to use a non-twisted conductor to estimate the influence of twisting on the AC losses. A long superconductor is cut into smaller lengths, each simulating one third of the twist pitch, and the AC losses due to applied magnetic fields are compared between samples of different lengths. With this method, the effect of reducing the size of the loop of the coupling currents is studied without changing the superconducting parameters. AC loss measurement results are presented for a round titanium matrix MgB 2 wire with simulated twist pitches between 9 mm and 87 mm.
New twist on artificial muscles.
Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H
2016-10-18
Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.
Rheological properties of a nematic cell oriented in a planar manner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbero, G.; Meyer, C.; Lelidis, I.
2010-01-01
We propose a simple model to investigate the rheological properties of a nematic cell oriented in a planar manner. The storage and loss modulus are evaluated in the case of strong and weak anchoring conditions. The contribution of the surface viscosity to the rheological parameters is also considered.
Geometry of thresholdless active flow in nematic microfluidics
Green, Richard; Toner, John; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2017-10-01
Active nematics are orientationally ordered but apolar fluids composed of interacting constituents individually powered by an internal source of energy. When activity exceeds a system-size-dependent threshold, spatially uniform active apolar fluids undergo a hydrodynamic instability leading to spontaneous macroscopic fluid flow. Here we show that a special class of spatially nonuniform configurations of such active apolar fluids display laminar (i.e., time-independent) flow even for arbitrarily small activity. We also show that two-dimensional active nematics confined on a surface of nonvanishing Gaussian curvature must necessarily experience a nonvanishing active force. This general conclusion follows from a key result of differential geometry: Geodesics must converge or diverge on surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature. We derive the conditions under which such curvature-induced active forces generate thresholdless flow for two-dimensional curved shells. We then extend our analysis to bulk systems and show how to induce thresholdless active flow by controlling the curvature of confining surfaces, external fields, or both. The resulting laminar flow fields are determined analytically in three experimentally realizable configurations that exemplify this general phenomenon: (i) toroidal shells with planar alignment, (ii) a cylinder with nonplanar boundary conditions, and (iii) a Frederiks cell that functions like a pump without moving parts. Our work suggests a robust design strategy for active microfluidic chips and could be tested with the recently discovered living liquid crystals.
Key-lock colloids in a nematic liquid crystal.
Silvestre, Nuno M; Tasinkevych, M
2017-01-01
The Landau-de Gennes free energy is used to study theoretically the effective interaction of spherical "key" and anisotropic "lock" colloidal particles. We assume identical anchoring properties of the surfaces of the key and of the lock particles, and we consider planar degenerate and perpendicular anchoring conditions separately. The lock particle is modeled as a spherical particle with a spherical dimple. When such a particle is introduced into a nematic liquid crystal, it orients its dimple at an oblique angle θ_{eq} with respect to the far field director n_{∞}. This angle depends on the depth of the dimple. Minimization results show that the free energy of a pair of key and lock particles exhibits a global minimum for the configuration when the key particle is facing the dimple of the lock colloidal particle. The preferred orientation ϕ_{eq} of the key-lock composite doublet relative to n_{∞} is robust against thermal fluctuations. The preferred orientation θ_{eq}^{(2)} of the dimple particle in the doublet is different from the isolated situation. This is related to the "direct" interaction of defects accompanying the key particle with the edge of the dimple. We propose that this nematic-amplified key-lock interaction can play an important role in self-organization and clustering of mixtures of colloidal particles with dimple colloids present.
Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction
Shin, SangJoon; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.
2001-01-01
Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework is developed to examine integrally-twisted blades and their aeroelastic response during different flight conditions: frequency domain analysis for hover, and time domain analysis for forward flight. Both stem from the same three-dimensional electroelastic beam formulation with geometrical-exactness, and axe coupled with a finite-state dynamic inflow aerodynamics model. A prototype Active Twist Rotor blade was designed with this framework using Active Fiber Composites as the actuator. The ATR prototype blade was successfully tested under non-rotating conditions. Hover testing was conducted to evaluate structural integrity and dynamic response. In both conditions, a very good correlation was obtained against the analysis. Finally, a four-bladed ATR system is built and tested to demonstrate its concept in forward flight. This experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Tansonic Dynamics Tunnel and represents the first-of-a-kind Mach-scaled fully-active-twist rotor system to undergo forward flight test. In parallel, the impact upon the fixed- and rotating-system loads is estimated by the analysis. While discrepancies are found in the amplitude of the loads under actuation, the predicted trend of load variation with respect to its control phase correlates well. It was also shown, both experimentally and numerically, that the ATR blade design has the potential for hub vibratory load reduction of up to 90% using individual blade control actuation. Using the numerical framework, system identification is performed to estimate the harmonic transfer functions. The linear time-periodic system can be represented by a linear time-invariant system under the three modes of blade actuation: collective, longitudinal cyclic, and lateral cyclic. A vibration
Hardouin, F.; Noirez, L.; Keller, P.; Leroux, N.; Cotton, J. P.
The following sections are included: * Introduction * Experimental * Results and discussion * Determination of the backbone conformation in the nematic and smectic A phases of "side-end fixed" L.C. polymethacrylates (PMA) or polyacrylates (PA) * Determination of the global and backbone conformation in the nematic and smectic A phases of "side-end fixed" L.C. polysiloxanes (PMS) * Determination of the backbone conformation in the unique nematic phase (without smectic A phase) or in the reentrant nematic phase (below smectic A phase) of "side-end fixed" L.C. polyacrylates (PA) * Determination of the global conformation in the nematic phase of "side-on fixed" L.C. polysiloxanes (PMS) * Determination of the global conformation in the nematic phase of "diluted side-on fixed" L.C. copolysiloxanes * Determination of the backbone conformation in the nematic phase of "side-on fixed" L.C. polyacrylates * Conclusions * References
Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel; Ober, Raymond; Urbach, Wladimir
2007-01-01
The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C i E j surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ
de Forges de Parny, L.; Rousseau, V. G.
2018-02-01
We study the quadratic Zeeman effect (QZE) in a system of antiferromagnetic spin-1 bosons on a square lattice and derive the ground-state phase diagrams by means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field treatment. The QZE imbalances the populations of the magnetic sublevels σ =±1 and σ =0 , and therefore affects the magnetic and mobility properties of the phases. Both methods show that the tip of the even Mott lobes, stabilized by singlet state, is destroyed when turning on the QZE, thus leaving the space to the superfluid phase. Contrariwise, the tips of odd Mott lobes remain unaffected. Therefore, the Mott-superfluid transition with even filling strongly depends on the strength of the QZE, and we show that the QZE can act as a control parameter for this transition at fixed hopping. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we elucidate the nature of the phase transitions and examine in detail the nematic order: the first-order Mott-superfluid transition with even filling observed in the absence of QZE becomes second order for weak QZE, in contradistinction to our mean-field results which predict a first-order transition in a larger range of QZE. Furthermore, a spin nematic order with director along the z axis is found in the odd Mott lobes and in the superfluid phase for energetically favored σ =±1 states. In the superfluid phase with even filling, the x y components of the nematic director remain finite only for moderate QZE.
Effects of transfer distance on spine kinematics for de-palletizing tasks.
Mehta, Jay P; Kim, Tae Hoon; Weiler, Monica R; Lavender, Steven A
2014-01-01
One approach to reducing lateral bending and twisting in manual lifting tasks is to separate the lift's origin and destination, thereby encouraging lifters to step and turn their entire bodies. The objective of the current study was to determine how the degree to which one laterally bends and twists changes with transfer distance and initial lift height. Eighteen males lifted 10.9 kg boxes from a conveyor 0.5 m, 0.9 m, and 1.3 m above the floor and placed the boxes on a conveyor .50, .75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, or 1.75 m away at a height of .9 m. During picking, lateral bending and trunk extension velocities increased with increasing transfer distances. When placing the box, the degree of twisting decreased with increased transfer distance. In sum, when attempting to control the twisting and lateral bending during de-palletizing, the lift origin and destination should be separated by between 1 and 1.25 meters.
Reconstruction of Band Structure Induced by Electronic Nematicity in an FeSe Superconductor
Nakayama, K.; Miyata, Y.; Phan, G. N.; Sato, T.; Tanabe, Y.; Urata, T.; Tanigaki, K.; Takahashi, T.
2014-12-01
We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on an FeSe superconductor (Tc˜8 K ), which exhibits a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition at Ts˜90 K . At low temperature, we found splitting of the energy bands as large as 50 meV at the M point in the Brillouin zone, likely caused by the formation of electronically driven nematic states. This band splitting persists up to T ˜110 K , slightly above Ts, suggesting that the structural transition is triggered by the electronic nematicity. We have also revealed that at low temperature the band splitting gives rise to a van Hove singularity within 5 meV of the Fermi energy. The present result strongly suggests that this unusual electronic state is responsible for the unconventional superconductivity in FeSe.
Electrically Controllable Magnetism in Twisted Bilayer Graphene.
Gonzalez-Arraga, Luis A; Lado, J L; Guinea, Francisco; San-Jose, Pablo
2017-09-08
Twisted graphene bilayers develop highly localized states around AA-stacked regions for small twist angles. We show that interaction effects may induce either an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic (FM) polarization of said regions, depending on the electrical bias between layers. Remarkably, FM-polarized AA regions under bias develop spiral magnetic ordering, with a relative 120° misalignment between neighboring regions due to a frustrated antiferromagnetic exchange. This remarkable spiral magnetism emerges naturally without the need of spin-orbit coupling, and competes with the more conventional lattice-antiferromagnetic instability, which interestingly develops at smaller bias under weaker interactions than in monolayer graphene, due to Fermi velocity suppression. This rich and electrically controllable magnetism could turn twisted bilayer graphene into an ideal system to study frustrated magnetism in two dimensions.
Phase behaviour of rod-like colloid + flexible polymer mixtures
Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Stroobants, A.
The effect of non-adsorbing, flexible polymer on the isotropic-nematic transition in dispersions of rod-like colloids is investigated. A widening of the biphasic gap is observed, in combination with a marked polymer partitioning between the coexisting phases. Under certain conditions, areas of
Baek, Tae Hyun
Photoelasticity is one of the most widely used whole-field optical methods for stress analysis. The technique of birefringent coatings, also called the method of photoelastic coatings, extends the classical procedures of model photoelasticity to the measurement of surface strains in opaque models made of any structural material. Photoelastic phase-shifting method can be used for the determination of the phase values of isochromatics and isoclinics. In this paper, photoelastic phase-shifting technique and conventional Babinet-Soleil compensation method were utilized to analyze a specimen with a triangular hole and a circular hole under bending. Photoelastic phase-shifting technique is whole-field measurement. On the other hand, conventional compensation method is point measurement. Three groups of results were obtained by phase-shifting method with reflective polariscope arrangement, conventional compensation method and FEM simulation, respectively. The results from the first two methods agree with each other relatively well considering experiment error. The advantage of photoelastic phase-shifting method is that it is possible to measure the stress distribution accurately close to the edge of holes.
Supersymmetric gauged double field theory: systematic derivation by virtue of twist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Wonyoung; Fernández-Melgarejo, J.J.; Jeon, Imtak; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2015-01-01
In a completely systematic and geometric way, we derive maximal and half-maximal supersymmetric gauged double field theories in lower than ten dimensions. To this end, we apply a simple twisting ansatz to the D=10 ungauged maximal and half-maximal supersymmetric double field theories constructed previously within the so-called semi-covariant formalism. The twisting ansatz may not satisfy the section condition. Nonetheless, all the features of the semi-covariant formalism, including its complete covariantizability, are still valid after the twist under alternative consistency conditions. The twist allows gaugings as supersymmetry preserving deformations of the D=10 untwisted theories after Scherk-Schwarz-type dimensional reductions. The maximal supersymmetric twist requires an extra condition to ensure both the Ramond-Ramond gauge symmetry and the 32 supersymmetries unbroken.
Patient-reported symptoms and changes up to 1 year after meniscal surgery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skou, Søren T; Pihl, Kenneth; Nissen, Nis
2018-01-01
, knee pain in general, pain when twisting and bending the knee and climbing stairs (88-98%), while the most common functional limitations were difficulty bending to the floor, squatting, twisting, kneeling, and knee awareness (97-99%). Knee pain in general and knee awareness improved most 1 year after...
Nonlinear physics of twisted magnetic field lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Zensho
1998-01-01
Twisted magnetic field lines appear commonly in many different plasma systems, such as magnetic ropes created through interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, magnetic clouds in the solar wind, solar corona, galactic jets, accretion discs, as well as fusion plasma devices. In this paper, we study the topological characterization of twisted magnetic fields, nonlinear effect induced by the Lorentz back reaction, length-scale bounds, and statistical distributions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Migdal, A.A.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Veselov, A.I.; Yurov, V.P.
1983-01-01
The Langevin equation for the lattice theory with arbitrary gauge group is derived. The four-dimensional twisted Eguchi-Kawai model is investigated numerically. The results for the plaquette energy agree with those of the known Monte Carlo calculations. The new result is the distribution of eigenvalues of the plaquette matrix. In the strong coupling phase this distribution is smooth, whereas in the weak coupling phase a gap is clearly seen
Topological Defects in a Living Nematic Ensnare Swimming Bacteria
Genkin, Mikhail M.; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.
2017-01-01
Active matter exemplified by suspensions of motile bacteria or synthetic self-propelled particles exhibits a remarkable propensity to self-organization and collective motion. The local input of energy and simple particle interactions often lead to complex emergent behavior manifested by the formation of macroscopic vortices and coherent structures with long-range order. A realization of an active system has been conceived by combining swimming bacteria and a lyotropic liquid crystal. Here, by coupling the well-established and validated model of nematic liquid crystals with the bacterial dynamics, we develop a computational model describing intricate properties of such a living nematic. In faithful agreement with the experiment, the model reproduces the onset of periodic undulation of the director and consequent proliferation of topological defects with the increase in bacterial concentration. It yields a testable prediction on the accumulation of bacteria in the cores of +1 /2 topological defects and depletion of bacteria in the cores of -1 /2 defects. Our dedicated experiment on motile bacteria suspended in a freestanding liquid crystalline film fully confirms this prediction. Our findings suggest novel approaches for trapping and transport of bacteria and synthetic swimmers in anisotropic liquids and extend a scope of tools to control and manipulate microscopic objects in active matter.
Higher-twist correlations in polarized hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tangerman, R.D.
1996-01-01
In this thesis we studied the response of polarized hadrons to several high-energy probes, working in the framework of the field theoretic model. Emphasis is laid upon higher-twist effects such as quark transverse momentum. The inclusive DIS process is very well suited to study QCD. From general principles we were able to derive four positivity constraints on the structure functions without invoking the helicity formalism. The on-shell quark model is used to illustrate these constraints. Subseqeuently, we concentrated on the higher-twist structure function g 2 (x,Q 2 ). (orig./HSI)
Transcription factors zeb1, twist and snai1 in breast carcinoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soini, Ylermi; Tuhkanen, Hanna; Sironen, Reijo; Virtanen, Ismo; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti
2011-01-01
Epitheliomesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process where cancer cells attain fibroblastic features and are thus able to invade neighboring tissues. Transcriptional factors zeb1, snai1 and twist regulate EMT. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of zeb1, twist and snai1 in tumor and stromal compartments by in a large set of breast carcinomas. The results were compared with estrogen and progesterone receptor status, HER2 amplification, grade, histology, TNM status and survival of the patients. Nuclear expression for twist was seen in the epithelial tumor cell compartment in 3.6% and for snai1 in 3.1% of the cases while zeb1 was not detected at all in these areas. In contrast, the tumor stromal compartment showed nuclear zeb1 and twist expression in 75% and 52.4% of the cases, respectively. Although rare, nuclear expression of twist in the epithelial tumor cell compartment was associated with a poor outcome of the patients (p = 0.054 log rank, p = 0.013, Breslow, p = 0.025 Tarone-Ware). Expression of snai1, or expression of zeb1 or twist in the stromal compartment did not have any prognostic significance. Furthermore, none of these factors associated with the size of the tumors, nor with the presence of axillary or distant metastases. Expression of zeb1 and twist in the stromal compartment was positively associated with a positive estrogen or progesterone receptor status of the tumors. Stromal zeb1 expression was significantly lower in ductal in situ carcinomas than in invasive carcinomas (p = 0.020). Medullary carcinomas (p = 0.017) and mucinous carcinomas (p = 0.009) had a lower stromal expression of zeb1 than ductal carcinomas. Stromal twist expression was also lower in mucinous (p = 0.017) than in ductal carcinomas. Expression of transcriptional factors zeb1 and twist mainly occur in the stromal compartment of breast carcinomas, possibly representing two populations of cells; EMT transformed neoplastic cells and stromal fibroblastic cells
Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Vivas, Paula; Connolly, Mitchell; Kuznetsov, Serguei V; Rice, Phoebe A; Ansari, Anjum
2018-02-28
The dynamics and mechanism of how site-specific DNA-bending proteins initially interrogate potential binding sites prior to recognition have remained elusive for most systems. Here we present these dynamics for Integration Host factor (IHF), a nucleoid-associated architectural protein, using a μs-resolved T-jump approach. Our studies show two distinct DNA-bending steps during site recognition by IHF. While the faster (∼100 μs) step is unaffected by changes in DNA or protein sequence that alter affinity by >100-fold, the slower (1-10 ms) step is accelerated ∼5-fold when mismatches are introduced at DNA sites that are sharply kinked in the specific complex. The amplitudes of the fast phase increase when the specific complex is destabilized and decrease with increasing [salt], which increases specificity. Taken together, these results indicate that the fast phase is non-specific DNA bending while the slow phase, which responds only to changes in DNA flexibility at the kink sites, is specific DNA kinking during site recognition. Notably, the timescales for the fast phase overlap with one-dimensional diffusion times measured for several proteins on DNA, suggesting that these dynamics reflect partial DNA bending during interrogation of potential binding sites by IHF as it scans DNA.
Conformal invariance and pion wave functions of nonleading twist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, V.M.; Filyanov, I.E.
1989-01-01
The restrictions are studied for the general structure of pion wave functions of twist 3 and twist 4 imposed by the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion. A systematic expansion of wave functions in the conformal spin is built and the first order corrections to asymptotic formulae are calculated by the QCD sum rule method. In particular, we have found a multiplicatively renormalizable contribution into the two-particle wave function of twist 4 which cannot be expanded in a finite set of Gegenbauer polynomials. 19 refs.; 5 figs
Gámez, Francisco; Acemel, Rafael D.; Cuetos, Alejandro
2013-10-01
Parsons-Lee approach is formulated for the isotropic-nematic transition in a binary mixture of oblate hard spherocylinders and hard spheres. Results for the phase coexistence and for the equation of state in both phases for fluids with different relative size and composition ranges are presented. The predicted behaviour is in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations in a qualitative fashion. The study serves to provide a rational view of how to control key aspects of the behaviour of these binary nematogenic colloidal systems. This behaviour can be tuned with an appropriate choice of the relative size and molar fractions of the depleting particles. In general, the mixture of discotic and spherical particles is stable against demixing up to very high packing fractions. We explore in detail the narrow geometrical range where demixing is predicted to be possible in the isotropic phase. The influence of molecular crowding effects on the stability of the mixture when spherical molecules are added to a system of discotic colloids is also studied.
Luckhurst, G. R.; Saielli, G.
2000-03-01
Molecular field theory predicts the induction of a smectic A phase by the application of a field, either magnetic or electric, to a nematic phase. This intriguing behavior results from an enhancement of the orientational order which is coupled to the translational order and so shifts the smectic A-nematic transition. To test this prediction we have investigated a system of Gay-Berne mesogenic molecules subject to an applied field of second rank using isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo simulations. The results of our calculations are compared with the Kventsel-Luckhurst-Zewdie molecular field theory of smectogens, modified to include the effect of an external field. We have also used the simulations to explore the possibility of inducing more ordered smectic phases with stronger fields.
A helical naphthopyran dopant for photoresponsive cholesteric liquid crystals
Kim, Yuna; Frigoli, Michel; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki
2017-01-01
The first photoresponsive cholesteric liquid crystal comprising a photoisomerizable helical naphthopyran derivative dopant and a nematic liquid crystal is reported. An unprecedented helical twisting power switching ratio of over 90% allowed us to demonstrate multi-cycle rotational motion of micro-objects by UV light irradiation.
Enhancement of turbulent flow heat transfer in a tube with modified twisted tapes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lei, Y.G.; Zhao, C.H.; Song, C.F. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)
2012-12-15
Numerical simulations were performed to study the fluid flow and heat transfer in a tube with staggered twisted tapes with central holes. In the range of Reynolds numbers between 6000 and 28 000, the modified twisted tapes increased the Nusselt number by 76.2 {proportional_to} 149.7 % and the friction factor by 380.2 {proportional_to} 443.8 % compared to the smooth tube. Compared to the typical twisted tapes, the modified twisted tapes produced an acceleration flow through the triangle regions leading to the enhancement of heat transfer, and the holes in the modified tapes reduced the severe pressure loss. It was found that the modified twisted tapes decreased the friction factor by 8.0 {proportional_to} 16.1 % and enhanced the heat transfer by 34.1 {proportional_to} 46.8 % in comparison with the typical tapes. These results indicated that the performance ratio values of the tube with modified twisted tapes were higher than 1.0 in the range of Reynolds numbers studied. The computed performance ratios of the tube with modified twisted tapes were much higher than those of the tube with typical twisted tapes. This means that the integrated performance of the tube with staggered twisted tapes with central holes is superior to that of the tube with typical twisted tapes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Gauging the twisted Poincare symmetry as a noncommutative theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A.; Oksanen, M.; Zet, G.
2009-01-01
Einstein's theory of general relativity was formulated as a gauge theory of Lorentz symmetry by Utiyama in 1956, while the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory was formulated by Kibble in 1961 as the gauge theory of Poincare transformations. In this framework, we propose a formulation of the gravitational theory on canonical noncommutative space-time by covariantly gauging the twisted Poincare symmetry, in order to fulfil the requirement of covariance under the general coordinate transformations, an essential ingredient of the theory of general relativity. It appears that the twisted Poincare symmetry cannot be gauged by generalizing the Abelian twist to a covariant non-Abelian twist, nor by introducing a more general covariant twist element. The advantages of such a formulation as well as the related problems are discussed and possible ways out are outlined.
Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiarappa, T.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I.; Scorzato, L.; Urbach, C.; Wenger, U.
2006-09-01
We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)
Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiarappa, T. [Univ. di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Nagai, K.I. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Papinutto, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Scorzato, L. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villazzano (Italy); Urbach, C. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Wenger, U. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2006-09-15
We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)
Template preparation of twisted nanoparticles of mesoporous silica
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kui Niu; Zhongbin Ni; Chengwu Fu; Tatsuo Kaneko; Mingqing Chen
2011-01-01
Optical isomers of N-lauroyl-L-(or-D-) alanine sodium salt {C12-L-(or-D-)AlaS} surfactants were used for the preparation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a twisted hexagonal rod-like morphology. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the temperature for template removal. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the surfactant solution with various compositions illustrated the formation and supramolecular assembly of protein-like molecular architecture leading to formation of twisted nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of these as-synthesized mesoporous silica confirmed that the twisted morphology of these nanoparticles was closely related to the supramolecular-assembled complex of amino acid surfactants.
Correlation Between Expression of Twist and Podoplanin in Ductal Breast Carcinoma.
Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Wojtyra, Patrycja; Biala, Martyna; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rys, Janusz; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Dziegiel, Piotr
2017-10-01
As a result of activation of transcription factors engaged in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as Twist, inhibition of epithelial markers and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers are observed. One of the specific markers of cancer-associated fibroblasts is podoplanin (PDPN) - a mucin-type membrane glycoprotein. The aim of this work was to study the localisation and intensity of expression of Twist and PDPN on the mRNA and protein level in cases of invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC), and its association with patients' clinico-pathological data. The study included archival material in a form of 80 paraffin IDC blocks and 11 IDC fragments frozen in liquid nitrogen. Immunohistochemical expression of Twist and PDPN was evaluated using light microscope and semiquantitative scale for evaluation of nuclear expression or immunoreactive scale (IRS) for evaluation of cytoplasmic expression. Material was isolated from frozen IDC fragments using laser micro-dissection (from cancer and stromal cells, separately) and was used to perform real-time PCR. Twist expression was higher in stromal cells in comparison to cancer cells. Analysis of patients' survival rate showed, that higher expression of Twist in cancer cells was associated with shorter overall survival time and shorter event-free survival time. The expression of PDPN was also higher in stromal cells in comparison with cancer cells. In addition, positive correlation was observed between expression of Twist and PDPN in stromal cells of IDC (r=0.267; p<0.05). The relationship between the higher expression of Twist in both cancer and stromal cells and shorter patients' survival indicates Twist as a potential useful prognostic marker in IDC. Positive correlation of Twist and PDPN expression may indicate the role of PDPN in EMT in IDC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Twisted entire cyclic cohomology, J-L-O cocycles and equivariant spectral triples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goswami, D.
2002-07-01
We study the 'quantized calculus' corresponding to the algebraic ideas related to 'twisted cyclic cohomology'. With very similar definitions and techniques, we define and study 'twisted entire cyclic cohomology' and the 'twisted Chern character' associated with an appropriate operator theoretic data called 'twisted spectral data', which consists of a spectral triple in the conventional sense of noncommutative geometry and an additional positive operator having some specified properties. Furthermore, it is shown that given a spectral triple (in the conventional sense) which is equivariant under the action of a compact matrix pseudogroup, it is possible to obtain a canonical twisted spectral data and hence the corresponding (twisted) Chern character, which will be invariant under the action of the pseudogroup, in contrast to the fact that the Chern character coming from the conventional noncommutative geometry need not be invariant under the above action. (author)
On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bei, Francesco; Waterstraat, Nils
2015-01-01
We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large
On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bei, Francesco, E-mail: bei@math.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Waterstraat, Nils, E-mail: n.waterstraat@kent.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, Statistics & Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF (United Kingdom)
2015-09-15
We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large.
Quadratic Twists of Rigid Calabi–Yau Threefolds Over
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gouvêa, Fernando Q.; Kiming, Ian; Yui, Noriko
2013-01-01
of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N). We show that quadratic twisting of a threefold corresponds to twisting the attached newform by quadratic characters and illustrate with a number of obvious and not so obvious examples. The question is motivated by the deeper question of which newforms of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N...
Bending the law: tidal bending and its effects on ice viscosity and flow
Rosier, S.; Gudmundsson, G. H.
2017-12-01
Many ice shelves are subject to strong ocean tides and, in order to accommodate this vertical motion, the ice must bend within the grounding zone. This tidal bending generates large stresses within the ice, changing its effective viscosity. For a confined ice shelf, this is particularly relevant because the tidal bending stresses occur along the sidewalls, which play an important role in the overall flow regime of the ice shelf. Hence, tidal bending stresses will affect both the mean and time-varying components of ice shelf flow. GPS measurements reveal strong variations in horizontal ice shelf velocities at a variety of tidal frequencies. We show, using full-Stokes viscoelastic modelling, that inclusion of tidal bending within the model accounts for much of the observed tidal modulation of horizontal ice shelf flow. Furthermore, our model shows that in the absence of a vertical tidal forcing, the mean flow of the ice shelf is reduced considerably.
Hydrodynamics and phases of flocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toner, John; Tu Yuhai; Ramaswamy, Sriram
2005-01-01
We review the past decade's theoretical and experimental studies of flocking: the collective, coherent motion of large numbers of self-propelled 'particles' (usually, but not always, living organisms). Like equilibrium condensed matter systems, flocks exhibit distinct 'phases' which can be classified by their symmetries. Indeed, the phases that have been theoretically studied to date each have exactly the same symmetry as some equilibrium phase (e.g., ferromagnets, liquid crystals). This analogy with equilibrium phases of matter continues in that all flocks in the same phase, regardless of their constituents, have the same 'hydrodynamic'-that is, long-length scale and long-time behavior, just as, e.g., all equilibrium fluids are described by the Navier-Stokes equations. Flocks are nonetheless very different from equilibrium systems, due to the intrinsically nonequilibrium self-propulsion of the constituent 'organisms'. This difference between flocks and equilibrium systems is most dramatically manifested in the ability of the simplest phase of a flock, in which all the organisms are, on average moving in the same direction (we call this a 'ferromagnetic' flock; we also use the terms 'vector-ordered' and 'polar-ordered' for this situation) to exist even in two dimensions (i.e., creatures moving on a plane), in defiance of the well-known Mermin-Wagner theorem of equilibrium statistical mechanics, which states that a continuous symmetry (in this case, rotation invariance, or the ability of the flock to fly in any direction) can not be spontaneously broken in a two-dimensional system with only short-ranged interactions. The 'nematic' phase of flocks, in which all the creatures move preferentially, or are simply oriented preferentially, along the same axis, but with equal probability of moving in either direction, also differs dramatically from its equilibrium counterpart (in this case, nematic liquid crystals). Specifically, it shows enormous number fluctuations, which
The geometric Langlands twist in five and six dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas
2015-01-01
Abelian 6d (2,0) theory has SO(5) R symmetry. We twist this theory by identifying the R symmetry group with the SO(5) subgroup of the SO(1,5) Lorentz group. This twisted theory can be put on any five-manifold M, times R, while preserving one scalar supercharge. We subsequently assume the existence of one unit normalized Killing vector field on M, and we find a corresponding SO(4) twist that preserves two supercharges and is a generalization of the geometric Langlands twist of 4d SYM. We generalize the story to non-Abelian gauge group for the corresponding 5d SYM theories on M. We derive a vanishing theorem for BPS contact instantons by identifying the 6d potential energy and its BPS bound, in the 5d theory. To this end we need to perform a Wick rotation that complexifies the gauge field.
Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francois, Alero
2009-01-01
A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x # perpendicular# = 2p # perpendicular#/√s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p # perpendicular# hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.
Molecular reorientation of dye doped nematic liquid crystals in the laser illumination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
San, S. E.; Koeysal, O.; Ecevit, F. N.
2002-01-01
In this study it is investigated how dye doped nematic liquid crystals reorient under the illumination of laser beam whose wavelength is appropriate to absorbance characteristics of the doping dye. Nematic liquid crystal E7 is used with anthraquinone dye 1% wt/wt in the preparation of the sample and this material is filled in homegenously aligned measurement cell having 15 μm thickness. Mechanism of molecular reorientation includes the absorbance effects of the energy of laser by doping dye and this reorientation causes the refractive index of the material to be changed. There are potential application possibilities of such molecular reorientation based effects in nonlinear optics such as real time holography whose basis is grating diffraction that is observed and investigated in the frame of fundamentals of molecule light interaction mechanisms. Experimental analyses allowed finding characteristic values of diffraction signals depending on physical parameters of set up for a dye doped liquid crystal system and this system provided a 20 % diffraction efficiency under the optimum circumstances
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.
Nematic phase formation in suspensions of graphene oxide
Fresneau, Nathalie; Campidelli, Stéphane
The last decade has seen the rise of graphene. Graphene is a single layer of graphite; it can be obtained by direct liquid phase exfoliation of the latter through harsh sonication. This technique presents the disadvantage to produce small graphene flakes (typically in the 0.05 to 0.4 μm2 range for the monolayers) and multilayer graphene with uncontrolled thickness distributions. In order to improve the exfoliation process, one has to counter the strong van der Waals interactions between the carbon planes of graphite. This implies to increase the distance between two planes and it can be done, for example, by oxidizing graphite to introduce oxygen species in the graphenic planes. The fabrication of graphite oxide is known for almost 150 years, and it became popular again these last ten years. Generally, the oxidation of graphite is performed following a method described by Hummers in the 1950's and the material produced by this technique exfoliates quasi-spontaneously into monolayer species called graphene oxide (GO). The highly anisotropic shape of GO (several μm in length and width for a thickness of ca. 1 nm) combined with the presence of oxygenated functions on the sp2 carbon structure of graphene lead to the formation of a lyotropic liquid crystalline phase in water. Above a certain concentration of graphene flakes the gain in translational entropy for a long-range ordered phase outweighs the loss in rotational entropy, and the liquid crystal phase then forms. The value of the threshold is affected by the aspect ratio of the graphene flakes but other factors such as the interactions also play a strong role.
Periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng Rong [Coll. of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Tech., Nanjing (China); Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Zhang Dongfeng [Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)
2010-05-15
In dynamical system theory, especially in many fields of applications from mechanics, Hamiltonian systems play an important role, since many related equations in mechanics can be written in an Hamiltonian form. In this paper, we study the existence of periodic solutions for a class of Hamiltonian systems. By applying the Galerkin approximation method together with a result of critical point theory, we establish the existence of periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions. Twist conditions play crucial roles in the study of periodic solutions for asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems. The lack of twist conditions brings some difficulty to the study. To the authors' knowledge, very little is known about the case, where twist conditions do not hold. (orig.)
Hassum, Izabella Cabral; Venturi, Caroline Rita; Gosmann, Grace; Deiro, Ana M. Girardi
2013-01-01
Introdução: a ação de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Eugenia uniflora L. (pitangueira), Mentha x piperita L. (hortelã), Myrcianthes pungens (O. Berg) D. Legrand (guabiju) e Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. (canafístula) foi avaliada sobre o desenvolvimento de nematódeos gastrintestinais nas coproculturas de ovinos. Objetivo: avaliar a ação in vitro dos extratos vegetais sobre os nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos. Métodos: cada extrato foi testado em culturas triplicadas de fezes nas seguin...
Higher-Twist Distribution Amplitudes of the K Meson in QCD
Ball, P; Lenz, A; Ball, Patricia
2006-01-01
We present a systematic study of twist-3 and twist-4 light-cone distribution amplitudes of the K meson in QCD. The structure of SU(3)-breaking corrections is studied in detail. Non-perturbative input parameters are estimated from QCD sum rules and renormalons. As a by-product, we give a complete reanalysis of the twist-3 and -4 parameters of the pi-meson distribution amplitudes; some of the results differ from those usually quoted in the literature.
Continuous Static Gait with Twisting Trunk of a Metamorphic Quadruped Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Zhang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The natural quadrupeds, such as geckos and lizards, often twist their trunks when moving. Conventional quadruped robots cannot perform the same motion due to equipping with a trunk which is a rigid body or at most consists of two blocks connected by passive joints. This paper proposes a metamorphic quadruped robot with a reconfigurable trunk which can implement active trunk motions, called MetaRobot I. The robot can imitate the natural quadrupeds to execute motion of trunk twisting. Benefiting from the twisting trunk, the stride length of this quadruped is increased comparing to that of conventional quadruped robots.In this paper a continuous static gait benefited from the twisting trunk performing the increased stride length is introduced. After that, the increased stride length relative to the trunk twisting will be analysed mathematically. Other points impacting the implementation of the increased stride length in the gait are investigated such as the upper limit of the stride length and the kinematic margin. The increased stride length in the gait will lead the increase of locomotion speed comparing with conventional quadruped robots, giving the extent that natural quadrupeds twisting their trunks when moving. The simulation and an experiment on the prototype are then carried out to illustrate the benefits on the stride length and locomotion speed brought by the twisting trunk to the quadruped robot.