WorldWideScience

Sample records for twin-tailed fighter aircraft

  1. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  2. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra

    2005-01-01

    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  3. Tail buffet alleviation of high performance twin tail aircraft using offset piezoceramic stack actuators and acceleration feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon de Noyer, Maxime P.

    In High Performance Twin-Tail Aircraft (HPTTA), tail buffet occurs during high angles of attack maneuvers. At high angles of attack, flow separates and vortices are convected by the geometry of the wing-fuselage interface toward the vertical tails. This phenomenon, along with the aeroelastic coupling of the tail structural assembly, results in vibrations that can shorten the fatigue life of the empennage assembly and limit the flight envelope due to the large amplitude of the fin vibrations. The main goal of this research was to develop an active buffet alleviation system for HPTTA using Offset Piezoceramic Stack Actuators (OPSA) in combination with Acceleration Feedback Control (AFC) theory. In order to complete this task, the research work was divided into three main areas. First, two new methods for the design of non-collocated AFC controller parameters were developed for pure active damping applications and for quadratic performance criterion minimization. Second, a new type of moment inducing actuator based on piezoceramic stacks, the OPSA, was developed to provide high control authority while satisfying high reliability and maintainability requirements. A modal model of the OPSA acting on a benchmark structure was developed to create a low frequency approximation of the actuator and to optimize its offset distance and its placement. Third, because of the non-availability of reliable models for the controlled structure and the buffet-induced loads, a control system design method, based solely on the use of experimental data, was developed. Finally, two sets of experiments were conducted to show the feasibility of controlling buffet-induced vibrations during high angle of attack operations of a HPTTA. The first experiment validated both the effectiveness and the robustness of the active buffet alleviation system on an aeroelastically scaled model in wind tunnel tests. The second experiment showed that the combination of OPSA and AFC could suppress vibrations in

  4. Intraocular lens in a fighter aircraft pilot.

    OpenAIRE

    Loewenstein, A; Geyer, O; Biger, Y; Bracha, R; Shochat, I; Lazar, M.

    1991-01-01

    A pseudophakic pilot of the Israeli air force flying an F-15 (Eagle) aircraft was followed up for three years. He experienced about 100 flying hours, 5% of the time under high g stress. The intraocular lens did not dislocate and no complications were observed. It seems that flying high performance fighter aircraft is not contraindicated in pseudophakic pilots.

  5. Sensor Technology and Futuristic Of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rugambage Ndayishimiye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation fighter Aircraft seeks a fighter with higher abilities in areas such as reach, persistence, survivability, net-centricity, situation awareness, human system integration and weapons effects. The future system will have to counter foe armed with next generation advanced electronic attack, sophisticated integrated air defense systems, directed energy weapons, passive detection, integrated self-protection and cyber-attack capabilities. It must be capable to operate in the anti-access area-denial (A2/AD environment that will exist in the next coming years.

  6. Swarms of UAVs and fighter aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Stantz, K.M.; Gray, P.C.; Robinett, R.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes a method of modeling swarms of UAVs and/or fighter aircraft using particle simulation concepts. Recent investigations into the use of genetic algorithms to design neural networks for the control of autonomous vehicles (i.e., robots) led to the examination of methods of simulating large collections of robots. This paper describes the successful implementation of a model of swarm dynamics using particle simulation concepts. Several examples of the complex behaviors achieved in a target/interceptor scenario are presented.

  7. An investigation of fighter aircraft agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This report attempts to unify in a single document the results of a series of studies on fighter aircraft agility funded by the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility and conducted at the University of Kansas Flight Research Laboratory during the period January 1989 through December 1993. New metrics proposed by pilots and the research community to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. The report develops a framework for understanding the context into which the various proposed fighter agility metrics fit in terms of application and testing. Since new metrics continue to be proposed, this report does not claim to contain every proposed fighter agility metric. Flight test procedures, test constraints, and related criteria are developed. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is considered, as is the sensitivity of the candidate metrics to deviations from nominal pilot command inputs, which is studied in detail. Instead of supplying specific, detailed conclusions about the relevance or utility of one candidate metric versus another, the authors have attempted to provide sufficient data and analyses for readers to formulate their own conclusions. Readers are therefore ultimately responsible for judging exactly which metrics are 'best' for their particular needs. Additionally, it is not the intent of the authors to suggest combat tactics or other actual operational uses of the results and data in this report. This has been left up to the user community. Twenty of the candidate agility metrics were selected for evaluation with high fidelity, nonlinear, non real-time flight simulation computer programs of the F-5A Freedom Fighter, F-16A Fighting Falcon, F-18A Hornet, and X-29A. The information and data presented on the 20 candidate metrics which were evaluated will assist interested readers in conducting their own extensive investigations. The report provides a definition and analysis of each metric; details

  8. The impact of technology on fighter aircraft requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Foss, W. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Technology integration studies were made to examine the impact of emerging technologies on fighter aircraft. The technologies examined included advances in aerodynamics, controls, structures, propulsion, and systems and were those which appeared capable of being ready for application by the turn of the century. A primary impetus behind large increases in figher capability will be the rapid increase in fighter engine thrust-to-weight ratio. High thrust-weight engines, integrated with other advanced and emerging technologies, can result in small extremely maneuverable fighter aircraft that have thrust-weight ratios of 1.4+ and weight one-half as much as today's fighters. Future fighter aircraft requirements are likely to include a turn capability in excess of 7g's throughout much of the maneuver envelope, post-stall maneuverability, STOVL or VTOL, and a single engine for low cost.

  9. Stroke Symbol Generation Software for Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Tripathi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the stroke symbol generation software developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for fighter aircraft. This paper covers the working principle of head-up-display, overview of target hardware on which the developed software has been integrated and tested, software architecture, hardware software interfaces and design details of stroke symbol generation software. The paper also covers the issues related to stroke symbol quality which were encountered by the design team and the details about how the issues were resolved during integration and test phase.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.153-156, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4257

  10. ANALYSES ON SYSTEMATIC CONFRONTATION OF FIGHTER AIRCRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaiJinpeng; WuZhe; HuangJun

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the systematic confrontation between two military forcfes are the highest hierarchy on opera-tional effectiveness study of weapon systema.The physi-cal model for tactical many-on-many engagements of an aerial warfare with heterogeneous figher aircraft is estab-lished.On the basis of Lanchester multivariate equations of square law,a mathematical model corresponding to the established physical model is given.A superiorityh parame-ter is then derived directly from the mathematical model.With view to the high -tech condition of modern war-fare,the concept of superiority parameter which more well and truly reflects the essential of an air-to-air en-gagement is further formulated.The attrition coeffi-cients,which are key to the differential equations,are de-termined by using tactics of random target assignment and air-to-air capability index of the fighter aircraft.Hereby,taking the mathematical model and superiority parameter as cores,calculations amd analyses of complicate systemic problems such as evaluation of battle superiority,prog-mostication of combat process and optimization of colloca-tions have been accomplished.Results indicate that a clas-sical combat theory with its certain recent development has received newer applications in the military operation research for complicated confrontation analysis issues.

  11. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) Program will develop and field an affordable, highly common family of next- generation strike aircraft for the...the O&S account, with U.S. Services’ changes in aircraft life expectancy and bed down plans overshadowing real reductions in O&S costs. Business ...aircraft subprogram and engine subprogram (Navy). (Estimating) -44.4 -46.2 Revised estimate for Small Business Innovation Research in FY 2015 (Navy

  12. Adaptive Backstepping Flight Control for Modern Fighter Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveldt, L.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to investigate the potential of the nonlinear adaptive backstepping control technique in combination with online model identification for the design of a reconfigurable flight control system for a modern fighter aircraft. Adaptive backstepping is a recursive,

  13. Geometry definition and grid generation for a complete fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in computing power and numerical solution procedures have enabled computational fluid dynamicists to attempt increasingly difficult problems. In particular, efforts are focusing on computations of complex three-dimensional flow fields about realistic aerodynamic bodies. To perform such computations, a very accurate and detailed description of the surface geometry must be provided, and a three-dimensional grid must be generated in the space around the body. The geometry must be supplied in a format compatible with the grid generation requirements, and must be verified to be free of inconsistencies. A procedure for performing the geometry definition of a fighter aircraft that makes use of a commercial computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system is presented. Furthermore, visual representations of the geometry are generated using a computer graphics system for verification of the body definition. Finally, the three-dimensional grids for fighter-like aircraft are generated by means of an efficient new parabolic grid generation method. This method exhibits good control of grid quality.

  14. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  15. 78 FR 34656 - Record of Decision for the F-15 Aircraft Conversion, 144th Fighter Wing, California Air National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the F-15 Aircraft Conversion, 144th Fighter Wing... States Air Force signed the ROD for the F-15 Aircraft Conversion for the 144th Fighter Wing, California... Alternative will convert the 144 FW from 21 F-16 aircraft [18 F-16 Primary Assigned Aircraft (PAA) and 3...

  16. Design Qualification of an External Store for a Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Goley

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE has designed and developed an externalstore for fitment on a fighter aircraft. The external store has the poded structure and can be usedfor installation of a variety of payloads up to 250 kg. The mechanical details of the electronicsto be fitted inside the pod can be worked out as per application. The pod has been designedkeeping this in mind and based on the functional, mechanical, structural, and aerodynamicrequirements. The designed and fabricated pod has undergone various qualification tests. Thepaper brings out the details of the pod design, and the various structural and environmentalqualification tests carried out. The pod thus designed and qualified has been validated throughcarriage trials by fitting the pod on the platform intended for it. The pod is likely to be inductedinto the Services shortly.

  17. Estimation of nonlinear aerodynamic derivatives of a variable geometry fighter aircraft from flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S.; Wells, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the estimation of stability and control parameters of a high performance fighter aircraft from data obtained from high angle of attack flight. The estimation process utilizes a maximum likelihood algorithm derived for the case of a nonlinear aerodynamic force and moment model. The aircraft used was a high speed variable sweep heavy weight fighter with twin vertical tails. Comparisons of results from the nonlinear analysis are made with linear theory and wind tunnel results when available.

  18. Forward Arming and Refueling Points for Fighter Aircraft: Power Projection in an Antiaccess Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Forward Arming and Refueling Points for Fighter Aircraft: Power Projection in an Antiaccess Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Arming and Refueling Point (FARP) Using Discrete Event Simulation,” Graduate Research Project AFIT/ MLM / ENS/05-08 (Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air

  19. Soil Strength Criteria for Operation of Fighter Aircraft on Unsurfaced Airfields; Bare Base Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    performance jet fighter aircraft on unsurfaced airfields. Two specially prepared test sections were constructed with four test items in each section...Test section 1 consisted of two lean clay test items and two heavy clay test items . Test section 2 consisted of four items: clayey sand, lean clay

  20. Simulation of Fighter Aircraft Weapon Systems for Design and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Subramanyam

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation forms an essential tool in the system design and performance evaluation of fighter aircraft weapon systems. The various guidance strategies used for weapons like guns, missiles, bombs in the air-to-air or air-to-ground missions, for aiding the pilot for an effective delivery have been studied through extensive off-line and pilot-in-loop simulation. The pilot workload analysis carried out in the high fidelity cockpit simulator at the Aeronautical Development Agency , Bangalore, provides the system designer an effective means to tune the various subsy stems for better performance. The paper focuses on all these aspects to bring out the importance of simulation in the overall fighter aircraft weapon system design.

  1. Simulation of Fighter Aircraft Weapon Systems for Design and Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Subramanyam

    1997-01-01

    Simulation forms an essential tool in the system design and performance evaluation of fighter aircraft weapon systems. The various guidance strategies used for weapons like guns, missiles, bombs in the air-to-air or air-to-ground missions, for aiding the pilot for an effective delivery have been studied through extensive off-line and pilot-in-loop simulation. The pilot workload analysis carried out in the high fidelity cockpit simulator at the Aeronautical Development Agency , Bangalor...

  2. Adaptive Backstepping Control and Safety Analysis for Modern Fighter Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    There exist many examples of aircraft incidents in which the pilots have successfully used the remaining control authority over an aircraft to save the airframe and its passengers and cargo from apparently hopeless failure conditions. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true. Several accidents

  3. Input Excitation Techniques for Aerodynamic Derivatives Estimation of Highly Augmented Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shantha Kumar

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation related to the estimation of lateral-directional aerodynamic derivatives of highly augmented and advanced fighter aircraft from the flight like response data. Different types of pilot inputs are used to generate aircraft response data in the engineer-in-loop flight simulator to determine which input excitation flight provide the most accurate estimates of aircraft stability and control derivatives. Also, MATILABI SIMULINK-based simulation platform is used to generate aircraft response with single-surface excitation to evaluate the usefulness of the method for stability and control derivatives estimation. The maximum likelihood estimation, based on output error utilisation technique is used to estimate the derivatives from the aircraft simulation response data. The results indicate that accuracy of the estimated derivatives improve with persistence excitation and single-surface excitation.

  4. Design criteria for integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the US/UK STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

  5. Pilot Human Factors in Stall/Spin Accidents of Supersonic Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. B.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Nguyen, L. T.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of pilot human factors related to stall/spin accidents of supersonic fighter aircraft. The military specifications for flight at high angles of attack are examined. Several pilot human factors problems related to stall/spin are discussed. These problems include (1) unsatisfactory nonvisual warning cues; (2) the inability of the pilot to quickly determine if the aircraft is spinning out of control, or to recognize the type of spin; (3) the inability of the pilot to decide on and implement the correct spin recovery technique; (4) the inability of the pilot to move, caused by high angular rotation; and (5) the tendency of pilots to wait too long in deciding to abandon the irrecoverable aircraft. Psycho-physiological phenomena influencing pilot's behavior in stall/spin situations include (1) channelization of sensory inputs, (2) limitations in precisely controlling several muscular inputs, (3) inaccurate judgment of elapsed time, and (4) disorientation of vestibulo-ocular inputs. Results are given of pilot responses to all these problems in the F14A, F16/AB, and F/A-18A aircraft. The use of departure spin resistance and automatic spin prevention systems incorporated on recent supersonic fighters are discussed. These systems should help to improve the stall/spin accident record with some compromise in maneuverability.

  6. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Authority/Budget Activity BY - Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department...BlocK 3F Fleet Release ~)II USNIOC • Completed IOT &E .,. Full Rate Production Decision .,. DAB Milestone c ~· F-35 Engine See Note...F-35 Aircraft Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est Current APB Development Objective/Threshold Current Estimate Concept Demonstration Contract Award

  7. A Pilot Opinion Study of Lateral Control Requirements for Fighter-Type Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Stewart, John D.; Merrick, Robert B.; Drinkwater, Fred J., III

    1959-01-01

    As part of a continuing NASA program of research on airplane handling qualities, a pilot opinion investigation has been made on the lateral control requirements of fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range. The investigation was carried out using a stationary flight simulator and a moving flight simulator, and the flight simulator results were supplemented by research tests in actual flight. The flight simulator study was based on the presumption that the pilot rates the roll control of an airplane primarily on a single-degree-of-freedom basis; that is, control of angle of roll about the aircraft body axis being of first importance. From the assumption of a single degree of freedom system it follows that there are two fundamental parameters which govern the airplane roll response, namely the roll damping expressed as a time constant and roll control power in terms of roll acceleration. The simulator study resulted in a criterion in terms of these two parameters which defines satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and unacceptable roll performance from a pilot opinion standpoint. The moving simulator results were substantiated by the in-flight investigation. The derived criterion was compared with the roll performance criterion based upon wing tip helix angle and also with other roll performance concepts which currently influence the roll performance design of military fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range.

  8. Digital adaptive model following flight control. [using fighter aircraft mathematical model-following algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alag, G. S.; Kaufman, H.

    1974-01-01

    Simple mechanical linkages are often unable to cope with the many control problems associated with high performance aircraft maneuvering over a wide flight envelope. One procedure for retaining uniform handling qualities over such an envelope is to implement a digital adaptive controller. Towards such an implementation an explicit adaptive controller, which makes direct use of online parameter identification, has been developed and applied to the linearized equations of motion for a typical fighter aircraft. The system is composed of an online weighted least squares identifier, a Kalman state filter, and a single stage real model following control law. The corresponding control gains are readily adjustable in accordance with parameter changes to ensure asymptotic stability if the conditions for perfect model following are satisfied and stability in the sense of boundedness otherwise.

  9. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  10. Criteria for design of integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the U.S./U.K. STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at Ames Research Center. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot-gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying-qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

  11. MIMO Sliding Mode Control for a Tailless Fighter Aircraft, An Alternative to Reconfigurable Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, S. R.; Hess, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-domain procedure for the design of sliding mode controllers for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems is presented. The methodology accommodates the effects of parasitic dynamics such as those introduced by unmodeled actuators through the introduction of multiple asymptotic observers and model reference hedging. The design procedure includes a frequency domain approach to specify the sliding manifold, the observer eigenvalues, and the hedge model. The procedure is applied to the development of a flight control system for a linear model of the Innovative Control Effector (ICE) fighter aircraft. The stability and performance robustness of the resulting design is demonstrated through the introduction of significant degradation in the control effector actuators and variation in vehicle dynamics.

  12. Lift-enhancing surfaces on several advanced V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, D. A.; Smith, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of forward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate that larger LEX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  13. Lift Enhancing Surfaces on Several Advanced V/STOL Fighter/Attack Aircraft Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, Donald A.; Smith, Stephen C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of for-ward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate surface that larger LFX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  14. Lift-enhancing surfaces on several advanced V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, D. A.; Smith, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of forward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate that larger LEX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  15. Top-mounted inlet performance for a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Donald B.

    1987-01-01

    Inlet flow-field and compressor-face performance data were obtained for a 0.095-scale model of vertical/short take-off landing (V/STOL) fighter/attack aircraft configuration with twin top-mounted inlets. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.0 and angles of attack and sideslip up to 27 deg. and 12 deg., respectively. Reynolds number was held constant at 9.8 x 10 to the 6th power per meter. The effects of inlet location, wing leading-edge extension (LEX) planform area, canopy-dorsal integration, variable incidence canards, and wing leading- and trailing-edge flap deflections were determined. The results show that at Mach numbers up to 0.9, distortion is relatively low (20% or less) at all angles of attack and sideslip. However, at Mach numbers of 1.2 and above, operation may be restricted because of either high distortion or low pressure recovery (80% or less), or both. These difficulties may be overcome with alterations to the LEX/canopy/body juncture.

  16. Hardware-in-the-loop environment facility to address pilot-vehicle-interface issues of a fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangareddy, Meenige

    2002-07-01

    The evolution of Pilot-Vehicle-Interface (PVI) of a fighter aircraft is a complex task. The PVI design involves both static and dynamic issues. Static issues involve the study of reach of controls and switches, ejection path clearance, readability of indicators and display symbols, etc. Dynamic issues involve the study of the effect of aircraft motion on display symbols, pilot emergency handling, situation awareness, weapon aiming, etc. This paper describes a method of addressing the above issues by building a facility with cockpit, which is ergonomically similar to the fighter cockpit. The cockpit is also fitted with actual displays, controls and switches. The cockpit is interfaced with various simulation models of aircraft and outside-window-image generators. The architecture of the facility is designed to represent the latencies of the aircraft and facilitates replacement of simulation models with actual units. A parameter injection facility could be used to induce faults in a comprehensive manner. Pilots could use the facility right from familiarising themselves with procedures to start the engine, take-off, navigate, aim the weapons, handling of emergencies and landing. This approach is being followed and further being enhanced on Cockpit-Environment-Facility (CEF) at Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Bangalore, India.

  17. Inlet and airframe compatibility for a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft with top-mounted inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, D. A.; Smeltzer, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Aerodynamic force and inlet pressure data are obtained for 9.5% force and pressure models of a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configuration with top mounted twin inlets. Data are presented from tests conducted in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnels at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 at angles of attack up to 27 deg. and angles of sideslip up to 12 deg. Trimmed aerodynamic characteristics and inlet performance are compared for three different leading edge extension (LEX) configurations. The effects of wing leading and trailing-edge flaps on the inlet are also determined. Maneuver perfromance is calculated form combined force and inlet pressure data. The largest of the three LEX sizes tested gives the best airplane maneuver performance. Wing flap deflections improved inlet recovery at all Mach numbers.

  18. Effects of varying podded nacelle-nozzle installations on transonic aeropropulsive characteristics of a supersonic fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, F. J.; Reubush, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin engine fighter designed for supersonic cruise was investigated in the 16 foot Transonic Tunnel. The performance characteristics of advanced nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed in various nacelle locations, the effects of thrust induced forces on overall aircraft aerodynamics, the trim characteristics, and the thrust reverser performance were evaluated. The major model variables included nozzle power setting; nozzle duct aspect ratio; forward, mid, and aft nacelle axial locations; inboard and outboard underwing nacelle locations; and underwing and overwing nacelle locations. Thrust vectoring exhaust nozzle configurations included a wedge nozzle, a two dimensional convergent divergent nozzle, and a single expansion ramp nozzle, each with deflection angles up to 30 deg. In addition to the nonaxisymmetric nozzles, an axisymmetric nozzle installation was also tested. The use of a canard for trim was also assessed.

  19. The Use of Prototypes in Selected Foreign Fighter Aircraft Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    success of these programs. Program officials developing both the Rafale A and EAP are convinced that the approach using flex- ible, lean management and...organization also seem to play a role. Program officials developing both the Rafale A and EAP are convinced that the approach using flexible, lean management and...flexible, lean management structures with minimal government interference, all contribute to more successful outcomes in large-scale fighter R&D efforts

  20. A strategy for in-flight measurements of physiology of pilots of high-performance fighter aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2013-07-01

    Some pilots flying modern high-performance fighter aircraft develop "hypoxia-like" incidents characterized by short periods of confusion and cognitive impairment. The problem is serious and recently led to the grounding of a fleet of aircraft. Extensive discussions of the incidents have taken place but some people believe that there is inadequate data to determine the cause. There is a tremendous disconnect between what is known about the function of the aircraft and the function of the pilot. This paper describes a plan for measuring the inspired and expired Po2 and Pco2 in the pilot's mask, the inspiratory flow rate, and pressure in the mask. A critically important requirement is that the interference with the function of the pilot is minimal. Although extensive physiological measurements were previously made on pilots in ground-based experiments such as rapid decompression in an altitude chamber and increased acceleration on a centrifuge, in-flight measurements of gas exchange have not been possible until now primarily because of the lack of suitable equipment. The present paper shows how the recent availability of small, rapidly responding oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers make sophisticated in-flight measurements feasible. The added information has the potential of greatly improving our knowledge of pilot physiology, which could lead to an explanation for the incidents.

  1. Computational Aerodynamic Prediction for Integration of an Advanced Reconnaissance Pod on a 5th Generation Fighter Type Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paolis P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a computational aerodynamic prediction to support the aeromechanical integration of an advanced reconnaissance pod on a 5th generation fighter type aircraft is presented. The aim of the activity was to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the new pod to a previous one already cleared on the same aircraft fleet, given verified inertial and structural similarity. Verifying the aforementioned aerodynamic similarity without involving extensive flight test activity was a must, to save time and to reduce costs. A two steps approach was required by the Certification Authority to verify, initially, the performance data compatibility in terms of aerodynamic coefficients of the old pod with the new one, in order to allow performance flight manual data interchangeability (a quantitative comparison was required; afterwards, a qualitative assessment was conducted to verify the absence of unsteadiness induced by the introduction in the external structure of the new pod of an auxiliary antenna case. Computational results are presented both for Straight and Level Un-accelerated Flight and SteadySideslip flight conditions at different Angles of Attack.

  2. Evolutionary developmental transition from median to paired morphology of vertebrate fins: Perspectives from twin-tail goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Gembu; Ota, Kinya G

    2016-12-07

    Vertebrate morphology has been evolutionarily modified by natural and/or artificial selection. The morphological variation of goldfish is a representative example. In particular, the twin-tail strain of ornamental goldfish shows highly diverged anal and caudal fin morphology: bifurcated anal and caudal fins. Recent molecular developmental genetics research revealed that a stop codon mutation in one of the two recently duplicated chordin genes is important for the highly diverged fin morphology of twin-tail goldfish. However, some issues still need to be discussed in the context of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). For example, the bifurcated anal and caudal fins of twin-tail goldfish provided early researchers with insights into the origin of paired fins (pectoral and pelvic fins), but no subsequent researchers have discussed this topic. In addition, although the fossil jawless vertebrate species Euphanerops is also known to have had a bifurcated anal fin, how the bifurcated anal fin of twin-tail goldfish is related to that of fossil jawless vertebrate species has never been investigated. In this review, we present an overview of the early anatomical and embryological studies of twin-tail goldfish. Moreover, based on the similarity of embryonic features between the secondarily bifurcated competent stripe in twin-tail goldfish and the trunk bilateral competent stripes in conventional gnathostomes, we hypothesized that they share the same molecular developmental mechanisms. We also postulate that the bifurcated anal fin of Euphanerops might be caused by the same type of modification of dorsal-ventral patterning that occurs in the twin-tail goldfish, unlike the previously suggested evolutionary process that required the co-option of paired fin developmental mechanisms. Understanding the molecular developmental genetics of twin-tail goldfish allows us to further investigate the evolutionary developmental mechanisms of the origin of paired fins.

  3. Computational Investigation and Validation of Twin-Tail Buffet Response Including Dynamics and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1998-01-01

    Multidisciplinary tools for prediction of single rectangular-tail buffet are extended to single swept-back-tail buffet in transonic-speed flow, and multidisciplinary tools for prediction and control of twin-tail buffet are developed and presented. The configuration model consists of a sharp-edged delta wing with single or twin tails that are oriented normal to the wing surface. The tails are treated as cantilevered beams fixed at the root and allowed to oscillate in both bending and torsion. This complex multidisciplinary problem is solved sequentially using three sets of equations on a dynamic single or multi-block grid structure. The first set is the unsteady, compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations which are used for obtaining the flow field vector and the aerodynamic loads on the tails. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved accurately in time using the implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The second set is the coupled bending and torsion aeroelastic equations of cantilevered beams which are used for obtaining the bending and torsion deflections of the tails. The aeroelastic equations'are solved accurately in time using, a fifth-order-accurate Runge-Kutta scheme. The third set is the grid-displacement equations and the rigid-body dynamics equations, which are used for updating the grid coordinates due to the tail deflections and rigid-body motions. The tail-buffet phenomenon is predicted for highly-swept, single vertical tail placed at the plane of geometric symmetry, and for highly-swept, vertical twin tails placed at three different spanwise separation distances. The investigation demonstrates the effects of structural inertial coupling and uncoupling of the bending and torsion modes of vibration, spanwise positions of the twin-tail, angle of attack, and pitching and rolling dynamic motions of the configuration model on the tail buffet loading and response. The fundamental issue of twin-tail buffet alleviation is

  4. Design and Optimization of a Composite Canard Control Surface of an Advanced Fighter Aircraft under Static Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimization of weight and maximization of payload is an ever challenging design procedure for air vehicles. The present study has been carried out with an objective to redesign control surface of an advanced all-metallic fighter aircraft. In this study, the structure made up of high strength aluminum, titanium and ferrous alloys has been attempted to replace by carbon fiber composite (CFC skin, ribs and stiffeners. This study presents an approach towards development of a methodology for optimization of first-ply failure index (FI in unidirectional fibrous laminates using Genetic-Algorithms (GA under quasi-static loading. The GAs, by the application of its operators like reproduction, cross-over, mutation and elitist strategy, optimize the ply-orientations in laminates so as to have minimum FI of Tsai-Wu first-ply failure criterion. The GA optimization procedure has been implemented in MATLAB and interfaced with commercial software ABAQUS using python scripting. FI calculations have been carried out in ABAQUS with user material subroutine (UMAT. The GA's application gave reasonably well-optimized ply-orientations combination at a faster convergence rate. However, the final optimized sequence of ply-orientations is obtained by tweaking the sequences given by GA's based on industrial practices and experience, whenever needed. The present study of conversion of an all metallic structure to partial CFC structure has led to 12% of weight reduction. Therefore, the approach proposed here motivates designer to use CFC with a confidence.

  5. Delayed detached eddy simulations of fighter aircraft at high angle of attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Xu; Xiong Jiang; Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    The massively separated flows over a realistic air-craft configuration at 40◦, 50◦, and 60◦angles of attack are studied using the delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). The calculations are carried out at experimental conditions corresponding to a mean aerodynamic chord-based Reynolds number of 8.93 × 105 and Mach number of 0.088. The influ-ence of the grid size is investigated using two grids, 20.0×106 cells and 31.0 × 106 cells. At the selected conditions, the lift, drag, and pitching moment from DDES predictions agree with the experimental data better than that from the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes. The effect of angle of attack on the flow structure over the general aircraft is also studied, and it is found that the dominated frequency associated with the vortex shedding process decreases with increasing angle of attack.

  6. Estimation of Stability & Control Derivatives from Flight Test Data of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Saraswathi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal stability and tontrol derivatives of a fightlfr aircraft are estimated by output error method for different types of input excitation. The uncertainties in the parameters are computed by cortfcting Cramer-Ra(j bounds using fudge factor. In general, the step input response data is not usedfor estimating the derivatives. Therefore, step response time history trajectories were cross-validated using tIle estimated derivatives for standard inputs like doublet and 3211. This proves that the model parameters are estimated with high confidence. By appropriately choosing the mathematical modeland using the corrected flight data for bias and scale factor errors by compatability check for parameter  estimation proves beyond doubt that such a procedure can be adopted for estimating stability and control derivatives of any aircraft.

  7. Marine TACAIR Challenge 2020: Team the Joint Strike Fighter with the Next Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    35. "Oh, we know it’s the game changer!" they remark in jest. Though sarcastic in expression, their experience bears tmth in that any single system...a1.·ea of operations. The UAS CONOPS briefly mentions terms such as manned-unmanned teaming ( MUT ), cross cueing, and information fusion. JSF...tactical unmanned aircraft system MEU - Marine expeditionary unit MUM manned-unmanned MUT - manned-unmanned team(ing) NSFS - naval surface fire

  8. A Hydrodynamical Solution for the "Twin-Tailed" Colliding Galaxy Cluster "El Gordo"

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, Sandor M

    2014-01-01

    The distinctive cometary X-ray morphology of the recently discovered massive galaxy cluster "El Gordo" (ACT-CT J0102-4915; z=0.87) indicates that an unusually high-speed collision is ongoing between two massive galaxy clusters. A bright X-ray "bullet" leads a "twin-tailed" wake, with the SZ centroid at the end of the Northern tail. We show how the physical properties of this system can be determined using our FLASH-based, N-body/hydrodynamic model, constrained by detailed X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ), and Hubble lensing and dynamical data. The X-ray morphology and the location of the two Dark Matter components and the SZ peak are accurately described by a simple binary collision viewed about 480 million years after the first core passage. We derive an impact parameter of ~300 kpc, and a relative initial infall velocity of ~2250 km/sec when separated by the sum of the two virial radii assuming an initial total mass of 2.15x10^(15) Msun and a mass ratio of 1.9. Our model demonstrates that tidally stretched ga...

  9. Probing interactions of neurotransmitters with twin tailed anionic surfactant: A detailed physicochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajwinder; Sanan, Reshu; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Keeping in view the role of neurotransmitters (NTs) in central nervous system diseases and in controlling various physiological processes, present study is aimed to study the binding of neurotransmitters (NTs) such as norepinephrine hydrochloride (NE) and serotonin hydrochloride (5-HT) with twin tailed surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT). Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements combined with microcalorimetric measurements were used to characterize the interactions between AOT and NTs. Meteoric modifications to emission profile and absorption spectra of NTs upon addition of AOT are indicative of the binding of NTs with AOT. Distinct interactional states such as formation of ion-pairs, induced and regular micelles with adsorbed NTs molecules have been observed in different concentration regimes of AOT. The formation of ion-pairs from oppositely charged NTs and AOT is confirmed by the reduced absorbance, quenched fluorescence intensity and decrease in peak current (ipa) as well as shifts in peak potential (Epa) values. The stoichiometry and formation of the NTs-AOT complexes has been judged and the extent of interactions is quantitatively discussed in terms of binding constant (K) and free energy of binding (ΔG°). The enthalpy (ΔH°mic) and free energy of micellization (ΔG°mic) for AOT in presence and absence of NTs are determined from the enthalpy curves.

  10. Energy-modelled climb and climb-dash - The Kaiser technique. [reviewed for Me 262 jet fighter aircraft trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, S. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    F. Kaiser's germinal 1944 report on his 'resultant-height' concept, now known as energy modelling, is reviewed. The data base for the Me. 262 jet fighter is recreated via spline-lattice representation of specific excess power. Minimum-time and 'distance'-climb trajectories are generated in an attempt to check Kaiser's results. Agreement is good for the minimum-time calculations but only qualitative agreement is obtained for the mysterious 'distance climbs' whose documentation is fragmentary. The character of optimal climb-dash trajectories in energy approximation is examined and illustrated.

  11. Decision Support System for Fighter Pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randleff, Lars Rosenberg

    2007-01-01

    During a mission over enemy territory a fighter aircraft may be engaged by ground based threats. The pilot can use different measures to avoid the aircraft from being detected by e.g. enemy radar systems. If the enemy detects the aircraft a missile may be fired to seek and destroy the aircraft...... and countermeasures that can be applied to mitigate threats. This work is concerned with finding proper evasive actions when a fighter aircraft is engaged by ground based threats. To help the pilot in deciding on these actions a decision support system may be implemented. The environment in which such a system must...... platforms (aircraft, ships, etc.) is described. Different approaches to finding the combination of countermeasures and manoeuvres improving the pilots survivability is investigated. During training a fighter pilot will learn a set of rules to follow when threat occurs. For the pilot these rules...

  12. Optimised Cockpit Heat Load Analysis using Skin Temperature Predicted by CFD and Validation by Thermal Mapping to Improve the Performance of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing of optimum environmental control system (ECS plays a major role for increasing performance of fighter aircraft depending upon requirement of engine bleed air for running of ECS. Accurate estimation of cockpit skin temperature for obtaining optimised cockpit heat load helps in estimation of engine bleed air for ECS. Present research evolved a methodology for comparing the theoretically calculated skin temperature with computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis to obtain optimum skin temperature. Results are validated by flight tests under critical flight conditions using thermal crayons. Based on which the optimized heat load and bleed air requirements has been computed. Uncertainty analysis of skin temperature measurement for thermal crayons have been undertaken. The results indicate that the theoretical skin temperature is -26.70 per cent as that of CFD estimated skin temperature. Optimized average cockpit heat load at critical flight profiles is 0.74 times the theoretical cockpit heat load, leading to reduction of bleed air requirement by 26 per cent as compared to theoretical. Due to this literature survey has pridicted the increase in performance parameters like increase in bleed air pressure by 78 per cent, increase in thrust by 60 per cent, and decrease in specific fuel consumption (SFC by 40 per cent to improve the endurance of aircraft. The research has generated governing equations for variation of cockpit heat loads w.r.t aircraft skin temperatures.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.12-24, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7200

  13. Optimizing Marine Corps pilot conversion to the Joint Strike Fighter

    OpenAIRE

    Holloway, Shannon V.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States Marine Corps is replacing its fixed wing fighter and attack aircraft with the new F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. Retirement of F/A-18 Hornets and AV-8B Harriers will make their associated military occupational specialties obsolete. The conversion of personnel to the new aircraft must be carefully managed to ensure appropriate manning levels for the Joint Strike Fighter, while maintaining adequate quantities of experienced...

  14. Thoracolumbar pain among fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, O

    1999-08-01

    High +Gz forces place high stress on the spinal column, and fighter pilots flying high-performance fighter aircraft frequently] report work-related thoracic and lumbar spine pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether +Gz exposure causes work-related thoracolumbar spine pain among fighter pilots. A questionnaire was used to establish the occurrence of thoracic and lumbar spine pain during the preceding 12 months and during duties over the whole working career among 320 fighter pilots and 283 nonflying controls matched for age and sex. Thirty-two percent of the pilots and 19% of the controls had experienced pain in the thoracic spine during the preceding 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-3.5; p = 0.002 for the pilots). Among the pilots, the OR increased up to 6.1 (95% CI = 1.6-23.1; p = 0.0007) with the number of +Gz flight hours. There was no difference between the groups with regard to lumbar pain during the preceding 12 months, but over their whole working careers fighter pilots (58%) had experienced lumbar pain during their duties more often than controls (48%) (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3-2.6; p = 0.002). The greater the number of +Gz flight hours, the greater the occurrence of lumbar spine pain when on duty (OR = 26.9; 95% CI = 6.2-116; p = 0.0001 for the most experienced fighter pilots). The same was not true with regard to the number of +Gz flight hours and lumbar pain during the preceding 12 months. Age had no effect on pain in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Fighter pilots flying high-performance aircraft have more work-related thoracic and lumbar spine pain than controls of the same age and sex. The difference is explained by the pilots' exposure to +Gz forces.

  15. Euler Technology Assessment for Preliminary Aircraft Design-Unstructured/Structured Grid NASTD Application for Aerodynamic Analysis of an Advanced Fighter/Tailless Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Todd R.

    1998-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Langley sponsored project aimed at determining the viability of using Euler technology for preliminary design use. The primary objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the Boeing, St. Louis unstructured grid flow field analysis system, consisting of the MACGS grid generation and NASTD flow solver codes. Euler solutions about the Aero Configuration/Weapons Fighter Technology (ACWFT) 1204 aircraft configuration were generated. Several variations of the geometry were investigated including a standard wing, cambered wing, deflected elevon, and deflected body flap. A wide range of flow conditions, most of which were in the non-linear regimes of the flight envelope, including variations in speed (subsonic, transonic, supersonic), angles of attack, and sideslip were investigated. Several flowfield non-linearities were present in these solutions including shock waves, vortical flows and the resulting interactions. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by comparing solutions with test data and Navier-Stokes solutions. The ability to accurately predict lateral-directional characteristics and control effectiveness was investigated by computing solutions with sideslip, and with deflected control surfaces. Problem set up times and computational resource requirements were documented and used to evaluate the efficiency of this approach for use in the fast paced preliminary design environment.

  16. Multiaxis control power from thrust vectoring for a supersonic fighter aircraft model at Mach 0.20 to 2.47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Francis J.; Bare, E. Ann

    1987-01-01

    The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Tansonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective was to determine multiaxis control-power characteristics from thrust vectoring. A two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle was designed to provide yaw vector angles of 0, -10, and -20 deg combined with geometric pitch vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. Yaw thrust vectoring was provided by yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls. Roll control was obtained from differential pitch vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 2.47. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to about 19 deg, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from about 1 (jet off) to 28, depending on Mach number. Increments in force or moment coefficient that result from pitch or yaw thrust vectoring remain essentially constant over the entire angle-of-attack range of all Mach numbers tested. There was no effect of pitch vectoring on the lateral aerodynamic forces and moments and only very small effects of yaw vectoring on the longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments. This result indicates little cross-coupling of control forces and moments for combined pitch-yaw vectoring.

  17. The Best Investment for the Air Superiority Fighter of the Year 2000: The Aircraft, Its Weapon System or Its Armament?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Tactical Aircraft Division, 21 and 22 April 1986. 5. Study made in 1985 for a seminar of the Air War College by Colonel Bodie Bodenheim , USAF, and the...Magazine, January 1986, pp. 38-45. Ulsamer, Edgar , *Hard Calls on Tactical Technology.- Air Force Magazine, April 1986, pp. 58-64. A 0 _4 4.I _woo= ,DŔ

  18. Pursuit of the Torch: Influences on Acquisition of USAAF Fighter Aircraft Used in the North African Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Allied logistics occurred with a concomitant decrease in the capacity for Axis logistics to replace its losses. Field Marshall Erwin Rommel later...Americans when they landed in North Africa in November 1942. The interwar years were crucial in the formation of the force structure with which...defensive national strategy. Nonetheless, the Army Air Forces found ways to employ their aircraft effectively in the skies over North Africa . They

  19. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2016-07-01

    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  20. Aerodynamic analysis and simulation of a twin-tail tilt-duct unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Cyrus

    The tilt-duct vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) concept has been around since the early 1960s; however, to date the design has never passed the research phase and development phase. Nearly 50 years later, American Dynamics Flight Systems (ADFS) is developing the AD-150, a 2,250lb weight class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) configured with rotating ducts on each wingtip. Unlike its predecessor, the Doak VZ-4, the AD-150 features a V tail and wing sweep -- both of which affect the aerodynamic behavior of the aircraft. Because no aircraft of this type has been built and tested, vital aerodynamic research was conducted on the bare airframe behavior (without wingtip ducts). Two weeks of static and dynamic testing were performed on a 3/10th scale model at the University of Maryland's 7' x 10' low speed wind tunnel to facilitate the construction of a nonlinear flight simulator. A total of 70 dynamic tests were performed to obtain damping parameter estimates using the ordinary least squares methodology. Validation, based on agreement between static and dynamic estimates of the pitch and yaw stiffness terms, showed an average percent error of 14.0% and 39.6%, respectively. These inconsistencies were attributed to: large dynamic displacements not encountered during static testing, regressor collinearity, and, while not conclusively proven, differences in static and dynamic boundary layer development. Overall, the damping estimates were consistent and repeatable, with low scatter over a 95% confidence interval. Finally, a basic open loop simulation was executed to demonstrate the instability of the aircraft. As a result, it is recommended that future work be performed to determine trim points and linear models for controls development.

  1. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  2. Fighter Pilot Ejection Study as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Jovanoski, Zlatko

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we apply the well-known equations of projectile motion to the case of a fighter pilot ejecting from an aircraft, the aim being to establish under what conditions there is danger of impact with the rear vertical stabilizer. The drag force on the pilot after ejection is assumed to vary as the velocity squared and the aircraft motion…

  3. Validation of MIL-F-9490D - General Specification for Flight Control System for Piloted Military Aircraft. Volume II. YF-17 Lightweight Fighter Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    LANDING GEAR fMr RC E NCY T LI L’A 1,: D I I ýG T AT( , I NA )f AR ;A SFER*[:-1-1 T NOSE [GIR RELEASECYLINDER WMEL STEERIN L & R [!FA I ]NG yRAMýcff...electrically bonding the aircraft per MIL-B-5087B, keeping the primary stroke currents on the exterior of the aircraft, minimizing the apertures in...the internal electromagnetic fie1ds generated by the primary stroke currents on the exterior of the aircraft is an overall wiring harness shield. Thin

  4. The reasons of fighter aircraft high +Gz induced pilot's neck injuries and prevention%战斗机高+Gz环境导致飞行员颈部损伤的原因及预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓略; 金朝; 耿喜臣; 张立辉; 王红; 王海霞; 李毅峰; 王全

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the reasons, mechanism of fighter aircraft high +Gz induced pilot's neck injuries and prevention methods, and to expect the integrative methods for enhancing prevention effects.Literature resource and selection Professional references which were published at home and abroad were cited.Literature quotation Fifty published papers and reviews were referred.Literature synthesis The characters of modern high-performance fighter aircraft which was described as high +Gz and the rapid onset rate acceleration induced serious harm to pilot's neck.Since more than 20 years, many researches on mechanism and the reasons of inducing neck injuries had conducted by scholars.They indicated the consensus in the factors of inducing neck injuries, including +Gz threshold, the load on pilot's head, passive effect on back seat, unsuitable head posture in flight and frequent exposure in high +Gz.The preventions were primarily focused on leaning upon cervical spine function evaluation and neck muscle strength training, developing protective equipment and improving man-machine adaptability of equipment.Conclusions In fighter pilot's career, it is unavoidable that he will be threatened by high +Gz environment.At present, it is important to adopt integrative preventions and emphasize effective research for increasing pilot's capability for adapting high + Gz environment and protecting himself.Also such experience will be useful in preventing pilot's waist injuries induced by high +Gz.%目的 综述战斗机高+Gz环境导致飞行员颈部损伤的致伤原因、发生机制及预防措施,探讨采取综合性措施提升预防效果的发展前景.资料来源与选择国内外相关领域的研究论文与综述.资料引用国内外公开发表的论文和综述50篇.资料综合高性能战斗机的高+Gz值、高+Gz增长率特性给飞行员颈部健康造成极大的危害.近20多年来,众多学者针对高+Gz环境导致飞行员颈部损伤的机制和

  5. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  6. Development and application of airport resc device for high performance fighter aircraft pilot%高性能战斗机飞行员机场救护设备的研制与推广应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颉; 韩学平; 殷东辰; 王海渡; 冷莉

    2008-01-01

    目的 研制一种用于机场抢救遇险的高性能战斗机飞行员的救护设备,解决飞机座舱高、救护人员无法登机并快速解救受伤飞行员离机的难题.方法 在勤务需求分析的基础上,提出该救护设备的基本功能要求,论证并设计总体方案,研制出样件.采用QG 0.85拖车底盘,装载自制手控可伸缩旋转的吊臂和可伸缩的登机梯及吊板、吊带.登机梯2架用于救护人员在座舱两侧登机,吊板用于固定受伤飞行员,防止脊柱和颈椎二次受伤.结果 该设备最高牵引速度为80 km/h,展开时间为3~7 min,操作时问为4 min,起吊高度为6 m.结论 该设备适用于机场快速救护,并能在发生事故时为飞行员提供可靠的撤离和保护手段.%Objective To develop an airport rescue device for high performance fighter aircraft pilot and to solve such difficulties as carrying the wounded from cockpit by medical staff.Methods The basic perfomance specification of rescue device was adopted On the base of analyzing service requirements and the prototype was built upon justification and design.The device was driven by QG 0.85 trailer chassis and equipped with mariusl controlled extendable arm and ladders.as well as aSsistant safety board and hanging belts.Two ladders enabled medical staffs to access cockpit from both sides and assistant ssfety board could be used to protect the spine and cervical vertebrae of wounded pilot from secondary injury. Results The 3~7 rnin and evacuation could he completed within 4 min. Conclusions The airport rescue device is hdpful in quick rescue mission at airport and provides reliable evacuation and protection to the high performance fighter aireraft pilot in case of accident happened.

  7. Identification of human factors concerns in Joint Strike Fighter and training recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    KuÌ luÌ nk, BuÌ lent.

    2008-01-01

    Military aviation is the frontier of implementing leading edge technology. The major objectives of advanced technology aircraft are to increase pilot safety and mission efficiency; the Joint Strike Fighter, the most modern fighter aircraft under development, has many technological innovations for just this purpose. A common fact is that technology develops and is used faster than it can be researched thoroughly. This thesis seeks to identify and mitigate potential human factors concerns relat...

  8. Final Environmental Assessment for Temporary Aircraft Relocation to Maxwell Air Force Base 187th Fighter Wing Montgomery Regional Airport Montgomery, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Alabama. Mims, Donald L. Montgomery County Administrator, Montgomery, Alabama. Mueller, Heinz. Environmental Review Coordinator, U.S. Environmental...Mr. Donald L. Mims Montgomery County Administrator PO Box 1667 Montgomery, AL 36102-1667 Environmental Assessment for Temporary Aircraft...Experimental Study.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 82, 479-492. Frericks, R.R., B.L. Beeman , and A.H. Coulson. 1980. “Los Angeles Airport Noise and

  9. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    a reduction of 88 percent since 2014. Page 15 GAO-16-390 F-35 Joint Strike Fighter • The time spent on scrap , rework, and repair in the...Nearing Completion and F-35 Program is Addressing Technical Risks 7 Manufacturing and Reliability Progress Continue 12 DOD’s Approach to Managing...F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft by Variant 14 Figure 7: Reduction in Average Monthly F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Part Shortage Occurrences at

  10. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  11. Effects of Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity on Tasks of Fighter Aircraft Instrument Reading%视觉空间工作记忆容量对歼击机仪表读数判断的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏衡; 刘志方; 曹立人; 戴顺琳; 娄振山; 孟旭

    2012-01-01

    To explore that to which extent subjects' visuospatial working memory capacity influenced tasks of aircraft instrument reading. Methods Firstly, visuospatial working memory capacity of 17 male air-force ground crews were measured individually. Sencondly, they were involved in tasks of fighter aircraft instrument reading. Speedometer, altimeter and navigational meter were presented for 500 or 1000 ms. Ten times was for each condition. The accuracy and reaction time in each condition of the determinations were recorded. Results Effects of instrument exposure time on accuracy and reaction time were significant in all instrument reading. The capacity of visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of correct rate when speedometer and altimeter were exposured for 500 ms. Conclusion The regression model indictates that large visuospatial working memory capacity affects perception and comprehension of instruments significantly.%目的 考察视觉空间工作记忆容量对歼击机仪表判断任务成绩的影响.方法 首先测量17名男性空军地勤人员的视觉空间工作记忆容量;随后让他们参与某机型的歼击机上仪表(速度表、航向表和高度表)读数的判断任务,仪表的呈现时间为500 ms和1000 ms;每种条件的任务重复10次,最后记录各条件受试者反应的正确率和反应时间.结果 呈现时间对各仪表判断任务绩效影响显著,在500 ms的呈现时间中,受试者视觉空间工作记忆容量对速度表和高度表读数判断正确率的回归系数达到显著水平.结论 视觉空间工作记忆容量对知觉和理解仪表读数有明显的影响.

  12. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  13. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  14. The fighter pilot's egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Dale W.

    1990-03-01

    Of common interest to fighter pilots is what maneuver should be flown to accomplish a 360° heading change in the least time. Among the infinite possibilities, analytic expressions for a very commonly used maneuver, a roughly circular planar turn that accomplishes the required heading change, are derived and examined under four realistic assumptions. Contrary to common belief, the time to complete the stated heading change turns out to be independent of the inclination of the plane of the turn.

  15. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  16. The Need for a Permanent Gun System On the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    5. 9. Emmanuel Gustin and Anthony G Williams, Flying Guns: The Development of Aircraft Guns, Ammunition and Installations 1933-1945 (Airlife...Checking Six Not Enough, 23. 33. Ibid., 24. 34. Ibid., 24. 35. Todd E. Denning, A Case for the Joint Strike Fighter Gun (Army General Command and...Washington DC, 20 October 2006. 38. Ibid 39. Todd E. Denning, A Case Joint Strike Fighter, 56. 40. David R. Mets, Checking Six Not Enough, 41

  17. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  18. Robust Nonlinear Control of Tailless Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    also resulted in 1 book chapter and 12 refereed conference papers published, to appear and submitted. These papers are listed below. 1. A.R. Teel and L...Verlag, 1999, to appear. 4 Refereed Conference Publications 11. A.R. Teel. "A nonlinear control viewpoint on anti-windup and related problems", Preprints... Drc . TS"ThCH’WCAL R~PORT HAS qSN REViEWMAND IS APPRoVvOR 0 PLnUcBL EASE’WA APR 190-12, DISTRIBUTION I YONNE MASON S7T]NQ1pROORAJMMANAGE

  19. A parametric approach to hover balance analysis of two STOVL fighter concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jeffrey J.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    1986-01-01

    Successful development of an aircraft with vertical landing capability must address the critical problem of balancing the aircraft for hover. In this paper a parametric method for balancing short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft in hover is described and applied to the analysis of two conceptual STOVL fighters. One uses a remote augmented lift system and the other a thrust-vectoring hybrid tandem-fan engine.

  20. Aircraft Pitch Attitude Control using Backstepping

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola; Glad, Torkel

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear approach to the automatic pitch attitude control problem for a generic fighter aircraft is presented. A nonlinear model describing the longitudinal equations of motion in strict feedback form is derived. Backstepping is utilized for the construction of a globally stabilizing controller with a number of free design parameters. Two tuning schemes are proposed based on the desired locally linear controller properties. The controller is evaluated using the HIRM fighter aircraft model.

  1. Aircraft Pitch Attitude Control using Backstepping

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola; Glad, Torkel

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear approach to the automatic pitch attitude control problem for a generic fighter aircraft is presented. A nonlinear model describing the longitudinal equations of motion in strict feedback form is derived. Backstepping is utilized for the construction of a globally stabilizing controller with a number of free design parameters. Two tuning schemes are proposed based on the desired locally linear controller properties. The controller is evaluated using the HIRM fighter aircraft model.

  2. The Vietnam Era and the Rise of the Fighter Generals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-22

    History, 1979), p. 188; Curtis E. LeMay, America is in Dan ge ( New York: Funk & Wagnalls , 1968), p. x; USAF Oral History interview with General Howell...p. 31. 92 Marcelle Knaack, Encyclopedia of USAF Aircraft and Missile Systems Vol 1: Post- World War "I Fighter (Washington D.C.: Office of Air Force... Encyclopedia of USAF Aircraft and Missile Systems Vol I1: Post- World War IT Bmbers (Washington D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1988); Secretary of

  3. Fatigue Fighters in Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Fatigue Fighters in Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Frederick Vivino, MD, FACR, University of Pennsylvania, Penn Rheumatology Associates & Sjögren’s Syndrome Center, Philadelphia, for authoring this Patient Education ...

  4. Vibration and stability of an aircraft tail under simultaneous primary-combined and internal resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper adds a negative velocity feedback to the dynamical system of twin-tail aircraft to suppress the vibration.The system is represented by two coupled second-order nonlinear differential equations having both quadratic and cubic nonlinearities.The system describes the vibration of an aircraft tail subjected to both multi-harmonic and multi-tuned excitations.The method of multiple time scale perturbation is adopted to solve the nonlinear differential equations and obtain approximate solutions up to th...

  5. Successful Fighter Combat: An Historical Comparison Fighter Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    that would have made comparison with modern U.S. aviators very difficult. In addition, the author is not multi- lingual and research of foreign pilots...Ethel. Escort to Berlin: The th Fighter Group in World War II. New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1980. 7. Hess, W. N. The American Aces of World War...II and Korea. New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1968. "" 8. Jackson, Robert. Fighter Pilots of World War II. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1976. 9

  6. Eunuchs as better fighters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2012-02-01

    Male-male competition for females can significantly affect a male's reproductive success and hence his fitness. Game theory predicts that an individual should avoid fighting when its future reproductive potential is high, but should fight forcefully when its future reproductive potential is insignificant. When mates are scarce, extreme competition and fatal fighting is expected. We recently showed that Nephilengys malabarensis eunuchs, i.e. sterile spider males that lost their genitals during copulation, become more aggressive during male-male contests. Here, we add crucial comparative data by exploring eunuch fighting behaviour in Nephilengys livida from Madagascar, specifically by testing the `better fighter hypotheses' in a laboratory setting. Similar to N. malabarensis, N. livida copulations resulted in total male castration with the severed palp plugging the female genitals in 70.83% cases, which mostly (63.63%) prevented subsequent copulations. Unexpectedly, however, N. livida eunuchs exhibited lower aggressiveness than virgin males. We interpret these results in the light of different mating biology between the so far studied species known for the eunuch phenomenon, which might reflect differing plug effectiveness due to variation in genital anatomy in N. livida, N. malabarensis and Herennia multipuncta. However, detected differences in aggressive behaviour of N. livida versus N. malabarensis eunuchs might also be explained by the species' ecology, with lower population densities resulting in a relaxed male-male competition making excessive aggression and mate guarding redundant. This study thus questions the generality of overt aggressiveness in mated males with no reproductive value, and highlights the importance of understanding the natural history of species in the question.

  7. 改装体检直升机和歼(强)击机飞行员鼻窦资料的比较分析%Comparative analysis on data of nasal sinus between helicopter and(strike) fighter pilots under physical examination for change to new-type aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先荣; 马晓莉; 张扬; 熊巍

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较飞行合格的直升机和歼(强)击机飞行员的鼻窦疾病状况,为新联勤体制下航卫保障提供依据.方法:分析改装体检飞行员鼻窦CT资料138份,其中直升机飞行员46份,歼(强)击机飞行员92份,统计慢性鼻窦炎和鼻窦囊肿的发生率.结果:①直升机飞行员慢性鼻窦炎14例(上颌寞炎6例,筛窦炎4例,上颌寞炎伴筛窦炎4例),占30.4%(14/46),其中3例上颌窦积液需要治疗;歼(强)击机飞行员慢性鼻窦炎12例(上颌窭炎8例,筛窦炎1例,上颌窭炎伴筛窦炎3例),占13.0%(12/92),其中1例上颌窦积液需要治疗,两者慢性鼻窦炎的发生率比较,差异有统计学意义(x2 =6.07,P<0.05).②直升机飞行员上颌窦黏膜下囊肿4例(均为单侧),占 8.7%(4/46);歼(强)击机飞行员上颌窦黏膜下囊肿10例(单侧8例,双侧2例),占10.87% (10/92),两者鼻窦囊肿的发生率比较,差异无统计学意义,均无需治疗.结论:飞行人员无症状的慢性鼻窦炎和鼻窦囊肿有较高的发生率,可能与气压变化有关,但大多数无需处理.直升机飞行员与歼(强)击机飞行员相比,慢性鼻窦炎的发生率较高,可能与非封闭座舱和多机组人员的环境有关.%Objectivc;To comparatively analy2e the disease data of nasal sinus between helicopter and (strike) fighter pilots under flying qualification, and then to provide references for aeromedical support as a significant part of new logistics service union in army, Method:The CT data of nasal sinus inl38 pilots who accepted physical ex-amination for change to new type aircraft, were collected included 46 cases of helicopter pilots and 92 cases of (strike)fighter pilots). The incidence of chronic sinusitis and cyst of nasal sinus were computed respectively in hel-icopter pilots and (strike)fighter pilots. Result; ①Forteen cases suffered from chronic sinusitis (6 cases of maxil-lary sinusitis, 4 cases of ethmoiditis and 4 cases of maxillary sinusitis and

  8. Titanium in fatigue critical military aircraft structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, F.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the effect of fatigue requirements on titanium structure in military aircraft applications, specifically, fighter aircraft. The discussion covers how fatigue affects the design and analysis of detail parts, and how manufacturing processes affect the fatigue performance of titanium structure. Criteria for designing fighter aircraft have evolved from simple strength calculations to extremely complex computer generated analyses involving strength, durability, damage tolerance and fatigue. Fatigue life prediction is an important part of these analyses and dramatically affects the design and weight of fighter aircraft. Manufacturing processes affect fatigue performance both in a positive and negative manner. Designers must allow for the effect of these processes on titanium structure and consider the efficiency and economy of adding processes that increase fatigue life.

  9. Downsizing Future USAF Fighter Forces. Living Within the Constraints of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Downsizing future USAF fighter forces : ibliving within the constraints of history /IcKevin N. Lewis. 260: Santa Monica, CA : ibRAND, 1c1995. 300: xxviii...play a continuing vital role in future American defense planning. That role may, in fact, grow in importance as U.S. defense downsizing continues, as...reason. 506: 1 UNCLASSIFIED S95: 1 Air Force. 695: 1 Air Force planning. 695: 2 Fighter aircraft. 787: Supersedes RAND/DRR-474-AF 982: 3 Downsizing

  10. Atlas occipitalization in a supersonic fighter pilot involved in a midair collision: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gips, Hadas; Hiss, Jehuda; Davidson, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of a midair collision between two F16 fighter aircraft, in which one pilot survived and the other was ejected upon impact and his remains recovered from sea. In autopsy, no patholgy was detected, other than the expected evidence of mechanical trauma. No defects in the aircraft or faults in the parachute or ejection mechanism were found. Reconstruction of the shattered skull base and the cervical vertebrae revealed fusion of the atlanto-occipital joint (occipitalization) and a left paracondylar process. The effective diameter of the spinal canal was decreased by the abnormal articulation. Such malformations can cause a wide range of neurologic deficits. Considering the skill and alertness needed to operate a supersonic fighter aircraft, with the pressure applied by the heavy protective head gear and various G forces endured by the spinal column during flight, we postulate that the collision was related to the pilot's sudden incapacitation.

  11. 75 FR 78229 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps East Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... operate 11 operational F-35B Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) squadrons (up to 16 aircraft per squadron, for a total of 176 aircraft) and one Pilot Training Center (PTC) (composed of two Fleet Replacement...

  12. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future multimission aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jeffrey J.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed which compared three supersonic multimission tactical aircraft. The aircraft were evaluated in two technology timeframes and were sized with consistent methods and technology assumptions so that the aircraft could be compared in operational utility or cost analysis trends. The three aircraft are a carrier-based Fighter/Attack aircraft, a land-based Multirole Fighter, and a Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules used and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions and layout, design mission and maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The effect of changing technology and mission requirements on the STOVL aircraft and the impact of aircraft navalization are discussed. Also discussed are the effects on the STOVL aircraft of both Thrust/Weight required in hover and design mission radius.

  13. Large-Scale V/STOL Experimental Investigations of an Ejector-Lift Fighter and a Twin Tilt-Nacelle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    In the 1980s NASA Aeronautics was actively involved in full-scale wind tunnel testing of promising VSTOL aircraft concepts. This presentation looks at two, a multi-role fighter and a subsonic tactical transport. Their strengths and weaknesses are discussed with some of the rationale that ultimately led to the selection of competing concepts for production, namely the V-22 Osprey and the F-35 Lightning. The E7-A STOVL multi-role fighter was the product of an aircraft development program in the late 1980s by NASA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Canadian Department of Industry Science and Technology (DIST), and industry partners General Dynamics and Boeing Dehavilland. The program was conducted an in response to increasing US-UK interest in supersonic STOVL fighters. The objective was to design an aircraft that could replace most existing close air support-air combat fighters with a single aircraft that had some of the qualities of an air superiority fighter and the deployment flexibility of a VSTOL aircraft. The resulting E7-A concept was a delta-wing supersonic fighter that used a fuselage-mounted thrust augmenting ejector and a ventral deflecting jet nozzle for vertical lift. The Grumman Aircraft Company, the Navy, and NASA developed the Design-698 (D-698) subsonic tactical transport in response to the Navy's Type A VSTOL utility aircraft requirement. The objective was to develop a subsonic utility transport with the operational flexibility of a helicopter, but with greater speed and range. The D-698 employs two high-bypass turbofan engines mounted on a dumbbell that rotates through ninety degrees for vertical takeoff and cruise flight. Movable vanes positioned in the exhaust flow provide control in hover with the need for reaction control jets. The presentations concluding comments suggest that technology advances in the last thirty-years may justify the value of revisiting some of these concepts.

  14. Carrier Aviation and Hybrid Conflict: The Future of the Strike Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    additional 182 strike missions over Bosnia -Herzegovina.9 Operation DESERT FOX added another eighty-eight strike missions for the F/ A-18. 10 The following...threat to U.S. aircraft in Bosnia and Kosovo. The trend of SAM proliferation will continue in future combat operations with enemy air defenses as...important but "the fighter guys were at the . . . very tip of the pyramid .ඃ .Th~ blockbuster h:it of Top Gun solidified this culture, and the

  15. Fire fighters, combustion products, and urothelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial cancer may be induced by different workplace chemicals, including carcinogenic aromatic amines, coke oven fumes, and cigarette smoking. The general impact of combustion products on urothelial cancer risk of exposed persons is still controversial. This raises the question whether fire fighters may have an increased risk for urothelial cancer. The present review compiles the literature on combustion products, possibly relevant for fire fighters, and the available studies on urinary bladder cancer risk in fire fighters. Chemical analyses of smoke from experimental fires as well as from fires in cities, wildlands, and industry do not indicate a generally elevated risk of bladder cancer in fire fighters. This is supported by studies on bladder cancer in fire fighters. Based on mortality studies, studies on exposures, and cancer incidence, we conclude that an elevated risk of urothelial cancer in fire fighters, in general, is not confirmed. Only in professional fire fighters more severely exposed for decades, having started their career some decades before, occupational exposure might be discussed as causative for urothelial cancer.

  16. Modeling and software implementation of flight system for simulator of a new fighter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Cheng-cheng; YANG Yong-tian; JIA Rong-zhen

    2004-01-01

    Real-time modeling and simulation of flight system are the key parts of simulator. After describing the architecture of simulator for a newer fighter, author presents the composition of flight system and its mathematic models. In this paper, aircraft is regarded as an elastic flight body. And a new integrated algorithm which can remedy the shortcoming of Euler method and four-element method is used to calculate the Eulerian angles of aircraft. Finally, the software implementation of the flight system is given in the paper.

  17. Development of Longitudinal Equivalent System Models for Selected U.S. Navy Tactical Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    revaraa side II nacaaaary and Identlly by block number) Aircraft Longitudinal Flying Qualities Equivalent Systems Frequency Response Matching...is a twin turbofan powered, land and carrier based, subsonic, anti- submarine warfare aircraft . Longitudinal control is accomplished via a...based, supersonic fighter aircraft . Longitudinal control is accomplished via an irreversible mechanical flight control system which transmits

  18. Former WWII Fighter Pilot Finds New Home Near Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Former WWII Fighter Pilot Finds New Home Near Family Past Issues / Summer ... help people become involved. Mufich as a WWII fighter pilot. Photo courtesy of Bill Mufich The Transition: Transitions ...

  19. Optics in aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  20. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. B., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft. The results were used in the Center for Naval Analysis Future Carrier Study. The NASA Team designed three classes of aircraft ('Fighter', 'Attack', and 'Multimission') with two different technology levels. The Multimission aircraft were further analyzed by examining the penalty on the aircraft for both catapult launch/arrested landing recovery (Cat/trap) and short take-off/vertical landing (STOVL). The study showed the so-called STOVL penalty was reduced by engine technology and the next generation Strike Fighter will pay more penalty for Cat/trap than for STOVL capability.

  1. WSARA 2009: Joint Strike Fighter Root Cause Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Verification Doug Pearson , VP F- 35 Test & Verification April 5, 2010 F-35 Lightning II Program Staffing Summary David Demoret, Director, F-35... Frederic C. Schwartz, C-17 Document By/From Date Fighters Technical Director, Joint Strike Fighter Program Office Joint Strike Fighter, Cost

  2. Research on Visual Display Integration for Advanced Fighter Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    Tactical Air Control System TAS True Airspeed TDMA Time Division Multiple Access TERCOM Terrain Contour Matching TFEL Thin Film Electroluminescence TFR...Coincidence V V V — V — Radar Correlation V V — v’ v’ V IR/Radiometric Correlators V V V V V Terrain Correlators ( TERCOM ) V V ______ V V...Description Priority Comment Unaided Inertial High TERCOM High Radar Image Corr High EO Image Corr Low Not Adverse Weather RAC High Commend

  3. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  4. NATO Armaments Cooperation: The Case of the European Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    production phase if the Social Democrats gain the office." (80:1346). By February 1989 NEFMA instructed EUROFIGHTER to extend the deadline to make a...34 Participacion Industrial en el EFA," Revista de Aeronautica y Astronautica, 5: 498-500 (May 1987). 38. "Germany said likely to withdraw from

  5. Fighter Aircraft Foreign Military Sales: Industry Survival and National Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Affairs in January 1990. With an expanded staff, this organization was supposed to break the licensing log-jam.2 9 However, Lockheed’s CEO, Daniel ...34Pentagon Clears Plan to Extend F-22 Development," Air Force Times, February 15, 1993, p. 25.24 Michael L. Dertouzos, Richard K. Lester, Robert M. Solow

  6. Asphaltic Concrete Performance Under Heavy Fighter Aircraft Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    compacted to determine the effects of overfilling and underfilling the voids in the aggregate. Density and voids filled with binder are two of the...concrete were also taken at different pass levels to determine the change in air voids with traffic. Damage parameters were defined to provide a...149 I 89 Voids Total Mix Data and Interpolated Values Versus Station .............................................. 150 90 Voids Filled

  7. Computer Program for Vibration Prediction of Fighter Aircraft Equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    SIG’(,3)=l.0 !K=7 SD0(4)=-iG0.0 VIPRF 1675 VIPRF 16756" VIPRF 1676 J=n TCC "ST=C.IC $II=1 TL=O VIPRF 177 FR’=FWTlrF C? X=YLPL L Ln VIPRF 1678 VIPRF 1679...HTLO(ITYDE) +SIC,N(ITYPE) * VIPRF 21L.2 IATAh? (TWflrI2TYPF)’(X1i’!ALDHA(ITYP:)) ,1.-X1*X1))/LXIT7yPE) ) VIPRF 21’.3 OEr ,PFL(J=X VIPRF 2q4.4 VIPPF 2SA

  8. Acquired nasal deformities in fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreinemakers, Joyce R C; van Amerongen, Pieter; Kon, Moshe

    2010-07-01

    Fighter pilots may develop slowly progressive deformities of their noses during their flying careers. The spectrum of deformities that may be acquired ranges from soft tissue to osseous changes. The main cause is the varying pressure exerted by the oxygen mask on the skin and bony pyramid of the nose during flying.

  9. German Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    least some foreign fighters are radicalized and mobilized exclusively through online and social media interactions . Recent cases of lone- wolf...jihadists from virtually anywhere. As societies change and social interactions happen increasingly in the virtual world instead of in the physical one...While the biographical and background data (age, immigration background, gender , etc.) is aggregated and presented statistically, the social network data

  10. Cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Frilander, Heikki; Sainio, Markku; Karvala, Kirsi; Sovelius, Roope; Vehmas, Tapio; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2015-02-01

    To assess the associations of acceleration force indicators (aircraft type and flight hours) with cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched until October 2013. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review and 20 in the meta-analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of neck pain (pooled OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.33), cervical disc degeneration (OR=1.26, CI 0.81 to 1.96), low back pain (OR=0.80, CI 0.47 to 1.38) or lumbar disc degeneration (OR=0.87, CI 0.67 to 1.13) between fighter pilots and helicopter or transport/cargo pilots. Moreover, the prevalence of cervical (OR=1.14, CI 0.61 to 2.16) or lumbar (OR=1.05, CI 0.49 to 2.26) disc degeneration did not differ between fighter pilots and non-flying personnel. Most studies did not control their estimates for age and other potential confounders. Among high-performance aircraft pilots, exposure to the highest G-forces was associated with a higher prevalence of neck pain compared with exposure to lower G-forces (pooled OR=3.12, CI 2.08 to 4.67). The studies on the association between flight hours and neck pain reported inconsistent findings. Moreover, looking back over the shoulder (check six) was the most common posture associated with neck pain. Fighter pilots exposed to high G-forces may be at a greater risk for neck pain than those exposed to low G-forces. This finding should be confirmed with better control for confounding. Awkward neck posture may be an important factor in neck pain among fighter pilots.

  11. The Way Forward for America’s Fighter Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    Ambiguous ( VUCA ) world in which strategic leaders operate knows no boundaries and presents itself across the spectrum of Joint Interagency, Intercultural...equation when the fifth generation fighter force was in its earliest design stages. The U.S. fighter fleet must maneuver through this VUCA world in...air forces with increased capabilities in a VUCA , fiscally constrained world . Domestically, a fleet of OA-X, legacy fighters and fifth generation

  12. [Heart morphologic state in retired fighter pilots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X E; Chen, Z G; Long, L; Zhai, D S; Zhao, X J; Fang, R Y

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To study the heart morphology in the retired fighter pilots, and to provide clinical evidence for protection combined G-loads (+ Gz), heat, noise, hypoxic and vibration stress induced cardiac structural damage. Method. Parameters of heart morphology were studied using Doppler echocardiography in 40 retired fighter pilots with 40 veteran cadres as control. Result. LVDd, LVDs, LADs, LVEDV, LVPWs and LVM in pilot group were somewhat higher than those in control group (NS); while IVSs and LVMI in pilot group were slightly lower than those in control group (NS); LVESV, aortic valve area, internal diameter of the ring and sinus in pilot group were significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Analysis of the results revealed no pathomorphologic damage of the heart. It suggest that all the variations can be regarded as adaptive changes due to the effects of the combined environmental factors experienced in long time flying.

  13. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    experienced flight leaders. New fighter pilots coming directly out of SUPT and IFF require 500 flying hours to become designated as experienced. In...rated officers—an imperfect match of human capital to requirements. Further Reductions Options to reduce requirements, listed in Chapter Two, include...progress. The hours required for OCO support are typically additive and funded by the Transportation Working Capital Fund (TWCF) rather than by Air Force

  14. Space Fundamentals for the War Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-08

    Army Operations. FM 100-18. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combined Arms Command, 4 Jun 93. The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs. Newington, CT: The...NOTES 1. U.S. Army, Sace Reference Text. (Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: U.S. Army Space Institute, July 93). p. 5-2. 2. The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs... Handbook . A War Fighter’s Guide to Space. Montgomery, Alabama: Air University Press, Dec 93. Space Directory. 1992-93. Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information

  15. Test Pilots with P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-01-01

    Langley test pilots (from left) Mel Gough, Herb Hoover, Jack Reeder, Steve Cavallo and Bill Gray stand in front of a P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter in this 1945 photo. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 44). Also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 498).

  16. An in-flight investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression filters during the fighter approach and landing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. E.; Smith, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression (PIOS) filters was performed using the USAF/Flight Dynamics Laboratory variable stability NT-33 aircraft, modified and operated by Calspan. This program examined the effects of PIOS filtering on the longitudinal flying qualities of fighter aircraft during the visual approach and landing task. Forty evaluations were flown to test the effects of different PIOS filters. Although detailed analyses were not undertaken, the results indicate that PIOS filtering can improve the flying qualities of an otherwise unacceptable aircraft configuration (Level 3 flying qualities). However, the ability of the filters to suppress pilot-induced oscillations appears to be dependent upon the aircraft configuration characteristics. Further, the data show that the filters can adversely affect landing flying qualities if improperly designed. The data provide an excellent foundation from which detail analyses can be performed.

  17. Backstepping Designs for Aircraft Control - What is there to Gain?

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft flight control design is traditionally based on linear control theory, due to the existing wealth of tools for linear design and analysis. However, in order to achieve tactical advantages, modern fighter aircraft strive towards performing maneuvers outside the region where the dynamics of flight are linear, and the need for nonlinear tools arises. In this paper, backstepping is proposed as a possible framework for nonlinear flight control design. Its capabilities of handling five maj...

  18. The design of a wind tunnel VSTOL fighter model incorporating turbine powered engine simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. O.; Maraz, M. R.; Hiley, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    A wind-tunnel model of a supersonic VSTOL fighter aircraft configuration has been developed for use in the evaluation of airframe-propulsion system aerodynamic interactions. The model may be employed with conventional test techniques, where configuration aerodynamics are measured in a flow-through mode and incremental nozzle-airframe interactions are measured in a jet-effects mode, and with the Compact Multimission Aircraft Propulsion Simulator which is capable of the simultaneous simulation of inlet and exhaust nozzle flow fields so as to allow the evaluation of the extent of inlet and nozzle flow field coupling. The basic configuration of the twin-engine model has a geometrically close-coupled canard and wing, and a moderately short nacelle with nonaxisymmetric vectorable exhaust nozzles near the wing trailing edge, and may be converted to a canardless configuration with an extremely short nacelle. Testing is planned to begin in the summer of 1982.

  19. Measuring wildland fire fighter performance with wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Vitalis, Antonios; Walker, Robyn; Riley, David; Pearce, H Grant

    2017-03-01

    Wildland (rural) fire fighting is a physically demanding and hazardous occupation. An observational study was conducted to explore the use of new technologies for the field study of fire fighters at wildfires and to understand the work pressures of wildland fire fighting. The research was carried out with two fire fighters at real fires wearing microphones, miniature video cameras, heart rate monitors and GPS units to record their actions and location at wildfire events. The fire fighters were exposed to high physiological workloads (heart rates of up to 180 beats per minute) and walked considerable distances at the fires. Results from this study have been used in presentations to fire fighters and non-operational fire personnel to understand the pressures fire fighters are under and how others complete the fire fighting tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Sphygmographic parameters in fighter and transport pilots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Y; Tian, G; Yu, Y; Zhao, Y; Liang, B

    1997-10-01

    To evaluate and discover hidden cardiovascular trouble in pilots, the cardiovascular function of 129 active male pilots was examined with a new sphygmographic method. 13 pilots (10.3%) were found to have abnormal cardiovascular function. The average arterial blood pressure and medium artery modulus of the fighter pilots aged from 30 to 34 years are inferior to those aged from 25 to 29 obviously, however, that is not the case in transport pilots. This indicates that frequent examination of cardiovascular function with convenient special method is necessary for the improvement of the quality of medical monitor on pilots.

  1. Back symptoms in aviators flying different aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Nakdimon, Idan; Chapnik, Leah; Levy, Yuval

    2012-07-01

    Back pain is a common complaint among military aviators of various aircraft. We attempted to define the epidemiologic characteristics of this complaint in military aviators of the Israeli Air Force. Aviators of various aircraft (fighter, attack helicopter, utility helicopter, and transport and cargo) completed 566 questionnaires. The questionnaires included various demographic variables as well as questions specifically addressing type of aircraft, location, and severity of pain. Questionnaires were analyzed according to aircraft type, weekly and total number of flight hours. Back pain was significantly more common among utility and attack helicopter pilots. Compared with only 64.02% of fighter pilots, 89.38% of utility and 74.55% of attack helicopter pilots reported some degree of back pain. Cervical region pain was more common among fighter pilots (47.2%) and utility helicopter pilots (47.3%) compared with attack helicopter (36.4%) and transport (22.3%) pilots. Cervical region pain of moderate-severe degree was more common among utility helicopter pilots (7.1%). Mid and low back pain at all degrees of severity were more common among helicopter pilots. A significant proportion of subjects suffered from pain in multiple regions, particularly among utility helicopter pilots (32.74%). Severity of pain was graded higher in all three regions (cervical, mid, and lower back) in utility helicopter pilots. Utility helicopter pilots have more prevalent and more severe back pain than pilots of other platforms. Yet, it is difficult to make a clear association between type of aircraft and the region of back pain.

  2. OF ALIENATION, ASSOCIATION, AND ADVENTURE: WHY GERMAN FIGHTERS JOIN ISIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorle Hellmuth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of German foreign fighters who have left for Syria and Iraq since early 2012 and make up the second largest contingent among Western foreign fighters. It draws on statistical information about German foreign fighters, but also uses case studies in an attempt to shed more detailed light on their motivations and why they became radicalized. Drawing on recently released government data, trial documents, and media reports, the article seeks to contribute to new research on the prevailing mechanisms of Jihadi radicalization. To facilitate this kind of comprehensive analysis, McCauley and Moskalenko’s Friction framework is applied to fourteen prominent German fighters, including Denis Cuspert (who served as medium-level ISIL propaganda official, Philip Bergner and Robert Baum (responsible for ISIL suicide attacks in Iraq and Syria, Kreshnik B. and Harun Pashtoon (among the first returning fighters convicted of ISIL membership and other terrorist activities. The article concludes with a discussion of countermeasures used to prevent foreign fighters from leaving Germany, deradicalize those who have started to embrace violent ideas and/or actions, and deal with returning foreign fighters.

  3. Aircraft-skin Infrared Radiation Characteristics Modeling and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianwei; Wang Qiang

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important problems of stealth technology is to evaluate the infrared radiation (IR) level received by IR sensors from fighters to be detected. This article presents a synthetic method for calculating the IR emitted from aircraft-skin. By reckoning the aerodynamic heating and hot engine casing to be the main heat sources of the exposed aircraft-skin, a numerical model of skin temperature distribution is established through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Based on it, an infrared signature model for solving the complex geometry and structure of a fighter is proposed with the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. Finally, by way of determining the IR intensity from aircraft-skin, the aircraft components that emit the most IR can be identified; and the cooling effects of the main aircraft components on IR intensity are investigated. It is found that reduction by 10 K in the skin temperature of head, vertical stabilizers and wings could lead to decline of more than 8% of the IR intensity on the aircraft-skin in front view while at the broadside of the aircraft, the drops in IR intensity could attain under 8%. The results provide useful reference in designing stealthy aircraft.

  4. +GZ-induced neck injuries in Royal Australian Air Force fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D G

    1997-06-01

    +GZ-induced neck injuries are a relatively common occurrence in pilots of high performance fighter aircraft. We surveyed 52 fighter pilots from the Royal Australian Air Force Base at Williamtown via an anonymous questionnaire in order to determine the prevalence and operational significance of these injuries. The pilots flew either the F/A-18 Hornet or the MB326H Macchi. Of the respondents, 44 reported having had a neck injury under +GZ. A higher rate was reported in pilots of the F/A-18. Most of these injuries were simple muscle sprains. There were 20 pilots who reported their neck injury as having interfered with mission completion. Only 12 pilots reported doing any regular neck strengthening exercises, while 33 pilots reported doing preflight neck stretches immediately prior to high +GZ exposure. There were 14 pilots who sought medical attention for their injury, with 9 being taken off flight status for an average of 2 weeks. Air combat maneuvering sorties and the "check six" head position were identified as causal factors by most pilots. This study demonstrates the operational significance of these injuries, and highlights the need for more research into this important aerospace medicine issue.

  5. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  6. 'New Wars: Forgotten Warriors': Why Have Girl Fighters Been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... Representations of Conflict in Sierra Leone? Alice Macdonald* ... continues to attract media attention, as has done the recent film Blood. Diamonds ... out 'there has been little or no emphasis on women as fighters and killers'.

  7. The protective effect of education on cognition in professional fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah J; Obuchowski, Nancy; Shin, Wanyong; Lowe, Mark; Phillips, Michael; Modic, Michael; Bernick, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Education has a protective effect against cognitive deficits following various forms of brain insult. Professional fighting (boxing and mixed martial arts) provides a model for assessing the impact of cumulative brain injuries on cognition and brain health. In the current cross-sectional observational study, we explore whether education would be protective against cognitive loss in fighters. We tested 141 professional fighters using a computerized neurocognitive battery, in addition to structural MRI. We used automated segmentation software to compute the volumes of various brain structures. We found fighters with high school education or less to show more associations between fight exposure and cognitive test scores. The relationship between brain structure volume and exposure did not differ based on education. These results are interpreted as putatively showing a protective effect of education on functional integrity in fighters, although longitudinal data and a larger sample size are required to further understand this relationship.

  8. CERN fire fighters roll out in style

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    On Thursday, 20 October, CERN fire fighters celebrated the arrival of a new equipment transport truck.   Measuring 13m3 and weighing 2.5 tonnes, the truck can carry several types of response materials in the event of chemical or radiological accidents, pollution incidents or floods. It can also pull trailers carrying fire extinguishers and oxygen masks. "Despite its size, this vehicle is extremely practical and flexible, and it can be put to work quickly and easily,” says Patrick Berlinghi, logistics officer for the Fire Brigade. “It is equipped with a rear-view camera and lighting on the rear and the side. It can also be loaded and unloaded very quickly, as it takes only 15 seconds to lower the truck box and open the doors! "  

  9. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Observations on Program Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-14

    F - 35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Observations on Program Progress Statement of Michael J. Sullivan, Director Acquisition...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Joint Strike Fighter: Observations on Program Progress 5a...15-429T Chairman Turner, Ranking Member Sanchez, and Members of the Subcommittee: Thank you for the opportunity to discuss our work on the F - 35

  10. Fighting Testing ACAT/FRRP: Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Flight testing Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project (ACAT/FRRP). The goal of this project is to develop common modular architecture for all aircraft, and to enable the transition of technology from research to production as soon as possible to begin to reduce the rate of mishaps. The automated Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) system is designed to prevent collision with the ground, by avionics that project the future trajectory over digital terrain, and request an evasion maneuver at the last instance. The flight controls are capable of automatically performing a recovery. The collision avoidance is described in the presentation. Also included in the presentation is a description of the flight test.

  11. Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste - internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters......Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters...

  12. Heart rate and heart rate variability characteristics of the pilots in aerobatic flight of high performance fighter aircraft%高性能战斗机飞行员特技飞行时心率及心率变异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 周亚军; 郭壁砖; 景百胜; 李全安

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aerobatic flight on high performance fighter pilots' physiological characteristics and to analyze their work loads in such flight.Methods Ten healthy male military pilots executed 17 aerobatic flights.Electrocardiograph was recorded during flight,and heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed.Results During aerobatic flight,HR and HRV showed increasing sympathetic nerve regulation.The mean HR,max HR at aerobatic stage was (92.3 ±13.2),(101.2 ±15.9) beats / min and significantly higher than those in other stages respectively(F=58.479,35.209; P<0.01).The ratio of LF and HF (LF/HF) significantly increased in aerobatic stage,and the difference with that in acrobatic stages were statistic meaning(F=19.893,P<0.01).Conclusions High performance fighter pilots endure high G and high G onset in aerobatic flight.The increasing sympathetic nerve regulation indicates pilot's high physical and mental workload.%目的 分析高性能战斗机飞行员特技飞行时的心率、心率变异性等指标的变化,研究高性能战斗机飞行员的飞行劳动特点. 方法 使用“飞行员飞行生理参数记录检测仪”(简称生参仪),记录10名健康男性高性能战斗机飞行员在17架次特技飞行过程中的心电信号,分析飞行员心率、心率变异性(heart rate variability,HRV)的变化特点. 结果 特技动作时飞行员的平均心率和最大心率分别为(92.3±13.2)次/min和(101.2±15.9)次/min,明显高于其他飞行阶段(F=58.479、35.209,P<0.01).代表交感迷走神经平衡性的HRV指标低频高频比值在特技动作时明显增高,与其他飞行阶段比,差异有统计学意义(F=19.893,P<0.01). 结论 特技飞行时高性能战斗机飞行员心率和交感神经调节明显增高,提示飞行员体力和脑力负荷增加.

  13. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  14. Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Jonathan; Andersson, Jan

    Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards.

  15. Transient aerodynamic forces on a fighter model during simulated approach and landing with thrust reversers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.

    1988-01-01

    Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.

  16. Residual Stress Analysis of Aircraft Part using Neutron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eun Joo; Seong, Baek Seok; Sim, Cheul Muu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A precise measurement of the residual stress magnitude and distribution is an important factor to evaluate the lifetime or safety of the materials, because the residual stress affects the material properties, such as the strength, fatigue, etc. In the case of a fighter jet, the lifetime and safety of the parts of the landing gear are more important than that of a passenger airplane because of its frequent take offs and landings. In particular in the case of training a fighter jet, a precise evaluation of life time for the parts of the landing gear is strongly required for economic reason. In this study, the residual stress of a part of the landing gear of the training fighter jet which is used to fix the landing gear to the aircraft body was investigated. The part was used for 2000 hours of flight, which corresponds to 10 years. During this period, the fighter jet normally takes off and lands more than 2000 times. These frequent take off and landing can generate residual stress and cause a crack in the part. By measuring the neutron diffraction peaks, we evaluated the residual stress of the landing gear part

  17. Neck muscle activity in fighter pilots wearing night-vision equipment during simulated flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Björn O; Kristoffersson, Mats

    2013-02-01

    Night-vision goggles (NVG) in jet fighter aircraft appear to increase the risk of neck strain due to increased neck loading. The present aim was, therefore, to evaluate the effect on neck-muscle activity and subjective ratings of head-worn night-vision (NV) equipment in controlled simulated flights. Five experienced fighter pilots twice flew a standardized 2.5-h program in a dynamic flight simulator; one session with NVG and one with standard helmet mockup (control session). Each session commenced with a 1-h simulation at 1 Gz followed by a 1.5-h dynamic flight with repeated Gz profiles varying between 3 and 7 Gz and including aerial combat maneuvers (ACM) at 3-5 Gz. Large head-and-neck movements under high G conditions were avoided. Surface electromyographic (EMG) data was simultaneously measured bilaterally from anterior neck, upper and lower posterior neck, and upper shoulder muscles. EMG activity was normalized as the percentage of pretest maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). Head-worn equipment (helmet comfort, balance, neck mobility, and discomfort) was rated subjectively immediately after flight. A trend emerged toward greater overall neck muscle activity in NV flight during sustained ACM episodes (10% vs. 8% MVC for the control session), but with no such effects for temporary 3-7 Gz profiles. Postflight ratings for NV sessions emerged as "unsatisfactory" for helmet comfort/neck discomfort. However, this was not significant compared to the control session. Helmet mounted NV equipment caused greater neck muscle activity during sustained combat maneuvers, indicating increased muscle strain due to increased neck loading. In addition, postflight ratings indicated neck discomfort after NV sessions, although not clearly increased compared to flying with standard helmet mockup.

  18. Professional fighters brain health study: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive head trauma is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is the primary cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, little is known about the natural history of, and risk factors for, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or about means of early detection and intervention. The Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters (boxers and mixed martial artists), retired professional fighters, and controls matched for age and level of education. The main objective of the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is to determine the relationships between measures of head trauma exposure and other potential modifiers and changes in brain imaging and neurological and behavioral function over time. The study is designed to extend over 5 years, and we anticipate enrollment of more than 400 boxers and mixed martial artists. Participants will undergo annual evaluations that include 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning, computerized cognitive assessments, speech analysis, surveys of mood and impulsivity, and blood sampling for genotyping and exploratory biomarker studies. Statistical models will be developed and validated to predict early and progressive changes in brain structure and function. A composite fight exposure index, developed as a summary measure of cumulative traumatic exposure, shows promise as a predictor of brain volumes and cognitive function.

  19. Escorting commercial aircraft to reduce the MANPAD threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Nicholas; Richardson, M. A.; Butters, B.; Walmsley, R.; Ayling, R.; Taylor, B.

    2005-11-01

    This paper studies the Man-Portable Air Defence System (MANPADS) threat against large commercial aircraft using flight profile analysis, engagement modelling and simulation. Non-countermeasure equipped commercial aircraft are at risk during approach and departure due to the large areas around airports that would need to be secured to prevent the use of highly portable and concealable MANPADs. A software model (CounterSim) has been developed and was used to simulate an SA-7b and large commercial aircraft engagement. The results of this simulation have found that the threat was lessened when a escort fighter aircraft is flown in the 'Centreline Low' position, or 25 m rearward from the large aircraft and 15 m lower, similar to the Air-to-Air refuelling position. In the model a large aircraft on approach had a 50% chance of being hit or having a near miss (within 20m) whereas escorted by a countermeasure equipped F-16 in the 'Centerline Low' position, this was reduced to only 14%. Departure is a particularly vulnerable time for large aircraft due to slow climb rates and the inability to fly evasive manoeuvres. The 'Centreline Low' escorted departure greatly reduced the threat to 16% hit or near miss from 62% for an unescorted heavy aircraft. Overall the CounterSim modelling has showed that escorting a civilian aircraft on approach and departure can reduce the MANPAD threat by 3 to 4 times.

  20. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well...... as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority...... of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power...

  1. Optimizing Marine Corps Pilot Conversion to the Joint Strike Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    current delivery schedule, VMFAT 501 will receive one aircraft in 2010, nine in 2011, and the remaining 10 in 2013. In 2012, VMAT 332, the first...operational squadron will receive its 10 aircraft. 41 To evaluate the effects of allocating additional aircraft to the FRS, aircraft deliveries to VMAT 332

  2. Euler Technology Assessment - SPLITFLOW Code Applications for Stability and Control Analysis on an Advanced Fighter Model Employing Innovative Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Keith J.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents results from the NASA-Langley sponsored Euler Technology Assessment Study conducted by Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of the SPLITFLOW code using viscous and inviscid flow models to predict aerodynamic stability and control of an advanced fighter model. The inviscid flow model was found to perform well at incidence angles below approximately 15 deg, but not as well at higher angles of attack. The results using a turbulent, viscous flow model matched the trends of the wind tunnel data, but did not show significant improvement over the Euler solutions. Overall, the predictions were found to be useful for stability and control design purposes.

  3. Grid generation and inviscid flow computation about aircraft geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Grid generation and Euler flow about fighter aircraft are described. A fighter aircraft geometry is specified by an area ruled fuselage with an internal duct, cranked delta wing or strake/wing combinations, canard and/or horizontal tail surfaces, and vertical tail surfaces. The initial step before grid generation and flow computation is the determination of a suitable grid topology. The external grid topology that has been applied is called a dual-block topology which is a patched C (exp 1) continuous multiple-block system where inner blocks cover the highly-swept part of a cranked wing or strake, rearward inner-part of the wing, and tail components. Outer-blocks cover the remainder of the fuselage, outer-part of the wing, canards and extend to the far field boundaries. The grid generation is based on transfinite interpolation with Lagrangian blending functions. This procedure has been applied to the Langley experimental fighter configuration and a modified F-18 configuration. Supersonic flow between Mach 1.3 and 2.5 and angles of attack between 0 degrees and 10 degrees have been computed with associated Euler solvers based on the finite-volume approach. When coupling geometric details such as boundary layer diverter regions, duct regions with inlets and outlets, or slots with the general external grid, imposing C (exp 1) continuity can be extremely tedious. The approach taken here is to patch blocks together at common interfaces where there is no grid continuity, but enforce conservation in the finite-volume solution. The key to this technique is how to obtain the information required for a conservative interface. The Ramshaw technique which automates the computation of proportional areas of two overlapping grids on a planar surface and is suitable for coding was used. Researchers generated internal duct grids for the Langley experimental fighter configuration independent of the external grid topology, with a conservative interface at the inlet and outlet.

  4. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    AFRL-RH-WP-TP-2015-0028 Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility Performance...COVERED (From - To) June 2014 – April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility...Method for Measuring the Intelligibility of Speech over Communication Systems on the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) with

  5. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  6. Fault prediction of fighter based on nonparametric density estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhengdao; Hu Shousong

    2005-01-01

    Fighters and other complex engineering systems have many characteristics such as difficult modeling and testing, multiple working situations, and high cost. Aim at these points, a new kind of real-time fault predictor is designed based on an improved k-nearest neighbor method, which needs neither the math model of system nor the training data and prior knowledge. It can study and predict while system's running, so that it can overcome the difficulty of data acquirement. Besides, this predictor has a fast prediction speed, and the false alarm rate and missing alarm rate can be adjusted randomly. The method is simple and universalizable. The result of simulation on fighter F-16 proved the efficiency.

  7. Kafkaesque rebranding of pro-US fighters as terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Zawacki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Indochina war the US recruited fighters from the Hmong people of Laos to disrupt North Vietnamese supply and troops movements along the Ho Chi Minh trail. While an estimated 170,000 ex-combatant Hmong and their relatives now live in the US , others seeking asylum have bizarrely fallen foul of the post-9.11 PATRIOTPATRIOTPATRIOT PATRIOT Act.

  8. What Radiologists Can Learn From Fighter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzler, Elliot

    2017-03-08

    Many principles of aviation safety have already been adopted into the field of health care. In this article, the author describes some of the core methodologies that contribute to the success of US Air Force fighter pilots and offers examples as to how these could be adapted to meet the challenges facing the practice of radiology. Key principles include "big picture" tactical training, the use of checklists, teamwork, safety, and performance improvement concepts. The need for cultural support of change is emphasized.

  9. Wireless communication technology as applied to head mounted display for a tactical fighter pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gurdial S.

    2007-04-01

    The use of Helmet-Mounted Display/Tracker (HMD/Ts) is becoming widespread for air-to-air, within visual range target acquisition for a tactical fighter pilot. HMD/Ts provide the aircrew with a significant amount of information on the helmet, which reduces the burden of the aircrew from having to continually look down in the cockpit to receive information. HMD/Ts allow the aircrew to receive flight and targeting information regardless of line-of-sight, which should increase the aircrew's situation awareness and mission effectiveness. Current technology requires that a pilot wearing a Helmet Mounted Display/Tracker be connected to the aircraft with a cable. The design of this cable is complex, costly, and its use can decrease system reliability. Most of the problems associated with the use of cable can be alleviated by using wireless transmission for all signals. This will significantly reduce or eliminate the requirements of the interconnect cable/connector reducing system complexity, and cost, and enhancing system safety. A number of wireless communication technologies have been discussed in this paper and the rationale for selecting one particular technology for this application has been shown. The problems with this implementation and the direction of the future effort are outlined.

  10. The Last Manned Fighter: Replacing Manned Fighters with Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    to attack a tank and not a Coca - Cola truck, they are unlikely smart enough to know if a mob surrounding a tank includes sol- diers or liberated...Looney, Prepress Production Daniel Armstrong, Cover Design Please send inquiries or comments to Editor The Wright Flyer Papers Air Command and Staff...Air defense systems of today pose formidable threats to all aircraft, stealth included. Recall that the F-7 shoot- down in Bosnia in 999 was

  11. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  12. Aircraft Disinsection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some countries may require aircraft coming from countries where certain insects or insect-borne diseases are present, such as malaria and Zika virus, to be treated with insecticide. Find out about regulation of pesticides for this treatment.

  13. Western Foreign Fighters in Syria: An Empirical Analysis of Recruitment and Mobilization Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    mobilization of foreign fighters into Syria. Finally, the findings do not support social media efficacy in recruitment or mobilization. 14...mobilization of foreign fighters into Syria. Finally, the findings do not support social media efficacy in recruitment or mobilization. vi THIS...for the Study of Radicalization and Political Violence IRGC Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps IS Islamic State ISI Islamic State of Iraq ISIS

  14. Investment Strategies for Improving Fifth-Generation Fighter Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    rOCA -DEAD rOCA ...Escort rOCA -SAT rOCA -Sweep rGS rRA / ratio Mission to red air ratio / 1v0 2v1 1v1 1v2 1v3 1v4 / envir Environments / SAsim DMO local LFE / live(envir...Generation Fighter Training sortXmisn(“rINS”,“mINS”,ratio,envir) = 1; sortXmisn(“ rOCA -DEAD”,“mOCA-DEAD”,ratio,envir) = 1; sortXmisn(“ rOCA

  15. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Jiang Xie; Jiang-Chang Wang; Li Ding; Xi-Qing Sun

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-...

  16. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jiang Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  17. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  18. Intervention times for fire fighters in tall buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Warneboldt Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The means of intervention for the rescue service is a topic of high interest, when it comes to tall buildings. The usage of stairs and a consequent fatigue of the rescue service, affects the process of fire fighting and rescuing in such buildings. In the present study tests were conducted in a high......-rise building in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The goal was to gain more information regarding the travel time for fire fighters ascending stairs. Furthermore, signs of fatigue such as pulse during the intervention and fluid loss during the whole process were recorded. The test was conducted twice...

  19. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p < 0.001). There appears to be a mismatch between injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or

  20. Reconfigurable photonic data networks for military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, T. L.; Seal, D. W.; Hoard, M. A.

    The authors propose a photonic switched network approach capable of supporting multi-gigabit-per-second data rate transmissions, independent of protocol, over a large number of simultaneous, independent paths. To form the heart of this network, a single chip, gallium arsenide (GaAs), all-optical crossbar switch suitable for application to fighter aircraft has been developed. This monolithic photonic crossbar requires no electrical/optical conversions; thus it provides a transparent network interface. It is capable of digital data transmission at rates from dc to at least 2 Gb/s, independently of communication protocol or format. It can connect any input to any available output without disturbing existing connections, and it is capable of broadcasting signals from one input to multiple outputs. It can reconfigure its input to output routings in less than 1.0 ns. The authors report on optical switch technology assessment, and laboratory evaluation of photonic data bus star repeaters.

  1. Optimal Input Design for Aircraft Parameter Estimation using Dynamic Programming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1990-01-01

    A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.

  2. Unsteady Euler algorithm with unstructured dynamic mesh for complex-aircraft aeroelastic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, John T.

    1989-01-01

    A finite-volume unstructured-grid FEM scheme with multistage Runge-Kutta time stepping is applied to the three-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations for inviscid flows on complex aircraft configurations undergoing structural deformation. The derivation of the model, the solution procedure, and the computer implementation are described, and results are presented graphically for a NASA Langley supersonic fighter aircraft model in steady and unsteady (harmonic oscillation in complete-vehicle bending mode) flow regimes. Good agreement between FEM predictions and experimental data is demonstrated.

  3. Full Envelope Modular Adaptive Control of a Fighter Aircraft using Orthogonal Least Squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, E.R.; Sonneveldt, L.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new adaptive nonlinear flight controller is designed for a high fidelity, six degrees of freedom F-16 model for the entire flight envelope. The design is based on a modular approach which separates the design of the control law and the online identifier. The control law design is based on

  4. US Arms Transfer Policy for Latin America: Lifting the Ban on Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    given better infor ma tion about a neighbor’s weapons purchases and de fense plans and capa bili ties, countries in the re gion should be able to...1998): 34. 42. Patri cio Gon zalez Ca brera, “Dicen auto ri dades de sue cia: No con di cionan venta de caza bom bar dero Gripen,” El Mer cu rio, 8...Weighs End to Arms Sales Curb: Advanced Weapons Would Go to Latin America; Foes Hit Plan ,” Bos ton Globe (21 Feb ru ary 1997), A1. 45. For an analy

  5. Decoupler pylon - A simple, effective wing/store flutter suppressor. [in fighter/attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. H.; Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Runyan, H. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    As an alternative to alleviating wing/store flutter by conventional passive methods or by more advanced active control methods, a quasi-passive concept, referred to as the decoupler pylon, is investigated which combines desirable features of both methods. Passive soft-spring/damper elements are used to decouple wing modes from store pitch modes, and a low-power control system maintains store alignment under changing mean loads. It is shown by analysis and wind tunnel tests that the decoupler pylon provides substantial increase in flutter speed and makes flutter virtually insensitive to inertia and center-of-gravity location of the store.

  6. A Decision Analysis Framework for Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alternatives for Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    differing pilot sizes and additional head worn protection devices such as laser eye protection spectacles, which can be worn between the monocle and...components also incorporates the same NVG mount currently in use. Legacy goggles can be attached and are deployed immediately forward of the monocle

  7. Accurate Modeling of Stability and Control Properties for Fighter Aircraft from CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    CDC(i,:),CmC(i,:), aoaC (i,:),QC... (i,:)] = readtrackoutput2 (’F16’); end 18 filename =[’Comp’ num2str (3)]; cd .. cd(filename) [iterC3 ,timeC3 ,CLC3...length(CLC3))=CLC3; CDC(3,:)=zeros(1,size(CDC ,2)); CDC(3,1: length(CDC3))=CDC3; 38 CmC(3,:)=zeros(1,size(CmC ,2)); CmC(3,1: length(CmC3))=CmC3; aoaC (3...zeros(1,size( aoaC ,2)); aoaC (3,1: length(aoaC3))=aoaC3; 43 QC(3,:)=zeros(1,size(QC ,2)); QC(3,1: length(QC3))=QC3; % clear iterC3 timeC3 CLC3

  8. Experimental Assessment of Vortex Retaining Cavity Flaps for Maneuverability Improvement on Delta Wing Fighter Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    PoplarvilleD Mississippi. He attended Poplarville’s public school system and graduated with honors In May 1976. He entered Mississippi State University and...8217 degree. Permanent Address: Rural Route 4, Box 460 - Poplarville , Mississippi 39470 VIT-1 UNCLASSIFIED _ SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT

  9. XG40 - Rolls-Royce Advanced Fighter Engine Demonstrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Lewis

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Commenced in 1982, the XG40 programme is central to the demonstration of Rolls-Royce technology appropriate to the requirements of the advanced combat engine for mid 1990's operation. At the same time, the technology in scaled form is viewed as having wider application than for the advanced combat engine alone.To meet the multi-role requirements of advanced twin and single engined fighters, the combat engine must be designed to give enhanced dry thrust, retain good dry specific fuel consumption and reduce reheated fuel consumption compared with current fighter engines. A thrust/weight ratio of 10 : 1 is targeted and at the same time requirements for operating cost, reliability and durability are stringent.Advanced materials, manufacturing technology and design of structures have been incorporated to enable the required levels of reliability, durability, component cost and weight to be demonstrated.The engine is in the 90/95 kN nominal Sea Level Static Combat thrust class.

  10. Virtual environment debriefing room for naval fighter pilots: phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark; Alexander, Joanna R.; Downes-Martin, Stephen; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Short, Elisabeth

    1992-06-01

    Current methods for debriefing Navy Fighter Pilots after real and simulated missions are insufficient for handling the speed and complexity of modern air combat. The state of the art in tactical air combat debriefing is essentially a two-dimensional plus time view of a problem whose dimensionality consists of three spatial dimensions plus time plus other non-spatial parameters. The David Sarnoff Research Center (Sarnoff) is developing an advanced debriefing system for Navy fighter jet training, combat development, and research. Called CyberView, the system consists of an advanced interactive data visualization system displaying multi-dimensional abstract and concrete combat data in three-dimensions plus time, an interactive data analysis system for rapid data manipulation and studies, and a faster than real-tie predictive simulation based on the branch wargaming paradigm of military planning for 'what if?' analysis. In our research and development of CyberView, we are attempting to give pilots and battle planners greater awareness of the complex situations which occur during air operations, and the ability to look into the future at the effects of decisions on battle outcomes. Our envisioned system when complete will be capable of intuitively displaying combat errors to pilots, permitting the pilots to re-fight the same battles with better awareness of their situation, giving battle planners the ability to perform tradeoff studies on tactical decisions in order to optimize battle outcomes, and providing an analytical testbed for automated forces paradigms, algorithms, and effectiveness.

  11. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p 1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration.

  12. The sharing of radiological images by professional mixed martial arts fighters on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, George; Joyce, Cormac W; McCarthy, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Mixed martial arts is a sport that has recently enjoyed a significant increase in popularity. This rise in popularity has catapulted many of these "cage fighters" into stardom and many regularly use social media to reach out to their fans. An interesting result of this interaction on social media is that athletes are sharing images of their radiological examinations when they sustain an injury. To review instances where mixed martial arts fighters shared images of their radiological examinations on social media and in what context they were shared. An Internet search was performed using the Google search engine. Search terms included "MMA," "mixed martial arts," "injury," "scan," "X-ray," "fracture," and "break." Articles which discussed injuries to MMA fighters were examined and those in which the fighter themselves shared a radiological image of their injury on social media were identified. During our search, we identified 20 MMA fighters that had shared radiological images of their injuries on social media. There were 15 different types of injury, with a fracture of the mid-shaft of the ulna being the most common. The most popular social media platform was Twitter. The most common imaging modality X-ray (71%). The majority of injuries were sustained during competition (81%) and 35% of these fights resulted in a win for the fighter. Professional mixed martial artists are sharing radiological images of their injuries on social media. This may be in an attempt to connect with fans and raise their profile among other fighters.

  13. Aircraft modifications: Assessing the current state of Air Force aircraft modifications and the implications for future military capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Owen Jacob

    How prepared is the U.S. Air Force to modify its aircraft fleet in upcoming years? Aircraft modernization is a complex interaction of new and legacy aircraft, organizational structure, and planning policy. This research will take one component of modernization: aircraft modification, and apply a new method of analysis in order to help formulate policy to promote modernization. Departing from previous small-sample studies dependent upon weight as a chief explanatory variable, this dissertation incorporates a comprehensive dataset that was constructed for this research of all aircraft modifications from 1996 through 2005. With over 700 modification programs, this dataset is used to examine changes to the current modification policy using policy-response regression models. These changes include separating a codependent procurement and installation schedule, reducing the documentation requirements for safety modifications, and budgeting for aging aircraft modifications. The research then concludes with predictive models for the F-15 and F-16 along with their replacements: the F-22 and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.

  14. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  15. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  16. Cherish the Memory of International Fighter Morzec Shippe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The year 2007 marks the 70th anniversary of the July 7 Incident and the outbreak of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression.During the 8-year anti-Japanese war,a number of foreign progressive journalists,writers and medical doctors with internationalist thought came to China to report the Chinese army’s and people’s brave fight against Japanese aggressors and to go to the front to heal the wounded and rescue the dying.Among them was Morzec Shippe,a writer and journalist and a respectable international friend and fighter who was born in Poland,joined the German Communist Party and laid down his life on the battlefield of the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression in China’s Shandong.We should never forget him.

  17. Chiari-I malformation in two fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Canakci, Zafer; Sen, Ahmet; Tore, Hasan F

    2003-07-01

    This report describes two cases of Chiari Malformation Type I (Chiari-I) in fighter pilots of the Turkish Air Force. Chiari-I is a congenital malformation characterized by herniation of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Patients have symptoms and signs related to dysfunction of the brainstem, spinal cord, and cerebellum. They generally are symptomatic in the earlier years of life. However, asymptomatic cases can eventually become symptomatic in later years. Symptoms can be provoked by increasing intracranial pressure (Valsalva or straining). We report on two pilots with Chiari-I malformation who had no symptoms or signs in their daily activities. Furthermore, these pilots had successfully completed physiological training, including centrifuge training, without any symptoms. However, they suffered from headache, neck spasms, and/or disequilibrium under +Gz during flight training sorties. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, possibility of acquired cases, and aeromedical disposition of Chiari malformations are discussed.

  18. Chinese Female Jet-Fighter Pilots Change New Uniforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Prior to the 60th anniversary of founding of People's Republic of China that marks calendar day of Oct.1st this year,Chinese armed forces stage on a new change of uniforms to welcome the birthday of the New China that was announced by Chairman Mao 60 years ago.On Aug.30th,a ceremony was started at an air-force base in North China to show a new generation of air-force uniforms for the female jet-fighter pilots.A total of 16 Chinese female jetfighter pilots to debut on National Day are expected to appear in new dress for an unprecedented dress parade on the Oct.1st.

  19. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Development of New Capabilities Requires Continued Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    number of changes affecting the planned quantities and associated costs . According to current projections, the U.S. portion of the program will require...Strike Fighter F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Block 4 Development Costs Increase Near-Term Funding Needs DOD does not currently plan to manage...difficult for Congress to hold it accountable for achieving its cost , schedule, and performance requirements. Given that congressional oversight

  20. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Assessment Needed to Address Affordability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Percent of Labor Hours Spent on Scrap, Rework , and Repair for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter 20 Figure 8: Average Number of F-35 Joint Strike Fighter...engine failure, and a higher than expected amount of test point growth largely to address software rework , over the past year, delayed key test...percent growth in mission system software test points for the year— largely to address software rework that might be needed—officials from the

  1. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control and nonlinear system inverses to automatic control of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A full envelope automatic flight control system based on nonlinear inverse systems concepts has been applied to a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter aircraft. A new method for using an airborne digital aircraft model to perform the inversion of a nonlinear aircraft model is presented together with the results of a simulation study of the nonlinear inverse system concept for the vertical-attitude hover mode. The system response to maneuver commands in the vertical attitude was found to be excellent; and recovery from large initial offsets and large disturbances was found to be very satisfactory.

  2. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control and nonlinear system inverses to automatic control of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A full envelope automatic flight control system based on nonlinear inverse systems concepts has been applied to a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter aircraft. A new method for using an airborne digital aircraft model to perform the inversion of a nonlinear aircraft model is presented together with the results of a simulation study of the nonlinear inverse system concept for the vertical-attitude hover mode. The system response to maneuver commands in the vertical attitude was found to be excellent; and recovery from large initial offsets and large disturbances was found to be very satisfactory.

  3. A Collection of Nonlinear Aircraft Simulations in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Frederico R.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear six degree-of-freedom simulations for a variety of aircraft were created using MATLAB. Data for aircraft geometry, aerodynamic characteristics, mass / inertia properties, and engine characteristics were obtained from open literature publications documenting wind tunnel experiments and flight tests. Each nonlinear simulation was implemented within a common framework in MATLAB, and includes an interface with another commercially-available program to read pilot inputs and produce a three-dimensional (3-D) display of the simulated airplane motion. Aircraft simulations include the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, Convair F-106B Delta Dart, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom, NASA Langley Free-Flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research (FASER), NASA HL-20 Lifting Body, NASA / DARPA X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator, and the Vought A-7 Corsair II. All nonlinear simulations and 3-D displays run in real time in response to pilot inputs, using contemporary desktop personal computer hardware. The simulations can also be run in batch mode. Each nonlinear simulation includes the full nonlinear dynamics of the bare airframe, with a scaled direct connection from pilot inputs to control surface deflections to provide adequate pilot control. Since all the nonlinear simulations are implemented entirely in MATLAB, user-defined control laws can be added in a straightforward fashion, and the simulations are portable across various computing platforms. Routines for trim, linearization, and numerical integration are included. The general nonlinear simulation framework and the specifics for each particular aircraft are documented.

  4. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  5. Intelligent modeling and identification of aircraft nonlinear flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Roudbari; Fariborz Saghafi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach has been proposed to identify and model the dynamics of a highly maneuverable fighter aircraft through artificial neural networks (ANNs). In general, air-craft flight dynamics is considered as a nonlinear and coupled system whose modeling through ANNs, unlike classical approaches, does not require any aerodynamic or propulsion information and a few flight test data seem sufficient. In this study, for identification and modeling of the aircraft dynamics, two known structures of internal and external recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and a proposed structure called hybrid combined recurrent neural network have been used and compared. In order to improve the training process, an appropriate evolutionary method has been applied to simultaneously train and optimize the parameters of ANNs. In this research, it has been shown that six ANNs each with three inputs and one output, trained by flight test data, can model the dynamic behavior of the highly maneuverable aircraft with acceptable accuracy and without any priori knowledge about the system.

  6. Towards Simulating Non-Axisymmetric Influences on Aircraft Plumes for Signature Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzakowski, D. C.; Shipman, J. D.; Dash, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for efficiently including three-dimensional effects on aircraft plume signature is presented. First, exploratory work on the use of passive mixing enhancement devices, namely chevrons and tabs, in IR signature reduction for external turbofan plumes is demonstrated numerically and experimentally. Such small attachments, when properly designed, cause an otherwise axisymmetric plume to have significant 3D structures, affecting signature prediction. Second, an approach for including non-axisymmetric and installation effects in plume signature prediction is discussed using unstructured methodology. Unstructured flow solvers, using advanced turbulence modeling and plume thermochemistry, facilitate the modeling of aircraft effects on plume structure that previously have been neglected due to gridding complexities. The capabilities of the CRUNCH unstructured Navier-Stokes solver for plume modeling is demonstrated for a passively mixed turbofan nozzle, a generic fighter nozzle, and a complete aircraft.

  7. Unilateral optic disc swelling in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokroy, Russell; Barenboim, Erez; Carter, Dan; Assa, Amit; Alhalel, Amir

    2009-10-01

    Optic disc swelling occurs when there is an obstruction to axonal transport at the level of the lamina cribrosa. This may result from compression, ischemia, inflammation, or metabolic and toxic etiologies. Some of these etiologies may be life threatening and others may be self-limited. Thus, differentiating the different etiologies is important, albeit often difficult. We present a case of a 25-yr-old high-performance fighter aviator who presented with unilateral optic disc swelling 2 d after an F-16 flight, in which decompression was suspected. Visual acuity of the affected eye was decreased to 20/25, with enlarged blind spot and shallow arcuate scotomata on visual field testing. Pupil function, brightness intensity, and color vision were normal. Marked swelling of the entire optic disc, retinal flame-shaped hemorrhages, and engorgement of the retinal veins were seen. Since decompression sickness with nitrogen bubbles obstructing the optic nerve head vasculature was suspected, he was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. He rapidly improved, recovering full vision function within 6 d. No concurrent disease was found on extensive investigation. He returned to high-performance aviation 3 mo after onset of symptoms. No recurrence was seen during 3 yr of follow-up.

  8. Inferior vestibular neuritis in a fighter pilot: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Su Jiang; Jia, Hong Bo; Xu, Po; Zheng, Ying Juan

    2013-06-01

    Spatial disorientation in airplane pilots is a leading factor in many fatal flying accidents. Spatial orientation is the product of integrative inputs from the proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual systems. One condition that can lead to sudden pilot incapacitation in flight is vestibular neuritis. Vestibular neuritis is commonly diagnosed by a finding of unilateral vestibular failure, such as a loss of caloric response. However, because caloric response testing reflects the function of only the superior part of the vestibular nerve, it cannot detect cases of neuritis in only the inferior part of the nerve. We describe the case of a Chinese naval command fighter pilot who exhibited symptoms suggestive of vestibular neuritis but whose caloric response test results were normal. Further testing showed a unilateral loss of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). We believe that this pilot had pure inferior nerve vestibular neuritis. VEMP testing plays a major role in the diagnosis of inferior nerve vestibular neuritis in pilots. We also discuss this issue in terms of aeromedical concerns.

  9. MRI cervical spine findings in asymptomatic fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J

    1999-12-01

    MRI of the cervical spine for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 42 yr with mean accumulated flying time of 2600 h), and for comparison on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 23 yr with 220 h of flying per person) were also examined. There were significantly more osteophytes, disk protrusions, compressions of the spinal cord and foraminal stenoses in the experienced pilots than in the age-matched controls. Low frequency of low grade degenerative lesions was found in the young and inexperienced pilots.

  10. Not a Pound for Air-To-Ground: A Historiographical Analysis on the Genesis of the Multi-Role Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    General Otto Weyland, Commander of Far East Air Forces (FEAF), stated, “The outstanding air-combat lesson of the Korean War was learned during the first...imperative not to ignore historical combat lessons learned . Future fighter procurement must prioritize an air superiority fighter design, which can then...9  World War Two Conclusion and Lessons Learned

  11. Neck pain among fighter pilots after the introduction of the JHMCS helmet and NVG in their environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Torp-Svendsen, J; Toft, Palle

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased.......Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased....

  12. 75 FR 40845 - Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational... Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires.'' The final document can be found at.... Established fire service risk management principles suggest that caution should be exercised in abandoned...

  13. Human and behavioral factors contributing to spine-based neurological cockpit injuries in pilots of high-performance aircraft: recommendations for management and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Hart, S. F.; Baskin, D. S.; Effenhauser, R.; Johnson, S. L.; Novas, M. A.; Jennings, R.; Davis, J.

    2000-01-01

    In high-performance aircraft, the need for total environmental awareness coupled with high-g loading (often with abrupt onset) creates a predilection for cervical spine injury while the pilot is performing routine movements within the cockpit. In this study, the prevalence and severity of cervical spine injury are assessed via a modified cross-sectional survey of pilots of multiple aircraft types (T-38 and F-14, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters). Ninety-five surveys were administered, with 58 full responses. Fifty percent of all pilots reported in-flight or immediate post-flight spine-based pain, and 90% of fighter pilots reported at least one event, most commonly (> 90%) occurring during high-g (> 5 g) turns of the aircraft with the head deviated from the anatomical neutral position. Pre-flight stretching was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neck pain episodes in this evaluation, whereas a regular weight training program in the F/A-18 group approached a significant reduction (mean = 2.492; p injury from airframe to airframe. Several strategies for prevention are possible from both an aircraft design and a preventive medicine standpoint. Countermeasure strategies against spine injury in pilots of high-performance aircraft require additional research, so that future aircraft will not be limited by the human in control.

  14. Introducing large color displays in the Gripen fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Mats; Brandtberg, Hans

    1998-09-01

    Cockpit design is about communication between the aircraft system and the pilot. The information available on-board is very large and increases with on-going development of the systems. New functions for integration and fusion will, together with decision support and automation, set requirements on the displays to transfer information to the pilot. Information overload, mental workload and flight safety are always important areas to put efforts in. The present version of the Swedish JAS 39 Gripen aircraft has three monochrome multi-function displays. The displays are fairly large for a small aircraft, 5' X 6', giving a good situation awareness for the pilot. A new version of the Gripen cockpit featuring large color displays is now under development and will be introduced to the Swedish air force and ready for export market in the end of 2001. Display size, resolution, graphics capability and color have great impact on the pilots ability to acquire and understand the presented information. These factors are very important when designing an improved cockpit. By utilizing the most modern flat panel AMLCD techniques we have succeeded in integrating three 6.2' X 8.3' full-color multi-function displays in the Gripen aircraft.

  15. The sharing of radiological images by professional mixed martial arts fighters on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cormac W; McCarthy, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Mixed martial arts is a sport that has recently enjoyed a significant increase in popularity. This rise in popularity has catapulted many of these “cage fighters” into stardom and many regularly use social media to reach out to their fans. An interesting result of this interaction on social media is that athletes are sharing images of their radiological examinations when they sustain an injury. Purpose To review instances where mixed martial arts fighters shared images of their radiological examinations on social media and in what context they were shared. Material and Methods An Internet search was performed using the Google search engine. Search terms included “MMA,” “mixed martial arts,” “injury,” “scan,” “X-ray,” “fracture,” and “break.” Articles which discussed injuries to MMA fighters were examined and those in which the fighter themselves shared a radiological image of their injury on social media were identified. Results During our search, we identified 20 MMA fighters that had shared radiological images of their injuries on social media. There were 15 different types of injury, with a fracture of the mid-shaft of the ulna being the most common. The most popular social media platform was Twitter. The most common imaging modality X-ray (71%). The majority of injuries were sustained during competition (81%) and 35% of these fights resulted in a win for the fighter. Conclusion Professional mixed martial artists are sharing radiological images of their injuries on social media. This may be in an attempt to connect with fans and raise their profile among other fighters. PMID:28717518

  16. Modal control theory and application to aircraft lateral handling qualities design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinathkumar, S.

    1978-01-01

    A multivariable synthesis procedure based on eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment is reviewed and is employed to develop a systematic design procedure to meet the lateral handling qualities design objectives of a fighter aircraft over a wide range of flight conditions. The closed loop modal characterization developed provides significant insight into the design process and plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of robust feedback systems. The simplicity of the synthesis algorithm yields an efficient computer aided interactive design tool for flight control system synthesis.

  17. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  18. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-01-01

    .... The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar...

  19. Un Deux Trois--Speak English! Young Taekwondo-Fighters' Identity Construction through Linguistic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lian Malai

    2008-01-01

    From an ethnographic and interaction analytical approach this paper examines how polylingual languaging is used by a group of young male Taekwondo fighters to construct an integrated streetwise and "schoolwise" persona as well as negotiate regional identities. The data discussed were collected in a Taekwondo club in a multicultural area…

  20. Un Deux Trois--Speak English! Young Taekwondo-Fighters' Identity Construction through Linguistic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lian Malai

    2008-01-01

    From an ethnographic and interaction analytical approach this paper examines how polylingual languaging is used by a group of young male Taekwondo fighters to construct an integrated streetwise and "schoolwise" persona as well as negotiate regional identities. The data discussed were collected in a Taekwondo club in a multicultural area of…

  1. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in fire fighter testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersmissen, G J M; Verhoogen, R A J R; Van Cauwenbergh, A F M; Godderis, L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate current daily practice of aerobic capacity testing in Belgian fire fighters. The impact of personal and test-related parameters on the outcome has been evaluated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) results of 605 male fire fighters gathered between 1999 and 2010 were analysed. The maximal cardio respiratory exercise tests were performed at 22 different centres using different types of tests (tread mill or bicycle), different exercise protocols and measuring equipment. Mean VO2 max was 43.3 (SD = 9.8) ml/kg.min. Besides waist circumference and age, the type of test, the degree of performance of the test and the test centre were statistically significant determinants of maximal oxygen uptake. Test-related parameters have to be taken into account when interpreting and comparing maximal oxygen uptake tests of fire fighters. It highlights the need for standardization of aerobic capacity testing in the medical evaluation of fire fighters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Innovative Debrief Solutions for Mission Training & Simulation: Making fighter pilot training more effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Cornelisse, E.; Schavemaker-Piva, O.

    2006-01-01

    To enhance and improve the quality of mission training and simulation for fighter pilots, TNO and the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) investigate various innovative debrief concepts. In this paper we will describe our work on Innovative Debrief Solutions for Mission Training through Distributed

  3. [Analysis of the causes of loss of tolerance to standard G-loads by fighter pilots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopal'nikov, V I; Donin, K M; Boltikov, A N; Pugachev, I V; Migachev, S D

    2003-01-01

    Analytical treatment has been given to causes for the loss of tolerance to radial accelerations by fighter pilots subjected to clinical tests during flight medical certification in recent years. The diagnostic necessity of implementation of additional tests by this cohort of pilots has been demonstrated and methods to improve pilots' cardiovascular adaptability to g-loads during the inpatient medical examination have been proposed.

  4. Sierra Hotel: Flying Air Force Fighters in the Decade After Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    when Capt. D. L. Smith led a mission 31 * Zot, surprisingly, is not an acronym. It comes from the “B.C.” comic strip, wherein an...fighter standards, significantly larger than an F–4. Nonetheless, it was easy, at first, to overlook its size in favor of the many marvelous

  5. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  6. Human and behavioral factors contributing to spine-based neurological cockpit injuries in pilots of high-performance aircraft: recommendations for management and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Hart, S. F.; Baskin, D. S.; Effenhauser, R.; Johnson, S. L.; Novas, M. A.; Jennings, R.; Davis, J.

    2000-01-01

    In high-performance aircraft, the need for total environmental awareness coupled with high-g loading (often with abrupt onset) creates a predilection for cervical spine injury while the pilot is performing routine movements within the cockpit. In this study, the prevalence and severity of cervical spine injury are assessed via a modified cross-sectional survey of pilots of multiple aircraft types (T-38 and F-14, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters). Ninety-five surveys were administered, with 58 full responses. Fifty percent of all pilots reported in-flight or immediate post-flight spine-based pain, and 90% of fighter pilots reported at least one event, most commonly (> 90%) occurring during high-g (> 5 g) turns of the aircraft with the head deviated from the anatomical neutral position. Pre-flight stretching was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neck pain episodes in this evaluation, whereas a regular weight training program in the F/A-18 group approached a significant reduction (mean = 2.492; p performance aircraft require additional research, so that future aircraft will not be limited by the human in control.

  7. Physiological profile of fighters influences training organisation in combat sports: response to Del Vecchio, Hirata, and Franchini (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2011-12-01

    The article by Del Vecchio, et al. (2011) provides relevant information to trainers about the effort-pause ratio during mixed martial arts matches. Taking into account the physiological profiles of fighters would increase interest in these findings.

  8. SUPPORTING FAMILIES OF FOREIGN FIGHTERS. A REALISTIC APPROACH FOR MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy-Jane Gielen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently so-called ´family hotlines’ were launched in the Netherlands, France, Austria, serving as a resource for the parents and relatives who are confronted with the (potential foreign fighter phenomenon. The hotline connects callers with social and religious services in an effort help prevent the (further radicalisation of young Muslims or support families whose loved ones have travelled to Syria. In other countries such as Denmark (Aarhus family talk groups were set up by the municipality or by affected parents, such as ‘Les parents concernés’ in Belgium. Family support is a relatively new approach within counter-radicalisation policy in which the Germans pioneered since 2012. Supporting families is considered valuable for several reasons and can be provided at different stages (Gielen, 2014: In its earliest stages, family support can be provided to parents of individuals at risk, by addressing their concerns, working on (maintaining a positive family environment with an open atmosphere in which they can discuss extremist ideas with their child and provide positive alternatives. If radical or extremist ideas lead to travel to a conflict zone abroad, such as Syria or Iraq, foreign fighters quite often remain in touch with their families back home. Family support can then be aimed at maintaining contact with their children or relatives and in creating a positive environment for a child to return home; When extremist views turn into violence and ultimately imprisonment, families can be supported whilst their relative is imprisoned or afterwards in the re-integration and re-habilitation process, such going back to school and helping them find a job. If practitioners are able to create and sustain a relationship with families of foreign fighters, then it will be easier to create an entry point for contact with the foreign fighter upon his/her return. This is of particular importance, as families are also crucial for de-radicalisation and

  9. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  10. H-infinity based integrated flight/propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bright, Michelle; Ouzts, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents results from an application of H(infinity) control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic STOVL fighter aircraft in transition flight. The overall design methodology consists of a centralized IFPC design with controller partitioning. Design and evaluation vehicle models are summarized, and insight is provided into formulating the H(infinity) control problem such that it reflects the IFPC design objective. The H(infinity) controller is shown to provide decoupled command tracking for the design model. The controller order could be significantly reduced by modal residualization of the fast controller modes without any deterioration in performance.

  11. Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  12. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation.

  13. The Marine Corps F-35B Joint Strike Fighter: Is STOVL the Way Ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Command and Staff College along with the . . Leadership Communication Skills Center for their mentorship, guidance, and patience. I would also like to...Corps trains, equips, and fights the way it does. I would like to thank the professors at Command and Staff College along with the Leadership ... Communication Skills Center for their mentorship, guidance, and patience. I would also like to thank the JSF (Joint Strike Fighter) Transition Task Force at

  14. The Foreign Fighter Problem Analyzing the Impact of Social Media and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotally, recent trends in these technologies, such as Twitter and Facebook , seem to matter for the current wave of foreign fighter activity...Instead, they advertise adventure and depict the jihad in Syria as fun.13 They also go beyond the defensive struggle depiction. ISIS plays up their...circles.17 The advent of social media technologies in the mid-2000s, primarily Facebook , YouTube, and Twitter, revolutionized the way jihadis link

  15. The F-22 Acquisition Program: Consequences for the US Air Force’s Fighter Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    1997 QDR, the Air Force implemented a new con- struct for its deployable forces. By 2000 all operational fighter squad- rons had been grouped into...production cost estimate by 648. 14. Eric V. Larson , David T. Orletsky, and Kristin Leuschner, Defense Planning in a Decade of Change: Lessons from...17. Larson , Orletsky, and Leuschner, Defense Planning, 39. 18. General Accounting Office, Status of the Air Force’s Efforts to Replace the A-10

  16. Herpes gladiatorum with ocular involvement in a mixed martial arts fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulener, Marc; Smith, Barry L

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of herpes gladiatorum (HG) in a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter. The eruption appeared following a sparring session with a new partner and progressed to involve the left eye. Fever and facial rash prompted the patient to go to the hospital where he was treated with antiviral therapy. The considerable increase in popularity of MMA may lead to a greater prevalence of HG as well as other cutaneous infections contracted through skin-to-skin contact.

  17. Analysis of Moisture Evaporation from Underwear Designed for Fire-Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Onofrei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed the effect of moisture on the thermal protective performance of fire-fighter clothing in case of routine fire-fighting conditions. In the first stage of this research we investigated simultaneous heat and moisture transfer through a single-layer fabric, used as underwear for fire-fighters, at different moisture conditions. In the second stage of the study, the underwear in dry and wet state was tested together with protective clothing systems for fire-fighter consisting of three or four layers. It was found that during the evaporation of the moisture, a temperature plateau appeared during which temperatures hardly rose. The energy consumption used for the phase change of moisture located in the assembly dominated the heat transfer process as long as there was moisture present. As soon as all water had evaporated, the temperatures approached the temperatures measured for dry samples. The moisture within the clothing assembly did not lead to increased temperatures compared with the measurements with dry samples. This research has confirmed that moisture can positively affect the thermal protection of a clothing system.

  18. +Gz associated stenosis of the cervical spinal canal in fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, O; Toivakka-Hämäläinen, S K; Kuronen, P

    1999-04-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that repeated exposure to +Gz forces can cause premature degenerative changes of the cervical spine (i.e. a work-related disease). This paper reports on two clinical cases of +Gz-associated degenerative cervical spinal stenosis caused by dorsal osteophytes in fighter pilots. Conventional x-rays and MRI were used to demonstrate narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. The first case was complicated by a C6-7 intervertebral disk prolapse and a congenitally narrow spinal canal. The second case involved progressive degenerative spinal stenosis in the C5-6 disk space which required surgery. The findings in this case were confirmed by surgery which showed posterior osteophytes and thickened ligaments compressing the cervical medulla. These two cases suggest that +Gz forces can cause degenerative spinal stenosis of the cervical spine. Flight safety may be jeopardized if symptoms and signs of medullar compression occur during high +Gz stress. It is recommended that student fighter pilots undergo conventional x-rays and MRI studies in order to screen out and reject candidates with a congenitally narrow spinal canal. These examination methods might be useful in fighter pilots' periodic medical check-ups in order to reveal acquired degenerative spinal stenosis.

  19. Use of piloted simulation for studies of fighter departure/spin susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, W. P.; Nguyen, L. T.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA-Langley Research Center has incorporated into its stall/spin research program on military airplanes the use of piloted, fixed-base simulation to complement the existing matrix of unique research testing techniques. The piloted simulations of fighter stall/departure flight dynamics are conducted on the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). The objectives of the simulation research are reviewed. The rationale underlying the simulation methods and procedures used in the evaluation of airplane characteristics is presented. The evaluation steps used to assess fighter stall/departure characteristics are discussed. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the flight dynamics phenomena dealt with. The considerable experience accumulated in the conduct of piloted stall/departure simulation indicates that simulation provides a realistic evaluation of an airplane's maneuverability at high angles of attack and an assessment of the departure and spin susceptibility of the airplane. This realism is obtained by providing the pilot a complete simulation of the airplane and control system which can be flown using a realistic cockpit and visual display in simulations of demanding air combat maneuvering tasks. The use of the piloted simulation methods and procedures described were found very effective in identifying stability and control problem areas and in developing automatic control concepts to alleviate many of these problems. A good level of correlation between simulated flight dynamics and flight test results were obtained over the many fighter configurations studied in the simulator.

  20. Combat Performance Evaluation of Fighter Aircraft - A Suite of FORTRAN- IV Programs Based on Energy Manoeuvrability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    X2,TT) a Yl (X-91) 0 (Y2-YI) / (X2-XI) C ITERATE FOR ALPHA AND WL. ASSUME INITIAL ALPHA IS GIVEN. C DALF 0.5 #IT 0 100 CONTIOUE CALL TRINCL IF...IERR.NE.0) GOTO 900 IF 1AIS( DALF ).LT.O.01) GOTO0:10 DALF (FN*SINDIALPHA) +CLY*DIH% - GN*U) $(FN*COSD(ALPHA)/RADIAN + CLALF*DIN) ALPHA ALPHA - DALF NWIT x

  1. Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems. Volume 1. Post-World War II Fighters 1945-1973,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    innovations, including all-titanium construction, dual-cycle propulsion, periscope for forward vision , and downward ejecting capsule for escape. The F-103...in early 1968-following North Korea capture of the U.S.S. Puebla . ’The inactivated squadron left, quite a record-downing 6 MIGs in early combat over

  2. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  3. Propulsion controlled aircraft research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has been conducting flight, ground simulator, and analytical studies to investigate the use of thrust modulation on multi-engine aircraft for emergency flight control. Two general methods of engine only control have been studied; manual manipulation of the throttles by the pilot, and augmented control where a computer commands thrust levels in response to pilot attitude inputs and aircraft motion feedbacks. This latter method is referred to as the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) System. A wide variety of aircraft have been investigated. Simulation studies have included the B720, F-15, B727, B747 and MD-11. A look at manual control has been done in actual flight on the F15, T-38, B747, Lear 25, T-39, MD-11 and PA-30 Aircraft. The only inflight trial of the augmented (PCA) concept has been on an F15, the results of which will be presented below.

  4. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  5. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  6. The resistance evaluation: Effects of a specific training program on professional fire-fighter cardio-respiratory fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Mourão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire-fighters have an increased risk for developing cardiac pathologies and also a higher index of premature death than other individuals that perform high risk jobs. In this way, low physical fitness obviously limits fire-fighter performance, as well as degrades their health. However this fact not only damages the individual fire-fighter but also the institution that he represents hence severely questioning property and general public safety. The cardio-respiratory fitness had been identify as the most important physical fitness component. In this way, we developed a 12 weeks training program, to improve the cardio-respiratory fitness in a Professional fire-fighters corporation. According to reference values, before training these fire-fighters did not have enough cardio-respiratory fitness to adequately perform their job requirements with efficacy and safety (VO2máx=44,17ml/kg/min. However after training there was great improvement (VO2máx=52,69 ml/kg/min, providing a safe and more qualified service for the general population.

  7. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  8. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  9. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  10. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  11. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis and tests were performed at IAE. The fatigue critical locations (FCLs were presumed based upon structural design and maintenance data and also from exchange of technical information with other users of the airplane around the world. Following that work, BAF started in 2002 the extension of the operational life of the BAF T-25 “Universal”. The T-25 is the basic training airplane used by AFA - The Brazilian Air Force Academy. This airplane was also designed under the “safe-life” concept. As the T-25 fleet approached its service life limit, the Brazilian Air Force was questioning whether it could be kept in flight safely. The answer came through an extensive Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA program, briefly described in this paper. The current work on aircraft structural integrity is being performed for the BAF F-5 E/F that underwent an avionics and weapons system upgrade. Along with the increase in weight, new configurations and mission profiles were established. Again, a DTA program was proposed to be carried out in order to establish the reliability of the upgraded F-5 fleet. As a result of all the work described, the BAF has not reported any accident due to structural failure on aircraft submitted to Damage Tolerance Analysis.

  12. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  13. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  14. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  15. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  16. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  17. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  18. [EATING ATTITUDES AND PRE-COMPETITION RAPID WEIGHT LOSS IN YOUNG TAEKWONDO FIGHTERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Arieli, Rakefet; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2016-06-01

    Taekwondo is a martial art and a combat Olympic sport. Similar to other types of combat sports, Taekwondo fights are conducted between opponents grouped by sex, age and weight classes. Disordered eating behaviors are common in combat sports with weight classes, attributed to the athletes' need to remain within a specific weight range. Pre-competition rapid weight loss (RWL) is also common, and entails a health risk. To assess the eating attitudes and the prevalence and techniques of RWL among young Taekwondo fighters. A total of 112 competitive Taekwondo fighters in national championships and regional competitions aged 12-21.5 years completed questionnaires pertaining to eating attitudes (EAT-26) and RWL techniques. A total of 38% of the respondents reported precompetition RWL, with no significant between-sex difference. Common practices were training harder and eating less, but several potentially dangerous techniques were also described. Findings showed that: 70% of those reporting RWL were not assisted by another person, and the degree of RWL reached -5.5kg; 23%-40% of participants reporting RWL felt an improvement in some physical measure, yet 16% reported a decrease in subjective sport performance; 2.7% had abnormal scores on the EAT-26 questionnaire. There is a high rate of pre-competition RWL in young Taekwondo fighters, even in lower levels of competition. Most athletes performing RWL were unassisted, and some utilized potentially dangerous techniques. Most athletes did not feel that RWL affected their sport performance, yet a significant proportion felt decreased levels of performance. Weight-class athletes should be consulted by personnel trained in sports nutrition, in both training and competition states.

  19. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  20. AFTI/SITAN (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation) final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation (SITAN) provides continuous position fixes to an inertial navigation system (INS) by real-time comparison of radar altimeter ground clearance measurements with stored digital terrain elevation data (DTED). This is accomplished by using an extended Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the errors in the reference trajectory provided by an INS. In this report, Sandia National Laboratories documents the results of a reimbursable effort funded by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) Avionics Laboratory to flight test SITAN as implemented onboard the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)F-16. 5 refs., 101 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fire Fighters’ Ability and Willingness to Participate in a Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS fire fighter, paramedic, emergency medical technician, pandemic, participation, bird - flu , H5N1, preparedness, ability, willingness...as “avian” or “ bird flu ,” H5N1 is a strain of influenza that has primarily infected wild and domestic birds in Asia and parts of Europe. As the...to participate in your fire department’s response to an avian influenza ( bird flu ) outbreak?” 27 Just under 69 percent (68.8%) of the respondents

  2. COUNTERING JIHADI RADICALS AND FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND FRANCE: TRÈS SIMILAIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorle Hellmuth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes and compares French and U.S. domestic responses to Jihadi radicalization, placing particular attention on the similarities between the two. In view of the political and cultural differences between the United States and France, the parallels between U.S. and French approaches to homegrown Jihadi radicalization are remarkable. Both countries got off to a late start when formulating counterradicalization strategies. While the underlying reasons (related to, inter alia, the notion of American exceptionalism and the French version of secularism for this differ, the U.S. introduced its first counterradicalization strategy in 2011, followed by France in 2014. More important, so-called “soft” measures (including phone hotlines, dialogues and workshops, vocational training, targeted interventions, or counseling and exit programs, adopted by most Western democracies in an effort to prevent vulnerable individuals from radicalizing and reintegrate foreign fighters and others who have become infected with the Jihadi virus, have taken a back seat to “hard” security measures (including surveillance, arrests, and prosecutions in the two countries. These findings have important implications for policymakers. Understanding what responses have been formulated, and also why, can facilitate international cooperation and provide useful insights on the characteristics, strengths, as well as limits of U.S. and French approaches to Jihadi radicals and foreign fighters.

  3. Technical and Tactical Aspects that Differentiate Winning and Losing Performances in Elite Male Karate Fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidranski, Tihomir; Sertić, Hrvoje; Jukić, Josefina

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the fighters' technical and tactical activity indicators in order to determine indicator significance regarding situational efficiency and designation between winning and losing performances in a karate match. We scientifically observed a sample of 274 male contesters of 137 karate matches during the 2008 World Karate Championship in Tokyo. Each individual competitor was observed in maximum of three matches. The matches were recorded using a DVD camera in order to collect data for further analysis, and the sample was further described using 48 technical and tactical indicators of situational efficiency and match outcome variables. The obtained results indicate that a karate match is composed of 91% of non-scoring techniques and 9% of scoring techniques in the total technique frequency. On this basis a significant difference in the situational efficiency between the match winners and the losing contesters has been discovered. Those two groups of fighters exhibit a statistically significant difference (pkarate match are in the largest extent defined by non-scoring techniques. Therefore, it would be a grave mistake to disregard non-scoring karate techniques in any future situational efficiency studies. It has been discovered that the winners differ from the defeated contesters by a higher level of situational efficiency in their executed techniques, which incorporate versatility, biomechanical and structural complexity, topological diversity and a specific tactical concept of technique use in the attack phase.

  4. Fighter pilots' heart rate, heart rate variation and performance during instrument approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Heikki; Simola, Petteri; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don; Oksama, Lauri

    2016-10-01

    Fighter pilots' heart rate (HR), heart rate variation (HRV) and performance during instrument approaches were examined. The subjects were required to fly instrument approaches in a high-fidelity simulator under various levels of task demand. The task demand was manipulated by increasing the load on the subjects by reducing the range at which they commenced the approach. HR and the time domain components of HRV were used as measures of pilot mental workload (PMWL). The findings of this study indicate that HR and HRV are sensitive to varying task demands. HR and HRV were able to distinguish the level of PMWL after which the subjects were no longer able to cope with the increasing task demands and their instrument landing system performance fell to a sub-standard level. The major finding was the HR/HRV's ability to differentiate the sub-standard performance approaches from the high-performance approaches. Practitioner Summary: This paper examined if HR and HRV were sensitive to varying task demands in a fighter aviation environment and if these measures were related to variations in pilot's performance.

  5. Pushing through evolution? Incidence and fight records of left-oriented fighters in professional boxing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    The fighting hypothesis proposes that left-oriented athletes enjoy a negative frequency-dependent advantage in combat sports such as boxing. Supporting evidence, however, is restricted to cross-sectional frequency data from small samples. Here, we examined the incidence and fight records of 2,403 left- and right-oriented fighters who were listed in the annual ratings of professional boxing from 1924 to 2012. Unexpectedly, left-oriented boxers were overrepresented in no more than 7 of the 89 years considered, their percentages varied up to 30% and increased over the entire period, and frequencies varied substantially between weight divisions. In support of the fighting hypothesis, lose-win ratios indicated larger fighting strength in left- compared to right-oriented boxers, which, however, was not reflected in different proportions of wins and losses by knockout. Our findings are partly consistent with an assumed left-oriented fighters' advantage in combat sports. Such advantage could be explained by negative frequency-dependent selection mechanisms; however, our study also revealed potential limits of the fighting hypothesis such that alternative explanations cannot be fully excluded. We propose that interference by factors not related to performance could also limit the suitability of data from elite sporting competition for testing evolutionary models of human handedness.

  6. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  7. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  9. Diffusion measures indicate fight exposure-related damage to cerebral white matter in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, W; Mahmoud, S Y; Sakaie, K; Banks, S J; Lowe, M J; Phillips, M; Modic, M T; Bernick, C

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury is common in fighting athletes such as boxers, given the frequency of blows to the head. Because DTI is sensitive to microstructural changes in white matter, this technique is often used to investigate white matter integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury. We hypothesized that previous fight exposure would predict DTI abnormalities in fighting athletes after controlling for individual variation. A total of 74 boxers and 81 mixed martial arts fighters were included in the analysis and scanned by use of DTI. Individual information and data on fight exposures, including number of fights and knockouts, were collected. A multiple hierarchical linear regression model was used in region-of-interest analysis to test the hypothesis that fight-related exposure could predict DTI values separately in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Age, weight, and years of education were controlled to ensure that these factors would not account for the hypothesized effects. We found that the number of knockouts among boxers predicted increased longitudinal diffusivity and transversal diffusivity in white matter and subcortical gray matter regions, including corpus callosum, isthmus cingulate, pericalcarine, precuneus, and amygdala, leading to increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the corresponding regions. The mixed martial arts fighters had increased transversal diffusivity in the posterior cingulate. The number of fights did not predict any DTI measures in either group. These findings suggest that the history of fight exposure in a fighter population can be used to predict microstructural brain damage.

  10. Repeated head trauma is associated with smaller thalamic volumes and slower processing speed: the Professional Fighters' Brain Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah J; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Butler, Sam; Noback, Michael; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cumulative head trauma may alter brain structure and function. We explored the relationship between exposure variables, cognition and MRI brain structural measures in a cohort of professional combatants. 224 fighters (131 mixed martial arts fighters and 93 boxers) participating in the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of licensed professional combatants, were recruited, as were 22 controls. Each participant underwent computerised cognitive testing and volumetric brain MRI. Fighting history including years of fighting and fights per year was obtained from self-report and published records. Statistical analyses of the baseline evaluations were applied cross-sectionally to determine the relationship between fight exposure variables and volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, caudate, putamen. Moreover, the relationship between exposure and brain volumes with cognitive function was assessed. Increasing exposure to repetitive head trauma measured by number of professional fights, years of fighting, or a Fight Exposure Score (FES) was associated with lower brain volumes, particularly the thalamus and caudate. In addition, speed of processing decreased with decreased thalamic volumes and with increasing fight exposure. Higher scores on a FES used to reflect exposure to repetitive head trauma were associated with greater likelihood of having cognitive impairment. Greater exposure to repetitive head trauma is associated with lower brain volumes and lower processing speed in active professional fighters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Application of Multi-Input Multi-Output Feedback Control for F-16 Ventral Fin Buffet Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    26. Y. Luo, S. Xie, and X. Zhang, “The actuated performance of multi-layer piezoelectric actuator in active vibration control of honeycomb sandwich ...tail buffeting alleviation on a twin-tail fighter configuration in a wind tunnel,” NASA Langley Technical Report Server, Hampton, VA, Tech. Rep., 1997

  12. Mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters in Hamburg, Germany: a cohort study 1950 – 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norbert L; Berger, Jürgen; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Koch, Peter; Köchel, Anja; Peschke, Michel; Ossenbach, Trude

    2006-01-01

    Background The healthy worker effect may hide adverse health effects in hazardous jobs, especially those where physical fitness is required. Fire fighters may serve as a good example because they sometimes are severely exposed to hazardous substances while on the other hand their physical fitness and their strong health surveillance by far exceeds that of comparable persons from the general population. Methods To study this effect a historic cohort study was conducted to assess mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters of the City of Hamburg, Germany. Fire departments and trade unions questioned the validity of existing studies from outside Germany because of specific differences in the professional career. No mortality study had been conducted so far in Germany and only few in Europe. Information on all active and retired fire fighters was extracted from personnel records. To assure completeness of data the cohort was restricted to all fire fighters being active on January 1, 1950 or later. Follow up of the cohort ended on June 30th 2000. Vital status was assessed by personnel records, pension fund records and the German residence registries. Mortality of fire fighters was compared to mortality of the Hamburg and German male population by means of standardized mortality ratios. Life expectancy was calculated using life table analysis. Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of seniority, time from first employment, and other occupational characteristics on mortality. Results The cohort consists of 4640 fire fighters accumulating 111796 person years. Vital status could be determined for 98.2% of the cohort. By the end of follow up 1052 person were deceased. Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for the total cohort was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.74–0.84) compared to Hamburg reference data and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.74–0.83) compared to National German reference data. Conditional life expectancy of a 30 year old fire fighter was 45

  13. Mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters in Hamburg, Germany: a cohort study 1950 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peschke Michel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The healthy worker effect may hide adverse health effects in hazardous jobs, especially those where physical fitness is required. Fire fighters may serve as a good example because they sometimes are severely exposed to hazardous substances while on the other hand their physical fitness and their strong health surveillance by far exceeds that of comparable persons from the general population. Methods To study this effect a historic cohort study was conducted to assess mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters of the City of Hamburg, Germany. Fire departments and trade unions questioned the validity of existing studies from outside Germany because of specific differences in the professional career. No mortality study had been conducted so far in Germany and only few in Europe. Information on all active and retired fire fighters was extracted from personnel records. To assure completeness of data the cohort was restricted to all fire fighters being active on January 1, 1950 or later. Follow up of the cohort ended on June 30th 2000. Vital status was assessed by personnel records, pension fund records and the German residence registries. Mortality of fire fighters was compared to mortality of the Hamburg and German male population by means of standardized mortality ratios. Life expectancy was calculated using life table analysis. Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of seniority, time from first employment, and other occupational characteristics on mortality. Results The cohort consists of 4640 fire fighters accumulating 111796 person years. Vital status could be determined for 98.2% of the cohort. By the end of follow up 1052 person were deceased. Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR for the total cohort was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.74–0.84 compared to Hamburg reference data and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.74–0.83 compared to National German reference data. Conditional life expectancy of a 30 year

  14. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  15. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  16. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  17. Extractive sampling and optical remote sensing of F100 aircraft engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Kenneth; Goodwin, Bradley; Joseph, Darrell; Tefend, Matthew; Satola, Jan; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram; Spicer, Chester; Holdren, Michael; Mayfield, Howard

    2009-05-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) has initiated several programs to develop and evaluate techniques to characterize emissions from military aircraft to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. This paper describes the results of a recent field study using extractive and optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to measure emissions from six F-15 fighter aircraft. Testing was performed between November 14 and 16, 2006 on the trim-pad facility at Tyndall Air Force Base in Panama City, FL. Measurements were made on eight different F100 engines, and the engines were tested on-wing of in-use aircraft. A total of 39 test runs were performed at engine power levels that ranged from idle to military power. The approach adopted for these tests involved extractive sampling with collocated ORS measurements at a distance of approximately 20-25 nozzle diameters downstream of the engine exit plane. The emission indices calculated for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and several volatile organic compounds showed very good agreement when comparing the extractive and ORS sampling methods.

  18. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  19. Application of Quantitative Measures for Analysing Aircraft Handling Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Hebbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ease and precision with which pilot is able to handle the designated task determines the aircraft’s handling qualities. Accordingly, the most common methodology for determining aircraft’s handling qualities is through pilot opinions or through questionnaires. These subjective means of analysis is not reliable as the sole source of judgments. Quantitative metrics to analyse the task difficulty based on pilot’s performance, supplemented with subjective decision, can provide better insight into pilot workload levels and in turn the aircraft’s handling qualities. The application of few objective performance measurement techniques to flight data of a high performance fighter aircraft is discussed. Pilot/aircraft’s performance under different configurations is analysed. Analysis results show that pilots usually tend to give more priority to pitch axis in case of dual axis tracking task. And pilots are therefore more aggressive in accomplishing pitch axis tracking task than in roll. Workload assessments were also performed by comparing the results of single axis tracking experiments conducted using a high fidelity flight simulator with the flight data. It is seen that pilot’s aggressiveness levels in controlling the roll control inceptor is significantly less, with improved tracking accuracy when exercised as the primary task.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 03-10, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9196

  20. Aircraft Emissions Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    sample from each trap through a heated (1500C) six-port valve ’ Carle Instruments Model 5621) and onto the analytical column. The coLoponents in each...Environmental Protection, Vol. II. Aircraft Engine Emissions, Int. Civil Aviation Organ., 1981. 7. Nebel , G. J., "Benzene in Auto Exhaust," J. Air Poll

  1. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  2. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  3. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  4. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  5. Comparative analysis on data of ear baric function by hypobaric chamber test between helicopter and fighter pilots%直升机和歼击机飞行员耳气压功能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先荣; 汪斌如; 金占国; 张扬

    2016-01-01

    otoscopy (EOS),pure tone audiometry (PTA),acoustic immitance measurement (AIM),rhinoscopy (RS) and nasal endoscopy (NES).Those who were without contraindication to hypobaric chamber test (HCT) were subjected to HCT as follows:①both helicopter and fighter pilots were asked to sit in the chamber and climbed up to 4000 m with the velocity of 15-20 m/s,remained for 5 min and then declined to ground level with the velocity of 5 m/s;②fighter pilots were climbed to 4 000 m with the velocity of 20-30 m/s,stayed for 5 min and declined to the ground level with the velocity of 20-25 m/s.After HCT,they were re-examined by EOS,PTA and AIM.The incidence of ear baric dysfunction (EBDF) was compared between helicopter and fighter pilots.Results ①One helicopter pilot did not undergo HCT due to cold-induced grade Ⅱ eardrum congestion diagnosed by EOS,mild conductive hearing loss by PTA and C-shaped curve by AIM.②The incidence of EBDF was 6.20% in helicopter pilots when they were declining with slow rate (5 m/s),significantly higher than that in fighter pilots (0.00%) (x2 =4.16,P<0.05).③As with fast decline (20-25 m/s) the incidence of EBDF was 7.78% in fighter pilots and which was insignificant with that in the helicopter pilots with slow declining rate (x2 =0.21,P>0.05).Conclusions It should take different climbing and descending rates in the HCT ear baric function evaluation or aeromedical training for different aircraft pilots.

  6. Relationship between emotional experience and resilience: an fMRI study in fire-fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Guedj, Eric; Souville, Marc; Trousselard, Marion; Zendjidjian, Xavier; El Khoury-Malhame, Myriam; Fakra, Eric; Nazarian, Bruno; Blin, Olivier; Canini, Frédéric; Khalfa, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Resilience refers to the capacity to cope effectively in stressful situations or adversity. It may involve the ability to experience emotions matching the demands of environmental circumstances. The brain mechanisms underlying resilience remain unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate the relationship between the neural basis of emotional experience and resilience. Thirty-six fire-fighters were included. They performed an fMRI script-driven paradigm comprising relaxing and trauma-related scripts to evaluate the cerebral substrate of emotional experience (presilience DRS15 scale (pResilience was positively correlated with the right amygdala and left orbitofrontal activations when performing the contrast of trauma vs. relaxing script. The present study provides neural data on the mechanisms underlying resilience and their relationship with emotional reactivity, suggesting that appropriate emotional response in stressful situations is essential for coping with aversive events in daily life.

  7. Fighter pilots' heart rate, heart rate variation and performance during an instrument flight rules proficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Heikki; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don; Simola, Petteri

    2016-09-01

    Increased task demand will increase the pilot mental workload (PMWL). When PMWL is increased, mental overload may occur resulting in degraded performance. During pilots' instrument flight rules (IFR) proficiency test, PMWL is typically not measured. Therefore, little is known about workload during the proficiency test and pilots' potential to cope with higher task demands than those experienced during the test. In this study, fighter pilots' performance and PMWL was measured during a real IFR proficiency test in an F/A-18 simulator. PMWL was measured using heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV). Performance was rated using Finnish Air Force's official rating scales. Results indicated that HR and HRV differentiate varying task demands in situations where variations in performance are insignificant. It was concluded that during a proficiency test, PMWL should be measured together with the task performance measurement.

  8. Progress in the research on back and leg pain in fighter pilots%歼击机飞行员腰腿痛研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘侃; 任东风; 吴闻文

    2013-01-01

    Back and leg pain is a set of common clinical syndrome in pilots. It is also a kind of common occupational disease which influences pilots’ health and normal training seriously. Back and leg pain is not an independent disease, it is a group of diseases consisting of spine, nerve root and soft tissue. The reasons of back and leg pain include lumbar disc herniation, lumbar muscle strain, bone hyperplasia, benign arthritis, spinal stenosis, lumbar fractures and so on. The prevalence of back and leg pain in pilots is high, especially in fighter pilots due to their special working environment such as the cramped cockpit and aerial aerobatics. Fighter pilots form a major part which could influence combat effectiveness of air force. The cause of back and leg pain in fighter pilots may be the pilot’s position, the high load of fighter plane, flight time, age and so on. Back and leg pain of fighter pilots can lead to the dysphoria and affect the quality of flight directly. It is an important factor which affects combat effectiveness of flight troops and flight safety. Back and leg pain also influences the health, training and implementation tasks of fighter pilots. Therefore, propaganda, education, training of psoas, and research on protective measures are all of great significance. Now in this paper, the works done concerning epidemiology, etiology, and the prevention and treatment of back and leg pain in fighter pilots are reviewed and discussed to attract enough attention of flight surgeons for the enhancement of understanding and treatment of back and leg pain in fighter pilots, and to improve aviation medical support.

  9. Synchronous rectal and gastric cancer in a fighter pilot: aeromedical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guo-Li; Wei, Xue-Ming; Xu, Xian-Rong; Li, De-Chang; Wang, Shi-Lin; Gu, Jin

    2013-06-01

    Synchronous cancer of the stomach and rectum is very rare. In a special population of pilots, especially fighter pilots, synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is much more uncommon. We herein report a case of synchronous carcinoma of the rectum and stomach. The patient was a 44-year-old male fighter pilot who complained with bloody stool and altered bowel habits. He was diagnosed with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer with a definite family history, and subsequently he underwent simultaneous low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. Postoperative pathologic assessment showed a poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell components (pT2N1M0; stage IIb) and a moderately differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma with myxoid components (pT3N0M0; stage IIa). Both tumors showed positive expression of p53, Ki-67, VEGF, carcinoembryonic antigen, MRP, TS, P-gp, and TopoII, and negative expression of c-erbB2, CD34, CD31, D2-40, S-100, FVIII, MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 oncoproteins. Six cycles of XELOX chemotherapy and 50 Gy/25 f radiotherapy were delivered postoperatively. Now, he has returned to his work under medical observation for about 6 months. From this patient's diagnosis and treatment, we think that the gene screening should be used in pilot selection. According to the result of gene screening, we can give pertinence examinations to the target organ of genes. It is very necessary for pilots to keep keen vigilance at gastrointestinal tumors because they have to face many high-risk factors in working. As to pilots, the selection of operation should be individualized.

  10. QuickStrike ASOC Battlefield Simulation: Preparing the War Fighter to Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The QuickStrike ASOC (Air Support Operations Center) Battlefield Simulation fills a crucial gap in USAF and United Kingdom Close Air Support (CAS) and airspace manager training. The system now provides six squadrons with the capability to conduct total-mission training events whenever the personnel and time are available. When the 111th ASOC returned from their first deployment to Afghanistan they realized the training available prior to deployment was inadequate. They sought an organic training capability focused on the ASOC mission that was low cost, simple to use, adaptable, and available now. Using a commercial off-the-shelf simulation, they developed a complete training system by adapting the simulation to their training needs. Through more than two years of spiral development, incorporating lessons learned, the system has matured, and can now realistically replicate the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) in Kabul, Afghanistan, the TOC supporting the mission in Iraq, or can expand to support a major conflict scenario. The training system provides a collaborative workspace for the training audience and exercise control group via integrated software and workstations that can easily adapt to new mission reqUirements and TOC configurations. The system continues to mature. Based on inputs from the war fighter, new capabilities have been incorporated to add realism and simplify the scenario development process. The QuickStrike simulation can now import TBMCS Air Tasking Order air mission data and can provide air and ground tracks to a common operating picture; presented through either C2PC or JADOCS. This oranic capability to practice team processes and tasks and to conduct mission rehearsals proved its value in the 111 h ASOS's next deployment. The ease of scenario development and the simple to learn and intuitive gamelike interface enables the squadrons to develop and share scenarios incorporating lessons learned from every deployment. These war fighters have now

  11. EFFECTS OF VECTORING JET ON AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRCRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Thrust vectoring is one of the advanced technologies in the design of the 4-th generation fighter to provide high maneuverability and agility.The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions between the vectoring jet and the mainflows around the forebody and afterbody of modern fighters.As a result, the interaction behavior is obtained.

  12. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications...

  13. Airline and Aircraft Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hauka, Maris; Paramonovs, Jurijs

    2014-01-01

    Development of the inspection programme of fatigue-prone aircraft construction under limitation of airline fatigue failure rate. The highest economical effectiveness of airline under limitation of fatigue failure rate and failure probability is discussed. For computing is used exponential regression, Monte Carlo method, Log Normal distribution, Markov chains and semi-Markov process theory. The minimax approach is offered for processing the results of full-scale fatigue approval test of an air...

  14. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  15. Lonely Skies: Air-to-Air Training for a 5th Generation Fighter Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    five hours of instrument training. Pilots trained for blind flight using a visual restricting hood in an aircraft with a safety pilot.10 Figure 4...shows Doolittle prepared for a flight with the visual restricting hood stowed on the side railings of his cockpit. Figure 4. 1st...25080555/. 82 generation threat aircraft.3 Additionally, the Air Education and Training Commander, General Robin Rand, said, “A T-X variant is just

  16. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  17. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft covered...

  18. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  19. Nonlinear analysis and control of an aircraft in the neighbourhood of deep stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Sébastien; Hétru, Laurent; Faure, Thierry M.; Montagnier, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    When an aircraft is locked in a stable equilibrium at high angle-of-attack, we have to do with the so-called deep stall which is a very dangerous situation. Airplanes with T-tail are mainly concerned with this phenomenon since the wake of the main wing flows over the horizontal tail and renders it ineffective but other aircrafts such as fighters can also be affected. First the phase portrait and bifurcation diagram are determined and characterized (with three equilibria in a deep stall prone configuration). It allows to diagnose the configurations of aircrafts susceptible to deep stall and also to point out the different types of time evolutions. Several techniques are used in order to determine the basin of attraction of the stable equilibrium at high angle-of-attack. They are based on the calculation of the stable manifold of the saddle-point equilibrium at medium angle-of-attack. Then several ways are explored in order to try to recover from deep stall. They exploits static features (such as curves of pitching moment versus angle-of-attack for full pitch down and full pitch up elevators) or dynamic aspects (excitation of the eigenmodes and improvement of the aerodynamic efficiency of the tail). Finally, some properties of a deep stall prone aircraft are pointed out and some control tools are also implemented. We try also to apply this mathematical results in a concrete situation by taking into account the captors specificities or by estimating the relevant variables thanks to other available information.

  20. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  1. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  2. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  3. Aircraft propeller control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  4. Oxygen mask related nasal integument and osteocartilagenous disorders in F-16 fighter pilots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rieneke C Schreinemakers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A preliminary survey showed half of the participating Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF F-16 fighter pilots to have nasal integument and osteocartilagenous disorders related to wearing in-flight oxygen masks. AIM: To make an inventory of these disorders and possible associated factors. METHODS: All RNLAF F-16 pilots were requested to fill out a semi-structured questionnaire for a cross-sectional survey. Additionally, one squadron in The Netherlands and pilots in operational theater were asked to participate in a prospective study that required filling out a pain score after each flight. Pilot- and flight-related variables on all participants were collected from the RNLAF database. A linear mixed model was built to identify associated factors with the post-flight pain score. RESULTS: The response rate to the survey was 83%. Ninety of the 108 participants (88%, 6 missing reported tenderness, irritation, pain, erythema, skin lesions, callous skin, or swelling of nasal bridge integument or architecture. Seventy-two participants (71%, 6 missing reported their symptoms to be troublesome after a mean of 6±3 out of 10 flights (0;10, 54 missing. Sixty-six pilots participated in scoring post-flight pain. Pain scores were significantly higher if a participant had ≥3 nasal disorders, after longer than average flights, after flying abroad, and after flying with night vision goggles (respectively +2.7 points, p = 0.003; +0.2 points, p = 0.027; +1.8 points, p = 0.001; +1.2 points p = 0.005. Longer than average NVG flights and more than average NVG hours per annum decreased painscores (respectively -0.8 points, p = 0.017; -0.04 points, p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the RNLAF F-16 fighter pilot community has nasal disorders in the contact area of the oxygen mask, including pain. Six pilot- or flight-related characteristics influence the experienced level of pain.

  5. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  6. Expanded envelope concepts for aircraft control-element failure detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jerold L.; Hsu, John Y.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop and demonstrate concepts for expanding the envelope of failure detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms for aircraft-path failures. An algorithm which uses analytic-redundancy in the form of aerodynamic force and moment balance equations was used. Because aircraft-path FDI uses analytical models, there is a tradeoff between accuracy and the ability to detect and isolate failures. For single flight condition operation, design and analysis methods are developed to deal with this robustness problem. When the departure from the single flight condition is significant, algorithm adaptation is necessary. Adaptation requirements for the residual generation portion of the FDI algorithm are interpreted as the need for accurate, large-motion aero-models, over a broad range of velocity and altitude conditions. For the decision-making part of the algorithm, adaptation may require modifications to filtering operations, thresholds, and projection vectors that define the various hypothesis tests performed in the decision mechanism. Methods of obtaining and evaluating adequate residual generation and decision-making designs have been developed. The application of the residual generation ideas to a high-performance fighter is demonstrated by developing adaptive residuals for the AFTI-F-16 and simulating their behavior under a variety of maneuvers using the results of a NASA F-16 simulation.

  7. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  8. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly.

  9. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  10. The polymorphism of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter (DAT) genes in the men with antisocial behaviour and mixed martial arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepkova, Elena V; Maksimov, Vladimir N; Kushnarev, Alexandr P; Shakhmatov, Igor I; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2017-09-12

    Variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms of DRD4 and DAT genes were studied in the Russian and Chechen men convicted of crimes, and two control groups comprised of the MMA fighters and a sample of general population. A group of MMA fighters included only the subjects without history of antisocial behaviour. DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction from the blood. Genotyping VNTR polymorphisms of the DRD4 and DAT genes were performed by PCR on published methods. Among those convicted of felonies and most grave crimes, carriers of DRD4 long alleles are found more frequently, similarly to the cohort of MMA fighters (lacking criminal record in both paternal lines). The 9/9 DAT genotype carriers are more frequently encountered among the habitual offenders. A frequency of the combination of the DRD4 genotype 4/7 and DAT genotype 10/10 is clearly higher among the convicts of violent crimes and the MMA fighters. One can speculate the presence of a 'controlled aggression' without a predisposition to pathological violence in the MMA fighters. Our study supports the hypothesis of genetic predisposition to different variants of extreme behaviour mediated by genetic determinants involved in the functioning of neuromediator systems including those controlling dopamine pathways.

  11. Adaptive Flutter Suppression for a Fighter Wing via Recurrent Neural Networks over a Wide Transonic Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojie Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a digital adaptive controller of recurrent neural networks for the active flutter suppression of a wing structure over a wide transonic range. The basic idea behind the controller is as follows. At first, the parameters of recurrent neural networks, such as the number of neurons and the learning rate, are initially determined so as to suppress the flutter under a specific flight condition in the transonic regime. Then, the controller automatically adjusts itself for a new flight condition by updating the synaptic weights of networks online via the real-time recurrent learning algorithm. Hence, the controller is able to suppress the aeroelastic instability of the wing structure over a range of flight conditions in the transonic regime. To demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the controller, the aeroservoelastic model of a typical fighter wing with a tip missile was established and a single-input/single-output controller was synthesized. Numerical simulations of the open/closed-loop aeroservoelastic simulations were made to demonstrate the efficacy of the adaptive controller with respect to the change of flight parameters in the transonic regime.

  12. Fire fighters and rescuers monitoring through wearable sensors: The ProeTEX project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenes, Giovanni; Curone, Davide; Caldani, Laura; Secco, Emanuele Lindo

    2010-01-01

    The final generation of ProeTEX prototypes has been delivered in April 2010: it is based on two sets of sensorized garments devoted to monitor the health status of emergency operators working in harsh environments. This new release of garments shows several improvements with respect to the previous ones, and it is characterized by a major specialization to the requirements imposed by the different categories of end-users (Fire-Fighters, Civil Protection rescuers) addressed by the project. Each ProeTEX prototype is provided with a communication infrastructure allowing the real-time remote transmission of data recorded by the wearable sensors, and the presentation of such data to possible managers supervising the activities of the first line responders. After the delivery of the prototypes, an intense validation of the garments is being carried out both in laboratories, specialized in physiological measures, and in simulated fire-fighting scenarios. In such a context, this paper presents the main features characterizing the final ProeTEX prototypes and preliminary results of their laboratory assessment.

  13. Giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone in a mixed martial arts fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerki, Jennifer; Riddle, Nicole D; Newman, Jason; Husson, Michael A; Lee, John Y K

    2012-10-01

    Background and Importance Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is a rare, benign, non-neoplastic lesion of the head and neck. More common in the jaw bones, there have been few reports of the lesion arising in the temporal bone. Initially referred to as a "giant cell reparative granuloma," due to the previously accepted notion of its nature in attempting to repair areas of injury, the term "giant cell granuloma" is now more frequently used as this lesion has been found in patients without a history of trauma. In addition, several cases with a destructive nature, in contrast to a reparative one, have been observed. Clinical Presentation We report a case of GCG presenting as a head and neck tumor with dural attachments and extension into the middle cranial fossa in a mixed martial arts fighter. Conclusion Giant cell granulomas are typically treated surgically and have a good prognosis; however, care must be taken when they present in unusual locations. This case supports the theory of trauma and inflammation as risk factors for GCG.

  14. 歼击飞行员骨代谢生化指标调查%Survey of Bone Metabolism in Fighter Pilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 周卫国; 李民; 潘世鑫; 石玉玲; 班武

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of biochemical markers of bone metabolism and the possible sig⁃nificance in fighter pilots in high-altitude condition. Methods: To evaluate four biochemical markers of bone in 129 fighter pilots(male, healthy, and aged 26~48 years, with an average flight time of 1500 h±100 h): bone forma⁃tion marker N-terminal osteocalcin(N-MID), total collagen typeⅠamino-terminal propeptide(PINP), bone resorp⁃tion markers(β-crosslaps), and parathyroid hormone(PTH). The pilots were divided into two groups according to aircraft type, namely second-generation unit and three generations unit, and t test was used to compare the differ⁃ences between groups. The pilots were divided into three groups according to age, namely 20~29 year-old age group, 30~39 year-old age group, and 40~49 age group, and ANOVA was used to compare the differences among biochemical markers. Results: The bone metabolic markers differences in two generations of fighter pilots were not statistically significant. N-MID and PINP concentrations in 20~29 age group were significantly higher than those in other age groups(P0.05). Conclusion: The markers of bone formation, and bone resorption reached the peak in the 20~29 year-old pilots, suggesting that a high level of bone turnover happens in the period of peak bone mass. The bone metabolic markers were at the lowest concentration in 40~60 years-old pilots, indicating that bone resorption and bone formation are in a dynamic equilibrium, and the level of bone turnover is low. Close monitoring the changes in bone metabolism has a positive significance for maintaining bone health and ensuring flight safety of pilots.%目的:探讨高空环境歼击飞行员的骨代谢生化指标变化及意义。方法:检测空军某部129名歼击飞行员(均为男性,身体健康,年龄26~48岁,平均飞行时间1500 h±100 h)的4项骨代谢生化指标:骨形成标志物N端骨钙素(N-MID)和总Ⅰ型胶原氨

  15. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  16. Aircraft control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  17. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  18. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or...

  19. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for flight...

  20. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72 Stat...

  1. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft...

  2. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on official...

  3. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  4. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You...

  5. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on... provisions of §§ 21.183(c), 21.184(b), or 21.185(c); and (2) New aircraft engines or propellers...

  6. Cost of ownership for military cargo aircraft using a common versus disparate display configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Most, Marvin C.

    2010-04-01

    A 2009 paper considered possibilities for applying a common display suite to various front-line bubble canopy fighters, whereas further research suggests the cost savings, post Milestone C production/deployment, might not be advantageous. The situation for military cargo and tanker aircraft, may offer a different paradigm. The primary objective of Defense acquisition is to acquire quality products that satisfy user needs with measurable improvements to mission capability and operational support, in a timely manner, and at a fair and reasonable price. DODD 5000.01 specifies that all participants in the acquisition system shall recognize the reality of fiscal constraints, viewing cost as an independent variable. DoD Components must therefore plan programs based on realistic projections of the dollars and manpower likely to be available in future years and also identify the total costs of ownership, as well as the major drivers of total ownership costs. In theory, therefore, this has already been done for existing cargo/tanker aircraft programs accommodating independent, disparate display suites. This paper goes beyond that stage by exploring total costs of ownership for a hypothetical common approach to cargo/tanker display avionics, bounded by looking at a limited number of such aircraft, e.g., C-5, C-17, C-130H (variants), and C-130J. It is the purpose of this paper to reveal whether there are total cost of ownership advantages for a common approach over and above the existing disparate approach. Aside from cost issues, other considerations, i.e., availability and supportability, may also be analyzed.

  7. A Longitudinal Assessment of Structural and Chemical Alterations in Mixed Martial Arts Fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrew R; Ling, Josef M; Dodd, Andrew B; Gasparovic, Charles; Klimaj, Stefan D; Meier, Timothy B

    2015-11-15

    Growing evidence suggests that temporally proximal acute concussions and repetitive subconcussive head injuries may lead to long-term neurological deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms of injury and their relative time-scales are not well documented in human injury models. The current study therefore investigated whether biomarkers of brain chemistry (magnetic resonance [MR] spectroscopy: N-acetylaspartate [NAA], combined glutamate and glutamine [Glx], total creatine [Cre], choline compounds [Cho], and myo-inositol [mI]) and structure (cortical thickness, white matter [WM]/subcortical volume) differed between mixed martial artists (MMA; n = 13) and matched healthy controls (HC) without a history of contact sport participation (HC; n = 14). A subset of participants (MMA = 9; HC = 10) returned for follow-up visits, with MMA (n = 3) with clinician-documented acute concussions also scanned serially. As expected, MMA self-reported a higher incidence of previous concussions and significantly more cognitive symptoms during prior concussion recovery. Fighters also exhibited reduced memory and processing speed relative to controls on neuropsychological testing coupled with cortical thinning in the left posterior cingulate gyrus and right occipital cortex at baseline assessment. Over a 1-year follow-up period, MMA experienced a significant decrease in both WM volume and NAA concentration, as well as relative thinning in the left middle and superior frontal gyri. These longitudinal changes did not correlate with self-reported metrics of injury (i.e., fight diary). In contrast, HC did not exhibit significant longitudinal changes over a 4-month follow-up period (p > 0.05). Collectively, current results provide preliminary evidence of progressive changes in brain chemistry and structure over a relatively short time period in individuals with high exposure to repetitive head hits. These findings require replication in independent samples.

  8. Flight Investigation of a Normal-Acceleration Automatic Longitudinal Control System in a Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, S. A.; Russell, Walter R.; Alford, William L.

    1958-01-01

    A flight investigation was made to obtain experimental information on the handling qualities of a normal-acceleration type of automatic longitudinal control system. The control system was installed in a subsonic fighter-type airplane. In hands-off (stick-free) flight the normal-acceleration control system attempted to regulate the normal acceleration to a constant value which is dependent on the automatic-control-system trim setting. In maneuvering flight a given pilot's stick deflection produced a proportional change in normal acceleration, the change in acceleration being independent of flight condition. A small side-located controller stick was used by the pilot to introduce signals into the automatic control system. In the flight program emphasis was placed on the acceleration-limiting capabilities of the control system. The handling qualities were investigated in maneuvers such as slow and rapid pull-ups and turns and also in flight operations such as cruising, stalls, landings, aerobatics, and air-to-air tracking. Good acceleration limiting was obtained with the normal-acceleration control system by limiting the magnitude of the input signal that the pilot could introduce into the control system. The same values of control-system gain settings could be used from an acceleration-limiting stand-point at both 10,000 and 30,000 feet for the complete speed range of the airplane. The response characteristics of the airplane-control system combination were also satisfactory at both high and low altitude with these same values of control-system gain setting. In the pilot's opinion, the normal-acceleration control system provided good stability and control characteristics in flight operations such as cruising, stalls, landings, aerobatics, and air-to-air tracking.

  9. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  10. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  11. Quality standard of aircraft maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Боузаієнне Меккі бен Салем

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The question of the account of operation conditions of an aeronautical engineering in airlines is considered at formation and a correcting of plans on aircrafts park maintenance.

  12. Causes of aircraft electrical failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Donald; Slenski, George

    1991-08-01

    The results of a survey of data on failures of aircraft electronic and electrical components that was conducted to identify problematic components are reported. The motivation for the work was to determine priorities for future work on the development of accident investigation techniques for aircraft electrical components. The primary source of data was the Airforce Mishap Database, which is maintained by the Directorate of Aerospace Safety at Norton Air Force Base. Published data from the Air Force Avionics Integrity Program (AVIP) and Hughes Aircraft were also reviewed. Statistical data from these three sources are presented. Two major conclusions are that problems with interconnections are major contributors to aircraft electrical equipment failures, and that environmental factors, especially corrosion, are significant contributors to connector problems.

  13. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  14. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  15. 高性能战斗机飞行员血清铁浓度和红细胞指标变化分析%Analysis On the changes of serum iron and red blood cell indices in the high performance fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德永; 王成传; 刘茂均; 张蕾; 张卫民; 李丹; 方丽

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨高性能战斗机飞行员血清铁浓度和红细胞指标变化的机制. 方法 将来我院疗养的39名高性能战斗机飞行员作为观察组,72名歼-7、歼-8和强-5飞行员作为对照组,并比较两组飞行员血清铁浓度、红细胞指标的变化. 结果 高性能战斗机飞行员较对照组飞行员血清铁浓度、血红蛋白量、红细胞平均血红蛋白含量、平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度均降低,且有统计学意义(t=3.50~7.95,P<0.01);而红细胞计数升高,且有统计学意义(t=3.01,P<0.01). 结论 高性能战斗机飞行员因承受较大的加速度、缺氧、热负荷及应激,可能会引起血清铁浓度降低,红细胞计数代偿性升高,从而导致血红蛋白、红细胞平均血红蛋白含量、平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度下降,缺氧耐受力降低.因此.及早采取干预措施,及时减轻飞行疲劳和提高飞行耐力,对于保障飞行安全有重要意义.%Objective To explore the mechanism of serum iron and red blood cell changes in high performance fighter pilots. Methods Thirty-nine high performance fighter aircraft pilots were selected as test group while other 72 fighter and attacker pilots were in control group.The serum iron and red blood cell index were compared between groups. Results Pilots in test group showed significantly lower serum iron,hemoglobin,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration than those of other pilots' in control group (t=3.50-7.95,P<0.01) but red blood cell was counted significantly higher (t=3.0 1,P<0.01). Conclusions Changes happened on high performance fighter aircraft pilots indicate that they are undertaking higher working loads such as acceleration,hypoxia.heat and stress.And these would be the reasons of resulting in lower serum iron,higher compensatory red blood cell indices,and lower hemoglobin,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration,subsequently the poor hypoxia

  16. Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    AD-RI92 376 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING RIRCRAFT(U) CONRAD I TECHNOLOGIES INC KING OF PRUSSIA PR M M REDDI SEP 97 CTI-8601 NRDC-88014-69...REPORT NO. NADC-8014-60 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT M. Mahadeva Reddi .4 Conrad Technologies, Inc. 650 S. Henderson Rd. D T IQ King of...NO A0 CCESSION NO. R02303001 107601 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) (u) STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS) M

  17. Aircraft vibration and flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Aggarwal

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper outlines the theoretical and experimental procedure one has to adopt for flutter prevention during the various stages (project, design and prototype of the development of modern aircraft. With the advent of high speed, the aerodynamic coefficients have to be calculated with due regards to the effects of compressibility, finite aspect ratio of the lifting surfaces, sweep back and other peculiar shapes of the wings. The use of thin, small aspect ratio with external masses, necessitates the computation of higher frequency modes of vibration. Single degree of freedom flutter and the effect of control surface non-linearities has also become very important. Thus, it is shown how the availability of high speed computing machines, improved experimental technique for model and full scale testing has not kept pace with the uncertainties associated with the transonic speeds, low aspect ratio and the high frequency modes. Cross-checking of theoretical and experimental results at every stage seem to be the only answer."

  18. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  19. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  20. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  1. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  2. Check Six: Take a Look Back (Again) to Ensure Future Fighter Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    I1.. .... ,; ........................... : .. 29 . Appendix B: USAF Analysis of AlA results of the Vietnam Conflict...replications to Marine aircrews with the obsolete F-5E/N Tiger II. Despite flying aging airframes with outdated avionics and weapons Campbell 1...the conflict. As a result, Navy and Marine aircrews flew fewer AlA missions than the Air Force due to their hodgepodge of aircraft, which included

  3. The General Electric F404 - Engine of the RAAF’s New Fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Trans-Australia Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Ansett Airlines of Australia, Library Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation, Library A Hawker de...stalls and blowouts. This test program provided continuously recorded data on engine power usage which yielded, on . . analysis , information on time...Criticality Analysis (FMECA) e In-flight Engine Condition Monitoring System (IECMS) 2 .4 . . ~ ~ *’ **.’-’. .°o . *.° *o "\\* °\\*.. The YF-17 flight test

  4. A Multidimensional Analysis of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Acquisition Program from the Perspective of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    extensive scope and substantial life cycle costs, the JSF program is one of the most controversial issues in the United States. This issue however, is...of the Republic of Turkey, initiated modernization programs and reforms in all aspects of life : agriculture, education, industry, economy, politics...future. One day, humankind will walk in the skies without aircrafts, go to planets and, maybe, send us news from the moon. Waiting for the year 2000

  5. Cervical spine degeneration in fighter pilots and controls: a 5-yr follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J

    2001-05-01

    At 5 yr after MRI of the cervical spine, for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions, follow-up MRI was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 47 yr; mean accumulated flying time 3,100 h) and on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 28 yr, mean accumulated flying time 915 h) were also re-examined. Compared with baseline MRI 5 yr earlier, there was significant increase in disk protrusions in all groups, in osteophytes in controls, and in foraminal stenoses in experienced pilots, and a significant reduction in disk signal intensity in young pilots. The difference between experienced pilots and controls was markedly reduced compared with that at baseline MRI. Thus, military high performance aircraft pilots seem to be at increased risk of premature development of degenerative lesions of the same type as are seen in an aging population. With increasing age the difference between pilots and controls diminishes.

  6. Professional karate-do and mixed martial arts fighters present with a high prevalence of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel; Namba, Eli Luis; Veiga, Danielle Medeiros; Wandembruck, Fernanda; Mussi, Felipe; Afonso Cunali, Paulo; Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2016-08-01

    Facial trauma in sports has been associated with temporomandibular disorders. Because of the intensity and duration of training needed for elite-level competitions, high-performance athletes can have two to five times more traumatic injuries than recreational athletes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in high-performance martial arts fighters and compare it with the prevalence in recreational athletes and non-athletes. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders was used to diagnose and classify professional karate-do practitioners (group I; n = 24), amateur karate-do practitioners (group II; n = 17), high-performance mixed martial arts fighters (group III; n = 13), and non-athletes (n = 28). The groups were compared with the chi-square test and tested for the difference between two proportions using a significance level of 5% (P 0.05). A diagnosis of arthralgia from disk displacement was made more frequently in groups I (45.8%; P = 0.013) and III (38.5%; P = 0.012) than in group IV (7.1%). The chronic pain associated with TMD was low intensity and low disability. While there was a high prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in the professional athletes in our study, the prevalence of the condition in recreational athletes was similar to that in individuals who did not practice martial arts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  8. Immunity-based detection, identification, and evaluation of aircraft sub-system failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Hever Y.

    This thesis describes the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an integrated Artificial Immune System (AIS) for detection, identification, and evaluation of a wide variety of sensor, actuator, propulsion, and structural failures/damages including the prediction of the achievable states and other limitations on performance and handling qualities. The AIS scheme achieves high detection rate and low number of false alarms for all the failure categories considered. Data collected using a motion-based flight simulator are used to define the self for an extended sub-region of the flight envelope. The NASA IFCS F-15 research aircraft model is used and represents a supersonic fighter which include model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The flight simulation tests are designed to analyze and demonstrate the performance of the immunity-based aircraft failure detection, identification and evaluation (FDIE) scheme. A general robustness analysis is also presented by determining the achievable limits for a desired performance in the presence of atmospheric perturbations. For the purpose of this work, the integrated AIS scheme is implemented based on three main components. The first component performs the detection when one of the considered failures is present in the system. The second component consists in the identification of the failure category and the classification according to the failed element. During the third phase a general evaluation of the failure is performed with the estimation of the magnitude/severity of the failure and the prediction of its effect on reducing the flight envelope of the aircraft system. Solutions and alternatives to specific design issues of the AIS scheme, such as data clustering and empty space optimization, data fusion and duplication removal, definition of features, dimensionality reduction, and selection of cluster/detector shape are also

  9. Research advances of the fighter pilot nutrition%战斗机飞行员饮食营养的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洁; 蔡东联

    2013-01-01

    战斗机飞行员是空军战斗力的主体,战斗机飞行员的营养直接关系着战斗力的生成。由于战斗机飞行的时间、方式、强度的特殊性,且飞行员缺乏足够的营养健康知识,所以饮食结构不合理的问题比较突出。不合理的营养导致飞行员肥胖、高脂血症和心血管疾病发病率明显上升。因此,对战斗机飞行员的饮食营养进行研究,逐渐演变成军事航空医学的一个重要课题。%Fighter pilot is the main body of the air force, fighter pilot nutrition is directly related to combat effectiveness. Due to the particularity of fighter pilots’ flying time, manner, intensity, andpilots’lack of adequate nutrition and health knowledge, the problem of diet irrational structure is more prominent. Unreasonable nutrition induces the increased incidence of obesity, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease significantly. Therefore, the diet of the fighter pilots, have gradually evolved into an important topic of military aviation medicine.

  10. Fire-fighters' perspectives of the accuracy of the Physical Aptitude Test (P.A.T) as a pre-employment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Anna; James, Carole

    2006-01-01

    Pre-employment assessments must accurately simulate job tasks and demands and select appropriate personnel to be considered effective. This study focussed on the perception of NSW fire-fighters in relation to the validity of the NSW Fire Brigade's pre-employment assessment, the Physical Aptitude Test. A qualitative method was used to gain a precise understanding of fire fighters' opinions of the accuracy of the Physical Aptitude Test. Information letters and consent forms were sent to an urban fire station with interested participants replying via the university. Six participants, who met the inclusion criteria were randomly selected for the study and in-depth, ethnographic, semi-structured interviews were conducted. The fire fighters believed in order for the Physical Aptitude Test to accurately simulate job demands and select the most capable fire fighters', it needed to be more physically demanding. However, participants believed that the "work-simulating" nature of the Physical Aptitude Test provided an accurate indication of the job tasks.

  11. From Les Chevaliers du Ciel to Steely-Eyed Killers: Intersecting Influences of Hollywood and Reality on the Romanticization of Fighter Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    no. 1 (13 Nov 13): 4. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1048&context=lux (accessed 27 Nov 13). 7 Janet H. Murray, Hamlet ...1973. Murray, Janet H. Hamlet On The Holodeck: The Future Of Narrative In Cyberspace. New York: The Free Press, 1997. Olds, Robin. Fighter Pilot

  12. PN/S calculations for a fighter W/F at high-lift yaw conditions. [parabolized Navier-Stokes computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, J. C.; Blom, G.; Yoshihara, H.; Chaussee, D.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/Ames parabolized Navier/Stokes computer code was used to calculate the turbulent flow over the wing/fuselage for a generic fighter at M = 2.2. 18 deg angle-of-attack, and 0 and 5 deg yaw. Good test/theory agreement was achieved in the zero yaw case. No test data were available for the yaw case.

  13. Developing an Aggregate Marginal Cost Per Flying Hour Model for the U.S. Air Force’s F-15 Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    conformal fuel tanks. The Multi-Stage Improvement Program ( MSIP ) phased in additional upgrades from 1985-1997. These upgrades included, “structural...Levels: An Analytical Assessment. MS Thesis, Naval Post Graduate School, Monterey CA, December 1992 (ADA261977). Energy Information Administration. “U.S...433-438 (2004). Hawkes, Eric M. Predicting the Cost per Flying Hour for the F-16 using Programmatic and Operational Variables. MS Thesis, AFIT/GOR

  14. An Examination of Brazil and the United States as Potential Partners in a Joint Supersonic Military Fighter Aircraft Codevelopment and Production Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce Mr. Frank J. Devine, Executive Director Embraer, Empresa Brasileira De Aeronautica Mr. Salo Roth Vice President...Sales & Marketing , North America Mr. W. Bartels Program Manager For advice and help in writing the thesis Lieutanant Colonel Robert D. Materna, USAF...3.2.5 Current Market ........................... . 41 3.2.6 Future Prospects ........................... 44 3.2.7 Summary

  15. 战斗机飞行员疾病现状调查%Study on the disease status of fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董燕; 马金鹏; 陈虹汝; 易大莉; 潘维恩; 吴桂云; 周克亮; 张胜利

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查战斗机飞行员疾病谱现状,为提高我军航空卫生保障水平提供科学依据.方法 采用多级分层随机整群抽样方法,抽取战斗机飞行员429人进行横断面调查,其中三代机组270人,二代机组159人,对其年龄、飞行时间、疾病种类等资料进行统计,分析战斗机飞行员疾病谱特点. 结果 战斗机飞行员常见疾病主要分布于肌肉骨骼系统、内分泌和代谢系统、消化系统、神经系统以及泌尿生殖系统.三代机飞行员疾病谱位于前3位的疾病为高脂血症(31.48%)、颈椎病(28.89%)、腰椎病(22.59%);二代机飞行员疾病谱位于前3位的疾病为颈椎病(33.30%)、高脂血症(28.30%)、胃炎(20.10%).三代机飞行员内分泌和代谢系统、肌肉骨骼系统疾病的患病率高于二代机飞行员,而消化系统疾病的患病率明显低于二代机飞行员(x2 =27.127,P<0.01). 结论 高脂血症、颈腰椎病是战斗机飞行员最常见的疾病,应从生活方式、训练方式等方面制定个体化干预措施,提高现代航空卫生保障水平.%Objective To investigate the disease spectrum of fighter pilots in order to provide reference for the aeromedical support.Methods By means of multistage stratified cluster random sampling method,data of 429 fighter pilots,including 270 3rd generation fighter pilots and 159 2nd generation fighter pilots,were selected and analyzed.The age distribution,flying hours and disease category were analyzed for getting the disease spectrum.Results The common disease categories of fighter pilots were mainly distributed to musculoskeletal system,endocrine and metabolic diseases,digestive system,neural system and genitourinary system.The top 3 diseases of spectrum of disease of the third generation fighter pilots were hyperlipidemia (31.48 %),cervical diseases (28.89 %) and lumbar diseases (22.59 %).The top 3 diseases of spectrum of disease of the second generation fighter

  16. Analysis of backleg pain in fighter and helicopter pilot%歼击机与直升机飞行人员腰腿痛的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 陈宏; 汪红荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解歼击机与直升机飞行人员腰腿痛情况,有针对性地预防腰腿痛的发生。方法调查689例飞行人员的资料,比较分析歼击机与直升机飞行人员腰腿痛的情况。结果直升机飞行员腰腿痛的发生率为44.2%,歼击机飞行员腰腿痛的发生率为29.9%,直升机飞行员腰腿痛的发生率明显高于歼击机飞行员(P<0.05)。结论应重视飞行人员腰腿痛的预防,加强宣传教育,加强腰肌功能训练,加强防护措施。%Objective To investigate the morbidity and risk factors of backleg pain among fighter and helicopter pilots and to prevent the morbidity of backleg pain.Methods Through examining information of 689 fighter pilots,the morbidity and risk factors of backleg pain among fighter and helicopter pilots were analyzed.Results The morbidity rate of backleg pain among helicopter pilots was 44.2%.The morbidity rate of backleg pain among fighter pilots was 29.9%.The morbidity rate of backleg pain among helicoper pilots was higher than the morbidity rate among fighter pilots( P<0.05) .Conclusion Pay attention to importance to prevent backleg pain among pilots.We must emphasis propaganda,education,psoas training and research about protective device.

  17. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  18. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  19. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  20. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  1. Statistical estimation of aircraft service conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Боузаієнне Меккі бен Салем

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The question of an estimation of aircraft service conditions in airlines with use of statistical methods is considered at the analysis of maintenance programs of a aircrafts park to normative requirements.

  2. 75 FR 922 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records AGENCY: National Transportation... notification and reporting requirements regarding aircraft accidents or incidents. In particular, the NTSB is...

  3. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  4. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the... by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines...

  5. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  6. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model and the Four Point Aircraft (FPA) model. Although they are well...

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  8. THE AIRPORT DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  9. STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF AE DATA FROM AIRCRAFT%机体结构AE信号的统计分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤林; 韩维; 胡国才; 李子尚

    2001-01-01

    对机体结构声发射数据的表征参数进行分析,建立了数据处理的统计模型,并运用该模型分析了某型飞机全机疲劳试验和某现役飞机随机机载声发射监测数据,提出了结构损伤判据,可供实际应用。%AE technique can be used to monitor the formation and development of fatigue cracks in steel structure dynamically and continuously. In this paper, a mathematical statistical model is established by analyzing characteristic parameters of AE data from aircraft. By using it, the authors make a study of AE data from an aircraft during its fatigue test and a fighter structure during its flight. On this basis, a practical damage standard is advanced, which can be applied to judge whether cracks are being formed or developed in an aircraft under given probability. At the end of the paper, the research orientations are given to the establishment of a more general standard.

  10. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  11. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10...

  12. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  13. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has been...

  14. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity of...

  15. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each...

  16. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  17. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102 Section... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ...

  18. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings installed...

  20. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  1. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access to...

  2. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathemat

  3. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  4. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  5. Aircraft Natural/Artificial Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    axial vibration is caused by an oscillator driving a coil in the probe to create a magnetostrictive force. A sensing coil within the probe senses the...Consequence TOP 7-3-537 12 February 2009 C-1 APPENDIX C. ICING TEST SITE SELECTION 1. INTRODUCTION Unlike large fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters

  6. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  7. Design of Aircraft (Selected Chapters),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-22

    al-y, after vowels , and after -, i; e elsewhere. e’,’ v:nwrftten as e 4r. Russian, transliterate as y! or . RUSSIAN AND 0x:,LiSh TRIGONOMETRIC...comfort" and " aesthetics and the controls of aircraft" (see journal "Technical aesthetics ", No 11, 1966 and No 10, 1968). ENDFOOTNOTE. Distance

  8. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  9. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  10. Advanced aircraft electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segrest, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The role of electric energy in both military and commercial aircraft increases in importance with every advancement in airframe performance and avionic technology. Microcircuits and volatile memories impact power continuity and quality, digital flight control and stability augmentation require high reliability. This paper presents the system concept, hardware development and status of the Navy program.

  11. Direct Lightning Strikes to Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    clouds. The aircraft used in this project consisted of a B25 medium bomber and a B17 6 medium .)omber. The main instrumentation used in this project...across the gap fell to less than the breakdown voltage. Damage to the screw was examined by two of the personnel that wit - nessed the actual damage to the

  12. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  13. Work activities and the onset of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwayhid, I A; Stewart, W; Johnson, J V

    1993-03-01

    In a prospective study of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters, a total of 115 cases and 109 randomly selected controls were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and July 1989 to examine the role of recent work activities in the onset of first-time low back pain. After adjusting for known risk factors and off-duty activities, statistically significant high-risk work activities included operating a charged hose inside a building (odds ratio (OR) = 3.26), climbing ladders (OR = 3.18), breaking windows (OR = 4.45), cutting structures (OR = 6.47), looking for hidden fires (OR = 4.32), and lifting objects > or = 18 kg (OR = 3.07). Low-risk activities included connecting hydrants to pumpers (OR = 0.36), pulling booster hose (OR = 0.19), and participating in drills (OR = 0.09) or physical training (OR = 0.16). When further adjusted for exposure to smoke (OR = 13.59), a surrogate for severity of alarms, the ORs associated with high-risk activities were no longer significant. This, however, does not diminish the role of activities in the onset of low back pain. Instead, it suggests an inseparable role for activities and environmental hazards. To examine this, the risk of low back pain was measured within five work zones sequential in time relative to location and distance from a structural fire. The risk gradually increased as the fire fighter moved away from the firehouse (OR = 0.10) and closer to the site of fire (OR = 3.91).

  14. An Active Smart Material Control System for F/A-18 Buffet Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Moses, Robert W.; Huttsell, Lawrence J.; Harrand, Vincent J.

    2003-01-01

    The vertical tail buffet problem of fighter aircraft occurs at high angles of attack when the vortical flow breaks down ahead of the vertical tails resulting in unsteady and unbalanced pressure loads on the vertical tails. The buffet loads imposed upon the vertical tails resulted in a premature fatigue failure of the tails, and consequently limits the performance and super maneuverability of twin-tail fighter aircraft. An active smart material control system using distributed piezoelectric actuators has been developed for buffet alleviation and is presented. The inboard and outboard surfaces of the vertical tail are equipped with piezoelectric actuators to control the buffet responses in the first bending and torsion modes. The electrodynamics of the piezoelectric actuators are expressed with a three-dimensional finite-element model. A single-input-single-output controller is designed to drive the active piezoelectric actuators. High-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis modules for the fluid dynamics, structure dynamics, electrodynamics of the piezoelectric actuators, control law, fluid structure interfacing, and grid motion are integrated into a multidisciplinary computing environment that controls the temporal synchronization of the analysis modules. At 30 degree angle of attack, RMS values of tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 12%. The peak values of the power spectral density of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 22% in the first bending mode and by as much as 82% in the first torsion mode. The actively controlled piezoelectric actuators were also effective in adding damping at wide range of angles of attack.

  15. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  16. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  17. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science

  18. Aircraft acoustics. II - Cabin noise in passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munin, Anatolii Grigor'evich

    Results of theoretical and experimental studies of cabin noise and noise on the fuselage of passenger aircraft are presented, and methods of noise reduction are discussed. The discussion covers the principal noise sources, such as the gas jet, compressor, turbulent boundary layer, propeller, engine vibration, and air conditioning system. Cabin noise reduction methods discussed include sound and vibration insulation and sound and vibration absorption. Finally, methods for calculating cabin noise are presented.

  19. Following a Military Defeat of ISIS in Syria and Iraq: What Happens Next after the Military Victory and the Return of Foreign Fighters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Speckhard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the struggle against ISIS and the so-called Islamic State, the United States and its allies continue to achieve significant military victories, as evidenced by the ongoing efforts to liberate the city of Mosul in Iraq. What happens next with the returning or migrating foreign fighters and with whatever remains of ISIS’ influence in the digital battle space where up to this point it has been winning? Evidence of the group inspiring, remotely recruiting and directing attacks in Europe and elsewhere, and its continued ability to attract foreign fighters to the actual battlefield makes it clear that ISIS may be losing the ground war in Syria and Iraq but winning in the other areas, especially in the digital battle space. The authors highlight the importance of creating compelling counter-narratives and products that compete with the prolific ISIS online campaigns.

  20. Integrated Mission Precision Attack Cockpit Technology (IMPACT). Phase 1: Identifying Technologies for Air-to-Ground Fighter Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-31

    also used as a "first cut" assessment of thebe oud n hediscussion section. Emphasis technologies. The next set of ratings be found in the presented (see...and control aircraft orbiting a display, giving Jack a real time, accurate,secure update of the enemy ground order of 49 battle . What a quantum leap...CAS aircraft were multiple friendly and enemy forces are intermixed (tanks on battle field), but for long distant deliveries of advanced weapons from

  1. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  2. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  3. Electrochromic windows - Applications for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Caroline S.; Greenberg, Charles B.

    1989-04-01

    A transparent, solid-state, electrochromic device is described. It demonstrates deep switching in the near infrared and visible spectral regions and good room temperature cycling stability. The response appears reasonably uniform over a 14 cm x 28 cm area, which gives hope for achieving large parts for cockpit and cabin windows. The reversible darkening of the transparency, controlled by an applied voltage or current, has potential application in aircraft to reduce glare and solar heat load to pilots and passengers. The active material in the device is a thin tungsten oxide film which is incorporated into a complex, multilayered structure, essentially that of a transparent battery. The performance of the window is discussed in terms of its configuration, its similarities with commercial batteries and issues critical to aircraft.

  4. CID Aircraft slap-down

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  5. CID Aircraft slap-down

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  6. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  7. 改装体检直升机与歼击机飞行员听力分析%Comparative Analysis of Audiology Data in Pilots Under Physical Examination for Modification to Equipment of High Performance Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊巍; 徐先荣; 刘玉华; 郑军; 翟丽红

    2011-01-01

    Objective Compare and analyze the audiology data (PTA'and DPOAE) in pilots under physical examination for modification to equipment of high performance aircrafts,in order to get preliminary understanding of hearing difference of the pilots from types of aircraft. Methods We collected the audiology data of 82 pilots who accepted physical examination for modification to equipment of high performance aircraft in our hospital. Eighty- two cases were divided into two groups according to the type of aircraft (41 cases in helicopter group and 41 cases in fighter group). We investigated the difference of PTA(250~8 kHz)and DPOAE(1~8 kHz)results between these two groups. Results All the pilots got the flying qualification for the high performance aircraft. In all the tested frequency, binaural average hearing threshold and DPOAE amplitude were within the normal range. The PTA difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. At 3 kHz and 4 kHz, the difference of right ear DPOAE amplitude between the two groups was statistically significant, but had no clinical significance. The incidence of abnormal high frequency PTA between the two groups had no statistically significant difference. But the incidence of abnormal high frequency DPOAE had statistically significant difference. There was a higher incidence of abnormal high frequency DPOAE in fighter pilots. Conclusion There were no significant differences in hearing between the helicopter and fighter pilots under physical examination for modification to equipment of high performance. But in fighter pilots more likely had potential hearing loss. This may be related to the stronger protection awareness in helicopter pilots.%目的 比较改装体检直升机与歼击机飞行员听力学检查结果,初步了解不同机种飞行员的听力差异.方法 对进行改装体检的直升机和歼击机飞行员各41名进行纯音听阈和畸变产物耳声发射检查,比较两组结果.结果 根据《中

  8. Aircraft Derived Data Validation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    to be equipped with Flight Management Systems (FMSs) that use sophisticated digital computers to assist pilots, allowing them to fly more fuel...some basic data is prepared. These include calculations of aircraft position projeted on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, and...Administration FMS Flight Management System GA General Aviation NextGen Next Generation Air Transportation System NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence

  9. Aircraft Attitude Awareness Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    o s , C a l i f o r n i a with h i s w i fe Carol and t’m teenags daughzers and is a c t i v e i n a number o f l o c a l a c t i * r i...Memorandum 3 8 1 ) . Culver City, CA: Hughes Aircraft Company. - Roscoe, S . N . , Hasler , S.G., and Dougherty, D.J. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . Flight by

  10. Static Aeroelasticity in Combat Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Simulation Maneuverability Performance System Integration Design Load Spectren FIG. 1 HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT DESIGN Simulation has a great potential...Aeroelasticity has also a great effect on the flight control system design. If the basic control powers are reduced by increasing dynamic pressure...Components Flight Envelope Structure Concept a Total Aircraf Analysis FIG, 2 BASIC DATAS FOR AEROELASTIC DESIGN STUDIES Aeroelastic activities are now devided

  11. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  12. Ergonomics evaluation method of fighter cockpit%战斗机座舱人机工效评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文; 余隋怀; 刘国昌; 王文军

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种基于灰色系统理论多属性群决策方法的战斗机座舱人机工效评价方法,通过建立战斗机驾驶座舱人机工效评价体系,研究了人的因素和机的因素,在对战斗机座舱人机工效分析的基础上,确定了评价因素,建立合适的评价指标体系,结合上述方法确定了合理的评价步骤,并进行了推理和验证。%This paper proposes a fighter cockpit ergonomics evaluation based on gray system theory of multi-attribute group decision making, through studying the factors of mechanisms and human, in order to establish an ergonomics evalu-ation system of the fighter cockpit. Based on the analysis of the fighter cockpit ergonomics, it determines the evaluation factors, then establishes an evaluation system and puts forward reasonable evaluation steps. An illustrative example is given.

  13. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  14. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  15. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  16. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.15 Detaining an aircraft...

  17. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight except...

  18. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013... for Subsonic Engines'', in the third column, in the last row, the entry ``rO > 26.7'' is corrected...

  19. Aircraft Survivability. Susceptibility Reduction. Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    to determine the degree of control available with manual manipulation of engine throttles for various transport aircraft. Simulations included...Boeing 727, 737, 747, 757, 767, 777, MD-11, MD-90, C-17, and Airbus A320 and A300 transport aircraft. Preliminary missile impact effects were...shown, for most aircraft tested, that using only manual TOC it is very difficult to make a safe runway landing due to difficulty in controlling the

  20. Visualization of Aircraft Longitudinal-Axis Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Kvasnica

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the use of continuous mathematical models of an aircraft in an aircraft simulator is described. The models are of lower degree and less time-consuming for calculation. Computer implementation of the models capable to work faster and more accurately and efficiently is also described. The suggested approach allows to achieve the required precision at accelerated simulation speed using the continuous mathematical models of an aircraft. Frequency of the computation of continuous ma...

  1. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    OpenAIRE

    Yingtao Zuo; Pingjian Chen; Lin Fu; Zhenghong Gao; Gang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO) of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM) is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematic...

  2. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  3. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of predicting rotary wing operation maintenance costs by using several aircraft design factors for the aircraft dynamic systems. The dynamic systems considered were engines, drives and transmissions, rotors, and flight controls. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate aircraft design and operational factors with manhours per flight hour, and equations for each dynamic system were developed. Results of labor predictions using the equations compare favorably with actual values.

  4. 303例歼击机飞行员骨科病症谱分析%Contrastive analysis of orthopaedic disease spectrum in 303 fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱克顺; 潘庆联; 徐先荣; 郑军; 张恒; 张雷; 王勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨歼-5、歼-6,歼-7、歼-8和高性能战斗机飞行员骨科病症谱的分布规律.方法 对303例歼击机飞行员均进行常规颈、胸、腰椎正侧位及腰椎双斜位计算机X线摄影检查、腰椎CT或MRI扫描,然后进行分类.将303例飞行员按机种分为3组,分析其骨科病症谱,并进行统计学检验. 结果位于前10位的骨科病症分别为椎间盘突出、腰椎峡部裂、骶椎隐形裂、半月板损伤、肌腱损伤或断裂、关节炎、腰肌劳损、骨折、许莫结节和腰椎楔形变.3组飞行员骨科病症构成比比较,差异无统计学上的显著性意义(x2=-0.202~2.115,P>0.05). 结论歼击机飞行员的骨科病症以脊柱和运动系统病变为主,对其原因进行分析有助于提高航卫保障质量.%Objective To study the changes of orthopaedic disease spectrum in fighter pilots.Methods Three hundred and three pilots were checked by computer radiography, CT or MRI in their spine. The pilots were divided into 3 groups according to fighter types. The disease spectrum of orthopaedics was analysed in 303 fighter pilots. Results The first 10 diagnoses in disease spectrum of 303 pilots were intervertebral disc hernia, bilateral spondylolysis of lumbar vertebra, sacroschysis,meniscus injuries, tendon injuries or broken, osteoarthritis, lumbar muscle injuries, fractures,schmorl nodes and lumbar compression changes. The differences of orthopaedic disease spectrum among 3 fighter pilot groups were non-significant (x2=0. 202~2. 115, P>0.05). Conclusion The disease spectrum of orthopaedics in 303 fighter pilots is mainly in spinal and sports system. To analyse the cause of the changes may improve the quality of aviation medical service.

  5. 新型歼击机飞行员健康状况随访分析%Follow-up data about health status in pilots of new fighters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红巾; 徐先荣; 程军; 李金花; 崔彩娟; 孙娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the health status in pilots of new fighters during 2005- 2010. Methods One hundred and sixteen pilots of new fighters were followed up and their diseases affecting their health were analyzed. Results Thirty-five diseases, such as cervical and lumbar lesions, fissure at isthmus of lumbar vertebra, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, were detected in 37 pilots of modified fighters at physical examination. Fifty diseases, such as sport wounds, fatty liver, acceleration intolerance, were diagnosed in 79 pilots of new fighters. Of the 116 pilots, 3 died, while 20 were defined as unqualified, 11 as temporally unqualified, and 82 as qualified. Conclusion Wounds of athletic sports should be prevented, metabolic dysfunction and acceleration intolerance should be actively corrected, and special attention should be paid to the prevention of fatal flight illusion in pilots of new fighters.%目的 了解2005-2010年间新型歼击机飞行员的健康状况.方法 随访新型歼击机飞行员的健康状况116名,对其病症进行分析.结果 37名35种病症为改装体检时发现,主要为颈腰椎病变、腰椎椎弓峡部裂、血脂异常、脂肪肝等;79名50种病症为飞新机型后所患,主要为运动外伤、脂肪肝、加速度耐力不良等.3名死亡,20名飞行不合格,11名暂时飞行不合格,85名飞行合格.结论 应注意预防运动外伤的发生、矫治代谢异常及加速度耐力不良等,特别要注意防范严重飞行错觉.

  6. Changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity during cognitive task-induced cerebral fatigue in high performance fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that sustained cognitive tasks can induce cognitive fatigue and that the mean cerebral blood flow velocity changes in some cerebral regions during cerebral fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically monitor the changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in different brain regions of high performance fighter pilots during mental arithmetic tasks and consecutive performance tasks. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present neurophysiological trial, based on controlled observation, was performed at the Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Institute of Aviation Medicine, Air Force of China between January 2003 and December 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five males, high performance fighter pilots, averaging (27.6 ± 2.5) years, were recruited for this study. METHODS: The mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery of subjects was dynamically tested using transcranial Doppler during 5- hour mental arithmetic tasks and during 5- hour consecutive performance tasks. The neurobehavioral ability index was analyzed throughout each trial according to the number of correct responses, false responses, and lost responses. Simultaneously, cerebral cognitive fatigue-induced lethargy was assessed by the Stanford Sleepiness Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery; neurobehavioral ability index of mental arithmetic and consecutive performance tasks; Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores. RESULTS: During mental arithmetic tasks, the mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery increased during hour 2 and decreased after hour 4. There was no significant change in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery. During hour 4, cerebral cognitive fatigue was observed and, simultaneously, Stanford Sleepiness

  7. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  8. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  9. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  10. 75 FR 50865 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. Comments We gave the public the opportunity...

  11. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certificated in the United States. However, the Model 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You...

  12. 76 FR 40219 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Rotax Aircraft Engines Mandatory Service Bulletin SB-912-058 SB-914-041, dated April 15, 2011, listed in... 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review...

  13. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft...

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  15. 75 FR 35329 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue... addition, the NTSB is correcting a footnote because the NTSB no longer has a regional office in Parsippany... NPRM titled ``Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

  16. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the

  17. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that technical... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 RIN 2120-AF57 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the...

  18. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical.... SUMMARY: This amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... 33--AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues...

  19. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the util

  20. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  1. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.

  2. Effect of Target-type Thrust Reverser on Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single-engine Fighter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swihert, John M

    1958-01-01

    A brief investigation of a target-type thrust reverser on a single-engine fighter model has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.05.At Mach numbers of 0.80, 0.92, and 1.05, a hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was operated with the thrust reverser extended. The angle of attack was varied from 0 degrees to 5 degrees at these Mach numbers. The Reynolds number of the free stream, based on the mean aerodynamic chord, was about 5 x 10(6). It was estimated that reversed jet operations separated the model boundary-layer flow over the upper surface of the horizontal tail and upper part of the afterbody. This resulted in a positive pitch increment due to reversed jet operation. Jet-on operation also tended to stabilize the severe lateral oscillations which occurred with the reverser extended and the jet off. It appeared that these jet-off oscillations were the result of an alternating separation and reattachment of the flow on the rearmost portions of the fuselage afterbody.

  3. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  4. Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard; Barnes, Laura; Fields, MaryAnne

    2010-04-01

    This paper introduces a concept towards integrating manned and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional team though the design and implementation of 3-D distributed formation/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. This method is designed to minimize user input for team control, dynamically modify formations as required, utilize standard operating formations to reduce pilot resistance to integration, and support splinter groups for surveillance and/or as safeguards between potential threats and manned vehicles. The proposed work coordinates UAS members by utilizing artificial potential functions whose values are based on the state of the unmanned and manned assets including the desired formation, obstacles, task assignments, and perceived intentions. The overall unmanned team geometry is controlled using weighted potential fields. Individual UAS utilize fuzzy logic controllers for stability and navigation as well as a fuzzy reasoning engine for flight path intention prediction. Approaches are demonstrated in simulation using the commercial simulator X-Plane and controllers designed in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments include trail and right echelon formations as well as splinter group surveillance.

  5. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  6. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  7. Aircraft with Forward Sweeping T-Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft includes a propulsor supported within an aft portion of the fuselage. A thrust reverser is supported proximate the propulsor for redirecting thrust forward to slow the aircraft upon landing. A tail extending from the aft portion of the fuselage is angled forward away from the aft portion and out of the discharge of airflow from the thrust reverser.

  8. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  9. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  10. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; or (iii) is in an area that is marked by obstruction lights; (3) Anchor an aircraft unless the aircraft— (i) Has lighted anchor lights; or (ii) Is in an area where anchor lights are not required on vessels; or (b) Operate an aircraft that is equipped with an anticollision light system, unless it...

  11. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  12. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  13. Trajectory Control for Very Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    total airspeed and the classic aircraft longitudinal , lateral, and vertical velocity components are u positive out the nose, v positive out the right...wing flexibility is a secondary and minimal contribution to aircraft longitudinal motion. Using this assumption and the previous assumptions of

  14. A Wind Tunnel Captive Aircraft Testing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    Flight/Wind Tunnel Correlation of Aircraft Longitudinal Motion ....................................... 14 10. Fright/Wind Tunnel Correlation of...I 2 3 4 5 6 T IME, s e c Figure 9. Flight/wind tunnel correla- tion of aircraft longitudinal motion. ’ D A n ~ v i i i | ~ 0 0 - 4 0

  15. Maintenance of air worthiness of aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Горячев

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Described are modem conditions of operation of Russian civil aviation, state of aircraft stock, the main principles of maintaining air worthiness of airplanes and helicopters. Considered is a stage by stage prolongation of the service life of each specimen of aircraft with certification being obligatory

  16. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR...

  17. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII....

  18. Noise Control in Propeller-Driven Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical model predicts noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at mach 0.8. Double wall sidewalls minimize interior noise and weight. Model applied to three aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide-body, narrow-body, and small-diameter) to determine noise reductions required to achieve A-weighted sound level not to exceed 80 dB.

  19. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  20. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  1. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  2. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  3. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    An aircraft turn-round refers to the set of processes taking place from when an aircraft parks at its arrival stand until the time it departs from its departure stand. When handling a turn-round, the different processes involved (arrival, disembarkation of passengers, cleaning, etc.) require...... different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources...... to handle a given set of aircraft turn-rounds. We develop a set packing-based model formulation of the problem which is both flexible in the sense that it can encapsulate any type of resource required during the handling of a turn-round and strong in the sense that conflicts that occur when two or more turn...

  4. Partially Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose electric drive specific power, electric drive efficiency, and electrical propulsion fraction as the key performance parameters for a partially turboelectric aircraft power system and to investigate their impact on the overall aircraft performance. Breguet range equations for a base conventional turbofan aircraft and a partially turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the partially turboelectric system are enumerated. A break even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency, for a given electrical propulsion fraction, that can preserve the range, fuel weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the conventional aircraft. Current and future power system performance is compared to the required performance to determine the potential benefit.

  5. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  6. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  7. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously...

  8. Euler Technology Assessment for Preliminary Aircraft Design: Compressibility Predictions by Employing the Cartesian Unstructured Grid SPLITFLOW Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Dennis B.; Karman, Steve L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the second phase of the Euler Technology Assessment program was to evaluate the ability of Euler computational fluid dynamics codes to predict compressible flow effects over a generic fighter wind tunnel model. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems, using an in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaption of the volume grid during the solution to resolve high-gradient regions. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles-of-attack. The transonic pressure prediction capabilities of SPLITFLOW are shown to be improved over subsonic comparisons. The time required to generate the results from initial surface data is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  9. Comparison of head-steered and aircraft-fixed infrared imagery for employing the AGM-65 Maverick missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Robert K.; Wells, Maxwell J.; Meador, Douglas P.

    1995-05-01

    Eight veteran USAF fighter pilots, experienced with AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missiles, flew a night, low-level ground attack mission in a flight simulator equipped with a helmet-mounted display (HMD). The mission was performed by delivering five Maverick missiles against ground vehicles using either an aircraft-fixed forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor image on a head-up display (HUD) or a head-steered FLIR as the missile aiming device. Additionally, the pilots employed their weapons by two methods: fixing and launching missiles singly or in varying numbers (multiple method). The purpose of the experiment was to determine what, if any, advantage there is to employing the AGM-65 using the HMD FLIR image to slew the missile seeker onto the target versus the conventional method of using the FLIR image displayed on the HUD. With a head-steered sensor (and fixing and launching weapons singly) subjects released their weapons quicker (14.6 second interval between launches vs. 17.1 sec.), at a higher altitude (1739 feet vs. 1603 ft.), and slightly farther from the target (3.42 nautical miles vs. 3.37 nm). Furthermore, data indicated the pilots looked farther off-boresight when searching for and locking the weapon onto a target, thereby more effectively using the full field-of-regard of the missile seeker. The participants also contributed their opinions of the advantages and disadvantages of the two mechanizations.

  10. H-infinity based integrated flight-propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bright, Michelle M.; Ouzts, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from an application of H-infinity control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft in transition flight. The overall design methodology consists of a centralized IFPC controller design with controller partitioning. Only the feedback controller design portion of the methodology is addressed. Design and evaluation vehicle models are summarized, and insight is provided into formulating the H-infinity control problem such that it reflects the IFPC design objectives. The H-infinity controller is shown to provide decoupled command tracking for the design model. The controller order could be significantly reduced by modal residualization of the fast controller modes without any deterioration in performance. A discussion is presented of the areas in which the controller performance needs to be improved, and ways in which these improvements can be achieved within the framework of an H-infinity based linear control design.

  11. Strategic Implications of U.S. Fighter Force Reductions: Air-to-Air Combat Modeling Using Lanchester Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    and ensure air dominance is ours for the future generations ahead. 69 Bibliography Anderson, Eric C. and Jeffrey G. Engstrom. Capabilities... Sheppard , Chris. “The F-35 and Legacy Aircraft: The Case of the F-16 (Part 1).” Second Line of Defense. March 2010a. 71 -----. “The

  12. System Design for Transitional Aircraft Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P.T. Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force and industry are undergoing significant changes in the way they work together in capability enhancement programs. There are capability gaps in maintaining and supporting current obligations during major asset acquisition, which has migrated into the front line of Royal Air Force Fighter Groups as a new capability. This paper examines a steady state support solution and argues that in order to interchange from one support solution to a new architecture there must be a period for transition, which may need its own interim business model and operational service. A preliminary study of several existing support solutions reveals the generic elements that need to be parameterized and traced through the support system architecture trajectory.

  13. Aircraft measurements of wave cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free wave clouds made at temperatures greater than −5 °C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15–45 μm. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. A new definition of a mountain-wave cloud is given, based on the measurements presented here and previous studies. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and clouds.

  14. SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, R.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential

  15. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  16. Quasi-periodic dynamics of a high angle of attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohith, G.; Sinha, Nandan K.

    2017-01-01

    High angle of attack maneuvers closer to stall is a commonly accessed flight regime especially in case of fighter aircrafts. Stall and post-stall dynamics are dominated by nonlinearities which make the analysis difficult. Presence of external factors such as wind makes the system even more complex. Rich nonlinearities point to the possibility of existence of chaotic solutions. Past studies in this area confirm the development of such solutions. These studies are mainly concentrated on very high angle of attack regimes, which may not be practically easily accessible. This paper examines the possibility of existence of chaotic solutions in the lower, more accessible areas in the post stall domain. The analysis is composed of the study of effect of external wind as an agent to drive the system towards the possibility of a chaotic solution. Investigations reveal presence of quasi-periodic solutions, which are characterized by two incommensurate frequencies. This solution appears in the time simulation by varying the control parameter viz., wind. The solutions correspond to the values in the lower region of the angle of attack versus elevator bifurcation curve in the post-stall region. A steady wind is considered for the analysis and explores the possibility of chaotic motion by increasing the wind in a step wise manner. It is found that wind adds extra energy to the system which in turn drives the system in to chaos. The analysis is done with the help of phase portrait, Poincare map and amplitude spectrum and a quasi-periodic route to chaos via torus doubling is also presented.

  17. 输尿管软镜在单座歼击机飞行员肾脏小结石治疗中的应用%Flexible ureteroscopy application in the treatment of small kidney stones in single-seat fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建业; 严景民; 刘红明; 孙斌; 郭和清; 王建昌; 周高标; 穆大为; 姚志勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of flexible ureteroscopy in the treatment of small kidney stones in single-seat fighter pilots.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records and follow-up data of 3 male single-seat fighter pilots (respectively aged 23,25 and 27 yr),who accepted flexible ureteroscopy diagnosis and treatment for small kidney stones in our hospital from December 2009 to April 2012.Results There were 1 case of small stone in left kidney and 2 in right.The CT scan showed that the lengths of the stones were ranged from 0.2-0.4 cm.All stone cases were diagnosed in annual health examination.Neither flank pain,urinary irritation symptoms nor visible hematuria was found in all patients.By means of flexible ureteroscopy,2 patients were diagnosed as renal papilla calcifications and 1 was diagnosed as kidney stone accompany with renal papilla calcification.The kidney stone was shattered by the holmium laser.3 patients recovered well and were permitted to fly.The 6-22 months follow-up indicated that all patients flied safely and the recheck of CT scan showed that the renal papilla calcification did not change anymore.Conclusions Flexible ureteroscopy is a safe and effective therapeutic method for treating small kidney stones in single-seat fighter pilots.It can help the pilots recovering to flight,then avoiding pilot grounding or aircraft transition.%目的 观察输尿管软镜治疗单座歼击机飞行员肾脏小结石的疗效. 方法 回顾分析2009年12月至2012年4月我院采用输尿管软镜诊疗的3例单座歼击机飞行员肾脏小结石患者病历资料及随访情况. 结果 患者均为男性,年龄分别为23岁、25岁及27岁.左肾结石1例,右肾结石2例,术前CT提示结石长径0.2~0.4 cm.3例患者均为年度体检行超声检查时发现,无腰腹疼痛、尿路刺激症状及肉眼血尿.3例患者行输尿管软镜检查,其中2例明确为肾乳头钙化,未行特殊干预;1例为肾脏小结石合

  18. Aircraft Attitude Control by Fuzzy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio; Matsuba, Takashi

    The fuzzy control law to improve dutch roll characteristics of aircraft was designed and its control performance was evaluated. First, the control law was designed for a small-high speed aircraft at low altitude and low-speed flight conditions. The control law was then applied to flight conditions from minimum speed to supersonic speed and from sea level to high altitude. The control performance for these conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, this control law was adapted to a large transport aircraft with no parameter changes. The evaluation showed good control performance to improve the dutch roll characteristics under all flight conditions for both small high-speed aircraft and large transport aircraft without the parameter changes. This means that the fuzzy control proved to provide effective flexible application to aircraft stability augmentation. If an aircraft in actual flight is in strong air turbulence, inputs to the fuzzy controller may exceed the limit of its effective range. To cope with this problem, the countermeasures were introduced, their methods tested, and their effectiveness proved.

  19. Simulated flight path control of fighter pilots and novice subjects at +3 Gz in a human centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar; Guardiera, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We have previously shown that subjects produce exaggerated manual forces in +3 Gz. When subjects execute discrete flight path changes in a flight simulator, their performance is less stable in +3 Gz than in +1 Gz. Here we explore whether Gz-related deficits are found with continuous flight path changes. Novice subjects and fighter pilots sat in a high-fidelity flight simulator equipped with the reproduction of the Eurofighter 2000 cockpit, including the realistic flight stick, and pursued continuous altitude changes of a target airplane in +1 Gz and +3 Gz. Subjects also produced verbal responses in a Stroop task. Pursuit and Stroop tasks were administered alone and concurrently. Flight instability increased in +3 Gz compared to +1 Gz in novices (+46%), but not in pilots (+3%), and even there only during the first minute. Flight performance improved after the first minute in both subject groups. Stroop reaction time was higher in novices (+5.27%) than in pilots (+3.77%) at +3 Gz. Dual-task costs did not differ between groups or Gz levels. Deficits of force production in high Gz are largely compensated for when subjects apply forces to produce a continuously changing flight path. This compensation seems not to require additional cognitive resources and may be achieved by using visual feedback. Force production deficits in high Gz seem to have no appreciable effects on flight performance and cognitive load of experienced pilots using a force-plus-displacement stick in +3 Gz. It remains to be shown whether this conclusion extends to purely isometric sticks and to higher Gz levels.

  20. Preproduction display R&D facility: a framework for developing flexible display systems reducing the war-fighters' load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenhausern, Frederick; Raupp, Gregory B.

    2004-09-01

    There is an ever increasing need for lightweight, flexible, inexpensive integrated systems encompassing displays, sensors, computers, and other electronics to provide unprecedented information capability to a broad range of war-fighters. During the next few years, a team of experts will be engaged in an intensive development program pursuing a two-pronged goal: (1) to integrate and fabricate reflective and emissive systems such as organic light emitting devices on flexible substrates including plastics, and (2) to develop materials and structural platforms that allow flexible backplane electronics to be integrated with ancillaries and display components, as well as to be mass-produced economically. An underlying theme of this effort continues to be leveraging emerging processing techniques, for example a-Si and poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) technologies, but also advanced micro-contact pattern transfer techniques for producing low cost product with molecular structures for combined communication and electronic appliances. The initial technology integration target is a 4" diagonal active matrix QVGA display on conformal plastic substrates. These advanced developments will be realized through a unique collaborative effort between the U.S. Army, Arizona State University (ASU) in close collaboration with its academic partners, and industry partners, who are united in our shared commitment to optimize the necessary production technologies for large area/large scale, low cost, cutting-edge display products and state-of-the-art manufacturing capabilities. The newly formed Flexible Display Center (FDC) at Arizona State University provides a one-of-a-kind environment fully dedicated to fulfill the major technical challenges not addressed by display manufacturers producing glass-based flat panel displays.

  1. Aircraft emission research within ISTC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedesh, V.; Leut, A.; Boris, S. [Scientific Research Center at the Gromov Flight, Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2001-08-01

    This research is aimed at obtaining experimental data on contamination of the atmosphere by emissions from aircraft engines in cruise flight conditions, to establish and improve models of the physical and chemical processes which take place in the aircraft wake and in the general zone of air traffic corridors. An Su-24 'sounder' aircraft equipped with an air sampling and collection system has been established to obtain the necessary atmospheric samples in flight, and procedures have been developed for performing the research flights. Techniques have also been developed for chemical analysis of the samples. (authors)

  2. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  3. Moving towards a more electric aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero García, Javier Alveiro; Ortega Redondo, Juan Antonio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Romeral Martínez, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Harry Rowe Mimno Award for the March 2007 AESS Magazine Paper: “Moving Towards A More Electric Aircraft” The latest advances in electric and electronic aircraft technologies from the point of view of an "all-electric" aircraft are presented herein. Specifically, we describe the concept of a "more electric aircraft" (MEA), which involves removing the need for on-engine hydraulic power generation and bleed air off-takes, and the increasing use of power electronics in the starter/generation s...

  4. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  5. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  6. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion Three forced landings of Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model...

  7. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an aircraft...

  8. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in § 375.10...

  9. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used to...

  10. 14 CFR 399.43 - Treatment of leased aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of leased aircraft. 399.43... Treatment of leased aircraft. In determining the appropriate treatment of leased aircraft for ratemaking... leased aircraft value (determined on a constructive depreciated basis) in relation to net book value of...

  11. 42 CFR 71.44 - Disinsection of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disinsection of aircraft. 71.44 Section 71.44... Disinsection of aircraft. (a) The Director may require disinsection of an aircraft if it has left a foreign area that is infected with insect-borne communicable disease and the aircraft is suspected of harboring...

  12. 14 CFR 183.27 - Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors...: Privileges § 183.27 Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors. A designated aircraft maintenance inspector (DAMI) may approve maintenance on civil aircraft used by United States military flying clubs in foreign...

  13. 14 CFR 91.1109 - Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1109 Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program. Each program manager must establish an aircraft inspection program for each make and model program aircraft and ensure...

  14. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  15. Innovative Aircraft Design – Options for a New Medium Range Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Task was to find an innovative aircraft design for a new medium range aircraft. The aircraft design methodology is based on equations (in contrast to numeric methods) and formal optimization with a genetic algorithm called differential evolution. Airbus has postponed an all-new A320 to 2025 or even 2030. This allows including also unconventional configurations into the search. Economic requirements are extreme: 25 % to 40 % reduction in fuel consumption, 35 % reduction in Cash Operating Costs...

  16. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  17. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  18. KNMR Aircraft Hangar Invitation to Bid 121575

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invitation to bid on materials, equipment and labor necessary to construct a metal aircraft hangar on Government-furnished concrete foundation at the City Airport,...

  19. Aircraft propulsion systems technology and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oates, Gordon C

    1989-01-01

    ... propulsion technology planned by Gordon C. Gates. Other titles: Aerothermodynamics of gas turbine and rocket propulsion (c!988); Aerothermodynamics of aircraft engine com.ponents (c!985). Includes b...

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems - Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office utilizes UAS technology for collecting remote sensing data on a local scale. Typical UAS projects...

  1. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  2. PLANNING OF TRAINING AIRCRAFT FLIGHT HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Vojvodić Rosenzweig

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the training aircraft causes downtime of operations and thereby reduces the operational availability, which is crucial for flight planning in a training organisation. Manual daily planning within the fleet delivers suboptimal results and often causes discontinued flight of several aircraft that have to be maintained at the same time. Optimal maintenance schedule of training aircraft can be obtained by a sliding scale method. This paper presents a mathematical model of the sliding scale formulated by a mixed integer linear problem. Allocation of flight hours is optimised by using AMPL programming language, assuring that a sufficient number of aircraft are always available for training. The model can be used by a flight dispatch department in a training organisation as a basis for optimised planning and reduction of maintenance downtime.

  3. Aircraft Electronics Maintenance Training Simulator. Curriculum Outlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhawk Technical Coll., Janesville, WI.

    Instructional materials are provided for nine courses in an aircraft electronics maintenance training program. Courses are as follows: aviation basic electricity, direct current and alternating current electronics, basic avionic installations, analog electronics, digital electronics, microcomputer electronics, radio communications, aircraft…

  4. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  5. Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

  6. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  7. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  8. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  9. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  10. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  11. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  12. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  13. Final Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment Joint Strile Fighter System Development and Demonstration Developmental Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    daily maximum. j. The Federal secondary standard to protect the public welfare is 1,300 µg/m3. A geographic area where the air quality meets the...four species of cetaceans have been identified from sightings or strandings in the SCB. These include 26 species of odontocetes (toothed whales...and Welfare , Chapter 85 Air Pollution Prevention and Control. AESO 1990. AESO 6-90 Aircraft Environmental Support Office (AESO). “Summary Tables

  14. Static Aeroelastic Effects on High Performance Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    store/aircraft integration is also discussed. Finally, the correction of high-speed wind-tunnel model results for aeroelastic distortion is addressed...sideslip, inertia, The variation of rigid non-dimensional lift distribution with aircraft incidence, Integrated , represents C and C_ and hence C/C , which...et de manoeuvre prennent dans la base de donnLe atrodynamique la table correspondante, A 1 incidence et au bra- quage calculO (Processus it~ratif

  15. Handling Qualities Evaluations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Control Loop – Manned Platform Ai rc ra ft Pilot Flight Computer Control Surface Deflection Aircraft Response Inertia Measurements Visual Cues Aural...dynamics, ergonomics in the control station, and the control surfaces and actuators in the air- craft. The software may contain displays, behaviors...compare with the latency of manned aircraft that exhibit imperceptible time delays, usually less than 5 millisec- onds , which is considered a minimum

  16. An Optimization Model for Aircraft Service Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus; Cheung; W; H; Ip; Angel; Lai; Eva; Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Scheduling is one of the most difficult issues in t he planning and operations of the aircraft services industry. In this paper, t he various scheduling problems in ground support operation of an aircraft mainte nance service company are addressed. The authors developed a set of vehicle rout ings to cover each schedule flights; the objectives pursued are the maximization of vehicle and manpower utilization and minimization of operation time. To obta in the goals, an integer-programming model with geneti...

  17. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  18. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by...Vore Aviation Corporation in Albuquerque, NM. It is a high-wing, composite , tricycle-gear aircraft designed primarily for the training and personal

  19. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.