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Sample records for twist resistant hydrodynamic

  1. NMSBA - Twist Resist - Rotational Exercise Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Aaron [Twist Resist, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reece, Blake D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berger, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guido, Steven Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Linker, Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report contains a summary of the work completed to develop a modular, rotational exercise device. In the report are images, diagrams, and explanations of the efforts contributed to the project since its inception. The purpose of this document is to provide a walk-through of the progress on this project, from the initial design concepts to the final design and work done, so that the customer (Twist Resist), or individuals/firms who work on this project in the future will have a springboard of ideas/concepts to work from.

  2. Effect of Twisting and Stretching on Magneto Resistance and Spin Filtration in CNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent quantum transport properties in twisted carbon nanotube and stretched carbon nanotube are calculated using density functional theory (DFT and non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF formulation. Twisting and stretching have no effect on spin transport in CNTs at low bias voltages. However, at high bias voltages the effects are significant. Stretching restricts any spin-up current in antiparallel configuration (APC, which results in higher magneto resistance (MR. Twisting allows spin-up current almost equivalent to the pristine CNT case, resulting in lower MR. High spin filtration is observed in PC and APC for pristine, stretched and twisted structures at all applied voltages. In APC, at low voltages spin filtration in stretched CNT is higher than in pristine and twisted ones, with pristine giving a higher spin filtration than twisted CNT.

  3. On the computation of electrical resistance of hydrodynamic journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pop

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the mathematical model of electrical resistance of hydrodynamic journal bearing under different parameters of operation so as to predict bearing performance and safe load carrying capacity. The currents circulating in the journal bearing of electrical machine causes reducing of lifespan by appearance of pitting on their surface and the degradation of the lubricant. In a hydrodynamic journal bearing, the zone of minimum film thickness, load-carrying oil film varies along the circumference of a bearing through its length. This has been found to form a capacitor of varying capacitance between the journal and the bearings dependent on permittivity of the lubricant used, the bearing length, the eccentricity ratio and the clearance ratio. Besides this, load-carrying on oil film offers resistance that depends on operating parameters and resistivity of the lubricant.

  4. Hydrodynamic resistance and flow patterns in the gills of a tilapine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, James A

    2013-07-15

    The gills of teleost fishes are often discussed as an archetypal counter-current exchange system, capable of supporting the relatively high metabolic rates of some fishes despite the low oxygen solubility of water. Despite an appreciation for the physiology of exchange at the gills, many questions remain regarding the hydrodynamical basis of ventilation in teleost fishes. In this study, the hydrodynamic resistance and flow fields around the isolated gills of a tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, were measured as a function of the applied pressure head. At ventilatory pressures typical of a fish at rest, the hydrodynamic resistance of the gills was nearly constant, the flow was laminar, shunting of water around the gills was essentially absent, and the distribution of water flow was relatively uniform. However, at the higher pressures typical of an active or stressed fish, some of these qualities were lost. In particular, at elevated pressures there was a decrease in the hydrodynamic resistance of the gills and substantial shunting of water around the gills. These effects suggest mechanical limits to maximum aerobic performance during activity or under adverse environmental conditions.

  5. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  6. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions and the Expression of Twist in MCF-7/ADR,Human Multidrug-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Zhang; Yurong Shi; Lin Zhang; Bin Zhang; Xiyin Wei; Yi Yang; RUi Wang; Ruifang Niu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the expression levels of Twist and epithelialmesenchymal transitions in multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells,and to study the relationship between multidrug resistance (MDR) and metastatic potential of the cells.METHODS RT-PCR,immunohislochemical and Western blotting methods were used to examine the changes of expression levels of the transcription factor Twist.E-cadherin and N-cadherin in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and its multidrug-resistant variant.MCF-7/ADR.RESULTS In MCF-7 cells,the expression of E-cadherin can be detected,but there is no expression of Twisl or N-cadherin.In MCF-7/ADR cells,E-cadherin expression is lost.bul the expression of two other genes was significantly positive.CONCLUSION Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions induced by Twist,may have a relationship with enhanced invasion and metastatic potential during the development of multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells.

  7. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  8. JNK signaling maintains the mesenchymal properties of multi-drug resistant human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells through snail and twist1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Xia; Feng, Xiaobing; Kong, Ying; Chen, Yi; Tan, Wenfu

    2013-01-01

    In addition to possess cross drug resistance characteristic, emerging evidences have shown that multiple-drug resistance (MDR) cancer cells exhibit aberrant metastatic capacity when compared to parental cells. In this study, we explored the contribution of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling to the mesenchymal phenotypes and the aberrant motile capacity of MDR cells utilizing a well characterized MDR cell line KB/VCR, which is established from KB human epidermoid carcinoma cells by vincristine (VCR), and its parental cell line KB. Taking advantage of experimental strategies including pharmacological tool and gene knockdown, we showed here that interference with JNK signaling pathway by targeting JNK1/2 or c-Jun reversed the mesenchymal properties of KB/VCR cells to epithelial phenotypes and suppressed the motile capacity of KB/VCR cells, such as migration and invasion. These observations support a critical role of JNK signaling in maintaining the mesenchymal properties of KB/VCR cells. Furthermore, we observed that JNK signaling may control the expression of both snail and twist1 in KB/VCR cells, indicating that both snail and twist1 are involved in controlling the mesenchymal characteristics of KB/VCR cells by JNK signaling. JNK signaling is required for maintaining the mesenchymal phenotype of KB/VCR cells; and JNK signaling may maintain the mesenchymal characteristics of KB/VCR cells potentially through snail and twist1

  9. JNK signaling maintains the mesenchymal properties of multi-drug resistant human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells through snail and twist1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xia; Feng, Xiaobing; Kong, Ying; Chen, Yi; Tan, Wenfu

    2013-04-04

    In addition to possess cross drug resistance characteristic, emerging evidences have shown that multiple-drug resistance (MDR) cancer cells exhibit aberrant metastatic capacity when compared to parental cells. In this study, we explored the contribution of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling to the mesenchymal phenotypes and the aberrant motile capacity of MDR cells utilizing a well characterized MDR cell line KB/VCR, which is established from KB human epidermoid carcinoma cells by vincristine (VCR), and its parental cell line KB. Taking advantage of experimental strategies including pharmacological tool and gene knockdown, we showed here that interference with JNK signaling pathway by targeting JNK1/2 or c-Jun reversed the mesenchymal properties of KB/VCR cells to epithelial phenotypes and suppressed the motile capacity of KB/VCR cells, such as migration and invasion. These observations support a critical role of JNK signaling in maintaining the mesenchymal properties of KB/VCR cells. Furthermore, we observed that JNK signaling may control the expression of both snail and twist1 in KB/VCR cells, indicating that both snail and twist1 are involved in controlling the mesenchymal characteristics of KB/VCR cells by JNK signaling. JNK signaling is required for maintaining the mesenchymal phenotype of KB/VCR cells; and JNK signaling may maintain the mesenchymal characteristics of KB/VCR cells potentially through snail and twist1.

  10. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  11. Numerical analysis of flow resistance and heat transfer in the transitional regime of pipe flow with twisted-tape turbulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Cattani, L.; Mocerino, A.; Bozzoli, F.; Rainieri, S.; Caminati, R.; Pagliarini, G.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we present the numerical analysis of the fully developed ow and heat transfer in pipes equipped with twisted-tape inserts in the laminar to transitional flow regime. The flow Reynolds number ranges from 210 to 3100 based on the pipe diameter, whereas the Prandtl number of the working fluid, a 40% mixture of water and ethylene glycol, is about 45 at the average film temperature. The numerical study is carried out via Scale Adaptive Simulations (SAS) where the k-ω SST model is employed for turbulence modeling. Using SAS and low-dissipation discretization schemes, the present study shows that it is possible to capture the transition from the laminar regime to the pulsating or pseudo-laminar flow regime induced by the twisted-tape at low Reynolds numbers, as well as the transition to moderate turbulent regime at the higher, yet non-turbulent for smooth pipes, range of Reynolds numbers. Numerical results, validated against experiments performed in a dedicated test rig, show very good agreement with measured data and an increase of the friction factor and Nusselt number in the range of 4 to 7 times and 6 to 15 times, respectively, of the values for an empty pipe.

  12. Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Hydrodynamic Modeling of Convective Fingering in a Sabkha Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Remke; Eustice, Brian; Hyndman, David; Wood, Warren; Simmons, Craig

    2014-05-01

    Free convection, or fluid motion driven by density differences, is an important groundwater flow mechanism that can enhance transport and mixing of heat and solutes in the subsurface. Various issues of environmental and societal relevance are exacerbated convective mixing; it has been studied in the context of dense contaminant plumes, nuclear waste disposal, greenhouse gas sequestration, the impacts of sea level rise and saline intrusion on drinking water resources. The basic theory behind convective flow in porous media is well understood, but important questions regarding this process in natural systems remain unanswered. Most previous research on this topic has focused on theory and modeling, with only limited attention to experimental studies and field measurements. The few published studies present single snapshots, making it difficult to quantify transient changes in these systems. Non-invasive electrical methods have the potential to exploit the relation between solute concentrations and electrical conductance of a fluid, and thereby estimate fluid salinity differences in time and space. We present the results of a two-year experimental study at a shallow sabkha aquifer in the United Arab Emirates, about 50 km southwest of the city of Abu Dhabi along the coast of the Arabian Gulf, that was designed to explore the transient nature of free convection. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data documented the presence of convective fingers following a significant rainfall event. One year later, the complex fingering pattern had completely disappeared. This observation is supported by analysis of the aquifer solute budget as well as hydrodynamic modeling of the system. The transient dynamics of the gravitational instabilities in the modeling results are in agreement with the timing observed in the time-lapse ERT data. Our experimental observations and modeling are consistent with the hypothesis that the instabilities arose from a dense brine that infiltrated

  13. Brownian dynamics simulations of a flexible polymer chain which includes continuous resistance and multibody hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2005-01-01

    Using methods adapted from the simulation of suspension dynamics, we have developed a Brownian dynamics algorithm with multibody hydrodynamic interactions for simulating the dynamics of polymer molecules. The polymer molecule is modeled as a chain composed of a series of inextensible, rigid rods with constraints at each joint to ensure continuity of the chain. The linear and rotational velocities of each segment of the polymer chain are described by the slender-body theory of Batchelor [J. Fluid Mech. 44, 419 (1970)]. To include hydrodynamic interactions between the segments of the chain, the line distribution of forces on each segment is approximated by making a Legendre polynomial expansion of the disturbance velocity on the segment, where the first two terms of the expansion are retained in the calculation. Thus, the resulting linear force distribution is specified by a center of mass force, couple, and stresslet on each segment. This method for calculating the hydrodynamic interactions has been successfully used to simulate the dynamics of noncolloidal suspensions of rigid fibers [O. G. Harlen, R. R. Sundararajakumar, and D. L. Koch, J. Fluid Mech. 388, 355 (1999); J. E. Butler and E. S. G. Shaqfeh, J. Fluid Mech. 468, 204 (2002)]. The longest relaxation time and center of mass diffusivity are among the quantities calculated with the simulation technique. Comparisons are made for different levels of approximation of the hydrodynamic interactions, including multibody interactions, two-body interactions, and the "freely draining" case with no interactions. For the short polymer chains studied in this paper, the results indicate a difference in the apparent scaling of diffusivity with polymer length for the multibody versus two-body level of approximation for the hydrodynamic interactions.

  14. Twisted supersymmetry: Twisted symmetry versus renormalizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, Marija; Nikolic, Biljana; Radovanovic, Voja

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a deformation of superspace based on a Hermitian twist. The twist implies a *-product that is noncommutative, Hermitian and finite when expanded in a power series of the deformation parameter. The Leibniz rule for the twisted supersymmetry transformations is deformed. A minimal deformation of the Wess-Zumino action is proposed and its renormalizability properties are discussed. There is no tadpole contribution, but the two-point function diverges. We speculate that the deformed Leibniz rule, or more generally the twisted symmetry, interferes with renormalizability properties of the model. We discuss different possibilities to render a renormalizable model.

  15. Periodic flow hydrodynamic resistance parameters for woven screen matrices at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, M. D.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The regenerator is a critical component in all Stirling and Pulse Tube cryocoolers. It generally consists of a microporous metallic or rare-earth filler material contained within a cylindrical shell. Accurate modelling of the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of different regenerator materials is crucial to the successful design of cryogenic systems. Previous investigations have used experimental measurements at steady and periodic flow conditions in conjunction with pore-level CFD analysis to determine the pertinent hydrodynamic parameters, namely the Darcy permeability and Forchheimer coefficients. Due to the difficulty associated with experimental measurement at cryogenic temperatures, past investigations were mostly performed at ambient conditions and their results are assumed to be appropriate for cryogenic temperatures. In this study, a regenerator filled with woven screen matrices such as 400 mesh T316 stainless steel were assembled and experimentally tested under periodic helium flow at cryogenic temperatures. The mass flow and pressure drop data were analysed using CFD to determine the dimensionless friction factor, Darcy Permeability and Forchheimer coefficients. These results are compared to previous investigations at ambient temperature conditions, and the relevance of room-temperature models and correlations to cryogenic temperatures is critically assessed.

  16. Twisted rudder for reducing fuel-oil consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three twisted rudders fit for large container ships have been developed; 1 the Z-twisted rudder that is an asymmetry type taking into consideration incoming flow angles of the propeller slipstream, 2 the ZB-twisted rudder with a rudder bulb added onto the Z-twisted rudder, and 3 the ZB-F twisted rudder with a rudder fin attached to the ZB-twisted rudder. The twisted rudders have been designed computationally with the hydrodynamic characteristics in a self-propulsion condition in mind. The governing equation is the Navier-Stokes equations in an unsteady turbulent flow. The turbulence model applied is the Reynolds stress. The calculation was carried out in towing and self-propulsion conditions. The sliding mesh technique was employed to simulate the flow around the propeller. The speed performances of the ship with the twisted rudders were verified through model tests in a towing tank. The twisted versions showed greater performance driven by increased hull efficiency from less thrust deduction fraction and more effective wake fraction and decreased propeller rotating speed.

  17. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  18. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  19. Twisted network programming essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fettig, Abe

    2005-01-01

    Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s

  20. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    enhancement of heat transfer with twisted tape inserts as compared to plain ... studies for heat transfer and pressure drop of laminar flow in horizontal tubes ... flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts .... presence of the insert in the pipe causes resistance to flow and increases turbulence.

  1. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  2. WORKSHOP: Let's twist again..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalobos Baillie, Orlando

    1988-12-15

    In the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) candidate theory of interquark forces, calculations involve summing the effects from many different possible quark/gluon interactions. In addition to the 'leading term' frequently used as the basis for QCD calculations, additional contributions — so-called 'higher twists' — are modulated by powers of kinematical factors. An illuminating international workshop to discuss higher twist QCD was held at the College de France, Paris, from 21-23 September.

  3. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  4. SpaceTwist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Xuegang, Huang

    2008-01-01

    -based matching generally fall short in offering practical query accuracy guarantees. Our proposed framework, called SpaceTwist, rectifies these shortcomings for k nearest neighbor (kNN) queries. Starting with a location different from the user's actual location, nearest neighbors are retrieved incrementally...

  5. Twisting the Mirror TBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.; de Leeuw, M.; van Tongeren, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    We study finite-size corrections to the magnon dispersion relation in three models which differ from string theory on AdS5 x S5 in their boundary conditions. Asymptotically, this is accomplished by twisting the transfer matrix in a way which manifestly preserves integrability. In model I all

  6. Twisted quantum doubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Fukuda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using diagrammatic pictures of tensor contractions, we consider a Hopf algebra (Aop⊗ℛλA** twisted by an element ℛλ∈A*⊗Aop corresponding to a Hopf algebra morphism λ:A→A. We show that this Hopf algebra is quasitriangular with the universal R-matrix coming from ℛλ when λ2=idA, generalizing the quantum double construction which corresponds to the case λ=idA.

  7. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  8. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindler, A.

    2007-07-01

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  10. Twist limits for late twisting double somersaults on trampoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, M R; Hiley, M J

    2017-06-14

    An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that could be produced in the second somersault of a double somersault on trampoline using asymmetrical movements of the arms and hips. Lower bounds were placed on the durations of arm and hip angle changes based on performances of a world trampoline champion whose inertia parameters were used in the simulations. The limiting movements were identified as the largest possible odd number of half twists for forward somersaulting takeoffs and even number of half twists for backward takeoffs. Simulations of these two limiting movements were found using simulated annealing optimisation to produce the required amounts of somersault, tilt and twist at landing after a flight time of 2.0s. Additional optimisations were then run to seek solutions with the arms less adducted during the twisting phase. It was found that 3½ twists could be produced in the second somersault of a forward piked double somersault with arms abducted 8° from full adduction during the twisting phase and that three twists could be produced in the second somersault of a backward straight double somersault with arms fully adducted to the body. These two movements are at the limits of performance for elite trampolinists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  12. Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Hydrodynamic Lubrication Experiment with 'Floating' Drops. Jaywant H Arakeri K R Sreenivas. General Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 51-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Theoretical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Milne-Thomson, L M

    2011-01-01

    This classic exposition of the mathematical theory of fluid motion is applicable to both hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Based on vector methods and notation with their natural consequence in two dimensions - the complex variable - it offers more than 600 exercises and nearly 400 diagrams. Prerequisites include a knowledge of elementary calculus. 1968 edition.

  14. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  15. TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.

  16. Teaching Spatial Awareness for Better Twisting Somersaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Jeff T.

    1985-01-01

    The barani (front somersault with one-half twist) and the back somersault with one twist are basic foundation skills necessary for more advanced twisting maneuvers. Descriptions of these movements on a trampoline surface are offered. (DF)

  17. Twisting perturbed parafermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The near-collinear expansion of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory at strong coupling is governed by the dynamics of stings propagating on the five sphere. The pentagon transitions in the operator product expansion which systematize the series get reformulated in terms of matrix elements of branch-point twist operators in the two-dimensional O(6 nonlinear sigma model. The facts that the latter is an asymptotically free field theory and that there exists no local realization of twist fields prevents one from explicit calculation of their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. This complication is bypassed making use of the equivalence of the sigma model to the infinite-level limit of WZNW models perturbed by current–current interactions, such that one can use conformal symmetry and conformal perturbation theory for systematic calculations. Presently, to set up the formalism, we consider the O(3 sigma model which is reformulated as perturbed parafermions.

  18. Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)

  19. How to Twist a Knot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas; Røgen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    is an invariant of ambient isotopy measuring the topological twist of the closed strip. We classify closed strips in euclidean 3-space by their knots and their twisting number. We prove that this classification exactly divides closed strips into isotopy classes. Using this classification we point out how some...

  20. Twisted Polynomials and Forgery Attacks on GCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed A. M. A.; Beelen, Peter; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Polynomial hashing as an instantiation of universal hashing is a widely employed method for the construction of MACs and authenticated encryption (AE) schemes, the ubiquitous GCM being a prominent example. It is also used in recent AE proposals within the CAESAR competition which aim at providing...... in an improved key recovery algorithm. As cryptanalytic applications of our twisted polynomials, we develop the first universal forgery attacks on GCM in the weak-key model that do not require nonce reuse. Moreover, we present universal weak-key forgeries for the nonce-misuse resistant AE scheme POET, which...

  1. Partial twisting for scalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given

  2. Photophysics of internal twisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.; Lippert, E.; Rettig, W.; Bonacic-Koutecky, V.

    1987-01-01

    The formation and characteristics of the ''twisted intermolecular charge transfer'' is studied. Basic concepts on dual fluorescence, steady-state fluorescence, kinetic investigations and cage effects are discussed. The theoretical treatment on the electronic structure of the bonded π - donor - π acceptor pairs is outlined. The two-electron, two-orbital model, the ab initio CI models of simple double, charged and dative π - bonds as well as complex dative π - bonds and the origin of the dual fluorescence of 9.9'-Bianthryl are shown. Concerning the stochastic description of chemical reactions, Master equation, Markov, Birth-Death and Diffusion processes, Kramers-Moyal expansion, Langevin equation, Kramers' approach to steady-state rates of reaction and its extension to non-Markovian processes, and also unimolecular reactions in the absence of potential barrier are considered. Experimental results and interpretation on dynamics of DMABN in the excited state, kinetics of other dialkylanilines, extended donor-acceptor systems with anomalous fluorescence and donor-acceptor systems without anomalous fluorescence are given

  3. Windings of twisted strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.

  4. Supernova hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The explosion of a star supernova occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN or it may collapse, type I and type II SN leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor should be thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 M/sub theta/, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star 6 to 10 M/sub theta/. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to our ability to model the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe. 39 references

  5. Physical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Etienne; Petit, Luc; Mitescu, Catalin D

    2015-01-01

    This new edition is an enriched version of the textbook of fluid dynamics published more than 10 years ago. It retains the same physically oriented pedagogical perspective. This book emphasizes, as in the first edition, experimental inductive approaches and relies on the study of the mechanisms at play and on dimensional analysis rather than more formal approaches found in many classical textbooks in the field. The need for a completely new version also originated from the increase, over the last few decades, of the cross-overs between the mechanical and physical approaches, as is visible in international meetings and joint projects. Hydrodynamics is more widely linked today to other fields of experimental sciences: materials, environment, life sciences and earth sciences, as well as engineering sciences.

  6. Introduction to hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of hydrodynamics and elastic--plastic flow are introduced for the purpose of defining hydrodynamic terms and explaining what some of the important hydrodynamic concepts are. The first part covers hydrodynamic theory; and discussed fundamental hydrodynamic equations, discontinuities, and shock, detonation, and elastic--plastic waves. The second part deals with applications of hydrodynamic theory to material equations of state, spall, Taylor instabilities, and detonation pressure measurements

  7. Thermo-hydrodynamic lubrication in hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the thermo-hydrodynamic and the thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. The algorithms are methodically detailed and each section is thoroughly illustrated.

  8. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  9. Twisting the N=2 string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Parkes, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    The most general homogeneous monodromy conditions in N= 2 string theory are classified in terms of the conjugacy classes of the global symmetry group U(1, 1) x Z 2 . For classes which generate a discrete subgroup Γ, the corresponding target space backgrounds C 1,1 /Γ include half spaces, complex orbifolds and tori. We propose a generalization of the intercept formula to matrix-valued twists, and find massless physical states in a number of twisted cases. In particular, the sixteen Z 2 -twisted sectors of the N = 2 string are investigated, and the corresponding ground states are identified via bosonization and BRST cohomology. We find enough room for an extended multiplet of 'spacetime' supersymmetry, with the number of supersymmetries being dependent on global 'spacetime' topology. Unfortunately, world-sheet locality for the chiral vertex operators does not permit interactions for the massless 'spacetime' fermions; however possibly, an asymmetric GSO projection could evade this problem. (orig.)

  10. Introduction to twisted conformal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development

  11. Chromatin Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory—the two-fluid model—in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model—the Maxwell fluid—for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity. PMID:24806919

  12. Waveguides with asymptotically diverging twisting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, AUG (2015), s. 7-10 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguide * exploding twisting * Quasi-bounded * Quasi-cylindrical * discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2015

  13. Obstructions for twist star products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Esposito, Chiara; Waldmann, Stefan; Weber, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    In this short note, we point out that not every star product is induced by a Drinfel'd twist by showing that not every Poisson structure is induced by a classical r-matrix. Examples include the higher genus symplectic Pretzel surfaces and the symplectic sphere S^2.

  14. A tale with a Twist: a developmental gene with potential relevance for metabolic dysfunction and inflammation in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dana Dobrian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Twist proteins (Twist-1 and -2 are highly conserved developmental proteins with key roles for the transcriptional regulation in mesenchymal cell lineages. They belong to the super-family of bHLH proteins and exhibit bi-functional roles as both activators and repressors of gene transcription. The Twist proteins are expressed at low levels in adult tissues but may become abundantly re-expressed in cells undergoing malignant transformation. This observation prompted extensive research on the roles of Twist proteins in cancer progression and metastasis. Very recent studies indicate a novel role for Twist-1 as a potential regulator of adipose tissue remodeling and inflammation. Several studies suggested that developmental genes are important determinants of obesity, fat distribution and remodeling capacity of different adipose depots. Twist-1 is abundantly and selectively expressed in the adult adipose tissue and its constitutive expression is significantly higher in subcutaneous vs. visceral fat in both mice and humans. Moreover, Twist1 expression is strongly correlated with BMI and insulin resistance in humans. However, the functional roles and transcriptional downstream targets of Twist1 in adipose tissue are largely unexplored. The purpose of this review is to highlight the major findings related to Twist1 expression in different fat depots and cellular components of adipose tissue and to discuss the potential mechanisms suggesting a role for Twist1 in adipose tissue metabolism, inflammation and remodeling.

  15. Twist deformations of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.G.; Chakraborty, B.; Toppan, F., E-mail: pgcastro@cbpf.b, E-mail: biswajit@bose.res.i, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kuznetsova, Z., E-mail: zhanna.kuznetsova@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The N-extended supersymmetric quantum mechanics is deformed via an abelian twist which preserves the super-Hopf algebra structure of its universal enveloping superalgebra. Two constructions are possible. For even N one can identify the 1D N-extended superalgebra with the fermionic Heisenberg algebra. Alternatively, supersymmetry generators can be realized as operators belonging to the Universal Enveloping Superalgebra of one bosonic and several fermionic oscillators. The deformed system is described in terms of twisted operators satisfying twist deformed (anti)commutators. The main differences between an abelian twist defined in terms of fermionic operators and an abelian twist defined in terms of bosonic operators are discussed. (author)

  16. Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlock, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra

  17. Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Panagopoulos, H.; Stylianou, F.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to β=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a 2 ) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to O(a 2 ). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI ' -MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors.

  18. Epigenetic inactivation of TWIST2 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia modulates proliferation, cell survival and chemosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathia, Shabnam H.; Ferguson, Stuart; Gautrey, Hannah E.; van Otterdijk, Sanne D.; Hili, Michela; Rand, Vikki; Moorman, Anthony V.; Meyer, Stefan; Brown, Robert; Strathdee, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Background Altered regulation of many transcription factors has been shown to be important in the development of leukemia. TWIST2 modulates the activity of a number of important transcription factors and is known to be a regulator of hematopoietic differentiation. Here, we investigated the significance of epigenetic regulation of TWIST2 in the control of cell growth and survival and in response to cytotoxic agents in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Design and Methods TWIST2 promoter methylation status was assessed quantitatively, by combined bisulfite and restriction analysis (COBRA) and pyrosequencing assays, in multiple types of leukemia and TWIST2 expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. The functional role of TWIST2 in cell proliferation, survival and response to chemotherapy was assessed in transient and stable expression systems. Results We found that TWIST2 was inactivated in more than 50% of cases of childhood and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia through promoter hypermethylation and that this epigenetic regulation was especially prevalent in RUNX1-ETV6-driven cases. Re-expression of TWIST2 in cell lines resulted in a dramatic reduction in cell growth and induction of apoptosis in the Reh cell line. Furthermore, re-expression of TWIST2 resulted in increased sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agents etoposide, daunorubicin and dexamethasone and TWIST2 hypermethylation was almost invariably found in relapsed adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (91% of samples hypermethylated). Conclusions This study suggests a dual role for epigenetic inactivation of TWIST2 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, initially through altering cell growth and survival properties and subsequently by increasing resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:22058208

  19. Stability of coupled tearing and twisting modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1994-03-01

    A dispersion relation is derived for resistive modes of arbitrary parity in a tokamak plasma. At low mode amplitude, tearing and twisting modes which have nonideal MHD behavior at only one rational surface at a time in the plasma are decoupled via sheared rotation and diamagnetic flows. At higher amplitude, more unstable open-quote compound close-quote modes develop which have nonideal behavior simultaneously at many surfaces. Such modes possess tearing parity layers at some of the nonideal surfaces, and twisting parity layers at others, but mixed parity layers are generally disallowed. At low mode number, open-quote compound close-quote modes are likely to have tearing parity layers at all of the nonideal surfaces in a very low-β plasma, but twisting parity layers become more probable as the plasma β is increased. At high mode number, unstable twisting modes which exceed a critical amplitude drive conventional magnetic island chains on alternate rational surfaces, to form an interlocking structure in which the O-points and X-points of neighboring chains line up

  20. Effective potentials for twisted fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banach, R.

    1981-01-01

    Minus the density of the effective action, evaluated at the lowest eigenfunction of the (space-time) derivative part of the second (functional) derivative of the classical action, is proposed as a generalised definition of the effective potential, applicable to twisted as well as untwisted sectors of a field theory. The proposal is corroborated by several specific calculations in the twisted sector, namely phi 4 theory (real and complex) and wrong-sign-Gordon theory, in an Einstein cylinder, where the exact integrability of the static solutions confirms the effective potential predictions. Both models exhibit a phase transition, which the effective potential locates, and the one-loop quantum shift in the critical radius is computed for the real phi 4 model, being a universal result. Topological mass generation at the classical level is pointed out, and the exactness of the classical effective potential approximation for complex phi 4 is discussed. (author)

  1. Twisting formula of epsilon factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sazzad Ali Biswas

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... In this article, we give a generalized twisting formula for ϵ(χ1χ2,ψ), when both χ1 and χ2 are ramified via the following local Jacobi sums. Let UF be the group of units in OF (ring of integers of F). For characters χ1, χ2 of F. × and a positive integer n, we define the local Jacobi sum. Jt(χ1,χ2, n) = ∑ x∈UF. Un.

  2. New twist on artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-10-18

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.

  3. Modeling and control of active twist aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Nicholas Bryan

    The Wright Brothers marked the beginning of powered flight in 1903 using an active twist mechanism as their means of controlling roll. As time passed due to advances in other technologies that transformed aviation the active twist mechanism was no longer used. With the recent advances in material science and manufacturability, the possibility of the practical use of active twist technologies has emerged. In this dissertation, the advantages and disadvantages of active twist techniques are investigated through the development of an aeroelastic modeling method intended for informing the designs of such technologies and wind tunnel testing to confirm the capabilities of the active twist technologies and validate the model. Control principles for the enabling structural technologies are also proposed while the potential gains of dynamic, active twist are analyzed.

  4. Bioinspired twisted composites based on Bouligand structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F.; Iervolino, O.; Scarselli, G.; Ginzburg, D.; Meo, M.

    2016-04-01

    The coupling between structural support and protection makes biological systems an important source of inspiration for the development of advanced smart composite structures. In particular, some particular material configurations can be implemented into traditional composites in order to improve their impact resistance and the out-of-plane properties, which represents one of the major weakness of commercial carbon fibres reinforced polymers (CFRP) structures. Based on this premise, a three-dimensional twisted arrangement shown in a vast multitude of biological systems (such as the armoured cuticles of Scarabei, the scales of Arapaima Gigas and the smashing club of Odontodactylus Scyllarus) has been replicated to develop an improved structural material characterised by a high level of in-plane isotropy and a higher interfacial strength generated by the smooth stiffness transition between each layer of fibrils. Indeed, due to their intrinsic layered nature, interlaminar stresses are one of the major causes of failure of traditional CFRP and are generated by the mismatch of the elastic properties between plies in a traditional laminate. Since the energy required to open a crack or a delamination between two adjacent plies is due to the difference between their orientations, the gradual angle variation obtained by mimicking the Bouligand Structures could improve energy absorption and the residual properties of carbon laminates when they are subjected to low velocity impact event. Two different bioinspired laminates were manufactured following a double helicoidal approach and a rotational one and were subjected to a complete test campaign including low velocity impact loading and compared to a traditional quasi-isotropic panel. Fractography analysis via X-Ray tomography was used to understand the mechanical behaviour of the different laminates and the residual properties were evaluated via Compression After Impact (CAI) tests. Results confirmed that the biological

  5. Twisting dependent properties of twisted carbon nanotube fibers: microstructure and strain transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinyuan; Xie, Erqing; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-01-01

    The dependences of twisting parameters on the electric and mechanical properties of twisted CNT fibers were systematically studied. Results from electric and mechanical measurements showed that twisting intensity is very effective to improve the electric and mechanical properties of CNT fibers. Further calculations combined with Raman results indicate that the twisting treatments, to a certain extent, can greatly enhance the strain transfer factors of the samples, which dominates the mechanical properties of CNT fibers. In addition, studies on the effect of twisting speeds suggested that lower twisting speed can lead to higher uniformity but lower performances in the electric and mechanical properties, higher twisting speed to higher Young’s modulus and higher conductance but lower uniformities. Ultra-strong uniform CNT fibers need to be prepared with a suitable twisting speed. (paper)

  6. Remarks on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-04-15

    We review recent results on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory by embedding it into a general framework for the quantization of systems with a twisted symmetry. We discuss commutation relations in this setting and show that the twisted structure is so rigid that it is hard to derive any predictions, unless one gives up general principles of quantum theory. It is also shown that the twisted structure is not responsible for the presence or absence of UV/IR-mixing, as claimed in the literature. (Orig.)

  7. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term

  8. Device for measuring well twistings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, Yu S; Golubin, S V; Keller, V F; Merzheyevskiy, A B; Zdorov, V P

    1982-01-01

    The device for measuring the well twistings with the use of fluids (poured into a vessel and which leave an imprint on the walls), containing a housing and adapter, is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the accuracy of measurement by obtaining a clear imprint, it is equipped with cylinder that is spring-loaded in relation to the adapter, forming a vessel for fluid with the adapter. The adapter is made of two parts, one of which is made of neutral metal in relation to the fluid, and the other, from active in relation to the same fluid.

  9. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  10. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

    CERN Document Server

    Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W

    1977-01-01

    Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio

  11. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  12. Influence of twisted tape turbulence promoter on fouling reduction in microfiltration of milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane filtration has become one of the major technologies in the food industry. It is widely applied in the dairy industry, and it is mostly used for the concentration and fractionation of milk proteins and for the whey processing. Of all pressure driven membrane processes, ultrafiltration is the most widely used. The major disadvantage of pressure driven membrane processes is severe fouling of membrane during filtration particularly when the fluids containing proteins are processed. Fouling with proteins is complex phenomenon because it occurs at the membrane surface as well as in the pores of membrane, and depends on the operating conditions and on the interactions of proteins and membrane material. In order to reduce fouling of the membrane different techniques have been developed, and one of them relies on the changing of the hydrodynamic conditions in the membrane or module. In this study, influence of twisted tape turbulence promoters on the fouling reduction in cross-flow microfiltration of skim milk was investigated. Twisted tapes with tree characteristic ratios of helix element length to the tape diameter (aspect ratio were studied. It was shown that twisted tapes with different aspect ratios reduce fouling of membrane by a factor of three or more. The presence of twisted tape induces changes in the flow patterns from straight to helicoidally thus producing turbulence flow at the lower cross-flow rates. Turbulence intensification prevents accumulation of proteins at membrane surface enabling reduction in reversible fouling what results in the reduction of overall membrane fouling. The best performance was achieved using a twisted tape with the lowest aspect ratio of 1.0. This promoter reduces fouling seven times at low transmembrane pressure and low cross-flow velocity. The twisted tape with aspect ratio 1.0 induces the most intensive turbulence, the longest helicoidal flow path, and appearance of vortices near the membrane surfaces

  13. Quantisation of monotonic twist maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasman, P.A.; Smilansky, U.

    1993-08-01

    Using an approach suggested by Moser, classical Hamiltonians are generated that provide an interpolating flow to the stroboscopic motion of maps with a monotonic twist condition. The quantum properties of these Hamiltonians are then studied in analogy with recent work on the semiclassical quantization of systems based on Poincare surfaces of section. For the generalized standard map, the correspondence with the usual classical and quantum results is shown, and the advantages of the quantum Moser Hamiltonian demonstrated. The same approach is then applied to the free motion of a particle on a 2-torus, and to the circle billiard. A natural quantization condition based on the eigenphases of the unitary time--development operator is applied, leaving the exact eigenvalues of the torus, but only the semiclassical eigenvalues for the billiard; an explanation for this failure is proposed. It is also seen how iterating the classical map commutes with the quantization. (authors)

  14. Knockdown of TWIST1 enhances arsenic trioxide- and ionizing radiation-induced cell death in lung cancer cells by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Sung-Keum; Kim, Jae-Hee; Choi, Ha-Na [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Tae-Boo [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seok-Il [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jae-Youn [Laboratory of Modulation of Radiobiological Responses, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Han, E-mail: yhlee87@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Knockdown of TWIST1 enhanced ATO- and IR-induced cell death in NSCLCs. • Intracellular ROS levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA. • TWIST1 siRNA induced MMP loss and mitochondrial fragmentation. • TWIST1 siRNA upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. - Abstract: TWIST1 is implicated in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance in cancer cells, and therefore is a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that knockdown of TWIST1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced arsenic trioxide (ATO)- and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Interestingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA and further increased by co-treatment with ATO or IR. Pretreatment of lung cancer cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine markedly suppressed the cell death induced by combined treatment with TWIST1 siRNA and ATO or IR. Moreover, treatment of cells with TWIST1 siRNA induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that siRNA-mediated TWIST1 knockdown induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhances IR- and ATO-induced cell death in lung cancer cells.

  15. Four-point functions with a twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargheer, Till [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2017-01-15

    We study the OPE of correlation functions of local operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The considered operators have an explicit spacetime dependence that is defined by twisting the translation generators with certain R-symmetry generators. We restrict to operators that carry a small number of excitations above the twisted BMN vacuum. The OPE limit of the four-point correlator is dominated by internal states with few magnons on top of the vacuum. The twisting directly couples all spacetime dependence of the correlator to these magnons. We analyze the OPE in detail, and single out the extremal states that have to cancel all double-trace contributions.

  16. Euclidean supersymmetry, twisting and topological sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.; Lindstroem, U.; Santos, L. Melo dos; Zabzine, M.; Unge, R. von

    2008-01-01

    We discuss two dimensional N-extended supersymmetry in Euclidean signature and its R-symmetry. For N = 2, the R-symmetry is SO(2) x SO(1, 1), so that only an A-twist is possible. To formulate a B-twist, or to construct Euclidean N = 2 models with H-flux so that the target geometry is generalised Kahler, it is necessary to work with a complexification of the sigma models. These issues are related to the obstructions to the existence of non-trivial twisted chiral superfields in Euclidean superspace.

  17. On the twist-2 and twist-3 contributions to the spin-dependent electroweak structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.

    1997-01-01

    The twist-2 and twist-3 contributions of the polarized deep-inelastic structure functions are calculated both for neutral and charged current interactions using the operator product expansion in lowest order in QCD. The relations between the different structure functions are determined. New integral relations are derived between the twist-2 contributions of the structure functions g 3 (x,Q 2 ) and g 5 (x,Q 2 ) and between combinations of the twist-3 contributions to the structure functions g 2 (x,Q 2 ) and g 3 (x,Q 2 ). The sum rules for polarized deep-inelastic scattering are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  18. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  19. Twisted covariant noncommutative self-dual gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-01-01

    A twisted covariant formulation of noncommutative self-dual gravity is presented. The formulation for constructing twisted noncommutative Yang-Mills theories is used. It is shown that the noncommutative torsion is solved at any order of the θ expansion in terms of the tetrad and some extra fields of the theory. In the process the first order expansion in θ for the Plebanski action is explicitly obtained.

  20. Nonlinear physics of twisted magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zensho

    1998-01-01

    Twisted magnetic field lines appear commonly in many different plasma systems, such as magnetic ropes created through interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, magnetic clouds in the solar wind, solar corona, galactic jets, accretion discs, as well as fusion plasma devices. In this paper, we study the topological characterization of twisted magnetic fields, nonlinear effect induced by the Lorentz back reaction, length-scale bounds, and statistical distributions. (author)

  1. OAM mode converter in twisted fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Cordeiro, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA.......We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA....

  2. Further Generalisations of Twisted Gabidulin Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann; Sheekey, John

    2017-01-01

    We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes.......We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes....

  3. Favorable clinical outcome and unique characteristics in association with Twist1 overexpression in de novo acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-C; You, J-Y; Gau, J-P; Huang, C-E; Chen, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-H; Chou, H-J; Lung, J; Yang, M-H

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process for inducing stem-like properties of epithelial cancer cells. However, the role of EMT inducers in hematological malignancies is unknown. Twist1, an EMT inducer necessary for cell migration, has recently been found to have transcriptionally regulatory activity on the expression of Bmi1, and these two are capable of promoting tumorigenesis in a synergized manner. Knowing that Bmi1 expression is essential for maintenance of leukemic stem cells, we speculate that Twist1 might govern the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development as well. We found that upregulated Twist1 increased Bmi1 expression in AML and endued leukemic cells a higher proliferative potential and increased resistance to apoptosis. In primary AML samples, there was strong positive correlation between the expression levels of Twist1 and Bmi1. AML patients whose leukemic blasts harbored overexpressed Twist1 had a more aggressive clinical phenotype, but they were more likely to have a better clinical outcome after standard therapy. In vitro studies confirmed that Twist1-overexpressing leukemic cells were more susceptible to cytarabine, but not daunorubicin, cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that, in a subset of AML patients, Twist1 has a prominent role in the pathogenesis of the disease that leads to unique clinical phenotypes

  4. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.

    2001-01-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  5. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Angbo

    2008-12-08

    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  6. Effective electrical and thermal conductivity of multifilament twisted superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechetkin, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    The effective electrical and thermal conductivity of composite wire with twisted superconducting filaments embedded into normal metal matrix is calculated using the extension of Bruggeman method. The resistive conductivity of superconducting filaments is described in terms of symmetric tensor, whereas the conductivity of a matrix is assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous. The dependence of the resistive electrical conductivity of superconducting filaments on temperature, magnetic field, and current density is implied to be parametric. The resulting effective conductivity tensor proved to be non-diagonal and symmetric. The non-diagonal transverse–longitudinal components of effective electrical conductivity tensor are responsible for the redistribution of current between filaments. In the limits of high and low electrical conductivity of filaments the transverse effective conductivity tends to that of obtained previously by Carr. The effective thermal conductivity of composite wires is non-diagonal and radius-dependent even for the isotropic and homogeneous thermal conductivities of matrix and filaments.

  7. Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, P.; Hoefer, M. A.; El, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations. One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.

  8. Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q_e_f_f accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.

  9. Electrically Controllable Magnetism in Twisted Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Arraga, Luis A; Lado, J L; Guinea, Francisco; San-Jose, Pablo

    2017-09-08

    Twisted graphene bilayers develop highly localized states around AA-stacked regions for small twist angles. We show that interaction effects may induce either an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic (FM) polarization of said regions, depending on the electrical bias between layers. Remarkably, FM-polarized AA regions under bias develop spiral magnetic ordering, with a relative 120° misalignment between neighboring regions due to a frustrated antiferromagnetic exchange. This remarkable spiral magnetism emerges naturally without the need of spin-orbit coupling, and competes with the more conventional lattice-antiferromagnetic instability, which interestingly develops at smaller bias under weaker interactions than in monolayer graphene, due to Fermi velocity suppression. This rich and electrically controllable magnetism could turn twisted bilayer graphene into an ideal system to study frustrated magnetism in two dimensions.

  10. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.bozek@fis.agh.edu.pl

    2016-12-15

    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  11. Higher-twist correlations in polarized hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangerman, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the response of polarized hadrons to several high-energy probes, working in the framework of the field theoretic model. Emphasis is laid upon higher-twist effects such as quark transverse momentum. The inclusive DIS process is very well suited to study QCD. From general principles we were able to derive four positivity constraints on the structure functions without invoking the helicity formalism. The on-shell quark model is used to illustrate these constraints. Subseqeuently, we concentrated on the higher-twist structure function g 2 (x,Q 2 ). (orig./HSI)

  12. Factorising the 3D topologically twisted index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on {S}_2 times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the 3D topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on {S}_2 times halves of {S}_1 , second as TTCSM on {S}_2 times {S}_1 — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on {S}_2× {S}_1 . In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is constrained to be anti-hermitian.

  13. A higher twist correction to heavy quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Soper, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    The leading twist prediction for heavy quark production and a model for a higher twist correction that may be important for charm production was discussed. The correction arises from the interaction of the charm quark with spectator quarks

  14. Hydrodynamical description of collective flow

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, Pasi

    2003-01-01

    I review how hydrodynamical flow is related to the observed flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions and how initial conditions, equation of state and freeze-out temperature affect flow in hydrodynamical models.

  15. Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova

  16. Twist operators in N=4 beta-deformed theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.; Łukowski, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we derive both the leading order finite size corrections for twist-2 and twist-3 operators and the next-to-leading order finite-size correction for twist-2 operators in beta-deformed SYM theory. The obtained results respect the principle of maximum transcendentality as well as

  17. Twisted Frobenius Identities from Vertex Operator Superalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zuevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the continuous orbifold partition function and a generating function for all n-point correlation functions for the rank two free fermion vertex operator superalgebra on the self-sewing torus, we introduce the twisted version of Frobenius identity.

  18. Magnetization Modeling of Twisted Superconducting Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Satiramatekul, T; Devred, Arnaud; Leroy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new Finite Element numerical method to analyze the coupling between twisted filaments in a superconducting multifilament composite wire. To avoid the large number of elements required by a 3D code, the proposed method makes use of the energy balance principle in a 2D code. The relationship between superconductor critical current density and local magnetic flux density is implemented in the program for the Bean and modified Kim models. The modeled wire is made up of six filaments twisted together and embedded in a lowresistivity matrix. Computations of magnetization cycle and of the electric field pattern have been performed for various twist pitch values in the case of a pure copper matrix. The results confirm that the maximum magnetization depends on the matrix conductivity, the superconductor critical current density, the applied field frequency, and the filament twist pitch. The simulations also lead to a practical criterion for wire design that can be used to assess whether or not th...

  19. Hilbert's Grand Hotel with a series twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Chanakya; Mamolo, Ami; Zazkis, Rina

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new twist on a familiar paradox, linking seemingly disparate ideas under one roof. Hilbert's Grand Hotel, a paradox which addresses infinite set comparisons is adapted and extended to incorporate ideas from calculus - namely infinite series. We present and resolve several variations, and invite the reader to explore his or her own variations.

  20. On the Compton Twist-3 Asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkiyan, V.M.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1994-01-01

    The 'fermionic poles' contribution to the twist-3 single asymmetry in the gluon Compton process is calculated. The 'gluonic poles' existence seems to contradict the density matrix positivity. Qualitative predictions for the direct photon and jets asymmetries are presented. 13 refs., 2 figs

  1. Generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonskyi, I. A.; Feigin, E. B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce the notion of generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras. We study their representation-theoretic and combinatorial properties and also their connection with nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials. As an application, we compute the dimension of the classical Weyl modules in the remaining unknown case.

  2. Hardy Inequalities in Globally Twisted Waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briet, Ph.; Hammedi, H.; Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 7 (2015), s. 939-958 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguides * twisted tubes * Dirichlet Laplacian * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  3. Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending-twist coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Bergamini, Andrea; Ermanni, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending-twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated.

  4. Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending–twist coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Ermanni, Paolo; Bergamini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending–twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated. (paper)

  5. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation o...

  6. A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N

    2007-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.

  7. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  8. The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauga, Eric; Powers, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Cell motility in viscous fluids is ubiquitous and affects many biological processes, including reproduction, infection and the marine life ecosystem. Here we review the biophysical and mechanical principles of locomotion at the small scales relevant to cell swimming, tens of micrometers and below. At this scale, inertia is unimportant and the Reynolds number is small. Our emphasis is on the simple physical picture and fundamental flow physics phenomena in this regime. We first give a brief overview of the mechanisms for swimming motility, and of the basic properties of flows at low Reynolds number, paying special attention to aspects most relevant for swimming such as resistance matrices for solid bodies, flow singularities and kinematic requirements for net translation. Then we review classical theoretical work on cell motility, in particular early calculations of swimming kinematics with prescribed stroke and the application of resistive force theory and slender-body theory to flagellar locomotion. After examining the physical means by which flagella are actuated, we outline areas of active research, including hydrodynamic interactions, biological locomotion in complex fluids, the design of small-scale artificial swimmers and the optimization of locomotion strategies.

  9. A New Twisting Somersault: 513XD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, William; Dullin, Holger R.

    2017-12-01

    We present the mathematical framework of an athlete modelled as a system of coupled rigid bodies to simulate platform and springboard diving. Euler's equations of motion are generalised to non-rigid bodies and are then used to innovate a new dive sequence that in principle can be performed by real-world athletes. We begin by assuming that shape changes are instantaneous so that the equations of motion simplify enough to be solved analytically, and then use this insight to present a new dive (513XD) consisting of 1.5 somersaults and five twists using realistic shape changes. Finally, we demonstrate the phenomenon of converting pure somersaulting motion into pure twisting motion by using a sequence of impulsive shape changes, which may have applications in other fields such as space aeronautics.

  10. Chiral tunneling in a twisted graphene bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-08-09

    The perfect transmission in a graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in a Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in a twisted graphene bilayer show an adjustable probability of chiral tunneling for normal incidence: they can be changed from perfect tunneling to partial or perfect reflection, or vice versa, by controlling either the height of the barrier or the incident energy. As well as addressing basic physics about how the chiral fermions with different chiralities tunnel through a barrier, our results provide a facile route to tune the electronic properties of the twisted graphene bilayer.

  11. Factorising the 3D topologically twisted index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-04-20

    We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on S{sub 2} times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the 3D topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on S{sub 2} times halves of S{sub 1}, second as TTCSM on S{sub 2} times S{sub 1} — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on S{sub 2}×S{sub 1}. In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is constrained to be anti-hermitian.

  12. IRONY IN CHARLES DICKEN'S OLIVER TWIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the types of irony used by Charles Dickens in his notable early work, Oliver Twist, as well as the reasons the irony was chosen. As a figurative language, irony is utilized to express one’s complex feelings without truly saying them. In Oliver Twist, Dickens brought the readers some real social issues wrapped in dark, deep written expressions of irony uttered by the characters of his novel. Undoubtedly, the novel had left an impact to the British society at the time. The irony Dickens displayed here includes verbal, situational, and dramatic irony. His choice of irony made sense as he intended to criticize the English Poor Laws and to touch the public sentiment. He wanted to let the readers go beyond what was literally written and once they discovered what the truth was, they would eventually understand Dickens’ purposes.

  13. Leibniz algebroids, twistings and exceptional generalized geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraglia, D.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate a class of Leibniz algebroids which are invariant under diffeomorphisms and symmetries involving collections of closed forms. Under appropriate assumptions we arrive at a classification which in particular gives a construction starting from graded Lie algebras. In this case the Leibniz bracket is a derived bracket and there are higher derived brackets resulting in an L∞-structure. The algebroids can be twisted by a non-abelian cohomology class and we prove that the twisting class is described by a Maurer-Cartan equation. For compact manifolds we construct a Kuranishi moduli space of this equation which is shown to be affine algebraic. We explain how these results are related to exceptional generalized geometry.

  14. Valve-aided twisted Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Rajkumar, M.; Saha, U.K.

    2006-05-15

    Accessories, such as end plates, deflecting plates, shielding and guide vanes, may increase the power of a Savonius rotor, but make the system structurally complex. In such cases, the rotor can develop a relatively large torque at small rotational speeds and is cheap to build, however it harnesses only a small fraction of the incident wind energy. Another proposition for increasing specific output is to place non-return valves inside the concave side of the blades. Such methods have been studied experimentally with a twisted-blade Thus improving a Savonius rotor's energy capture. This new concept has been named as the 'Valve-Aided Twisted Savonius'rotor. Tests were conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel to evaluate performance. This mechanism is found to be independent of flow direction, and shows potential for large machines. [Author].

  15. Chiral Tunnelling in Twisted Graphene Bilayer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The perfect transmission in graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in twisted graphene bilayer shows adjustable probability of chiral tunnelling for normal incidence: they can be changed fr...

  16. Vacuum expectation value of twist fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Twist fields emerge in a number of physical applications ranging from entanglement entropy to scattering amplitudes in four-dimensional gauge theories. In this work, their vacuum expectation values are studied in the path integral framework. By performing a gauge transformation, their correlation functions are reduced to field theory of matter fields in external Aharonov-Bohm vortices. The resulting functional determinants are then analyzed within the zeta-function regularization for the spectrum of Bessel zeros, and concise formulas are derived.

  17. Leibniz algebroids, twistings and exceptional generalized geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Baraglia, David

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a class of Leibniz algebroids which are invariant under diffeomorphisms and symmetries involving collections of closed forms. Under appropriate assumptions we arrive at a classification which in particular gives a construction starting from graded Lie algebras. In this case the Leibniz bracket is a derived bracket and there are higher derived brackets resulting in an $L_\\infty$-structure. The algebroids can be twisted by a non-abelian cohomology class and we prove that the twis...

  18. Exploring exotic states with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    he goal of this thesis is to develop methods to study the nature and properties of exotic hadrons from lattice simulations. The main focus lies in the application of twisted boundary conditions. The thesis consists of a general introduction and the collection of three papers, represented respectively in three chapters. The introduction of the thesis reviews the theoretical background, which is further used in the rest of the thesis. Further implementing partially twisted boundary conditions in the scalar sector of lattice QCD is studied. Then we develop a method to study the content of the exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant from lattice simulations, exploiting the dependence of the spectrum on the twisted boundary conditions. The final chapter deals with a novel method to study the multi-channel scattering problem in a finite volume, which is relevant for exotic states. Its key idea is to extract the complex hadron-hadron optical potential, avoiding the difficulties, associated with the solution of the multi-channel Luescher equation.

  19. Exploring exotic states with twisted boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri

    2017-09-11

    he goal of this thesis is to develop methods to study the nature and properties of exotic hadrons from lattice simulations. The main focus lies in the application of twisted boundary conditions. The thesis consists of a general introduction and the collection of three papers, represented respectively in three chapters. The introduction of the thesis reviews the theoretical background, which is further used in the rest of the thesis. Further implementing partially twisted boundary conditions in the scalar sector of lattice QCD is studied. Then we develop a method to study the content of the exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant from lattice simulations, exploiting the dependence of the spectrum on the twisted boundary conditions. The final chapter deals with a novel method to study the multi-channel scattering problem in a finite volume, which is relevant for exotic states. Its key idea is to extract the complex hadron-hadron optical potential, avoiding the difficulties, associated with the solution of the multi-channel Luescher equation.

  20. Transverse kink oscillations in the presence of twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in coronal loops. The effects of magnetic twist on stable magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves is poorly understood because they are seldom studied for relevant cases. Aims: The goal of this work is to study the fingerprints of magnetic twist on stable transverse kink oscillations. Methods: We numerically calculated the eigenmodes of propagating and standing MHD waves for a model of a loop with magnetic twist. The azimuthal component of the magnetic field was assumed to be small in comparison to the longitudinal component. We did not consider resonantly damped modes or kink instabilities in our analysis. Results: For a nonconstant twist the frequencies of the MHD wave modes are split, which has important consequences for standing waves. This is different from the degenerated situation for equilibrium models with constant twist, which are characterised by an azimuthal component of the magnetic field that linearly increases with the radial coordinate. Conclusions: In the presence of twist standing kink solutions are characterised by a change in polarisation of the transverse displacement along the tube. For weak twist, and in the thin tube approximation, the frequency of standing modes is unaltered and the tube oscillates at the kink speed of the corresponding straight tube. The change in polarisation is linearly proportional to the degree of twist. This has implications with regard to observations of kink modes, since the detection of this variation in polarisation can be used as an indirect method to estimate the twist in oscillating loops.

  1. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2008-02-01

    The upper atmosphere of Titan is currently losing mass at a rate ˜(4-5)×10 amus, by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating by CH 4 absorption. The hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Their combined escape rates are restricted by power limitations from attaining their limiting rates (and limiting fluxes). Hence they must exhibit gravitational diffusive separation in the upper atmosphere with increasing mixing ratios to eventually become major constituents in the exosphere. A theoretical model with solar EUV heating by N 2 absorption balanced by HCN rotational line cooling in the upper thermosphere yields densities and temperatures consistent with the Huygens Atmospheric Science Investigation (HASI) data [Fulchignoni, M., and 42 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791], with a peak temperature of ˜185-190 K between 3500-3550 km. This model implies hydrodynamic escape rates of ˜2×10 CHs and 5×10 Hs, or some other combination with a higher H 2 escape flux, much closer to its limiting value, at the expense of a slightly lower CH 4 escape rate. Nonthermal escape processes are not required to account for the loss rates of CH 4 and H 2, inferred by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements [Yelle, R.V., Borggren, N., de la Haye, V., Kasprzak, W.T., Niemann, H.B., Müller-Wodarg, I., Waite Jr., J.H., 2006. Icarus 182, 567-576].

  2. How to fake hydrodynamic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romatschke, Paul [Department of Physics, 390 UCB, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Flow signatures in experimental data from relativistic ion collisions, are usually interpreted as a fingerprint of the presence of a hydrodynamic phase during the evolution of these systems. I review some theoretical ideas to ‘fake’ this hydrodynamic behavior in p+A and A+A collisions. I find that transverse flow and femtoscopic measurements can easily be forged through non-hydrodynamic evolution, while large elliptic flow requires some non-vanishing interactions in the hot phase.

  3. Modeling hydrodynamic cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.S.; Pandit, A.B. [Mumbai Univ. (India). Chemical Engineering Div.

    1999-12-01

    Cavitation as a source and method of energy input for chemical processing is increasingly studied due to its ability to generate localized high temperatures and pressures under nearly ambient conditions. Compared to cavitation generated by ultrasound, hydrodynamic cavitation has been proved to be a very energy-efficient alternative. A simple and unified model has been developed to study the cavitation phenomena in hydraulic systems with emphasis on the venturi tube and high-speed homogenizer. The model has been found to be satisfactory in explaining the effect of operating variables and equipment geometry on two different modes of cavitation generation qualitatively and in some cases quantitatively. (orig.)

  4. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  5. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalas, Dimitri

    1999-01-01

    Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,

  6. Design optimization for active twist rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ji Won

    This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to

  7. Simulating QCD at the physical point with Nf=2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rehim, A.; Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ. Nicosia; Burger, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present simulations of QCD using N f =2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at a∼0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces O(a 2 ) cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.

  8. Ten helical twist angles of B-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabsch, W; Sander, C; Trifonov, E N

    1982-01-01

    On the assumption that the twist angles between adjacent base-pairs in the DNA molecule are additive a linear system of 40 equations was derived from experimental measurements of the total twist angles for different pieces of DNA of known sequences. This system of equations is found to be statistically consistent providing a solution for all ten possible twist angles of B-DNA by a least squares fitting procedure. Four of the calculated twist angles were not known before. The other six twist angles calculated are very close to the experimentally measured ones. The data used were obtained by the electrophoretic band-shift method, crystallography and nuclease digestion of DNA adsorbed to mica or Ca-phosphate surface. The validity of the principle of additivity of the twist angles implies that the angle between any particular two base-pairs is a function of only these base-pairs, independent of nearest neighbors.

  9. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  10. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  11. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  12. Twisted Vanes Would Enhance Fuel/Air Mixing In Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. Lee; Micklow, Gerald J.; Dogra, Anju S.

    1994-01-01

    Computations of flow show performance of high-shear airblast fuel injector in gas-turbine engine enhanced by use of appropriately proportioned twisted (instead of flat) dome swirl vanes. Resultant more nearly uniform fuel/air mixture burns more efficiently, emitting smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides. Twisted-vane high-shear airblast injectors also incorporated into paint sprayers, providing advantages of low pressure drop characteristic of airblast injectors in general and finer atomization of advanced twisted-blade design.

  13. Higher twist contributions to deep-inelastic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.

    2008-07-01

    We report on a recent extraction of the higher twist contributions to the deep inelastic structure functions F ep,ed 2 (x,Q 2 ) in the large x region. It is shown that the size of the extracted higher twist contributions is strongly correlated with the higher order corrections applied to the leading twist part. A gradual lowering of the higher twist contributions going from NLO to N 4 LO is observed, where in the latter case only the leading large x terms were considered. (orig.)

  14. Twisted sigma-model solitons on the quantum projective line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    On the configuration space of projections in a noncommutative algebra, and for an automorphism of the algebra, we use a twisted Hochschild cocycle for an action functional and a twisted cyclic cocycle for a topological term. The latter is Hochschild-cohomologous to the former and positivity in twisted Hochschild cohomology results into a lower bound for the action functional. While the equations for the critical points are rather involved, the use of the positivity and the bound by the topological term lead to self-duality equations (thus yielding twisted noncommutative sigma-model solitons, or instantons). We present explicit nontrivial solutions on the quantum projective line.

  15. Bound states on the lattice with partially twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, D.; Guo, F.-K.; Ríos, G.; Rusetsky, A.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to study the nature of exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant Z from lattice simulations. It is shown that, instead of studying the volume-dependence of the spectrum, one may investigate the dependence of the spectrum on the twisting angle, imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermion fields on the lattice. In certain cases, e.g., the case of the DK bound state which is addressed in detail, it is demonstrated that the partial twisting is equivalent to the full twisting up to exponentially small corrections.

  16. Hydrodynamic Forces on Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HYDRODYNAMIC ...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES ON COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott C. Millhouse 7. PERFORMING...angles yields different free surface effects including vortices and the onset of cavitation . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Fluid structure interaction, FSI, finite

  17. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Spaliński, M.

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of entropy to near-equilibrium phenomena is provided by the notion of a hydrodynamic entropy current. Recent advances in holography have lead to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics

  18. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Spaliński, M.

    2011-01-01

    A generalization of entropy to near-equilibrium phenomena is provided by the notion of a hydrodynamic entropy current. Recent advances in holography have lead to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics

  19. A hydrodynamic formalism for Brownian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.; Rosales, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A formal hydrodynamic approach to Brownian motion is presented and the corresponding equations are derived. Hydrodynamic quantities are expressed in terms of the physical variables characterizing the Brownian systems. Contact is made with the hydrodynamic model of Quantum Mechanics. (author)

  20. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-06-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative solar instrumentation that allowed him to make narrow-band images. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Using the concept of magnetic helicity, physicists and mathematicians describe the topology of magnetic fields, including twisting and writhing. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on a key property of helicity: conservation. I will describe the critical role that this property plays, when applied to twist and writhe, in a fundamental aspect of global solar magnetism: the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of active region electric currents with respect to magnetic fields. With the advent of unbroken sequences of high-resolution magnetic images, such as those presently available from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere can be observed quantitatively. As magnetic flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone, buffeted and shredded by turbulence, they break up into fragments by repeated random bifurcation. We track these rising flux fragments in the photosphere, and calculate the flux of energy and magnetic helicity there. Using a quantitative model of coronal currents, we also track connections between these fragments to calculate the energy and magnetic helicity stored at topological interfaces that are in some ways analogous to the storage of stress at faults in the Earth's crust. Comparison of these values to solar flares and interplanetary coronal mass ejections implies that this is the primary storage mechanism for energy and magnetic helicity released in those phenomena, and suggests a useful tool for quantitative prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  1. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...... beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps...

  2. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, D.; Mihalas, B. W.

    This book is the result of an attempt, over the past few years, to gather the basic tools required to do research on radiating flows in astrophysics. The microphysics of gases is discussed, taking into account the equation of state of a perfect gas, the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermal properties of a perfect gas, the distribution function and Boltzmann's equation, the collision integral, the Maxwellian velocity distribution, Boltzmann's H-theorem, the time of relaxation, and aspects of classical statistical mechanics. Other subjects explored are related to the dynamics of ideal fluids, the dynamics of viscous and heat-conducting fluids, relativistic fluid flow, waves, shocks, winds, radiation and radiative transfer, the equations of radiation hydrodynamics, and radiating flows. Attention is given to small-amplitude disturbances, nonlinear flows, the interaction of radiation and matter, the solution of the transfer equation, acoustic waves, acoustic-gravity waves, basic concepts of special relativity, and equations of motion and energy.

  3. From TDHF to hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock theory provides a microscopic approach to the scattering of heavy ions. Fundamental in this theory is a mean-(one-body) field. The calculation of this field from a two-body effective interaction makes the theory microscopic. Many-body effects are included by the Brueckner definition of this interaction; the reaction-matrix. In excited media it is in general complex allowing for decays. The imaginary part relates directly to the collision-term in a transport equation. We treat this term by the time-relaxation-method. This implies an extension of the TDHF-equation to include two-body collisions. Hydrodynamic equations are derived from this new equation. The solution of the two equations agree quantitatively for short-relaxation-times. Relaxation-times are calculated as a function of temperature. (orig.)

  4. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  5. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  6. Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhamy, Donia Said

    Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The

  7. On reflection algebras and twisted Yangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that integrable models associated to rational R matrices give rise to certain non-Abelian symmetries known as Yangians. Analogously boundary symmetries arise when general but still integrable boundary conditions are implemented, as originally argued by Delius, Mackay, and Short from the field theory point of view, in the context of the principal chiral model on the half-line. In the present study we deal with a discrete quantum mechanical system with boundaries, that is the N site gl(n) open quantum spin chain. In particular, the open spin chain with two distinct types of boundary condition known as soliton preserving and soliton nonpreserving is considered. For both types of boundaries we present a unified framework for deriving the corresponding boundary nonlocal charges directly at the quantum level. The nonlocal charges are simply coproduct realizations of particular boundary quantum algebras called boundary or twisted Yangians, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. Finally, with the help of linear intertwining relations between the solutions of the reflection equation and the generators of the boundary or twisted Yangians we are able to exhibit the exact symmetry of the open spin chain, namely we show that a number of the boundary nonlocal charges are in fact conserved quantities

  8. How the embryonic brain tube twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry

    2014-03-01

    During early development, the tubular brain of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This deformation is one of the major organ-level symmetry-breaking events in development. Available evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops in the same direction that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is virtually nonexistent, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. In addition, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model is used to interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''.

  9. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  10. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  11. Hydrodynamic cavitation for sonochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholkar, V S; Kumar, P S; Pandit, A B

    1999-03-01

    A comparative study of hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation has been made on the basis of numerical solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble/cavity behaviour has been studied under both acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation conditions. The effect of varying pressure fields on the collapse of the cavity (sinusoidal for acoustic and linear for hydrodynamic) and also on the latter's dynamic behaviour has been studied. The variations of parameters such as initial cavity size, intensity of the acoustic field and irradiation frequency in the case of acoustic cavitation, and initial cavity size, final recovery pressure and time for pressure recovery in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, have been found to have significant effects on cavity/bubble dynamics. The simulations reveal that the bubble/cavity collapsing behaviour in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation is accompanied by a large number of pressure pulses of relatively smaller magnitude, compared with just one or two pulses under acoustic cavitation. It has been shown that hydrodynamic cavitation offers greater control over operating parameters and the resultant cavitation intensity. Finally, a brief summary of the experimental results on the oxidation of aqueous KI solution with a hydrodynamic cavitation set-up is given which supports the conclusion of this numerical study. The methodology presented allows one to manipulate and optimise of specific process, either physical or chemical.

  12. Quadratic Twists of Rigid Calabi–Yau Threefolds Over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouvêa, Fernando Q.; Kiming, Ian; Yui, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N). We show that quadratic twisting of a threefold corresponds to twisting the attached newform by quadratic characters and illustrate with a number of obvious and not so obvious examples. The question is motivated by the deeper question of which newforms of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N...

  13. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling...

  14. A twisted generalization of Novikov-Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras, which are twisted generalizations of Novikov-Poisson algebras, are studied. Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras are shown to be closed under tensor products and several kinds of twistings. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given under which Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras give rise to Hom-Poisson algebras.

  15. Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daszkiewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)

  16. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  17. Electronic and Optical Properties of Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengqiang

    The ability to isolate single atomic layers of van der Waals materials has led to renewed interest in the electronic and optical properties of these materials as they can be fundamentally different at the monolayer limit. Moreover, these 2D crystals can be assembled together layer by layer, with controllable sequence and orientation, to form artificial materials that exhibit new features that are not found in monolayers nor bulk. Twisted bilayer graphene is one such prototype system formed by two monolayer graphene layers placed on top of each other with a twist angle between their lattices, whose electronic band structure depends on the twist angle. This thesis presents the efforts to explore the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We first synthesize twisted bilayer graphene with various twist angles via chemical vapor deposition. Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the twist angles are determined. The strength of the Raman G peak is sensitive to the electronic band structure of twisted bilayer graphene and therefore we use this peak to monitor changes upon doping. Our results demonstrate the ability to modify the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with doping. We also fabricate twisted bilayer graphene by controllable stacking of two graphene monolayers with a dry transfer technique. For twist angles smaller than one degree, many body interactions play an important role. It requires eight electrons per moire unit cell to fill up each band instead of four electrons in the case of a larger twist angle. For twist angles smaller than 0.4 degree, a network of domain walls separating AB and BA stacking regions forms, which are predicted to host topologically protected helical states. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, these states are confirmed to appear on the domain walls when inversion

  18. SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH GRAVITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  19. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  20. Duality and braiding in twisted quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, Mauro; Szabo, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    We re-examine various issues surrounding the definition of twisted quantum field theories on flat noncommutative spaces. We propose an interpretation based on nonlocal commutative field redefinitions which clarifies previously observed properties such as the formal equivalence of Green's functions in the noncommutative and commutative theories, causality, and the absence of UV/IR mixing. We use these fields to define the functional integral formulation of twisted quantum field theory. We exploit techniques from braided tensor algebra to argue that the twisted Fock space states of these free fields obey conventional statistics. We support our claims with a detailed analysis of the modifications induced in the presence of background magnetic fields, which induces additional twists by magnetic translation operators and alters the effective noncommutative geometry seen by the twisted quantum fields. When two such field theories are dual to one another, we demonstrate that only our braided physical states are covariant under the duality

  1. Analysis list: Twist1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Twist1 Embryo,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Tw...ist1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Neural.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml ...

  2. On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, U.K.; Rajkumar, M. Jaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The present investigation is aimed at exploring the feasibility of twisted bladed Savonius rotor for power generation. The twisted blade in a three-bladed rotor system has been tested in a low speed wind tunnel, and its performance has been compared with conventional semicircular blades (with twist angle of 0{sup o}). Performance analysis has been made on the basis of starting characteristics, static torque and rotational speed. Experimental evidence shows the potential of the twisted bladed rotor in terms of smooth running, higher efficiency and self-starting capability as compared to that of the conventional bladed rotor. Further experiments have been conducted in the same setup to optimize the twist angle. (author)

  3. Lotic Water Hydrodynamic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tasseff, Byron Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Water-related natural disasters, for example, floods and droughts, are among the most frequent and costly natural hazards, both socially and economically. Many of these floods are a result of excess rainfall collecting in streams and rivers, and subsequently overtopping banks and flowing overland into urban environments. Floods can cause physical damage to critical infrastructure and present health risks through the spread of waterborne diseases. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed Lotic, a state-of-the-art surface water hydrodynamic model, to simulate propagation of flood waves originating from a variety of events. Lotic is a two-dimensional (2D) flood model that has been used primarily for simulations in which overland water flows are characterized by movement in two dimensions, such as flood waves expected from rainfall-runoff events, storm surge, and tsunamis. In 2013, LANL developers enhanced Lotic through several development efforts. These developments included enhancements to the 2D simulation engine, including numerical formulation, computational efficiency developments, and visualization. Stakeholders can use simulation results to estimate infrastructure damage and cascading consequences within other sets of infrastructure, as well as to inform the development of flood mitigation strategies.

  4. Hydrodynamics of rotating superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis, a coarse grained hydrodynamics is developed from the exact description of Tkachenko. To account for the dynamics of the vortex lattice, the macroscopic vortex displacement field is treated as an independent degree of freedom. The conserved energy is written in terms of the coarse-grained normal fluid, superfluid, and vortex velocities and includes an elastic energy associated with deformations of the vortex lattice. Equations of motion consistent with the conservation of energy, entropy and vorticity and containing mutual friction terms arising from microscopic interactions between normal fluid excitations and the vortex lines are derived. When the vortex velocity is eliminated from the damping terms, this system of equations becomes essentially that of BK with added elastic terms in the momentum stress tensor and energy current. The dispersion relation and damping of the first and second sound modes and the two transverse modes sustained by the system are investigated. It is shown that mutual friction mixes the transverse modes of the normal and superfluid components and damps the transverse mode associated with the relative velocity of these components, making this wave evanescent in the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis. The wave associated with transverse motion of the total mass current is a generalized Tkachenko mode, whose dispersion relation reduces to that derived by Tkachenko wave when the wavevector lies in this plane

  5. Advanced in Macrostatistical Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, A.L.; Tetlow, N.; Abbott, J.R.; Mondy, L.S.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small (Macrostatistical Hydrodynamics). First, we describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. We suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. We also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, we briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about the microstructure and boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  6. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.

    2016-12-01

    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  7. Hydrodynamics of electrons in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Chung Fong, Kin

    2018-02-01

    Generic interacting many-body quantum systems are believed to behave as classical fluids on long time and length scales. Due to rapid progress in growing exceptionally pure crystals, we are now able to experimentally observe this collective motion of electrons in solid-state systems, including graphene. We present a review of recent progress in understanding the hydrodynamic limit of electronic motion in graphene, written for physicists from diverse communities. We begin by discussing the ‘phase diagram’ of graphene, and the inevitable presence of impurities and phonons in experimental systems. We derive hydrodynamics, both from a phenomenological perspective and using kinetic theory. We then describe how hydrodynamic electron flow is visible in electronic transport measurements. Although we focus on graphene in this review, the broader framework naturally generalizes to other materials. We assume only basic knowledge of condensed matter physics, and no prior knowledge of hydrodynamics.

  8. Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-15

    I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.

  9. Hydrodynamic aspects of flotation separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleka Efrosyni N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation separation is mainly used for removing particulates from aqueous dispersions. It is widely used for ore beneficiation and recovering valuable materials. This paper reviews the hydrodynamics of flotation separations and comments on selected recent publications. Units are distinguished as cells of ideal and non-ideal flow. A brief introduction to hydrodynamics is included to explain an original study of the hybrid flotation-microfiltration cell, effective for heavy metal ion removal.

  10. An introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Steven N

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics for both astronomy and physics students. It provides a comprehensive and unified view of the general problems associated with fluids in a cosmic context, with a discussion of fluid dynamics and plasma physics. It is the only book on hydrodynamics that addresses the astrophysical context. Researchers and students will find this work to be an exceptional reference. Contents include chapters on irrotational and rotational flows, turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and instabilities.

  11. Bianisotropic metamaterials based on twisted asymmetric crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Avendaño, J A; Sampedro, M P; Juárez-Ruiz, E; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The effective bianisotropic response of 3D periodic metal-dielectric structures, composed of crosses with asymmetrically-cut wires, is investigated within a general homogenization theory using the Fourier formalism and the form-factor division approach. It is found that the frequency dependence of the effective permittivity for a system of periodically-repeated layers of metal crosses exhibits two strong resonances, whose separation is due to the cross asymmetry. Besides, bianisotropic metamaterials, having a base of four twisted asymmetric crosses, are proposed. The designed metamaterials possess negative refractive index at frequencies determined by the cross asymmetry, the gap between the arms of adjacent crosses lying on the same plane, and the type of Bravais lattice. (papers)

  12. Band engineering in twisted molybdenum disulfide bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Liao, Chengwei; Ouyang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    In order to explore the theoretical relationship between interlayer spacing, interaction and band offset at the atomic level in vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) structures, we propose an analytical model to address the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling with random stacking configurations in MoS2 bilayers based on the atomic-bond-relaxation correlation mechanism. We found that interlayer spacing changes substantially with respect to the orientations, and the bandgap increases from 1.53 eV (AB stacking) to 1.68 eV (AA stacking). Our results reveal that the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling originates from the interlayer interaction, leading to interlayer separations and electronic properties changing with stacking configurations. Our predictions constitute a demonstration of twist engineering the band shift in the emergent class of 2D crystals, transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  13. Unusual presentation of twisted ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian torsion (also termed as adnexal torsion refers to partial or complete rotation of the ovary and a portion of fallopian tube along its supplying vascular pedicle. It occurs commonly in reproductive age group; more on the right side (60% and often presents with acute lower abdominal pain lasting for few hours and up to 24 h, accounting for 2.7% of acute gynecological conditions. It is one of the devastating conditions, hampering blood supply of ovary which may lead to total necrosis of ovarian tissue and complications, if not diagnosed and managed in time. Hence, we present a case on a twisted ovarian cyst in postmenopausal woman with unusual symptomatology leading to delayed diagnosis and loss of an ovary.

  14. Regular non-twisting S-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, Octavio; Quevedo, Hernando; Ryan, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    We construct a family of time and angular dependent, regular S-brane solutions which corresponds to a simple analytical continuation of the Zipoy-Voorhees 4-dimensional vacuum spacetime. The solutions are asymptotically flat and turn out to be free of singularities without requiring a twist in space. They can be considered as the simplest non-singular generalization of the singular S0-brane solution. We analyze the properties of a representative of this family of solutions and show that it resembles to some extent the asymptotic properties of the regular Kerr S-brane. The R-symmetry corresponds, however, to the general lorentzian symmetry. Several generalizations of this regular solution are derived which include a charged S-brane and an additional dilatonic field. (author)

  15. Dynamical twisted mass fermions and baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drach, V.

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is an ab initio computation of the baryon masses starting from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This theory describes the interaction between quarks and gluons and has been established at high energy thanks to one of its fundamental properties: the asymptotic freedom. This property predicts that the running coupling constant tends to zero at high energy and thus that perturbative expansions in the coupling constant are justified in this regime. On the contrary the low energy dynamics can only be understood in terms of a non perturbative approach. To date, the only known method that allows the computation of observables in this regime together with a control of its systematic effects is called lattice QCD. It consists in formulating the theory on an Euclidean space-time and to evaluating numerically suitable functional integrals. First chapter is an introduction to the QCD in the continuum and on a discrete space time. The chapter 2 describes the formalism of maximally twisted fermions used in the European Twisted Mass (ETM) collaboration. The chapter 3 deals with the techniques needed to build hadronic correlator starting from gauge configuration. We then discuss how we determine hadron masses and their statistical errors. The numerical estimation of functional integral is explained in chapter 4. It is stressed that it requires sophisticated algorithm and massive parallel computing on Blue-Gene type architecture. Gauge configuration production is an important part of the work realized during my Ph.D. Chapter 5 is a critical review on chiral perturbation theory in the baryon sector. The two last chapter are devoted to the analysis in the light and strange baryon sector. Systematics and chiral extrapolation are extensively discussed. (author)

  16. Twisted gastrulation, a BMP antagonist, exacerbates podocyte injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Yamada

    Full Text Available Podocyte injury is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7 in podocyte injury and the existence of native Bmp signaling in podocytes. Local activity of Bmp7 is controlled by cell-type specific Bmp antagonists, which inhibit the binding of Bmp7 to its receptors. Here we show that the product of Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, a Bmp antagonist, is the central negative regulator of Bmp function in podocytes and that Twsg1 null mice are resistant to podocyte injury. Twsg1 was the most abundant Bmp antagonist in murine cultured podocytes. The administration of Bmp induced podocyte differentiation through Smad signaling, whereas the simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. The administration of Bmp also inhibited podocyte proliferation, whereas simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. Twsg1 was expressed in the glomerular parietal cells (PECs and distal nephron of the healthy kidney, and additionally in damaged glomerular cells in a murine model of podocyte injury. Twsg1 null mice exhibited milder hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and milder histological changes while maintaining the expression of podocyte markers during podocyte injury model. Taken together, our results show that Twsg1 plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of Bmp7 on podocytes, and that inhibition of Twsg1 is a promising means of development of novel treatment for podocyte injury.

  17. CALIBRATED HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezar Gülbaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed affect water quantityand water quality. On one hand, urbanization provokes the adjustment of geomorphicstructure of the streams, ultimately raises peak flow rate which causes flood; on theother hand, it diminishes water quality which results in an increase in Total SuspendedSolid (TSS. Consequently, sediment accumulation in downstream of urban areas isobserved which is not preferred for longer life of dams. In order to overcome thesediment accumulation problem in dams, the amount of TSS in streams and inwatersheds should be taken under control. Low Impact Development (LID is a BestManagement Practice (BMP which may be used for this purpose. It is a land planningand engineering design method which is applied in managing storm water runoff inorder to reduce flooding as well as simultaneously improve water quality. LID includestechniques to predict suspended solid loads in surface runoff generated over imperviousurban surfaces. In this study, the impact of LID-BMPs on surface runoff and TSS isinvestigated by employing a calibrated hydrodynamic model for Sazlidere Watershedwhich is located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, a calibrated hydrodynamicmodel was developed by using Environmental Protection Agency Storm WaterManagement Model (EPA SWMM. For model calibration and validation, we set up arain gauge and a flow meter into the field and obtain rainfall and flow rate data. Andthen, we select several LID types such as retention basins, vegetative swales andpermeable pavement and we obtain their influence on peak flow rate and pollutantbuildup and washoff for TSS. Consequently, we observe the possible effects ofLID on surface runoff and TSS in Sazlidere Watershed.

  18. Twisted boundary states in c=1 coset conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    We study the mutual consistency of twisted boundary conditions in the coset conformal field theory G/H. We calculate the overlap of the twisted boundary states of G/H with the untwisted ones, and show that the twisted boundary states are consistently defined in the charge-conjugation modular invariant. The overlap of the twisted boundary states is expressed by the branching functions of a twisted affine Lie algebra. As a check of our argument, we study the diagonal coset theory so(2n) 1 +so(2n) 1 /so(2n) 2 , which is equivalent to the orbifold S 1 /Z 2 at a particular radius. We construct the boundary states twisted by the automorphisms of the unextended Dynkin diagram of so(2n), and show their mutual consistency by identifying their counterpart in the orbifold. For the triality of so(8), the twisted states of the coset theory correspond to neither the Neumann nor the Dirichlet boundary states of the orbifold and yield conformal boundary states that preserve only the Virasoro algebra. (author)

  19. Conical twist fields and null polygonal Wilson loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A.; Doyon, Benjamin; Fioravanti, Davide

    2018-06-01

    Using an extension of the concept of twist field in QFT to space-time (external) symmetries, we study conical twist fields in two-dimensional integrable QFT. These create conical singularities of arbitrary excess angle. We show that, upon appropriate identification between the excess angle and the number of sheets, they have the same conformal dimension as branch-point twist fields commonly used to represent partition functions on Riemann surfaces, and that both fields have closely related form factors. However, we show that conical twist fields are truly different from branch-point twist fields. They generate different operator product expansions (short distance expansions) and form factor expansions (large distance expansions). In fact, we verify in free field theories, by re-summing form factors, that the conical twist fields operator product expansions are correctly reproduced. We propose that conical twist fields are the correct fields in order to understand null polygonal Wilson loops/gluon scattering amplitudes of planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  20. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  1. Conformal invariance and pion wave functions of nonleading twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.M.; Filyanov, I.E.

    1989-01-01

    The restrictions are studied for the general structure of pion wave functions of twist 3 and twist 4 imposed by the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion. A systematic expansion of wave functions in the conformal spin is built and the first order corrections to asymptotic formulae are calculated by the QCD sum rule method. In particular, we have found a multiplicatively renormalizable contribution into the two-particle wave function of twist 4 which cannot be expanded in a finite set of Gegenbauer polynomials. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  2. Quantum communication through a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Jin, B.-Q.; Korepin, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate quantum communication between the sites of a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions. Such boundary conditions can be achieved by a magnetic flux through the ring. We find that a nonzero twist can improve communication through finite odd-numbered rings and enable high-fidelity multiparty quantum communication through spin rings (working near perfectly for rings of five and seven spins). We show that in certain cases, the twist results in the complete blockage of quantum-information flow to a certain site of the ring. This effect can be exploited to interface and entangle a flux qubit and a spin qubit without embedding the latter in a magnetic field

  3. TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakimoto Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is

  4. Investigation of Shielding Properties of Yarns, Twisted with Metal Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra VARNAITĖ-ŽURAVLIOVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development level of the modern techniques and information technologies creates diverse nature electromagnetic fields and electric field accumulations in the human environment. Electrically conductive textiles that protect against electromagnetic waves and electric charge accumulations can be usable as protective covers for work in computer equipment rooms, measuring stands, air and gas filters and so on. One of the methods used in increase of electrical conductivity in textiles is the development of their specific structures (including the development of threads with the metal component. In this paper, unlike the currently used in the world conductive material production method, where different metal fibres are used as an additives to the main fibre composition in order to create a variety of fibres and yarns, a spun yarn with metal wire was prototyped as samples for this research and the parameters of protective properties of these samples were investigated (such as surface resistivity, vertical resistance, etc.. The protective and shielding properties of woven network with prototyped twisted electro conductive thread with a wire (metal wire diameter of 15 microns were investigated. During the investigation the influence of the following factors, such as conductive fibre composition, electrically conductive thread distribution frequency of the longitudinal and transverse direction, on the protective shielding properties of conductive network were analyzed. The research enabled the assessment of influence of electrically conductive fibre yarn composition and its distribution in the woven mesh on protective shielding properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2492

  5. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  6. Renormalization of quark propagator, vertex functions, and twist-2 operators from twisted-mass lattice QCD at Nf=4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossier, Benoît.; Brinet, Mariane; Guichon, Pierre; Morénas, Vincent; Pène, Olivier; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2015-06-01

    We present a precise nonperturbative determination of the renormalization constants in the mass independent RI'-MOM scheme. The lattice implementation uses the Iwasaki gauge action and four degenerate dynamical twisted-mass fermions. The gauge configurations are provided by the ETM Collaboration. Renormalization constants for scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial operators, as well as the quark propagator renormalization, are computed at three different values of the lattice spacing, two volumes and several twisted-mass parameters. The method we developed allows for a precise cross-check of the running, thanks to the particular proper treatment of hypercubic artifacts. Results for the twist-2 operator O44 are also presented.

  7. An in Vitro Twist Fatigue Test of Fabric Stent-Grafts Supported by Z-Stents vs. Ringed Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Whereas buckling can cause type III endoleaks, long-term twisting of a stent-graft was investigated here as a mechanism leading to type V endoleak or endotension. Two experimental device designs supported with Z-stents having strut angles of 35° or 45° were compared to a ringed control under accelerated twisting. Damage to each device was assessed and compared after different durations of twisting, with focus on damage that may allow leakage. Stent-grafts with 35° Z-stents had the most severe distortion and damage to the graft fabric. The 45° Z-stents caused less fabric damage. However, consistent stretching was still seen around the holes for sutures, which attach the stents to the graft fabric. Larger holes may become channels for fluid percolation through the wall. The ringed stent-graft had the least damage observed. Stent apexes with sharp angles appear to be responsible for major damage to the fabrics. Device manufacturers should consider stent apex angle when designing stent-grafts, and ensure their devices are resistant to twisting.

  8. An in Vitro Twist Fatigue Test of Fabric Stent-Grafts Supported by Z-Stents vs. Ringed Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Guidoin, Robert; Du, Jia; Wang, Lu; Douglas, Graeham; Zhu, Danjie; Nutley, Mark; Perron, Lygia; Zhang, Ze; Douville, Yvan

    2016-02-16

    Whereas buckling can cause type III endoleaks, long-term twisting of a stent-graft was investigated here as a mechanism leading to type V endoleak or endotension. Two experimental device designs supported with Z-stents having strut angles of 35° or 45° were compared to a ringed control under accelerated twisting. Damage to each device was assessed and compared after different durations of twisting, with focus on damage that may allow leakage. Stent-grafts with 35° Z-stents had the most severe distortion and damage to the graft fabric. The 45° Z-stents caused less fabric damage. However, consistent stretching was still seen around the holes for sutures, which attach the stents to the graft fabric. Larger holes may become channels for fluid percolation through the wall. The ringed stent-graft had the least damage observed. Stent apexes with sharp angles appear to be responsible for major damage to the fabrics. Device manufacturers should consider stent apex angle when designing stent-grafts, and ensure their devices are resistant to twisting.

  9. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted tape inserts with air as the working fluid.

  10. Periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Rong [Coll. of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Tech., Nanjing (China); Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Zhang Dongfeng [Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2010-05-15

    In dynamical system theory, especially in many fields of applications from mechanics, Hamiltonian systems play an important role, since many related equations in mechanics can be written in an Hamiltonian form. In this paper, we study the existence of periodic solutions for a class of Hamiltonian systems. By applying the Galerkin approximation method together with a result of critical point theory, we establish the existence of periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions. Twist conditions play crucial roles in the study of periodic solutions for asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems. The lack of twist conditions brings some difficulty to the study. To the authors' knowledge, very little is known about the case, where twist conditions do not hold. (orig.)

  11. The geometric Langlands twist in five and six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abelian 6d (2,0) theory has SO(5) R symmetry. We twist this theory by identifying the R symmetry group with the SO(5) subgroup of the SO(1,5) Lorentz group. This twisted theory can be put on any five-manifold M, times R, while preserving one scalar supercharge. We subsequently assume the existence of one unit normalized Killing vector field on M, and we find a corresponding SO(4) twist that preserves two supercharges and is a generalization of the geometric Langlands twist of 4d SYM. We generalize the story to non-Abelian gauge group for the corresponding 5d SYM theories on M. We derive a vanishing theorem for BPS contact instantons by identifying the 6d potential energy and its BPS bound, in the 5d theory. To this end we need to perform a Wick rotation that complexifies the gauge field.

  12. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS S mesons. (orig.)

  13. Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Alero

    2009-01-01

    A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x # perpendicular# = 2p # perpendicular#/√s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p # perpendicular# hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.

  14. Flux Density through Guides with Microstructured Twisted Clad DB Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baqir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of flux density through a newly proposed twisted clad guide containing DB medium. The inner core and the outer clad sections are usual dielectrics, and the introduced twisted windings at the core-clad interface are treated under DB boundary conditions. The pitch angle of twist is supposed to greatly contribute towards the control over the dispersion characteristics of the guide. The eigenvalue equation for the guiding structure is deduced, and the analytical investigations are made to explore the propagation patterns of flux densities corresponding to the sustained low-order hybrid modes under the situation of varying pitch angles. The emphasis has been put on the effects due to the DB twisted pitch on the propagation of energy flux density through the guide.

  15. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  16. Soliton Gases and Generalized Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Yoshimura, Takato; Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    We show that the equations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD), a hydrodynamic theory for integrable quantum systems at the Euler scale, emerge in full generality in a family of classical gases, which generalize the gas of hard rods. In this family, the particles, upon colliding, jump forward or backward by a distance that depends on their velocities, reminiscent of classical soliton scattering. This provides a "molecular dynamics" for GHD: a numerical solver which is efficient, flexible, and which applies to the presence of external force fields. GHD also describes the hydrodynamics of classical soliton gases. We identify the GHD of any quantum model with that of the gas of its solitonlike wave packets, thus providing a remarkable quantum-classical equivalence. The theory is directly applicable, for instance, to integrable quantum chains and to the Lieb-Liniger model realized in cold-atom experiments.

  17. Anomalous hydrodynamics of Weyl materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Gustavo; Abanov, Alexander

    Kinetic theory is a useful tool to study transport in Weyl materials when the band-touching points are hidden inside a Fermi surface. It accounts, for example, for the negative magnetoresistance caused by the chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations (SdH effect) in the magnetoresistance together within the same framework. As an alternative approach to kinetic theory we also consider the regime of strong interactions where hydrodynamics can be applicable. A variational principle of these hydrodynamic equations can be found in and provide a natural framework to study hydrodynamic surface modes which correspond to the strongly-interacting physics signature of Fermi arcs. G.M. acknowledges the financial support from FAPESP.

  18. Brownian dynamics with hydrodynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.; McCammon, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for simulating the Brownian dynamics of N particles with the inclusion of hydrodynamic interactions is described. The particles may also be subject to the usual interparticle or external forces (e.g., electrostatic) which have been included in previous methods for simulating Brownian dynamics of particles in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. The present method is derived from the Langevin equations for the N particle assembly, and the results are shown to be consistent with the corresponding Fokker--Planck results. Sample calculations on small systems illustrate the importance of including hydrodynamic interactions in Brownian dynamics simulations. The method should be useful for simulation studies of diffusion limited reactions, polymer dynamics, protein folding, particle coagulation, and other phenomena in solution

  19. Study of twist boundaries in aluminium. Structure and intergranular diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemuet, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of grain boundaries in oriented crystals, and more particularly the systematic calculation of intergranular structures and energies of twist boundaries of <001> axis in aluminium, the determination of intergranular diffusion coefficients of zinc in a set of twist bi-crystals of same axis encompassing a whole range of disorientations, and the search for a correlation between these experimental results and calculated structures

  20. 'Twisted' strings and higher level Kac-Moody representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1989-01-01

    Using an orbifold-like construction the twisted sector of a closed string moving on GxG (with G simply laced) is determined. A level-two G current operating there is constructed explicitly. The decomposition of the twisted sector into products between appropriate conformal and level-two G representations is given if 2 rank G-2 dim G/(2+g)<1. (orig.)

  1. New look at the dynamics of twisted accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchett, S.P.; Begelman, M.C.; Sarazin, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    We reexamine the dynamic response of a thin, accretion disk to twisting torques, guided by the earlier analyses by Bardeen and Petterson. We make several corrections to this earlier work, and present a new version of the twist equations consistent with their physical assumptions. By describing the distortion of the disk in terms Cartesian direction cosines rather than the Euler angles used by the earlier authors, we are able to transform the twist equations from a pair of coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations to a single, linear, complex one. We write down formulae for the external twisting torques likley to be encountered in astrophysic, and we show that even with these driving torques our twist equation remains linear. We find exact, analytic solutions for steady state structure of a disk subject to Lense-Thirring torques by a nonaligned central Kerr black hole and also for the time-dependent problem of the structure of a slaved disk with its oscillating boundary conditions. Finally, we discuss the stability of disks against twisting modes and show that undriven disks and disks subject to time-independent driving torques are stable

  2. Observations on discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    I make a number of observations concerning discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD that can be deduced by applying chiral perturbation theory including lattice artifacts. (1) The line along which the partially conserved axial current quark mass vanishes in the untwisted-mass-twisted-mass plane makes an angle to the twisted-mass axis which is a direct measure of O(a) terms in the chiral Lagrangian, and is found numerically to be large; (2) Numerical results for pionic quantities in the mass plane show the qualitative properties predicted by chiral perturbation theory, in particular, an asymmetry in slopes between positive and negative untwisted quark masses; (3) By extending the description of the 'Aoki regime' (where m q ∼a 2 Λ QCD 3 ) to next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory I show how the phase-transition lines and lines of maximal twist (using different definitions) extend into this region, and give predictions for the functional form of pionic quantities; (4) I argue that the recent claim that lattice artifacts at maximal twist have apparent infrared singularities in the chiral limit results from expanding about the incorrect vacuum state. Shifting to the correct vacuum (as can be done using chiral perturbation theory) the apparent singularities are summed into nonsingular, and furthermore predicted, forms. I further argue that there is no breakdown in the Symanzik expansion in powers of lattice spacing, and no barrier to simulating at maximal twist in the Aoki regime

  3. Twisting short dsDNA with applied tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The twisting deformation of mechanically stretched DNA molecules is studied by a coarse grained Hamiltonian model incorporating the fundamental interactions that stabilize the double helix and accounting for the radial and angular base pair fluctuations. The latter are all the more important at short length scales in which DNA fragments maintain an intrinsic flexibility. The presented computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible molecule conformations characterized by a specific average twist and determines the energetically most convenient helical twist by free energy minimization. As this is done for any external load, the method yields the characteristic twist-stretch profile of the molecule and also computes the changes in the macroscopic helix parameters i.e. average diameter and rise distance. It is predicted that short molecules under stretching should first over-twist and then untwist by increasing the external load. Moreover, applying a constant load and simulating a torsional strain which over-twists the helix, it is found that the average helix diameter shrinks while the molecule elongates, in agreement with the experimental trend observed in kilo-base long sequences. The quantitative relation between percent relative elongation and superhelical density at fixed load is derived. The proposed theoretical model and computational method offer a general approach to characterize specific DNA fragments and predict their macroscopic elastic response as a function of the effective potential parameters of the mesoscopic Hamiltonian.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of twisted trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei-Jie; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Ma, Dong-Lin; Yin, Long-Jing; Sun, Gan; Zhang, Jun-Yang; Guan, Li-Yang; He, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Twist, as a simple and unique degree of freedom, could lead to enormous novel quantum phenomena in bilayer graphene. A small rotation angle introduces low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) approaching the Fermi level, which result in unusual correlated states in the bilayer graphene. It is reasonable to expect that the twist could also affect the electronic properties of few-layer graphene dramatically. However, such an issue has remained experimentally elusive. Here, by using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), we systematically studied a twisted trilayer graphene (TTG) with two different small twist angles between adjacent layers. Two sets of VHSs, originating from the two twist angles, were observed in the TTG, indicating that the TTG could be simply regarded as a combination of two different twisted bilayers of graphene. By using high-resolution STS, we observed a split of the VHSs and directly imaged the spatial symmetry breaking of electronic states around the VHSs. These results suggest that electron-electron interactions play an important role in affecting the electronic properties of graphene systems with low-energy VHSs.

  5. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  6. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael

    2014-06-15

    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.

  7. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  8. Hydrodynamic constants from cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2008-01-01

    We study a gravity dual of Bjorken flow of N=4 SYM-theory plasma. We point out that the cosmic censorship hypothesis may explain why the regularity of the dual geometry constrains the hydrodynamic constants. We also investigate the apparent horizon of the dual geometry. We find that the dual geometry constructed on Fefferman-Graham (FG) coordinates is not appropriate for examination of the apparent horizon since the coordinates do not cover the trapped region. However, the preliminary analysis on FG coordinates suggests that the location of the apparent horizon is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic parameters. (author)

  9. Hydrodynamic simulation of elliptic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, P F; Ruuskanen, P V; Heinz, Ulrich W

    1999-01-01

    We use a hydrodynamic model to study the space-time evolution transverse to the beam direction in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions with nonzero impact parameters. We focus on the influence of early pressure on the development of radial and elliptic flow. We show that at high energies elliptic flow is generated only during the initial stages of the expansion while radial flow continues to grow until freeze-out. Quantitative comparisons with SPS data from semiperipheral Pb+Pb collisions suggest the applicability of hydrodynamical concepts already $\\approx$ 1 fm/c after impact.

  10. Flux compactifications, twisted tori and doubled geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Edwards, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In [1] an O(D,D)-covariant sigma model describing the embedding of a closed world-sheet into the 2D-dimensional twisted torus X was proposed. Such sigma models provide a universal description of string theory with target spaces related by the action of T-duality. In this article a six-dimensional toy example is studied in detail. Different polarisations of the six-dimensional target space give different three-dimensional string backgrounds including a nilmanifold with H-flux, a T-fold with R-flux and a new class of T-folds. Global issues and connections with the doubled torus formalism are discussed. Finally, the sigma model introduced in [1], describing the embedding of a world-sheet into X, is generalised to one describing a target space which is a bundle of X over a base M d , allowing for a more complete description of the associated gauged supergravity from the world-sheet perspective to be given.

  11. Twisted conformal field theories and Morita equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adelenaddeo@yahoo.it

    2009-04-01

    The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter {theta} (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure [V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863], and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings {nu}=m/(2pm+1) is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems [A.P. Polychronakos, arXiv: 0706.1095].

  12. How the embryonic chick brain twists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A

    2016-11-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion. Our theoretical analysis showed that the force is of the order of 10 micronewtons. We also designed an experiment to use fluid surface tension to replace the mechanical role of the VM, and the estimated magnitude of the force owing to surface tension was shown to be consistent with the above theoretical analysis. We further discovered that the asymmetry of the looping heart determines the chirality of the twisted brain via physical mechanisms, demonstrating the mechanical transfer of left-right asymmetry between organs. Our experiments also implied that brain flexure is a necessary condition for torsion. Our work clarifies the mechanical origin of torsion and the development of left-right asymmetry in the early embryonic brain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Complex Toda theories and twisted reality conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Toda equations (based on a finite-dimensional or affine Lie algebra of superalgebra) are discussed as integrable non-linear differential equations for a set of complex scalar fields. We show that such complex Toda fields can either be restricted to take real values in the standard way or else they can be subjected to a 'twisted' reality condition associated to any Z 2 symmetry of the Cartan matrix or Dynkin diagram of the underlying algebra. Different reality conditions give rise to different lagrangian field theories. In the conformal case, however, these theories have the same central charge, while in the affine case they have the same mass spectrum. The construction of N=2 superconformal theories based on the superalgebras A(n, n-1) is clarified, and a new class of conformal field theories with positive kinetic energy based on the superalgebras C(n) is presented. The ideas developed are also relevant to understanding solition solutions in affine Toda theories with imaginary coupling constant. (orig.)

  14. The Latest Twists in Chromatin Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, Ralf; Schiessel, Helmut

    2018-01-05

    In its most restrictive interpretation, the notion of chromatin remodeling refers to the action of chromatin-remodeling enzymes on nucleosomes with the aim of displacing and removing them from the chromatin fiber (the effective polymer formed by a DNA molecule and proteins). This local modification of the fiber structure can have consequences for the initiation and repression of the transcription process, and when the remodeling process spreads along the fiber, it also results in long-range effects essential for fiber condensation. There are three regulatory levels of relevance that can be distinguished for this process: the intrinsic sequence preference of the histone octamer, which rules the positioning of the nucleosome along the DNA, notably in relation to the genetic information coded in DNA; the recognition or selection of nucleosomal substrates by remodeling complexes; and, finally, the motor action on the nucleosome exerted by the chromatin remodeler. Recent work has been able to provide crucial insights at each of these three levels that add new twists to this exciting and unfinished story, which we highlight in this perspective. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly...

  16. Reaction mechanism of the acidic hydrolysis of highly twisted amides: Rate acceleration caused by the twist of the amide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Jon I; Formoso, Elena; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier

    2006-08-03

    We present an ab initio study of the acid hydrolysis of a highly twisted amide and a planar amide analogue. The aim of these studies is to investigate the effect that the twist of the amide bond has on the reaction barriers and mechanism of acid hydrolysis. Concerted and stepwise mechanisms were investigated using density functional theory and polarizable continuum model calculations. Remarkable differences were observed between the mechanism of twisted and planar amide, due mainly to the preference for N-protonation of the former and O-protonation of the latter. In addition, we were also able to determine that the hydrolytic mechanism of the twisted amide will be pH dependent. Thus, there is a preference for a stepwise mechanism with formation of an intermediate in the acid hydrolysis, whereas the neutral hydrolysis undergoes a concerted-type mechanism. There is a nice agreement between the characterized intermediate and available X-ray data and a good agreement with the kinetically estimated rate acceleration of hydrolysis with respect to analogous undistorted amide compounds. This work, along with previous ab initio calculations, describes a complex and rich chemistry for the hydrolysis of highly twisted amides as a function of pH. The theoretical data provided will allow for a better understanding of the available kinetic data of the rate acceleration of amides upon twisting and the relation of the observed rate acceleration with intrinsic differential reactivity upon loss of amide bond resonance.

  17. Studies on the separation between higher-twist and minimum-twist in the photoproduction experiment WA69 at the CERN-OMEGA spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingler, J.

    1990-01-01

    A Lund type Monte Carlo program (LUCIFER) is used to describe in perturbative QCD the pointlike component of the photon interacting on a hydrogen target. Kinematical and topological variables are developed to enhance higher twist events on the lowest order minimum twist background. The emphasis is laid on π ± , K ± higher twist mesons. (orig.)

  18. Anomalous hydrodynamics in two dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new approach is presented to discuss two-dimensional hydrodynamics with gauge and gravitational anomalies. Exact constitutive relations for the stress tensor and charge current are obtained. Also, a connection between response parameters and anomaly coefficients is discussed. These are new results which, ...

  19. Topics in fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    Models of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics have enjoyed much success in explaining the effect of long-wavelength fluctuations in diverse hydrodynamic systems. This thesis explores two such problems; in both, the body of hydrodynamic assumptions powerfully constrains the predictions of a well-posed theory. The effects of layer fluctuations in smectic-A liquid crystals are first examined. The static theory (introduced by Grinstein and Pelcovits) is reviewed. Ward identities, resulting from the arbitrariness of the layering direction, are derived and exploited. The static results motivate an examination of dynamic fluctuation effects. A new sound-damping experiment is proposed that would probe singular dependence of viscosities on applied stress. A theory of Procaccia and Gitterman that reaction rates of chemically reacting binary mixtures are drastically reduced near their thermodynamic critical points is analyzed. Hydrodynamic arguments and Van Hove theory are applied, concluding that the PG idea is drastically slowed, and spatially varying composition fluctuations are at best slowed down over a narrow range of wavenumbers

  20. Radiation hydrodynamics in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This report contains a collection of five preprints devoted to the subject of laser induced phenomena of radiation hydrodynamics. These preprints cover approximately the contents of the presentations made by the MPQ experimental laser-plasma group at the 17th European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter (ECLIM), Rome, November 18-22, 1985. (orig.)

  1. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them.

  2. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple model of a multi-quark droplet evolution based on the hydrodynamical description. This model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical...

  3. Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability

  4. Droplet motion in microfluidic networks: Hydrodynamic interactions and pressure-drop measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, D. A.; Belloul, M.; Engl, W.; Roche, M.; Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.

    2009-07-01

    We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical studies of droplet flows in hydrodynamic networks. Using both millifluidic and microfluidic devices, we study the partitioning of monodisperse droplets in an asymmetric loop. In both cases, we show that droplet traffic results from the hydrodynamic feedback due to the presence of droplets in the outlet channels. We develop a recently-introduced phenomenological model [W. Engl , Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 208304 (2005)] and successfully confront its predictions to our experimental results. This approach offers a simple way to measure the excess hydrodynamic resistance of a channel filled with droplets. We discuss the traffic behavior and the variations in the corresponding hydrodynamic resistance length Ld and of the droplet mobility β , as a function of droplet interdistance and confinement for channels having circular or rectangular cross sections.

  5. Phosphorylation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gongda; Hemmings, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    The transcription factor Twist plays vital roles during embryonic development through regulating/controlling cell migration. However, postnatally, in normal physiological settings, Twist is either not expressed or inactivated. Increasing evidence shows a strong correlation between Twist reactivation and both cancer progression and malignancy, where the transcriptional activities of Twist support cancer cells to disseminate from primary tumours and subsequently establish a secondary tumour growth in distant organs. However, it is largely unclear how this signalling programme is reactivated or what signalling pathways regulate its activity. The present review discusses recent advances in Twist regulation and activity, with a focus on phosphorylation-dependent Twist activity, potential upstream kinases and the contribution of these factors in transducing biological signals from upstream signalling complexes. The recent advances in these areas have shed new light on how phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the Twist proteins promotes or suppresses Twist activity, leading to differential regulation of Twist transcriptional targets and thereby influencing cell fate.

  6. Final Report. Hydrodynamics by high-energy-density plasma flow and hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves

  7. Quantitative experiments on thermal hydraulic characteristics of an annular tube with twisted fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Taniguchi, Masaki; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato

    2003-11-01

    Thermal hydraulic experiments measuring critical heat flux (CHF) and pressure drop of an annular tube with twisted fins, ''annular swirl tube'', has been performed to examine its applicability to the ITER divertor cooling structure. The annular swirl tube consists of two concentric circular tubes, the outer and inner tubes. The outer tube with outer and inner diameters (OD and ID) of 21 mm and 15 mm is made of Cu-alloy that is CuCrZr and oe of candidate materials of the ITER divertor cooling tube. The inner tube with OD of 11 mm and ID of 9 mm is made of stainless steal. It has an external swirl fin with twist ratio (y) of three to enhance its heat transfer performance. In this tube, cooling water flows inside of the inner tube first, and then returns into an annulus between the outer and inner tubes with a swirl flow at an end-return of the cooling tube. The CHF experiments show that no degradation of CHF of the annular swirl tube in comparison with the conventional swirl tube whose dimensions are similar to those of the outer tube of the annular swirl tube. A minimum axial velocity of 7.1 m/s is required to remove the incident heat flux of 28MW/m 2 , the ITER design value. Applicability of the JAERI's correlation for the heat transfer to the annular swirl tube is also demonstrated by comparing the experimental results with those of the numerical analysis. The friction factor correlation for the annular flow with the twisted fins is also proposed for the hydrodynamic design of the ITER vertical target. The least pressure drop at the end-return is obtained by using the hemispherical end-plug. Its radius is the same as that of ID of the outer cooling tube. These results show that thermal-hydraulic performance of the annular swirl tube is promising in application to the cooling structure for the ITER vertical target. (author)

  8. Extension-twist coupling of composite circular tubes with application to tilt rotor blade design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine if twist deformation required for the design of full-scale extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blades can be achieved within material design limit loads, and to demonstrate the accuracy of a coupled-beam analysis in predicting twist deformations. Two extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blade designs were developed based on theoretically optimum aerodynamic twist distributions. The designs indicated a twist rate requirement of between .216 and .333 deg/in. Agreement between axial tests and analytical predictions was within 10 percent at design limit loads. Agreement between the torsion tests and predictions was within 11 percent.

  9. Finite element and analytical models for twisted and coiled actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xintian; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Kai; Chen, Weishan; Zhao, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Twisted and coiled actuator (TCA) is a class of recently discovered artificial muscle, which is usually made by twisting and coiling polymer fibers into spring-like structures. It has been widely studied since discovery due to its impressive output characteristics and bright prospects. However, its mathematical models describing the actuation in response to the temperature are still not fully developed. It is known that the large tensile stroke is resulted from the untwisting of the twisted fiber when heated. Thus, the recovered torque during untwisting is a key parameter in the mathematical model. This paper presents a simplified model for the recovered torque of TCA. Finite element method is used for evaluating the thermal stress of the twisted fiber. Based on the results of the finite element analyses, the constitutive equations of twisted fibers are simplified to develop an analytic model of the recovered torque. Finally, the model of the recovered torque is used to predict the deformation of TCA under varying temperatures and validated against experimental results. This work will enhance our understanding of the deformation mechanism of TCAs, which will pave the way for the closed-loop position control.

  10. AKT-ions with a TWIST between EMT and MET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huifang; Massi, Daniela; Hemmings, Brian A; Mandalà, Mario; Hu, Zhengqiang; Wicki, Andreas; Xue, Gongda

    2016-09-20

    The transcription factor Twist is an important regulator of cranial suture during embryogenesis. Closure of the neural tube is achieved via Twist-triggered cellular transition from an epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype, a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by a remarkable increase in cell motility. In the absence of Twist activity, EMT and associated phenotypic changes in cell morphology and motility can also be induced, albeit moderately, by other transcription factor families, including Snail and Zeb. Aberrant EMT triggered by Twist in human mammary tumour cells was first reported to drive metastasis to the lung in a metastatic breast cancer model. Subsequent analysis of many types of carcinoma demonstrated overexpression of these unique EMT transcription factors, which statistically correlated with worse outcome, indicating their potential as biomarkers in the clinic. However, the mechanisms underlying their activation remain unclear. Interestingly, increasing evidence indicates they are selectively activated by distinct intracellular kinases, thereby acting as downstream effectors facilitating transduction of cytoplasmic signals into nucleus and reprogramming EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) transcription to control cell plasticity. Understanding these relationships and emerging data indicating differential phosphorylation of Twist leads to complex and even paradoxical functionalities, will be vital to unlocking their potential in clinical settings.

  11. The Twist Tensor Nuclear Norm for Video Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenrui; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Wensheng; Xie, Yuan; Yang, Yehui

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new low-rank tensor model based on the circulant algebra, namely, twist tensor nuclear norm (t-TNN). The twist tensor denotes a three-way tensor representation to laterally store 2-D data slices in order. On one hand, t-TNN convexly relaxes the tensor multirank of the twist tensor in the Fourier domain, which allows an efficient computation using fast Fourier transform. On the other, t-TNN is equal to the nuclear norm of block circulant matricization of the twist tensor in the original domain, which extends the traditional matrix nuclear norm in a block circulant way. We test the t-TNN model on a video completion application that aims to fill missing values and the experiment results validate its effectiveness, especially when dealing with video recorded by a nonstationary panning camera. The block circulant matricization of the twist tensor can be transformed into a circulant block representation with nuclear norm invariance. This representation, after transformation, exploits the horizontal translation relationship between the frames in a video, and endows the t-TNN model with a more powerful ability to reconstruct panning videos than the existing state-of-the-art low-rank models.

  12. Analytic solutions of hydrodynamics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggeshall, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    Many similarity solutions have been found for the equations of one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamics. These special combinations of variables allow the partial differential equations to be reduced to ordinary differential equations, which must then be solved to determine the physical solutions. Usually, these reduced ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. In some cases it is possible to solve these reduced equations analytically to obtain explicit solutions. In this work a collection of analytic solutions of the 1-D hydrodynamics equations is presented. These can be used for a variety of purposes, including (i) numerical benchmark problems, (ii) as a basis for analytic models, and (iii) to provide insight into more complicated solutions

  13. Fast Torsional Artificial Muscles from NiTi Twisted Yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W

    2017-05-17

    Torsional artificial muscles made of multiwalled carbon nanotube/niobium nanowire yarns have shown remarkable torsional speed and gravimetric torque. The muscle structure consists of a twisted yarn with half of its length infiltrated with a stimuli-responsive guest material such as paraffin wax. The volumetric expansion of the guest material creates the torsional actuation in the yarn. In the present work, we show that this type of actuation is not unique to wax-infiltrated carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWCNT) or niobium nanowire yarns and that twisted yarn of NiTi alloy fibers also produces fast torsional actuation. By gold-plating half the length of a NiTi twisted yarn and Joule heating it, we achieved a fully reversible torsional actuation of up to 16°/mm with peak torsional speed of 10 500 rpm and gravimetric torque of 8 N·m/kg. These results favorably compare to those of MWCNTs and niobium nanowire yarns.

  14. From starproducts to Drinfeld-twists. Present and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Physics comes up with models that invoke noncommutative structures in configuration space. Such structures are dual to the deformed coalgebra sector of a represented symmetry algebra. In the mean time such deformations are performed in terms of the symmetry algebra itself via twists or quasitriangular structures. One might thus find oneself in the bad situation that the symmetry algebra is not large enough to provide the required twist that dually matches the noncommutative structure found. It thus has to remain in the unpleasant state of being without any notion of symmetry. We show how starproducts can be pushed to twists by introducing a larger algebra that accommodates any finite dimensional representation of a Lie-algebra. This new algebra is similar to a Heisenberg-algebra but in contrast to the latter can be enhanced to a Hopf-algebra. Some Examples are given. (author)

  15. Twisted vertex algebras, bicharacter construction and boson-fermion correspondences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguelova, Iana I.

    2013-01-01

    The boson-fermion correspondences are an important phenomena on the intersection of several areas in mathematical physics: representation theory, vertex algebras and conformal field theory, integrable systems, number theory, cohomology. Two such correspondences are well known: the types A and B (and their super extensions). As a main result of this paper we present a new boson-fermion correspondence of type D-A. Further, we define a new concept of twisted vertex algebra of order N, which generalizes super vertex algebra. We develop the bicharacter construction which we use for constructing classes of examples of twisted vertex algebras, as well as for deriving formulas for the operator product expansions, analytic continuations, and normal ordered products. By using the underlying Hopf algebra structure we prove general bicharacter formulas for the vacuum expectation values for two important groups of examples. We show that the correspondences of types B, C, and D-A are isomorphisms of twisted vertex algebras

  16. Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarappa, T.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I.; Scorzato, L.; Urbach, C.; Wenger, U.

    2006-09-01

    We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)

  17. Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, T. [Univ. di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Nagai, K.I. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Papinutto, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Scorzato, L. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villazzano (Italy); Urbach, C. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Wenger, U. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-09-15

    We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)

  18. Template preparation of twisted nanoparticles of mesoporous silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Niu; Zhongbin Ni; Chengwu Fu; Tatsuo Kaneko; Mingqing Chen

    2011-01-01

    Optical isomers of N-lauroyl-L-(or-D-) alanine sodium salt {C12-L-(or-D-)AlaS} surfactants were used for the preparation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a twisted hexagonal rod-like morphology. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the temperature for template removal. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the surfactant solution with various compositions illustrated the formation and supramolecular assembly of protein-like molecular architecture leading to formation of twisted nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of these as-synthesized mesoporous silica confirmed that the twisted morphology of these nanoparticles was closely related to the supramolecular-assembled complex of amino acid surfactants.

  19. Twisted spin Sutherland models from quantum Hamiltonian reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, L; Pusztai, B G

    2008-01-01

    Recent general results on Hamiltonian reductions under polar group actions are applied to study some reductions of the free particle governed by the Laplace-Beltrami operator of a compact, connected, simple Lie group. The reduced systems associated with arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representations of the group by using the symmetry induced by twisted conjugations are described in detail. These systems generically yield integrable Sutherland-type many-body models with spin, which are called twisted spin Sutherland models if the underlying twisted conjugations are built on non-trivial Dynkin diagram automorphisms. The spectra of these models can be calculated, in principle, by solving certain Clebsch-Gordan problems, and the result is presented for the models associated with the symmetric tensorial powers of the defining representation of SU(N)

  20. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive series of experiments has been conducted on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime. Two-mode foils allow a first direct observation of mode coupling. Surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes

  1. Rapidity correlations test stochastic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, C; Gavin, S; Moschelli, G

    2017-01-01

    We show that measurements of the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum correlations can be used to determine the characteristic time τ π that dictates the rate of isotropization of the stress energy tensor, as well as the shear viscosity ν = η/sT . We formulate methods for computing these correlations using second order dissipative hydrodynamics with noise. Current data are consistent with τ π /ν ∼ 10 but targeted measurements can improve this precision. (paper)

  2. Hydrodynamic simulations of expanding shells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wünsch, Richard; Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 289, 3-4 (2004), s. 35-36 ISSN 0004-640X. [From observation to self-consistent modelling of the ISM in galaxies. Porto, 03.09.2002-05.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Keywords : hydrodynamic simulations * ISM * star formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.597, year: 2004

  3. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  4. Hydrodynamical model with massless constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Wang, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Within the constituent hydrodynamical model, it is shown that the total number of constituents is conserved, if these constituents are massless and satisfy the Fermi-Dirac distribution. A simple scheme for the transition from the constituent-phase to the hadron-phase is suggested, and the hadron inclusive momentum spectra are presented for this case. This phase transition scheme predicts the average transverse momentum of meson resonances which is compatible with the data. (U.S.)

  5. Reversible Twisting of Primary Amides via Ground State N-C(O) Destabilization: Highly Twisted Rotationally Inverted Acyclic Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal

    2018-01-17

    Since the seminal studies by Pauling in 1930s, planarity has become the defining characteristic of the amide bond. Planarity of amides has central implications for the reactivity and chemical properties of amides of relevance to a range of chemical disciplines. While the vast majority of amides are planar, nonplanarity has a profound effect on the properties of the amide bond, with the most common method to restrict the amide bond relying on the incorporation of the amide function into a rigid cyclic ring system. In a major departure from this concept, here, we report the first class of acyclic twisted amides that can be prepared, reversibly, from common primary amides in a single, operationally trivial step. Di-tert-butoxycarbonylation of the amide nitrogen atom yields twisted amides in which the amide bond exhibits nearly perpendicular twist. Full structural characterization of a range of electronically diverse compounds from this new class of twisted amides is reported. Through reactivity studies we demonstrate unusual properties of the amide bond, wherein selective cleavage of the amide bond can be achieved by a judicious choice of the reaction conditions. Through computational studies we evaluate structural and energetic details pertaining to the amide bond deformation. The ability to selectively twist common primary amides, in a reversible manner, has important implications for the design and application of the amide bond nonplanarity in structural chemistry, biochemistry and organic synthesis.

  6. Black Hole Scrambling from Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Schalm, Koenraad; Scopelliti, Vincenzo

    2018-06-08

    We argue that the gravitational shock wave computation used to extract the scrambling rate in strongly coupled quantum theories with a holographic dual is directly related to probing the system's hydrodynamic sound modes. The information recovered from the shock wave can be reconstructed in terms of purely diffusionlike, linearized gravitational waves at the horizon of a single-sided black hole with specific regularity-enforced imaginary values of frequency and momentum. In two-derivative bulk theories, this horizon "diffusion" can be related to late-time momentum diffusion via a simple relation, which ceases to hold in higher-derivative theories. We then show that the same values of imaginary frequency and momentum follow from a dispersion relation of a hydrodynamic sound mode. The frequency, momentum, and group velocity give the holographic Lyapunov exponent and the butterfly velocity. Moreover, at this special point along the sound dispersion relation curve, the residue of the retarded longitudinal stress-energy tensor two-point function vanishes. This establishes a direct link between a hydrodynamic sound mode at an analytically continued, imaginary momentum and the holographic butterfly effect. Furthermore, our results imply that infinitely strongly coupled, large-N_{c} holographic theories exhibit properties similar to classical dilute gases; there, late-time equilibration and early-time scrambling are also controlled by the same dynamics.

  7. Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald

    2003-01-01

    This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2003-7 and is accessible for authorized users.

  8. Borel resummation of soft gluon radiation and higher twists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Joan; Ubiali, Maria

    2006-01-01

    We show that the well-known divergence of the perturbative expansion of resummed results for processes such as deep-inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan in the soft limit can be treated by Borel resummation. The divergence in the Borel inversion can be removed by the inclusion of suitable higher twist terms. This provides us with an alternative to the standard 'minimal prescription' for the asymptotic summation of the perturbative expansion, and it gives us some handle on the role of higher twist corrections in the soft resummation region

  9. Modeling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by color forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects; indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author)

  10. Modelling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Penna Firme, A.; Soares, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de

    1994-08-01

    The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by colour forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects: indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  11. Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Hisao; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.

  12. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  13. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M 24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M 24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M 24 . In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  14. Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known Δ' stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting Δ' for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces

  15. Gerbes over posets and twisted C*-dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    A base $\\Delta$ generating the topology of a space $M$ becomes a partially ordered set (poset), when ordered under inclusion of open subsets. Given a precosheaf over $\\Delta$ of fixed-point spaces (typically C*-algebras) under the action of a group $G$, in general one cannot find a precosheaf of $G$-spaces having it as fixed-point precosheaf. Rather one gets a gerbe over $\\Delta$, that is, a "twisted precosheaf" whose twisting is encoded by a cocycle with coefficients in a suitable 2-group. W...

  16. Light in control of twisting matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iamsaard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Smart materials adapt to, rather than resist, changes to their environment. In Nature, a variety of smart materials in the biological system demonstrate unique and potential functions, which appear as norm in the design of smart synthetic materials. Liquid crystals are very useful in the engineering

  17. Entropy-limited hydrodynamics: a novel approach to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercilena, Federico; Radice, David; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2017-07-01

    We present entropy-limited hydrodynamics (ELH): a new approach for the computation of numerical fluxes arising in the discretization of hyperbolic equations in conservation form. ELH is based on the hybridisation of an unfiltered high-order scheme with the first-order Lax-Friedrichs method. The activation of the low-order part of the scheme is driven by a measure of the locally generated entropy inspired by the artificial-viscosity method proposed by Guermond et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 230(11):4248-4267, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2010.11.043). Here, we present ELH in the context of high-order finite-differencing methods and of the equations of general-relativistic hydrodynamics. We study the performance of ELH in a series of classical astrophysical tests in general relativity involving isolated, rotating and nonrotating neutron stars, and including a case of gravitational collapse to black hole. We present a detailed comparison of ELH with the fifth-order monotonicity preserving method MP5 (Suresh and Huynh in J. Comput. Phys. 136(1):83-99, 1997, doi: 10.1006/jcph.1997.5745), one of the most common high-order schemes currently employed in numerical-relativity simulations. We find that ELH achieves comparable and, in many of the cases studied here, better accuracy than more traditional methods at a fraction of the computational cost (up to {˜}50% speedup). Given its accuracy and its simplicity of implementation, ELH is a promising framework for the development of new special- and general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes well adapted for massively parallel supercomputers.

  18. Geometry of the toroidal N-helix: optimal-packing and zero-twist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Two important geometrical properties of N-helix structures are influenced by bending. One is maximizing the volume fraction, which is called optimal-packing, and the other is having a vanishing strain-twist coupling, which is called zero-twist. Zero-twist helices rotate neither in one nor...... helix. General N-helices are discussed, as well as zero-twist helices for N > 1. The derived geometrical restrictions are gradually modified by changing the aspect ratio of the torus....

  19. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, S. A., E-mail: austinyi@lanl.gov; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  20. Hydrodynamic manoeuvrability data of a flatfish type AUV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian; Wagner Smitt, Leif

    1994-01-01

    Hydrodynamic manoeuvrability data of the flatfish type autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) “MARIUS” are presented. “MARIUS” was developed under the EC MAST Programme as a vehicle for seabed inspection and environmental surveys in coastal waters. The AUV has an overall length of 4.5 m and is driven...... by two propellers and four thrusters. The data comprise added mass and inertia coefficients, damping, lift and drag coefficients of the vehicle and its control surfaces, as well as resistance and propulsion characteristics. The hydrodynamic data have been determined by full scale tests, using a towing...... tank equipped with a planar motion mechanism. A few free-sailing tests have been carried out as well. Application of the data and possible improvements of the shape of the vehicle are discussed...

  1. On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei, Francesco; Waterstraat, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large

  2. Twisting failure of centrally loaded open-section columns in the elastic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Robert

    1938-01-01

    In the following report a complete theory of twisting failure by the energy method is developed, based on substantially the same assumptions as those employed by Wagner and Bleich. Problems treated in detail are: the stress and strain condition under St. Venant twist and in twist with axial constraint; the concept of shear center and the energy method for problems of elastic stability.

  3. On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bei, Francesco, E-mail: bei@math.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Waterstraat, Nils, E-mail: n.waterstraat@kent.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, Statistics & Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large.

  4. Solitonic Dispersive Hydrodynamics: Theory and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Michelle D.; Anderson, Dalton V.; Franco, Nevil A.; El, Gennady A.; Hoefer, Mark A.

    2018-04-01

    Ubiquitous nonlinear waves in dispersive media include localized solitons and extended hydrodynamic states such as dispersive shock waves. Despite their physical prominence and the development of thorough theoretical and experimental investigations of each separately, experiments and a unified theory of solitons and dispersive hydrodynamics are lacking. Here, a general soliton-mean field theory is introduced and used to describe the propagation of solitons in macroscopic hydrodynamic flows. Two universal adiabatic invariants of motion are identified that predict trapping or transmission of solitons by hydrodynamic states. The result of solitons incident upon smooth expansion waves or compressive, rapidly oscillating dispersive shock waves is the same, an effect termed hydrodynamic reciprocity. Experiments on viscous fluid conduits quantitatively confirm the soliton-mean field theory with broader implications for nonlinear optics, superfluids, geophysical fluids, and other dispersive hydrodynamic media.

  5. Mechanisms of Twist 1-Induced Invasion in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    affect breast cancer metastasis with a subcutaneous mouse tumor implantation model of breast cancer metastasis. HMLE -Twist1 cells expressing shRNAs...13 4 Introduction Distant metastases are responsible for the vast majority of breast cancer deaths. This process...to migrate and invade is therefore essential to the metastatic process. The initial steps of breast cancer metastasis, local invasion and

  6. Determinant of twisted chiral Dirac operator on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosco, C.D.; Randjbar Daemi, S.

    1995-04-01

    Using the overlap formulation, we calculate the fermionic determinant on the lattice for chiral fermions with twisted boundary conditions in two dimensions. When the lattice spacing tends to zero we recover the results on the usual string-theory continuum calculations. (author). 13 refs

  7. Spectral estimates for Dirichlet Laplacians on perturbed twisted tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Barseghyan, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 167-183 ISSN 1846-3886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Drichlet Laplacian * twisted tube * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue estimates Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2014

  8. Casimir energy for twisted piecewise uniform bosonic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Shanghai, Teachers Univ.

    1998-01-01

    The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of piecewise uniform bosonic strings with either untwisted or twisted continuous conditions is discussed. After calculating the analytic values of zeros of the dispersion function under certain conditions, is obtained the Casimir energy for both open and closed bosonic strings composed of two or three segments

  9. Twisted equivariant K-theory, groupoids and proper actions

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarero, Jose

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we define twisted equivariant K-theory for actions of Lie groupoids. For a Bredon-compatible Lie groupoid, this defines a periodic cohomology theory on the category of finite CW-complexes with equivariant stable projective bundles. A classification of these bundles is shown. We also obtain a completion theorem and apply these results to proper actions of groups.

  10. Fermionic construction of vertex operators for twisted affine algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Sorba, P.; Sciarrino, A.

    1988-03-01

    We construct vertex operator representations of the twisted affine algebras in terms of fermionic (or parafermionic in some cases) elementary fields. The folding method applied to the extended Dynkin diagrams of the affine algebras allows us to determine explicitly these fermionic fields as vertex operators

  11. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-01-01

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need. (orig.)

  12. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-08-16

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need.

  13. Twisted mass lattice QCD with non-degenerate quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Gernot; Sudmann, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics on a lattice with Wilson fermions and a chirally twisted mass term is considered in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. For two and three numbers of quark flavours, respectively, with non-degenerate quark masses the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants are calculated in next-to-leading order including lattice effects quadratic in the lattice spacing a

  14. Twist-2 Light-Cone Pion Wave Function

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaev, V. M.; Johnson, Mikkel B.

    1997-01-01

    We present an analysis of the existing constraints for the twist-2 light-cone pion wave function. We find that existing information on the pion wave function does not exclude the possibility that the pion wave function attains its asymptotic form. New bounds on the parameters of the pion wave function are presented.

  15. Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Paul Drake

    2005-12-01

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  16. Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology

    OpenAIRE

    Weeber, R; Harting, JDR Jens

    2012-01-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme signif...

  17. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  18. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    We have conducted an extensive series of experiments on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime; multimode foils allow an assessment of the degree of mode coupling; and surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes. Experimental results and comparisons with theory and simulations are presented

  19. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data

  20. Problems in astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    The basic equations of radiation hydrodynamics are discussed in the regime that the radiation is dynamically as well as thermally important. Particular attention is paid to the question of what constitutes an acceptable approximate non-relativistic system of dynamical equations for matter and radiation in this regime. Further discussion is devoted to two classes of application of these ideas. The first class consists of problems dominated by line radiation, which is sensitive to the velocity field through the Doppler effect. The second class is of problems in which the advection of radiation by moving matter dominates radiation diffusion

  1. Hydrodynamics and stellar winds an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    Stellar winds are a common phenomenon in the life of stars, from the dwarfs like the Sun to the red giants and hot supergiants, constituting one of the basic aspects of modern astrophysics. Stellar winds are a hydrodynamic phenomenon in which circumstellar gases expand towards the interstellar medium. This book presents an elementary introduction to the fundamentals of hydrodynamics with an application to the study of stellar winds. The principles of hydrodynamics have many other applications, so that the book can be used as an introduction to hydrodynamics for students of physics, astrophysics and other related areas.

  2. Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, R; Harting, J

    2012-11-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme significantly improves our results and allows to show that hydrodynamics strongly impacts the development of defects, the crystal regeneration, as well as the jamming behavior.

  3. Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance

  4. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J; Starch, William; Larbalestier, David C; Devred, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Prototype cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the toroidal field and central solenoid coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3%–7% void fraction increase on the low pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb 3 Sn filament fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand-to-cable analysis of short and longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of internal tin (IT) strands in the longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of bronze process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the IT strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Conversely, the short twist pitch CICC made from bronze process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity. (paper)

  5. Intermittent energy bursts and recurrent topological change of a twisting magnetic flux tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amo, Hiroyoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kageyama, Akira.

    1994-09-01

    When continuously twisted, a magnetic flux tube suffers a large kink distortion in the middle part of the tube, like a knot-of-tension instability of a bundle of twisted rubber strings, and reconnection is triggered starting with the twisted field lines and quickly proceeding to the untwisted field lines at the twist-untwist boundary, whereby a giant burst-like energy release takes place. Subsequently, bursts occur intermittently and reconnection advances deeper into the untwisted region. Then, a companion pair of the linked twist-untwist flux tubes reconnect with each other to return to the original axisymmetric tube. The process is thus repeatable. (author)

  6. Automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass QCD in the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sinya; Baer, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a proof for automatic O(a) improvement in twisted mass lattice QCD at maximal twist, which uses only the symmetries of the leading part in the Symanzik effective action. In the process of the proof we clarify that the twist angle is dynamically determined by vacuum expectation values in the Symanzik theory. For maximal twist according to this definition, we show that scaling violations of all quantities which have nonzero values in the continuum limit are even in a. In addition, using Wilson chiral perturbation theory, we investigate this definition for maximal twist and compare it to other definitions which were already employed in actual simulations

  7. Invariant description of solutions of hydrodynamic-type systems in hodograph space: hydrodynamic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferapontov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrodynamic surfaces are solutions of hydrodynamic-type systems viewed as non-parametrized submanifolds of the hodograph space. We propose an invariant differential-geometric characterization of hydrodynamic surfaces by expressing the curvature form of the characteristic web in terms of the reciprocal invariants. (author)

  8. An introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Jose A [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    We review formulations of the equations of (inviscid) general relativistic hydrodynamics and (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics, along with methods for their numerical solution. Both systems can be cast as first-order, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, following the explicit choice of an Eulerian observer and suitable fluid and magnetic field variables. During the last fifteen years, the so-called (upwind) high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers have been successfully extended from classical to relativistic fluid dynamics, both special and general. Nowadays, general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in relativistic astrophysics are routinely performed, particularly within the test-fluid approximation but also for dynamical spacetimes. While such advances also hold true in the case of the MHD equations, the astrophysical applications investigated so far are still limited, yet the field is bound to witness major developments in the near future. The article also presents a brief overview of numerical techniques, providing state-of-the-art examples of their applicability to general relativistic fluids and magneto-fluids in characteristic scenarios of relativistic astrophysics.

  9. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  10. CHASM Challenge Problem: Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Keasler, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gokhale, M [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-09-10

    Computer simulations of many science and engineering problems require modeling the equations of hydrodynamics which describe the motion of materials relative to each other induced by various forces. Many important DoD simulation problems involve complex multi-material systems that undergo large deformations. Examples include the analysis of armor defense, penetration mechanics, blast effects, structural integrity, and conventional munitions such as shaped charges and explosively formed projectiles. Indeed, the original motivation for developing codes that solve the equations of hydrodynamics, herein referred to as “hydrocodes”, was to solve problems with defense applications. The FY2010 Requirements Analysis Report issued by the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) Office shows that a major portion of DoD HPC activities involves hydrocodes [HPCMP2010]. The report surveyed 496 projects across the Services and various Agencies, representing 4,050 HPCMP users at more than 125 locations, including government, contractors, and academia, and grouped each project into one of ten categories.

  11. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)

    2017-04-25

    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.

  12. Unique CCT repeats mediate transcription of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Mizue; Funato, Noriko; Higashihori, Norihisa; Murakami, Masanori; Ohyama, Kimie; Nakamura, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays critical roles in embryo development, cancer metastasis and mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Little is known about transcriptional regulation of TWIST1 expression. Here we identified DNA sequences responsible for TWIST1 expression in mesenchymal lineage cell lines. Reporter assays with TWIST1 promoter mutants defined the -102 to -74 sequences that are essential for TWIST1 expression in human and mouse mesenchymal cell lines. Tandem repeats of CCT, but not putative CREB and NF-κB sites in the sequences substantially supported activity of the TWIST1 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that the DNA sequences with the CCT repeats formed complexes with nuclear factors, containing, at least, Sp1 and Sp3. These results suggest critical implication of the CCT repeats in association with Sp1 and Sp3 factors in sustaining expression of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cells

  13. Hydrodynamic Overview at Hot Quarks 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn

    2017-01-01

    Event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamics has been extremely successful in describing flow observables in heavy-ion collisions. However, the initial state and viscosity simultaneously affect comparisons to data so a discussion of experimental observables that help to distinguish the two follows. Specific problems that arise in the hydrodynamical modeling at the Beam Energy Scan are also addressed. (paper)

  14. Two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    The hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM) has been successful in describing the optical properties of metallic nanostructures, but for semiconductors where several different kinds of charge carriers are present an extended theory is required. We present a two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors...

  15. Hemolytic potential of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S D; Bartlett, R H; Ceccio, S L

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hemolytic potentials of discrete bubble cavitation and attached cavitation. To generate controlled cavitation events, a venturigeometry hydrodynamic device, called a Cavitation Susceptibility Meter (CSM), was constructed. A comparison between the hemolytic potential of discrete bubble cavitation and attached cavitation was investigated with a single-pass flow apparatus and a recirculating flow apparatus, both utilizing the CSM. An analytical model, based on spherical bubble dynamics, was developed for predicting the hemolysis caused by discrete bubble cavitation. Experimentally, discrete bubble cavitation did not correlate with a measurable increase in plasma-free hemoglobin (PFHb), as predicted by the analytical model. However, attached cavitation did result in significant PFHb generation. The rate of PFHb generation scaled inversely with the Cavitation number at a constant flow rate, suggesting that the size of the attached cavity was the dominant hemolytic factor.

  16. Deterministic hydrodynamics: Taking blood apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John A.; Inglis, David W.; Morton, Keith J.; Lawrence, David A.; Huang, Lotien R.; Chou, Stephen Y.; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-10-01

    We show the fractionation of whole blood components and isolation of blood plasma with no dilution by using a continuous-flow deterministic array that separates blood components by their hydrodynamic size, independent of their mass. We use the technology we developed of deterministic arrays which separate white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets from blood plasma at flow velocities of 1,000 μm/sec and volume rates up to 1 μl/min. We verified by flow cytometry that an array using focused injection removed 100% of the lymphocytes and monocytes from the main red blood cell and platelet stream. Using a second design, we demonstrated the separation of blood plasma from the blood cells (white, red, and platelets) with virtually no dilution of the plasma and no cellular contamination of the plasma. cells | plasma | separation | microfabrication

  17. The hydrodynamic theory of detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langweiler, Heinz

    1939-01-01

    This report derives equations containing only directly measurable constants for the quantities involved in the hydrodynamic theory of detonation. The stable detonation speed, D, is revealed as having the lowest possible value in the case of positive material velocity, by finding the minimum of the Du curve (u denotes the speed of the gases of combustion). A study of the conditions of energy and impulse in freely suspended detonating systems leads to the disclosure of a rarefaction front traveling at a lower speed behind the detonation front; its velocity is computed. The latent energy of the explosive passes into the steadily growing detonation zone - the region between the detonation front and the rarefaction front. The conclusions lead to a new definition of the concept of shattering power. The calculations are based on the behavior of trinitrotoluene.

  18. Fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics of flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Das, Shankar P.

    2018-03-01

    Starting from a microscopic model, the continuum field theoretic description of the dynamics of a system of active ingredients or "particles" is presented. The equations of motion for the respective collective densities of mass and momentum follow exactly from that of a single element in the flock. The single-particle dynamics has noise and anomalous momentum dependence in its frictional terms. The equations for the collective densities are averaged over a local equilibrium distribution to obtain the corresponding coarse grained equations of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics (FNH). The latter are the equations used frequently for describing active systems on the basis of intuitive arguments. The transport coefficients which appear in the macroscopic FNH equations are determined in terms of the parameters of the microscopic dynamics.

  19. Hydrodynamics and phases of flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toner, John; Tu Yuhai; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2005-01-01

    We review the past decade's theoretical and experimental studies of flocking: the collective, coherent motion of large numbers of self-propelled 'particles' (usually, but not always, living organisms). Like equilibrium condensed matter systems, flocks exhibit distinct 'phases' which can be classified by their symmetries. Indeed, the phases that have been theoretically studied to date each have exactly the same symmetry as some equilibrium phase (e.g., ferromagnets, liquid crystals). This analogy with equilibrium phases of matter continues in that all flocks in the same phase, regardless of their constituents, have the same 'hydrodynamic'-that is, long-length scale and long-time behavior, just as, e.g., all equilibrium fluids are described by the Navier-Stokes equations. Flocks are nonetheless very different from equilibrium systems, due to the intrinsically nonequilibrium self-propulsion of the constituent 'organisms'. This difference between flocks and equilibrium systems is most dramatically manifested in the ability of the simplest phase of a flock, in which all the organisms are, on average moving in the same direction (we call this a 'ferromagnetic' flock; we also use the terms 'vector-ordered' and 'polar-ordered' for this situation) to exist even in two dimensions (i.e., creatures moving on a plane), in defiance of the well-known Mermin-Wagner theorem of equilibrium statistical mechanics, which states that a continuous symmetry (in this case, rotation invariance, or the ability of the flock to fly in any direction) can not be spontaneously broken in a two-dimensional system with only short-ranged interactions. The 'nematic' phase of flocks, in which all the creatures move preferentially, or are simply oriented preferentially, along the same axis, but with equal probability of moving in either direction, also differs dramatically from its equilibrium counterpart (in this case, nematic liquid crystals). Specifically, it shows enormous number fluctuations, which

  20. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Matthias, E-mail: mski@ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Uhlemann, Christoph F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.

  1. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-01-23

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher\\'s equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels\\' network; (2) the solute\\'s diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  2. A torsional artificial muscle from twisted nitinol microwire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Hunter, Ian W.

    2017-04-01

    Nitinol microwires of 25 μm in diameter can have tensile actuation of up to 4.5% in less than 100 ms. A work density of up to 480 MPa can be achieved from these microwires. In the present work, we are showing that by twisting the microwires in form of closed-loop two-ply yarn we can create a torsional actuator. We achieved a revisable torsional stroke of 46°/mm with peak rotational speed of up to 10,000 rpm. We measured a gravimetric torque of up to 28.5 N•m/kg which is higher than the 3 - 6 N•m/kg for direct-drive commercial electric motors. These remarkable performance results are comparable to those of guest-infiltrated carbon nanotube twisted yarns.

  3. Twisted-Light-Ion Interaction: The Role of Longitudinal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, G. F.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Schmiegelow, Christian T.

    2017-12-01

    The propagation of light beams is well described using the paraxial approximation, where field components along the propagation direction are usually neglected. For strongly inhomogeneous or shaped light fields, however, this approximation may fail, leading to intriguing variations of the light-matter interaction. This is the case of twisted light having opposite orbital and spin angular momenta. We compare experimental data for the excitation of a quadrupole transition in a single trapped 40Ca+ ion from Schmiegelow et al. [Nat. Commun. 7, 12998 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12998] with a complete model where longitudinal components of the electric field are taken into account. Our model matches the experimental data and excludes by 11 standard deviations the approximation of a complete transverse field. This demonstrates the relevance of all field components for the interaction of twisted light with matter.

  4. Nonsnaking doubly diffusive convectons and the twist instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaume, Cédric, E-mail: ced.beaume@gmail.com; Knobloch, Edgar, E-mail: knobloch@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bergeon, Alain, E-mail: alain.bergeon@imft.fr [Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse, France and CNRS, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-11-15

    Doubly diffusive convection in a three-dimensional horizontally extended domain with a square cross section in the vertical is considered. The fluid motion is driven by horizontal temperature and concentration differences in the transverse direction. When the buoyancy ratio N = −1 and the Rayleigh number is increased the conduction state loses stability to a subcritical, almost two-dimensional roll structure localized in the longitudinal direction. This structure exhibits abrupt growth in length near a particular value of the Rayleigh number but does not snake. Prior to this filling transition the structure becomes unstable to a secondary twist instability generating a pair of stationary, spatially localized zigzag states. In contrast to the primary branch these states snake as they grow in extent and eventually fill the whole domain. The origin of the twist instability and the properties of the resulting localized structures are investigated for both periodic and no-slip boundary conditions in the extended direction.

  5. Helicity conservation and twisted Seifert surfaces for superfluid vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hayder

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the continuum definition of helicity, we derive from first principles its different contributions for superfluid vortices. Our analysis shows that an internal twist contribution emerges naturally from the mathematical derivation. This reveals that the spanwise vector that is used to characterize the twist contribution must point in the direction of a surface of constant velocity potential. An immediate consequence of the Seifert framing is that the continuum definition of helicity for a superfluid is trivially zero at all times. It follows that the Gauss-linking number is a more appropriate definition of helicity for superfluids. Despite this, we explain how a quasi-classical limit can arise in a superfluid in which the continuum definition for helicity can be used. This provides a clear connection between a microscopic and a macroscopic description of a superfluid as provided by the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov equations. This leads to consistency with the definition of helicity used for classical vortices.

  6. The dipole representation of vector meson electroproduction beyond leading twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2013-01-01

    We link the recent computation beyond leading twist of the impact factor of the transition γ T ⁎ →ρ T performed in the light-cone collinear approach, to the dipole picture by expressing the hard part of the process through its Fourier transform in coordinate space. We show that in the Wandzura–Wilczek approximation the impact factor up to twist 3 factorises in the wave function of the photon combined with the distribution amplitudes of the ρ-meson and the colour dipole scattering amplitude with the t-channel gluons. We show also that beyond the Wandzura–Wilczek approximation, the hard contribution of the amplitude still exhibits the signature of the interaction of a single colour dipole with the t-channel gluons. This result allows a phenomenological approach of the helicity amplitudes of the leptoproduction of vector meson, by combining our results to a dipole/target scattering amplitude model.

  7. BK-parameter from Nf=2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, M.; Dimopoulos, P.; Frezzotti, R.; INFN, Rome

    2011-01-01

    We present an unquenched N f = 2 lattice computation of the B K parameter which controls K 0 - anti K 0 oscillations. A partially quenched setup is employed with two maximally twisted dynamical (sea) light Wilson quarks, and valence quarks of both the maximally twisted and the Osterwalder-Seiler variety. Suitable combinations of these two kinds of valence quarks lead to a lattice definition of the B K parameter which is both multiplicatively renormalizable and O(a) improved. Employing the non-perturbative RI-MOM scheme, in the continuum limit and at the physical value of the pion mass we get B RGI K =0.729±0.030, a number well in line with the existing quenched and unquenched determinations. (orig.)

  8. Overlap valence quarks on an twisted mass sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Drach, V.; Garcia-Ramos, E.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC

    2010-12-15

    We present the results of an investigation of a mixed action approach of overlap valence and maximally twisted mass sea quarks. Employing a particular matching condition on the pion mass, we analyze the continuum limit scaling of the pion decay constant and the role of chiral zero modes of the overlap operator in this process. We employ gauge field configurations generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with linear lattice size L ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 fm. The continuum limit is taken at a fixed value of L=1.3 fm, employing three values of the lattice spacing and two values of the pion mass constructed from sea quarks only. (orig.)

  9. Electric currents induced by twisted light in Quantum Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, G F; Berakdar, J

    2009-10-26

    We theoretically investigate the generation of electric currents in quantum rings resulting from the optical excitation with twisted light. Our model describes the kinetics of electrons in a two-band model of a semiconductor-based mesoscopic quantum ring coupled to light having orbital angular momentum (twisted light). We find the analytical solution, which exhibits a "circular" photon-drag effect and an induced magnetization, suggesting that this system is the circular analog of that of a bulk semiconductor excited by plane waves. For realistic values of the electric field and material parameters, the computed electric current can be as large as microA; from an applied perspective, this opens new possibilities to the optical control of the magnetization in semiconductors.

  10. Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-02-01

    Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.

  11. Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omel' chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias [Weierstrass Institute, Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Laing, Carlo R. [INMS, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904 NSMC, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2014-06-15

    We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system.

  12. Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias; Laing, Carlo R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system

  13. Twisted tachyon condensation in closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Yuji; Zwiebach, Barton

    2004-01-01

    We consider twisted tachyons on C/Z N orbifolds of bosonic closed string theory. It has been conjectured that these tachyonic instabilities correspond to decays of the orbifolds into flat space or into orbifolds with smaller deficit angles. We examine this conjecture using closed string field theory, with the string field truncated to low-level tachyons. We compute the tachyon potentials for C/Z 2 and C/Z 3 orbifolds and find critical points at depths that generate about 70% of the expected change in the deficit angle. We find that both twisted fields and untwisted modes localized near the apex of the cone acquire vacuum expectation values and contribute to the potential. (author)

  14. Stability of Medium-Bridged Twisted Amides in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Michal; Yao, Lei; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    “Twisted” amides containing non-standard dihedral angles are typically hypersensitive to hydrolysis, a feature that has stringently limited their utility in water. We have synthesized a series of bridged lactams that contain a twisted amide linkage but which exhibit enhanced stability in aqueous environments. Many of these compounds were extracted unchanged from aqueous mixtures ranging from the strongly basic to the strongly acidic. NMR experiments showed that tricyclic lactams undergo reversible hydrolysis at extreme pH ranges, but that a number of compounds in this structure class are indefinitely stable under physiologically relevant pH conditions; one bicyclic example was additionally water-soluble. We examined the effect of structure on the reversibility of amide bond hydrolysis, which we attributed to the transannular nature of the amino acid analogs. These data suggest that medium-bridged lactams of these types should provide useful platforms for studying the behavior of twisted amides in aqueous systems. PMID:19178141

  15. New twists to QCD at large-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    The recently discovered reduced models of Quantum Chromodynamics in the limit of a large number (N) of colors are discussed, in particular the version that employs appropriate Z(N) twists. Some preliminary numerical data are presented, together with some new analytic results (saddle-points). This may be of some help for understanding the mechanism of confinement, which presumably is the same for all N. Also, the reduced chiral model in two dimensions is discussed

  16. Twisted bilayer blue phosphorene: A direct band gap semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, D. A.; Duque, C. A.; Correa, J. D.; Suárez Morell, Eric

    2016-09-01

    We report that two rotated layers of blue phosphorene behave as a direct band gap semiconductor. The optical spectrum shows absorption peaks in the visible region of the spectrum and in addition the energy of these peaks can be tuned with the rotational angle. These findings makes twisted bilayer blue phosphorene a strong candidate as a solar cell or photodetection device. Our results are based on ab initio calculations of several rotated blue phosphorene layers.

  17. Control of Spin Wave Dynamics in Spatially Twisted Magnetic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    control the spin wave dynamics of magnetic structures twisted spatially, we prepared the exchange-coupled films with the hard magnetic L10-FePt and...information writing of magnetic storage and spintronic applications. Introduction and Objective: Recent rapid progress in the research field of nano...scaled bilayer elements is also an important aim of this project. Approach/Method: The exchange-coupled films with the hard magnetic L10-FePt and

  18. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  19. Topological susceptibility from twisted mass fermions using spectral projectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IAS; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IKP; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JCHP; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We discuss the computation of the topological susceptibility using the method of spectral projectors and dynamical twisted mass fermions. We present our analysis concerning the O(a)- improvement of the topological susceptibility and we show numerical results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours, performing a study of the quark mass dependence in terms of leading order chiral perturbation theory.

  20. Leading Twist GPDs and Transverse Spin Densities in a Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Chandan; Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar; Zhao, Xingbo

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of both chirally even and odd generalized parton distributions in the leading twist for the quarks in a proton using the light-front wavefunctions of a quark-diquark model predicted by the holographic QCD. For transversely polarized proton, both chiral even and chiral odd GPDs contribute to the spin densities which are related to the GPDs in transverse impact parameter space. Here, we also present a study of the spin densities for transversely polarized quark and proton.

  1. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF AXISYMMETRIC MODES IN TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G. [Solar Plasma Physics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fedun, V. [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Amy Johnson Building, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configuration of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.

  2. Twisted boundary states and representation of generalized fusion algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tani, Taro

    2006-01-01

    The mutual consistency of boundary conditions twisted by an automorphism group G of the chiral algebra is studied for general modular invariants of rational conformal field theories. We show that a consistent set of twisted boundary states associated with any modular invariant realizes a non-negative integer matrix representation (NIM-rep) of the generalized fusion algebra, an extension of the fusion algebra by representations of the twisted chiral algebra associated with the automorphism group G. We check this result for several concrete cases. In particular, we find that two NIM-reps of the fusion algebra for su(3) k (k=3,5) are organized into a NIM-rep of the generalized fusion algebra for the charge-conjugation automorphism of su(3) k . We point out that the generalized fusion algebra is non-commutative if G is non-Abelian and provide some examples for G-bar S 3 . Finally, we give an argument that the graph fusion algebra associated with simple current extensions coincides with the generalized fusion algebra for the extended chiral algebra, and thereby explain that the graph fusion algebra contains the fusion algebra of the extended theory as a subalgebra

  3. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  4. Microwave modulation characteristics of twisted liquid crystals with chiral dopant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding a chiral dopant in twisted nematic (TN liquid crystal cell can stabilize the orientation of liquid crystal molecules, particularly in high TN (HTN or super TN (STN liquid crystal cells. The difference in pitches in liquid crystal is induced by the chiral dopant, and these different pitches affect the orientation of liquid crystal director under an external applied voltage and influence the characteristics of microwave modulation. To illustrate this point, the microwave phase shift per unit length (MPSL versus voltage is calculated on the basis of the elastic theory of liquid crystal and the finite-difference iterative method. Enhancing the pitch induced by the chiral dopant in liquid crystal increases the MPSLs, but the stability of the twisted structures is decreased. Thus, appropriate pitches of 100d, 4d, and 2d can be applied in TN, HTN, and STN cells with cell gap d to enhance the characteristics of microwave modulation and stabilize the structures in twisted cell. This method can improve the characteristics of liquid crystal microwave modulators such that the operating voltage and the size of such phase shifters can be decreased.

  5. Twist operator correlation functions in O(n) loop models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Jacob J H; Cardy, John

    2009-01-01

    Using conformal field theoretic methods we calculate correlation functions of geometric observables in the loop representation of the O(n) model at the critical point. We focus on correlation functions containing twist operators, combining these with anchored loops, boundaries with SLE processes and with double SLE processes. We focus further upon n = 0, representing self-avoiding loops, which corresponds to a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT) with c = 0. In this limit the twist operator plays the role of a 0-weight indicator operator, which we verify by comparison with known examples. Using the additional conditions imposed by the twist operator null states, we derive a new explicit result for the probabilities that an SLE 8/3 winds in various ways about two points in the upper half-plane, e.g. that the SLE passes to the left of both points. The collection of c = 0 logarithmic CFT operators that we use deriving the winding probabilities is novel, highlighting a potential incompatibility caused by the presence of two distinct logarithmic partners to the stress tensor within the theory. We argue that both partners do appear in the theory, one in the bulk and one on the boundary and that the incompatibility is resolved by restrictive bulk-boundary fusion rules

  6. Twisted Bilayer Graphene. Interlayer configuration and magnetotransport signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Belke, Christopher; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hannover (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Twisted Bilayer Graphene may be viewed as very first representative of the now booming class of artificially layered 2D materials. Consisting of two sheets from the same structure and atomic composition, its decisive degree of freedom lies in the rotation between crystallographic axes in the individual graphene monolayers. Geometrical consideration finds angle-dependent Moire patterns as well as commensurate superlattices of opposite sublattice exchange symmetry. Beyond the approach of rigidly interposed lattices, this review takes focus on the evolving topic of lattice corrugation and distortion in response to spatially varying lattice registry. The experimental approach to twisted bilayers requires a basic control over preparation techniques; important methods are summarized and extended on in the case of bilayers folded from monolayer graphene via AFM nanomachining. Central morphological parameters to the twisted bilayer, rotational mismatch and interlayer separation are studied in a broader base of samples. Finally, experimental evidence for a number of theoretically predicted, controversial electronic scenarios are reviewed; magnetotransport signatures are discussed in terms of Fermi velocity, van Hove singularities and Berry phase and assessed with respect to the underlying experimental conditions, thereby referring back to the initially considered variations in relaxed lattice structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Wrinkles, loops, and topological defects in twisted ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Julien

    Nature abounds with elastic ribbon like shapes including double-stranded semiflexible polymers, graphene and metal oxide nanoribbons which are examples of elongated elastic structures with a strongly anisotropic cross-section. Due to this specific geometry, it is far from trivial to anticipate if a ribbon should be considered as a flat flexible filament or a narrow thin plate. We thus perform an experiment in which a thin elastic ribbon is loaded using a twisting and traction device coupled with a micro X-ray computed tomography machine allowing a full 3D shape reconstruction. A wealth of morphological behaviors can be observed including wrinkled helicoids, curled and looped configurations, and faceted ribbons. In this talk, I will show that most morphologies can be understood using a far-from-threshold approach and simple scaling arguments. Further, we find that the various shapes can be organized in a phase diagram using the twist, the tension, and the geometry of the ribbon as control parameters. Finally, I will discuss the spontaneous formation of topological defects with negatively-signed Gaussian charge at large twist and small but finite stretch.

  8. The SU(∞) twisted gradient flow running coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Margarita García [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); González-Arroyo, Antonio [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, C-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Keegan, Liam [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Okawa, Masanori [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-01-09

    We measure the running of the SU(∞) ’t Hooft coupling by performing a step scaling analysis of the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions. The computation relies on the conjecture that finite volume effects for SU(N) gauge theories defined on a 4-dimensional twisted torus are controlled by an effective size parameter l-tilde=l√N, with l the torus period. We set the scale for the running coupling in terms of l-tilde and use the gradient flow to define a renormalized ’t Hooft coupling λ(l-tilde). In the TEK model, this idea allows the determination of the running of the coupling through a step scaling procedure that uses the rank of the group as a size parameter. The continuum renormalized coupling constant is extracted in the zero lattice spacing limit, which in the TEK model corresponds to the large N limit taken at fixed value of λ(l-tilde). The coupling constant is thus expected to coincide with that of the ordinary pure gauge theory at N=∞. The idea is shown to work and permits us to follow the evolution of the coupling over a wide range of scales. At weak coupling we find a remarkable agreement with the perturbative two-loop formula for the running coupling.

  9. The $SU(\\infty)$ twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    We measure the running of the $SU(\\infty)$ 't Hooft coupling by performing a step scaling analysis of the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU($N$) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions. The computation relies on the conjecture that finite volume effects for SU(N) gauge theories defined on a 4-dimensional twisted torus are controlled by an effective size parameter $\\tilde l = l \\sqrt{N}$, with $l$ the torus period. We set the scale for the running coupling in terms of $\\tilde l$ and use the gradient flow to define a renormalized 't Hooft coupling $\\lambda(\\tilde l)$. In the TEK model, this idea allows the determination of the running of the coupling through a step scaling procedure that uses the rank of the group as a size parameter. The continuum renormalized coupling constant is extracted in the zero lattice spacing limit, which in the TEK model corresponds to the large $N$ limit taken at fixed value of $\\lambda(\\tilde l)$. The coupling constant is thus expected to coinc...

  10. 'Twisted tape sign': Its significance in recurrent sigmoid volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, K.; Lim, Y.; Banerjee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in the elderly. Mild attacks of sigmoid volvulus may be more difficult to diagnose due to the lack of severity of symptoms which may resolve spontaneously only to recur after an interval. This study was a review of patients to assess the incidence of the 'twisted tape sign' and to evaluate the significance of its presence in cases of recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Methods and materials: A retrospective study over eight years revealed six cases of surgically confirmed recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Case records and barium enemas of all patients were reviewed. Results: Six patients were identified, including four men and two women, with a median age of 56 years. Diagnostic difficulties were encountered in four (67%) patients with a delay ranging between 10 and 37 months with a mean 17.3 months. Twisted tape sign was confirmed on all barium examinations retrospectively. Conclusion: Recognition of twisted tape sign on barium enema examination along with an appropriate clinical history would suggest a diagnosis of recurrent sigmoid volvulus

  11. Twist effects in quantum vortices and phase defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we show that twist, defined in terms of rotation of the phase associated with quantum vortices and other physical defects effectively deprived of internal structure, is a property that has observable effects in terms of induced axial flow. For this we consider quantum vortices governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) and perform a number of test cases to investigate and compare the effects of twist in two different contexts: (i) when this is artificially superimposed on an initially untwisted vortex ring; (ii) when it is naturally produced on the ring by the simultaneous presence of a central straight vortex. In the first case large amplitude perturbations quickly develop, generated by the unnatural setting of the initial condition that is not an analytical solution of the GPE. In the second case much milder perturbations emerge, signature of a genuine physical process. This scenario is confirmed by other test cases performed at higher twist values. Since the second setting corresponds to essential linking, these results provide new evidence of the influence of topology on physics.

  12. Enhancement of turbulent flow heat transfer in a tube with modified twisted tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y.G.; Zhao, C.H.; Song, C.F. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Numerical simulations were performed to study the fluid flow and heat transfer in a tube with staggered twisted tapes with central holes. In the range of Reynolds numbers between 6000 and 28 000, the modified twisted tapes increased the Nusselt number by 76.2 {proportional_to} 149.7 % and the friction factor by 380.2 {proportional_to} 443.8 % compared to the smooth tube. Compared to the typical twisted tapes, the modified twisted tapes produced an acceleration flow through the triangle regions leading to the enhancement of heat transfer, and the holes in the modified tapes reduced the severe pressure loss. It was found that the modified twisted tapes decreased the friction factor by 8.0 {proportional_to} 16.1 % and enhanced the heat transfer by 34.1 {proportional_to} 46.8 % in comparison with the typical tapes. These results indicated that the performance ratio values of the tube with modified twisted tapes were higher than 1.0 in the range of Reynolds numbers studied. The computed performance ratios of the tube with modified twisted tapes were much higher than those of the tube with typical twisted tapes. This means that the integrated performance of the tube with staggered twisted tapes with central holes is superior to that of the tube with typical twisted tapes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Twist1 suppresses senescence programs and thereby accelerates and maintains mutant Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuoc T Tran

    Full Text Available KRAS mutant lung cancers are generally refractory to chemotherapy as well targeted agents. To date, the identification of drugs to therapeutically inhibit K-RAS have been unsuccessful, suggesting that other approaches are required. We demonstrate in both a novel transgenic mutant Kras lung cancer mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting the progression from benign adenomas to adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the suppression of Twist1 to physiological levels is sufficient to cause Kras mutant lung tumors to undergo senescence and lose their neoplastic features. Finally, we analyzed more than 500 human tumors to demonstrate that TWIST1 is frequently overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy.

  14. Exclusive processes beyond leading twist: {gamma}*T {yields} {rho}T impact factor with twist three accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland); Anikin, Igor V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Joliot-Curie st., 6, Moskovskaya obl., 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Dmitry Yu [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Acad. Koptyug pr., 4, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method is based on the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light-cone. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised {rho}-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy. (Phys.Lett.B682:413-418,2010 and Nucl.Phys.B828:1-68,2010.). (authors)

  15. Topological twist in four dimensions, R-duality and hyperinstantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, D.; Fre, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we continue the programme of topologically twisting N=2 theories in D=4, focusing on the coupling of vector multiplets to N=2 supergravity. We show that in the minimal case, namely when the special gometry prepotential F(X) is a quadratic polynomial, the theory has a so far unknown on-shell U(1) symmetry, that we name R-duality. R-duality is a generalization of the chiral-dual on-shell symmetry of N=2 pure supergravity and of the R-symmetry of N=2 super Yang-Mills theory. Thanks to this, the theory can be topologically twisted and topologically shifted, precisely as pure N=2 supergravity, to yield a natural coupling of topological gravity to topological Yang-Mills theory. The gauge-fixing condition that emerges from the twisting is the self-duality condition on the gauge field strength and on the spin connection. Hence our theory reduces to intersection theory in the moduli-space of gauge instantons living in gravitational instanton backgrounds. We remark that, for deep properties of the parent N=2 theory, the topological Yang-Mills theory we obtain by taking the flat space limit of our gravity-coupled lagrangian is different from the Donaldson theory constructed by Witten. Whether this difference is substantial and what its geometrical implications may be is yet to be seen. We also discuss the topological twist of the hypermultiplets leading to topological quaternionic sigma-models. The instantons of these models, named by us hyperinstantons, correspond to a notion of triholomorphic mappings discussed in the paper. In all cases the new ghost number is the sum of the old ghost number plus the R-duality charge. The observables described by the theory are briefly discussed. In conclusion, the topological twist of the complete N=2 theory defines intersection theory in the moduli-space of gauge instantons plus gravitational instantons plus hyperinstantons. This is possibly a new subject for further mathematical investigation. (orig.)

  16. Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, SangJoon; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2001-01-01

    Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework is developed to examine integrally-twisted blades and their aeroelastic response during different flight conditions: frequency domain analysis for hover, and time domain analysis for forward flight. Both stem from the same three-dimensional electroelastic beam formulation with geometrical-exactness, and axe coupled with a finite-state dynamic inflow aerodynamics model. A prototype Active Twist Rotor blade was designed with this framework using Active Fiber Composites as the actuator. The ATR prototype blade was successfully tested under non-rotating conditions. Hover testing was conducted to evaluate structural integrity and dynamic response. In both conditions, a very good correlation was obtained against the analysis. Finally, a four-bladed ATR system is built and tested to demonstrate its concept in forward flight. This experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Tansonic Dynamics Tunnel and represents the first-of-a-kind Mach-scaled fully-active-twist rotor system to undergo forward flight test. In parallel, the impact upon the fixed- and rotating-system loads is estimated by the analysis. While discrepancies are found in the amplitude of the loads under actuation, the predicted trend of load variation with respect to its control phase correlates well. It was also shown, both experimentally and numerically, that the ATR blade design has the potential for hub vibratory load reduction of up to 90% using individual blade control actuation. Using the numerical framework, system identification is performed to estimate the harmonic transfer functions. The linear time-periodic system can be represented by a linear time-invariant system under the three modes of blade actuation: collective, longitudinal cyclic, and lateral cyclic. A vibration

  17. Interaction between local hydrodynamics and algal community in epilithic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graba, Myriam; Sauvage, Sabine; Moulin, Frédéric Y; Urrea, Gemma; Sabater, Sergi; Sanchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Interactions between epilithic biofilm and local hydrodynamics were investigated in an experimental flume. Epilithic biofilm from a natural river was grown over a 41-day period in three sections with different flow velocities (0.10, 0.25 and 0.40 m s(-1) noted LV, IV and HV respectively). Friction velocities u* and boundary layer parameters were inferred from PIV measurement in the three sections and related to the biofilm structure. The results show that there were no significant differences in Dry Mass and Ash-Free Dry Mass (g m(-2)) at the end of experiment, but velocity is a selective factor in algal composition and the biofilms' morphology differed according to differences in water velocity. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis distances) and an Indicator Species Analysis (IndVal) showed that the indicator taxa were Fragilaria capucina var. mesolepta in the low-velocity (u*. = 0.010-0.012 m s(-1)), Navicula atomus, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia frustulum in the intermediate-velocity (u*. = 0.023-0.030 m s(-1)) and Amphora pediculus, Cymbella proxima, Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae and Surirella angusta in the high-velocity (u*. = 0.033-0.050 m s(-1)) sections. A sloughing test was performed on 40-day-old biofilms in order to study the resistance of epilithic biofilms to higher hydrodynamic regimes. The results showed an inverse relationship between the proportion of detached biomass and the average value of friction velocity during growth. Therefore, water velocity during epilithic biofilm growth conditioned the structure and algal composition of biofilm, as well as its response (ability to resist) to higher shear stresses. This result should be considered in modelling epilithic biofilm dynamics in streams subject to a variable hydrodynamics regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relativistic conformal magneto-hydrodynamics from holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Buchel, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study first-order relativistic viscous magneto-hydrodynamics of (2+1)-dimensional conformal magnetic fluids. It is shown that the first order magneto-hydrodynamics constructed following Landau and Lifshitz from the positivity of the entropy production is inconsistent. We propose additional contributions to the entropy motivated dissipative current and, correspondingly, new dissipative transport coefficients. We use the strongly coupled M2-brane plasma in external magnetic field to show that the new magneto-hydrodynamics leads to self-consistent results in the shear and sound wave channels.

  19. Dileptons from transport and hydrodynamical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huovinen, P.; Koch, V.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and hydrodynamical models used to describe the expansion stage of a heavy-ion collision at the CERN SPS give different dilepton spectrum even if they are tuned to reproduce the observed hadron spectra. To understand the origin of this difference we compare the dilepton emission from transport and hydrodynamical models using similar initial states in both models. We find that the requirement of pion number conservation in a hydrodynamical model does not change the dilepton emission. Also the mass distribution from the transport model indicates faster cooling and longer lifetime of the fireball

  20. Tuning bacterial hydrodynamics with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C. J.; Mumper, E.; Brown, E. E.; Brangham, J. T.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Yang, F. Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities. The implications of this controlled motion for studies of bacterial motility near surfaces and for micro- and nanotechnology are discussed.

  1. Twisted entire cyclic cohomology, J-L-O cocycles and equivariant spectral triples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.

    2002-07-01

    We study the 'quantized calculus' corresponding to the algebraic ideas related to 'twisted cyclic cohomology'. With very similar definitions and techniques, we define and study 'twisted entire cyclic cohomology' and the 'twisted Chern character' associated with an appropriate operator theoretic data called 'twisted spectral data', which consists of a spectral triple in the conventional sense of noncommutative geometry and an additional positive operator having some specified properties. Furthermore, it is shown that given a spectral triple (in the conventional sense) which is equivariant under the action of a compact matrix pseudogroup, it is possible to obtain a canonical twisted spectral data and hence the corresponding (twisted) Chern character, which will be invariant under the action of the pseudogroup, in contrast to the fact that the Chern character coming from the conventional noncommutative geometry need not be invariant under the above action. (author)

  2. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR WATER HEATER SYSTEM FITTED WITH NAIL TWISTED TAPES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SYED JAFAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.

  3. Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics : an assessment of the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Frederick; Visonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book assesses the state-of-the-art in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applied to ship hydrodynamics and provides guidelines for the future developments in the field based on the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop. It presents ship hull test cases, experimental data and submitted computational methods, conditions, grids and results.  Analysis is made of errors for global (resistance, sinkage and trim and self-propulsion) and local flow (wave elevations and mean velocities and turbulence) variables, including standard deviations for global variables and propeller modeling for self-propulsion. The effects of grid size and turbulence models are evaluated for both global and local flow variables. Detailed analysis is made of turbulence modeling capabilities for capturing local flow physics. Errors are also analyzed for head-wave seakeeping and forward speed diffraction, and calm-water forward speed-roll decay. Resistance submissions are used to evaluate the error and uncertainty by means of a systematic verificatio...

  4. Conformal invariance in hydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkovich, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    This short survey is written by a physicist. It contains neither theorems nor precise definitions. Its main content is a description of the results of numerical solution of the equations of fluid mechanics in the regime of developed turbulence. Due to limitations of computers, the results are not very precise. Despite being neither exact nor rigorous, the findings may nevertheless be of interest for mathematicians. The main result is that the isolines of some scalar fields (vorticity, temperature) in two-dimensional turbulence belong to the class of conformally invariant curves called SLE (Scramm-Loewner evolution) curves. First, this enables one to predict and find a plethora of quantitative relations going far beyond what was known previously about turbulence. Second, it suggests relations between phenomena that seemed unrelated, like the Euler equation and critical percolation. Third, it shows that one is able to get exact analytic results in statistical hydrodynamics. In short, physicists have found something unexpected and hope that mathematicians can help to explain it.

  5. Performance improvement of small-scale rotors by passive blade twist control

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Peng; Prothin, Sebastien; Mohd Zawawi, Fazila; Bénard, Emmanuel; Morlier, Joseph; Moschetta, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    A passive twist control is proposed as an adaptive way to maximize the overall efficiency of the small-scale rotor blade for multifunctional aircrafts. Incorporated into a database of airfoil characteristics, Blade Element Momentum Theory is implemented to obtain the blade optimum twist rates for hover and forward flight. In order to realize the required torsion of blade between hover and forward flight, glass/epoxy laminate blade is proposed based on Centrifugal Force Induced Twist concept. ...

  6. Higher-Twist Distribution Amplitudes of the K Meson in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, P; Lenz, A; Ball, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic study of twist-3 and twist-4 light-cone distribution amplitudes of the K meson in QCD. The structure of SU(3)-breaking corrections is studied in detail. Non-perturbative input parameters are estimated from QCD sum rules and renormalons. As a by-product, we give a complete reanalysis of the twist-3 and -4 parameters of the pi-meson distribution amplitudes; some of the results differ from those usually quoted in the literature.

  7. Analysis of a Caenorhabditis elegans Twist homolog identifies conserved and divergent aspects of mesodermal patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Harfe, Brian D.; Gomes, Ana Vaz; Kenyon, Cynthia; Liu, Jun; Krause, Michael; Fire, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Mesodermal development is a multistep process in which cells become increasingly specialized to form specific tissue types. In Drosophila and mammals, proper segregation and patterning of the mesoderm involves the bHLH factor Twist. We investigated the activity of a Twist-related factor, CeTwist, during Caenorhabditis elegans mesoderm development. Embryonic mesoderm in C. elegans derives from a number of distinct founder cells that are specified during the early lineages; in contrast, a singl...

  8. Framing Camera Improvements and hydrodynamic Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, R. P

    2007-01-01

    .... We also propose to participate in hydrodynamic experiments at NRL whenever they occur, to prepare for an experiment for NIKE to study the onset of turbulence via the Kelvin Helmholtz instability...

  9. Hydrodynamic limit of interacting particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landim, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present in these notes two methods to derive the hydrodynamic equation of conservative interacting particle systems. The intention is to present the main ideas in the simplest possible context and refer for details and references. (author)

  10. Measurement of curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wen; Quan Chenggen; Cho Jui Tay

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of curvature and twist is an important aspect in the study of object deformation. In recent years, several methods have been proposed to determine curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital shearography. Here we propose a novel method to determine the curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography and a complex phasor. A sine/cosine transformation method and two-dimensional short time Fourier transform are proposed subsequently to process the wrapped phase maps. It is shown that high-quality phase maps corresponding to curvature and twist can be obtained. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method

  11. A method to estimate the necessary twist pitch in multi-filamentary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, S; Magnusson, N; Taxt, H

    2014-01-01

    Twisting of multi-filamentary superconductors is an important step in the development of wires with AC losses at an acceptable level for AC applications. The necessary twist pitch depends on wire architecture, critical current density, matrix material, and external factors such as temperature, frequency and applied magnetic field. The development of an AC optimized MgB 2 superconductor would be facilitated by a fast method to set the requirements for the twist pitch. A problem often encountered when comparing wires with different twist pitches is the degradation in critical current occurring at small twist pitches due to mechanical deformation. In this work we propose to use a non-twisted conductor to estimate the influence of twisting on the AC losses. A long superconductor is cut into smaller lengths, each simulating one third of the twist pitch, and the AC losses due to applied magnetic fields are compared between samples of different lengths. With this method, the effect of reducing the size of the loop of the coupling currents is studied without changing the superconducting parameters. AC loss measurement results are presented for a round titanium matrix MgB 2 wire with simulated twist pitches between 9 mm and 87 mm.

  12. Dynamical twisted mass fermions with light quarks. Simulation and analysis details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, P.; Dimopoulos, P.; Farchioni, F.

    2008-03-01

    In a recent paper (2007) we presented precise lattice QCD results of our European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). They were obtained by employing two mass-degenerate flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. In the present paper we give details on our simulations and the computation of physical observables. In particular, we discuss the problem of tuning to maximal twist, the techniques we have used to compute correlators and error estimates. In addition, we provide more information on the algorithm used, the autocorrelation times and scale determination, the evaluation of disconnected contributions and the description of our data by means of chiral perturbation theory formulae. (orig.)

  13. Dynamical twisted mass fermions with light quarks. Simulation and analysis details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucaud, P. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Dimopoulos, P. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Farchioni, F. [Muenster Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    In a recent paper (2007) we presented precise lattice QCD results of our European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). They were obtained by employing two mass-degenerate flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. In the present paper we give details on our simulations and the computation of physical observables. In particular, we discuss the problem of tuning to maximal twist, the techniques we have used to compute correlators and error estimates. In addition, we provide more information on the algorithm used, the autocorrelation times and scale determination, the evaluation of disconnected contributions and the description of our data by means of chiral perturbation theory formulae. (orig.)

  14. Hydrodynamic approach to electronic transport in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narozhny, Boris N. [Institute for Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Gornyi, Igor V. [Institute for Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mirlin, Alexander D. [Institute for Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmalian, Joerg [Institute for Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The last few years have seen an explosion of interest in hydrodynamic effects in interacting electron systems in ultra-pure materials. In this paper we briefly review the recent advances, both theoretical and experimental, in the hydrodynamic approach to electronic transport in graphene, focusing on viscous phenomena, Coulomb drag, non-local transport measurements, and possibilities for observing nonlinear effects. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Improvements to SOIL: An Eulerian hydrodynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    1988-04-01

    Possible improvements to SOIL, an Eulerian hydrodynamics code that can do coupled radiation diffusion and strength of materials, are presented in this report. Our research is based on the inspection of other Eulerian codes and theoretical reports on hydrodynamics. Several conclusions from the present study suggest that some improvements are in order, such as second-order advection, adaptive meshes, and speedup of the code by vectorization and/or multitasking. 29 refs., 2 figs

  16. Relabeling symmetries in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhye, N.; Morrison, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    Lagrangian symmetries and concomitant generalized Bianchi identities associated with the relabeling of fluid elements are found for hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In hydrodynamics relabeling results in Ertel's theorem of conservation of potential vorticity, while in MHD it yields the conservation of cross helicity. The symmetries of the reduction from Lagrangian (material) to Eulerian variables are used to construct the Casimir invariants of the Hamiltonian formalism

  17. Chaotic hydrodynamics of fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Stappen, M.L.M. [Unit Process and Systems Engineering, Advanced Manufacturing Technology Group, Unilever Research Laboratorium, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The major goals of this thesis are: (1) to develop and evaluate an analysis method based on techniques from non-linear chaos theory to characterize the nonlinear hydrodynamics of gas-solids fluidized beds quantitatively; and (2) to determine the dependence of the chaotic invariants on the operating conditions and investigate how the chaos analysis method can be profitably applied to improve scale-up and design of gas-solids fluidized bed reactors. Chaos theory is introduced in chapter 2 with emphasis on analysis techniques for (experimental) time series, known from literature at the start of this work (1990-1991). In chapter 3, the testing of existing and newly developed techniques on both model and fluidized bed data is described. This leads to the development of the chaos analysis method to analyze measured pressure fluctuations time series of a fluidized bed. Following, in chapter 4, this method is tested and all choices for the parameters are evaluated. The influence of the experimental parameters and external disturbances on the measurements and analysis results is discussed and quantified. The result is a chaos measurement and analysis protocol, which is further used in this work. In chapter 5, the applications to fluidized beds are discussed. It is shown that the entropy is a good measure for the characterization of the dynamical behavior of gas-solids bubbling/slugging fluidized beds. Entropy is applied to characterize the influence of the operating conditions, to assess regime transitions and to analyze dimensionless similar beds of different scale. Quantitative design correlations that relate entropy to the operating parameters (including the bed diameter) are described. Finally, it is discussed how the results of this work might be used in scaling up the chaotic dynamics of fluidized beds. The overall conclusions and outlook from this work are presented in chapter 6. 182 refs.

  18. Hydrodynamics of soft active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, M. C.; Joanny, J. F.; Ramaswamy, S.; Liverpool, T. B.; Prost, J.; Rao, Madan; Simha, R. Aditi

    2013-07-01

    This review summarizes theoretical progress in the field of active matter, placing it in the context of recent experiments. This approach offers a unified framework for the mechanical and statistical properties of living matter: biofilaments and molecular motors in vitro or in vivo, collections of motile microorganisms, animal flocks, and chemical or mechanical imitations. A major goal of this review is to integrate several approaches proposed in the literature, from semimicroscopic to phenomenological. In particular, first considered are “dry” systems, defined as those where momentum is not conserved due to friction with a substrate or an embedding porous medium. The differences and similarities between two types of orientationally ordered states, the nematic and the polar, are clarified. Next, the active hydrodynamics of suspensions or “wet” systems is discussed and the relation with and difference from the dry case, as well as various large-scale instabilities of these nonequilibrium states of matter, are highlighted. Further highlighted are various large-scale instabilities of these nonequilibrium states of matter. Various semimicroscopic derivations of the continuum theory are discussed and connected, highlighting the unifying and generic nature of the continuum model. Throughout the review, the experimental relevance of these theories for describing bacterial swarms and suspensions, the cytoskeleton of living cells, and vibrated granular material is discussed. Promising extensions toward greater realism in specific contexts from cell biology to animal behavior are suggested, and remarks are given on some exotic active-matter analogs. Last, the outlook for a quantitative understanding of active matter, through the interplay of detailed theory with controlled experiments on simplified systems, with living or artificial constituents, is summarized.

  19. Chiral condensate from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of our computation of the chiral condensate with N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions. The condensate is determined from the Dirac operator spectrum, applying the spectral projector method proposed by Giusti and Luescher. We use 3 lattice spacings and several quark masses at each lattice spacing to reliably perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. We study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavours.

  20. Position Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Using Super Twisting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafiq Mufti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent problem of chattering in traditional sliding mode control is harmful for practical application of control system. This paper pays a considerable attention to a chattering-free control method, that is, higher-order sliding mode (super twisting algorithm. The design of a position controller for switched reluctance motor is presented and its stability is assured using Lyapunov stability theorem. In order to highlight the advantages of higher-order sliding mode controller (HOSMC, a classical first-order sliding mode controller (FOSMC is also applied to the same system and compared. The simulation results reflect the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  1. Twisting, supercoiling and stretching in protein bound DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2018-04-01

    We have calculated theoretical results for the torque and slope of the twisted DNA, with various proteins bound on it, using the Neukirch-Marko model, in the regime where plectonemes exist. We found that the torque in the protein bound DNA decreases compared to that in the bare DNA. This is caused by the decrease in the free energy g(f) , and hence the smaller persistence lengths, in the case of protein bound DNA. We hope our results will encourage experimental investigations of supercoiling in protein bound DNA, which can provide further tests of the Neukirch-Marko model.

  2. Analysis of the British Industrial Revolution in cinema: Oliver Twist

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente Diez, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    La Revolución Industrial británica fue un fenómeno histórico que incluso a día de hoy continúa atrayendo miradas. Sus dimensiones fueron tales que actualmente sus consecuencias aún son visibles. El objetivo de este proyecto es analizar el impacto social de la Revolución Industrial británica y las causas que llevaron a este punto como retrata Oliver Twist, la película seleccionada. Desde la perspectiva de las injusticias laborales y las desigualdades sociales, el estudio se centra en las conse...

  3. Chiral condensate from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of our computation of the chiral condensate with N f =2 and N f =2+1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions. The condensate is determined from the Dirac operator spectrum, applying the spectral projector method proposed by Giusti and Luescher. We use 3 lattice spacings and several quark masses at each lattice spacing to reliably perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. We study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N f =2 and N f =2+1+1 dynamical flavours.

  4. Wigner oscillators, twisted Hopf algebras and second quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.G.; Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: pgcastro@cbpf.br; toppan@cbpf.br; Chakraborty, B. [S. N. Bose National Center for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India)]. E-mail: biswajit@bose.res.in

    2008-07-01

    By correctly identifying the role of central extension in the centrally extended Heisenberg algebra h, we show that it is indeed possible to construct a Hopf algebraic structure on the corresponding enveloping algebra U(h) and eventually deform it through Drinfeld twist. This Hopf algebraic structure and its deformed version U{sup F}(h) is shown to be induced from a more 'fundamental' Hopf algebra obtained from the Schroedinger field/oscillator algebra and its deformed version, provided that the fields/oscillators are regarded as odd-elements of a given superalgebra. We also discuss the possible implications in the context of quantum statistics. (author)

  5. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu

    2009-01-01

    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  6. ABOUT THE GEOMETRY AND THE APPLICATIONS OF THE TWISTED SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÂRZA Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The helical and spiral surfaces are used in various fields. These surfaces are obtained by rotating a segment line called generatrix around directrices lines, respectively the spiral surfaces are obtained by composing simultaneously the movements of translation and rotation of a plane figure around an axis - which can be a straight line or a curved line, or around a real or imaginary surface - called core. After an overview of these surfaces, the attention of the authors will be focused on the geometrical and graphical analysis of the twisted surfaces in civil engineering branch, such as: columns, helical ramps and stairs, respectively buildings having a futuristic design.

  7. Compactifications of 5d SCFTs with a twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafrir, Gabi [Department of Physics, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology,32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2017-01-23

    We study the compactification of 5d SCFTs to 4d on a circle with a twist in a discrete global symmetry element of these SCFTs. We present evidence that this leads to various 4dN=2 isolated SCFTs. These include many known theories as well as seemingly new ones. The known theories include the recently discovered rank 1SU(4) SCFT and its mass deformations. One application of the new SCFTs is in the dual descriptions of the 4d gauge theory SU(N)+1S+(N−2)F. Also interesting is the appearance of a theory with rank 1 and F{sub 4} global symmetry.

  8. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P. [Paris XI Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT)] (and others)

    2009-12-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N{sub f}=2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280

  9. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N f =2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280 PS < or similar 650 MeV we control the major systematic effects of our calculation. This enables us to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract low energy constants of the effective chiral Lagrangian and derived quantities, such as the light quark mass, with high precision. (orig.)

  10. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.; Humboldt Univ. Berlin

    2011-02-01

    We present results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon magnetic moment, Dirac and Pauli radii are obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass allowing for a comparison with experiment. (orig.)

  11. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.; Constantinou, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cutoff effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon magnetic moment, Dirac and Pauli radii are obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass allowing for a comparison with experiment.

  12. Nucleon form factors with NF=2 twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Korzec, T.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P.A.; Jansen, K.

    2009-10-01

    We present results on the electromagnetic and axial nucleon form factors using two degenerate flavors of twisted mass fermions on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm and 2.7 fm and a lattice spacing of about 0.09 fm. We consider pion masses in the range of 260-470MeV.We chirally extrapolate results on the nucleon axial charge, the isovector Dirac and Pauli root mean squared radii and magnetic moment to the physical point and compare to experiment. (orig.)

  13. The gradient flow running coupling with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    We study the gradient flow for Yang-Mills theories with twisted boundary conditions. The perturbative behavior of the energy density left angle E(t) right angle is used to define a running coupling at a scale given by the linear size of the finite volume box. We compute the non-perturbative running of the pure gauge SU(2) coupling constant and conclude that the technique is well suited for further applications due to the relatively mild cutoff effects of the step scaling function and the high numerical precision that can be achieved in lattice simulations. We also comment on the inclusion of matter fields.

  14. Twisting dirac fermions: circular dichroism in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Morell, E.; Chico, Leonor; Brey, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene is a chiral system which has been recently shown to present circular dichroism. In this work we show that the origin of this optical activity is the rotation of the Dirac fermions’ helicities in the top and bottom layer. Starting from the Kubo formula, we obtain a compact expression for the Hall conductivity that takes into account the dephasing of the electromagnetic field between the top and bottom layers and gathers all the symmetries of the system. Our results are based in both a continuum and a tight-binding model, and they can be generalized to any two-dimensional Dirac material with a chiral stacking between layers.

  15. Five-loop anomalous dimension of twist-two operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukowski, T. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Rej, A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Velizhanin, V.N., E-mail: velizh@mail.desy.d [Theoretical Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-21

    In this article we calculate the five-loop anomalous dimension of twist-two operators in the planar N=4 SYM theory. Firstly, using reciprocity, we derive the contribution of the asymptotic Bethe ansatz. Subsequently, we employ the first finite-size correction for the AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} sigma model to determine the wrapping correction. The anomalous dimension found in this way passes all known tests provided by the NLO BFKL equation and double-logarithmic constraints. This result thus furnishes an infinite number of experimental data for testing the veracity of the recently proposed spectral equations for planar AdS/CFT correspondence.

  16. Traveling waves in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.V.; Vakulenko, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    We have described a novel reorientation mechanism in the form of the traveling waves, under influence of an external electric field, directed parallel to both glass plates, which occur in the twisted nematic cell (TNC). It is found that the slowest velocity of the traveling front is proportional to the field strength, and, approximately, in three times higher than the front velocity corresponding to the non-traveling solution. The value of the critical electric field E cr which may excite the traveling waves in the TNC in π times less than the value of the threshold electric field E th corresponding to the untwisted geometry

  17. Modal properties and stability of bend–twist coupled wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Stäblein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coupling between bending and twist has a significant influence on the aeroelastic response of wind turbine blades. The coupling can arise from the blade geometry (e.g. sweep, prebending, or deflection under load or from the anisotropic properties of the blade material. Bend–twist coupling can be utilized to reduce the fatigue loads of wind turbine blades. In this study the effects of material-based coupling on the aeroelastic modal properties and stability limits of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine are investigated. The modal properties are determined by means of eigenvalue analysis around a steady-state equilibrium using the aero-servo-elastic tool HAWCStab2 which has been extended by a beam element that allows for fully coupled cross-sectional properties. Bend–twist coupling is introduced in the cross-sectional stiffness matrix by means of coupling coefficients that introduce twist for flapwise (flap–twist coupling or edgewise (edge–twist coupling bending. Edge–twist coupling can increase or decrease the damping of the edgewise mode relative to the reference blade, depending on the operational condition of the turbine. Edge–twist to feather coupling for edgewise deflection towards the leading edge reduces the inflow speed at which the blade becomes unstable. Flap–twist to feather coupling for flapwise deflections towards the suction side increase the frequency and reduce damping of the flapwise mode. Flap–twist to stall reduces frequency and increases damping. The reduction of blade root flapwise and tower bottom fore–aft moments due to variations in mean wind speed of a flap–twist to feather blade are confirmed by frequency response functions.

  18. Cerclage handling for improved fracture treatment. A biomechanical study on the twisting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähnert, D; Lenz, M; Schlegel, U; Perren, S; Windolf, M

    2011-01-01

    Twisting is clinically the most frequently applied method for tightening and maintaining cerclage fixation. The twisting procedure is controversially discussed. Several factors during twisting affect the mechanical behaviour of the cerclage. This in vitro study investigated the influence of different parameters of the twisting procedure on the fixation strength of the cerclage in an experimental setup with centripetal force application. Cortical half shells of the femoral shaft were mounted on a testing fixture. 1.0 mm, 1.25 mm and 1.5 mm stainless ste- el wire cerclages as well as a 1.0mm cable cerclage were applied to the bone. Pretension of the cerclage during the installation was measured during the locking procedure. Subsequently, cyclic testing was performed up to failure. Higher pretension could be achieved with increasing wire diameter. However, with larger wire diameter the drop of pre- tension due to the bending and cutting the twist also increased. The cable cerclage showed the highest pretension after locking. Cerclages twisted under traction revealed significantly higher initial cerclage tension. Plastically deformed twists offered higher cerclage pretension compared to twists which were deformed in the elastic region of the material. Cutting the wire within the twist caused the highest loss of cerclage tension (44% initial tension) whereas only 11 % was lost when cutting the wire ends separately. The bending direction of the twist significantly influenced the cerclage pretension. 45% pretension was lost in forward bending of the twist, 53% in perpendicular bending and 90% in backward bending. Several parameters affect the quality of a cerclage fixation. Adequate installation of cerclage wires could markedly improve the clinical outcome of cerclage.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of hydrodynamically-coupled stainless steel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel is usually stored temporarily on the site of nuclear power plants. The spent fuel storage racks are nuclear-safety-related stainless steel structures required to be analyzed for seismic loads. When the storage pool is subjected to three-dimensional (3-D) floor seismic excitations, rack modules, stored fuel bundles, adjacent racks and pool walls, and surrounding water are hydrodynamically coupled. Hydrodynamic coupling (HC) significantly affects the dynamic responses of the racks that are free-standing and submerged in water within the pool. A nonlinear time-history dynamic analysis is usually needed to describe the motion behavior of the racks that are both geometrically nonlinear and material nonlinear in nature. The nonlinearities include the friction resistance between the rack supporting legs and the pool floor, and various potential impacts of fuel-rack, rack-rack, and rack-pool wall. The HC induced should be included in the nonlinear dynamic analysis using the added-hydrodynamic-mass concept based on potential theory per the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) acceptance criteria. To this end, a finite element analysis constitutes a feasible and effective tool. However, most people perform somewhat simplified 1-D, or 2-D, or 3-D single rack and 2-D multiple rack analyses. These analyses are incomplete because a 3-D single rack model behaves quite differently from a 2-D mode. Furthermore, a 3-D whole pool multi-rack model behaves differently than a 3-D single rack model, especially when the strong HC effects are unsymmetrical. In this paper 3-D nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses were performed in a more quantitative manner using sophisticated finite element models developed for a single rack as well as all twelve racks in the whole-pool. Typical response results due to different HC effects are determined and discussed

  20. The topological B model as a twisted spinning particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Neil; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    1994-01-01

    The B-twisted topological sigma model coupled to topological gravity is supposed to be described by an ordinary field theory: a type of holomorphic Chern-Simons theory for the open string, and the Kodaira-Spencer theory for the closed string. We show that the B model can be represented as a particle theory, obtained by reducing the sigma model to one dimension, and replacing the coupling to topological gravity by a coupling to a twisted one-dimensional supergravity. The particle can be defined on any Kaehler manifold - it does not require the Calabi-Yau condition - so it may provide a more generalized setting for the B model than the topological sigma model.The one-loop partition function of the particle can be written in terms of the Ray-Singer torsion of the manifold, and agrees with that of the original B model. After showing how to deform the Kaehler and complex structures in the particle, we prove the independence of this partition function on the Kaehler structure, and investigate the origin of the holomorphic anomaly. To define other amplitudes, one needs to introduce interactions into the particle. The particle will then define a field theory, which may or may not be the Chern-Simons or Kodaira-Spencer theories. ((orig.))

  1. Angular momentum transport with twisted exciton wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.

    2017-10-01

    A chain of cofacial molecules with CN or CN h symmetry supports excitonic states with a screwlike structure. These can be quantified with the combination of an axial wave number and an azimuthal winding number. Combinations of these states can be used to construct excitonic wave packets that spiral down the chain with well-determined linear and angular momenta. These twisted exciton wave packets can be created and annihilated using laser pulses, and their angular momentum can be optically modified during transit. This allows for the creation of optoexcitonic circuits in which information, encoded in the angular momentum of light, is converted into excitonic wave packets that can be manipulated, transported, and then reemitted. A tight-binding paradigm is used to demonstrate the key ideas. The approach is then extended to quantify the evolution of twisted exciton wave packets in a many-body, multilevel time-domain density functional theory setting. In both settings, numerical methods are developed that allow the site-to-site transfer of angular momentum to be quantified.

  2. Reconstruction of Twist Torque in Main Parachute Risers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of twist torque in the Main Parachute Risers of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been successfully used to validate CPAS Model Memo conservative twist torque equations. Reconstruction of basic, one degree of freedom drop tests was used to create a functional process for the evaluation of more complex, rigid body simulation. The roll, pitch, and yaw of the body, the fly-out angles of the parachutes, and the relative location of the parachutes to the body are inputs to the torque simulation. The data collected by the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was used to calculate the true torque. The simulation then used photogrammetric and IMU data as inputs into the Model Memo equations. The results were then compared to the true torque results to validate the Model Memo equations. The Model Memo parameters were based off of steel risers and the parameters will need to be re-evaluated for different materials. Photogrammetric data was found to be more accurate than the inertial data in accounting for the relative rotation between payload and cluster. The Model Memo equations were generally a good match and when not matching were generally conservative.

  3. The dipole representation of vector meson electroproduction beyond leading twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besse, A. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); Szymanowski, L. [National Center for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S., E-mail: wallon@th.u-psud.fr [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Faculte de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-02-01

    We link the recent computation beyond leading twist of the impact factor of the transition {gamma}{sub T}{sup Low-Asterisk }{yields}{rho}{sub T} performed in the light-cone collinear approach, to the dipole picture by expressing the hard part of the process through its Fourier transform in coordinate space. We show that in the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation the impact factor up to twist 3 factorises in the wave function of the photon combined with the distribution amplitudes of the {rho}-meson and the colour dipole scattering amplitude with the t-channel gluons. We show also that beyond the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation, the hard contribution of the amplitude still exhibits the signature of the interaction of a single colour dipole with the t-channel gluons. This result allows a phenomenological approach of the helicity amplitudes of the leptoproduction of vector meson, by combining our results to a dipole/target scattering amplitude model.

  4. Beams made of twisted atoms: A theoretical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayrapetyan, Armen [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Matula, Oliver [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Surzhykov, Andrey [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fritzsche, Stephan [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We have analyzed Bessel beams of two-level atoms that are driven by a linearly polarized laser light. Based on the Schroedinger equation for two-level systems, we first determine the states of two-level atoms in a plane-wave field by taking into account propagation directions both of the atom and the field. For such laser-driven two-level atoms, we construct Bessel beams by going beyond the typical paraxial approximation. In particular, we show that the probability density of these atomic beams exhibits a non-trivial, Bessel-squared-type behavior. The profile of such twisted atoms is affected by atom and laser parameters, such as the nuclear charge, atom velocity, laser frequency, and propagation geometry of the atom and laser beams. Moreover, we spatially and temporally characterize the beam of hydrogen and selected (neutral) alkali-metal atoms that carry non-zero orbital angular momentum (OAM). The proposed spatiotemporal Bessel states (i) are able to describe twisted states of any two-level system which is driven by the radiation field and (ii) have potential applications in atomic and nuclear processes as well as in quantum communication.

  5. M(atrix) theory on an orbifold and twisted membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N.

    1997-01-01

    M(atrix) theory on an orbifold and classical two-branes therein are studied with particular emphasis on heterotic M(atrix) theory on S 1 / Z 2 relevant to strongly coupled heterotic and dual type IA string theories. By analyzing the orbifold condition on Chan-Paton factors, we show that three choices of gauge group are possible for heterotic M(atrix) theory: SO(2N), SO(2N+1) or USp(2N). By examining the area-preserving diffeomorphism that underlies the M(atrix) theory, we find that each choice of gauge group restricts the possible topologies of two-branes. The result suggests that only the choice of SO(2N) or SO(2N+1) allows open two-branes, and hence, is relevant to heterotic M(atrix) theory. We show that the requirement of both local vacuum energy cancellation and of world-sheet anomaly cancellation of the resulting heterotic string identifies supersymmetric twisted sector spectra with sixteen fundamental representation spinors from each of the two fixed points. Twisted open and closed two-brane configurations are obtained in the large N limit. (orig.)

  6. Dickens's Dichotomous Formula for Social Reform In Oliver Twist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Badinjki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Twist was a direct appeal to society to take action against poverty, exploitation of children, oppression of women, and was meant to be a picture of the "dregs of life” in all their deformity and wretchedness. Among the most miserable inhabitants of the world of Oliver Twist, Nancy appears as a key figure.  Dickens was anxious to expose the truth about such a woman because he believed it would be a service to society. Dickens's portrayal of Nancy illustrates the power of the dual conception of womanhood  held at the time. On the one hand, a woman might be conceived as someone refined and somewhat remote from ordinary life like Rose Maylie. On the other hand, there was a certain fascination in a woman's degradation, even though that could be shown only indirectly.  Nancy is a demonstration of the two elements combined together. Dickens took the ideal nature of womanhood  and the depravity of the prostitute, and combined them in a remarkable dramatization which he had some right to claim was also true to life. The book is an astounding rebuttal of contemporary prejudice, and a call for more humane and liberal attitudes. These attitudes  are based on the concepts that there is now a radically different way of looking at human nature, that everything ought to depend on what one is in oneself, and that it is only in love that humans can live purposefully and happily with each other.

  7. Friction spinning - Twist phenomena and the capability of influencing them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossen, Benjamin; Homberg, Werner

    2016-10-01

    The friction spinning process can be allocated to the incremental forming techniques. The process consists of process elements from both metal spinning and friction welding. The selective combination of process elements from these two processes results in the integration of friction sub-processes in a spinning process. This implies self-induced heat generation with the possibility of manufacturing functionally graded parts from tube and sheets. Compared with conventional spinning processes, this in-process heat treatment permits the extension of existing forming limits and also the production of more complex geometries. Furthermore, the defined adjustment of part properties like strength, grain size/orientation and surface conditions can be achieved through the appropriate process parameter settings and consequently by setting a specific temperature profile in combination with the degree of deformation. The results presented from tube forming start with an investigation into the resulting twist phenomena in flange processing. In this way, the influence of the main parameters, such as rotation speed, feed rate, forming paths and tool friction surface, and their effects on temperature, forces and finally the twist behavior are analyzed. Following this, the significant correlations with the parameters and a new process strategy are set out in order to visualize the possibility of achieving a defined grain texture orientation.

  8. The ρ-meson longitudinal leading-twist distribution amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bing Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we suggest a convenient model for the vector ρ-meson longitudinal leading-twist distribution amplitude ϕ2;ρ‖, whose distribution is controlled by a single parameter B2;ρ‖. By choosing proper chiral current in the correlator, we obtain new light-cone sum rules (LCSR for the B→ρ TFFs A1, A2 and V, in which the δ1-order ϕ2;ρ‖ provides dominant contributions. Then we make a detailed discussion on the ϕ2;ρ‖ properties via those B→ρ TFFs. A proper choice of B2;ρ‖ can make all the TFFs agree with the lattice QCD predictions. A prediction of |Vub| has also been presented by using the extrapolated TFFs, which indicates that a larger B2;ρ‖ leads to a larger |Vub|. To compare with the BABAR data on |Vub|, the longitudinal leading-twist DA ϕ2;ρ‖ prefers a doubly-humped behavior.

  9. Maximally twisted mass lattice QCD at the physical pion mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    In computer simulations of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, the usage of unphysically large quark masses and the subsequent extrapolation of results to the physical value of the quark masses are major sources of systematic uncertainty. In this thesis, the feasibility and practicality of numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics with physically light up and down quarks using the Wilson twisted mass quark discretisation are explored. Working in this regime is complicated firstly by the numerical expense of these simulations and secondly by the presence of potentially large lattice artefacts. The twisted mass discretisation is affected by an unphysical mass difference between the charged and neutral pions, rendering simulations at the physical charged pion mass infeasible if this mass splitting is too large. With the aim of reducing it, the Sheikholeslami-Wohlert term is added to the twisted mass fermion action and simulations with mass degenerate up and down quarks are then performed as a proof of concept. It is demonstrated that these simulations are stable and that the parameters of the lattice theory can be successfully tuned to correspond to the physical charged pion mass. Subsequently, the parameter tuning for simulations with mass degenerate up and down quarks as well as strange and charm quarks is explored and it is shown that it can be carried out in steps. As benchmark observables, the masses and decay constants of pseudoscalar mesons with light, strange and charm valence quarks are calculated and seen to largely reproduce their phenomenological values, even though continuum and infinite volume extrapolations are not performed. Light, strange and charm quark mass estimates are determined based on this data and also seen to coincide with phenomenological and other lattice determinations. In this analysis, a particular emphasis is placed on the systematic error due to the choice of fit range for pseudoscalar correlation functions and a weighting method is

  10. Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by transactivation of Twist1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Xin-Hong; Lv, Xin-Quan; Li, Hui-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. • Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition through transactivation of Twist1 expression. - Abstract: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a highly conserved cellular program, plays an important role in normal embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Twist1, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, is overexpressed in breast cancer and contributes to metastasis by promoting EMT. In exploring the mechanism underlying the increased Twist1 in breast cancer cells, we found that the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 5(Sox5) is up-regulation in breast cancer cells and depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, depletion of Sox5 in breast cancer cells caused a dramatic decrease in Twist1 and chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that Sox5 can bind directly to the Twist1 promoter, suggesting that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. We further demonstrated that knockdown of Sox5 up-regulated epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin 1), resulting in suppression of EMT. Our study suggests that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression and plays an important role in the regulation of breast cancer progression

  11. The geometrical origin of the strain-twist coupling in double helices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A simple geometrical explanation for the counterintuitive phenomenon when twist leads to extension in double helices is presented. The coupling between strain and twist is investigated using a tubular description. It is shown that the relation between strain and rotation is universal and depends...

  12. Effect of Magnetic Twist on Nonlinear Transverse Kink Oscillations of Line-tied Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Magyar, N.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in many structures of the solar atmosphere. One of the effects of twist is to modify the properties of the eigenmodes of magnetic tubes. In the linear regime standing kink solutions are characterized by a change in polarization of the transverse displacement along the twisted tube. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic twist affects the development of shear instabilities that appear at the tube boundary when it is oscillating laterally. These Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) are produced either by the jump in the azimuthal component of the velocity at the edge of the sharp boundary between the internal and external part of the tube or by the continuous small length scales produced by phase mixing when there is a smooth inhomogeneous layer. In this work the effect of twist is consistently investigated by solving the time-dependent problem including the process of energy transfer to the inhomogeneous layer. It is found that twist always delays the appearance of the shear instability, but for tubes with thin inhomogeneous layers the effect is relatively small for moderate values of twist. On the contrary, for tubes with thick layers, the effect of twist is much stronger. This can have some important implications regarding observations of transverse kink modes and the KHI itself.

  13. Light hadrons from Nf=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, R.; Blossier, B.; Boucaud, P.; Carbonell, J.; Deuzeman, A.; Drach, V.; Farchioni, F.; Gimenez, V.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K.; Michael, C.; Montvay, I.; Pallante, E.; Pène, O.; Reker, S.; Urbach, C.; Wagner, M.; Wenger, U.; Collaboration, for the ETM

    2011-01-01

    We present results of lattice QCD simulations with mass-degenerate up and down and mass-split strange and charm (Nf=2+1+1) dynamical quarks using Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. The tuning of the strange and charm quark masses is performed at three values of the lattice spacing a~0.06

  14. First results of ETMC simulations with Nf=2+1+1 maximally twisted mass fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, R.; Blossier, B.; Boucaud, P.; Deuzeman, A.; Drach, V.; Farchioni, F.; Gimenez, V.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K.; Michael, C.; Montvay, I.; Palao, D.; Pallante, E.; Pène, O.; Reker, S.; Urbach, C.; Wagner, M.; Wenger, U.; Collaboration, for the ETM

    2009-01-01

    We present first results from runs performed with Nf=2+1+1 flavours of dynamical twisted mass fermions at maximal twist: a degenerate light doublet and a mass split heavy doublet. An overview of the input parameters and tuning status of our ensembles is given, together with a comparison with results

  15. Vacuum fluctuations of twisted fields in the space time of cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsas, G.E.A.

    1990-01-01

    A twisted scalar field conformally coupled to gravitation is used to calculate the vacuum stress-energy tensor in the background spacetime generated by an infinite straight gauge cosmic string. The result has an absolute numerical value close to the one obtained with a non-twisted conformal scalar field but their signals are opposite. (author) [pt

  16. Modification of the twist angle in chiral nematic polymer films by photoisomerization of the chiral dopant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, van de P.; Neuteboom, E.E.; Brehmer, M.; Lub, Johan

    1999-01-01

    A method for the production of polarization sensitive recordings in liquid crystalline polymers is presented. The system is based on local modification of the twist angle of chiral nematic polymer films. The twist angle of the polymer film is varied by modifying the chemical structure of the chiral

  17. Higher twist effects in QCD description of light meson exclusive formfactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The general approach to a quantitative description of higher twist effects in hard exclusive processes in QCD is proposed. The consistent calculations in coordinate space and the choice of special gauges for quantum and classical gluon fields are essential ingradients of this method. The self consistent system of twist three wave functions for π-meson has been built

  18. Translational control of TWIST1 expression in MCF-10A cell lines recapitulating breast cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nairismägi, Maarja-Liisa; Vislovukh, Andrii; Meng, Q

    2012-01-01

    and EMT, we found TWIST1 to be upregulated during EMT and downregulated early in carcinogenesis. The TWIST1 3′UTR contains putative regulatory elements, including miRNA target sites and two cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPE). We found that miR-580, CPEB1, and CPEB2 act as negative regulators...

  19. Comparison of split double and triple twists in pair figure skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deborah L; Smith, Sarah L; Brown, Michele R; McCrory, Jean L; Munkasy, Barry A; Scheirman, Gary I

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we compared the kinematic variables of the split triple twist with those of the split double twist to help coaches and scientists understand these landmark pair skating skills. High-speed video was taken during the pair short and free programmes at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics and the 2003 International Skating Union Grand Prix Finals. Three-dimensional analyses of 14 split double twists and 15 split triple twists from eleven pairs were completed. In spite of considerable variability in the performance variables among the pairs, the main difference between the split double twists and split triple twists was an increase in rotational rate. While eight of the eleven pairs relied primarily on an increased rotational rate to complete the split triple twist, three pairs employed a combined strategy of increased rotational rate and increased flight time due predominantly to delayed or lower catches. These results were similar to observations of jumps in singles skating for which the extra rotation is typically due to an increase in rotational velocity; increases in flight time come primarily from delayed landings as opposed to additional height during flight. Combining an increase in flight time and rotational rate may be a good strategy for completing the split triple twist in pair skating.

  20. On the propagation and the twist of Gaussian light in first-order optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Gupta, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar

    1998-01-01

    A measure for the twist of Gaussian light is expressed in terms of the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function. The propagation law for these moments through first-order optical systems is used to express the twist in the output plane in terms of moments in the input plane, and vice

  1. Modal Properties and Stability of Bend-Twist Coupled Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander R.; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Verelst, David Robert

    2017-01-01

    a steady-state equilibrium using the aero-servo-elastic tool HAWCStab2 which has been extended by a beam element that allows for fully coupled cross-sectional properties. Bend-twist coupling is introduced in the cross-sectional stiffness matrix by means of coupling coefficients that introduce twist...

  2. Osserman and conformally Osserman manifolds with warped and twisted product structure

    OpenAIRE

    Brozos-Vazquez, M.; Garcia-Rio, E.; Vazquez-Lorenzo, R.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize Osserman and conformally Osserman Riemannian manifolds with the local structure of a warped product. By means of this approach we analyze the twisted product structure and obtain, as a consequence, that the only Osserman manifolds which can be written as a twisted product are those of constant curvature.

  3. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad [Kent State University, Kent OH 44242 (United States); Ryblewski, Radoslaw [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3){sub q} symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  4. Hydrodynamic Modeling and Its Application in AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Mattia; Byron, Olwyn

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamic parameters measured in an AUC experiment, s(20,w) and D(t)(20,w)(0), can be used to gain information on the solution structure of (bio)macromolecules and their assemblies. This entails comparing the measured parameters with those that can be computed from usually "dry" structures by "hydrodynamic modeling." In this chapter, we will first briefly put hydrodynamic modeling in perspective and present the basic physics behind it as implemented in the most commonly used methods. The important "hydration" issue is also touched upon, and the distinction between rigid bodies versus those for which flexibility must be considered in the modeling process is then made. The available hydrodynamic modeling/computation programs, HYDROPRO, BEST, SoMo, AtoB, and Zeno, the latter four all implemented within the US-SOMO suite, are described and their performance evaluated. Finally, some literature examples are presented to illustrate the potential applications of hydrodynamics in the expanding field of multiresolution modeling. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)_q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  6. Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for ALT in hadron production from pp collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Koike

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry ALT in inclusive (light hadron production from proton–proton collisions, i.e., p↑p→→hX. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2 transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature, we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

  7. An improved hazard rate twisting approach for the statistic of the sum of subexponential variates

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we present an improved hazard rate twisting technique for the estimation of the probability that a sum of independent but not necessarily identically distributed subexponential Random Variables (RVs) exceeds a given threshold. Instead of twisting all the components in the summation, we propose to twist only the RVs which have the biggest impact on the right-tail of the sum distribution and keep the other RVs unchanged. A minmax approach is performed to determine the optimal twisting parameter which leads to an asymptotic optimality criterion. Moreover, we show through some selected simulation results that our proposed approach results in a variance reduction compared to the technique where all the components are twisted.

  8. Supersymmetric gauged double field theory: systematic derivation by virtue of twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Wonyoung; Fernández-Melgarejo, J.J.; Jeon, Imtak; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2015-01-01

    In a completely systematic and geometric way, we derive maximal and half-maximal supersymmetric gauged double field theories in lower than ten dimensions. To this end, we apply a simple twisting ansatz to the D=10 ungauged maximal and half-maximal supersymmetric double field theories constructed previously within the so-called semi-covariant formalism. The twisting ansatz may not satisfy the section condition. Nonetheless, all the features of the semi-covariant formalism, including its complete covariantizability, are still valid after the twist under alternative consistency conditions. The twist allows gaugings as supersymmetry preserving deformations of the D=10 untwisted theories after Scherk-Schwarz-type dimensional reductions. The maximal supersymmetric twist requires an extra condition to ensure both the Ramond-Ramond gauge symmetry and the 32 supersymmetries unbroken.

  9. The geometrical origin of the strain-twist coupling in double helices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Olsen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple geometrical explanation for the counterintuitive phenomenon when twist leads to extension in double helices is presented. The coupling between strain and twist is investigated using a tubular description. It is shown that the relation between strain and rotation is universal and depends only on the pitch angle. For pitch angles below 39.4° strain leads to further winding, while for larger pitch angles strain leads to unwinding. The zero-twist structure, with a pitch angle of 39.4°, is at the unique point between winding and unwinding and independent of the mechanical properties of the double helix. The existence of zero-twist structures, i.e. structures that display neither winding, nor unwinding under strain is discussed. Close-packed double helices are shown to extend rather than shorten when twisted. Numerical estimates of this elongation upon winding are given for DNA, chromatin, and RNA.

  10. Gauging the twisted Poincare symmetry as a noncommutative theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A.; Oksanen, M.; Zet, G.

    2009-01-01

    Einstein's theory of general relativity was formulated as a gauge theory of Lorentz symmetry by Utiyama in 1956, while the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory was formulated by Kibble in 1961 as the gauge theory of Poincare transformations. In this framework, we propose a formulation of the gravitational theory on canonical noncommutative space-time by covariantly gauging the twisted Poincare symmetry, in order to fulfil the requirement of covariance under the general coordinate transformations, an essential ingredient of the theory of general relativity. It appears that the twisted Poincare symmetry cannot be gauged by generalizing the Abelian twist to a covariant non-Abelian twist, nor by introducing a more general covariant twist element. The advantages of such a formulation as well as the related problems are discussed and possible ways out are outlined.

  11. QCD factorization of exclusive processes beyond leading twist: γT*→ρT impact factor with twist three accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Ivanov, D.Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method involves the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light cone. We compare the proposed method with the covariant method formulated in the coordinate space, based on the operator product expansion. We prove the equivalence of two proposed parametrizations of the ρ T distribution amplitudes. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised ρ-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy within these two quite different methods and show that they are identical.

  12. Optical yarn assessment system for twist measurement in rotor-spun yarn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhatial, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an optical yarn assessment system for evaluation of twist and structure of twisted yarn. The system comprises a yarn carriage unit, a video microscope and a personal computer. This system was used in conjunction with the well-known tracer fibre technique. This system enables digital images to be grabbed and continuous movies of the yarn to be recorded in order to facilitate the measurement of twist and the analysis of yarn structure. Yarn samples from polyester, viscose and cotton with 35 tex and 485 turns/meter were spun from the roving with 2.3% of black fibres on the SKF laboratory ring frame. In order to measure the twist in the rotor yarns with the optical yarn assessment system, a set of yarn samples from same fibres were spun on RU 14 rotor machine with 35 tex and 475 turns/meter. The twist was measured with the optical yarn assessment system and sixty tests of each sample were carried out on the Zweigle D301. It is clear from the results that there is consistency in the twist of ring-spun yarn measured by the optical yarn assessment system. However, the measured twist with the Zwiegle D301 is inconsistent in the different yarns. The difference in the mean twist measured with the optical twist measuring system and the double untwist-twist method was not significant at a 5% probability level when data was analyzed with t test by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). (author)

  13. Twist-1 Up-Regulation in Carcinoma Correlates to Poor Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimujiang Wushou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT facilitates tumor metastasis. Twist is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that modulates many target genes through E-box-responsive elements. There are two twist-like proteins, Twist-1 and Twist-2, sharing high structural homology in mammals. Twist-1 was found to be a key factor in the promotion of metastasis of cancer cells, and is known to induce EMT. Twist-1 participation in carcinoma progression and metastasis has been reported in a variety of tumors. However, controversy exists concerning the correlation between Twist-1 and prognostic value with respect to carcinoma. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether the expression of Twist-1 was associated with the prognosis of carcinoma patients. This analysis included 17 studies: four studies evaluated lung cancer, three evaluated head and neck cancer, two evaluated breast cancer, two evaluated esophageal cancer, two evaluated liver cancer and one each evaluated osteosarcoma, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancer. A total of 2006 patients were enrolled in these studies, and the median trial sample size was 118 patients. Twist-1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (OS at both 3 years (hazard ratio “HR” for death = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.86 to 2.45, p < 0.001 and 5 years (HR for death = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.76 to 2.29, p < 0.001. Expression of Twist-1 is associated with worse survival in carcinoma.

  14. A theoretical study of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojo, S; Benito, Y

    2008-03-01

    The optimization of hydrodynamic cavitation as an AOP requires identifying the key parameters and studying their effects on the process. Specific simulations of hydrodynamic bubbles reveal that time scales play a major role on the process. Rarefaction/compression periods generate a number of opposing effects which have demonstrated to be quantitatively different from those found in ultrasonic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation can be upscaled and offers an energy efficient way of generating cavitation. On the other hand, the large characteristic time scales hinder bubble collapse and generate a low number of cavitation cycles per unit time. By controlling the pressure pulse through a flexible cavitation chamber design these limitations can be partially compensated. The chemical processes promoted by this technique are also different from those found in ultrasonic cavitation. Properties such as volatility or hydrophobicity determine the potential applicability of HC and therefore have to be taken into account.

  15. Shear viscosity, cavitation and hydrodynamics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Sreekanth, V.

    2011-01-01

    We study evolution of quark-gluon matter in the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within the frame work of relativistic second-order viscous hydrodynamics. In particular, by using the various prescriptions of a temperature-dependent shear viscosity to the entropy ratio, we show that the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic fluid becomes invalid due to the phenomenon of cavitation. For most of the initial conditions relevant for LHC, the cavitation sets in very early stage. The cavitation in this case is entirely driven by the large values of shear viscosity. Moreover we also demonstrate that the conformal terms used in equations of the relativistic dissipative hydrodynamic can influence the cavitation time.

  16. The RAGE radiation-hydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittings, Michael; Clover, Michael; Betlach, Thomas; Byrne, Nelson; Ranta, Dale [Science Applications International Corp. MS A-1, 10260 Campus Point Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Weaver, Robert; Coker, Robert; Dendy, Edward; Hueckstaedt, Robert; New, Kim; Oakes, W Rob [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T087, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stefan, Ryan [TaylorMade-adidas Golf, 5545 Fermi Court, Carlsbad, CA 92008-7324 (United States)], E-mail: michael.r.clover@saic.com

    2008-10-01

    We describe RAGE, the 'radiation adaptive grid Eulerian' radiation-hydrodynamics code, including its data structures, its parallelization strategy and performance, its hydrodynamic algorithm(s), its (gray) radiation diffusion algorithm, and some of the considerable amount of verification and validation efforts. The hydrodynamics is a basic Godunov solver, to which we have made significant improvements to increase the advection algorithm's robustness and to converge stiffnesses in the equation of state. Similarly, the radiation transport is a basic gray diffusion, but our treatment of the radiation-material coupling, wherein we converge nonlinearities in a novel manner to allow larger timesteps and more robust behavior, can be applied to any multi-group transport algorithm.

  17. The RAGE radiation-hydrodynamic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittings, Michael; Clover, Michael; Betlach, Thomas; Byrne, Nelson; Ranta, Dale; Weaver, Robert; Coker, Robert; Dendy, Edward; Hueckstaedt, Robert; New, Kim; Oakes, W Rob; Stefan, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    We describe RAGE, the 'radiation adaptive grid Eulerian' radiation-hydrodynamics code, including its data structures, its parallelization strategy and performance, its hydrodynamic algorithm(s), its (gray) radiation diffusion algorithm, and some of the considerable amount of verification and validation efforts. The hydrodynamics is a basic Godunov solver, to which we have made significant improvements to increase the advection algorithm's robustness and to converge stiffnesses in the equation of state. Similarly, the radiation transport is a basic gray diffusion, but our treatment of the radiation-material coupling, wherein we converge nonlinearities in a novel manner to allow larger timesteps and more robust behavior, can be applied to any multi-group transport algorithm

  18. Non-Abelian hydrodynamics and the flow of spin in spin-orbit coupled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurs, B.W.A.; Nazario, Z.; Santiago, D.I.; Zaanen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the heavy ion collision experiments there is much activity in studying the hydrodynamical properties of non-Abelian (quark-gluon) plasmas. A major question is how to deal with color currents. Although not widely appreciated, quite similar issues arise in condensed matter physics in the context of the transport of spins in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The key insight is that the Pauli Hamiltonian governing the leading relativistic corrections in condensed matter systems can be rewritten in a language of SU(2) covariant derivatives where the role of the non-Abelian gauge fields is taken by the physical electromagnetic fields: the Pauli system can be viewed as Yang-Mills quantum-mechanics in a 'fixed frame', and it can be viewed as an 'analogous system' for non-Abelian transport in the same spirit as Volovik's identification of the He superfluids as analogies for quantum fields in curved space time. We take a similar perspective as Jackiw and coworkers in their recent study of non-Abelian hydrodynamics, twisting the interpretation into the 'fixed frame' context, to find out what this means for spin transport in condensed matter systems. We present an extension of Jackiw's scheme: non-Abelian hydrodynamical currents can be factored in a 'non-coherent' classical part, and a coherent part requiring macroscopic non-Abelian quantum entanglement. Hereby it becomes particularly manifest that non-Abelian fluid flow is a much richer affair than familiar hydrodynamics, and this permits us to classify the various spin transport phenomena in condensed matter physics in an unifying framework. The 'particle based hydrodynamics' of Jackiw et al. is recognized as the high temperature spin transport associated with semiconductor spintronics. In this context the absence of faithful hydrodynamics is well known, but in our formulation it is directly associated with the fact that the covariant conservation of non-Abelian currents turns into a disastrous non

  19. Impact of hydrodynamic stresses on bacterial flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debasish; Riley, Emily; Lauga, Eric

    2017-11-01

    The locomotion of bacteria powered by helical filaments, such as Escherichia coli, critically involves the generation of flows and hydrodynamic stresses which lead to forces and moments balanced by the moment applied by the bacterial rotary motor (which is embedded in the cell wall) and the deformation of the short flexible hook. In this talk we use numerical computations to accurately compute these hydrodynamic stresses, to show how they critically lead to fluid-structure instabilities at the whole-cell level, and enquire if they can be used to rationalise experimental measurements of bacterial motor torques. ERC Consolidator Grant.

  20. Hydrodynamics of quark-gluon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1986-06-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of the hydrodynamics of quark-gluon plasmas. Various stages of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions are described. Several estimates of the maximum energy density expected to be achieved in these collisions are compared. Discontinuities which may be induced in the hydrodynamic flow by a phase transition are described and a convenient numerical method designed to deal with such discontinuous flows is briefly presented. Finally, the correlations between particle transverse momenta and multiplicities are analyzed and one discusses to which extent these correlations could signal the occurrence of a phase transition in heavy ion collisions

  1. FDTD for Hydrodynamic Electron Fluid Maxwell Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxue Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we develop a numerical method for solving the three dimensional hydrodynamic electron fluid Maxwell equations that describe the electron gas dynamics driven by an external electromagnetic wave excitation. Our numerical approach is based on the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method for solving the Maxwell’s equations and an explicit central finite difference method for solving the hydrodynamic electron fluid equations containing both electron density and current equations. Numerical results show good agreement with the experiment of studying the second-harmonic generation (SHG from metallic split-ring resonator (SRR.

  2. Modeling of laser-driven hydrodynamics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, Carlos; Doss, Forrest; Rasmus, Alex; Flippo, Kirk; Desjardins, Tiffany; Merritt, Elizabeth; Kline, John; Hager, Jon; Bradley, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Correct interpretation of hydrodynamics experiments driven by a laser-produced shock depends strongly on an understanding of the time-dependent effect of the irradiation conditions on the flow. In this talk, we discuss the modeling of such experiments using the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code. The focus is an instability experiment consisting of a period of relatively-steady shock conditions in which the Richtmyer-Meshkov process dominates, followed by a period of decaying flow conditions, in which the dominant growth process changes to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The use of a laser model is essential for capturing the transition. also University of Michigan.

  3. Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...... hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3...

  4. Introduction to physics mechanics, hydrodynamics thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of Physics: Mechanics , Hydrodynamics, Thermodynamics covers the principles of matter and its motion through space and time, as well as the related concepts of energy and force. This book is composed of eleven chapters, and begins with an introduction to the basic principles of mechanics, hydrodynamics, and thermodynamics. The subsequent chapters deal with the statics of rigid bodies and the dynamics of particles and rigid bodies. These topics are followed by discussions on elasticity, mechanics of fluids, the basic concept of thermodynamic, kinetic theory, and crystal structure o

  5. Shadowfax: Moving mesh hydrodynamical integration code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Shadowfax simulates galaxy evolution. Written in object-oriented modular C++, it evolves a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. For the hydrodynamical integration, it makes use of a (co-) moving Lagrangian mesh. The code has a 2D and 3D version, contains utility programs to generate initial conditions and visualize simulation snapshots, and its input/output is compatible with a number of other simulation codes, e.g. Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) and GIZMO (ascl:1410.003).

  6. Thermal rectification based on phonon hydrodynamics and thermomass theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal diode is the fundamental device for phononics. There are various mechanisms for thermal rectification, e.g. different temperature dependent thermal conductivity of two ends, asymmetric interfacial resistance, and nonlocal behavior of phonon transport in asymmetric structures. The phonon hydrodynamics and thermomass theory treat the heat conduction in a fluidic viewpoint. The phonon gas flowing through the media is characterized by the balance equation of momentum, like the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid mechanics. Generalized heat conduction law thereby contains the spatial acceleration (convection term and the viscous (Laplacian term. The viscous term predicts the size dependent thermal conductivity. Rectification appears due to the MFP supersession of phonons. The convection term also predicts rectification because of the inertia effect, like a gas passing through a nozzle or diffuser.

  7. Hydrodynamics of planing monohull watercraft

    CERN Document Server

    Vorus, William S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the principles involved in the design and engineering of planing monohull power boats, with an emphasis on the theoretical fundamentals that readers need in order to be fully functional in marine design and engineering. Author William Vorus focuses on three topics: boat resistance, seaway response, and propulsion and explains the physical principles, mathematical details, and theoretical details that support physical understanding. In particular, he explains the approximations and simplifications in mathematics that lead to success in the applications of planing craft design engineering, and begins with the simplest configuration that embodies the basic physics. He leads readers, step-by-step, through the physical complications that occur, leading to a useful working knowledge of marine design and engineering. Included in the book are a wealth of examples that exemplify some of the most important naval architecture and marine engineering problems that challenge many of today’s engineers.

  8. Hydrodynamics of writing with ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungchul; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Mahadevan, L; Kim, Ho-Young

    2011-12-23

    Writing with ink involves the supply of liquid from a pen onto a porous hydrophilic solid surface, paper. The resulting linewidth depends on the pen speed and the physicochemical properties of the ink and paper. Here we quantify the dynamics of this process using a combination of experiment and theory. Our experiments are carried out using a minimal pen, a long narrow tube that serves as a reservoir of liquid, which can write on a model of paper, a hydrophilic micropillar array. A minimal theory for the rate of wicking or spreading of the liquid is given by balancing the capillary force that drives the liquid flow and the resistance associated with flow through the porous substrate. This allows us to predict the shape of the front and the width of the line laid out by the pen, with results that are corroborated by our experiments.

  9. Existence and equivalence of twisted products on a symplectic manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichnerowicz, A.

    1979-01-01

    The twisted products play an important role in Quantum Mechanics. A distinction is introduced between Vey *sub(γ) products and strong Vey *sub(γ) products and it is proved that each *sub(γ) product is equivalent to a Vey *sub(γ) product. If b 3 (W) = 0, the symplectic manifold (W,F) admits strong Vey *sub(Gn) products. If b 2 (W) = 0, all *sub(γ) products are equivalent as well as the Vey Lie algebras. In the general case the formal Lie algebras are characterized which are generated by a *sub(γ) product and it proved that the existance of a *sub(γ)-product is equivalent to the existance of a formal Lie algebra infinitesimally equivalent to a Vey Lie algebra at the first order. (Auth.)

  10. The self-field effect in twisted superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Turck, B.; Krempasky, L.; Polak, M.

    1976-01-01

    Since twisting of composites does not cause a transposition with respect to the self-field of the transport current, they behave like a bulk superconductor with averaged critical current density, when the transport current is changed. Consequently, the electric field is given by the history of the transport current changes. Using a simplified model (Jsub(c) = const) the expressions for the electric fields and losses for the first and immediately following second increase of the transport current are derived. Experimental results are also presented which clearly show higher electric field during the first run than during the following, which agrees with theoretical predictions. Quite a good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment was obtained up to about 80 % of the critical transport current. The influence of the copper matrix is also discussed. (author)

  11. Accelerating Twisted Mass LQCD with QPhiX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröck, Mario [INFN, Rome3; Simula, Silvano [INFN, Rome3; Strelchenko, Alexei [Fermilab

    2016-07-08

    We present the implementation of twisted mass fermion operators for the QPhiX library. We analyze the performance on the Intel Xeon Phi (Knights Corner) coprocessor as well as on Intel Xeon Haswell CPUs. In particular, we demonstrate that on the Xeon Phi 7120P the Dslash kernel is able to reach 80\\% of the theoretical peak bandwidth, while on a Xeon Haswell E5-2630 CPU our generated code for the Dslash operator with AVX2 instructions outperforms the corresponding implementation in the tmLQCD library by a factor of $\\sim 5\\times$ in single precision. We strong scale the code up to 6.8 (14.1) Tflops in single (half) precision on 64 Xeon Haswell CPUs.

  12. Threshold corrections and gauge symmetry in twisted superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Threshold corrections to the running of gauge couplings are calculated for superstring models with free complex world sheet fermions. For two N=1 SU(2)xU(1) 5 models, the threshold corrections lead to a small increase in the unification scale. Examples are given to illustrate how a given particle spectrum can be described by models with different boundary conditions on the internal fermions. We also discuss how complex twisted fermions can enhance the symmetry group of an N=4, SU(3)xU(1)xU(1) model to the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). It is then shown how a mixing angle analogous to the Weinberg angle depends on the boundary conditions of the internal fermions

  13. DNA origami-based nanoribbons: assembly, length distribution, and twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmann, Ralf; Scheible, Max; Kuzyk, Anton; Pardatscher, Guenther; Simmel, Friedrich C [Lehrstuhl fuer Bioelektronik, Physik-Department and ZNN/WSI, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Castro, Carlos E, E-mail: simmel@ph.tum.de [Labor fuer Biomolekulare Nanotechnologie, Physik-Department and ZNN/WSI, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4a, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-08

    A variety of polymerization methods for the assembly of elongated nanoribbons from rectangular DNA origami structures are investigated. The most efficient method utilizes single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides to bridge an intermolecular scaffold seam between origami monomers. This approach allows the fabrication of origami ribbons with lengths of several micrometers, which can be used for long-range ordered arrangement of proteins. It is quantitatively shown that the length distribution of origami ribbons obtained with this technique follows the theoretical prediction for a simple linear polymerization reaction. The design of flat single layer origami structures with constant crossover spacing inevitably results in local underwinding of the DNA helix, which leads to a global twist of the origami structures that also translates to the nanoribbons.

  14. DNA origami-based nanoribbons: assembly, length distribution, and twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, Ralf; Scheible, Max; Kuzyk, Anton; Pardatscher, Guenther; Simmel, Friedrich C; Castro, Carlos E

    2011-01-01

    A variety of polymerization methods for the assembly of elongated nanoribbons from rectangular DNA origami structures are investigated. The most efficient method utilizes single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides to bridge an intermolecular scaffold seam between origami monomers. This approach allows the fabrication of origami ribbons with lengths of several micrometers, which can be used for long-range ordered arrangement of proteins. It is quantitatively shown that the length distribution of origami ribbons obtained with this technique follows the theoretical prediction for a simple linear polymerization reaction. The design of flat single layer origami structures with constant crossover spacing inevitably results in local underwinding of the DNA helix, which leads to a global twist of the origami structures that also translates to the nanoribbons.

  15. Twisted quantum double model of topological order with boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullivant, Alex; Hu, Yuting; Wan, Yidun

    2017-10-01

    We generalize the twisted quantum double model of topological orders in two dimensions to the case with boundaries by systematically constructing the boundary Hamiltonians. Given the bulk Hamiltonian defined by a gauge group G and a 3-cocycle in the third cohomology group of G over U (1 ) , a boundary Hamiltonian can be defined by a subgroup K of G and a 2-cochain in the second cochain group of K over U (1 ) . The consistency between the bulk and boundary Hamiltonians is dictated by what we call the Frobenius condition that constrains the 2-cochain given the 3-cocyle. We offer a closed-form formula computing the ground-state degeneracy of the model on a cylinder in terms of the input data only, which can be naturally generalized to surfaces with more boundaries. We also explicitly write down the ground-state wave function of the model on a disk also in terms of the input data only.

  16. New findings of twisted-wing parasites (Strepsiptera) in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermott, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Strepsipterans are a group of insects with a gruesome life history and an enigmatic evolutionary past. Called ‘twisted-wing parasites’, they are minute parasitoids with a very distinct morphology (Figure 1). Alternatively thought to be related to ichneumon wasps, Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles), and even Neuroptera (net-winged insects) (Pohl and Beutel, 2013); the latest genetic and morphological data support the sister order relationship of Strepsiptera and Coleoptera (Niehuis et al., 2012). Strepsipterans are highly modified, males having two hind wings and halteres instead of front wings or elytra. Unlike most parasitoids, they develop inside active, living insects who are sexually sterilized but not killed until or after emergence (Kathirithamby et al., 2015).

  17. Topological susceptibility from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We present results of our computation of the topological susceptibility with N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}= +1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions, using the method of spectral projectors. We perform a detailed study of the quark mass dependence and discretization effects. We make an attempt to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract the chiral condensate from the quark mass dependence of the topological susceptibility. We compare the value with the results of our direct computation from the slope of the mode number. We emphasize the role of autocorrelations and the necessity of long Monte Carlo runs to obtain results with good precision. We also show our results for the spectral projector computation of the ratio of renormalization constants Z{sub P}/Z{sub S}.

  18. Localized topological states in Bragg multihelicoidal fibers with twist defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Lapin, B. P.; Milione, G.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the influence of a twist defect in multihelicoidal Bragg fibers on the emerging of localized defect modes. We have shown that if such a fiber is excited with a Gaussian beam this leads to the appearance of a defect-localized topological state, whose topological charge coincides with the order of rotational symmetry of the fiber's refractive index. We have shown that this effect has a pronounced crossover behavior. We have also formulated a principle of creating the systems that can nestle defect-localized topologically charged modes. According to this principle, such systems have to possess topological activity, that is, the ability to change the topological charge of the incoming field, and operate in the Bragg regime.

  19. Topological susceptibility from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia

    2013-12-01

    We present results of our computation of the topological susceptibility with N f =2 and N f = +1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions, using the method of spectral projectors. We perform a detailed study of the quark mass dependence and discretization effects. We make an attempt to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract the chiral condensate from the quark mass dependence of the topological susceptibility. We compare the value with the results of our direct computation from the slope of the mode number. We emphasize the role of autocorrelations and the necessity of long Monte Carlo runs to obtain results with good precision. We also show our results for the spectral projector computation of the ratio of renormalization constants Z P /Z S .

  20. Strong-field ionization with twisted laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paufler, Willi; Böning, Birger; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    We apply quantum trajectory Monte Carlo computations in order to model strong-field ionization of atoms by twisted Bessel pulses and calculate photoelectron momentum distributions (PEMD). Since Bessel beams can be considered as an infinite superposition of circularly polarized plane waves with the same helicity, whose wave vectors lie on a cone, we compared the PEMD of such Bessel pulses to those of a circularly polarized pulse. We focus on the momentum distributions in propagation direction of the pulse and show how these momentum distributions are affected by experimental accessible parameters, such as the opening angle of the beam or the impact parameter of the atom with regard to the beam axis. In particular, we show that we can find higher momenta of the photoelectrons, if the opening angle is increased.

  1. Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking

  2. On the difficulty of computing higher-twist corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, G.; Sachrajda, C.T.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the evaluation of power corrections to hard scattering and decay processes for which an operator product expansion is applicable. The Wilson coefficient of the leading-twist operator is the difference of two perturbative series, each of which has a renormalon ambiguity of the same order as the power corrections themselves, but which cancel in the difference. We stress the necessity of calculating this coefficient function to sufficiently high orders in perturbation theory so as to make the uncertainty of the same order of or smaller than the relevant power corrections. We investigate in some simple examples whether this can be achieved. Our conclusion is that in most of the theoretical calculations which include power corrections, the uncertainties are at least comparable to the power corrections themselves, and that it will be a very difficult task to improve the situation. (orig.)

  3. Nanofibrous Smart Fabrics from Twisted Yarns of Electrospun Piezopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Enlong; Xu, Zhe; Chur, Lucas K; Behroozfar, Ali; Baniasadi, Mahmoud; Moreno, Salvador; Huang, Jiacheng; Gilligan, Jules; Minary-Jolandan, Majid

    2017-07-19

    Smart textiles are envisioned to make a paradigm shift in wearable technologies to directly impart functionality into the fibers rather than integrating sensors and electronics onto conformal substrates or skin in wearable devices. Among smart materials, piezoelectric fabrics have not been widely reported, yet. Piezoelectric smart fabrics can be used for mechanical energy harvesting, for thermal energy harvesting through the pyroelectric effect, for ferroelectric applications, as pressure and force sensors, for motion detection, and for ultrasonic sensing. We report on mechanical and material properties of the plied nanofibrous piezoelectric yarns as a function of postprocessing conditions including thermal annealing and drawing (stretching). In addition, we used a continuous electrospinning setup to directly produce P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers and convert them into twisted plied yarns, and demonstrated application of these plied yarns in woven piezoelectric fabrics. The results of this work can be an early step toward realization of piezoelectric smart fabrics.

  4. Flicker in a twisted nematic spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Hermosillo, Yuliana; García-Márquez, Jorge; Espinosa-Luna, Rafael; Ochoa, Noé Alcalá; López, Víctor; Aguilar, Alberto; Noé-Arias, Enrique; Alayli, Yasser

    2013-06-01

    Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are widely used for their capability to control beams howbeit fluctuations in phase and amplitude. It is then necessary to understand the negative effects of these fluctuations, also known as flicker, and the means to mitigate them. The flicker is observed either as high frequency variations of polarization, attenuation or high phase fluctuations on the wave front modulated by the LCoS device. Here, we compare the flicker behavior in a twisted nematic (TN) LCoS-SLM for different polarization schemes and temperatures. The quantitative evaluation shows that flicker is effectively reduced only by chilling the LCoS panel to temperatures just below 0 °C but, the LCoS modulation capability is also affected.

  5. Nonlinear and hysteretic twisting effects in ocean cable laying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shashaty, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Armored ocean cable unlays under the action of installation tensions and restraining moments applied by the ocean bottom and the ship's bow sheave. The process of elongation and twist is nonlinear and hysteretic. This process has often been assumed linear and reversible. The equations describing the moment which is developed in laying cable on the ocean bottom are worked out, without assuming linearity and reversibility. These equations are applied to some cases likely to arise. For a typical armored coaxial cable laid in 3700m (2,000 fathoms) depth without bottom tension, a steady-state laying-up moment of 134Nm (99 lbs. ft.) is developed. For the reversible case, no moment is developed. If the bottom tension is increased from zero to 33,375N (7500 lbs.) and then returned to zero, a peak moment of 198Nm (146 lbs. ft.) is developed

  6. Fatigue Behaviors of Materials Processed by Planar Twist Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahmoud

    2017-12-01

    Since the last decade, the fabrication of ultrafine grain and nanostructure metals and alloys has attracted much attention in the field of materials engineering. The present study aimed at experimentally investigating the fatigue properties that are of great importance in dynamic structures before and after the planar twist extrusion process for both commercially pure copper and 6061 aluminum alloy. The results indicated that the yield strength, tensile strength, hardness, and fatigue endurance of copper increased by about 398, 122, 198, and 183 pct, respectively, while they improved by about 429, 212, 227, and 148 pct, respectively, in aluminum alloy as compared to the initial conditions. The stress-strain curves displayed sizable reduction of strain hardening. Furthermore, grain-size correction factors based on the empirical results were introduced to include the effect of the grain-size effect on both low and high-cycle fatigue strengths of the material.

  7. Gaussian tunneling model of c-axis twist Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bille, A.; Klemm, R.A.; Scharnberg, K.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate the critical current density J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) for Josephson tunneling between identical high-temperature superconductors twisted an angle (var p hi) 0 about the c axis. Regardless of the shape of the two-dimensional Fermi surface and for very general tunneling matrix elements, an order parameter (OP) with general d-wave symmetry leads to J c J (π/4)=0. This general result is inconsistent with the data of Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4160 (1999)] on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi2212), which showed J c J to be independent of (var p hi) 0 . If the momentum parallel to the barrier is conserved in the tunneling process, J c J should vary substantially with the twist angle (var p hi) 0 when the tight-binding Fermi surface appropriate for Bi2212 is taken into account, even if the OP is completely isotropic. We quantify the degree of momentum nonconservation necessary to render J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) constant within experimental error for a variety of pair states by interpolating between the coherent and incoherent limits using five specific models to describe the momentum dependence of the tunneling matrix element squared. From the data of Li et al., we conclude that the c-axis tunneling in Bi2212 must be very nearly incoherent, and that the OP must have a nonvanishing Fermi-surface average for T c . We further show that the apparent conventional sum-rule violation observed by Basov et al. [Science 283, 49 (1999)] can be consistent with such strongly incoherent c-axis tunneling.

  8. Modeling of twisted and coiled polymer (TCP) muscle based on phenomenological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Farzad; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-12-01

    Twisted and coiled polymers (TCP) muscles are linear actuators that respond to change in temperature. Exploiting high negative coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and helical geometry give them a significant ability to change length in a limited temperature range. Several applications and experimental data of these materials have been demonstrated in the last few years. To use these actuators in robotics and control system applications, a mathematical model for predicting their behavior is essential. In this work, a practical and accurate phenomenological model for estimating the displacement of TCP muscles, as a function of the load as well as input electrical current, is proposed. The problem is broken down into two parts, i.e. modeling of the electro-thermal and then the thermo-elastic behavior of the muscles. For the first part, a differential equation, with changing electrical resistance term, is derived. Next, by using a temperature-dependent modulus of elasticity and CTE as well as taking the geometry of the muscles into account, an expression for displacement is derived. Experimental data for different loads and actuation current levels are used for verifying the model and investigating its accuracy. The result shows a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results for all loads.

  9. Study of Implosion of Twisted Nested Arrays at the Angara-5-1 Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Gribov, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the implosion of twisted nested arrays in which the wires of the outer and inner arrays are twisted about the array axis in opposite directions (clockwise and counterclockwise). Experiments with twisted arrays were carried out at the Angara-5-1 facility at currents of up to 4 MA. The currents through the arrays were switched either simultaneously or the current pulse through the outer array was delayed by 10-15 ns with the help of an anode spark gap. It is shown that, in such arrays, the currents flow along the inclined wires and, accordingly, there are both the azimuthal and axial components of the discharge current. The process of plasma implosion in twisted arrays depends substantially on the value of the axial (longitudinal) magnetic field generated inside the array by the azimuthal currents. Two-dimensional simulations of the magnetic field in twisted nested arrays were performed in the ( r, z) geometry with allowance for the skin effect in the discharge electrodes. It is shown that, depending on the geometry of the discharge electrodes, different configurations of the magnetic field can be implemented inside twisted nested arrays. The calculated magnetic configurations are compared with the results of measurements of the magnetic field inside such arrays. It is shown that the configuration of the axial magnetic field inside a twisted nested array depends substantially on the distribution of the azimuthal currents between the inner and outer arrays.

  10. Twist and snai1 expression in pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma stroma is related to cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouppila-Mättö, Anna; Närkiö-Mäkelä, Mervi; Soini, Ylermi; Pukkila, Matti; Sironen, Reijo; Tuhkanen, Hanna; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process in tumorigenesis since tumor cells attain fibroblast-like features enabling them to invade to surrounding tissue. Two transcription factors, TWIST and SNAI1, are fundamental in regulating EMT. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of TWIST and SNAI1 in 109 pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Tumors with intense stromal staining of TWIST relapsed more frequently (p = 0.04). Tumors with both positive TWIST and SNAI1 immunoreactivity in the stroma were at least Stage II (p = 0.05) and located more often in hypopharynx (p = 0.035). Tumors with negative immunostaining of TWIST and SNAI1 in the stromal compartment were smaller (T1-2) (p = 0.008), less advanced (SI-II) (p = 0.031) and located more often in the oropharynx (p = 0.007). Patients with negative SNAI1 and TWIST immunostaining in tumor stroma had a better 5-year disease-specific and overall survival (p = 0.037 and p = 0.014 respectively). TWIST and SNAI1 expression in stromal cells is associated with clinical and histopathological characteristics that indicate progressive disease. Negative expression of these EMT-promoting transcription factors predicts a better outcome

  11. Continuous Static Gait with Twisting Trunk of a Metamorphic Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural quadrupeds, such as geckos and lizards, often twist their trunks when moving. Conventional quadruped robots cannot perform the same motion due to equipping with a trunk which is a rigid body or at most consists of two blocks connected by passive joints. This paper proposes a metamorphic quadruped robot with a reconfigurable trunk which can implement active trunk motions, called MetaRobot I. The robot can imitate the natural quadrupeds to execute motion of trunk twisting. Benefiting from the twisting trunk, the stride length of this quadruped is increased comparing to that of conventional quadruped robots.In this paper a continuous static gait benefited from the twisting trunk performing the increased stride length is introduced. After that, the increased stride length relative to the trunk twisting will be analysed mathematically. Other points impacting the implementation of the increased stride length in the gait are investigated such as the upper limit of the stride length and the kinematic margin. The increased stride length in the gait will lead the increase of locomotion speed comparing with conventional quadruped robots, giving the extent that natural quadrupeds twisting their trunks when moving. The simulation and an experiment on the prototype are then carried out to illustrate the benefits on the stride length and locomotion speed brought by the twisting trunk to the quadruped robot.

  12. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of

  13. Hydrodynamic states of phonons in insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sokolovsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chapman-Enskog method is generalized for accounting the effect of kinetic modes on hydrodynamic evolution. Hydrodynamic states of phonon system of insulators have been studied in a small drift velocity approximation. For simplicity, the investigation was carried out for crystals of the cubic class symmetry. It has been found that in phonon hydrodynamics, local equilibrium is violated even in the approximation linear in velocity. This is due to the absence of phonon momentum conservation law that leads to a drift velocity relaxation. Phonon hydrodynamic equations which take dissipative processes into account have been obtained. The results were compared with the standard theory based on the local equilibrium validity. Integral equations have been obtained for calculating the objects of the theory (including viscosity and heat conductivity. It has been shown that in low temperature limit, these equations are solvable by iterations. Steady states of the system have been considered and an expression for steady state heat conductivity has been obtained. It coincides with the famous result by Akhiezer in the leading low temperature approximation. It has been established that temperature distribution in the steady state of insulator satisfies a condition of heat source absence.

  14. Magneto-hydrodynamical model for plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruikuan; Yang, Jiayan

    2017-10-01

    Based on the Newton's second law and the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field, we establish a new 3-D incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics model for the motion of plasma under the standard Coulomb gauge. By using the Galerkin method, we prove the existence of a global weak solution for this new 3-D model.

  15. Statistical analysis of hydrodynamic cavitation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, G.; Sommer, R.

    1980-10-01

    The frequency (number of events per unit time) of pressure pulses produced by hydrodynamic cavitation bubble collapses is investigated using statistical methods. The results indicate that this frequency is distributed according to a normal law, its parameters not being time-evolving.

  16. Filter-Feeding Zoobenthos and Hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2017-01-01

    interplay between benthic filter feeders and hydrodynamics. Starting from the general concept of grazing potential and typical data on benthic population densities its realization is considered, first at the level of the individual organism through the processes of pumping and trapping of food particles...

  17. does earthworms density really modify soil's hydrodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Ababsa,, M. Kribaa, D. Addad, L. Tamrabet and M. Baha

    1 mai 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. DOES EARTHWORMS DENSITY REALLY MODIFY SOIL'S HYDRODYNAMIC.

  18. PHANTOM: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel J.; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris; Tricco, Terrence S.; Toupin, Stéven; Pettitt, Alex; Chan, Conrad; Laibe, Guillaume; Glover, Simon; Dobbs, Clare; Nealon, Rebecca; Liptai, David; Worpel, Hauke; Bonnerot, Clément; Dipierro, Giovanni; Ragusa, Enrico; Federrath, Christoph; Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Forgan, Duncan; Hutchison, Mark; Constantino, Thomas; Ayliffe, Ben; Mentiplay, Daniel; Hirsh, Kieran; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Phantom is a smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code focused on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics. It is modular, and handles sink particles, self-gravity, two fluid and one fluid dust, ISM chemistry and cooling, physical viscosity, non-ideal MHD, and more. Its modular structure makes it easy to add new physics to the code.

  19. Microflow Cytometers with Integrated Hydrodynamic Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the suitability of microfluidic structures for high throughput blood cell analysis. The microfluidic chips exploit fully integrated hydrodynamic focusing based on two different concepts: Two-stage cascade focusing and spin focusing (vortex principle. The sample—A suspension of micro particles or blood cells—is injected into a sheath fluid streaming at a substantially higher flow rate, which assures positioning of the particles in the center of the flow channel. Particle velocities of a few m/s are achieved as required for high throughput blood cell analysis. The stability of hydrodynamic particle positioning was evaluated by measuring the pulse heights distributions of fluorescence signals from calibration beads. Quantitative assessment based on coefficient of variation for the fluorescence intensity distributions resulted in a value of about 3% determined for the micro-device exploiting cascade hydrodynamic focusing. For the spin focusing approach similar values were achieved for sample flow rates being 1.5 times lower. Our results indicate that the performances of both variants of hydrodynamic focusing suit for blood cell differentiation and counting. The potential of the micro flow cytometer is demonstrated by detecting immunologically labeled CD3 positive and CD4 positive T-lymphocytes in blood.

  20. Numerical methods for hydrodynamic stability problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kaoru

    1985-11-01

    Numerical methods for solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, which is the fundamental equation of the hydrodynamic stability theory for various shear flows, are reviewed and typical numerical results are presented. The methods of asymptotic solution, finite difference methods, initial value methods and expansions in orthogonal functions are compared. (author)

  1. Hydrodynamic relaxations in dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. S.; Greenfield, Michael L.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of relaxation phenomena in the standard dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model [R. D. Groot and P. B. Warren, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)]. Using fluctuating hydrodynamics as the framework of the investigation, we focus on the collective transverse and longitudinal dynamics. It is shown that classical hydrodynamic theory predicts the transverse dynamics at relatively low temperatures very well when compared to simulation data; however, the theory predictions are, on the same length scale, less accurate for higher temperatures. The agreement with hydrodynamics depends on the definition of the viscosity, and here we find that the transverse dynamics are independent of the dissipative and random shear force contributions to the stress. For high temperatures, the spectrum for the longitudinal dynamics is dominated by the Brillouin peak for large length scales and the relaxation is therefore governed by sound wave propagation and is athermal. This contrasts the results at lower temperatures and small length scale, where the thermal process is clearly present in the spectra. The DPD model, at least qualitatively, re-captures the underlying hydrodynamical mechanisms, and quantitative agreement is excellent at intermediate temperatures for the transverse dynamics.

  2. Hydrodynamic dispersion of microswimmers in suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthieu; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In our laboratory, we study hydrodynamics of suspensions of micro-swimmers. These micro-organisms are unicellular algae Chlamydomonas Rheinhardii which are able to swim by using their flagella. The swimming dynamics of these micro-swimmers can be seen as a random walk, in absence of any kind of interaction. In addition, these algae have the property of being phototactic, i.e. they swim towards the light. Combining this property with a hydrodynamic flow, we were able to reversibly separate algae from the rest of the fluid. But for sufficiently high volume fraction, these active particles interact with each other. We are now interested in how the coupling of hydrodynamic interactions between swimmers and phototaxis can modify the swimming dynamics at the scale of the suspension. To this aim, we conduct experiments in microfluidic devices to study the dispersion of the micro-organisms in a the liquid phase as a function of the volume fraction. We show that the dispersion of an assembly of puller type microswimmers is quantitatively affected by hydrodynamics interactions. Phd student.

  3. Hydrodynamic modelling of hydrostatic magnesium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodij, Ellen; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2006-01-01

    Wilson’s hydrodynamic model of the hydrostatic extrusion process is extended to meet the geometry found on residual billets. The transition from inlet to work zone of the process is not considered sharp as in the model of Wilson but as a rounded edge, modelled by a parabolic function. It is shown

  4. Dilepton production in schematic causal viscous hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taesoo; Han, Kyong Chol; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that in the hot dense matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, the energy density, entropy density, and pressure as well as the azimuthal and space-time rapidity components of the shear tensor are uniform in the direction transversal to the reaction plane, we derive a set of schematic equations from the Isreal-Stewart causal viscous hydrodynamics. These equations are then used to describe the evolution dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions by taking the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of 1/4π for the initial quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase and of 10 times this value for the later hadron-gas (HG) phase. Using the production rate evaluated with particle distributions that take into account the viscous effect, we study dilepton production in central heavy-ion collisions. Compared with results from the ideal hydrodynamics, we find that although the dilepton invariant mass spectra from the two approaches are similar, the transverse momentum spectra are significantly enhanced at high transverse momenta by the viscous effect. We also study the transverse momentum dependence of dileptons produced from QGP for a fixed transverse mass, which is essentially absent in the ideal hydrodynamics, and find that this so-called transverse mass scaling is violated in the viscous hydrodynamics, particularly at high transverse momenta.

  5. Hydrodynamic forces on inundated bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The hydrodynamic forces experienced by an inundated bridge deck have great importance in the design of bridges. Specifically, the drag force, lift force, and the moment acting on the bridge deck under various levels of inundation and a range of flow ...

  6. The quantum hydrodynamics of the Sutherland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Michael; Gutman, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    We show that the form of the chiral condition found by Abanov et al in the quantum hydrodynamics of the Sutherland model arises because there are two distinct inner products with respect to which the chiral Hamiltonian is Hermitian, but only one with respect to which the full, non-chiral, Hamiltonian is Hermitian

  7. Hydrodynamic impact response, a flexible view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.W.; Hoogeland, M.; Janssen, G.Th.M.

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of high-speed craft is steadily increasing. Until now, much attention has been focussed on the hydrodynamic aspects of these craft. The structural design of these vessels is usually considered in a quasi static sense. However, due to the requirement of light ship structures, fast ship

  8. Universal hydrodynamics of non-conformal branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Skenderis, Kostas

    2009-01-01

    We examine the hydrodynamic limit of non-conformal branes using the recently developed precise holographic dictionary. We first streamline the discussion of holography for backgrounds that asymptote locally to non-conformal brane solutions by showing that all such solutions can be obtained from higher dimensional asymptotically locally AdS solutions by suitable dimensional reduction and continuation in the dimension. As a consequence, many holographic results for such backgrounds follow from the corresponding results of the Asymptotically AdS case. In particular, the hydrodynamics of non-conformal branes is fully determined in terms of conformal hydrodynamics. Using previous results on the latter we predict the form of the non-conformal hydrodynamic stress tensor to second order in derivatives. Furthermore we show that the ratio between bulk and shear viscosity is fixed by the generalized conformal structure to be ζ/η = 2(1/(d-1)-c s 2 ), where c s is the speed of sound in the fluid.

  9. Detailed simulation of morphodynamics : 1. Hydrodynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabi, M.; De Vriend, H.J.; Mosselman, E.; Sloff, C.J.; Shimizu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamic model for unsteady incompressible flow over an evolving bed topography. This is achieved by using a multilevel Cartesian grid technique that allows the grid to be refined in high-gradient regions and in the vicinity of the river bed. The

  10. Higher-twist effects in the B → π transition form factor from QCD light-cone sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodjamirian, Alexander; Rusov, Aleksey [Universitaet Siegen (Germany). Fakultaet IV, Department Physik, Theoretische Physik 1 Walter-Flex-Strasse 3 57068 Siegen

    2016-07-01

    I report on the progress in calculating new higher-twist corrections to the QCD light-cone sum rule for the B → π transition form factor. First, the expansion of the massive heavy-quark propagator in the external gluonic field near the light-cone was extended to include new terms containing the gluon-field strength derivatives. The resulting analytical expressions for the twist-5 and twist-6 contributions to the correlation function were obtained in a factorized approximation, expressed via the product of the quark-condensate density and the lower-twist pion distribution amplitudes. The numerical analysis of new higher-twist effects is in progress.

  11. TWIST1 a new determinant of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pallier

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multistep process and the main cause of mortality in lung cancer patients. We previously showed that EGFR mutations were associated with a copy number gain at a locus encompassing the TWIST1 gene on chromosome 7. TWIST1 is a highly conserved developmental gene involved in embryogenesis that may be reactivated in cancers promoting both malignant conversion and cancer progression through an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible implication of TWIST1 reactivation on the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype in EGFR mutated lung cancer. We studied a series of consecutive lung adenocarcinoma from Caucasian non-smokers for which surgical frozen samples were available (n = 33 and showed that TWIST1 expression was linked to EGFR mutations (P<0.001, to low CDH1 expression (P<0.05 and low disease free survival (P = 0.044. To validate that TWIST1 is a driver of EMT in EGFR mutated lung cancer, we used five human lung cancer cell lines and demonstrated that EMT and the associated cell mobility were dependent upon TWIST1 expression in cells with EGFR mutation. Moreover a decrease of EGFR pathway stimulation through EGF retrieval or an inhibition of TWIST1 expression by small RNA technology reversed the phenomenon. Collectively, our in vivo and in vitro findings support that TWIST1 collaborates with the EGF pathway in promoting EMT in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma and that large series of EGFR mutated lung cancer patients are needed to further define the prognostic role of TWIST1 reactivation in this subgroup.

  12. Correlation Between Expression of Twist and Podoplanin in Ductal Breast Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Wojtyra, Patrycja; Biala, Martyna; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rys, Janusz; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    As a result of activation of transcription factors engaged in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as Twist, inhibition of epithelial markers and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers are observed. One of the specific markers of cancer-associated fibroblasts is podoplanin (PDPN) - a mucin-type membrane glycoprotein. The aim of this work was to study the localisation and intensity of expression of Twist and PDPN on the mRNA and protein level in cases of invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC), and its association with patients' clinico-pathological data. The study included archival material in a form of 80 paraffin IDC blocks and 11 IDC fragments frozen in liquid nitrogen. Immunohistochemical expression of Twist and PDPN was evaluated using light microscope and semiquantitative scale for evaluation of nuclear expression or immunoreactive scale (IRS) for evaluation of cytoplasmic expression. Material was isolated from frozen IDC fragments using laser micro-dissection (from cancer and stromal cells, separately) and was used to perform real-time PCR. Twist expression was higher in stromal cells in comparison to cancer cells. Analysis of patients' survival rate showed, that higher expression of Twist in cancer cells was associated with shorter overall survival time and shorter event-free survival time. The expression of PDPN was also higher in stromal cells in comparison with cancer cells. In addition, positive correlation was observed between expression of Twist and PDPN in stromal cells of IDC (r=0.267; p<0.05). The relationship between the higher expression of Twist in both cancer and stromal cells and shorter patients' survival indicates Twist as a potential useful prognostic marker in IDC. Positive correlation of Twist and PDPN expression may indicate the role of PDPN in EMT in IDC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Radiative capture of cold neutrons by protons and deuteron photodisintegration with twisted beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Serbo, Valeriy G.; Solyanik, Maria

    2018-05-01

    We consider two basic nuclear reactions: capture of neutrons by protons, n + p → γ + d, and its time-reversed counterpart, photodisintegration of the deuteron, γ + d → n + p. In both of these cases we assume that the incoming beam of neutrons or photons is ‘twisted’ by having an azimuthal phase dependence, i.e., it carries an additional angular momentum along its direction of propagation. Taking a low-energy limit of these reactions, we derive relations between corresponding transition amplitudes and cross sections with plane-wave beams and twisted beams. Implications for experiments with twisted cold neutrons and twisted photon beams are discussed.

  14. Fiber-Optic Sensors for Measurements of Torsion, Twist and Rotation: A Review †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinski, Vedran; Donlagic, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Optical measurement of mechanical parameters is gaining significant commercial interest in different industry sectors. Torsion, twist and rotation are among the very frequently measured mechanical parameters. Recently, twist/torsion/rotation sensors have become a topic of intense fiber-optic sensor research. Various sensing concepts have been reported. Many of those have different properties and performances, and many of them still need to be proven in out-of-the laboratory use. This paper provides an overview of basic approaches and a review of current state-of-the-art in fiber optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and/or rotation. PMID:28241510

  15. Fiber-Optic Sensors for Measurements of Torsion, Twist and Rotation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Budinski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical measurement of mechanical parameters is gaining significant commercial interest in different industry sectors. Torsion, twist and rotation are among the very frequently measured mechanical parameters. Recently, twist/torsion/rotation sensors have become a topic of intense fiber-optic sensor research. Various sensing concepts have been reported. Many of those have different properties and performances, and many of them still need to be proven in out-of-the laboratory use. This paper provides an overview of basic approaches and a review of current state-of-the-art in fiber optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and/or rotation.Invited Paper

  16. Fiber-Optic Sensors for Measurements of Torsion, Twist and Rotation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinski, Vedran; Donlagic, Denis

    2017-02-23

    Optical measurement of mechanical parameters is gaining significant commercial interest in different industry sectors. Torsion, twist and rotation are among the very frequently measured mechanical parameters. Recently, twist/torsion/rotation sensors have become a topic of intense fiber-optic sensor research. Various sensing concepts have been reported. Many of those have different properties and performances, and many of them still need to be proven in out-of-the laboratory use. This paper provides an overview of basic approaches and a review of current state-of-the-art in fiber optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and/or rotation.Invited Paper.

  17. Anisotropic piezoelectric twist actuation of helicopter rotor blades: Aeroelastic analysis and design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, William Keats

    1997-12-01

    An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain a soluti An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain amited additional piezoelectric material mass, it is shown that blade twist actuation approaches which exploit in-plane piezoelectric free-stain anisotropies are capable of producing amplitudes of oscillatory blade twisting sufficient for rotor vibration reduction applications. The second study examines the effectiveness of using embedded piezoelectric actuator laminae to alleviate vibratory loads due to retreating blade stall. A 10 to 15 percent improvement in dynamic stall limited forward flight speed, and a 5 percent improvement in stall limited rotor thrust were numerically demonstrated for the active twist rotor blade relative to a conventional blade design. The active twist blades are also demonstrated to be more susceptible than the conventional blades to dynamic stall induced vibratory loads when not operating with twist actuation. This is the result of designing the active twist blades with low torsional stiffness in order to maximize piezoelectric twist authority

  18. On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuming; Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chi, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar physics, and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. So far it is unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Contrasting to the solar MFRs,...

  19. Large-Scale Description of Interacting One-Dimensional Bose Gases: Generalized Hydrodynamics Supersedes Conventional Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Dubail, Jérôme; Konik, Robert; Yoshimura, Takato

    2017-11-01

    The theory of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) was recently developed as a new tool for the study of inhomogeneous time evolution in many-body interacting systems with infinitely many conserved charges. In this Letter, we show that it supersedes the widely used conventional hydrodynamics (CHD) of one-dimensional Bose gases. We illustrate this by studying "nonlinear sound waves" emanating from initial density accumulations in the Lieb-Liniger model. We show that, at zero temperature and in the absence of shocks, GHD reduces to CHD, thus for the first time justifying its use from purely hydrodynamic principles. We show that sharp profiles, which appear in finite times in CHD, immediately dissolve into a higher hierarchy of reductions of GHD, with no sustained shock. CHD thereon fails to capture the correct hydrodynamics. We establish the correct hydrodynamic equations, which are finite-dimensional reductions of GHD characterized by multiple, disjoint Fermi seas. We further verify that at nonzero temperature, CHD fails at all nonzero times. Finally, we numerically confirm the emergence of hydrodynamics at zero temperature by comparing its predictions with a full quantum simulation performed using the NRG-TSA-abacus algorithm. The analysis is performed in the full interaction range, and is not restricted to either weak- or strong-repulsion regimes.

  20. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  1. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of Left-Right twisted tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.; Suresh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater with full length Left-Right twist, twist fitted with rod and spacer at the trailing edge for lengths of 100, 200 and 300 mm for twist ratio 3 and 5 has been studied. The experimental data for plain tube collector has been compared with fundamental equation within a discrepancy of ±7.41% and ±14.97% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Result shows that the Nusselt number decreases by 11% and 19% for twist fitted with rod and twist with spacer, respectively, when compared with full length twist. Friction factor also decreases by 18% and 29% for twist fitted with rod and spacer, respectively, as compared with full length twist. The heat enhancement in twist fitted with rod at the trailing edge is maximum when compared with twist fitted with spacer because the swirl flow is maintained throughout the length of rod.

  2. Modelling hydrodynamic parameters to predict flow assisted corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulson, B.; Greenwell, B.; Chexal, B.; Horowitz, J.

    1992-01-01

    During the past 15 years, flow assisted corrosion has been a worldwide problem in the power generating industry. The phenomena is complex and depends on environment, material composition, and hydrodynamic factors. Recently, modeling of flow assisted corrosion has become a subject of great importance. A key part of this effort is modeling the hydrodynamic aspects of this issue. This paper examines which hydrodynamic parameter should be used to correlate the occurrence and rate of flow assisted corrosion with physically meaningful parameters, discusses ways of measuring the relevant hydrodynamic parameter, and describes how the hydrodynamic data is incorporated into the predictive model

  3. Probing the interlayer coupling of twisted bilayer MoS2 using photoluminescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxi; Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Kong, Jing; Terrones, Humberto; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2014-10-08

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for optoelectronic devices due to its strong photoluminescence emission. In this work, the photoluminescence of twisted bilayer MoS2 is investigated, revealing a tunability of the interlayer coupling of bilayer MoS2. It is found that the photoluminescence intensity ratio of the trion and exciton reaches its maximum value for the twisted angle 0° or 60°, while for the twisted angle 30° or 90° the situation is the opposite. This is mainly attributed to the change of the trion binding energy. The first-principles density functional theory analysis further confirms the change of the interlayer coupling with the twisted angle, which interprets our experimental results.

  4. Unconfined twist : a simple method to prepare ultrafine grained metallic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y. (Yonghao); Liao, Xiaozhou; Zhu, Y. T. (Yuntian Theodore)

    2004-01-01

    A new simple method - unconfined twist was employed to prepare ultrafine grained (UFG) Fe,wire. A coarse grained (CG) Fe wire with a diameter of 0.85 mm was fixed at one end, and twisted at the other end. After maximum twist before fracture, in the cross-sectional plane, concentrically deformed layers with a width of several micrometers formed surrounding the center axis of the wire. The near-surface deformed layers consist of lamella grains with a width in submicrometer range. In the longitudinal plane, deformed bands (with a width of several micrometers) formed uniformly, which were composed of lamella crystallites (with a width in submicrometer range). The tensile yield strength and ultimate strength of the twisted Fe wire are increased by about 150% and 100% compared with the values of its CG counterpart.

  5. Leading twist moments of the neutron structure function F_2n

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Osipenko; W. Melnitchouk; S. Simula; S. Kulagin; G. Ricco

    2005-10-20

    We perform a global analysis of neutron $F_2^n$ structure function data, obtained by combining proton and deuteron measurements over a large range of kinematics. From these data the lowest moments ($n \\leq 10$) of the leading twist neutron $F_2^n$ structure function are extracted. Particular attention is paid to nuclear effects in the deuteron, which become increasingly important for the higher moments. Our results for the nonsinglet, isovector $p - n$ combination of the leading twist moments are compared with those of available lattice simulations. We also determine the lowest few moments of the higher twist contributions, obtained by subtracting the leading twist from the total structure function, and analyze their isospin dependence.

  6. New dualities and misleading anomaly matchings from outer-automorphism twists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Sridip; Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-03-29

    We study four-dimensional N=1,2 superconformal theories in class S obtained by compactifying the 6d N=(2,0) theory on a Riemann surface C with outer-automorphism twist lines. From the pair-of-pants decompositions of C, we find various dual descriptions for the same theory having distinct gauge groups. We show that the various configurations of the twist line give rise to dual descriptions for the identical theory. We compute the ’t Hooft anomaly coefficients and the superconformal indices to test dualities. Surprisingly, we find that the class S theories with twist lines wrapping 1-cycles of C have the identical ’t Hooft anomalies as the ones without the twist line, whereas the superconformal indices differ. This provides a large set of examples where the anomaly matching is insufficient to test dualities.

  7. Composite material bend-twist coupling for wind turbine blade applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Justin M.

    Current efforts in wind turbine blade design seek to employ bend-twist coupling of composite materials for passive power control by twisting blades to feather. Past efforts in this area of study have proved to be problematic, especially in formulation of the bend-twist coupling coefficient alpha. Kevlar/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy specimens were manufactured to study bend-twist coupling, from which numerical and analytical models could be verified. Finite element analysis was implemented to evaluate fiber orientation and material property effects on coupling magnitude. An analytical/empirical model was then derived to describe numerical results and serve as a replacement for the commonly used coupling coefficient alpha. Through the results from numerical and analytical models, a foundation for aeroelastic design of wind turbines blades utilizing biased composite materials is provided.

  8. Innovation of Methods for Measurement and Modelling of Twisted Pair Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to optimize a measurement methodology for the most accurate broadband modelling of characteristic impedance and other parameters for twisted pairs. Measured values and theirs comparison is presented in this article. Automated measurement facility was implemented at the Department of telecommunication of Faculty of electrical engineering of Czech technical university in Prague. Measurement facility contains RF switches allowing measurements up to 300 MHz or 1GHz. Measured twisted pair’s parameters can be obtained by measurement but for purposes of fundamental characteristics modelling is useful to define functions that model the properties of the twisted pair. Its primary and secondary parameters depend mostly on the frequency. For twisted pair deployment, we are interested in a frequency band range from 1 MHz to 100 MHz.

  9. Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meljanac, Daniel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Materials Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-12-15

    Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincare-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ-Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ-Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  10. κ-Minkowski spacetime as the result of Jordanian twist deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowiec, A.; Pachol, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two one-parameter families of twists providing κ-Minkowski * product deformed spacetime are considered: Abelian and Jordanian. We compare the derivation of quantum Minkowski space from two perspectives. The first one is the Hopf module algebra point of view, which is strictly related with Drinfeld's twisting tensor technique. The other one relies on an appropriate extension of ''deformed realizations'' of nondeformed Lorentz algebra by the quantum Minkowski algebra. This extension turns out to be de Sitter Lie algebra. We show the way both approaches are related. The second path allows us to calculate deformed dispersion relations for toy models ensuing from different twist parameters. In the Abelian case, one recovers κ-Poincare dispersion relations having numerous applications in doubly special relativity. Jordanian twists provide a new type of dispersion relations which in the minimal case (related to Weyl-Poincare algebra) takes an energy-dependent linear mass deformation form.

  11. Level-rank duality of untwisted and twisted D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naculich, Stephen G.; Schnitzer, Howard J.

    2006-01-01

    Level-rank duality of untwisted and twisted D-branes of WZW models is explored. We derive the relation between D0-brane charges of level-rank dual untwisted D-branes of su-bar (N) K and sp-bar (n) k , and of level-rank dual twisted D-branes of su-bar (2n+1) 2k+1 . The analysis of level-rank duality of twisted D-branes of su-bar (2n+1) 2k+1 is facilitated by their close relation to untwisted D-branes of sp-bar (n) k . We also demonstrate level-rank duality of the spectrum of an open string stretched between untwisted or twisted D-branes in each of these cases

  12. Structural and electronic transformation in low-angle twisted bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Fernando; Yazyev, Oleg V.

    2018-01-01

    Experiments on bilayer graphene unveiled a fascinating realization of stacking disorder where triangular domains with well-defined Bernal stacking are delimited by a hexagonal network of strain solitons. Here we show by means of numerical simulations that this is a consequence of a structural transformation of the moiré pattern inherent to twisted bilayer graphene taking place at twist angles θ below a crossover angle θ\\star=1.2\\circ . The transformation is governed by the interplay between the interlayer van der Waals interaction and the in-plane strain field, and is revealed by a change in the functional form of the twist energy density. This transformation unveils an electronic regime characteristic of vanishing twist angles in which the charge density converges, though not uniformly, to that of ideal bilayer graphene with Bernal stacking. On the other hand, the stacking domain boundaries form a distinct charge density pattern that provides the STM signature of the hexagonal solitonic network.

  13. A twisted flux-tube model for solar prominences. I. General properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.; Hood, A.W.; Anzer, U.

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that a solar prominence consists of cool plasma supported in a large-scale curved and twisted magnetic flux tube. As long as the flux tube is untwisted, its curvature is concave toward the solar surface, and so it cannot support dense plasma against gravity. However, when it is twisted sufficiently, individual field lines may acquire a convex curvature near their summits and so provide support. Cool plasma then naturally tends to accumulate in such field line dips either by injection from below or by thermal condensation. As the tube is twisted up further or reconnection takes place below the prominence, one finds a transition from normal to inverse polarity. When the flux tube becomes too long or is twisted too much, it loses stability and its true magnetic geometry as an erupting prominence is revealed more clearly. 56 refs

  14. Scaling effects in resonant coupling phenomena between fundamental and cladding modes in twisted microstructured optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2018-04-30

    We show that in twisted microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) the coupling between the core and cladding modes can be obtained for helix pitch much greater than previously considered. We provide an analytical model describing scaling properties of the twisted MOFs, which relates coupling conditions to dimensionless ratios between the wavelength, the lattice pitch and the helix pitch of the twisted fiber. Furthermore, we verify our model using a rigorous numerical method based on the transformation optics formalism and study its limitations. The obtained results show that for appropriately designed twisted MOFs, distinct, high loss resonance peaks can be obtained in a broad wavelength range already for the fiber with 9 mm helix pitch, thus allowing for fabrication of coupling based devices using a less demanding method involving preform spinning.

  15. Demonstration of an elastically coupled twist control concept for tilt rotor blade application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, R. C.; Nixon, M. W.; Wilbur, M. L.; Singleton, J. D.; Mirick, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Note is to present results from an analytic/experimental study that investigated the potential for passively changing blade twist through the use of extension-twist coupling. A set of composite model rotor blades was manufactured from existing blade molds for a low-twist metal helicopter rotor blade, with a view toward establishing a preliminary proof concept for extension-twist-coupled rotor blades. Data were obtained in hover for both a ballasted and unballasted blade configuration in sea-level atmospheric conditions. Test data were compared with results obtained from a geometrically nonlinear analysis of a detailed finite element model of the rotor blade developed in MSC/NASTRAN.

  16. Homoclinic Orbits for a Class of Nonperiodic Hamiltonian Systems with Some Twisted Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By the Maslov index theory, we will study the existence and multiplicity of homoclinic orbits for a class of asymptotically linear nonperiodic Hamiltonian systems with some twisted conditions on the Hamiltonian functions.

  17. Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel

    2017-01-01

    Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincare-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ-Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ-Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel

    2017-12-01

    Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincaré-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ -Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ -Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed.

  19. Direct Synthesis of Medium-Bridged Twisted Amides via a Transannular Cyclization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Michal; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The sequential RCM to construct a challenging medium-sized ring followed by a transannular cyclization across a medium-sized ring delivers previously unattainable twisted amides from simple acyclic precursors. PMID:19708701

  20. Laminar flow heat transfer studies in a twisted square duct for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,. Bombay 400 ... boundary conditions using commercially available software. ... Chang et al (1988) used numerical method to study laminar flow in a twisted elliptic tube for.