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Sample records for twin siblings case

  1. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

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    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  2. Associations Between Sibling Relationship Quality and Friendship Quality in Early Adolescence: Looking at the Case of Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkhus, Mona; Brendgen, Mara; Czajkowski, Nikolai O; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Bidirectional pathways between twin relationship quality and friendship quality were investigated in a large longitudinal twin cohort. We examined negative and positive relationship features in 313 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 238 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins from ages 13 to 14 years, using latent structural modeling. Results showed stronger stability of the twin relationship quality compared to friendship quality. Positive features in the sibling relationship were associated with increased positive features in the relationship with the best friend a year later. In contrast, no significant association between negative sibling relationship features and change in negative friendship quality features was found. These findings speak to the important role of the sibling relationship in the development of good quality friendship relations in twins.

  3. Using Twins to Better Understand Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katharine M; Pike, Alison; Latham, Rachel M; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-03-01

    We compared the nature of the sibling relationship in dyads of varying genetic relatedness, employing a behavioural genetic design to estimate the contribution that genes and the environment have on this familial bond. Two samples were used-the Sisters and Brothers Study consisted of 173 families with two target non-twin children (mean ages = 7.42 and 5.22 years respectively); and the Twins, Family and Behaviour study included 234 families with two target twin children (mean age = 4.70 years). Mothers and fathers reported on their children's relationship with each other, via a postal questionnaire (the Sisters and Brothers Study) or a telephone interview (the Twins, Family and Behaviour study). Contrary to expectations, no mean level differences emerged when monozygotic twin pairs, dizygotic twin pairs, and non-twin pairs were compared on their sibling relationship quality. Behavioural genetic analyses also revealed that the sibling bond was modestly to moderately influenced by the genetic propensities of the children within the dyad, and moderately to substantially influenced by the shared environment common to both siblings. In addition, for sibling negativity, we found evidence of twin-specific environmental influence-dizygotic twins showed more reciprocity than did non-twins. Our findings have repercussions for the broader application of results from future twin-based investigations.

  4. The Project TALENT Twin and Sibling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Carol A; Achorn, Deanna Lyter; Kaiser, Ashley; Mitchell, Lindsey; McArdle, John J; Lapham, Susan J

    2013-02-01

    Project TALENT is a US national longitudinal study of about 377,000 individuals born in 1942-1946, first assessed in 1960. Students in about 1,200 schools participated in a 2-day battery covering aptitudes, abilities, interests, and individual and family characteristics (Flanagan, 1962; www.projectTALENT.org). Follow-up assessments 1, 5, and 11 years later assessed educational and occupational outcomes. The sample includes approximately 92,000 siblings from 40,000 families, including 2,500 twin pairs and 1,200 other siblings of twins. Until recently, almost no behavior genetic research has been conducted with the sample. In the original data collection information was not collected with the intent to link family members. Recently, we developed algorithms using names, addresses, birthdates, and information about family structure to link siblings and identify twins. We are testing several methods to determine zygosity, including use of yearbook photographs. In this paper, we summarize the design and measures in Project TALENT, describe the Twin and Sibling sample, and present our twin-sib-classmate model. In most twin and family designs, the 'shared environment' includes factors specific to the family combined with between-family differences associated with macro-level variables such as socioeconomic status. The school-based sampling design used in Project TALENT provides a unique opportunity to partition the shared environment into variation shared by siblings, specific to twins, and associated with school- and community-level factors. The availability of many measured characteristics on the family, schools, and neighborhoods enhances the ability to study the impact of specific factors on behavioral variation.

  5. Twins and non-twin siblings: different estimates of shared environmental influence in early childhood.

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    Koeppen-Schomerus, Gesina; Spinath, Frank M; Plomin, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Twin studies typically indicate shared environmental influence for cognitive abilities, especially in early childhood. However, across studies, DZ twin correlations tend to be greater than non-twin sibling correlations, suggesting that twin estimates of shared environment are to some extent specific to twins. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of more than 1800 MZ and 1800 same-sex DZ pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a study of twins born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. For this analysis, we obtained comparable data from more than 130 same-sex younger siblings of the twins. Twins and their younger siblings were assessed for language, cognitive abilities and behavior problems by their parents at 2 and 3 years of age. For language and cognitive measures at both 2 and 3 years, but not for behavior problems, estimates of shared environment were more than twice as large for twins as compared to non-twin siblings. We conclude that about half of twin study estimates of shared environment for cognitive abilities in early childhood are specific to twins. Although many possibilities exist for explaining the special shared environment effect for twins, we suggest that cognitive-relevant experiences that are not shared by siblings are shared by twins because they are exactly the same age.

  6. Ocular manifestations of Noonan syndrome in twin siblings: A case report of keratoconus with acute corneal hydrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular manifestations of Noonan syndrome (NS in a set of healthy 20-year-old African-American fraternal twins are reported with emphasis on a rare finding of keratoconus with acute corneal hydrops in one twin. Both the twins had learning disabilities and attended a special needs school. Evaluation included visual acuity assessment, tonometry and external eye, slit lamp and dilated fundus examinations, topography with Pentacam and external photographs. The first case was more remarkable as keratoconus with acute corneal hydrops was observed. The patient presented with severe cloudy vision that had worsened over a span of 1 month. It improved significantly on follow-up. The second case included a unique constellation of ocular pathology that highlights the diversity of NS manifestations even amongst twins. Conservative treatment of keratoconus with acute corneal hydrops in a NS patient helped largely resolve the patient′s condition. We report the diverse spectrum of ocular manifestations associated with this rare congenital disorder.

  7. Thyroid aplasia in male sibling of heterozygotic twins born to the hyperthyroid mother treated with propylthiouracil during pregnancy (case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzouki, A A

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old pregnant female was diagnosed to have thyrotoxicosis (TSH= 0.005 µU/ml) at 13th week of gestation. Propylthiouracil (PTU; 200 mg daily) was prescribed to her and four weekly follow ups by the endocrinologist and obstetrician were ensured. At each examination TSH, FT4 and FT3 levels were normal and she became symptom free. Repeated ultrasound examination throughout the pregnancy did not reveal any fetal abnormality. The lady normally delivered heterozygotic twins. Umbilical cord blood of the baby boy twin showed a high TSH (541 µU/ml; reference range 0.270 - 4.20 μU/ml). He was started on thyroxine therapy (50 µg once daily). Ultrasound reported the absence of the thyroid gland. One month later TSH was within normal range and thyroxine dose was adjusted to 25 µg once daily. Repeated ultrasound confirmed the absence of thyroid gland. TSH was repeatedly normal. The boy is currently doing well on thyroxine replacement therapy. The other non-identical twin was a healthy girl with normal thyroid function tests and always thereafter. This case report suggested that PTU could be a hazardous drug to the fetus, since the mother gave birth to a baby with thyroid aplasia. PTU, Thyroid aplasia, Thyrotoxicosis, TSH.

  8. A twin sibling with Prader-Willi syndrome caused by type 2 microdeletion following assisted reproductive technology: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Yoon; Park, Joonhong; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

    2016-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral imprinting disorder, which arises due to an absence of paternally expressed genes within the 15q11.2-q13 region. This occurs via one of the three main genetic mechanisms, as follows: Deletion of the paternally inherited 15q11.2-q13 region, maternal uniparental disomy and imprinting defect. Recent studies have reported an association between imprinting disorders and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The current study presents a 6-year-old female patient who is a dizygotic twin, in which one was born with de novo microdeletion at 15q11.2-q13.1 following in vitro fertilization. The patient had characteristic facial features including narrow bifrontal diameter, strabismus, downturned mouth, feeding problems and generalized hypotonia during infancy, developmental delay, mental retardation and rapid weight gain. Based upon phenotypic resemblance and the medical records, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array-based comparative genome hybridization analyses demonstrate type 2 microdeletion between breaking point 2 (BP2) and BP3, which occur from MKRN3 through HERC2 at 15q11.2-q13.1. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report a PWS case born following ART reported in South Korea. In addition to previous studies, the present study contributes to the consensus regarding genotype-phenotype comparisons in this respect.

  9. Familial clustering of major depression and anxiety disorders in Australian and Dutch twins and siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, C.M.; Birley, A.J.; Cath, D.C.; Gillespie, N.A.; Willemsen, G.; Statham, D.J.; Geus, de J.C.N.; Andrews, J.G.; Dyck, van R.; Beem, A.L.; Sullivan, P.F.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate familial influences and their dependence on sex for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and major depression. Data from Australian (N = 2287) and Dutch (N = 1185) twins and siblings who were selected for a linkage

  10. A Twin-Sibling Study on the Relationship Between Exercise Attitudes and Exercise Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Jansen, Iris E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive models of health behavior propose that individual differences in leisure time exercise behavior are influenced by the attitudes towards exercise. At the same time, large scale twin-family studies show a significant influence of genetic factors on regular exercise behavior. This twin–sibling study aimed to unite these findings by demonstrating that exercise attitudes can be heritable themselves. Secondly, the genetic and environmental cross-trait correlations and the monozygot...

  11. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C.; Long, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  12. Monozygotic twins with discordant intestinal rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Vance L.; Nwomeh, Benedict C. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Previous case reports have suggested a strong concordance of intestinal malrotation among identical twins. This has led to the recommendation that the asymptomatic twin undergo screening when malrotation is discovered in the identical sibling. We present a case of monozygotic twins in which one twin presented with intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus while the other twin was found to have normal gastrointestinal anatomy. (orig.)

  13. Smoking status of parents, siblings and friends: Predictors of regular smoking? Findings from a longitudinal twin-family study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between regular smoking behavior and the smoking behavior of parents, siblings and friends was investigated using data from the Netherlands Twin Register. Cross-sectional analyses of data of 3906 twins showed significant associations between smoking behavior of the participant and

  14. Heteropagus twinning on back -- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Bidyut; Biswas, Sumitra Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Heteropagus twins, also called parasitic twins, are malformation of the foetus where the development of one twin is incomplete. They are attached most commonly to the lower chest and upper abdomen. We report a case of heteropagus twin, where the parasite possessed well-formed limb as well as blind ending intestine. It was attached to the back of the host by a broad pedicle. We take this opportunity to classify areas of confusion prevailing regarding twinning, foetus in foetu, teratoma and caudal duplication.

  15. Socio-psycho-historical observation on the twin. Sampling methods and case study of the atomic bomb exposed twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S; Satow, Y; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, M; Kurihara, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-07-01

    The so-called ''twin control study'', mainly on the monozygotic twins one of which was A-bomb exposed and the other was non-exposed were carried out. Sampling was conducted utilizing the materials as follows: 1) The survey on casualities of A-bomb exposed families in Hiroshima which was undertaken in 1946. 2) The survey of A-bomb survivors in 1965. 3) A-bomb exposed family survey conducted between 1973 to 1975. 4) Investigations of A-bomb victims exposed in the proximal areas from the hypocenter. From the above mentioned materials 470 pairs were selected, of which 220 were exposed. Among them 172 pairs were twins of the same sex. Female and male pair were also employed. In one case they were exposed, while the others were nonexposed. Two pairs were examined under the following methods: 1) Depth interview to ascertain familial casualities with reference to the family life cycle. 2) Socio-historical research. 3) Motoaki's Jinkaku Shindan Kensa (Modified Rorschach test by H. Motoaki), and T.A.T. test. Results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) Both pairs of twins were of similar appearance and personality traits, and had a strong feeling of companionship for each other. 2) In family relationships, the persons studied were very conscious of the role expectations of elder and younger siblings in the twin pairs. 3) Through depth interviews and projective tests, A-bomb exposed pairs still showed deep psychological stresses, resulting from the A-bomb disaster. 4) Both among the exposed twins and within the nonexposed control group twin siblings had a close feeling of companionship for each other. However, nonexposed twins could not understand the psychological experience of twins who had been subjected to the atomic disaster.

  16. A twin-sibling study on the relationship between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Jansen, Iris E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive models of health behavior propose that individual differences in leisure time exercise behavior are influenced by the attitudes towards exercise. At the same time, large scale twin-family studies show a significant influence of genetic factors on regular exercise behavior. This twin-sibling study aimed to unite these findings by demonstrating that exercise attitudes can be heritable themselves. Secondly, the genetic and environmental cross-trait correlations and the monozygotic (MZ) twin intrapair differences model were used to test whether the association between exercise attitudes and exercise behavior can be causal. Survey data were obtained from 5,095 twins and siblings (18-50 years). A genetic contribution was found for exercise behavior (50 % in males, 43 % in females) and for the six exercise attitude components derived from principal component analysis: perceived benefits (21, 27 %), lack of skills, support and/or resources (45, 48 %), time constraints (25, 30 %), lack of energy (34, 44 %), lack of enjoyment (47, 44 %), and embarrassment (42, 49 %). These components were predictive of leisure time exercise behavior (R(2) = 28 %). Bivariate modeling further showed that all the genetic (0.36 exercise attitudes and exercise behavior were significantly different from zero, which is a necessary condition for the existence of a causal effect driving the association. The correlations between the MZ twins' difference scores were in line with this finding. It is concluded that exercise attitudes and exercise behavior are heritable, that attitudes and behavior are partly correlated through pleiotropic genetic effects, but that the data are compatible with a causal association between exercise attitudes and behavior.

  17. Progeria in siblings: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sowmiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria, also known as Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, is an extremely rare, severe genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. It is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is not seen in siblings of affected children although there are very few case reports of progeria affecting more than one child in a family. Here we are presenting two siblings, a 14-year-old male and a 13-year-old female with features of progeria, suggesting a possible autosomal recessive inheritance.

  18. Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of Reading Difficulties: DeFries-Fulker Analysis of Reading Performance Data from Twin Pairs and Their Non-Twin Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Raven L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Reading performance data from 254 pairs of identical (MZ) and 420 pairs of fraternal (DZ) twins, 8.0 to 20.0 years of age, were subjected to multiple regression analyses. An extension of the DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis (DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) that facilitated inclusion of data from 303 of their nontwin siblings was employed. In addition to…

  19. On the Incidence of Wise Infrared Excess Among Solar Analog, Twin, and Sibling Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Lima Jr, J. E.; Silva, D. Freire da; Medeiros, J. R. De [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal, RN, 59072-970 (Brazil); Leão, I. C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Freitas, D. B. de, E-mail: dgerson@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    This study presents a search for infrared (IR) excess in the 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μ m bands in a sample of 216 targets, composed of solar sibling, twin, and analog stars observed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission. In general, an IR excess suggests the existence of warm dust around a star. We detected 12 μ m and/or 22 μ m excesses at the 3 σ level of confidence in five solar analog stars, corresponding to a frequency of 4.1% of the entire sample of solar analogs analyzed, and in one out of 29 solar sibling candidates, confirming previous studies. The estimation of the dust properties shows that the sources with IR excesses possess circumstellar material with temperatures that, within the uncertainties, are similar to that of the material found in the asteroid belt in our solar system. No photospheric flux excess was identified at the W1 (3.4 μ m) and W2 (4.6 μ m) WISE bands, indicating that, in the majority of stars of the present sample, no detectable dust is generated. Interestingly, among the 60 solar twin stars analyzed in this work, no WISE photospheric flux excess was detected. However, a null-detection excess does not necessarily indicate the absence of dust around a star because different causes, including dynamic processes and instrument limitations, can mask its presence.

  20. Causes of individual differences in adolescent optimism: a study in Dutch twins and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavioğlu, Rezan Nehir; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent optimism. Optimism (3 items and 6 items approach) and pessimism were assessed by the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) in 5,187 adolescent twins and 999 of their non-twin siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Males reported significantly higher optimism scores than females, while females score higher on pessimism. Genetic structural equation modeling revealed that about one-third of the variance in optimism and pessimism was due to additive genetic effects, with the remaining variance being explained by non-shared environmental effects. A bivariate correlated factor model revealed two dimensions with a genetic correlation of -.57 (CI -.67, -.47), while the non-shared environmental correlation was estimated to be -.21 (CI -.25, -.16). Neither an effect of shared environment, non-additive genetic influences, nor quantitative sex differences was found for both dimensions. This result indicates that individual differences in adolescent optimism are mainly accounted for by non-shared environmental factors. These environmental factors do not contribute to the similarity of family members, but to differences between them. Familial resemblance in optimism and pessimism assessed in adolescents is fully accounted for by genetic overlap between family members.

  1. A national Swedish longitudinal twin-sibling study of criminal convictions from adolescence through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Maes, Hermine H; Morris, Nancy A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    Prior twin and adoption studies have demonstrated the importance of both genetic and shared environmental factors in the etiology of criminal behavior (CB). However, despite substantial interest in life-course theories of CB, few genetically informative studies have examined CB in a developmental context. In 69,767 male-male twin pairs and full-sibling pairs with ≤ 2 years' difference in age, born 1958-1976 and ascertained from the Swedish Twin and Population Registries, we obtained information on all criminal convictions from 1973 to 2011 from the Swedish Crime Register. We fitted a Cholesky structural model, using the OpenMx package, to CB in these pairs over three age periods: 15-19, 20-24, and 25-29. The Cholesky model had two main genetic factors. The first began at ages 15-19 and declined in importance over development. The second started at ages 20-24 and was stable over time. Only one major shared environmental factor was seen, beginning at ages 15-19. Heritability for CB declined from ages 15-29, as did shared environmental effects, although at a slower rate. Genetic risk factors for CB in males are developmentally dynamic, demonstrating both innovation and attenuation. These results are consistent with theories of adolescent-limited and life-course persistent CB subtypes. Heritability for CB did not increase over time as might be predicted from active gene-environmental correlation. However, consistent with expectation, the proportion of variability explained by shared environmental effects declined slightly as individuals aged and moved away from their original homes and neighborhoods.

  2. The Impact of Sibling Sex Composition on Women's Educational Achievements: A Unique Natural Experiment by Twins Gender Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Stacey; Chen, Yen-Chien; Liu, Jin-Tan

    2008-01-01

    In a pro-male biased society, brothers may reduce the parental investment re- ceived by female siblings, if parents face time or financial constraints. But brothers may also cause positive externalities. Using more than 12,000 ¯rstborn twins from a highly sex-imbalanced economy, Taiwan, we test if women have fewer opportunities to attend college if they have a brother rather than a sister. To minimize the prob- lem of sex selection, we exploit the fact that twin sex is random given the sex of...

  3. Parent-child feedback predicts sibling contrast: using twin studies to test theories of parent-offspring interaction in infant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Lindon J; Silberg, Judy L

    2005-02-01

    Several studies report apparent sibling contrast effects in analyses of twin resemblance. In the presence of genetic differences, contrast effects reduce the dizygotic (DZ) twin correlation relative to that in monozygotic (MZ) twins and produce higher DZ than MZ variance. Explanations of contrast effects are typically cast in terms of direct social interaction between twins or an artifact of the process of rating children by their parents. We outline a model for sibling imitation and contrast effects that depends on social interaction between parents and children. In addition to predicting the observed pattern of twin variances and covariances, the parental mediation of child imitation and contrast effects leads to differences in the variance of parents of MZ and DZ twins and differences between the correlations of parents with their MZ and DZ children.

  4. Self-reported sleep quality, weight status and depression in young adult twins and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alexia; Fisher, Abi; Llewellyn, Clare; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Research supporting relationships between sleep quality, weight, depression and anxiety has typically examined the relationships separately rather than simultaneously, potentially hampering insights into the characteristics of reported links. This study aimed to fill this gap in the research to provide further insight into the factors associated with sleep. Data from wave 4 of the G1219 cohort were used in cross-sectional analyses. The sample comprised 1392 adult twins and siblings aged 18-27 years. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of sleep quality, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire as a measure of depression symptoms and the Revised Symptoms of Anxiety Scale as a measure of anxiety symptoms. Participants were asked to self-report general health and weight and height so researchers could derive weight status from measures of body mass index. An analysis of covariance including weight status, depression, anxiety and general health as predictors and sleep quality as the outcome revealed main effects of depression (F(3,1163) = 10.93, p relationship between weight and sleep should not be assumed as it is possible that the relationship is at least in part accounted for by depression symptoms or general health. Depression symptoms and general health may also account for the association between sleep quality and anxiety symptoms in young adults.

  5. Choanal atresia in siblings; Case report | Kaitesi | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choanal atresia is an uncommon and often poorly recognized cause of unilateral or bilateral nasal obstruction. This report describes the case of bilateral choanal atresia in two consecutive siblings and describes the methods of treatment offered.

  6. Genetic and environmental etiologies of reading difficulties: DeFries-Fulker analysis of reading performance data from twin pairs and their nontwin siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Astrom, Raven L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Reading performance data from 254 pairs of identical (MZ) and 420 pairs of fraternal (DZ) twins, 8.0 to 20.0 years of age, were subjected to multiple regression analyses. An extension of the DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis (DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) that facilitated inclusion of data from 303 of their nontwin siblings was employed. In addition to providing estimates of heritability, this analysis yields a test of the difference between shared environmental influences for twins versus sibling...

  7. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis in siblings and monozygotic twins discordant for sporadic Parkinson's disease revealed different epigenetic patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaut, Oliver; Schmitt, Ina; Tost, Jörg; Busato, Florence; Liu, Yi; Hofmann, Per; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Fröhlich, Holger; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have elucidated the genetics of Parkinson's disease; however, the aetiology of the majority of sporadic cases has not yet been resolved. We hypothesized that epigenetic variations could be associated with PD and evaluated the DNA methylation pattern in PD patients compared to brothers or twins without PD. The methylation of DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 62 discordant siblings including 24 monozygotic twins was characterized with Illumina DNA Methylation 450K bead arrays and subsequently validated in two independent cohorts: 221 PD vs. 227 healthy individuals (cohort 1) applying Illumina's VeraCode and 472 PD patients vs. 487 controls (cohort 2) using pyrosequencing. We choose a delta beta of >15 % and selected 62 differentially methylated CpGs in 51 genes from the discordant siblings. Among them, three displayed multiple CpGs per gene: microRNA 886 (MIR886, 10 CpGs), phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D, 2 CpGs) and tripartite motif-containing 34 (TRIM34, 2 CpGs). PDE4D was confirmed in both cohorts (p value 2.44e-05). In addition, for biomarker construction, we used the penalized logistic regression model, resulting in a signature of eight CpGs with an AUC of 0.77. Our findings suggest that a distinct level of PD susceptibility stems from individual, epigenetic modifications of specific genes. We identified a signature of CpGs in blood cells that could separate control from disease with a reasonable discriminatory power, holding promise for future epigenetically based biomarker development.

  8. Genetic Linkage and Association Analysis for Loneliness in Dutch Twin and Sibling Pairs Points to a Region on Chromosome 12q23–24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; Cacioppo, J.T.; Slagboom, P.E.; Posthuma, D.

    2006-01-01

    We obtained evidence from a large study in Dutch twins (N = 8387) and siblings (N = 2295) that variation in loneliness has a genetic component. The heritability estimate for loneliness, which was assessed as an ordinal trait, was 40% and did not differ between males and females. There were 682

  9. Development Genetic Analysis of General Cognitive Ability from 1 to 12 Years in a Sample of Adoptees, Biological Siblings, and Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, E. G.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Corley, Robin; Plomin, Robert; DeFries, John C.; Hewitt, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Studied continuity and change in general cognitive ability from infancy to adolescence in adoptees (107 children), biological siblings (87 pairs), and twins (224 monozygotic and 189 dyzygotic pairs). Findings generally support previous findings about genetic and environmental factors, with the exception that in the transition to adolescence,…

  10. Diecephalic thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report of conjoined twins discovered at 17 weeks gestation on routine trans-abdominal ultrasound in a 27 year old woman. The twins were joined at the chest and upper abdomen. They shared a heart, liver, sternum and diaphragm. The patient opted for termination of the pregnancy which was performed ...

  11. New insights into the endophenotypic status of cognition in bipolar disorder: genetic modelling study of twins and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Anna; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Kane, Fergus; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Kalidindi, Sridevi; Schulze, Katja K; Stahl, Daniel; Walshe, Muriel; Sahakian, Barbara J; McDonald, Colm; Hall, Mei-Hua; Murray, Robin M; Kravariti, Eugenia

    2016-06-01

    Twin studies have lacked statistical power to apply advanced genetic modelling techniques to the search for cognitive endophenotypes for bipolar disorder. To quantify the shared genetic variability between bipolar disorder and cognitive measures. Structural equation modelling was performed on cognitive data collected from 331 twins/siblings of varying genetic relatedness, disease status and concordance for bipolar disorder. Using a parsimonious AE model, verbal episodic and spatial working memory showed statistically significant genetic correlations with bipolar disorder (rg = |0.23|-|0.27|), which lost statistical significance after covarying for affective symptoms. Using an ACE model, IQ and visual-spatial learning showed statistically significant genetic correlations with bipolar disorder (rg = |0.51|-|1.00|), which remained significant after covarying for affective symptoms. Verbal episodic and spatial working memory capture a modest fraction of the bipolar diathesis. IQ and visual-spatial learning may tap into genetic substrates of non-affective symptomatology in bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Heritability, assortative mating and gender differences in violent crime: results from a total population sample using twin, adoption, and sibling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, Thomas; Pawitan, Yudi; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Research addressing genetic and environmental determinants to antisocial behaviour suggests substantial variability across studies. Likewise, evidence for etiologic gender differences is mixed, and estimates might be biased due to assortative mating. We used longitudinal Swedish total population registers to estimate the heritability of objectively measured violent offending (convictions) in classic twin (N = 36,877 pairs), adoptee-parent (N = 5,068 pairs), adoptee-sibling (N = 10,610 pairs), and sibling designs (N = 1,521,066 pairs). Type and degree of assortative mating were calculated from comparisons between spouses of siblings and half-siblings, and across consecutive spouses. Heritability estimates for the liability of violent offending agreed with previously reported heritability for self-reported antisocial behaviour. While the sibling model yielded estimates similar to the twin model (A ≈ 55%, C ≈ 13%), adoptee-models appeared to underestimate familial effects (A ≈ 20-30%, C ≈ 0%). Assortative mating was moderate to strong (r (spouse) = 0.4), appeared to result from both phenotypic assortment and social homogamy, but had only minor effect on variance components. Finally, we found significant gender differences in the etiology of violent crime.

  13. A Twin-Sibling Study on the Relationship Between Exercise Attitudes and Exercise Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huppertz, C.; Bartels, M.; Jansen, I.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.; de Moor, M.H.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive models of health behavior propose that individual differences in leisure time exercise behavior are influenced by the attitudes towards exercise. At the same time, large scale twin-family studies show a significant influence of genetic factors on regular exercise behavior. This

  14. The etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior as determined from full- and half-sibling pairs: an evaluation of the validity of the twin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Lönn, S L; Maes, H H; Sundquist, J; Sundquist, K

    2015-07-01

    Twin studies have shown that criminal behavior (CB) is influenced by both genetic and shared environmental factors. Could these results be replicated using full-siblings and half-siblings? In 911 009 full-siblings reared together (FSRT), 41 872 half-siblings reared together (HSRT) and 52 590 half-siblings reared apart (HSRA), CB was assessed from the Swedish Crime Register. Modeling, including testing for age differences and rearing status, was performed using the OpenMx package. Five sibling models were fitted examining FSRT and HSRT 0-2 years different in age, and both FSRT and HSRT, and FSRT, HSRT and HSRA 0-10 years different in age with and without a specified shared environment indexing age differences. Heritability estimates for CB ranged from 33 to 55% in females and 39 to 56% in males, similar to those found in our prior twin study on the same population. Estimates for the shared environment varied from 1 to 14% in females and 10 to 23% in males, lower than those estimated in the twin study. The specified shared environment indexed by sibling age differences was significant in all models tested. Heritability estimates for CB from full- and half-siblings closely approximated those found from twins in the same population, validating the twin method. Shared environmental estimates were lower, suggesting the presence of shared environmental factors for CB specific to twins. When rearing status can be assessed, full- and half-siblings offer an additional method for assessing the role of genetic and environmental factors in complex disorders. However, age differences in siblings may need to be included in the models.

  15. Spontaneous unilateral Twin Ectopic Pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    هادی اریا منش

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim & Objective: Twin pregnancy in the tube is a few and due to more frequent use of ovulatory medicine and increased maternal mortality rate. In this article, we report a case of  untitled twin ectopic pregnancy. Case study: The pregnant women was a 28 year-old  to had  a  history infertility, PCOD, Abortion and cortege,   too have one 5 years girl by CS and  Mild cramp pain in both abdominal lower quadrants and metroreghia . That have not treatment by projection. The ultra-sonography showed a twin pregnancy uterus with a moderate amount of fluid in pelvic cavity was seen. And do salpanjectimy surgery. Conclusion:  We report one Untitled Spontaneous Twin Ectopic Pregnancy,  is necessary any pregnant woman with  positive BhCG and metrorhoghia must be considered for Ectopic pregnancy. To decrease maternal mortality rate. Key words:

  16. Neurological impairment in a surviving twin following intrauterine fetal demise of the co-twin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, K R; Keegan, K M; Schmidt, J W

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that twin pregnancies are at an increased risk for complications, including the risk of morbidity or mortality for one or both of the infants. Cerebral palsy and other associated neurological deficits also occur at higher rates in twin pregnancies. This report examines two cases of intrauterine demise of one twin with subsequent survival of the co-twin. In both cases, the surviving infant suffered significant neurological sequelae. Impairments observed in these two cases include multicystic encephalomalacia and periventricular leukomalacia as well as the subsequent development of cerebral palsy. This case study explores the predisposing factors, incidence, pathophysiology, consequences, and future research implications of these findings.

  17. Usher Syndrome: Case Reports of Two Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Prasad Sah, B.Optom; Pragati Gautam, MD; Jyoti Baba Shrestha, MD; Mahesh Raj Joshi, M.Optom

    2015-01-01

    Background: Usher syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital sensory neural deafness and progressive visual loss secondary to retinitis pigmentosa. There are three different types of Usher syndrome. Retinitis pigmentosa is the main ophthalmic manifestation shared by all three. Differences in auditory and vestibular function are the distinguishing feature. Case Reports: Two brothers, 13 and 16 years of age, presented with chief complaints of progressive dim...

  18. [Application of Multiple Genetic Markers in a Case of Determination of Half Sibling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Shi, Mei-sen; Yuan, Li; Lu, Di

    2016-02-01

    A case of half sibling was determined with multiple genetic markers, which could be potentially applied for determination of half sibling relationship from same father. Half sibling relationship was detected by 39 autosomal STR genetic markers, 23 Y-chromosomal STR genetic markers and 12 X -chromosomal STR genetic markers among ZHAO -1, ZHAO -2, ZHAO -3, ZHAO -4, and ZHAO-5. According to autosomal STR, Y-STR and X-STR genotyping results, it was determined that ZHAO-4 (alleged half sibling) was unrelated with ZHAO-1 and ZHAO-2; however, ZHAO-3 (alleged half sibling), ZHAO-5 (alleged half sibling) shared same genetic profile with ZHAO-1, and ZHAO-2 from same father. It is reliable to use multiple genetic markers and family gene reconstruction to determine half sibling relationship from same father, but it is difficult to determination by calculating half sibling index with ITO and discriminant functions.

  19. Gigantism in sibling unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, A; Teramoto, A; Yamada, S; Kitanaka, S; Tanaka, T; Sanno, N; Osamura, R Y; Kirino, T

    1994-11-01

    The cases of gigantism sisters with somatotroph adenomas unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 1 are reported. The sisters grew rapidly since they were 5 or 6 years old and were diagnosed to have gigantism with pituitary adenoma by computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging. A serum endocrinological examination showed the elevated growth hormone values. After thyroxine-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone values exhibited a paradoxical rise. They were supposed to be unrelated to MEN Type 1, because analysis of the 11th chromosomes and the other endocrine functions were normal. They were operated on by the transphenoidal method. Immunohistochemical staining of both tumor specimens confirmed somatotroph adenomas. Pituitary adenoma associated with MEN Type 1 is a well-recognized entity. However, the sporadic occurrence of pituitary adenoma unrelated to MEN Type 1, especially in siblings, is extremely rare. Fifteen cases of pituitary adenomas in siblings were described in the literature. As for gigantism, only two brothers were reported. Our case of gigantism sisters is the second sporadic case. In our review of the isolated cases of pituitary adenoma in siblings described in the literature, 12 (70%) of 17 cases including ours are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than that of MEN Type 1 patients with pituitary adenomas. The cause of the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas is still unclear, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. It has been stated that point mutations in codon 201 or 227 of the Gs alpha gene located in chromosome 20 were found in about 35 to 40% of somatotroph adenomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Twin birth order, birthweight and birthweight discordance: any relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka A.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely believed that in twin pairs, at birth, the first-born weigh more than the second-born but this concept has been challenged. Objective: To assess the truthfulness of this common concept that first-born twins are usually heavier than their second-born siblings at birth. Methods: In a series of 104 sets of live-born twins, the birth weights of first-born twins were compared with those of their second-born siblings, after controlling for gender. Their intra-pair birthweight differences were determined and twin pairs whose birthweight difference was 15% or more were designated as discordant. Results: Twin I was heavier than Twin II in 61.5% of cases while Twin II was heavier than Twin I in 28.9% of cases. Twins I and II had equal birthweights in 9.6% of cases. Comparing the mean birthweight of the first-born-male twin with that of second-born- male twin, it was 2515+427g (95% Confidence Interval, CI=2402-2628 versus 2432 +435g (95% CI=2321-2543 p>0.05. The mean birthweight of first-born-female twin was 2326+445g (95% CI=2214-2439 while that of the second-born-female twin was 2325+501g (95% CI=2197-2453 p>0.05. When the birthweight difference exceeded 750g, the probability that Twin I will be heavier than Twin II was 83.3% (5 of 6. Conclusion: Although the first-born twin was more often heavier than their second-born siblings, either could weigh more or less at birth. The larger the birthweight difference between growth-discordant twin pair, the greater the probability that the heavier twin would be delivered first

  1. Female monozygotic twins with selective mutism--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, L; Mc Nicholas, F

    2006-04-01

    Selective mutism is a rare social anxiety disorder characterized by a total lack of speech in certain specific situations despite the ability to speak in others. Both genetic and psychosocial factors are thought to be involved in its presentation, persistence, and response to treatment. This case report describes a case of young female monozygotic twins who presented with selective mutism and their treatment spanning a 2-year period. It highlights the strong genetic association along with environmental factors such as social isolation and consequences of maternal social phobia, all contributing to treatment resistance, despite an intensive multimodal biopsychosocial approach. General issues related to the difficulties in treating monozygotic twins are also addressed.

  2. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occl...

  3. A longitudinal twin and sibling study of the hopelessness theory of depression in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, M A; Coulson, A E; Gregory, A M; Eley, T C

    2016-07-01

    Maladaptive cognitive biases such as negative attributional style and hopelessness have been implicated in the development and maintenance of depression. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, hopelessness mediates the association between attributional style and depression. The aetiological processes underpinning this influential theory remain unknown. The current study investigated genetic and environmental influences on hopelessness and its concurrent and longitudinal associations with attributional style and depression across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Furthermore, given high co-morbidity between depression and anxiety, the study investigated whether these maladaptive cognitions constitute transdiagnostic cognitive content common to both internalizing symptoms. A total of 2619 twins/siblings reported attributional style (mean age 15 and 17 years), hopelessness (mean age 17 years), and depression and anxiety symptoms (mean age 17 and 20 years). Partial correlations revealed that attributional style and hopelessness were uniquely associated with depression but not anxiety symptoms. Hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between attributional style and depression. Hopelessness was moderately heritable (A = 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.47), with remaining variance accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. Independent pathway models indicated that a set of common genetic influences largely accounted for the association between attributional style, hopelessness and depression symptoms, both concurrently and across development. The results provide novel evidence that associations between attributional style, hopelessness and depression symptoms are largely due to shared genetic liability, suggesting developmentally stable biological pathways underpinning the hopelessness theory of depression. Both attributional style and hopelessness constituted unique cognitive content in depression. The results inform molecular

  4. A population-based Swedish Twin and Sibling Study of cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Maes, Hermine H; Sundquist, Kristina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Prior studies, utilizing interview-based assessments, suggest that most of the genetic risk factors for drug abuse (DA) are non-specific with a minority acting specifically on risk for abuse of particular psychoactive substance classes. We seek to replicate these findings using objective national registry data. We examined abuse of cannabis, stimulants (including cocaine) and sedatives ascertained from national Swedish registers in male-male monozygotic (1720 pairs) and dizygotic twins (1219 pairs) combined with near-age full siblings (76,457 pairs) to provide sufficient power. Modeling was performed using Mx. A common pathway model fitted better than an independent pathway model. The latent liability to DA was highly heritable but also influenced by shared environment. Cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse all loaded strongly on the common factor. Estimates for the total heritability for the three forms of substance abuse ranged from 64 to 70%. Between 75 and 90% of that genetic risk was non-specific, coming from the common factor with the remainder deriving from substance specific genetic risk factors. By contrast, all of the shared environmental effects, which accounted for 18-20% of the variance in liability, were non-specific. In accord with prior studies based on personal interviews, the large preponderance of genetic risk factors for abuse of specific classes of psychoactive substance are non-specific. These results suggest that genetic variation in the primary sites of action of the psychoactive drugs, which differ widely across most drug classes, play a minor role in human individual differences in risk for DA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations in Sensitivity to Estrogen, Dihydrotestosterone, and Xenogens in B-Lymphocytes from Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Twins/Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn A. Sharpe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that androgen overexposure in a susceptible person leads to excessive brain masculinization and the autism spectrum disorder (ASD phenotype. In this study, the responses to estradiol (E2, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE on B-lymphocytes from ASD subjects and controls are compared. B cells were obtained from 11 ASD subjects, their unaffected fraternal twins, and nontwin siblings. Controls were obtained from a different cell bank. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction levels were measured after incubation with different concentrations of E2, DHT, and DDE. XTT/LDH ratio, representative of mitochondria number per cell, was calculated. E2, DHT, and DDE all cause “U”-shaped growth curves, as measured by LDH levels. ASD B cells show less growth depression compared to siblings and controls (P<0.01. They also have reduced XTT/LDH ratios (P<0.01 when compared to external controls, whereas siblings had values of XTT/LDH between ASD and external controls. B-lymphocytes from people with ASD exhibit a differential response to E2, DHT, and hormone disruptors in regard to cell growth and mitochondrial upregulation when compared to non-ASD siblings and external controls. Specifically, ASD B-lymphocytes show significantly less growth depression and less mitochondrial upregulation when exposed to these effectors. A mitochondrial deficit in ASD individuals is implied.

  6. Case report 512: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) in two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziv, N.; Grunebaum, M.; Kornreich, L.; Mimouni, M.

    1989-01-01

    A pair of siblings are presented with the diagnosis of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) as a disorder in which the chondrocytes in the various growth plates of the long bones and in certain primary ossification centers (vertebral body) fail to mature. Typical features of enchondromatosis are noted. In addition, the spine shows platyspondyly and vertical radiolucent linear clefts just adjacent to the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies. A 'bubbly' appearance is noted in the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies with irregular sclerotic end plates and a tongue-like configuration of their anterior borders. All laboratory data were normal. The two children may be compared with Schorr's two children reported in 1976 with similar findings. Some degree of dwarfism exists in the children. The tabular summary of the case reported in this article and the two cases of Schorr are appended.

  7. Case report 512: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) in two siblings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziv, N.; Grunebaum, M.; Kornreich, L.; Mimouni, M.; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1989-01-01

    A pair of siblings are presented with the diagnosis of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) as a disorder in which the chondrocytes in the various growth plates of the long bones and in certain primary ossification centers (vertebral body) fail to mature. Typical features of enchondromatosis are noted. In addition, the spine shows platyspondyly and vertical radiolucent linear clefts just adjacent to the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies. A 'bubbly' appearance is noted in the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies with irregular sclerotic end plates and a tongue-like configuration of their anterior borders. All laboratory data were normal. The two children may be compared with Schorr's two children reported in 1976 with similar findings. Some degree of dwarfism exists in the children. The tabular summary of the case reported in this article and the two cases of Schorr are appended. (orig.)

  8. Sibling Rivalry in Educational Attainment: The German Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Thomas Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies exploring sibling rivalry in the allocation of household resources in the U.S. produce conflicting results. We contribute to this discussion by addressing the role of sibling rivalry in educational attainment in Germany. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) we are able to distinguish how the effects of sibling rivalry vary by cultural affiliation, i.e., among families of West German, East German and foreign origin. We also point out and correct for a reference group pro...

  9. Severe calcified stylohyoid complex in twins: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jo Eun; Min, Jung Hyun; Park, Hae Rang; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Woo [Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The styloid process is a cylindrical, long cartilaginous bone located on the temporal bone. The calcified stylohyoid ligament and elongated styloid process can be identified radiographically, and they are associated with a number of syndromes and symptoms. The exact cause of the styloid process elongation due to calcification and subsequent ossification of ligament is unclear. This report presents a case of severely calcified stylohyoid ligament complex occurred in twins who have the same pattern of calcification.

  10. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprono Samson K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Conclusions Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

  11. Asymmetry and discordance for congenital anomalies in conjoined twins: a report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Navot, D; Menashi, M; Laufer, N; Chemke, J

    1980-10-01

    Six pairs of conjoined twins have been studied. The first case was a pair of 13-week-old omphalopagus fetuses. One was a holoacradius amorphus and the other had rachischisis and anencephaly. The second case was a pair of omphalopagus twins. One of the twins was macerated and corresponded to a developmental age of 13-14 weeks, while the other was developed to 28-30 weeks of gestation and exhibited urogenital and gastrointestinal defects not found in the smaller twin. In the third case, that of a thoracoomphalopagus, one had cleft lip and palate, pulmonic stenosis, and atresia of the ileocecal valve, while the other did not show these anomalies. In the fourth cae, also omphalopagus twins, one had a lumbosacral meningomyelocele and severe gastrointestinal and urogenital anomalies not found in the second twin. The fifth case was a pair of thoracoomphalopagus twins, sharing a common heart with asymmetrical anomalies. The sixth case was a diprosopus anencephalic conjoined twin. The first pairs of conjoined twins were discordant for several abnormalities in nonshared organs, in addition to having abnormalities of the conjoined organs. It seems that discordance in conjoined twins is not a rare finding. The factors that play a role in discordance of anomalies in conjoined twins are probably similar to the factors in monozygotic twins--i.e., environmental, genetic, and abnormal placental and/or fetal circulation.

  12. Older Sibling Support of Younger Siblings' Socio-Emotional Development: A Multiple-Case Study of Second-Generation Mexican and Honduran Children's Initiative and Co-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Yoder, Michelle; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Bergey, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Siblings play a critical role in the socialization experiences of their younger siblings. Societal values, standards, and customs are transmitted and created through the process of modeling and the construction of shared meaning. It follows, therefore, that the process of socialization may be culturally dependent. Using multiple case studies of…

  13. Age of Onset in Concordant Twins and Other Relative Pairs With Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Yee, Irene M.; Guimond, Colleen; Reis, Jacques; Dyment, David A.; Ebers, George C.

    2009-01-01

    The ages of onset in multiple sclerosis cases span more than 7 decades. Data are presented for affected relative pairs from a Canadian population base of 30,000 multiple sclerosis index cases (1993?2008). The effects of genetic sharing, parent of origin, intergenerational versus collinear differences, and gender on the ages of onset were evaluated in the following concordant pairs: monozygotic twins (n?=?29), dizygotic twins (n?=?10), siblings (n?=?614), first cousins (n?=?405), half siblings...

  14. Case Report of A Set of Newborn Twins with Neonatal Tetanus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of the tragedy of a 20 year old primipara who lost a set of twins to neonatal tetanus and kernicterus on consecutive days. The twins, who were delivered at a private Hospital, presented at the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesha on the seventh day of life because the second twin had been unable tp suck for 24 ...

  15. CASE REPORT CASE R Conjoined twins with a horseshoe kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-03

    Dec 3, 2009 ... imaging revealed thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins with complex thoracic and abdominal structures, ... Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) was performed on a. General Electric 1.5 tesla MR ... MB BCh, FCRad (SA). Department of Radiology, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, University of the.

  16. Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprono, Samson K; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard; Masenga, John E

    2012-03-19

    Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

  17. Genetic and environmental contributions to body mass index: comparative analysis of monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins and same-age unrelated siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, N L; Feng, R; McGuire, S A; Allison, D B; Miller, S

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies have established that a substantial percentage of variance in obesity-related phenotypes is explained by genetic components. However, only one study has used both virtual twins (VTs) and biological twins and was able to simultaneously estimate additive genetic, non-additive genetic, shared environmental and unshared environmental components in body mass index (BMI). Our current goal was to re-estimate four components of variance in BMI, applying a more rigorous model to biological and virtual multiples with additional data. Virtual multiples share the same family environment, offering unique opportunities to estimate common environmental influence on phenotypes that cannot be separated from the non-additive genetic component using only biological multiples. Data included 929 individuals from 164 monozygotic twin pairs, 156 dizygotic twin pairs, five triplet sets, one quadruplet set, 128 VT pairs, two virtual triplet sets and two virtual quadruplet sets. Virtual multiples consist of one biological child (or twins or triplets) plus one same-aged adoptee who are all raised together since infancy. We estimated the additive genetic, non-additive genetic, shared environmental and unshared random components in BMI using a linear mixed model. The analysis was adjusted for age, age(2), age(3), height, height(2), height(3), gender and race. Both non-additive genetic and common environmental contributions were significant in our model (P-valuesrole in BMI and that common environmental factors such as diet or exercise also affect BMI. This conclusion is consistent with our earlier study using a smaller sample and shows the utility of virtual multiples for separating non-additive genetic variance from common environmental variance.

  18. A twin sibling with Prader-Willi syndrome caused by uniparental disomy conceived after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, T; Aykut, A; Karaca, E; Onay, H; Ozkinay, F; Cogulu, O

    2014-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased gradually in the treatment of infertility worldwide. On the other hand ART has been found to be associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations including imprinting defects as well. Although a number of imprinting syndromes have been reported to be related with ART, no case with uniparental disomy (UPD) caused Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) [OMIM ID: 176270] has been reported in the literature. Here we present a dizygotic twin in which one of them was born with maternal UPD15 following ART. The proband was a 2-year-old boy who had feeding difficulties, generalized hypotonia, frontal bossing, broad forehead, small hands and feet. Laboratory investigations revealed minimal dilatation in 3rd and 4th ventricles and corpus callosum hypoplasia in magnetic resonance imaging, supravalvular pulmonary stenosis in echocardiography and pelvicaliectasia in the USG examinations. Methylation and microsatellite markers analyses showed maternal UPD for chromosome 15. Here we report, for the first time UPD caused PWS patient born after ART.

  19. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  20. Infantile malignant osteopetrosis: A case report of three siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile malignant osteopetrosis, a rare hereditary, generalized disorder of bone characterized by a significant increase in the density of the skeletal tissues is described in three siblings. The incidence, genetic etiology, clinical, laboratory, radiological features, management and prognosis have been discussed.

  1. Optic Disc Coloboma in Two Nigerian Siblings: Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ODCs and intellectual disability were present in both patients. The younger sibling an 8‑year‑old girl later presented to the eye clinic with a 5‑month history of poor ... the 5th–7th week of intrauterine life.[2] It ... of 2 months for a severe febrile illness, and multiple .... multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients.

  2. High School and Beyond: Twins and Siblings' File Users' Manual, User's Manual for Teacher Comment File, Friends File Users' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    These three users' manuals are for specific files of the High School and Beyond Study, a national longitudinal study of high school sophomores and seniors in 1980. The three files are computerized databases that are available on magnetic tape. As one component of base year data collection, information identifying twins, triplets, and some non-twin…

  3. Prune belly syndrome in uniovular twin: a new finding or a case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of Prune Belly Syndrome associated with High Anorectal Anomaly and Unilateral Lung Cyst occurring in a uniovular twin is hereby presented. The twin brother has no clinical evidence of congenital anomaly in any system. We therefore ask; is this a new finding or a case of improper documentation of data. Keywords: ...

  4. Janiceps conjoined twins with extreme asymmetry: case report with complete autopsy and histopathologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Hannah A; McPherson, Elizabeth W; Murdoch, Geoffrey H; Ozolek, John A

    2009-01-01

    Conjoined twinning is a rare form of twinning, in which 2 bodies are attached, and is classified according to the anatomic place of attachment. An extremely rare form of conjoined twinning is janiceps conjoined twinning, in which 2 faces are attached but oriented in opposite directions. In this report, we present an unusual and difficult-to-classify case of conjoined male twins with partial duplication of craniofacial, upper oropharyngeal, and cardiac organs. We believe this to be one of the few reported cases of janiceps asymmetrus. We describe in detail the gross and microscopic pathology and offer some insights into the possible embryogenesis and distinction from the other rare form of conjoined twinning with facial duplication, diprosopus.

  5. Hallervorden-Spatz disease: 2 cases of siblings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jong Gi; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1994-01-01

    We report two patients with Hallervorden-Spatz disease, who were diagnosed by same MR findings of marked low signal intensity in the globus and substantia nigra. They presented with ataxic and spastic gait, intention tremor, delayed mental development, and dysarthria. They were 7 year-old male and 8 year-old female siblings, who were healthy until 3 years of age when they suffered from progressive symptoms. T2-weighted images showed marked low signal intensity in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra indicating an increased iron deposition, and it might suggest Hallervorden-Spatz disease

  6. Anaestetic management of caesarean section for conjoint-twins: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar Shrikrishna G, Aditya Prakash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At Pravara Rural Hospital a 29 year old patient was admitted for delivery. Patient had conjoint-twins diagnosed after sonography and was posted for elective caesarean section. Patient was managed under general anaesthesia after thorough preparation and under multi-disciplinary involvement. Both the twins females were living and were further managed by neonatologists. Though conjoint-twins are rare and patients coming for delivery with conjoint-twins are still rarer because of early diagnosis and termination, anaesthesiologists working in developing countries and working in remote areas may face such patients. There are very few publications for management of delivery in such patients, hence this case report.

  7. Lifetime anorexia nervosa in young men in the community : Five cases and their co-twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    Objective: To describe patterns, comorbidity, and outcomes from a case series of anorexia nervosa (AN) among young men from the general population and their co-twins. Method: Men (N = 2,122) born between 1975 and 1979 from Finnish twin cohorts were screened for lifetime eating disorders by

  8. A twin-case study of developmental number sense impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidse, Neeltje J.; de Jong, Maria T.; Shaul, Shelley; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports on 9-year-old monozygotic twin girls who fail to make any progress in learning basic mathematics in primary education. We tested the hypothesis that the twins' core maths problems were deficits in number sense that manifested as impairments in approximate and small number

  9. Case of twin pregnancy complicated by idiopathic thrombocytopenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired thrombocytopenia without other clear cause of thrombocytopenia. It is not common in a singleton pregnancy and less common in twin pregnancy. We report a 33‑year‑old ITP pluripara whose first pregnancy was uneventful. She carried twin ...

  10. Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome in siblings: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Gokulraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome or chondroectodermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting several skeletal manifestations and congenital heart malformations. Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome comprises of a tetrad of clinical manifestations of chondrodysplasia, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cardiac defects. Here, we are presenting a very rare case of Ellis–Van Creveld syndrome in siblings.

  11. Risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-control study in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, A J; De Stavola, B L; Swanwick, M A; Mangtani, P; Maconochie, N E

    1999-06-01

    Early life and anthropometric risk factors for testicular cancer were examined in a case-control study in England and Wales in which affected male twins were compared with their unaffected male co-twins. Questionnaire data was obtained for 60 twin pairs. Significantly raised risk of testicular cancer occurred in twins who had longer arms and legs than their co-twin. There was a significant excess of testicular cancer reported in non-twin brothers, as well as in twin brothers, of cases. Risk was also significantly raised in relation to cryptorchidism. The results on limb length suggest that factors, perhaps nutritional, affecting growth before puberty, may be causes of testicular cancer. The results on risk in brothers add to evidence of a large genetic component in aetiology of the tumour. The risk associated with cryptorchidism in the twins accords with the hypothesis that cryptorchidism is causally associated with testicular cancer because it is a cause of the malignancy, rather than because the same maternal factors experienced in utero cause both conditions.

  12. Theory of Mind May Be Contagious, but You Don't Catch It From Your Twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Fineberg, Deborah Shaw; Brown, Kimberly; Perkins, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    The theory-of-mind abilities of twins, children with nontwin siblings, and only children were compared to investigate further the link between number and type of siblings and theory-of-mind abilities. Three- to 5-year-old children with nontwin siblings outperformed both only children and twins with no other siblings, twins who also had other…

  13. Family structure and risk factors for schizophrenia: case-sibling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several family structure-related factors, such as birth order, family size, parental age, and age differences to siblings, have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined how family-structure-related variables modified the risk of schizophrenia in Finnish families with at least one child with schizophrenia born from 1950 to 1976. Methods We used case-sibling design, a variant of the matched case-control design in the analysis. Patients hospitalized for schizophrenia between 1969 and 1996 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and their families from the Population Register Center. Only families with at least two children (7914 sibships and 21059 individuals were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression with sex, birth cohort, maternal schizophrenia status, and several family-related variables as explanatory variables was used in the case-sibling design. The effect of variables with the same value in each sibship was analyzed using ordinary logistic regression. Results Having a sibling who was less than five years older (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.66, or being the firstborn (first born vs. second born 1.62, 1.87–1.4 predicted an elevated risk, but having siblings who were more than ten years older predicted a lower risk (0.66, 0.56–0.79. Conclusions Several family-structure-related variables were identified as risk factors for schizophrenia. The underlying causative mechanisms are likely to be variable.

  14. Inherited multicentric osteolysis: case report of three siblings treated with bisphosphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitewood Colin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inherited Multicentric Osteolysis (IMO is an uncommon familial condition of idiopathic pathophysiology causing bone osteolysis and dysplasia. These patients present with common rheumatologic complaints of pain, dysfunction and disability, and are often initially misdiagnosed as a chronic rheumatic disease of childhood such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We report a case of three siblings diagnosed with IMO. Diagnosis was made during childhood, with each sibling having different manifestations and course of disease. One had a previous history of bilateral hip dysplasia. Two had osteolysis of the foot, distal tibia and femur (lower limb bones, whilst one had osteolysis of the rib and unusual clavicular fractures. Unusually, all siblings appear to experience decreased pain sensation compared to norms. All siblings were treated with bisphosphonates and experienced a rapid improvement in pain symptoms, decreased analgesic requirements. Two had bone mineral density testing performed and both had increases post-bisphosphonate. In all three, there was subjective evidence of stabilisation of bone disease. Testing for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 gene was negative.

  15. Genetic and environmental determinants of violence risk in psychotic disorders: a multivariate quantitative genetic study of 1.8 million Swedish twins and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariaslan, A; Larsson, H; Fazel, S

    2016-09-01

    Patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders (for example, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) have elevated risks of committing violent acts, particularly if they are comorbid with substance misuse. Despite recent insights from quantitative and molecular genetic studies demonstrating considerable pleiotropy in the genetic architecture of these phenotypes, there is currently a lack of large-scale studies that have specifically examined the aetiological links between psychotic disorders and violence. Using a sample of all Swedish individuals born between 1958 and 1989 (n=3 332 101), we identified a total of 923 259 twin-sibling pairs. Patients were identified using the National Patient Register using validated algorithms based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 8-10. Univariate quantitative genetic models revealed that all phenotypes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, substance misuse, and violent crime) were highly heritable (h(2)=53-71%). Multivariate models further revealed that schizophrenia was a stronger predictor of violence (r=0.32; 95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.33) than bipolar disorder (r=0.23; 0.21-0.25), and large proportions (51-67%) of these phenotypic correlations were explained by genetic factors shared between each disorder, substance misuse, and violence. Importantly, we found that genetic influences that were unrelated to substance misuse explained approximately a fifth (21%; 20-22%) of the correlation with violent criminality in bipolar disorder but none of the same correlation in schizophrenia (Pbipolar disordergenetically similar phenotypes as the latter sources may include aetiologically important clues. Clinically, these findings underline the importance of assessing risk of different phenotypes together and integrating interventions for psychiatric disorders, substance misuse, and violence.

  16. Sirenomelia in a monoamniotic twin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Mohamed N; Saleh, Abdelaziz A

    2006-02-01

    Sirenomelia is a rare congenital malformation characterized by fusion of the lower extremities and is associated with renal agenesis and absent bladder. Oligohydramnios usually occurs early in pregnancy. A 21-year-old primigravida with a twin gestation was diagnosed with sirenomelia in 1 of the twins at 18 weeks; they were delivered at 34 weeks. The infant was in perfect respiratory condition, lived for 5 days and died of nonpulmonary causes. Absence of oligohydramnios in monoamniotic twins allows free movement of the fetus in utero, facilitates the visualization of fetal organs on ultrasound and aids early prenatal diagnosis. It also delays the death of the sirenomelia infant due to the improved respiratory condition.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins by magnetic resonance imaging: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland de; Medeiros, Cynthia Coelho de; Lins, Glaucia Virginia de Queiroz; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Lima, Marcelo Marques de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Conjoined twins have a rare prevalence and special curiosity among physicians and the general population. The reported frequency varies from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 pregnancies. Its early diagnosis becomes very important when we think about pregnancy management, method of delivery and neonatal care. We describe two cases of conjoined twins diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance during prenatal care with the aim to better studying the fetus anatomy. The first conjoined twins were cephalopagus sharing head, thorax and abdominal wall and with two pelvis and four arms and four legs. The second were thoracopagus, united by thorax and part of abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging contribution was not important to diagnose conjoined twins. However, it was useful to describe the shared organs, contributing to define fetal outcome. (author)

  18. Sibling Incest in a Clergy Family: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Jocelyn; Hoey, Helen

    1994-01-01

    A case study is presented of a female adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse where the perpetrator was her older brother. The family dynamics are described, emphasizing the physically absent father (a clergyman), the emotionally distant mother, and the surrogate parent status of the perpetrator. The individual's efforts to receive appropriate…

  19. Differences in the Expression of TLR-2, NOD2, and NF-κB in Placenta Between Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szylberg, Łukasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Lebioda, Anna; Krepska, Patrycja; Kowalewski, Adam; Bręborowicz, Grzegorz; Marszałek, Andrzej

    2018-05-23

    Dizygotic twins share the same type of genetic relationship as non-twin siblings. Whereas monozygotic (MZ) twins are considered to have identical genetic material, they still differ. There is a number of reasons for early MZ twin discordance, including differences in the in utero environment, stochasticity, genetic mosaicism, and epigenetic factors. During gestation, the efficient innate immune system is of utmost importance. Our study was based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the differences in innate immune protein expression (TLR-2, NOD2, and NF-κB) in the 95 placentas between twins. Our study revealed statistical significant differences between diamniotic-dichorionic and monoamniotic-dichorionic twins. Monoamniotic-monochorionic twins exhibited no significant differences in protein expressions. To identify epigenetic factors causing the differences between twins, we made a series of comparisons with clinical data. The study revealed more cases with infections, miscarriages, in vitro fertilization, and premature rupture of membranes within the group with higher differences level of NF-κB, NOD2 and TLR-2 between twins. In case of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, there were no significant differences in innate immune protein expressions between twins. These results show that dissimilar genetic material and separate in utero environment promote discordance in innate immune protein expressions between twins. Moreover, additional blood flow between twins may be favorable in life-threatening conditions ensuring similar microenvironment.

  20. The Spread of Substance Use and Delinquency between Adolescent Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C.; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner…

  1. Diprosopus conjoined twins: radiologic, autoptic, and histologic study of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Armiento, Maria; Falleti, Jessica; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    Conjoined twins are a rare and intriguing nature's phenomena; diprosopus or craniofacial duplication is the rarest with a reported incidence of 1 case in 180,000-15 million births. We present a radiologic, autoptic, and histologic study of a 37-week-old male diprosopus twin in a dichorionic pregnancy of a 26-old-year woman. Diprosopus malformation is part of duplication involving face and cranium like janiceps and dicephalus. Our case also shows partial duplication of the stomach with ectopic pancreas. Most studies are required to understand the exact mechanism of this malformation.

  2. Class II malocclusion treatment using combined Twin Block and fixed orthodontic appliances – A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, Saud A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the Twin Block functional orthodontic appliances is mostly dento-alveolar with small skeletal effect. There are certain clinical indications where functional appliances can be used successfully in class II malocclusion e.g. in a growing patient. The use of these appliances is greatly dependent on the patient’s compliance and they simplify the fixed appliance phase. In this case, a 13-year old adolescent was treated with Twin Block appliance followed by fixed appliance to detail the occlusion. The design and treatment effects were demonstrated in this case report. PMID:24151413

  3. Losing one twin in the NICU - A case study of parental experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Storm, Ida; Klitgaard, Jeannett

    2016-01-01

    and revealed tree overall themes. These themes indicate that besides struggling with grief related to the loss of one infant, the parents were challenged by the medical discourse, the lack of staff continuity and space to develop parenthood. This case study emphasizes how the loss of a premature twin......The aim of this case study was to generate a deeper understanding of parents’ experiences of losing one twin in the NICU. In an in-depth interview the parents told their story of giving birth to twins born extremely preterm and shortly after losing one of them. A thematic analysis was conducted...... reinforced the parents’ need of an understandable dialogue with a team of nurses. Furthermore the nurses have to offer a close partnership and create the necessary space for parents to develop parenthood while simultaneously dealing with the unexpected and traumatising circumstances related to the loss...

  4. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....

  5. Parasitic twin--a supernumerary limb associated with spinal malformations. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, Abat; Mesfin, Brook; Tirsit, Abenezer; Debebe, Tequam; Wester, Knut

    2016-03-01

    We describe a case of rachipagus parasitic twin with spinal cord malformations (lipomyelomeningocele and tethered cord) in a 7-month-old Ethiopian infant. The parasitic mass had a well-formed foot, ankle and lower leg and a small sinus that resembled an anus. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed spinal malformations including a distal syringohydromyelia. The mass was successfully resected and the dural attachment was closed. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Postoperatively, the child had unchanged, intact neurological function in both lower limbs. Almost all rachipagus parasitic twins are associated with spinal malformations. They should, therefore, be operated on by surgeons experienced in myelomeningocele surgery.

  6. Gestational diabetes insipidus, HELLP syndrome and eclampsia in a twin pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, J L; Dombroski, R A; Brezina, P R

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of eclampsia in a twin pregnancy complicated by HELLP syndrome and diabetes insipidus. This confluence of disease processes suggests that a modification of common magnesium sulfate treatment protocols may be appropriate in a certain subset of patients.

  7. A unique case of craniopagus twins: considerations and challenges for dental rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe oral findings and outline challenges and considerations for general anesthetic (GA) and dental management of 4-year-old female craniopagus (cranially conjoined) twins, at high risk for medical comorbidity, who presented for treatment of severe early childhood caries. This hospital-based procedure required good interdisciplinary communication, cooperation, and presurgical planning to address unique challenges and ensure positive postoperative outcomes. Two separate anesthesia teams delivered GA simultaneously to each twin. To minimize anesthetic exposure, two pediatric dental teams completed dental care concurrently. Extensive plaque accumulation and unusual "mirror-image" caries distribution were attributed to frequency and postural pooling during feeding. The rehabilitation objective was to provide definitive dental management, minimizing future need for dental retreatment under GA. Two-month follow-up revealed intact dental restorations, good oral hygiene, and weight gain. For these unique twins however, the challenge of long-term oral health maintenance remains.

  8. Congenital scoliosis in monozygotic twins: case report and review of possible factors contributing to its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact etiology of congenital scoliosis remains unknown as yet. It seems that its development may be influenced by both genetic predisposition and environmental factors, at varying degrees. International bibliography features few cases of monozygotic twins with congenital scoliosis. The aim of this study is to report a case in monozygotic twins and review the literature relating to the description of similar cases as well as the pathophysiological mechanism involved in its development. Methods Clinical examination and simple X-rays revealed scoliosis of differing degrees and types in male monozygotic twins with moderate mental retardation and dyslalia. Results Congenital scoliosis identified in both twins. In the first, this was manifested as left thoracic scoliosis, with Cobb angle of 34 degrees while in the second as left thoracolumbar scoliosis with Cobb angle of 10 degrees. Both were found to suffer from incarcerated hemivertebrae. Conclusion According to both its clinical identification and severity and to its course, not only the genetic but the environmental factors seem to play a leading role in the appearance of the condition.

  9. A family affair: brain abnormalities in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Gogtay, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that has a strong genetic basis. Converging evidence suggests that schizophrenia is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder, with earlier onset cases resulting in more profound brain abnormalities. Siblings of patients with schizophrenia provide an invaluable resource for differentiating between trait and state markers, thus highlighting possible endophenotypes for ongoing research. However, findings from sibling studies have not been systematically put together in a coherent story across the broader age span. We review here the cortical grey matter abnormalities in siblings of patients with schizophrenia from childhood to adulthood, by reviewing sibling studies from both childhood-onset schizophrenia, and the more common adult-onset schizophrenia. When reviewed together, studies suggest that siblings of patients with schizophrenia display significant brain abnormalities that highlight both similarities and differences between the adult and childhood populations, with shared developmental risk patterns, and segregating trajectories. Based on current research it appears that the cortical grey matter abnormalities in siblings are likely to be an age-dependent endophenotype, which normalize by the typical age of onset of schizophrenia unless there has been more genetic or symptom burdening. With increased genetic burdening (e.g. discordant twins of patients) the grey matter abnormalities in (twin) siblings are progressive in adulthood. This synthesis of the literature clarifies the importance of brain plasticity in the pathophysiology of the illness, indicating that probands may lack protective factors critical for healthy development. PMID:23698280

  10. Socio-psycho-historical observation on the twin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoji; Satow, Yukio; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    The so-called ''twin control study'', mainly on the monozygotic twins one of which was A-bomb exposed and the other was non-exposed were carried out. Sampling was conducted utilizing the materials as follows: 1) The survey on casualities of A-bomb exposed families in Hiroshima which was undertaken in 1946. 2) The survey of A-bomb survivors in 1965. 3) A-bomb exposed family survey conducted between 1973 to 1975. 4) Investigations of A-bomb victims exposed in the proximal areas from the hypocenter. From the above mentioned materials 470 pairs were selected, of which 220 were exposed. Among them 172 pairs were twins of the same sex. Female and male pair were also employed. In one case they were exposed, while the others were nonexposed. Two pairs were examined under the following methods: 1) Depth interview to ascertain familial casualities with reference to the family life cycle. 2) Socio-historical research. 3) Motoaki's Jinkaku Shindan Kensa (Modified Rorschach test by H. Motoaki), and T.A.T. test. Results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) Both pairs of twins were similar appearance, and also personality traits, and had a strong feeling of companionship for each other. 2) In family relationships, the persons studied were very conscious of the role expectations of elder and younger siblings in the twin pairs. 3) Through depth interview and projective test, A-bomb exposed pairs still showed deep psychological stresses, resulting from the A-bomb disaster. 4) Both among the exposed twins and within the nonexposed control group twin siblings had a close feeling of companionship for each other. However, nonexposed twins could not understand the psychological experience of twins who had been subjected to the atomic disaster. (author)

  11. Indices of language outcome 11 years after intrathecal chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a sibling case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M; Su, I-Fan; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2012-03-01

    Studies are emerging that suggest that major language indices do not differentiate children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with risk-adapted intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC) from control children matched on age, gender, and educational level. No study to date has controlled for cognitive environment, an important variable influencing language achievement and outcome. This case-control study applies the deconfounding principle by using a sibling as a control to investigate language outcomes in a male child 11 years after administration of ITC for ALL at the age of 2 years 3 months. A comprehensive behavioral language test battery failed to differentiate the siblings on current language performance when descriptively compared, but neurophysiological assessment revealed that the ITC-treated child required more time and elicited a smaller N400 component compared to his sibling during picture-word matching. The findings suggest that in the absence of pretreatment performance indices, comparison with sibling achievement may supplement what is known on posttreatment language skill development drawn from comparative studies using children matched on age, sex, and educational level drawn from the community. The study's findings offer pilot data of language outcomes following ITC beyond the early stage of survivorship. The benefits and limitations of using siblings in research where the cognitive environment is known to make an important contribution to skill development are discussed.

  12. Musical Interests and Talent: Twin Jazz Musicians and Twin Studies/Twin Research: Loss of a Preterm Multiple; Conjoined Twin Conception; Depression in Fathers of Twins; Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome/Twin News: High-Achieving Twins; Twin Children of a Tennis Star; Conjoined Twin Separation; Twin Delivery to a Giant Panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings from twin studies of musical interests and talent are reviewed as a backdrop to the lives and careers of twin jazz musicians, Peter and Will Anderson. The Anderson twins exemplify many aspects of twin research, namely their matched musical abilities, shared musical interests, and common career. This overview is followed by reviews of studies and case reports of bereavement in families who have lost a preterm multiple birth infant, the conception of conjoined twins following in vitro fertilization (IVF), depression in fathers of twins, and twin-to-twin transfusion incidence in monochorionic-diamniotic IVF twin pairs. Twins highlighted in the media include high-achieving identical female twins with nearly identical academic standing, tennis star Roger Federer's two sets of identical twin children, surgical separation of craniopagus conjoined twins, and the rare delivery of twins to a 23-year-old giant panda.

  13. Crossing the Ts by case-story “Exploring moral distress in potential sibling stem cell donors"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer

    Crossing the Ts by Exploring moral distress in potential sibling stem cell donors [1] Mette Kjer Kaltoft, Ph.d student, MPH, RN, Health Visitor University of Southern Denmark and Sydney School of Public Health Background: Catalysts aiming to reduce the burden of malignant disease by integrating...... off the benefits and harms specific to each stakeholder-context may increase live and posthumous donations without inflicting preventable harm. Reference: [1] Exploring moral distress in potential sibling stem cell donors, Nursing Ethics 20(2) 178-188, 2012 Begley A, Virtual University of Uganda......-type-test’) for enhanced decision quality and reduction of harm. Methods: A *case-story of siblings of a sick brother needing live donation is presented within an interactive model for prescriptive translation using a diagram and multi-criteria decision-analytic approach. Actual or projected results: You can see each...

  14. Delayed interval delivery in twin pregnancy without cerclage: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the loss of the first foetus, delayed delivery in multiple pregnancies can be successful in selected cases as exemplified by the case presentation. In well prepared perinatal centers, with physically and psychologically balanced patients who are well informed about the risks and benefits of the procedure, delayed interval ...

  15. [Craniorachischisis in conjoined "diprosopus" twins. Case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, D; Serville, F; Horovitz, J; Maugey, B; Weichhold, W

    1989-01-01

    The pathological features in a case of craniorachischisis with incomplete twinning (diprosopus) are reported. The female fetus was born to a 27-year-old gravida 6, para 3 healthy woman who underwent a medical abortion at 13 week's gestation because of an anencephaly revealed by ultrasound examination. The head showed two fused faces with two mouths, two noses, two lateral completely formed eyes and two medially fused eyes covered by cutaneous tissue. X-ray examination demonstrated the symmetrically doubled spinal column. The brain and the spinal cord were absent (craniorachischisis). The larynx and the oesophagus, the other viscera and the limbs were normal in number, location and morphology as for a female singleton. This case with others from the literature, illustrates the relationship between conjoined twinning, neural tube defects (more particularly anencephaly) and female zygote and constitutes a real entity.

  16. Social outcomes of young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy: A case-sibling-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Christine B; Barry, Frances; Vickrey, Barbara G; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to compare long-term social outcomes in young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy (cases) with neurologically normal sibling controls. Long-term social outcomes were assessed at the 15-year follow-up of the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy, a community-based prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy with complicated (abnormal neurologic exam findings, abnormal brain imaging with lesion referable to epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID; IQ < 60) or informative history of neurologic insults to which the occurrence of epilepsy might be attributed), and uncomplicated epilepsy presentations were compared to healthy sibling controls. Age, gender, and matched-pair adjusted generalized linear models stratified by complicated epilepsy and 5-year seizure-free status estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CIs] for each outcome. The 15-year follow-up included 361 individuals with epilepsy (59% of initial cases; N = 291 uncomplicated and N = 70 complicated epilepsy; mean age 22 years [standard deviation, SD 3.5]; mean epilepsy onset 6.2 years [SD 3.9]) and 173 controls. Social outcomes for cases with uncomplicated epilepsy with ≥5 years terminal remission were comparable to controls; cases with uncomplicated epilepsy <5 years seizure-free were more likely to be less productive (school/employment < 20 h/week) (aOR 3.63, 95% CI 1.83-7.20) and not to have a driver's license (aOR 6.25, 95% CI 2.85-13.72). Complicated cases with epilepsy <5 years seizure-free had worse outcomes across multiple domains; including not graduating high school (aOR 24.97, 95% CI 7.49-83.30), being un- or underemployed (<20 h/week) (aOR 11.06, 95% CI 4.44-27.57), being less productively engaged (aOR 15.71, 95% CI 6.88-35.88), and not living independently (aOR 10.24, 95% CI 3.98-26.36). Complicated cases without ID (N = 36) had worse outcomes with respect to productive engagement (aOR 6.02; 95% CI 2

  17. Perinatal hepatic infarction in twin-twin transfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report a case of a twin pregnancy which was complicated by a twin-twin transfusion in which the recipient twin was noted to have an intra-abdominal echogenic mass. This twin died at two days of age of hepatic infarction. The donor twin was healthy at birth, at thirty weeks\\' gestation, and did not have any subsequent problems. Fetal intra-abdominal echogenicity may be a marker of hepatic infarction.

  18. Two Cases of Endometrial Cancer in Twin Sisters with Myotonic Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Y. Koh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of endometrial cancer (EC occurring in nulligravid twin sisters with myotonic dystrophy. Both tested negative for Lynch syndrome and both were treated with laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Although EC tends to run in families, the diagnosis in itself is not considered sufficient cause for screening or prophylactic measures in close relatives. However, the presence of additional risk factors, such as nulligravidity and myotonic dystrophy in the underlying cases, may call for extra vigilance in first-degree family members.

  19. Management of Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A 15-Year Case History of Two Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, E; Savard, E; Vargas, C; Loison-Robert, L; Cherifi, H; Bdeoui, F; Landru, M-M

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogenous genetic disorder that interferes with normal enamel formation in the absence of systemic disorders. The patients' main concerns are caries susceptibility, poor esthetics, and generalized sensitivity. There is a broad clinical spectrum, from discolorations to consequent enamel alterations. This case report describes the 15-year case study and the full-mouth rehabilitation of two siblings affected by a hypocalcified AI. Clinical Considerations: In these two patients, conservative care with stainless steel crowns and direct composite restorations was undertaken to restore function and esthetics and to reduce sensitivities in primary and mixed dentitions. The difficulties in monitoring resulted in severe infectious complications (dental abscess with cutaneous fistula), important dental defects, and loss of spaces with subsequent malocclusion. In the young adult dentition, they were treated by extractions, root canal therapies, and new restorations: stainless steel crowns for permanent molars, direct composite restorations (with strip crowns) for incisors and maxillary canines (to improve the crown morphology as well as to mask the discolorations and the malpositions), and adjusted composite crown molds using a thermoforming procedure for premolars and the mandibular canines. The main difficulties were rapid tooth surface loss, bonding to atypical enamel, developing dentition, long-term follow-up. Restoring function and esthetics in AI-affected patients is a challenge from primary to adult dentition. Early corrections are essential to avoid dental damage and for psychological benefits. This clinical report highlights the adhesive rehabilitation for anterior and premolar areas and the difficulty of patient follow-up.

  20. Responsiveness to exercise training in juvenile dermatomyositis: a twin case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roschel Hamilton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM often present strong exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. However, the role of exercise training in this disease has not been investigated. Purpose this longitudinal case study reports on the effects of exercise training on a 7-year-old patient with JDM and on her unaffected monozygotic twin sister, who served as a control. Methods Both the patient who was diagnosed with JDM as well as her healthy twin underwent a 16-week exercise training program comprising aerobic and strengthening exercises. We assessed one repetition-maximum (1-RM leg-press and bench-press strength, balance, mobility and muscle function, blood markers of inflammation and muscle enzymes, aerobic conditioning, and disease activity scores. As a result, the healthy child had an overall greater absolute strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning compared to her JDM twin pair at baseline and after the trial. However, the twins presented comparable relative improvements in 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, VO2peak, and time-to-exhaustion. The healthy child had greater relative increments in low-back strength and handgrip, whereas the child with JDM presented a higher relative increase in ventilatory anaerobic threshold parameters and functional tests. Quality of life, inflammation, muscle damage and disease activity scores remained unchanged. Results and Conclusion this was the first report to describe the training response of a patient with non-active JDM following an exercise training regimen. The child with JDM exhibited improved strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning without presenting an exacerbation of the disease.

  1. Sibling Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Green, Mary J.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, sibling incest, a type of intrafamilial incest, has received notice from mental health professionals; however, many professionals still do not recognize the seriousness of the problem. This article reviews current research on the individual and family dynamics that allow sibling incest to occur, the effects of sibling incest on victims,…

  2. Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 22000 to 1 in 100000 pregnancies. Clinical information is limited and management is difficult due to the risk of pregnancy complications such as fetal death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the report described about the change of size and implantation site of the molar mass coexisting with a live fetus is rare especially about sonographic findings such as echo patterns. Recently we experienced a case of complete hydatidiform mole with a healthy infant delivered at term.

  3. Pituitary adenoma in monozigotic twins with Cri du Chat syndome: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaz Gokhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are rare tumours of pediatric population. In etiology, genetic factors are more common than they are in adults. Because of the rarity of the cases, there are only a few large case studies in the literature. Pituitary tumours in children are often related with syndromes like MEN type 1, Carney Complex and Mc Cune Albright, but there is no case in the literature associated with Cri Du Chat syndrome. Statisticlly, it has been reported that, pediatric tumours occur more often in twins, in the pediatric population. Main treatment for prolactinomas is medical intervention with dopamine agonists, as in adults. Surgery is prefered when the tumour is resistant to medical treatment or shows mass effects around sellae. In that situation, as in adults, both transcranial and transsphenoidal approach is possible.

  4. Case Report: Evaluation strategies and cognitive intervention: the case of a monovular twin child affected by selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Micaela; Cerniglia, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the assessment process, evaluation strategies, and cognitive intervention on a 9 years old child with selective mutism (SM), a monovular twin of a child also affected by mutism. Currently, the cognitive behavioral multimodal treatment seems the most effective therapeutic approach for children diagnosed with selective mutism (Capobianco & Cerniglia, 2018). The illustrated case confirms the role of biological factors involved in mutacic disorder but also highlights the importance of environmental influences in the maintenance of the disorder with respect to relational and contextual dynamics (e.g. complicity between sisters, family relationships). The article discusses furthermore the importance of an early diagnosis as a predictor of positive treatment outcomes.

  5. Burst strength of tubing and casing based on twin shear unified strength theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Kuanhai; Sun, Yongxing; Zeng, Dezhi; Liu, Wanying; Kong, Xiangwei; Singh, Ambrish

    2014-01-01

    The internal pressure strength of tubing and casing often cannot satisfy the design requirements in high pressure, high temperature and high H2S gas wells. Also, the practical safety coefficient of some wells is lower than the design standard according to the current API 5C3 standard, which brings some perplexity to the design. The ISO 10400: 2007 provides the model which can calculate the burst strength of tubing and casing better than API 5C3 standard, but the calculation accuracy is not desirable because about 50 percent predictive values are remarkably higher than real burst values. So, for the sake of improving strength design of tubing and casing, this paper deduces the plastic limit pressure of tubing and casing under internal pressure by applying the twin shear unified strength theory. According to the research of the influence rule of yield-to-tensile strength ratio and mechanical properties on the burst strength of tubing and casing, the more precise calculation model of tubing-casing's burst strength has been established with material hardening and intermediate principal stress. Numerical and experimental comparisons show that the new burst strength model is much closer to the real burst values than that of other models. The research results provide an important reference to optimize the tubing and casing design of deep and ultra-deep wells.

  6. Four-dimensional real-time sonographically guided cauterization of the umbilical cord in a case of twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Rebarber, Andrei; MacKenzie, Andrew; Caglione, Christopher F; Young, Bruce K

    2003-07-01

    In the past decade, three-dimensional (3D) sonographic technology has matured from a static imaging modality to near-real-time imaging. One of the more notable improvements in this technology has been the speed with which the imaged volume is acquired and displayed. This has enabled the birth of the near-real-time or four-dimensional (4D) sonographic concept. Using the 4D feature of the current 3D sonography machines allows us to follow moving structures, such as fetal motion, in almost real time. Shortly after the emergence of 3D and 4D technology as a clinical imaging tool, its use in guiding needles into structures was explored by other investigators. We present a case in which we used the 4D feature of our sonographic equipment to follow the course and motion of an instrument inserted into the uterus to occlude the umbilical cord of a fetus in a case of twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

  7. Twin specific risk factors in primary school achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational achievement was compared between twins and their nontwin siblings in a within-family design. Data were obtained from parents and teachers of approximately 10,000 twins and their nontwin siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Teachers rated the proficiency of the children on arithmetic, language, reading, and physical education, and reported a national educational achievement test score (CITO). Structural equation modeling showed that gestational age, birth weight, and sex were significant predictors of educational achievement, even after correction for socioeconomic status. Mode of delivery and zygosity did not have an effect, while parental age only influenced arithmetic. Mode of conception, incubator time, and birth complications negatively affected achievement in physical education. The comparison of educational achievement of twins and singletons showed significantly lower ratings on arithmetic, reading, and language in twins, compared to their older siblings, but not compared to their younger siblings. Low gestational age and low birth weight were the most important risk factors for lower educational achievement of twins in primary school. It seems that the differences observed between twins and their nontwin siblings in educational achievement can largely be explained by birth order within the family.

  8. Successful treatment of Rh alloimmunization in a twin pregnancy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: The prevalence of Rh alloimmunization has decreased following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin. With serial amniocentesis, Doppler sonography of the middle cerebral artery and treatment of anemia with intrauterine blood transfusion, perinatal mortality has declined. However, Rh alloimmunization in twin pregnancies poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge."n"n Case report: We are reporting, for the first time in Iran, the successful treatment of severe Rh alloimmunization in a dichorionic- diamnionic twin pregnancy leading to the live births of both neonates. Before treatment, the fetal hemoglobin levels were 3.1g/dL and 3.9g/dL, with ascites in both fetuses. The fetuses were treated with several IUTs."n"n Results: After treatment, the neonates were delivered, weighing 2200 and 2300g, with good Apgar scores, at a gestational age of 34 weeks. "n"n Conclusion: 10% of population in Iran is Rh-negative, although Prophylaxis for Rh alloimmunization is universal, as other part of the world it cannot irrigated. For the best management of these cases, we need a well-equipped referral center."n"n Keywords: Twin, pregnancy, Rh alloimmunization, intrauterine blood transfusion, Doppler, middle cerebral

  9. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy of the bilateral hips in twin gestation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Maria E; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Hynes, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy has been described as a rare, self-limiting disease of unclear etiology that presents as severe pain, which typically affects pregnant women in their third trimester. We describe 3 cases of primigravid pregnant women with twin gestation who reported unilateral hip pain and who were diagnosed with transient osteoporosis of pregnancy of the hip by magnetic resonance imaging. These women were advised to undergo limited weight bearing and activity modification to minimize the risk of fracture. Each patient was able to proceed through her pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum course without complication, with symptom resolution, and return to unrestricted activity. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identical, Fraternal, or Separated at Birth: A Case Study of Educator Teams within American-Israeli School Twinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Fern; Mittelberg, David; Laron, Dinah; Koren, Annette

    2013-01-01

    School-to-school collaboration has emerged as a key paradigm for fostering personal and institutional connections between Israeli and Diaspora youth, educators, and schools. Using the findings of a multi-year case study of a high school level twinning initiative, this article describes the challenges to this form of transnational collaboration and…

  11. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of monochorionic and matched dichorionic twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien E A Hack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monochorionic (MC twins are at increased risk for perinatal mortality and serious morbidity due to the presence of placental vascular anastomoses. Cerebral injury can be secondary to haemodynamic and hematological disorders during pregnancy (especially twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS or intrauterine co-twin death or from postnatal injury associated with prematurity and low birth weight, common complications in twin pregnancies. We investigated neurodevelopmental outcome in MC and dichorionic (DC twins at the age of two years. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Cerebral palsy (CP was studied in 182 MC infants and 189 DC infants matched for weight and age at delivery, gender, ethnicity of the mother and study center. After losses to follow-up, 282 of the 366 infants without CP were available to be tested with the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales at 22 months corrected age, all born between January 2005 and January 2006 in nine perinatal centers in The Netherlands. Due to phenotypic (unalikeness in mono-or dizygosity, the principal investigator was not blinded to chorionic status; perinatal outcome, with exception of co-twin death, was not known to the examiner. FINDINGS: Four out of 182 MC infants had CP (2.2% - two of the four CP-cases were due to complications specific to MC twin pregnancies (TTTS and co-twin death and the other two cases of CP were the result of cystic PVL after preterm birth - compared to one sibling of a DC twin (0.5%; OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.5-38.2 of unknown origin. Follow-up rate of neurodevelopmental outcome by Griffith's test was 76%. The majority of 2-year-old twins had normal developmental status. There were no significant differences between MC and DC twins. One MC infant (0.7% had a developmental delay compared to 6 DC infants (4.2%; OR 0.2, 95% 0.0-1.4. Birth weight discordancy did not influence long-term outcome, though the smaller twin had slightly lower developmental scores than its

  12. Digitalization of the mother in treating hydrops fetalis in monochorionic twin with Ebstein's anomaly. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, T; Minakami, H; Shiraishi, H; Ogawa, S; Matsubara, S; Honma, Y; Sato, I

    1997-01-01

    Hydrops fetalis thought to be due to Ebstein's anomaly was seen at 22 weeks' gestation in one of two fetuses with a monochorionic placenta. Hydrops was treated with maternal digitalization and resolved by the 28th week of gestation. Hydrops did not recur while maternal digitalization continued. A clinical diagnosis of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome required termination of the pregnancy at 33 weeks of gestation. The twin with Ebstein's anomaly died 22 hours after birth. The other twin survived and was normal at 19 months of age. Thus, administration of digitalis to the mother controlled hydrops fetalis in one fetus, and ultimately led to the survival of the healthy infant.

  13. Optic disc coloboma in two nigerian siblings: Case report and review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No systemic features of syndromes associated with ODCs and intellectual disability were present in both patients. The younger sibling an 8‑year‑old girl later presented to the eye clinic with a 5‑month history of poor vision in the left eye. Ocular examination revealed visual acuity of 6/6 in the right eye and counting fingers in ...

  14. Monozygotic Twin Pregnancy Associated with In Vitro Fertilization: Report and Revision of Three Cases Presented in a Clinic at 10,925 Feet Above Sea Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Luis Vargas; Cáceres, Ricardo Pella; Lechuga, Alberto Vargas; Durán, Livia Bartolo; Vargas, Mariela Serrano

    2015-08-01

    3 cases of monozygotic twin pregnancies associated with IVF presented at Centro de Fertilidad y Ginecología del Sur. In this study, we describe the cases and review the literature, noting possible related factors.

  15. Anencephaly with incomplete twinning (diprosopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, V M; Bergmann, C A

    1977-10-01

    A case of diprosopus with anencephaly is presented. It is suggested that such concurrence of neural tube defects and incomplete twinning corroborates the notion that a single pathogenetic mechanism may be common to both neural tube defects and monozygotic twinning.

  16. Autopsy Findings on a Pair of Dicephalic Parapagus Twins: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjoined twins are a rare occurrence that presents significant challenges to both parents and medical care givers with many theories being advanced to explain this occurrence.“Parapagus” is a fairly recent term, in which the twins lie side by side with ventro-lateral fusion and are extremely rare representing 0.5% of all ...

  17. Prune belly syndrome in a set of twins, a family tragedy: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report prune belly syndrome, a rare congenital malformation, in a set of twins delivered to a young couple with a history of three previous first trimester spontaneous abortions, discordant HIV seropositivity and antenatal ultrasound report that indicated renal abnormalities in only one of the twins. The challenges of ...

  18. Older Siblings Influence Younger Siblings' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E.; Nuzzo, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Evidence exists for two competing theories about the effects of having an older sibling on development. Previous research has found that having an older sibling has both advantages and disadvantages for younger siblings' development. This study examined whether and how older siblings influenced the onset of their own younger siblings' motor…

  19. Traveling magnetospheric convection twin vortices: Another case study, global characteristics, and a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmeier, K.H.; Heppner, C.

    1992-01-01

    A case study of a transient geomagnetic field variation event associated with a traveling magnetospheric convection twin vortex is presented. The characteristics of this event are different from those of other presented cases, as the sense of rotation of the associated ionospheric current system is reversed, that is, it exhibits upward (downward) field-aligned currents in the tailward (dayside) part of the vortex structure. In particular, a clear tailward motion at high latitudes can be deduced from local as well as global magnetic field observations. At low dayside latitudes, magnetic field variations similar to sudden impulse (SI) variations are recorded. Almost simultaneous onset and no westward propagation are observed, too. As possible source mechanisms of such transient events, localized magnetic field reconnection as well as pressure pulses at the dayside magnetopause are discussed. If the switch-on of magnetic reconnection can be regarded as equivalent to an equivalent current flowing against the existing magnetopause current and if this countercurrent is spatially localized, an Alfven wave is generated with downward (upward) field-aligned current flow in the tailward (dayside) par of the wave, as observed for some of the reported transients. However, the SI-like behavior of the event studied in this paper, its reversed sense of rotation, and the vortex associated field-aligned current density excludes such localized magnetic reconnection as a possible source mechanism and argues in favor of the existence of pressure pulses at the magnetopause

  20. Maternal obesity in singleton versus twin gestations: a population-based matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Natasa

    2015-04-01

    To examine the impact of pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse outcomes in twin compared to singleton pregnancies. Dichorionic twin gestations with maternal body mass index >30 were matched to three singleton controls. Both obese groups were matched (1:3) with non-obese controls. Rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, cesarean section, and preterm birth were compared. One hundred eighty-nine dichorionic twin pregnancies in obese mothers were matched to 567 twin pregnancies in non-obese mothers, and to 567 singleton pregnancies in obese mothers. The latter were matched to 1701 non-obese mothers with singletons. Preeclampsia was more common in obese mothers with both twins and singletons (odds ratio (OR) 3.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.18-7.16 and OR 6.53, 95% CI 3.75-11.4, respectively) as was gestational diabetes (OR 4.35, 95% CI 2.18-8.69; OR 5.53 95% CI 3.60-8.50). Obese mothers with singletons were more likely to deliver abdominally, but the cesarean rates were obesity independent in twins. Obese mothers were more likely to deliver at Obesity-attributable adverse outcomes are lower in twins compared to singletons. Obesity increases the risk of preterm birth regardless of plurality.

  1. Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Millman, L

    1987-04-01

    Monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reported on their food preferences, the variety of foods of the same general category (e.g. types of soup) in their diet, and their concern about contact of their food with disgusting or other unacceptable substances (contamination sensitivity). Although there was substantial resemblance between siblings for many of these items, there was no clear evidence for a heritable component on any item. The only case for which there was an interpretable and significantly greater resemblance among monozygotic than among dizygotic twins (out of 23 questions) was preferred degree of hotness resulting from chili pepper in foods. These results confirm the prediction that in omnivorous animals, such as humans, genetic predispositions will be minimal with respect to food. The modest sibling resemblances on a number of measures are primarily attributable to a shared environment.

  2. Thoracic heteropagus conjoined twins associated to an omphalocele: Report of a case and complete review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotti Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heteropagus twins are an extremely rare event with an incidence of 1–2 million live births that represents, sometimes, a real challenge for paediatric surgeons. The majority of cases have complete or partial duplication of the pelvis and/or lower extremities. Thoracic heteropagus conjoined twins is a rare condition in which a grossly defective foetus (the parasite is attached to the thorax of the main foetus (the autosite. We describe a case of a parasitic heteropagus attached at the chest wall with a rare presentation of giant exomphalos on the autosite. In this situation, the separation procedure was simple after a well-done anatomic study using X-ray, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance and echocardiogram are performed.

  3. Genetic or Psychogenic? A Case Study of “Folie à Quatre” Including Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Ohnuma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shared psychotic disorder, characterized by shared delusion among two or more subjects (termed “Folie à deux,” “trois,” etc., is often associated with strong religious beliefs or social isolation, factors creating strong psychological sympathy. Recently, we treated a rare familial case of “Folie à quatre” in central Tokyo without such influences. The proband was a schizophrenia patient and younger brother within monozygotic twins. Positive symptoms were “transmitted” to remaining family members, his elder brother, mother, and father father, in a relatively short period of three months. Although the pathophysiology of these positive symptoms (delusions and hallucinations remains unclear, the transmission pattern suggests the primacy of social and environmental factors (and/or their interaction, while genetics appeared less influential in this “Folie à famille.” Although undiagnosed psychoses in the whole family cannot be excluded, they did not share the other negative schizophrenia symptoms of the proband. A strong familial connection appeared to be the most important factor for the common delusion and hallucination.

  4. Severe Thoraco-lumbar Kyphoscoliosis Associated with Osteoporosis in Siblings - Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, Edyta; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Potaczek, Tomasz; Sułko, Jerzy; Tęsiorowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of scoliosis among patients with certain systemic diseases is much higher than in the general population. Moreover, the onset of the scoliosis is in early childhood before the age of 5 and the deformity reaches extreme values. We present the clinical course of two siblings with multiple musculoskeletal deformities, osteoporosis, severe kyphoscolisis and an undiagnosed systemic disease. The onset of scoliosis was in the first months of life of both children, with a marked progression about the 8th month of life. Due to lower limb deformities, ambulation was delayed until the 5th year of life in the male sibling, and the girl remains non-ambulant. Both children had osteoporosis, which caused numerous fractures of the upper and lower limbs. Due to progression of the spinal deformity the boy underwent a posterior hemispondylodesis with instrumentation at the age of 7. The girl also underwent surgery at the age of 7, but instrumentation could not be placed successfully due to inadequate bone quality. The last follow-up to date has been at the age of 12 years for the female patient and 20 years for the male patient. The spinal deformity in the female has not progressed during the last 2-3 years. She has been on bisphosphonate therapy for two years and no new fractures have been noted. The male patient has undergone multiple surgeries for lower limb deformities and is an independent walker. His scoliosis remains stable, but a minor progression of kyphosis has been noted in the last year. The history of the two patients shows that not all early-onset deformities can be effectively treated and that osteoporosis is a crucial obstacle to this treatment.

  5. [Adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality.

  6. Twin RSA

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra, Arjen K.; Weger, De; Benjamin, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce Twin RSA, pairs of RSA moduli (n, n+ 2), and formulate several questions related to it. Our main questions are: is Twin RSA secure, and what is it good for? © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  7. Dental caries and associated factors in twins with Down syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maurício José Santos; Schwertner, Carolina; Dall'Onder, Ana Paula; Klaus, Natália Mincato; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Hashizume, Lina Naomi

    2017-03-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder in humans, but its incidence in monozygotic twins is extremely rare. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with dental caries in a pair of monozygotic twin girls with DS, where one had caries experience and the other did not. Clinical examination, salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) levels and their genotypic diversity, the biochemical composition of the dental biofilm, the frequency of sucrose consumption, and toothbrushing habits were assessed from the twin girls. Twin with caries experience showed higher levels of S. mutans in the saliva and lower concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride and higher concentrations of extracellular polysaccharides in the biofilm compared to her sister. Genotypic diversity of S. mutans was also higher in the twin with caries experience. Dental biofilm composition showed different patterns of cariogenicity between the two sisters, which may also by itself explain the difference in the dental caries between them. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Basic Research on A-bomb exposed and nonexposed pair of twins and the pilot case study from socio-psycho-historical viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoji; Satow, Yukio; Okamoto, Naomasa

    1980-01-01

    A-bomb exposed and nonexposed pair monozygotic twins were investigated. In all the cases, a pair of twins had great similarity in appearance and were connected firmly each other from their childhood. In family relations, each of them was required to take a role as the younger or the elder. Interview and psychological test suggested some psychological trauma in the exposed one compared with the other nonexposed. The mental state of the exposed is little understood even by the other half of twins who are in close relation. (Ueda, J.)

  9. Familial aggregation of atrial fibrillation: a study in Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Ingrid Elisabeth; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heritability may play a role in nonfamilial atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that a monozygotic (MZ) twin whose co-twin was diagnosed with AF would have an increased risk of the disease compared with a dizygotic (DZ) twin in the same situation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A sample......-free survival times, we compared the time span between occurrences of disease in MZ and DZ twins. The unaffected twin was included when his or her twin-sibling (the index twin) was diagnosed with AF. After adjustment for age at entry, MZ twins had a significantly shorter event-free survival time (hazard ratio......, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.0), thereby indicating a genetic component. Using biometric models, we estimated the heritability of AF to be 62% (55% to 68%), due to additive genetics. There were no significant differences across sexes. CONCLUSIONS: All the analyses of twin similarities in the present study...

  10. Physical development and cognitive performance in a monozygotic twins for biliary atresia: Report of a case and literature reviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of monozygotic twins, one of whom suffered from biliary atresia and the other one was apparently healthy, is described herein. Children with biliary atresia appear to be vulnerable to developmental lags in the physical and cognitive performance, due to malnutrition and deteriorated liver function. In our case where the child with biliary atresia, who underwent a successful kasai operation, has achieved comparable growth development and cognitive performance in comparision with her sister, which suggest that the early diagnosis and timly kasai operation could allow children with biliary artesia to grow well in the short-term following time.

  11. Kangaroo care and behavioral and physiologic pain responses in very-low-birth-weight twins: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina M; Hussain, Naveed; Zhang, Di; Kelly, Sharon P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this case study was to describe pain responses in three study conditions: longer (30 minutes) kangaroo care (KC) before and throughout heel stick (KC30), shorter (15 minutes) KC before and throughout heel stick (KC15), and incubator care throughout heel stick (IC) in 28-week gestational age twins. Pain responses were measured by crying time, Preterm Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), and heart rate variability indexes, including low-frequency power (LF, representing sympathetic activity), high-frequency power (HF, parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF ratio (sympathetic-parasympathetic balance). Both twins cried more and had higher PIPP pain scores and tachycardia during heel stick in the IC condition. Infant B had an incident of apnea and tachycardia by the end of the heel stick and a bradycardia episode during recovery in the IC condition. The twins had lower LF/HF ratios (better autonomic nervous system balance) during recovery in both longer and shorter KC conditions compared with the IC condition. Infant B had difficulty returning to LF/HF ratio baseline level after the painful procedure in the IC condition. These data suggest that both longer and shorter KC before and throughout painful procedures can be helpful in reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses in preterm infants. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome - diagnosis and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajrić-Egić Amira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-twin transfusion syndrome is a serious complication of monozygotic, monochorionic, diamniotic twins resulting from transplacental vascular communications. In this syndrome blood is thought to be shunted from one twin - donor,who develops anaemia,growth retardation and oligoamnios, to the other twin - recipient,who becomes plethoric,macrosomic and develops polyhydroamnios. The incidence of twin-twin transfusion syndrome ranges from 5-15% of all twin pregnancies. If this condition develops in the second trimester, it is usually associated with spontaneous abortion and death of one or both fetuses before viability. Developing the syndrome in the third trimester has better perinatal outcome. Mortality rates ranging from 56%-100%, depending on gestational age and severity of the syndrome. The ultrasound criterias for diagnosis, in this study,were the presence of twins of the same sex with discordant growth, with oligohydroamnios in one twin sac and polyhydroamnios in the other one, one placenta and thin membrane between twins. The present study shows clinical course of 14 cases and value of Doppler ultrasound to analyze the usefulness of umbilical artery blood flow velocimetry for predicting the risk of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. 14 twin pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome were diagnosed during the last four years period and prospectivelly followed. 9 cases were diagnosed before the completion od 28 weeks of gestation.The mean gestational age was 21,6_+4,2 weeks at diagnosis and 23,2+_3,6 weeks at delivery. 5 cases were diagnosed after 28 weeks of gestation. The mean gestational age in this group was 29,6+_2,1 weeks at diagnosis and 33+_3,3 weeks at delivery. The survival rate in this study was 29%(8/28.9 cases ended in spontaneous abortion between 18th and 27th weeks of pregnancy (table 1 and 5 in premature labor (table 2.There were 7 intrauterine death (5 at admission and 2 few days after admission and 13 neonatal deaths

  13. A twin-family study of general IQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we assess the presence of assortative mating, gene¿environment interaction and the heritability of intelligence in childhood usinga twin family design with twins, their siblings and parents from 112 families. We evaluate two competing hypotheses about the cause of assortativemating in

  14. A twin-family study of general IQ.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; van den Berg, S.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we assess the presence of assortative mating, gene-environment interaction and the heritability of intelligence in childhood using a twin family design with twins, their siblings and parents from 112 families. We evaluate two competing hypotheses about the cause of assortative mating

  15. "Saviour siblings".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, M; Savulescu, J

    2002-10-01

    The Victorian Infertility Treatment Authority has given permission to allow tissue typing in combination with preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This is a new application of IVF. Not only will it allow parents to select an embryo free from serious genetic disease it will allow them to simultaneously select for a match so that the umbilical cord blood of the resulting baby can provide stem cells to treat an existing sibling who has a disease.

  16. Use of atosiban in a twin pregnancy with extremely preterm premature rupture in the membrane of one twin: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Yih; Chen, Shee-Uan; Lee, Chien-Nan; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2010-12-01

    Pregnancies with extremely preterm premature rupture of membranes (EPPROM), especially before 20 weeks of gestation, are usually considered to be a termination of pregnancy. By improvement of obstetric and neonatal care, we can prolong the pregnancy across the threshold of survival by aggressive tocolysis. Using intrauterine insemination, a 32-year-old woman became pregnant with twins (first pregnancy). Threatened abortion occured since 9 weeks of gestation and EPPROM of the upper twin was noted at 18 weeks. Massive vaginal bleeding and vigorous uterine contractions occurred at 22 weeks. Poor control of preterm labor occurred using ritodrine and MgSO(4). Atosiban was applied to calm uterine activities. After discontinuation of atosiban at 30 weeks, the uterine contractions became severe again and an emergency cesarean section was performed to deliver two live, premature babies weighing 1,518 g and 830 g, respectively. Twin A was healthy, weighing 2,030 g at 35 days after birth and subsequently discharged. The smaller twin B was dependent on continuous positive airway pressure and died of pulmonary infection 120 days after birth. Comparing to other tocolytic agents, Atosiban has few side effects and assisted in prolonging a pregnancy involving twins that experienced EPPROM. Copyright © 2010 Taiwan Association of Obstetric & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnóstico pré-natal de um gêmeo hemiacárdico: relato de caso Prenatal diagnosis of hemiacardiac twin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio A. G. Alves

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de acardia fetal é uma rara complicação de gestações gemelares monozigóticas, ocorrendo uma vez em cada 35.000 partos. O prognóstico é fatal para todos gêmeos acárdicos e para 50-75% dos gêmeos normais. Neste trabalho é apresentado um caso de hemiacardia fetal (acardia parcial em gravidez gemelar. O diagnóstico foi feito utilizando-se ultra-sonografia, ecocardiografia fetal e foi confirmado após o parto.The acardius syndrome is a rare complication of monozygotic twin pregnancies, occurring once in 35.000 births. The outcome is invariably fatal for the acardiac twin and for 50-75% of the normal twins. We report a case of partial (pseudoacardia in twin pregnancy. The diagnosis was made using ultrasonography, fetal echocardiography and confirmed after delivery.

  18. Personality and birth order in monozygotic twins adopted apart: a test of Sulloway's theory; Research Reviews: twin births and cancer risk in mothers, male sexual dysfunction, twin study of ultimatum game behavior; Human Interest: 'The Land of Twins', twin-like reunion-I, twin-like reunion-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2008-02-01

    A brief overview of Sulloway's (1996) theory of birth order and personality is presented. A reared apart twin approach for testing his personality findings regarding openness to experience and conscientiousness in first borns and later borns is described. This is followed by summaries of three recent twin studies. The topics include cancer risk in mother of twins, sexual dysfunction in males and responder behavior during ultimatum games. This article concludes with a discussion of twinning rates and rituals among the Yoruba of western Nigeria, and descriptions of two unusual reunions between siblings and twins.

  19. The association between unequal parental treatment and the sibling relationship in Finland: The difference between full and half-siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O

    2015-06-24

    Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults), we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206) from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  20. The Association between Unequal Parental Treatment and the Sibling Relationship in Finland: The Difference between Full and Half-Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkka Danielsbacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults, we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206 from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  1. Sibling negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus A. Johnstone; Alexandre Roulin

    2003-01-01

    Current discussions of offspring begging typically assume either that it is a signal directed at parents or that it represents a form of scramble competition to gain access to them. However, offspring might also display to inform nest mates that they will contest the next food item to be delivered; in other words, begging (possibly in the absence of parents) might serve purely as a form of negotiation among siblings. Here, we develop a game-theoretical model of this possibility. We assume tha...

  2. Attractiveness Differences Between Twins Predicts Evaluations of Self and Co-Twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Connor P.; Rosen, Lisa H.; Taylor-Partridge, Teresa; Langlois, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in psychology shows that people prefer and make positive attributions about attractive compared with unattractive people. The goal of the current study was to determine the power of attractiveness effects by testing whether these social judgments are made where attractiveness differences are smallest: between twins. Differences in facial attractiveness predicted twins’ evaluations of self and their co-twin (n = 158; 54 male). In twin pairs, the more attractive twin judged their less attractive sibling as less physically attractive, athletic, socially competent, and emotionally stable. The less attractive twin did the reverse. Given that even negligible differences in facial attractiveness predicted self and co-twin attitudes, these results provide the strongest test yet of appearance-based stereotypes. PMID:23467329

  3. The Coffin-Siris syndrome: five new cases including two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J C; Hall, B D

    1978-07-01

    Five new cases and one previously reported case of the Coffin-Siris syndrome are described. These cases plus the remaining four already published bring to ten the number of cases available for scrutiny. Constant features (100% frequency) include variable degrees of mental retardation, nail hypoplasia or absence with predominantly fifth digit involvement, hypotonia, infancy feeding problems, and retarded bone age. Frequent features (75% to 90%) include postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, wide nasal tip and mouth, prominent lips, eyebrow/eyelash hypertrichosis, and scalp hair hypotrichosis. Significant but less frequent findings include short philtrum (50%, scoliosis (40%), decreased fetal activity (40%), smallness for gestational age (30%), and congenital heart defects (30%). We found the craniofacial phenotype to be mild in the young infant, but progressively more characteristic with age. Autosomal recessive inheritance is suspected on the basis of our brother-and-sister pair.

  4. Adult-onset acral peeling skin syndrome in a non-identical twin: a case report in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Reshmi; Omole, Olufemi B; Rigby, Jonathan; Grayson, Wayne

    2014-12-31

    Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which skin exfoliation is limited to the hands and feet. While it typically manifests from early childhood, in this first reported case from South Africa, the patient did not manifest clinically until the fourth decade of life. A 44-year-old woman of African descent, 1 of a set of non-identical twins, presented with recurrent episodes of skin peeling of the upper and lower limbs. The first episode occurred 4 years prior, followed by perennial skin peeling during the spring seasons. She was not on treatment for any chronic disease and reported no exposure to chemicals or other irritants. The family, including the non-identical twin sister, has no history of skin disorders and the patient's HIV antibody test was negative. At presentation, physical examination revealed ongoing exfoliation with new skin formation on the palms and soles. The mucous membranes and nails were spared. Other systems were normal. Skin biopsy taken from the palms confirmed peeling skin syndrome. The patient was managed with topical aqueous cream and analgesics. She was briefly counseled on the nature and prognosis of the disease, and referred for genetic testing and counseling. On follow-up, she continues to have skin peeling once or twice a year. This first reported case of this rare disease in South Africa contributes to the growing body of literature on the disease and highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of its variable clinical onset.

  5. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  6. The relationship between periodontal status and peripheral levels of neutrophils in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Berker, Ezel; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Iihan; Sanal, Ozden

    2003-03-01

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a severe reduction in absolute neutrophil counts, resulting in an almost total absence of neutrophils. It is well known that severe neutropenia affects periodontal status. Oral manifestations include ulcerations, gingival desquamation, gingival inflammation, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss which may result in tooth loss. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may improve this periodontal condition. This article reports the relationship between periodontal disease status and peripheral neutrophil levels in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia who did not receive routine G-CSF for 2 years prior to examination. Both siblings were given scaling, root planing, and periodontal prophylaxis in regular follow-up visits. This report demonstrates that periodontal therapy supported by adequate oral hygiene may result in restoration of neutrophil counts in siblings with congenital neutropenia.

  7. Sports pairs: insights on athletic talent; research reviews: twins with leukemia; parents and twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2007-06-01

    Twin research exploring genetic and environmental influences on athletic interests and talents is reviewed. Illustrative examples of twin athletes representing a variety of sports activities are presented. This is followed by an overview of twin studies offering critical insights into the onset and progress of leukemia. In the last section, timely events involving twins and parents of twins will be described--each case provides a new look at an old question.

  8. A case report of two male siblings with autism and duplication of Xq13-q21, a region including three genes predisposing for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Elisabet; Vujic, Mihailo; Kärrstedt, Ewa-Lotta; Erlandsson, Anna; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder, severe behaviour problems and duplication of the Xq12 to Xq13 region have recently been described in three male relatives. To describe the psychiatric comorbidity and dysmorphic features, including craniosynostosis, of two male siblings with autism and duplication of the Xq13 to Xq21 region, and attempt to narrow down the number of duplicated genes proposed to be leading to global developmental delay and autism. We performed DNA sequencing of certain exons of the TWIST1 gene, the FGFR2 gene and the FGFR3 gene. We also performed microarray analysis of the DNA. In addition to autism, the two male siblings exhibited severe learning disability, self-injurious behaviour, temper tantrums and hyperactivity, and had no communicative language. Chromosomal analyses were normal. Neither of the two siblings showed mutations of the sequenced exons known to produce craniosynostosis. The microarray analysis detected an extra copy of a region on the long arm of chromosome X, chromosome band Xq13.1-q21.1. Comparison of our two cases with previously described patients allowed us to identify three genes predisposing for autism in the duplicated chromosomal region. Sagittal craniosynostosis is also a new finding linked to the duplication.

  9. Papillon-Lefevre syndrome: A case report of 2 affected siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS is a very rare syndrome of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by palmar-plantar hyperkeratosis and early onset periodontitis, leading to premature loss of both primary and permanent dentitions. Various etiopathogenic factors are associated with the syndrome, but a recent report has suggested that the condition is linked to x mutations of the cathepsin C gene. The purpose of this report is to describe two cases of PLS in the same family who presented to the Department of Dentistry of Dr. R. P. Government Medical College at Tanda, Kangra (Himachal Pradesh with a chief complaint of mobility and rapid loss of teeth. Hyperkeratosis of palms and soles was present. On intraoral examination, there was severe gingival inflammation, abscess formation, and deep periodontal pockets with mobility of teeth. Histopathological examination of the specimen taken from the thickened skin was reported to be consistent with PLS. The dental treatment comprised oral prophylaxis, scaling and root planning, antibiotic therapy, instructions on oral hygiene, restorations, extraction of hopelessly affected teeth, and prosthetic rehabilitation.

  10. Bromocriptine treatment associated with recovery from peripartum cardiomyopathy in siblings: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drexler Helmut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare form of cardiomyopathy, with heterogeneous presentation occurring in women between one-month antepartum and six months postpartum. It carries a poor prognosis and a high risk of mortality. Case presentation We report the development of peripartum cardiomyopathy in two sisters, 27- and 35-year-old African women, one of whom presented with a large left ventricular thrombus. Subsequently, both patients were treated with bromocriptine, heparin and standard therapy for heart failure (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers and diuretics. During follow-up, the left ventricular thrombus observed in one patient degraded. Neither patient experienced a thrombotic event, and both experienced continuous improvements in cardiac function and New York Heart Association stage. Conclusion The development of peripartum cardiomyopathy in two sisters indicates that there may be a genetic basis for this type of cardiomyopathy, and that women with a positive family history for peripartum cardiomyopathy may have an increased risk of developing the disease. This is also the first report of a patient experiencing degradation of a large left ventricular thrombus under standard therapy for heart failure with bromocriptine. It suggests that the use of bromocriptine in association with adequate anti-coagulation and heart failure therapy may be beneficial and safe.

  11. [Jealousy between siblings in early childhood. Nursing assessment based on a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Plana, María Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Childhood jealousy, when a little brother or sister is born, has always been a subject treated within the family environment. Parent's attitude in their interaction with their offspring may increase the response of the jealous child. The emotional expressions of the jealous child may lead to behaviour changes, that may occasionally put the physical integrity of the newborn at risk, since it is the most vulnerable in the family group. In view of the above mentioned, a case of a three-year-old child living with his parents and his nine-month-old sister, is presented. The child shows characteristic behaviour changes of jealousy, such as, rebelliousness, aggressiveness and hyperactivity. The brother's psychomotor discomfort leads to a proneness to accidents for the baby girl and the obvious parental concern. For these reasons nursing intervention in the family group was proposed, based on the theoretical Virginia Henderson Needs Model. The actions will come from the older brother and parents. The aim of the nursing intervention is to lead the behaviour changes in order to re-establish a safe and healthy family environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of six children are facing a trial on charges of aggravated manslaughter in the care a 5 1/2 month old infant who died suddenly and neglect of their four older children for causing them to be malnourished by feeding them all an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. Both parents declined plea bargains and plan to defend themselves in court. Case presentation The fifth child born to a married couple was breast-fed until 2 1/2 months. Subsequently, the parents fed the baby an exclusively raw foods diet prepared in a blender at home. The four older children, ages 18 months – 6 1/2 years also ate an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. None of the four older children had significant previous injuries or serious illnesses. At autopsy, the infant weighed 3180 mg (6.99 pounds and appeared emaciated. The thymus gland was absent and parathyroid glands were not located. The lungs were "congested." DiGeorge anomaly cannot be ruled out from these findings. Although, the coroner ruled that "malnutrition" was the sole cause of death, malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization definition, cannot be diagnosed in this infant. Compared with standard growth charts, the older children fell 2.1–4.1 standard deviations below the mean for North American children in height and weight. Labs were normal except for a low cholesterol level in all and a low prealbumin in one of three children tested. Therefore, malnutrition cannot be diagnosed in these children. The pediatrician diagnosed rickets in the four-year-old. However, chest x-rays were normal in all and long bone x-rays showed minimal changes in one child – no sign of rickets. The clinical diagnosis of rickets was not confirmed by the Center for Disease Control's criteria. A psychologist diagnosed the 18-month-old as developmentally delayed to the level of a 15-month-old, but this diagnosis is questionable. Conclusion The raw foods vegan diet and possibly inherited small

  13. Hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Santema (Job); E. Koppelaar (Elin); H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the incidence and severity of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy and in singleton gestation. Study design: Case-control study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 187 twin pregnancies attending

  14. Family-Based Treatment of a 17-Year-Old Twin Presenting with Emerging Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Study Using the "Maudsley Method"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Katharine L.; Hirsch, Alicia M.; Greif, Rebecca; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the successful application of family-based treatment (FBT) for a 17-year-old identical twin presenting with a 4-month history of clinically significant symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). FBT is a manualized treatment that has been studied in randomized controlled trials for adolescents with AN. This case study illustrates…

  15. Tensions among siblings in parent care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashewicz, Bonnie; Keating, Norah

    2009-06-01

    From a place of "genealogical equivalence" as children of their parents, siblings spend a lifetime developing separate identities. As parents near the end of their lives, issues of sibling equivalence are renegotiated in the face of equal obligations to provide care and equal entitlement to parent assets. In this paper, we hypothesize how unresolved issues of rivalry for parent affection/attention among siblings may be reasserted when parents need care. Data are drawn from a project about how parent care and assets are shared. In-depth interviews with three sibling groups experiencing conflict over sharing parent care and assets along with six Canadian legal case portrayals of disputes among siblings over how parent care and assets were shared are examined. Findings are that disputes occur when siblings perceive others as dominating parent care and assets through tactics such as separating the parent from other siblings and preventing other siblings from being engaged in decisions about care and assets. Discussion is focused on paradoxes faced by siblings given expectations for equity in parent relationships alongside perceived pre-eminence in care and asset decisions.

  16. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária

    2016-01-01

    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  17. Concordance for multiple sclerosis in Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T; Skytthe, Axel; Stenager, Egon

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in twins has not previously been studied in complete nationwide data sets. The existence of almost complete MS and twin registries in Denmark ensures that essentially unbiased samples of MS cases among twins can be obtained. In this population-based study...

  18. FEASIBILITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF DYADIC PROLONGED EXPOSURE INTERVENTION FOR PREVENTING POSTTRAUMATIC GRIEF IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A CASE REPORT OF TWO SIBLINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamim, Lilach

    2017-09-01

    This article highlights the feasibility of a dyadic prolonged exposure (DPE) intervention (L. Rachamim, I. Mirochnik, L. Helpman, N. Nacasch, & E. Yadin, ) in a 3-year-old preschooler and in a 6-year-old kindergartener immediately following the traumatic death of their younger sibling. It presents a detailed case description of the DPE treatment addressing traumatic grief and includes transcribed treatment dialogue. At the time of treatment termination, both children and caregivers resumed normal functioning. The results suggest that DPE intervention may ameliorate posttraumatic grief symptoms in young children. Controlled studies of preventive interventions for this population are clearly warranted. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Bullying among siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Skew, Alexandra J

    2012-01-01

    Parents are often concerned about repeated conflicts between their daughters and sons. However, there is little empirical research of sibling bullying. To conduct a review of existing studies of sibling bullying. Are there any associations between sibling bullying and peer bullying at school? What are the consequences of sibling bullying? Is there good justification why sibling bullying has been so neglected in research? Studies of sibling relationships were reviewed. Four quantitative studies were identified that report on both sibling and peer bullying. Sibling bullying is frequent with up to 50% involved in sibling bullying every month and between 16% and 20% involved in bullying several times a week. Experience of sibling bullying increases the risk of involvement in bullying in school. Both, bullying between siblings and school bullying make unique contributions to explaining behavioral and emotional problems. There is a clear dose-effect relationship of involvement of bullying at home and at school and behavioral or emotional problems. Those involved in both have up to 14 times increased odds of behavioral or emotional problems compared to those involved in only one context or not at all. The empirical evidence is limited and studies are mostly cross-sectional studies. Nevertheless, the review suggests that for those victimized at home and at school behavioral and emotional problems are highly increased. Sibling relationships appear to be a training ground with implications for individual well-being. Strengthening families and parenting skills and increasing sibling support is likely to reduce bullying and increase well-being.

  20. Sibling fairy tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Brunori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a reflection on sibling relationships starting from fairy tales. Their archetypical meaning and educative value are particularly analyzed. A selection of fairy tales having sibling relationships as their central theme is discussed.

  1. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  2. Intra-uterine exposure to dual fetal programming sequences among surviving co-twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Ibrahimou, Boubakari; Dagne, Getachew A

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of fetal programming following in utero demise of a co-twin are poorly understood. The authors examined fetal programming using a unique application of the change-point analysis method, and identified two types of fetal programming that occurred when a viable twin sibling died in utero, while the co-twin survived. In one type, the initial twin fetal programming trajectory was maintained while in a subset of surviving co-twins a "switch" from a twin to a singleton fetal program (dual fetal programming exposure) was observed. The results suggest that the timing in utero of conversion from a twin to a singleton programming pattern occurred slightly earlier among opposite-sex than in same-sex surviving co-twins. For the conversion from a twin to a singleton program to happen, the surviving co-twin must have attained a "critical mass" when the twin sibling died. Whereas, for same-sex surviving co-twins the critical mass for conversion was the 80th percentile of gestational-age specific birth weight, opposite-sex surviving co-twins converted at a lower critical mass (70th percentile). These novel findings warrant further study to confirm the new hithertofore unknown phenomenon of dual fetal programming sequence, and to determine the implications in terms of subsequent morbidity or mortality during infancy, childhood and adult life.

  3. Boucher Neuhäuser Syndrome - A rare cause of inherited hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. A case of two adult siblings with two novel mutations in PNPLA6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdahl, Jakob H; Frederiksen, Anja L; Nguyen, Nina; Brusgaard, Klaus; Juhl, Claus B

    2017-02-01

    Boucher Neuhäuser Syndrome (BNS) is a rare clinical syndrome with autosomal recessive inheritance defined by early-onset ataxia, hypogonadism and chorioretinal dystrophy. We present two siblings diagnosed with BNS in late adult life identified with compound heterozygous state of two novel PNPLA6 mutations. Five healthy siblings were non- or heterozygous carriers of the mutations. The cases, which presented with ataxia in childhood and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), were diagnosed at age 17 and 25, respectively, when examined for delayed puberty. The youngest case, a 55-year old male, was referred to our department in 2006 for evaluation of secondary causes of osteoporosis, which he developed despite adequate testosterone replacement therapy. The unusual medical history with childhood ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism lead to further examinations and eventually the diagnosis of BNS. The older sister of the proband also displayed the triad of ataxia, HH and chorioretinal dystrophy accompanied by cerebellar atrophy and in 2014, we found the mutations in PNPLA6. BNS is a rare cause of HH and secondary osteoporosis, but should be considered in patients presenting with one or more of the key features. Genetic screening is becoming increasingly available and inexpensive and accordingly this may be considered earlier and by broader indication in unusual phenotypic presentations. The increasing knowledge of causes for inherited diseases should extend the use of genetic screening, as the correct diagnosis will benefit the patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Levels of soluble TREM-1 in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and their siblings without type 1 diabetes: a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Pipper, Christian B; Mortensen, Henrik B; Skogstrand, Kristin; Pociot, Flemming; Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet

    2017-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with an increase in incidence worldwide including Denmark. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory responses and has been linked to autoimmunity, severe psychiatric disorders, sepsis, and cancer. Our primary hypothesis was that levels of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) differed between newly diagnosed children with T1D and their siblings without T1D. Since 1996, the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register has collected data on all patients who have developed T1D before the age of 18 years. Four hundred and eighty-one patients and 478 siblings with measurements of sTREM-1-blood samples were taken within 3 months after onset-were available for statistical analyses. Sample period was from 1997 through 2005. A robust log-normal regression model was used, which takes into account that measurements are left censored and accounts for correlation within siblings from the same family. In the multiple regression model (case status, gender, age, HLA-risk, season, and period of sampling), levels of sTREM-1 were found to be significantly higher in patients (relative change [95%CI], 1.5 [1.1; 2.2],P = 0.02), but after adjustment for multiple testing our result was no longer statistically significant (P adjust = 0.1). We observed a statistical significant temporal increase in levels of sTREM-1. Our results need to be replicated by independent studies, but our study suggests that the TREM-1 pathway may have a role in T1D pathogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sibling genes as environment: Sibling dopamine genotypes and adolescent health support frequency dependent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily; Conley, Dalton; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-11-01

    While research consistently suggests siblings matter for individual outcomes, it remains unclear why. At the same time, studies of genetic effects on health typically correlate variants of a gene with the average level of behavioral or health measures, ignoring more complicated genetic dynamics. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, we investigate whether sibling genes moderate individual genetic expression. We compare twin variation in health-related absences and self-rated health by genetic differences at three locations related to dopamine regulation and transport to test sibship-level cross-person gene-gene interactions. Results suggest effects of variation at these genetic locations are moderated by sibling genes. Although the mechanism remains unclear, this evidence is consistent with frequency dependent selection and suggests much genetic research may violate the stable unit treatment value assumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Appetite and growth: a longitudinal sibling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Boniface, David; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-01

    Identifying early markers of future obesity risk can help target preventive interventions. Several studies have shown that a heartier appetite in infancy is a risk factor for more rapid weight gain, but to date no investigations have been able to rule out familial confounding. To use a sibling design (data from same-sex, dizygotic twin pairs) to test the hypothesis that sibling differences in infant appetite predicted differential weight gain during childhood. Gemini is a population-based twin cohort among the general United Kingdom population born between March 1, 2007, and December 15, 2007. Growth trajectories were analyzed from birth to age 15 months. Appetite-discordant pairs were selected from 800 nonidentical, same-sex twin pairs. Appetite during the first 3 months of life was assessed with the food responsiveness (FR) and satiety responsiveness (SR) subscales from the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Discordance was defined as a within-pair difference of at least 1 SD. A mean of 11.5 weight measurements per child were available between birth and age 15 months. Multilevel models, adjusted for sex and birth weight, compared growth curves for the higher-appetite vs lower-appetite twins. In total, 172 pairs were discordant for SR and 121 pairs for FR. Within-pair analyses showed that those with higher FR and those with lower SR grew faster than their sibling. At age 6 months, those with higher FR were 654 (95% CI, 395-913) g heavier and at age 15 months were 991 (95% CI, 484-1498) g heavier. For sibling pairs discordant for SR, the weight differences between siblings were 637 (95% CI, 438-836) g at age 6 months and 918 (95% CI, 569-1267) g at age 15 months. A heartier appetite (indexed with higher FR or lower SR) in early infancy is prospectively associated with more rapid growth up to age 15 months in a design controlling for potential familial confounding, supporting a causal role for appetite in childhood weight gain. Appetite could be an early marker

  7. Why do identical twins differ in personality: shared environment reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Anne Mari; Janson, Harald

    2002-02-01

    While heritability studies show that most of the variance in adult personality can be attributed to genetic or so-called nonshared environmental influence, this does not mean that shared events lack importance for the development of later personality differences. We studied the relationship between Big Five personality differences in monozygotic (MZ) twins at age 29, and life stressors at age 6 to 15, using prospective data from 26 MZ pairs studied from birth onwards. A positive significant correlation was found between stressors in childhood and early adolescence, and intrapair personality differences in Agreeableness, Openness, Conscientiousness, and five-factor profiles. We note that the effects of shared events are labeled "nonshared" environment when the effect is to make siblings more different. Case examples illustrate the relationship between stress and personality differences, and provide hypotheses for further studies in larger samples.

  8. Osteoartropatia hipertrófica primária (paquidermoperiostose: relato de casos em dois irmãos Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (pachydermoperiostosis: case report of two sibling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Nunes Carvalho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos dois irmãos acometidos pela osteoartropatia hipertrófica primária (paquidermoperiostose. Esta representa somente 3% a 5% de todos os casos de osteoartropatia hipertrófica. Nos nossos pacientes as alterações nos ossos longos são evidenciadas em radiografias convencionais, constando-se em neoformação óssea periosteal e alargamento das diáfises.We report a case of two siblings with primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (pachydermoperiostosis. Pachydermoperiostosis represents only 3 to 5 per cent of all cases of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. These patients presented long bone changes on conventional x-ray films including periosteal new bone formation and expansion of the diaphysis.

  9. Reciprocal Longitudinal Associations Between Adolescent Twin Gambling and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; C Hartl, Amy; Laursen, Brett; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined sibling influence over gambling involvement and delinquency in a sample of 628 twins (151 male dyads, 163 female dyads). Self-reports of gambling involvement and delinquency were collected for each twin at ages 13, 14 and 15 years. Results revealed evidence of between-twin influence. Higher levels of an adolescent's delinquency predicted an increase in his or her co-twin's delinquency from age 13 to age 14 and from age 14 to age 15. In contrast, gambling behavior was unaffected by the co-twin's gambling involvement. Within-twins, higher initial levels of delinquency predicted a subsequent increase in gambling behavior from age 13 to age 14 and again from age 14 to age 15, and higher initial levels of gambling involvement predicted an increase in delinquency from age 14 to age 15. Between and within siblings effects are discussed in light of the scant literature on (a) sibling influence on gambling, and (b) the links between gambling and delinquency.

  10. Case Report: Evaluation strategies and cognitive intervention: the case of a monovular twin child affected by selective mutism [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Capobianco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the assessment process, evaluation strategies, and cognitive intervention on a 9 years old child with selective mutism (SM, a monovular twin of a child also affected by mutism. Currently, the cognitive behavioral multimodal treatment seems the most effective therapeutic approach for children diagnosed with selective mutism (Capobianco & Cerniglia, 2018. The illustrated case confirms the role of biological factors involved in mutacic disorder but also highlights the importance of environmental influences in the maintenance of the disorder with respect to relational and contextual dynamics (e.g. complicity between sisters, family relationships. The article discusses furthermore the importance of an early diagnosis as a predictor of positive treatment outcomes.

  11. Family-Based Treatment of a 17-Year-Old Twin Presenting with Emerging Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Study Using the “Maudsley Method”

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, Katharine L.; Hirsch, Alicia M.; Greif, Rebecca; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the successful application of family-based treatment (FBT) for a 17-year-old identical twin presenting with a four-month history of clinically significant symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). FBT is a manualized treatment that has been studied in randomized controlled trials for adolescents with AN. This case study illustrates the administration of this evidence-based intervention in a clinical setting, highlighting how the best available research was used to make clinical ...

  12. Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Variable Expressions among Three Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Srinivasa Raju

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare disorder transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. It is characterized by photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, premature skin aging, and malignant tumor development. The frequency of this disorder is approximately 1 case per 250.000 population. Two important causes of mortality are metastatic malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here xeroderma pigmentosum in three siblings presenting with variable expressions is reported. The seventy of the condition was more in one of the more sun exposed sibling and had more signs of malignant lesions. Intraoral pigmentation was also present in all the three siblings.

  13. The Well Siblings of Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura

    1979-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…

  14. Bilateral Norrie's disease in identical twins.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumaran, K

    1991-01-01

    A case of Norrie's disease in an identical twins is reported. No positive family history was obtained. The couple had no other children. The older of the twins died at the age of 9 months of uncertain cause. To the best of my knowledge this is the first case of Norrie's disease reported in Malaysia. And its occurrence in an identical twins is very rare.

  15. The Qingdao Twin Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Haiping; Ning, Feng; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, the Qingdao Twin Registry was initiated as the main part of the Chinese National Twin Registry. By 2005, a total of 10,655 twin pairs had been recruited. Since then new twin cohorts have been sampled, with one longitudinal cohort of adolescent twins selected to explore determinants of me...

  16. The Relationship between Werner Syndrome and Sinonasal Malignant Melanoma: Two Sibling Cases of Werner Syndrome with Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kadowaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by premature aging. Malignant tumors such as thyroid carcinoma and malignant melanoma occur frequently in WS patients. We describe 2 siblings with WS who suffered from sinonasal malignant melanoma (MM. Both patients initially experienced nasal obstruction and recurrent nasal bleeding and died within 2 years of the diagnosis of MM. Otolaryngologists should recognize that WS patients have a high risk for head and neck malignant disease, particularly sinonasal MM, even if they are aged below the expected age range and undergo periodic examinations. Furthermore, it is important that WS patients are aware that a prompt nasal examination is indicated if they experience continuous nasal obstruction or recurrent nasal bleeding.

  17. A report of heat stroke in two Nigerian siblings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... Two Nigerian siblings aged ... Case Report. Two male siblings, aged 3 (Case 1) and 5‑year‑old (Case 2) ... stroke with the resultant neurological and multi organ dysfunction,[11] ... urine color cleared within 24 h of admission.

  18. Potential hot spot for de novo mutations in PTCH1 gene in Gorlin syndrome patients: a case report of twins from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, Vesna; Ozretić, Petar; Trnski, Diana; Sabol, Maja; Poduje, Sanja; Tošić, Mateja; Šitum, Mirna; Levanat, Sonja

    2018-02-28

    We describe a case of twins with sporadic Gorlin syndrome. Both twins had common Gorlin syndrome features including calcification of the falx cerebri, multiple jaw keratocysts, and multiple basal cell carcinomas, but with different expressivity. One brother also had benign testicular mesothelioma. We propose this tumor type as a possible new feature of Gorlin syndrome. Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by both developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition, with variable expression of various developmental abnormalities and different types of tumors. The syndrome is primarily caused by mutations in the Patched 1 (PTCH1) gene, although rare mutations of Patched 2 (PTCH2) or Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) genes have also been found. Neither founder mutations nor hot spot locations have been described for PTCH1 in Gorlin syndrome patients. Although de novo mutations of the PTCH1 gene occur in almost 50% of Gorlin syndrome cases, there are a few recurrent mutations. Our twin patients were carriers of a de novo mutation in the PTCH1 gene, c.3364_3365delAT (p.Met1122ValfsX22). This is, to our knowledge, the first Gorlin syndrome-causing mutation that has been reported four independent times in distant geographical locations. Therefore, we propose the location of the described mutation as a potential hot spot for mutations in PTCH1.

  19. Autosomal recessive hyper IgM syndrome associated with activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene in three Turkish siblings presented with tuberculosis lymphadenitis - Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, H Haluk; van der Burg, Mirjam; Unal, Ekrem

    2015-09-01

    The hyper-immunoglobulin M (HIGM) syndrome is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by recurrent infections, decreased serum levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA, and normal/increased serum levels of IgM. Herein, we describe three Turkish siblings with HIGM syndrome who had a homozygous missense mutation (c.70C>T, p.Arg24Trp) in the activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene which results in autosomal recessive HIGM syndrome. Two of the siblings, sibling 1 and sibling 3, presented with cervical deep abscess and cervical tuberculosis lymphadenitis, respectively.

  20. Sibling rivalry: training effects, emergence of dominance and incomplete control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Brunner, Edgar; East, Marion L

    2012-09-22

    Within-brood or -litter dominance provides fitness-related benefits if dominant siblings selfishly skew access to food provided by parents in their favour. Models of facultative siblicide assume that dominants exert complete control over their subordinate sibling's access to food and that control is maintained, irrespective of the subordinate's hunger level. By contrast, a recent functional hypothesis suggests that subordinates should contest access to food when the cost of not doing so is high. Here, we show that within spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) twin litters, dominants most effectively skew access to maternal milk in their favour when their aggression prompts a highly submissive response. When hungry, subordinates were less submissive in response to aggression, thereby decreasing lost suckling time and increasing suckling time lost by dominants. In a species where adult females socially dominate adult males, juvenile females were more often dominant than males in mixed-sex litters, and subordinate sisters used more effective counter-tactics against dominant brothers than subordinate brothers against dominant sisters. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence in a mammal that dominant offspring in twin litters do not exert complete control over their sibling's access to resources (milk), and that sibling dominance relationships are influenced by sibling sex and training effects.

  1. Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphoblasts from children with autism and unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kulbir; Chauhan, Ved; Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Abha

    2014-11-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. Although there is no single identifiable cause for autism, roles for genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in autism. Extensive evidence suggests increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in autism. In this study, we examined whether bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental risk factor for autism by studying its effects on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the lymphoblasts. When lymphoblastoid cells from autistic subjects and age-matched unaffected sibling controls were exposed to BPA, there was an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in both groups. A further subdivision of the control group into two subgroups-unaffected nontwin siblings and twin siblings-showed significantly higher ROS levels without any exposure to BPA in the unaffected twin siblings compared to the unaffected nontwin siblings. ROS levels were also significantly higher in the autism vs the unaffected nontwin siblings group. The effect of BPA on three important mtDNA genes-NADH dehydrogenase 1, NADH dehydrogenase 4, and cytochrome b-was analyzed to observe any changes in the mitochondria after BPA exposure. BPA induced a significant increase in the mtDNA copy number in the lymphoblasts from the unaffected siblings group and in the unaffected twin siblings group vs the unaffected nontwin siblings. In all three genes, the mtDNA increase was seen in 70% of the subjects. These results suggest that BPA exposure results in increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the autistic subjects as well as the age-matched sibling control subjects, particularly unaffected twin siblings. Therefore, BPA may act as an environmental risk factor for autism in genetically susceptible children by inducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pretense of parentage by siblings in immigration: Polesky's paradox reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Robert E; Shao, Alison

    2014-02-01

    Older and younger siblings occasionally attempt to impersonate parent and child to expedite immigration under US family-based visa policies. The rate with which full siblings escape detection by current relationship tests is unknown. Retrospective study of full-sibling immigrant pairs was undertaken to determine the proportion that show insufficient genetic evidence to exclude parentage. Sibship and parentage indices (SI and PI) were compared/case in unexcluded sibling cases and true parent-child cases. Alleles shared per short-tandem-repeat locus were compared in sibling and parent-child pairs. The proportion of successful parentage fraud by siblings was estimated from the parentage exclusion rate among immigrants and the proportion of sibships without genetic inconsistencies (GIs). When 11 to 25 independent loci were tested per two-sibling case to verify or refute parentage, tests failed to demonstrate any GI in 9% and PI was greater than SI in seven of 10 of these cases. Another 29% of full-sibling pairs demonstrated insufficient evidence (fewer than two GIs) to exclude parentage. Thus, 0.4% of sibling pairs could falsely claim a parent-child relationship and show no GIs. Another 1.4% could make that false claim and not present sufficient evidence to be excluded. At present, with no evidence of parentage exclusion in a full-sibling pair, the relative magnitudes of PI and SI are misleading relationship indicators because too few loci are examined and rates of sharing one and two alleles/locus vary greatly in parentage and sibling pairs. Only evidence of exclusion ascertains false parentage claims by siblings. Nevertheless, the expected rate of successful fraud is quite low. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Siblings in the context of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachner-Melman, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Sibling relationships may be relevant to the development of anorexia nervosa (AN), yet little research has focused on this aspect of the disorder. A narrative study of four women in various stages of recovery from AN is described and results relevant to sibling relationships are presented, enriched by published anecdotes and case studies. The anorexic interviewees described much antagonism and rivalry and little warmth and intimacy between themselves and their siblings. They seemed to feel they did not belong sufficiently in their families and other social settings despite a strong desire to belong. The sample is small, reports subjective and retrospective and no control group was included. It is suggested that anorexic girls often feel emotionally isolated from and misunderstood by siblings, who may have much to contribute to the process of therapy and recovery.

  4. Anaesthesia for the separation of conjoined twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Lalwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoraco-omphalopagus is one of the most common type of conjoint twins accounting for 74% cases of conjoint twins. We report the anaesthetic management for successful separation of thoraco-omphalopagus conjoint twins, both of them surviving till date. We highlight the responsibility of anaesthesia team in anaesthetising the two individual patients simultaneously, need of careful monitoring and anticipation of complications like massive blood loss, hypotension, hypokalemia, hypoxia and hypercabia. Detailed description of successful management is reported.

  5. Dental twinning anomalies: the nomenclature enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, C M; Croll, T P

    1990-07-01

    Dental twinning results from abnormal events in the embryologic development of teeth. This paper describes the impossibility of assigning precise diagnostic terms, such as germination, fusion, macrodontia, and concrescence, to dental twinning anomalies because the entire course of odontogenesis cannot be witnessed. Traditional nomenclature is reviewed and seven cases that exemplify the principle are presented. Modification of nomenclature to describe dental twinning defects is suggested.

  6. Twin Research and the Arts: Interconnections / Twin Research: Twin Studies of Sexual Orientation; A Historical Biological Twin Gem; GWAS Approach to Who Has Twins / Newsworthy: Twins on College Campuses; 'Brainprint': Personal Identification by Brain Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-08-01

    The interrelatedness between twin research and the arts is explored via a new play about a famous case. In the 1960s, identical twin David Bruce Reimer was accidentally castrated as an infant during circumcision to correct a urinary problem. The decision to raise him as a girl, and the consequences of that decision, are explored in the new theatrical production of Boy. Other examples of the arts mirroring science, and vice versa, are described. Next, brief reviews and summaries of twin research on sexual orientation, 1860s' knowledge of placental arrangements and twinning mechanisms, and genes underlying multiple birth conception and fertility related measures are provided. This article concludes with a look at twins on college campuses and the identification of individuals by their brain waves. A correction and clarification regarding my article on the Brazilian Twin Registry in the last issue of THG (Segal, 2016) is also provided.

  7. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy John

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through linkage analysis. Methods Screening at multiple clinical centers identifies patients (probands with radiographically confirmed ischemic stroke and a family history of at least 1 living full sibling with stroke. After giving informed consent, without violating privacy among other family members, the proband invites siblings concordant and discordant for stroke to participate. Siblings then contact the study coordinating center. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke in potentially concordant siblings is confirmed by systematic centralized review of medical records. The stroke-free status of potentially discordant siblings is confirmed by validated structured telephone interview. Blood samples for DNA analysis are taken from concordant sibling pairs and, if applicable, from 1 discordant sibling. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines are created, and a scan of the human genome is planned. Discussion Conducting adequately powered genomics studies of stroke in humans is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the stroke phenotype and the difficulty of obtaining DNA samples from clinically well-characterized members of a cohort of stroke pedigrees. The multicentered design of this study is intended to efficiently assemble a cohort of ischemic stroke pedigrees without invoking community consent or using cold-calling of pedigree members.

  8. Sibling Group Play Therapy: An Effective Alternative with an Elective Mute Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Karen; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents the case study of an elective mute child. Describes the effects of sibling play therapy and lists implications for school counselors who might use group or sibling play therapy in their developmental guidance programs. (ABB)

  9. Sibling differentiation: sibling and parent relationship trajectories in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Cumsille, Patricio

    2003-01-01

    Studied here were the links between sibling differences in trajectories of change in the qualities of parent-child relationships and the qualities of sibling relationships across a 2-year period in adolescence. Participants were first- and second-born siblings (M age = 14.94 years for firstborns and M age = 12.46 years for secondborns) from 185 predominantly White, working and middle-class families. In home interviews, siblings reported on their dyadic family relationships. For reports of parent-child warmth but not parent-child conflict, results were consistent with sibling differentiation theory: Increasing differences between siblings over time in parent-child warmth were linked to trajectories of increasing warmth and decreasing conflict in the sibling relationship as reported by firstborns, and increasing warmth in the sibling relationship as reported by secondborns. The findings support the view that sibling differentiation may be a strategy for managing sibling conflict and rivalry.

  10. Modeling acardiac twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Rosa; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Umur, Asli; Beek, Johan F.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Acardiac twin pregnancies are a rare but severe complication of monochorionic twinning, where the acardiac twin lacks cardiac function but nevertheless grows during pregnancy because it is perfused by the pump twin through a set of placental arterioarterial and venovenous anastomoses. Because the

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins by magnetic resonance imaging: report of two cases; Diagnostico pre-natal de gemeos unidos com uso da ressonancia nuclear magnetica: relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland de; Medeiros, Cynthia Coelho de; Lins, Glaucia Virginia de Queiroz [Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Noronha Neto, Carlos [Centro Integrado de Saude Amaury de Medeiros (CISAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Marcelo Marques de Souza [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: alexrolland@uol.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Conjoined twins have a rare prevalence and special curiosity among physicians and the general population. The reported frequency varies from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 pregnancies. Its early diagnosis becomes very important when we think about pregnancy management, method of delivery and neonatal care. We describe two cases of conjoined twins diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance during prenatal care with the aim to better studying the fetus anatomy. The first conjoined twins were cephalopagus sharing head, thorax and abdominal wall and with two pelvis and four arms and four legs. The second were thoracopagus, united by thorax and part of abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging contribution was not important to diagnose conjoined twins. However, it was useful to describe the shared organs, contributing to define fetal outcome. (author)

  12. Sonographic monitoring of complications and anomalies in twin gestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, B.G.; Grumbach, K.; Arger, P.H.; Mintz, M.C.; Arenson, R.L.; Mennuti, M.T.; Gabbe, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred sixty-eight twin gestations were evaluated to assess the role of US in the diagnosis of obstetric complications and anomalies. US revealed the following complications: symptomatic polyhydramnios (eight cases), myomas (seven), placenta previa (three), and abruption (five). Fetal anomalies included twin-twin transfusion syndrome (two), acardiac anomaly (two), chromosomal abnormality (two), anencephaly (one), hydrocephaly (one), and conjoined twins (two). In 26 gestations intrauterine fetal demise or neonatal death involved one or both twins for a total of 42 deaths, constituting a mortality of 12.5%. No maternal deaths occurred. The impact of sonographic monitoring on the obstetric management of twin gestations is emphasized

  13. Hemolytic disease of the newborn associated with anti-Jra alloimmunization in a twin pregnancy: the first case report in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsuk; Park, Min-Jeong; Sung, Tae-Jung; Choi, Ji Seon; Hyun, Jungwon; Park, Kyoung Un; Han, Kyou-Sup

    2010-10-01

    Jr(a) is a high-frequency antigen found in all ethnic groups. However, the clinical significance of the anti-Jr(a) antibody has remained controversial. Most studies have reported mild hemolytic disease of the newborn and fetus (HDNF) in Jr(a)-positive patients. Recently, fatal cases of HDNF have also been reported. We report the first case of HDNF caused by anti-Jr(a) alloimmunization in twins in Korea. A 33-yr-old nulliparous woman with no history of transfusion or amniocentesis was admitted at the 32nd week of gestation because of vaginal bleeding caused by placenta previa. Anti-Jr(a) antibodies were detected in a routine laboratory examination. An emergency cesarean section was performed at the 34th week of gestation, and 2 premature infant twins were delivered. Laboratory examination showed positive direct antiglobulin test and Jr(a+) phenotype in the red blood cells and the presence of anti-Jr(a) antibodies in the serum in both neonates. The infants underwent phototherapy for neonatal jaundice; this was followed by conservative management. They showed no further complications and were discharged on the 19th postpartum day. Preparative management to ensure the availability of Jr(a-) blood, via autologous donation, and close fetal monitoring must be performed even in cases of first pregnancy in Jr(a-) women.

  14. Sibling deidentification in the clinic: devil vs. angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, F F

    1985-09-01

    A four-member family structure consisting of two siblings contrasting in personality (sibling deidentification) and each identified with a different parent (split-parent identification) was recently reported (15). In well-functioning families, this tetrad or quadrangle is wide-spread in the first pair of siblings in the family and tends to be more common in same-sex pairs, suggesting that sibling deidentification is designed to mitigate the relatively intense sibling rivalry characteristic of these pairs and hence to maintain family harmony. In this collated case report, deidentification is found to follow the same pattern in 39 clinic first pairs. However, contrasting attributes are varied and nonevaluative in nonclinic pairs but mainly "good-bad" in clinic pairs, with polarization extreme. Results suggest that nonclinic siblings negotiate their identity (being) much as they negotiate about possessions (having) and that negotiations are blocked in clinic pairs, freezing mythic devil or angel identity. Intervention is directed at dislodging this block.

  15. Literature review of amelogenesis imperfecta with case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathy C Chanmougananda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis impertecta (Al is a diverse collection of inherited diseases that exhibit qualitative or quantitative tooth enamel defects in the absence of systemic manifestations. Also known by varied names, such as hereditary enamel dysplasia, hereditary brown opalescent teeth, this defect is entirely ectodermal, since mesodermal components of the teeth are basically normal. This article details a case of Al along with complete review which presents in his twin siblings with clinical, radiological and histopathological report.

  16. Relationships between adult siblings

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    Nives Ličen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents learning in private relationships between adult siblings. A concept of a family as microculture is presented, which is a source for giving explanation for random and opportunist learning. The author has used a biographic method of research. Using thematic life stories, which she has familiarized herself with through thematicalbiographical interviews is a basis to establish which events have served for learning in relationships between siblings.

  17. Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome caused by SMARCB1 constitutional deletion: prenatal detection of new case of recurrence in siblings due to gonadal mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Laura; Paganini, Irene; Frontali, Marina; Ciabattoni, Serena; Sangiuolo, Federica Carla; Papi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors are aggressive malignancies that show loss-of-function mutations of SMARCB1 gene, a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex controlling gene transcription. One-third of patients affected by rhabdoid tumor harbor a germ-line mutation of SMARCB1 defining a rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome. The occurrence of a second somatic mutation determines the development of neoplasia in a two-hit model. Most germ-line mutations occur de novo, and few cases of recurrence in a sibship have been described. Here we report on a new Italian family with recurrence of SMARCB1 germ-line deletion in two siblings due to gonadal mosaicism. The deletion was identified in the 9-month-old proband with malignant rhabdoid tumor of the right kidney and disseminated metastases. Testing of both parents confirmed the de novo origin of the mutation, but recurrence was then detected prenatally in a new pregnancy. This is the sixth family with malignant rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome with the recurrence of the same germ-line SMARCB1 mutation in the sibship but not in healthy parents, suggesting that gonadal mosaicism is a less rare event than supposed. The clinical outcome in our patient confirms previous data of poorer outcome in patients with rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome.

  18. Oral Rehabilitation of Adult Edentulous Siblings Severely Lacking Alveolar Bone Due to Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Report of 2 Clinical Cases and a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Chenping; Squarize, Cristiane H; Zou, Duohong

    2015-09-01

    The oral conditions of adult edentulous patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) often lead to decreased physical and psychological health, and the negative effects can become as extreme as social and psychological isolation. However, restoring oral function of adult edentulous patients with ED using zygomatic implants (ZIs) or conventional implants (CIs) remains challenging for dentists because of the severe atrophy of these patients' alveolar ridges. This report describes 2 cases of adult edentulous siblings with ED; they exhibited severe alveolar bone atrophy and were treated with ZIs and CIs as bases to augment the bone in their anterior jaws. For these patients, bone augmentation was completed with an autogenous fibular graft. Although there was mild evidence of bone graft resorption in the maxilla, the bone augmentation procedures were successful in the 2 patients. Effective osseointegration of the implants was obtained. After placement, the functional and esthetic results of the oral rehabilitation were acceptable. More importantly, restoration of the patients' oral function enhanced their self-confidence and self-esteem. Therefore, restoring oral function in adult patients with ED and edentulous jaws using ZIs and CIs as the bases for bone augmentation is an effective approach. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing Non-Medical Sex Selection and Saviour Sibling Selection in the Case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel: Beyond the Welfare of the Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm K; Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    The national ethical guidelines relevant to assisted reproductive technology (ART) have recently been reviewed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The review process paid particular attention to the issue of non-medical sex selection, although ultimately, the updated ethical guidelines maintain the pre-consultation position of a prohibition on non-medical sex selection. Whilst this recent review process provided a public forum for debate and discussion of this ethically contentious issue, the Victorian case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel (Health and Privacy) [2011] VCAT 856 provides a rare instance where the prohibition on non-medical sex selection has been explored by a court or tribunal in Australia. This paper analyses the reasoning in that decision, focusing specifically on how the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal applied the statutory framework relevant to ART and its comparison to other uses of embryo selection technologies. The Tribunal relied heavily upon the welfare-of-the-child principle under the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008 (Vic). The Tribunal also compared non-medical sex selection with saviour sibling selection (that is, where a child is purposely conceived as a matched tissue donor for an existing child of the family). Our analysis leads us to conclude that the Tribunal's reasoning fails to adequately justify the denial of the applicants' request to utilize ART services to select the sex of their prospective child.

  20. Case reports 1964, medicine: infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in four siblings. Retinopathy and keratopathy due to chloroquine. The first instance of hemoglobin E in a Japanese family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, R E; Hamilton, H B; Hinds, M J.A.; Slavin, R E; Kamata, Nanao; Shibata, Susumu; Miller, R J; Phair, J P; Kasahara, Masayuki; Shibata, Susumu

    1964-06-18

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report four siblings are presented who had infantile pyloric stenosis unequivocally demonstrated when pyloromyotomy was performed in the early neonatal period. Their father had symptoms of stenosis as an infant but he was treated medically and it cannot be stated with certainty that he had the disease. Blood groups, determined for the four children and their parents, were not unusual. Chromosome karyotypes, obtained from peripheral blood cultures, were apparently normal. In the second report, a case study of a patient exhibiting side effects due to chloroquine used in the treatment of lupus vulgaris is presented. In the third report, in a survey for hemoglobinopathies in Nagasaki, Japan four members in two generations of a Japanese family were found to have an abnormal hemoglobin, which on detailed chemical analyses was demonstrated to be hemoglobin E. The question of prior introduction of the gene into Japan from Southeast Asia versus independent mutation is briefly discussed. 70 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Shigellosis Caused by CTX-M Type ESBL Producing Shigella flexneri in Two Siblings of Rural Nepal: First Case Report from the Country

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    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  2. Sibling Squabbles: How to Cope With Your Children Fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branvold, Sharon L.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses what is normal and what is not regarding sibling rivalry, jealousy, and squabbling, and it provides some guidance for parents on handling conflict. The article also discusses three major sources of sibling conflict (jealousy, being left alone together, and family trips) and offers suggestions for dealing with each case. (SM)

  3. Co-Existence of Tuberous Sclerosis and the Fanconi Syndrome in Two Saudi Male Siblings: Report on Two Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hwiesh, Abdulla K.; Al-Mueilo, Samir H.; Saeed, Ibrahim; Barak, Infal H.; Al-Muhanna, Fahd A.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we present two cases of familial tuberous sclerosis co-existing with the Fanconi Syndrome. Both cases presented with history of failure to thrive and mental retardation associated with hypokalemic metabolic acidosis. To our knowledge, the association between tuberous sclerosis and the Fanconi Syndrome has not been reported previously. (author)

  4. A familial case of segregation of motor sensory neuropathy type 1B with multiple exostoses in monozygous twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Fedotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy (MIM 118200 is a rare genetic variant of myelinopathy with autosomal-dominant type of inheritance. Multiple exostosis bones are signs of multiple exostoses chondrodysplasia, genetically heterogeneous form of systemic bone disease with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The combination of two rare autosomal dominant diseases, affecting bone and peripheral nervous system in a pair of monozygotic twins and their father in one family, belongs to a unique clinical observations: since early childhood twins presented sharp reduction of the conduction velocity in all investigated motor nerves (>10 times together with multiple exostosis bone, confirmed by x-ray with a relatively benign course. Similar manifestations were detected in the patients father. DNA analysis confirmed the presence of 2 separate mutations in 2 different genes, с.389А>G/N gene MPZ and c.678С>А/N EXT2 gene that was inherited autosomal dominant manner, independently of each members of the same family.

  5. Conjoined twins – role of imaging and recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Philip Mathew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjoined twins are identical twins with fused bodies, joined in utero. They are rare complications of monochorionic twinning. The purpose of this study is to describe the various types of conjoined twins, the role of imaging and recent advances aiding in their management. Material and methods: This was a twin institutional study involving 3 cases of conjoined twins diagnosed over a period of 6 years from 2010 to 2015. All the 3 cases were identified antenatally by ultrasound. Only one case was further evaluated by MRI. Results: Three cases of conjoined twins (cephalopagus, thoracopagus and omphalopagus were accurately diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. After detailed counseling of the parents and obtaining written consent, all the three cases of pregnancy were terminated. Delivery of the viable conjoined twins was achieved without any complications to the mothers, and all the three conjoined twins died after a few minutes. Conclusion: Ultrasound enables an early and accurate diagnosis of conjoined twins, which is vital for obstetric management. MRI is reserved for better tissue characterization. Termination of pregnancy when opted, should be done at an early stage as later stages are fraught with problems. Recent advances, such as 3D printing, may aid in surgical pre-planning, thereby enabling successful surgical separation of conjoined twins.

  6. Siamese twins with craniofacial duplication and bilateral cleft lip/palate in a ceramic representation of the Chimú culture (Peru): a comparative analysis with a current case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Hernandez-Amaris, Maria F; Porras-Hurtado, Gloria Liliana; Rodriguez, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Craniofacial duplication or diprosopus is a very rare malformation that is present in approximately 0.4% of conjoined twins. Here is presented a case of craniofacial duplication in association with bilateral cleft lip/palate in both heads found in a ceramic representation from the early Chimú culture from Peru. A comparative analysis is made with a current case of a 28-week-old fetus with similar characteristics. After reviewing the medical literature on conjoined twins, very few reports of facial cleft in both twins were found, with no reports at all of bilateral cleft lip/palate. This ceramic crock is considered one of the first representations suggestive of craniofacial duplication, and probably the first reporting it in association with facial cleft.

  7. Siblings' personality traits and types of sibling relationship in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.

  8. Midlife diagnosis of Refsum Disease in siblings with Retinitis Pigmentosa – the footprint is the clue: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaram Hari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Refsum disease is a potentially lethal and disabling condition associated with retinitis pigmentosa in which early treatment can prevent some of the systemic manifestations. Case presentation We present the cases of two brothers with a diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa from childhood in whom Refsum disease was subsequently diagnosed midlife, after routine enquiry into hand and feet abnormalities. Subsequent treatment through dietary modification stabilised visual impairment and has prevented development of neurological complications to date. Conclusion It is therefore important to consider the diagnosis of Refsum disease in any patient with autosomal recessive or simplex retinitis pigmentosa, and to enquire about the presence of "unusual" feet or hands in such patients.

  9. Psychological Implications of Motherhood and Fatherhood in Midlife: Evidence from Sibling Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2008-01-01

    Using data from 4,744 full, twin, half-, adopted, and stepsiblings in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I examine psychological consequences of motherhood and fatherhood in midlife. My analysis includes between-family models that compare individuals across families and within-family models comparing siblings from the same family to account for…

  10. The association of current smoking behavior with the smoking behavior of parents, siblings, friends and spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association of current smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults with the smoking behavior of their parents, siblings, friends and spouses. Design: Using survey data from a large twin-family sample, the association between the smoking behavior of participants and that of

  11. Monochorionic twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack, K.E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Following widespread application of assisted reproductive technology modalities and the increased age of motherhood, the incidence of twin gestations has increased markedly. Twins are either monozygotic or dizygotic. Dizygotic (i.e. fraternal) twins result from the fertilization of two different

  12. Undiagnosed xiphopagus twins: a perinatal malady

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    Gowri Dorairajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjoined twins are a very rare entity. It is associated with poor survival rate in the presence of vital organ sharing. The entity can be diagnosed as early as the first trimester. A conjoined twin diagnosed late in labor is a malady with high perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity. We present one such case of xiphopagus twins. The management of a case diagnosed late in labor can be very challenging. Such obstetric challenges can be avoided by a meticulous early scan with a high index of suspicion, especially in the absence of separating membrane while scanning multiple pregnancies.

  13. Fighting with Spirits: Migration Trauma, Acculturative Stress, and New Sibling Transition-A Clinical Case Study of an 8-Year-Old Girl with Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Bose, Ruma

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the impact of migration and acculturation processes on the cultural, personal identity, and mental health of children who immigrate to a Western, multicultural environment, and the challenges clinicians in such environments face, when confronted with non-Western idioms of distress and healing practices. We do that by presenting a challenging clinical case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with very disorganized behavior, which matches a culturally accepted construct of spirit possession, in the context of migration trauma, acculturative stress, and new sibling transition. We identify cultural conflict in school and bullying as major mediators between acculturative stress and mental distress. We also aim at identifying vulnerability, risk and protective factors, and the importance of cultural coping resources. We explore in depth the patient's cultural background and the family's belief system and culturally shaped narratives, in order to arrive at a cultural formulation, which focuses on the significance of idioms of distress in shaping psychopathology and influencing the personal and interpersonal course of trauma- and stress-related disorders. We also call attention to the finding that in children, idioms of distress may manifest themselves in a somatic manner. We argue, together with other researchers, that spirit possession deserves more interest as an idiom of distress and a culture-specific response to traumatizing events. We finally emphasize the importance of an anti-reductionist clinical stance, that is able to use different levels of understanding processes of distress and healing, and seeks to reconciliate cultural divides and integrate different explanatory frameworks and help-seeking practices.

  14. Severe brain atrophy after long-term survival seen in siblings with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a mutation in the optineurin gene: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroki; Kobatake, Keitaro; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Morino, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2011-12-12

    Previous studies have shown widespread multisystem degeneration in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who develop a total locked-in state and survive under mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period of time. However, the disease progressions reported in these studies were several years after disease onset. There have been no reports of long-term follow-up with brain imaging of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at an advanced stage of the disease. We report the cases of siblings with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with homozygous deletions of the exon 5 mutation of the gene encoding optineurin, in whom brain computed tomography scans were followed up for more than 20 years. The patients were a Japanese brother and sister. The elder sister was 33 years of age at the onset of disease, which began with muscle weakness of her left lower limb. Two years later she required mechanical ventilation. She became bedridden at the age of 34, and died at the age of 57. A computed tomography scan of her brain at the age of 36 revealed no abnormality. Atrophy of her brain gradually progressed. Ten years after the onset of mechanical ventilation, atrophy of her whole brain, including the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum, markedly progressed. Her younger brother was 36 years of age at the onset of disease, which presented as muscle weakness of his left upper limb. One year later, he showed dysphagia and dysarthria, and tracheostomy ventilation was performed. He became bedridden at the age of 37 and died at the age of 55. There were no abnormal intracranial findings on brain computed tomography scans obtained at the age of 37 years. At the age of 48 years, computed tomography scans showed marked brain atrophy with ventricular dilatation. Subsequently, atrophy of the whole brain rapidly progressed as in his elder sister. We conclude that a homozygous deletion-type mutation in the optineurin gene may be associated with widespread

  15. Neuropsychological effects of irradiation and chemotherapy treatments upon children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case study of monozygotic twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.T.; Souheaver, G.T.; Berry, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to determine the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy upon cognitive functioning when used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While many studies have demonstrated a deleterious effect, others have found no significant changes in neuropsychological functioning. The uncertainty regarding the cognitive effects of these treatments is exemplified via a presentation of monozygotic twins who were evaluated via neuropsychological tests. The children received similar induction-consolidation therapy which included intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation. Neuropsychological tests yielded almost identical I.Q. patterns, however, subtle differences were noted between the children when abstract reasoning abilities, achievement tests scores, motor speed, grip strength, performance on complex tasks requiring haptic sensitivity, and fingertip sensitivity were observed. This discussion also summarizes the previous findings related to cognitive function after chemotherapy and radiation therapy and some of the confounding factors which have been noted

  16. Breast ultrasound in the management of gynecomastia in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in monozygotic twins: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Grezia, Graziella; Romano, Tiziana; De Francesco, Francesco; Somma, Francesco; Rea, Gaetano; Grassi, Roberto; Gatta, Gianluca

    2014-12-18

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance and variable expression caused by germline mutation of serine threonine kinase 11/liver kinase B1; it is characterized by hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation, and increased predisposition to neoplasms. In Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, bilateral Sertoli cell testicular tumors cause endocrine manifestations including gynecomastia and feminization. This study aimed to assess the role of breast ultrasound in the evaluation of the effectiveness of an innovative surgical approach. This report presents a pair of European 9-year-old identical male twins with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, bilateral prepubertal gynecomastia, and testicular multifocal calcifications. Both twins were treated with anastrozole for 2 years. After finishing treatment, both underwent subcutaneous mastectomy performed by the "modified" Webster technique. Breast examination and ultrasound were performed before and after the pharmacological and surgical treatment. A breast ultrasound scan before surgery showed bilateral gynecomastia in both patients. No solid nodular or cystic formations were present on either side. After pharmacological therapy and surgical glandular removal, a breast examination showed a significant reduction in breast volume; 1 year after surgery, a breast ultrasound scan of both patients showed a total absence of glandular parenchyma, with muscle planes well represented. Breast examination and ultrasound have proved to be a valid approach in the assessment of the treatment of prepubertal gynecomastia because they allow the efficacy of the pharmacological and surgical treatment to be evaluated in a multidisciplinary approach to one of the most frequent endocrine manifestations of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

  17. Genetic influences on incidence and case-fatality of infectious disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Petersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family, twin and adoption studies suggest that genetic susceptibility contributes to familial aggregation of infectious diseases or to death from infections. We estimated genetic and shared environmental influences separately on the risk of acquiring an infection (incidence and on dying from it (case fatality. METHODS: Genetic influences were estimated by the association between rates of hospitalization for infections and between case-fatality rates of adoptees and their biological full- and half- siblings. Familial environmental influences were investigated in adoptees and their adoptive siblings. Among 14,425 non-familial adoptions, granted in Denmark during the period 1924-47, we selected 1,603 adoptees, who had been hospitalized for infections and/or died with infection between 1977 and 1993. Their siblings were considered predisposed to infection, and compared with non-predisposed siblings of randomly selected 1,348 adoptees alive in 1993 and not hospitalized for infections in the observation period. The risk ratios presented were based on a Cox regression model. RESULTS: Among 9971 identified siblings, 2829 had been hospitalised for infections. The risk of infectious disease was increased among predisposed compared with non-predisposed in both biological (1.18; 95% confidence limits 1.03-1.36 and adoptive siblings (1.23; 0.98-1.53. The risk of a fatal outcome of the infections was strongly increased (9.36; 2.94-29.8 in biological full siblings, but such associations were not observed for the biological half siblings or for the adoptive siblings. CONCLUSION: Risk of getting infections appears to be weakly influenced by both genetically determined susceptibility to infection and by family environment, whereas there appears to be a strong non-additive genetic influence on risk of fatal outcome.

  18. Severe brain atrophy after long-term survival seen in siblings with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a mutation in the optineurin gene: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Hiroki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Previous studies have shown widespread multisystem degeneration in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who develop a total locked-in state and survive under mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period of time. However, the disease progressions reported in these studies were several years after disease onset. There have been no reports of long-term follow-up with brain imaging of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at an advanced stage of the disease. We report the cases of siblings with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with homozygous deletions of the exon 5 mutation of the gene encoding optineurin, in whom brain computed tomography scans were followed up for more than 20 years. Case presentation The patients were a Japanese brother and sister. The elder sister was 33 years of age at the onset of disease, which began with muscle weakness of her left lower limb. Two years later she required mechanical ventilation. She became bedridden at the age of 34, and died at the age of 57. A computed tomography scan of her brain at the age of 36 revealed no abnormality. Atrophy of her brain gradually progressed. Ten years after the onset of mechanical ventilation, atrophy of her whole brain, including the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum, markedly progressed. Her younger brother was 36 years of age at the onset of disease, which presented as muscle weakness of his left upper limb. One year later, he showed dysphagia and dysarthria, and tracheostomy ventilation was performed. He became bedridden at the age of 37 and died at the age of 55. There were no abnormal intracranial findings on brain computed tomography scans obtained at the age of 37 years. At the age of 48 years, computed tomography scans showed marked brain atrophy with ventricular dilatation. Subsequently, atrophy of the whole brain rapidly progressed as in his elder sister. Conclusion We conclude that a homozygous deletion

  19. Hypothesis test for synchronization: twin surrogates revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Engbert, Ralf

    2009-03-01

    The method of twin surrogates has been introduced to test for phase synchronization of complex systems in the case of passive experiments. In this paper we derive new analytical expressions for the number of twins depending on the size of the neighborhood, as well as on the length of the trajectory. This allows us to determine the optimal parameters for the generation of twin surrogates. Furthermore, we determine the quality of the twin surrogates with respect to several linear and nonlinear statistics depending on the parameters of the method. In the second part of the paper we perform a hypothesis test for phase synchronization in the case of experimental data from fixational eye movements. These miniature eye movements have been shown to play a central role in neural information processing underlying the perception of static visual scenes. The high number of data sets (21 subjects and 30 trials per person) allows us to compare the generated twin surrogates with the "natural" surrogates that correspond to the different trials. We show that the generated twin surrogates reproduce very well all linear and nonlinear characteristics of the underlying experimental system. The synchronization analysis of fixational eye movements by means of twin surrogates reveals that the synchronization between the left and right eye is significant, indicating that either the centers in the brain stem generating fixational eye movements are closely linked, or, alternatively that there is only one center controlling both eyes.

  20. Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Soli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives—(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems—that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship. PMID:21731581

  1. Sibling influences on prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; McHarg, Gabrielle; White, Naomi

    2018-04-01

    Sibling relationships are characterized by familiarity and emotional intensity. Alongside frequent shared play, sibling interactions feature complementary interactions (e.g. teaching, caregiving) reflecting age-related asymmetries in socio-cognitive skills. These aspects may underpin sibling influences on prosocial behavior: theoretical accounts of social influences on prosocial behavior highlight emotion sharing, goal alignment, the intrinsically rewarding nature of social interaction, and scaffolding of social norms. Taking a fine-grained approach to prosocial behavior, we examine these processes in relation to sibling influences on children's comforting, sharing, and helping. Emergent themes include: developmental change in the nature of sibling influences on prosocial behavior, the need to consider sibling influences in the wider family context, and the importance of individual differences in the quality of sibling relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Confined Blood Chimerism in Monochorionic Dizygotic Twins Conceived Spontaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kanda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, monochorionicity has been regarded as synonymous with monozygosity. However, several recent cases of monochorionic dizygotic twins have shown that monochorionic twins can be dizygous. We report a rare case of monochorionic diamnionic, gender-discordant twins who were conceived spontaneously. Initially, a monochorionic placenta was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 8 weeks of gestation and then confirmed by pathology after delivery. The twins had different genders. A comparison of cytogenetic analyses using peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts revealed that chimerism was confined to blood cells. We have experienced two cases of monochorionic dizygotic twins since 2003. These cases suggest that monochorionic dizygotic twins are not as rare as previously thought.

  3. Infantile Perineal Protrusion in Two Monochorionic Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cavicchioli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Case Report - Two female monochorionic-monoamniotic twins showed the same kind of infantile perineal protrusion (IPP at birth. Lesions in both twins progressively healed until resolution in 6 weeks' time; none of the twins have manifested, till date, alvus disturbances. Discussion and Literature Review - A literature review numbers approximately 100 reports of IPP. This condition has been classically classified into three categories: congenital/familiar (i.e., female sex, positive parental history of IPP, acquired (mainly due to constipation, and associated with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Conclusions and Final Remarks - This case report describes, for the first time, the presence of IPP in monochorionic-monoamniotic twins, supporting the existence of hereditary/genetic factors in the developing of this condition.

  4. Nature versus nurture: identical twins and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Judith C; Morton, John M

    2007-06-01

    Genetics and environment both play a role in weight maintenance. Twin studies may help clarify the influence of nature vs nurture in weight loss. We present the largest U.S. experience with monozygotic (MZ) twins undergoing bariatric surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of four sets of MZ twins who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) placement at three different institutions. BMI and co-morbidities were examined pre- and postoperatively, and laboratory values were recorded. All four sets of twins are female, live together, and have similar professions. Twin cohort 1 had near identical weight loss patterns after open RYGBP surgery in 1996 (preop 146/142 kg; 2 years 82/82; and 10 years 108/107). Twin cohort 1 also both underwent cholecystectomies within the first year postoperatively. Twin cohort 2 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP surgery and also required cholecystectomies in the first postoperative year. Cohort 2 also experienced nearly identical weight loss at 1 year (36.7% vs 37.0% BMI loss). Twin cohort 3 underwent LAGB placement with two different surgeons with differing amounts of weight loss at 6 months (6.5% vs 15.7% BMI loss). Finally, twin cohort 4 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP with 2-year BMI loss of 39% vs 34%. In twin cohort 4, the twin who lost less weight lived apart from her twin and extended family, and her weight loss was less than the twin living with her family. Two sets of MZ twins had identical responses to bariatric surgery. The other two sets of identical twins had differential weight loss results, possibly due to differences in surgical approach and social support. While genetics do exert a strong influence on weight loss and maintenance, this case series demonstrates the potential effect of social support and postoperative management upon postoperative weight loss in the presence of identical genetics.

  5. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  6. Structures and growth textures of Japanese twin boundaries in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, K.; Nagase, T.; Kudoh, Y.; Kuribayashi, T.

    2008-12-01

    Growth textures and atomic configurations of Japanese twin boundaries in quartz were studied by the observation of natural samples and by computational simulations. Samples used in this study are collected from Narushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The samples were first polished, and then etched by hydrofluoric acid for several minutes. The etched figures were observed by phase-contrast reflection microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. From these observations, high concentration of Brazil twin lamellae is found near the composition plane of Japanese twin. Observations of cathode luminescence images reveal that the development of Brazil twin lamellae at {112×2} composition plane of Japanese twin is directly related to the preferential growth of Japanese twin along the composition plane. Atomic configurations at {112×2} composition planes of Japanese twin were simulated by using molecular dynamics simulations and the energy minimization method. The simulated structures proved that {112×2} or {1×1×22} composition planes are the only composition planes that do not introduce unsatisfied bonding between Si and O atoms. When the composition plane is different from these planes, some kind of defect structures, like dislocations, are inevitably introduced. In the case of Brazil twin, screw dislocations are also known to be incorporated where orientation of Brazil twin boundary changes from one orientation to another. On the other hand, in the case where Brazil twin boundaries intersect with {112×2} composition planes of Japanese twin, we found that structures are kept coherently without any unsatisfied bonding. This result means that {112×2} composition planes of Japanese twin are the crystallographic sites having more than one possible stacking structures. Observations in this study indicate that {112×2} composition plane of Japanese twin serves as a source of Brazil twin during the course of crystal growth.

  7. Response to 'A relational approach to Saviour Siblings?' by Selgelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    In his concise argument, 'A relational approach to saviour siblings?', Selgelid reiterates some of the arguments raised in the author meets critics discussion of my book, Saviour Siblings In this response, I highlight an important misunderstanding in one of the arguments put forward by Selgelid, which forms the basis of a large portion of his analysis. Contrary to what Selgelid contends, I do not use the deafness case in my discussion of the non-identity problem to contend that the case of selecting for deafness is ethically different from the case of saviour siblings. As I state in my reply, I use the case of deafness not as a comparator for saviour siblings but rather to illustrate the different categories of risk that apply in selection cases Given this confusion, I restate my objection to relying on the non-identity problem in evaluating risk of harm associated with the embryo biopsy process for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Finally, I reiterate that the individual interests of saviour siblings remain important in the decision-making matrix and emphasise that Saviour Siblings offers a more contextualised approach to the welfare of the child in selective reproduction, which includes both individual and collective interests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  9. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  10. Conjoined (Siamese) Twins in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year-old Zambian multiparous mother gave birth to a set of twins with two heads ... (symmetric or mirror image) but one twin attached with an incomplete foetus is known as hetropagtrs. (asymmetrical). Thoracopagus twins (joined at the chest).

  11. Ectodermal dysplasia in identical twins

    OpenAIRE

    Puttaraju, Gurkar Haraswarupa; Visveswariah, Paranjyothi Magadi

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facia...

  12. Sibling influences on childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J

    1988-03-01

    To summarize the main points concerning sibling influence: 1. That siblings play a causal role in the development of aggressive behavior, in children's style of conflict behavior and in cooperative fantasy play is strongly suggested by recent research. 2. Marked problems in the sibling relationship are indicative of other problems, but a causal role for siblings is not established, other than for aggressive behavior. 3. Family factors are closely involved in the quality of sibling relationships--and thus in sibling influence, namely differential parental behavior, and the emotional climate of the family. That is, it is important not to consider the sibling relationship in isolation from other family relationships. 4. Studies of families under stress indicate heightened importance of these family factors. 5. It is likely, but not yet established, that later-born siblings are influenced by first-born in socio-cognitive development and gender identity. 6. Finally it should be noted that an important theme in current research on siblings is a concern with the question of why siblings develop to be so different from one another. It has been shown that the major source of environmental influence on the development of individual differences is within-family rather than between-family differences in experience (Plomin & Daniels, 1987). The different experiences each sibling may have within their relationship is one potential source of such differential environmental influence. Thus documenting the influence of siblings upon each other takes on added significance: By clarifying the extent and nature of this influence we will gain not only useful clinical information but illumination on a developmental principle of very general significance.

  13. Gratitude for Help among Adult Friends and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80 who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  14. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-07-06

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  15. Sibling experiences after a major childhood burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, primarily from the sibling perspective, the effect of a child's major burn injury on his or her sibling. A mixed method qualitative dominant design was implemented using the life story method for the qualitative portion. Additionally, the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire -Revised (SRQ-R) was used as a structured interview guide and for calculating scoring data to explore sibling relationship factors of warmth/closeness, rivalry, conflict, and relative status/power. Participants from 22 family cases (one or multiple family members) and 40 individuals were interviewed. To capture impact on the family over time, interviews began a minimum of two years post-burn. The central thematic pattern for the sibling relationship in families having a child with a major burn injury was that of normalization. Two components of normalization were described: areas of normalization and the process of adjustment. Areas of normalization were found in play and other activities, in school and work, and in family relations with siblings. The process of adjustment was varied and often gradual, involved school and work re-entry, and in some instances, seemed to change life perspective. Clinical implications in providing family-centered care can focus on promoting normalization by assessing and supporting siblings who may only be occasionally seen in the hospital or clinic.

  16. Ventricular strain changes in monochorionic twins with and without twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Clarke, Marisa C; Matsui, Hikoro; Roughton, Michael; Wimalasundera, Ruwan C; Gardiner, Helena M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether vector velocity imaging (VVI), a non-Doppler speckle tracking ultrasound technology, is feasible in twin pregnancies and can aid management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Twenty-seven women pregnant with monochorionic diamniotic twins affected by TTTS and 28 monochorionic pregnancies that did not develop TTTS were included in a prospective case-control study at a fetal medicine center. Fetal echocardiograms were recorded with dummy electrocardiography to retain original frame rates when exported for offline speckle tracking analysis using Syngo-VVI software (Siemens Corp, Munich, Germany). Right and left ventricular (LV) free wall Lagrangian strain was measured from the original coordinates. Within-twin pair ventricular strain differences including relationship to Quintero staging and response to laser therapy for TTTS were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The VVI strain measurements could be analyzed in 182 of 200 TTTS and 96 of 112 non-TTTS control ventricles. Within-pair strain was concordant in non-TTTS controls. Recipient LV strain was reduced at all Quintero stages compared with donors (P < .01). Recipient right ventricular strain was reduced only in stages 3 and 4 (P < .01). Strain improved at a median of 2 weeks following successful laser therapy. Intertwin differences in strain were independent of weight discordance. Recipient LV strain is reduced in stages 1 and 2 TTTS. Within-pair strain discordance may distinguish early TTTS from growth discordance and guide timing of and management following treatment. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Twin anemia polycythemia sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaghekke, Femke

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we describe that Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence (TAPS) is a form of chronic feto-fetal transfusion in monochorionic (identical) twins based on a small amount of blood transfusion through very small anastomoses. For the antenatal diagnosis of TAPS, Middle Cerebral Artery – Peak

  18. The Danish Twin Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, Axel; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Vilstrup Holm, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry is a unique source for studies of genetic, familial and environmental factors on life events, health conditions and diseases. Content: More than 85,000 twin pairs born 1870-2008 in Denmark. Validity and coverage: Four main ascertainment methods have been emp...

  19. Disease-Concordant Twins Empower Genetic Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Li, Weilong; Vandin, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    and ordinary healthy samples as controls. We examined the power gain of the twin-based design for various scenarios (i.e., cases from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for a disease) and compared the power with the ordinary case-control design with cases collected from the unrelated patient...... concordant for a disease, should confer increased power in genetic association analysis because of their genetic relatedness. We conducted a computer simulation study to explore the power advantage of the disease-concordant twin design, which uses singletons from disease-concordant twin pairs as cases...... population. Simulation was done by assigning various allele frequencies and allelic relative risks for different mode of genetic inheritance. In general, for achieving a power estimate of 80%, the sample sizes needed for dizygotic and monozygotic twin cases were one half and one fourth of the sample size...

  20. Perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of twin pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive techniques and those conceived spontaneously: A retrospective analysis of 811 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin YU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the general situations of gravida, pregnancy complications, childbirth and neonatal outcomes of twin pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive techniques (ART and those conceived spontaneously. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on the basic information, perinatal complications, delivery information and neonatal outcomes of twin pregnancies received by ART (ART group, n=518 and those conceived spontaneously (SC group, n=293. Results Gravida age was older in ART group than in SC group (P0.05. Conclusion Twin pregnancy conceived by ART may lead to higher incidences of gestational diabetes mellitus and abnormal placenta and more postpartum hemorrhage, but no significant difference existed in the neonatal outcomes between twin pregnancies conceived by ART and those conceived spontaneously. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.11.12

  1. The Role of Nature and Nurture for Individual Differences in Primary Emotional Systems: Evidence from a Twin Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montag

    Full Text Available The present study investigated for the first time the relative importance of genetics and environment on individual differences in primary emotionality as measured with the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS by means of a twin-sibling study design. In N = 795 participants (n = 303 monozygotic twins, n = 172 dizygotic twins and n = 267 non-twin full siblings, moderate to strong influences of genetics on individual differences in these emotional systems are observed. Lowest heritability estimates are presented for the SEEKING system (33% and highest for the PLAY system (69%. Further, multivariate genetic modeling was applied to the data showing that associations among the six ANPS scales were influences by both, a genetic as well as an environmental overlap between them. In sum, the study underlines the usefulness of the ANPS for biologically oriented personality psychology research.

  2. Gêmeas idênticas discordantes para a doença de Cushing: relato de caso Identical twins discordant for Cushing's disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO MAIA PINHEIRO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Cushing é rara em crianças e sua ocorrência em gêmeos é ainda mais rara. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de gêmeas idênticas discordantes quanto à doença de Cushing. Uma das gêmeas, desenvolveu síndrome de Cushing aos 10 anos de idade. Sua investigação demonstrou cortisol urinário elevado, ACTH sérico elevado e testes de supressão com dexametasona compatíveis com doença de Cushing. A RMN mostrou macroadenoma hipofisário que foi operado por via transesfenoidal. O estudo imuno-histoquímico confirmou a presença de células produtoras de ACTH. A paciente entrou em remissão clínica e laboratorial desde a cirurgia. Após o desaparecimento dos estigmas do Cushing, a paciente reiniciou ganho estatural, mas permanece menor que sua irmã gêmea. Esta última permanece saudável 4 anos após o início da doença de sua irmã. Este é o terceiro caso do gênero relatado na literatura. Estes achados sugerem que fatores não genéticos estão envolvidos na gênese da doença de Cushing.Cushing's disease is rare in children and its ocurrence in identical twins is extremely rare. This paper reports on identical twins discordant for Cushing's disease. One of them first presented with a cushingoid phenotype by the age of 10. Her evaluation showed an increased urinary free-cortisol and serum ACTH. Her pattern in the dexametazone supression tests was compatible with Cushing's disease. MRI disclosed a pituitary macroadenoma which was removed by the transesphenoidal approach. Immunohistochemical studies of the tumor showed the presence of ACTH-producing cells. The patient went into clinical and laboratorial remission after surgery. She re-started to grow after the disappearance of the Cushing's phenotype but she is still shorter than her healthy sister. The latter remains disease-free 4 years after her sister's diagnosis. This represents the third such case reported in the literature. Our findings suggest that acquired

  3. Cord entanglement in monoamniotic twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyndrup, J; Schouenborg, Lars Øland

    1987-01-01

    Monoamniotic twin pregnancy involves a heavy risk of fatal umbilical cord entanglement. Two cases are reported. In the first case, both twins were found dead in the 36th week, and the monoamnionicity was recognized at birth. In the second case, the monoamnionicity was discovered during an ultraso...... an ultrasound examination, and cord entanglement was suspected in the 35th week on the basis of a non-stress test (NST) with variable decelerations. Cesarean section was performed and two healthy children were delivered....

  4. Sibling Relationships in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Reviews and considers the developmental implications of recent evidence on the nature of sibling interaction from observational studies of preschool children. Argues that, in contrast to complementary interaction, sibling influence is most plausibly associated with reciprocal interaction and with sociocognitive development. (Author/RH)

  5. [Siblings of prepubesecent anorexic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, L; de Maynadier, L

    2014-10-01

    As professionals working in a specialised unit for prepubescent anorexic children, we are very often concerned with the siblings of our young patients who are daily faced with anorexia nervosa. Although it is an undeniable subject of prevention, research on the topic remains scarce. Based on our clinical experience, this article thus proposes to give a few landmarks to health professionals likely to support these siblings in order to prevent anxious and depressive disorders as well as eating disorders. If guided, supported and informed on anorexia nervosa, siblings can adopt adequate coping strategies when confronted to their sibling's anorexic cognitions and behaviours. We also encourage parents to pay close attention to the needs of their other children, especially to remain receptive to the youngest ones or, if unavailable to find adult carers (grandparents, family, friends). We also guide these children, who are eager to help their anorexic sibling, to remain in a brotherly role. Siblings must be informed about anorexia nervosa. Such information enables them to have a better understanding of their sister's thoughts and attitudes. It also leads to a better understanding of the reasons why anorexia has such a significant impact on family routine, among other things by reducing parental availability. Beyond enabling siblings to adopt adequate coping strategies, such provision of support also contributes to the prevention of mental illness and the maintenance of adequate sibling and family relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Children with Autism & Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The parent of the child with autism is faced with many home management challenges, not the least of which is the achievement of intra-family harmony among siblings. Sibling rivalry occurs in all families. However, the presence of a child with autism may, in some instances, intensify this rivalry. In this article, the author provides tips for…

  7. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  8. Twin Pregnancy with Gastroschisis in Both Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fen Kao

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: The cause of gastroschisis is unknown, although possible exogenous causes have been studied. The diagnosis of gastroschisis in twin pregnancy is always in late gestation. Therefore, maternal serum alpha feto-protein screening and a detailed prenatal ultrasound evaluation are recommended in multifetal pregnancies.

  9. Neonatal status of twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy where more than one fetus develops simultaneously in the womb, as a result of the ovulation and fertilization of more than one egg. It is relatively rare in humans and represents the rest of the phylogenetic stages. The most common are twins and they indicate the development of two fetuses in the womb. The frequency of twin pregnancies is about 1%. Multiple pregnancies belong to a group of high-risk pregnancies because of the many complications that occur during the pregnancy: higher number of premature deliveries, bleeding, early neonatal complications and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Such pregnancies and infants require greater supervision and monitoring. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of baby twins born at the maternity ward of the General Hospital in Prokuplje and their morbidity and mortality. Data on the total number of deliveries, number of twins, parity and maternal age, gestational age, body weight of twins, method of delivery, Apgar score and perinatal mortality were collected and statistically analyzed by means of retrospective analysis of operative birth and neonatal protocol for 6 years (2005 of 2010. Out of 4527 mothers who gave birth 43 were pairs of twins, or 0.95% of women gave birth to twins. These babies are more likely born by Caesarean section, but delivered with slightly lower birth weight.

  10. Campt0me1icDyspIas1'a1'n One of Twins -A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He presented on the second day of life with short, deformed lower limbs and respiratory distress from birth and died on the fifth day of life. ... dwarfism, osseous and cartilage anomalies including prenatal bowing of T the lower extremities, .... case of congenital bowing of the long bones associated with skin dimpling in 1959.

  11. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2007-01-01

    -Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with a lower perception of quality......BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High...... of life. RESULTS: Univariate analyses showed that quality of life in all domains was impaired for the 121 High-Risk twins compared to the 84 Low-Risk twins. In multiple regression analyses, the differences remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, marital status and years of education. Adjusted...

  12. Effect of twinning plane on superconductor magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdin, A.I.; Kuptsov, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of twinning planes on pinning of the Abrikosov vortices in superconductors of the second order with the Ginsburg-Landau parameter, κ >> 1, is considered. The modified Ginsburg-Landau functional, where the effect of superconducting properties improvement near the twinning plane is taken into account by adding the additional δ-function component, is used to descibe superconductivity of twinning plane. Force of interaction of a vortex filament and the twinning plane is calculated. It is shown that in case of the twinning plane opaque to electrons, additional attractive force, being analogous to that occurring in the problem on the surface Been-Livingston barrier, affects the vortex filament. The results can explain anisotropy of vortex pinning observed in the periodic twinning structure in high-temperature superconductors

  13. SUSY meets her twin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Andrey [Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève,24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Redigolo, Diego [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University,Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Ziegler, Robert [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics (TTP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-01-31

    We investigate the general structure of mirror symmetry breaking in the Twin Higgs scenario. We show, using the IR effective theory, that a significant gain in fine tuning can be achieved if the symmetry is broken hardly. We emphasize that weakly coupled UV completions can naturally accommodate this scenario. We analyze SUSY UV completions and present a simple Twin SUSY model with a tuning of around 10% and colored superpartners as heavy as 2 TeV. The collider signatures of general Twin SUSY models are discussed with a focus on the extended Higgs sectors.

  14. [Early prenatal diagnosis of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, A; Nlome-Nze, A R; Engongha-Beka, T; Ogowet-Igumu, N

    1990-06-01

    The authors summarize the case of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins diagnosed at 22 weeks of pregnancy by ultrasonography performed because of hydramnios. The rate of separation anomalies of monozygotic twins is assessed by a review of the literature: from 1 to twenty to fifty thousands for joined twins to 1 per cent fifty thousand to fifteen millions for diprosopus. The etiology is the result of a late division of the egg between D12 and D16. Often an encephalic diprosopic joined twins cause elevated levels of maternal serum alpha protein. Early ultrasonography permits to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.

  15. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High......-Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with a lower perception of quality...

  16. Conjoined twins: morphogenesis of the heart and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Barness, Enid; Debich-Spicer, Diane; Opitz, John M

    2003-08-01

    Five cases of conjoined twins have been studied. These included three thoracopagus twins, one monocephalus diprosopus (prosop = face), and one dicephalus dipus dibrachus. The thoracopagus twins were conjoined only from the upper thorax to the umbilicus with a normal foregut. These three cases shared a single complex multiventricular heart, one with a four chambered heart with one atrium and one ventricle belonging to each twin with complex venous and arterial connection; two had a seven chambered heart with four atria and three ventricles. The mono-cephalus diprosopus twins had a single heart with tetralogy of Fallot. The dicephalus twins had two separate axial skeletons to the sacrum, two separate hearts were connected between the right atria with a shared inferior vena cava. Thoracopagus twinning is associated with complex cardiac malformations. The cardiac anlagen in cephalopagus or diprosopus are diverted and divided along with the entire rostral end of the embryonic disc and result in two relatively normal shared hearts. However, in thoracopagus twins the single heart is multiventricular and suggests very early union with fusion of the cardiac anlagen before significant differentiation. Cardiac morphogenesis in conjoined twins therefore appears to depend on the site of the conjoined fusion and the temporal and spatial influence that determines morphogenesis as well as abnormally oriented embryonic axes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Is sibling rivalry fatal?: siblings and mortality clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippen, Rebecca; Walters, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Evidence drawn from nineteenth-century Belgian population registers shows that the presence of similarly aged siblings competing for resources within a household increases the probability of death for children younger than five, even when controlling for the preceding birth interval and multiple births. Furthermore, in this period of Belgian history, such mortality tended to cluster in certain families. The findings suggest the importance of segmenting the mortality of siblings younger than five by age group, of considering the presence of siblings as a time-varying covariate, and of factoring mortality clustering into analyses.

  18. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  19. Preparing for Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... challenges with twins. He also can suggest helpful reading material or refer you to organizations that help ...

  20. The etiology of social aggression: a nuclear twin family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinski, Brooke L; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra

    2018-04-02

    Social aggression is a form of antisocial behavior in which social relationships and social status are used to damage reputations and inflict emotional harm on others. Despite extensive research examining the prevalence and consequences of social aggression, only a few studies have examined its genetic-environmental etiology, with markedly inconsistent results. We estimated the etiology of social aggression using the nuclear twin family (NTF) model. Maternal-report, paternal-report, and teacher-report data were collected for twin social aggression (N = 1030 pairs). We also examined the data using the classical twin (CT) model to evaluate whether its strict assumptions may have biased previous heritability estimates. The best-fitting NTF model for all informants was the ASFE model, indicating that additive genetic, sibling environmental, familial environmental, and non-shared environmental influences significantly contribute to the etiology of social aggression in middle childhood. However, the best-fitting CT model varied across informants, ranging from AE and ACE to CE. Specific heritability estimates for both NTF and CT models also varied across informants such that teacher reports indicated greater genetic influences and father reports indicated greater shared environmental influences. Although the specific NTF parameter estimates varied across informants, social aggression generally emerged as largely additive genetic (A = 0.15-0.77) and sibling environmental (S = 0.42-0.72) in origin. Such findings not only highlight an important role for individual genetic risk in the etiology of social aggression, but also raise important questions regarding the role of the environment.

  1. Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Heidi R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

  2. Intergenerational Solidarity and Support Between Adult Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Using a Dutch national sample containing 1,259 triads (two siblings, one parent), we examined whether practical support and emotional support between siblings are enhanced by intergenerational solidarity and how this differs for brothers and sisters. Sibling support was affected by sibling dyad

  3. Relative Power in Sibling Relationships across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little…

  4. Sibling Self-Disclosure in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin; Bukowski, William M.; Rinaldi, Christina M.; Lehoux, Pascale M.

    2000-01-01

    Studied sibling-directed self-disclosure of 40 preadolescents through interviews, a questionnaire, and subjects' daily diaries. Found that warmth in sibling relationship was most strongly associated with sibling disclosure, but not with rivalry, conflict, or power. Daily sibling disclosures were more strongly associated with reports of unhappy…

  5. Childhood Sibling Relationships of Eminent Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewchuk, Carolyn R.; Schlosser, Grace A.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared differences between 72 eminent Canadian women who reported close sibling relationships and 72 similar women who reported no close sibling relationships. Those with close siblings expressed their responsibility within the relationship and rivalry within the sibship. Those not close to siblings often blamed this on age…

  6. The 16th International Twin Congress: Highlights from Madrid/Twin Research: Twin Study of Partner Aggression; ABO Incompatibility in Dizygotic Twins; Growth Discordance in a Monoamniotic Twin Pair; Quick Note on Twin Implantation/In the Media: Long-Lost Twins Found; NASA Twin Experiment; Twin Brothers and the Las Vegas Attack; Retired Twin Airline Pilots; Twin Film Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2018-02-01

    Highlights from the 16th International Twin Congress, held in Madrid, Spain from November 16-18, 2017, are presented. The Twin Congress, formerly held every three years, now takes place biennially with a single-day meeting organized during the off years. This meeting is the largest gathering of scientific twin researchers, medical personnel, and representatives of multiple birth organizations in the world. This overview is followed by reviews of recent twin research and commentary concerning partner aggression, ABO incompatibility in dizygotic twins, growth discordance in a monoamniotic twin pair and twin implantation. The article closes with summaries of timely topics in the media, namely a father's finding of his long-lost twin children, early results from the NASA twin experiment, twin brothers at the center of the October 2017 Las Vegas attack, retired twin airline pilots, and clips from recent films with twin-based themes.

  7. Prosthetic rehabilitation of mandibular defects with fixed-removable partial denture prosthesis using precision attachment: A twin case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kantilal Munot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of normal function and esthetic appearance with a dental prosthesis is a major challenge in the rehabilitation of patients who have lost their teeth and surrounding bone because of surgery for oral cyst or tumor. Rehabilitation with fixed or removable prosthesis is even more challenging when the edentulous span is long and the ridge is defective. Anatomic deformities and unfavorable biomechanics encountered in the region of resection add to the misery. In such situation, a fixed-removable prosthesis allows favorable biomechanical stress distribution along with restoration of esthetics, phonetics, comfort, hygiene, and better postoperative care and maintenance. This article describes rehabilitation of two cases with mandibular defects with an attachment-retained fixed-removable hybrid prosthesis.

  8. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Mandibular Defects with Fixed-removable Partial Denture Prosthesis Using Precision Attachment: A Twin Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Vimal Kantilal; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Patil, Raghunath

    2017-01-01

    The restoration of normal function and esthetic appearance with a dental prosthesis is a major challenge in the rehabilitation of patients who have lost their teeth and surrounding bone because of surgery for oral cyst or tumor. Rehabilitation with fixed or removable prosthesis is even more challenging when the edentulous span is long and the ridge is defective. Anatomic deformities and unfavorable biomechanics encountered in the region of resection add to the misery. In such situation, a fixed-removable prosthesis allows favorable biomechanical stress distribution along with restoration of esthetics, phonetics, comfort, hygiene, and better postoperative care and maintenance. This article describes rehabilitation of two cases with mandibular defects with an attachment-retained fixed-removable hybrid prosthesis.

  9. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  10. The ethics of separating conjoined twins: two arguments against.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallberg, Luke

    2018-02-01

    I argue that the separation of conjoined twins in infancy or early childhood is unethical (rare exceptions aside). Cases may be divided into three types: both twins suffer from lethal abnormalities, only one twin has a lethal abnormality, or neither twin does. In the first kind of case, there is no reason to separate, since both twins will die regardless of treatment. In the third kind of case, I argue that separation at an early age is unethical because the twins are likely to achieve an irreplaceably good quality of life-the goods of conjoinment-that separation takes away. Evaluation of this possibility requires maturation past early childhood. Regarding the second type, I point out that with conceivable but unrecorded exceptions, these cases will consistently involve sacrifice separation. I present an argument that sacrifice separation is unethical, but in some cases a moral dilemma may exist in which separation and refraining from separation are both unethical. Perhaps in such cases a decision can be made on non-moral grounds; however, the possibility of such a decision serves not to mitigate but to underscore the fact that the separation is unethical. My conclusion, which applies to all three types of cases, is that it is unethical to separate conjoined twins before their developing personalities give some reliable indication as to whether they desire separation and whether they will achieve those goods of conjoinment.

  11. Early prenatal diagnosis of ischiopagus conjoined twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Ergenoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjoined twins are very rare and the incidence of them vary about 1/50,000 and 1/100,000. They are named according to the joint parts. Embryos are conjoined at the level of ischium in ischiopagus. A case of ischiopagus will be presented in this article. Case: A twenty-seven year old women who is 9-10 weeks pregnant with a history of 1 abortus applied to the Ege University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology for routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a twin pregnancy but the embryos were attached at the pelvic region. 3D Doppler sonography confirmed the diagnosis of ischiopagus tetrapus. The patient's decision of termination of pregnancy is concluded at Perinatology Council of the clinic. Conclusion: Ischiopagus conjoined twins are very rare. Early prenatal diagnosis will prevent the maternal complications during the termination of the pregnancy.

  12. Deformation twinning in irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Dai, Y.; Spätig, P.

    2018-04-01

    Two different ferritic/martensitic steels were tensile tested to gain insight into the mechanisms of embrittlement induced by the combined effects of displacement damage and helium after proton/neutron irradiation in SINQ, the Swiss spallation neutron source. The irradiation conditions were in the range: 15.8-19.8 dpa (displacement per atom) with 1370-1750 appm He at 245-300 °C. All the samples fractured in brittle mode with intergranular or cleavage fracture surfaces when tested at room temperature (RT) or 300 °C. After tensile test, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to investigate the deformation microstructures. TEM-lamella samples were extracted directly below the intergranular fracture surfaces or cleavage surfaces by using the focused ion beam technique. Deformation twinning was observed in irradiated specimens at high irradiation dose. Only twins with {112} plane were observed in all of the samples. The average thickness of twins is about 40 nm. Twins initiated at the fracture surface, became gradually thinner with distance away from the fracture surface and finally stopped in the matrix. Novel features such as twin-precipitate interactions, twin-grain boundary and/or twin-lath boundary interactions were observed. Twinning bands were seen to be arrested by grain boundaries or large precipitates, but could penetrate martensitic lath boundaries. Unlike the case of defect free channels, small defect-clusters, dislocation loops and dense small helium bubbles were observed inside twins.

  13. Dyssegmental dysplasia in siblings: Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Hauge, M.; Bang, J.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)

  14. 'Adoption' by maternal siblings in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    Full Text Available The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data on adoptions in the free-living Sonso chimpanzee community in Uganda, together with an analysis of published data from other long-term field sites. As a default pattern, we find that orphan chimpanzees do not become adopted by adult group members but wherever possible associate with each other, usually as maternal sibling pairs. This occurs even if both partners are still immature, with older individuals effectively becoming 'child household heads'. Adoption of orphans by unrelated individuals does occur but usually only if no maternal siblings or other relatives are present and only after significant delays. In conclusion, following the loss of their mother, orphaned chimpanzees preferentially associate along pre-existing social bonds, which are typically strongest amongst maternal siblings.

  15. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  16. Growth mechanism of extension twin variants during annealing of pure magnesium: An ‘ex situ’ electron backscattered diffraction investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabat, R.K. [Department of Materials Engineering, IISc, Bangalore 560012 (India); Panda, D. [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, NIT, Rourkela 769008 (India); Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sursahoo@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, NIT, Rourkela 769008 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Pure magnesium was subjected to plastic deformation through CSM (continuous stiffness measurement) indentation followed by annealing at 200 °C for 30 min. Nucleation of no new grains was observed neither at the twin–twin intersections nor at the multiple twin variants of a grain after annealing. Significant growth of off-basal twin orientation compared to basal twin orientation was observed in the sample after annealing and is attributed to the partial coherent nature of twin boundary in the later case. Further, growth of twins was independent of the strain distribution between parent and twinned grains. - Highlights: • An ‘ex situ’ EBSD of pure Mg during annealing was investigated. • Nucleation of no new grains was observed. • Significant growth of off-basal twin orientation was observed. • Growth of twins may be attributed to the partial coherent nature of twin boundary.

  17. Ectodermal dysplasia in identical twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkar Haraswarupa Puttaraju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facial esthetics and psychology of patients affected by this disease.

  18. Naxos Disease in Two Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, G; Prabhavathy, D; Jayakumar, S; Tharini, GK

    2010-01-01

    Naxos disease is a rare cardiocutaneous disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair and arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. We report two siblings with Naxos disease with right middle lobe syndrome in one of them. PMID:21188028

  19. Monozygotic twins discordant for ROHHAD phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwari, Pallavi P; Rand, Casey M; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2011-09-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) falls within a group of pediatric disorders with both respiratory control and autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Children with ROHHAD typically present after 1.5 years of age with rapid weight gain as the initial sign. Subsequently, they develop alveolar hypoventilation, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, and, if untreated, cardiorespiratory arrest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discordant presentation of ROHHAD in monozygotic twins. Twin girls, born at term, had concordant growth and development until 8 years of age. From 8 to 12 years of age, the affected twin developed features characteristic of ROHHAD including obesity, alveolar hypoventilation, scoliosis, hypothalamic dysfunction (central diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, premature pubarche, and growth hormone deficiency), right paraspinal/thoracic ganglioneuroblastoma, seizures, and autonomic dysregulation including altered pain perception, large and sluggishly reactive pupils, hypothermia, and profound bradycardia that required a cardiac pacemaker. Results of genetic testing for PHOX2B (congenital central hypoventilation syndrome disease-defining gene) mutations were negative. With early recognition and conservative management, the affected twin had excellent neurocognitive outcome that matched that of the unaffected twin. The unaffected twin demonstrated rapid weight gain later in age but not development of signs/symptoms consistent with ROHHAD. This discordant twin pair demonstrates key features of ROHHAD including the importance of early recognition (especially hypoventilation), complexity of signs/symptoms and clinical course, and importance of initiating comprehensive, multispecialty care. These cases confound the hypothesis of a monogenic etiology for ROHHAD and indicate alternative etiologies including autoimmune or epigenetic phenomenon or a combination of genetic

  20. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years in twin-twin transfusion syndrome survivors randomized for the Solomon trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klink, Jeanine M M; Slaghekke, Femke; Balestriero, Marina A; Scelsa, Barbara; Introvini, Paola; Rustico, Mariangela; Faiola, Stefano; Rijken, Monique; Koopman, Hendrik M; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The preferred treatment for twin-twin transfusion syndrome is fetoscopic laser coagulation of inter-twin vascular anastomoses on the monochorionic placenta. Severe postoperative complications can occur when inter-twin vascular anastomoses remain patent including twin-anemia polycythemia sequence or recurrent twin-twin transfusion syndrome. To minimize the occurrence of residual anastomoses, a modified laser surgery technique, the Solomon technique, was developed in which the entire vascular equator is coagulated. In the Solomon randomized controlled trial (NTR1245), the Solomon technique was associated with a significant reduction in twin-anemia polycythemia sequence and recurrence of twin-twin transfusion syndrome when compared with the standard laser surgery technique. Although a significant improvement in perinatal outcome was shown after the Solomon technique, the clinical importance should also be ascertained with long-term follow-up evaluation of the surviving children. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in surviving children with twin-twin transfusion syndrome who were included in the Solomon randomized trial and treated with either the Solomon technique or standard laser surgery technique. Routine standardized follow-up evaluation in survivors, at least 2 years after the estimated date of delivery, was performed at 2 of the 5 centers that participated in the Solomon trial: Buzzi Hospital Milan (Italy) and Leiden University Medical Center (The Netherlands). The primary outcome of this follow-up study was survival without long-term neurodevelopmental impairment at age 2 years. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as cerebral palsy, cognitive and/or motor development score of neurodevelopmental impairment) was detected in 95 of 141 cases (67%) in the Solomon group and in 99 of 146 cases (68%) in the standard group (P = .92). Neurodevelopmental impairment in long-term survivors who were included for follow

  1. A sibling based design to quantify genetic and shared environmental effects of venous thromboembolism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Bengt; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Few large studies have examined the heritability of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Moreover, twin studies have been suggested to overestimate heritability. The aim of the present study was to determine the heritability nationwide in the general Swedish population using full siblings and half-siblings. VTE was defined using the Swedish patient register. Full sibling (FS) and half-sibling (HS) pairs born 1950-1990 were obtained from the Swedish Multi-generation Register. A maximum of 5years age difference was allowed. We also required that the individuals within the pair should reside in the same household for at least 8years or not at all (0years) before the youngest turned 16. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household, small residential area, and municipality was obtained from Statistics Sweden. We assumed three potential sources of liability to VTE: additive genetic (A), shared (or common/familial) environment (C), and unique environment (E) components. Totally 881,206 FS pairs and 95,198 HS pairs were included. The full model predicted heritability for VTE with 47% for males and 40% for females. Environmental factors shared by siblings contributed to 0% of the variance in liability for both sexes, and unique environment (E) components accounted for 53% in males and 60% in females. The high heritability of VTE risk indicates that genetic susceptibility plays a substantial role for VTE in the Swedish general population. Overestimation of heritability from twin studies is not likely. The proportion of the variance attributable to shared familial environment factors is small. Subject codes: Genetics, epidemiology, thrombosis, cardiovascular disease, embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Progeria (Hutchison - Gilford syndrome in siblings: In an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Tanjore

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is an autosomal dominant, premature aging syndrome. Six and three year old female siblings had sclcrodermatous changes over the extremities, alopecia, beaked nose, prominent veins and bird-like facies. Radiological features were consistent with features of progeria. The present case highlights rarity of progeria in siblings with a possible autosomal recessive pattern.

  3. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: etiology, severity and rational management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, M. J.; Umur, A.; Tijssen, J. G.; Ross, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The twin-twin transfusion syndrome is a serious complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies. Partly as a result of an inadequate understanding of the pathophysiology of the syndrome, there is a lack of consensus in clinical management. We sought to review the available information on the etiology

  4. Aging and communication in the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wolf, David A

    2016-01-01

    The twin paradox of the special theory of relativity has given rize to a large body of literature discussing its implications. In its standard form, the traveler changes velocity only at the destination of the trip, so that he appears to perceive an improbably instantaneous and non-continuous change in age of the stationary twin. In this work, a smooth velocity/acceleration profile is used that allows the abrupt velocity-change case as a limit. All gravitational effects are ignored in this treatment. Aside from mutual perception of simultaneous clock times in an accelerating frame, constant communication of clock times between the twins by means of (digital) light signals is shown to be possible, in principle if not in practice. (paper)

  5. Relativistic twins or sextuplets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back

  6. Relativistic twins or sextuplets?

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, E S

    2003-01-01

    A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.

  7. Imaging of conjoined twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Kiely, Edward M.; Spitz, Lewis [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The incidence of conjoined twins is estimated to be around 1 in 250,000 live births. There is a distinct female predominance. In this paper the imaging of conjoined twins both antenatally and postnatally is reviewed, in particular taking into consideration recent advances with multidetector CT. Accurate counselling of parents regarding the likely outcome of the pregnancy and the likelihood of successful separation is dependent on good prenatal imaging with ultrasound and MRI. Planning of postnatal surgical separation is aided by accurate preoperative imaging which, depending on the conjoined area, will encompass many imaging modalities, but often relies heavily on CT scanning. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of conjoined twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Kieran; Kiely, Edward M.; Spitz, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of conjoined twins is estimated to be around 1 in 250,000 live births. There is a distinct female predominance. In this paper the imaging of conjoined twins both antenatally and postnatally is reviewed, in particular taking into consideration recent advances with multidetector CT. Accurate counselling of parents regarding the likely outcome of the pregnancy and the likelihood of successful separation is dependent on good prenatal imaging with ultrasound and MRI. Planning of postnatal surgical separation is aided by accurate preoperative imaging which, depending on the conjoined area, will encompass many imaging modalities, but often relies heavily on CT scanning. (orig.)

  9. CMV infection associated with severe lung involvement and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in two preterm twin neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Paolo; Vivalda, Mauro; Mostert, Michael; Priolo, Claudio; Galletto, Paolo; Gallo, Elena; Stronati, Mauro; Gili, Renata; Opramolla, Anna; Calabrese, Sara; Tavella, Elena; Luparia, Martina; Farina, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    The diagnosis of congenital CMV is usually guided by a number of specific symptoms and findings. Unusual presentations may occur and diagnosis is challenging due to uncommon or rare features. Here we report the case of two preterm, extremely low birthweight, 28-week gestational age old twin neonates with CMV infection associated with severe lung involvement and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). They were born to a HIV-positive mother, hence they underwent treatment with zidovudine since birth. Both infants featured severe refractory hypoxemia, requiring high-frequency ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide and inotropic support, with full recovery after 2 months. Treatment with ganciclovir was not feasible due the concomitant treatment with zidovudine and the risk of severe, fatal toxicity. Therefore administration of intravenous hyperimmune anti-CMV immunoglobulin therapy was initiated. Severe lung involvement at birth and subsequent pulmonary hypertension are rarely described in preterm infants as early manifestations of CMV congenital disease. In the two twin siblings here described, the extreme prematurity and the treatment with zidovudine likely worsened immunosuppression and ultimately required a complex management of the CMV-associated lung involvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on growth and development in nonobese children: a parallel study of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Man; Shi, Jun; Meng, Guo Zhen; Chen, Hong Sai; Zhang, Li Na; Wang, Zhao Yan; Wu, Hao

    2015-03-01

    To explore the effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on children's growth by the study of identical twins. Seventeen cases of nonobese children with OSAS were included in this study. The control group was their identical twin sibling, who had no signs of OSAS. Data including height, weight, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were analyzed before tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The mean apnea hyponea index was 3.9 times/hour in patients with OSAS and became normal after surgery. Minimum oxygen saturation gradually increased after T&A. The height and weight of the OSAS group before T&A was lower than the control group. During the follow-up period, height and weight increased but were lower than the control group. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in the OSAS group before T&A were lower than the control group. The level was significantly increased 3 months after T&A. OSAS impairs growth and development. Significant growth recovery occurs after T&A, and early surgical intervention is an important factor for improvement in growth. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Vanishing twin syndrome among ART singletons and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Ghaderi, Sara; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Magnus, Per; Bente Romundstad, Liv; Skjærven, Rolv; Wilcox, Allen J; Eldevik Håberg, Siri

    2017-11-01

    Among babies born by ART, do singleton survivors of a vanishing twin have lower birth weight than other singletons? Vanishing twin syndrome (VTS) was associated with lower birth weight among ART singletons; a sibship analysis indicated that the association was not confounded by maternal characteristics that remain stable between deliveries. Previous studies indicate that ART singletons with VTS have increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, compared with other ART singletons. The potential contribution of unmeasured maternal background characteristics has been unclear. This was a Norwegian population-based registry study, including 17 368 mothers with 20 410 ART singleton deliveries between January 1984 and December 2013. The study population included 17 291 ART singletons without VTS, 638 ART singletons with VTS and 2418 ART singletons with uncertain vanishing twin status. We estimated differences in birth weight and gestational age comparing ART singletons with VTS first to all ART singletons without VTS, and subsequently to their ART siblings without VTS, using random- and fixed-effects linear regression, respectively. The corresponding comparisons for the associations with preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) were conducted using random-and fixed-effects logistic regression. The sibling analysis of preterm birth included 587 discordant siblings, while the sibling analysis of SGA included 674 discordant siblings. ART singletons with VTS had lower birth weight when compared to all ART singletons without VTS, with an adjusted mean difference (95% CI) of -116 g (-165, -67). When we compared ART singletons with VTS to their ART singletons sibling without VTS, the adjusted mean difference was -112 g (-209, -15). ART singletons with VTS also had increased risk of being born SGA, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.07, 2.03) compared to all ART singletons without VTS, and 2.79 (1.12, 6.91) in the sibship analyses. ART singletons with

  12. Pygopagus Conjoined Twins: A Neurophysiologic Intraoperative Monitoring Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromeens, Barrett P; McKinney, Jennifer L; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Governale, Lance S; Brown, Judy L; Henry, Christina M; Levitt, Marc A; Wood, Richard J; Besner, Gail E; Islam, Monica P

    2017-03-01

    Conjoined twins occur in up to 1 in 50,000 live births with approximately 18% joined in a pygopagus configuration at the buttocks. Twins with this configuration display symptoms and carry surgical risks during separation related to the extent of their connection which can include anorectal, genitourinary, vertebral, and neural structures. Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring for these cases has been discussed in the literature with variable utility. The authors present a case of pygopagus twins with fused spinal cords and imperforate anus where the use of neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring significantly impacted surgical decision-making in division of these critical structures.

  13. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  14. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  15. Heredity In Sarcoidosis - A Registry-Based Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan, granulomatous, inflammatory disease with unknown aetiology. Familial clustering of cases and ethnic variation in the epidemiology suggests a genetic influence on the disease susceptibility. AIM: This paper reports twin concordance and heritability estimates...... of sarcoidosis in order to assess the overall contribution of genetic factors to the disease susceptibility. METHODS: Monozygotic and dizygotic twins enrolled in either the Danish or the Finnish population-based, national Twin Cohorts (61,662 pairs in total) were linked to diagnostic information on sarcoidosis.......012. Compared to the general population we found an 80-fold increased risk of developing sarcoidosis in co-twins of affected monozygotic brothers or sisters. The increased risk in dizygotic twins was on the other hand only 7-fold. Aetiological model fitting gave a heritability of sarcoidosis of 0.66 (95% CI 0...

  16. Twinning in muskox and the cytogenetic investigation of a freemartin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Reindl

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of twinning has been documented for muskox in both wild and captive populations. Of two known captive twin births only one set survived beyond 120 days. In both cases the twins were male-female pairs and both females showed abnormal sexual development. Two sets of stillborn twins have also been recorded. All four stillborn fetuses were female and none showed anomalies of the reproductive tract upon post-mortem examination. Blood cultures from the surviving male and female twins revealed that both were chimeric, indicating the admixture of fetal blood. Fibroblast cultures were normal for the respective sex of each individual. The freemartin heifer had anatomical abnormalities of the clitoris as well as the secondary sex characteristics of a male.

  17. Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Iris Lianne; Brüggemann, Petra; Requena, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from...... the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total...... variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. RESULTS: Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral...

  18. The Placenta in Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couck, Isabel; Lewi, Liesbeth

    2016-06-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS) are complications unique to monochorionic twin pregnancies and their shared circulation. Both are the result of the transfusion imbalance in the intertwin circulation. TTTS is characterized by an amniotic fluid discordance, whereas in TAPS, there is a severe discordance in hemoglobin levels. The article gives an overview of the typical features of TTTS and TAPS placentas.

  19. Sibling comparison of differential parental treatment in adolescence: gender, self-esteem, and emotionality as mediators of the parenting-adjustment association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, M E; Neiderhiser, J M; Simmens, S; Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M

    2000-01-01

    This study employs findings from social comparison research to investigate adolescents' comparisons with siblings with regard to parental treatment. The sibling comparison hypothesis was tested on a sample of 516 two-child families by examining whether gender, self-esteem, and emotionality-which have been found in previous research to moderate social comparison-also moderate sibling comparison as reflected by siblings' own evaluations of differential parental treatment. Results supported a moderating effect for self-esteem and emotionality but not gender. The sibling comparison process was further examined by using a structural equation model in which parenting toward each child was associated with the adjustment of that child and of the child's sibling. Evidence of the "sibling barricade" effect-that is, parenting toward one child being linked with opposite results on the child's sibling as on the target child-was found in a limited number of cases and interpreted as reflecting a sibling comparison process. For older siblings, emotionality and self-esteem moderated the sibling barricade effect but in the opposite direction as predicted. Results are discussed in terms of older siblings' increased sensitivity to parenting as well as the report of differential parenting reflecting the child's level of comfort and benign understanding of differential parenting, which buffers the child against environmental vicissitudes evoking sibling comparison processes.

  20. Dialysis for twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Ann-Maria; Aarup, Michael; Andersen, L. L. T.

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with known stage-4 chronic kidney disease due to lupus nephritis presented with twin pregnancy after in vitro fertilization at a gestational age of 24 weeks + 3 days because of imminent preterm labour. Repeated ultrasound evaluations confirmed intrauterine growth restriction...

  1. Anaesthesia for conjoined twins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    draw~ver patient system consisting of a paediatric. "Ambu" bag and "Paedivalven drawing oxygen-en- riched air through a halothane vaporiser. Oxygen was supplied from an electric oxygen concentrator which can give 2 litres of 95% oxygen per minute. This apparatus has been described I. Mter 3 minutes the Sa02 of Twin ...

  2. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  3. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  4. Do MZ twins have discordant experiences of friendship? A qualitative hypothesis-generating MZ twin differences study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nicola; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Using a qualitative monozygotic (MZ) twin differences design we explored whether adolescent MZ twins report discordant peer relationships and, if so, whether they perceive them as causes, consequences or correlates of discordant behaviour. We gathered free-response questionnaire data from 497 families and conducted in-depth telephone interviews with 97 of them. Within this dataset n = 112 families (23% of the sample) described discordant peer relationships. Six categories of discordance were identified (peer victimisation, peer rejection, fewer friends, different friends, different attitudes to friendship and dependence on co-twin). Participants described peer relationship discordance arising as a result of chance occurrences, enhanced vulnerability in one twin or discordant behaviour. Consequences of discordant peer relationships were seen as discordance in self-confidence, future plans, social isolation, mental health and interests. In all cases the twin with worse peer experiences was seen as having a worse outcome. Specific hypotheses are presented. PMID:28727730

  5. The USC Adult Twin Cohorts: International Twin Study and California Twin Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Cockburn, Myles G; Hamilton, Ann S; Zadnick, John; Mack, Thomas M

    2013-02-01

    The study of twin subjects permits the documentation of crude heritability and may promote the identification of specific causal alleles. We believe that at the current time, the chief research advantage of twins as subjects, especially monozygotic twins, is that the commonality of their genetic and cultural identity simplifies the interpretation of biological associations. In order to study genetic and environmental determinants of cancer and chronic diseases, we developed two twin registries, maintained at the University of Southern California: The International Twin Study (ITS) and the California Twin Program (CTP). The ITS is a volunteer registry of twins with cancer and chronic disease consisting of 17,245 twin pairs affected by cancer and chronic disease, respectively, ascertained by advertising in periodicals from 1980-1991. The CTP is a population-based registry of California-born twin pairs ascertained by linking the California birth records to the State Department of Motor Vehicles. Over 51,000 individual California twins representing 36,965 pairs completed and returned 16-page questionnaires. Cancer diagnoses in the California twins are updated by regular linkage to the California Cancer Registry. Over 5,000 cancer patients are represented in the CTP. Twins from both registries have participated extensively in studies of breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, mammographic density, smoking, and other traits and conditions.

  6. Bullying among Siblings: The Role of Personality and Relational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Camodeca, Marina; Nocentini, Annalaura

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate: (1) the influence of gender, sibling age, and sibling gender on sibling bullying and victimization; (2) the links between personality characteristics, quality of the sibling relationship, and sibling bullying/victimization; (3) the association between sibling and school bullying/victimization, and the direct and…

  7. Sibling Relationships: Parent-Child Agreement and Contributions of Siblings with and without ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnier, Megan L.; Coffman, Marika C.; Kelso, Nicole; Wolf, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Research on the experiences of siblings of individuals with ASD and the quality of their sibling relationships has yielded mixed results. The present study examined the significance of parent- versus child-report of both positive and negative behaviors exhibited by siblings and their brothers and sisters with ASD within sibling dyads. Findings…

  8. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  9. Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy; Horsley, Heidi; Davies, Betty; Kramer, Robin

    2006-11-01

    Historically, from a Freudian and medical model perspective, emotional disengagement from the deceased was seen as essential to the successful adaptation of bereavement. A major shift in the bereavement literature has occurred and it is now generally accepted that despite the permanence of physical separation, the bereaved remains involved and connected to the deceased and can be emotionally sustained through continuing bonds. The majority of literature has focused on adults and on the nature of continuing bonds following the death of a spouse. In this article, the authors demonstrate how the continuing bonds concept applies to the sibling relationship. We describe the unique continued relationship formed by bereaved children and adolescents following a sibling loss, highlight the factors that influence the siblings continuing bonds expressions, and offer clinical interventions. In our view, mental health professionals can play an important role in helping parents encourage activities that may facilitate the creation and maintenance of continuing bonds in their children.

  10. Sibling popularity: A moderator of sibling influence for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lacey N

    Sibling substance use is a known correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet, not all siblings are equally influential. Sibling influence has been found to vary by age gap, sex, and birth order. Little research, however, has investigated whether siblings' peer context is also a source of variation. The present study tested whether more popular siblings were more influential for adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Data were obtained from sibling pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Findings indicate that older siblings have more influence on younger sibling marijuana use when they have more friends. These findings contribute to prior work examining which siblings are more influential and highlight the need to consider siblings as part of a greater peer context.

  11. 'Twin2twin' an innovative method of empowering midwives to strengthen their professional midwifery organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadée, Franka; Perdok, Hilde; Sam, Betty; de Geus, Myrte; Kweekel, Liselotte

    2013-10-01

    midwives need professional support from a national midwifery organisation to be able to provide the services that are by regulatory mechanisms and accreditation expected of them. Not all midwives in the world are united in a professional organisation. The aim of this project was to strengthen the midwifery organisations of Sierra Leone and the Netherlands. During the process of the project it was realised that the development of a platform of exchange at organisational level would be enhanced by introducing personal exchange between individual midwives. In response to this new insight the original project plan was adjusted by incorporating the twin2twin method. twin2twin is a feminist methodology of mutual exchange between twenty pairs of midwives from different organisations (in this case Sierra Leone and the Netherlands). The method can be distinguished by 10 specific steps. It was developed, used and (re)evaluated through focus group discussions, storytelling and written evaluations. twinning of organisations was strengthened by adding a human component to the process. With the use of the 'twin2twin' method, midwives were encouraged to invested in a professional and personal bond with their 'twin sister'. This bond was independent and went beyond the relatively short four year project period. Through personal engagement and mutual exchange of knowledge and skills, midwives empowered each other to build and strengthen their midwifery organisations both in Sierra Leone and the Netherlands. (Empowerment refers to the expansion in people's ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them (Narayan, 2005); organisational empowerment includes processes and structures that enhance members' skills and provides them with the mutual support necessary to effect community level change (Zimmerman, 1995).). despite challenges we are convinced that twin2twin can be of additional benefit for the success of other projects

  12. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  13. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  14. Relative Power in Sibling Relationships Across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little is known about relationship factors that may explain this shift in power dynamics, however. The present study therefore examined longitudinal changes in adolescents' and their siblings' perceptions of sibling relative power from age 12 to 18 (n = 145 dyads), and examined whether different levels of sibling relationship positivity and negativity, as well as sibling structural variables, indicated different over-time changes in relative power. Multilevel models indicated that adolescents reported significant declines in their siblings' relative power across adolescence, with older siblings relinquishing the most power over time. However, only siblings with less positively involved relationships reported declines in relative power, suggesting that siblings who maintain highly involved relationships may not become more egalitarian during adolescence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  16. Siblings and the Development of Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; Munn, Penny

    1986-01-01

    Examines the capability and motivation of 18- and 24-month-old infants to share, help, comfort, and cooperate with their older siblings; the frequency of such prosocial behavior by both siblings; and the children's response to sibling distress. The relationship between prosocial and conflict behavior was also studied. (HOD)

  17. Sibling Rivalry: A Parent Education Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calladine, Carole E.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies three styles of sibling rivalry and three parent leadership styles, discussing parental mediation of sibling disputes through contracting and providing examples of group discipline techniques that facilitate development of less negative forms of rivalry and that support positive sibling bonding. (RH)

  18. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  19. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel.

  20. Sibling Curves 3: Imaginary Siblings and Tracing Complex Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Visualizing complex roots of a quadratic equation has been a quest since the inception of the Argand plane in the 1800s. Many algebraic and numerical methods exist for calculating complex roots of an equation, but few visual methods exist. Following on from papers by Harding and Engelbrecht (A. Harding and J. Engelbrecht, "Sibling curves and…

  1. Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Muscle Hypertrophy, Gene Expression, Performance, Damage, and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Case-control Study with a Pair of Identical Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Bertucci, Danilo; Schiavinato, Josiane; Reiff, Rodrigo; Araújo, Amélia; Panepucci, Rodrigo; Matheucci, Euclides; Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Arakelian, Vivian Maria; Hamblin, Michael R; Parizotto, Nivaldo; Bagnato, Vanderlei

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to verify how a pair of monozygotic twins would respond to light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) or placebo combined with a strength-training program during 12 weeks. This case-control study enrolled a pair of male monozygotic twins, allocated randomly to LEDT or placebo therapies. Light-emitting diode therapy or placebo was applied from a flexible light-emitting diode array (λ = 850 nm, total energy = 75 J, t = 15 seconds) to both quadriceps femoris muscles of each twin immediately after each strength training session (3 times/wk for 12 weeks) consisting of leg press and leg extension exercises with load of 80% and 50% of the 1-repetition maximum test, respectively. Muscle biopsies, magnetic resonance imaging, maximal load, and fatigue resistance tests were conducted before and after the training program to assess gene expression, muscle hypertrophy and performance, respectively. Creatine kinase levels in blood and visual analog scale assessed muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness, respectively, during the training program. Compared with placebo, LEDT increased the maximal load in exercise and reduced fatigue, creatine kinase, and visual analog scale. Gene expression analyses showed decreases in markers of inflammation (interleukin 1β) and muscle atrophy (myostatin) with LEDT. Protein synthesis (mammalian target of rapamycin) and oxidative stress defense (SOD2 [mitochondrial superoxide dismutase]) were up-regulated with LEDT, together with increases in thigh muscle hypertrophy. Light-emitting diode therapy can be useful to reduce muscle damage, pain, and atrophy, as well as to increase muscle mass, recovery, and athletic performance in rehabilitation programs and sports medicine.

  2. Metaphyseal osteopathy in three Australian Kelpie siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, C M; Brain, P H; Dunn, A L

    2014-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. What makes siblings different? The development of sibling differences in academic achievement and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    To illuminate processes that contribute to the development of sibling differences, this study examined cross-lagged links between parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability and differences between siblings' grade point averages (GPAs), and cross-lagged links between differences in siblings' GPAs and sibling differences in academic interests. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, firstborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 15.71, SD = 1.07), and secondborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 13.18, SD = 1.29) from 388 European American families on 3 annual occasions. Findings revealed that, after controlling for siblings' average grades and prior differences in performance, parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability predicted differences in performance such that youth rated by parents as relatively more competent than their sibling earned relatively higher grades the following year. Siblings' relative school performance, however, did not predict parents' beliefs about differences between siblings' competencies. Further, after controlling for average interests and grades, sibling differences in GPA predicted differences in siblings' interests such that youth who had better grades than their siblings reported relatively stronger academic interests the following year. Differences in interest, however, did not predict sibling differences in GPA. Findings are discussed in terms the role of sibling dynamics in family socialization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Reared-Apart Chinese Twins: Chance Discovery/Twin-Based Research: Twin Study of Media Use; Twin Relations Over the Life Span; Breast-Feeding Opposite-Sex Twins/Print and Online Media: Twins in Fashion; Second Twin Pair Born to Tennis Star; Twin Primes; Twin Pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    A January 2017 reunion of 10-year-old reared-apart Chinese twin girls was captured live on ABC's morning talk show Good Morning America, and rebroadcast on their evening news program Nightline. The twins' similarities and differences, and their participation in ongoing research will be described. This story is followed by reviews of twin research concerning genetic and environmental influences on media use, twin relations across the lifespan and the breast-feeding of opposite-sex twins. Popular interest items include twins in fashion, the second twin pair born to an internationally renowned tennis star, twin primes and twin pandas.

  5. Thermodynamics of twinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, I.; Zak, G.

    1995-01-01

    The quasiplastic hysteresis occuring in shape memory alloys is associated with twinning in tension and compression, i.e. a conversion of one martensitic variant into antoher one. It shows the phenomena of internal elasticity and internal yield, heretofore studied extensively in pseudoelasticity. This paper presents experimental evidence of such phenomena and it offers partial explanation in identifying the onset of yield as an instability phenomenon due to coherency. That conjecture is motivated from a previous consideration of pseudoelasticity. (orig.)

  6. Differential weight restoration on olanzapine versus fluoxetine in identical twins with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Duvvuri, V; Cromley, T; Klabunde, M; Boutelle, K; Kaye, WH

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No studies have compared the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics in anorexia nervosa. This case study examines such a comparison. Method: This report describes a case of 12-year-old identical twins with anorexia nervosa, one of whom was treated with olanzapine and the other with fluoxetine, while undergoing family therapy. Results: Twin A treated with fluoxetine went from 75 to 84.4% ideal body weight, while Twin B treated with olanzapine...

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of chorionicity in twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound scan in predicting chorionicity in twin pregnancies in our unit. The presence or absence of lambda sign, T-sign, dividing membrane thickness and number of placentae were used to determine chorionicity. We retrospectively analysed these antenatal markers in 268 sets of twins delivered over a 5 year period and compared it with the postpartum placental histology and neonatal gender. Of 268 twin deliveries, 204 (76%) had both chorionicity and placental histology to compare. 67 of 84 (80%) were correctly diagnosed antenatally as monochorionic and 137 of 151 (91%) as dichorionic. In 31 cases (15%) the ultrasound diagnosis of chorionicity didn\\'t match placental histology. Seventeen were thought to be monochorionic antenatally but were confirmed dichorionic on placental histology. Overall chorionicity was correctly diagnosed in 171\\/204 (84%) using transabdominal ultrasound scan (USS) in all trimesters. However the sensitivity and specificity of USS was much higher for dichorionic twins when carried out before 14 weeks of gestation.

  8. Bullying in the family: sibling bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Tippett, Neil; Dantchev, Slava

    2015-10-01

    Sibling relationships have a substantial and lasting effect on children's development. Many siblings experience some occasional conflict, however, up to 40% are exposed to sibling bullying every week, a repeated and harmful form of intrafamilial aggression. We review evidence on the precursors, factors relating to peer bullying, and mental health consequences of sibling bullying. Parenting quality and behaviour are the intrafamilial factors most strongly associated with bullying between siblings. Sibling bullying increases the risk of being involved in peer bullying, and is independently associated with concurrent and early adult emotional problems, including distress, depression, and self-harm. The effects appear to be cumulative, with those children bullied by both siblings and peers having highly increased emotional problems compared with those bullied by siblings or peers only, probably because they have no safe place to escape from bullying. The link between sibling and peer bullying suggests interventions need to start at home. Health professionals should ask about sibling bullying and interventions are needed for families to prevent and reduce the health burden associated with sibling bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Median mental sinus in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, S T; Ngeow, W C

    1999-05-01

    Sinus on the chin can be the result of a chronic apical abscess due to pulp necrosis of a mandibular anterior tooth. The tooth is usually asymptomatic, and a dental cause is therefore not apparent to the patient or the unsuspecting clinician. Not infrequently, the patient may seek treatment from a dermatologist or general surgeon instead of a dentist. Excision and repair of the fistula may be carried out with subsequent breakdown because the dental pathology is not removed. This paper reports the presence of median mental sinus of dental origin in twins. One case healed following root canal therapy while the other required both root canal therapy and surgery to eliminate the infection.

  10. Ocular findings in Brazilian identical twins with Cohen syndrome: case report Achados oftalmológicos em gêmeos idênticos brasileiros com síndrome de Cohen: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Hae Hyun Rim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of identical male twins with Cohen syndrome who present multiple ophthalmic findings is reported. The patients were identical 16 year-old twin boys who showed down slanting eyelids, mild ptosis, high-grade myopia, small cortical lens opacities, posterior subcapsular cataracts, myotic and corectopic pupils with poor dilation due to focal iris atrophy and retinochoroidal dystrophy. Ophthalmologists must be aware of the ocular and systemic findings of Cohen syndrome in the evaluation of young patients with mental retardation and visual impairment.Relata-se caso de gêmeos idênticos com síndrome de Cohen que apresentam múltiplos achados oftalmológicos. Os pacientes eram gêmeos idênticos, do sexo masculino, que apresentavam pálpebras em forma de onda, ptose moderada, alta miopia, opacidades cristalinianas corticais discretas, catarata subcapsular posterior, pupilas mióticas e corectópicas com pobre dilatação devido à atrofia focal de íris, além de distrofia retinocoroidiana. Os oftalmologistas devem estar atentos quanto aos achados oftalmológicos e sistêmicos da síndrome de Cohen na avaliação de pacientes jovens com retardo mental e baixa visão.

  11. Cerebellar dermoid tumor and occipital meningocele in a monozygotic twin : clues to the embryogenesis of craniospinal dysraphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; van Ouwerkerk, W J

    A case of monochorionic/monoamnionic twin with discordant occipital developmental malformations is presented. One female twin appeared to have an occipital meningocele with cerebellar aplasia and died immediately after birth. The other twin presented with signs and symptoms of raised intracranial

  12. Illustrations of the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide a more intuitive understanding of the twin paradox, several illustrations of this are presented. In one of these, each of the twins is equipped with a lamp whose monochromatic light can be observed by the other. In other illustrations the travelling twin uses an Einstein train instead of a space ship, all the cars of the train and all stations along the route of the train being equipped with clocks. (author)

  13. Prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer in twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, E.B.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Honeyman, M.; Flannery, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to x-rays and childhood cancer, including leukemia, in over 32,000 twins born in Connecticut from 1930 to 1969. Twins as opposed to single births were chosen for study to reduce the likelihood of medical selection bias, since twins were often exposed to x-rays to diagnose the twin pregnancy or to determine fetal positioning before delivery and not because of medical conditions that may conceivably pre-dispose to cancer. Each of 31 incident cases of cancer, identified by linking the Connecticut twin and tumor registries, was matched with four twin controls according to sex, year of birth, and race. Records of hospitals, radiologists, and private physicians were searched for histories of x-ray exposure and other potentially important risk factors. Documented prenatal x-ray exposures were found for 39 per cent of the cases (12 of 31) and for 26 per cent of the controls (28 of 109). No other pregnancy, delivery, or maternal conditions were associated with cancer risk except low birth weight: 38 per cent of the cases as compared with 25 per cent of the controls weighed under 2.27 kg at birth. When birth weight was adjusted for, twins in whom leukemia or other childhood cancer developed were twice as likely to have been exposed to x-rays in utero as twins who were free of disease (relative risk, 2.4; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.9). The results, though based on small numbers, provide further evidence that low-dose prenatal irradiation may increase the risk of childhood cancer

  14. Placental share and hemoglobin level in relation to birth weight in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Slaghekke, F; Middeldorp, J M; Duan, T; Oepkes, D; Lopriore, E

    2014-12-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a newly described form of chronic twin transfusion. Previous observational studies noted a discordance between birth weight and individual placental share in TAPS. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fetal growth in monochorionic (MC) twins with TAPS is determined by placental share or by the net inter-twin blood transfusion. All consecutive MC twin placentas of live-born twin pairs with and without TAPS examined at our center between June 2002 and February 2014 were included in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels and individual placental share were evaluated at birth and correlated with birth weight share. We excluded MC twin pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. A total of 270 MC twin pregnancies (TAPS group, n = 20; control group without TAPS, n = 250) were included in this study. Donors with TAPS had a lower birth weight than recipients in 90% (18/20) of cases, but a larger placental share in 65% (13/20) of cases. In the TAPS group, birth weight share was positively correlated with Hb share at birth (P < 0.01) but not with placental share (P = 0.54). In the control group without TAPS, birth weight share was strongly correlated with placental share (P < 0.01) but not with Hb share (P = 0.14). A relatively larger placental share may enable the survival of the anemic twin in TAPS. In contrast with uncomplicated MC twins, fetal growth in MC twins with TAPS is determined primarily by the net inter-twin blood transfusion instead of placental share. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Roederer, I. U.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  16. Siblings exposed to intimate partner violence: linking sibling relationship quality & child adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NOTE: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others.

  18. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den [Laser Centre and Department of Obstetrics, Laser Center, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lopriore, Enrico [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A [Division of Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.vangemert@amc.uva.nl

    2008-04-07

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others. (note)

  19. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A

    2008-01-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others. (note)

  20. Chronic Idiopathic Neutrophilia in Two Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miniero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophilia in adults refers to an alteration in the total number of blood neutrophils that is in excess of about 7500 cells/μL. This definition is restrictive in childhood as neutrophil count is age-dependent. Chronic Idiopathic Neutrophilia (CIN refers to a condition that persists for many years in individuals who appear otherwise healthy. CIN is rarely mentioned in scientific literature and in academic books of hematology; only few words are dedicated to this topic. We report a case study of two twins with CIN followed from the first year of life to 24 years of age. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of two twins with CIN followed through a long period of time. We believe that our observation may contribute to better understand and characterize this hematologic abnormality.

  1. Heritability and GWAS Analyses of Acne in Australian Adolescent Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina-Vargas, Angela; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Grasby, Katrina; Zhu, Gu; Gordon, Scott; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G

    2017-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a skin disease with a multifactorial and complex pathology. While several twin studies have estimated that acne has a heritability of up to 80%, the genomic elements responsible for the origin and pathology of acne are still undiscovered. Here we performed a twin-based structural equation model, using available data on acne severity for an Australian sample of 4,491 twins and their siblings aged from 10 to 24. This study extends by a factor of 3 an earlier analysis of the genetic factors of acne. Acne severity was rated by nurses on a 4-point scale (1 = absent to 4 = severe) on up to three body sites (face, back, chest) and on up to three occasions (age 12, 14, and 16). The phenotype that we analyzed was the most severe rating at any site or age. The polychoric correlation for monozygotic twins was higher (r MZ = 0.86, 95% CI [0.81, 0.90]) than for dizygotic twins (r DZ = 0.42, 95% CI [0.35, 0.47]). A model that includes additive genetic effects and unique environmental effects was the most parsimonious model to explain the genetic variance of acne severity, and the estimated heritability was 0.85 (95% CI [0.82, 0.87]). We then conducted a genome-wide analysis including an additional 271 siblings - for a total of 4,762 individuals. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) scan did not detect loci associated with the severity of acne at the threshold of 5E-08 but suggestive association was found for three SNPs: rs10515088 locus 5q13.1 (p = 3.9E-07), rs12738078 locus 1p35.5 (p = 6.7E-07), and rs117943429 locus 18q21.2 (p = 9.1E-07). The 5q13.1 locus is close to PIK3R1, a gene that has a potential regulatory effect on sebocyte differentiation.

  2. Incidence of spontaneous twin anemia-polycythemia sequence in monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies: Single-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Tae; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Mishima, Takashi; Yano, Hiroko; Ohashi, Madoka; Suzuki, Takashi; Shinno, Takashi; Matsushita, Mitsuru; Nakayama, Satoru; Torii, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively estimate the incidence of spontaneous twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) in monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies. We prospectively examined umbilical cord hemoglobin (Hb) and reticulocyte count of consecutive monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies delivered at Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital from December 2006 to September 2013. We excluded cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome, intrauterine fetal demise, and missing data (Hb and reticulocyte count missing from the medical record). TAPS was diagnosed using the postnatal criteria of intertwin Hb difference >8.0 g/dL and reticulocyte count ratio >1.7. Acute feto-fetal hemorrhage was defined as Hb difference >7 g/dL and reticulocyte count ratio <1.7. A total of 185 monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies were included in this study. Three fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for postnatal TAPS, and one fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute feto-fetal hemorrhage. The incidence of spontaneous TAPS in monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies was 1.6% (3/185) at Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Aberrant twinning (diprosopus) associated with anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, P; Fryns, J P; Goddeeris, P; Lauweryns, J M; Van Assche, A

    1983-10-01

    A case of Monocephalus diprosopus, associated with craniorachischisis and duplication of most of the foregut derivates is presented. The major part of the cardiovascular system remained single but the heart exhibited severe defects, including a complete persistent atrioventricular canal, transposition of the great arteries and atresia of the pulmonary valve. This report further supports the hypothesis that certain-types of incomplete twinning and neural tube defects may be caused by a single teratogenic mechanism.

  4. Quality of life of unaffected siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Pratyaksha; Mishra, Devendra

    2015-06-01

    To study quality of life (QoL) of the siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders. Between 1st August and 30th September, 2013, 50 children aged 12-18 y, whose child sibling was suffering from a chronic neurological disorder, were enrolled (Study group). Fifty age- and sex- matched siblings of apparently non-neurologically affected children were enrolled as controls (Control group). Those with more than one affected child or any affected adult in the family were excluded. QoL was assessed by a validated version of the WHOQOL-BREF in Hindi, and QoL was compared between cases and controls. The disorders in the index cases included cerebral palsy, 18 (15 with epilepsy); autism, 15; mental retardation, 12 and epilepsy, 5. The QoL in all domains was significantly poorer in the study group as compared to the controls. 64% study group children had insufficient knowledge about their sibling's condition. More than 1/4th study subjects faced difficulties in studies, play or work. There was no difference among the groups with regard to number of siblings who had 'dropped from the school'. The QoL of unaffected siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders was significantly impaired. Health-workers may consider including older siblings of neurologically affected children during family-counseling sessions, to provide information and suggest coping strategies. This intervention is likely to improve the functioning of the family unit as a whole.

  5. Adjustment of children who have a sibling with Down syndrome: perspectives of mothers, fathers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskelly, M; Gunn, P

    2006-12-01

    A number of methodological weaknesses have contributed to our relatively poor understanding of the impact on children of having a brother or sister with a disability. These include a focus on poor adjustment, using multidiagnostic groups, inadequate matching, and a failure to consider the perspectives of children and parents together. This study compared the adjustment of 53 siblings of a child with Down syndrome with a comparison group of siblings of children who were developing typically. Children were matched on a case-by-case basis for gender, age and position in family. Families were matched for family size and father's occupation. The age range of the target siblings was 7-14 years. Data were gathered from mothers, fathers and siblings. There were no significant differences between the groups on adjustment measures. These included parent perceptions of externalizing and internalizing behaviours, parent perceptions of sibling competence, and sibling perceptions of their own competence and self-worth. Associations between measures of adjustment and child reports of their contribution to household functioning depended on sex rather than group membership. There was an association between parental reports of externalizing behaviour and sibling relationships with the brother/sister closest in age. Having a brother or sister with Down syndrome does not inevitably lead to poor adjustment. Examination of within-family processes would appear to be more useful in identifying children at risk than merely group membership.

  6. Sources of individual differences in depressive symptoms: analysis of two samples of twins and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Walters, E E; Truett, K R; Heath, A C; Neale, M C; Martin, N G; Eaves, L J

    1994-11-01

    Self-reported symptoms of depression are commonly used in mental health research to assess current psychiatric state, yet wide variation in these symptoms among individuals has been found in both clinical and epidemiologic populations. The authors sought to understand, from a genetic-epidemiologic perspective, the sources of individual differences in depressive symptoms. Self-reported symptoms of depression were assessed in two samples of twins and their spouses, parents, siblings, and offspring: one sample contained volunteer twins recruited through the American Association of Retired Persons and their relatives (N = 19,203 individuals) and the other contained twins from a population-based twin registry in Virginia and their relatives (N = 11,242 individuals). Model fitting by an iterative, diagonal, weighted least squares method was applied to the 80 different family relationships in the extended twin-family design. Independent analyses of the two samples revealed that the level of depressive symptoms was modestly familial, and familial resemblance could be explained solely by genetic factors and spousal resemblance. The estimated heritability of depressive symptoms was between 30% and 37%. There was no evidence that the liability to depressive symptoms was environmentally transmitted from parents to offspring or was influenced by environmental factors shared either generally among siblings or specifically between twins. With correction for unreliability of measurement, genetic factors accounted for half of the stable variance in depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in adulthood partly reflect enduring characteristics of temperament that are substantially influenced by hereditary factors but little, or not at all, by shared environmental experiences in the family of origin.

  7. Aborto en una yegua debido a mellizos, ¿porque conviene reducirlos manualmente?: reporte de un caso - Abortion in a Mare caused by twins pregnancy, the convenience of the manual reduction of one of the twins. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    González del Pino, Francisco Javier.

    2010-01-01

    ResumenEl artículo describe el caso clínico de un cuadro de aborto en un yegua deraza Peruano de Paso de 10 años de edad, debido a una preñez de mellizoscon fijación bicornual. La misma fue diagnosticada en forma precozmediante ecografía transrectal, pero su desenlace final en un abortoindeseable se debió a que el propietario del animal, no quiso su resoluciónmediante la técnica de reducción manual de uno de los mellizos.SummaryThis article describes a clinical case of an abortion in a 10 yea...

  8. USE OF HOTELS NETWORKS DATA IN GEOGRAPHICAL SEARCH: A CASE STUDY ON THE TWIN CITIES OF BRASILÉIA, EPITACIOLÂNDIA AND COBIJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luiz Silveira da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the possibilities and challenges of the use of the hotel network data for geographic research and perhaps in related areas. The presentation takes place through the use of hotel data in a doctoral thesis about the twin cities of Brasiléia, Epitaciolândia and Cobija. The article shows the strength of such data for research in sub-disciplines of Urban Geography and Regional Geography. The hotels data allow the establishment of inferences as urban functions, mapping flows of various typologies, the regional, national or international influence of the cities, the dependence and interdependence relations between cities and finally, their role in urban networks. The article shows how the information was used in the doctoral thesis and presents the difficulties encountered, pretending to be useful for those who want to investigate urban and regional questions.

  9. And What About Siblings? A Longitudinal Analysis of Sibling Effects on Youth's Intergroup Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Katharina; Šerek, Jan; Noack, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Within the process of political socialization, the family is of particular importance. Apart from parents, however, little is known about the role of other close family members. The present study examined if siblings affect each other's intergroup attitudes (i.e., intolerance towards immigrants, social dominance orientation). Drawing on a sample of 362 sibling dyads (older siblings: M age  = 17.77, 53.6% female; younger siblings: M age  = 13.61, 61.3% female), the results showed that older siblings' intergroup attitudes predicted younger siblings' attitudes, but this effect was moderated by gender. Specifically, older siblings' intolerance and social dominance orientation were only found to affect their younger sisters, yet not their younger brothers. Although younger siblings' intergroup attitudes had no main effect on older siblings, a significant moderation by age indicated that younger siblings affected older siblings' social dominance orientation with increasing age. These moderation effects of age and gender were not mediated by the quality of family relationships. The findings also remained the same when parental intergroup attitudes were taken into account. While siblings were generally identified as an important agent of political socialization in youth, the results also highlight the necessity to further examine the mechanism that either facilitate or hinder sibling effects.

  10. Mechanisms of Sibling Socialization in Normative Family Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Becerra, Julia M.; Killoren, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Siblings are important sources of social influence throughout childhood and adolescence. Nevertheless, the processes by which siblings influence one another remain relatively unexplored. We highlight two theories of sibling influence--sibling deidentification and social learning--that offer insights as to how and why siblings develop similar and…

  11. Personality traits and sibling relationships in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Richard P

    2007-04-01

    Associations between the Big Five personality traits of siblings and the quality of sibling relationships were examined in a sample of 115 college students and one of their older siblings. Big Five traits, as assessed by Goldberg's 100 adjective markers, predicted a large amount of the variability in sibling Warmth and Conflict. Agreeableness was the most consistent predictor of positive sibling outcomes.

  12. Sibling relationships in individuals with Angelman syndrome: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Love, V.; Richters, L.P.H.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Machalicek, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. Methods: This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n 44). Sibling relationships were

  13. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  14. Holographic Twin Higgs Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-01

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at mKK , naturally allowing for mKK beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  15. Outcomes of preterm premature rupture of membranes in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacoste, Stephanie V; Jean-Pierre, Claudel; Baergen, Rebecca; Chasen, Stephen T

    2008-08-01

    To describe outcomes in twin pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Dichorionic twin pregnancies complicated by PPROM at premature rupture of membranes (PROM), latency from PROM to delivery, and infection were examined. In 49 twin pregnancies, the median gestational age at PROM was 31 weeks with a median latency between PROM and delivery of 0 days (interquartile range 0-6). Latency intervals of >or=2 and >or=7 days were achieved by 40.8% and 22.4%, respectively. PPROM at or= 2 days (70.6% vs. 25.0%) and >or=7 days (47.1% vs. 9.4%). There was a significant relationship between latency and clinical and histologic signs of infection. After 30 weeks, most twin pregnancies with PPROM delivered within 2 days. Infection appears to be a consequence rather than a cause of PPROM in most cases.

  16. Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Type IV with Dental Findings in Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a hereditary disorder characterized by increased tendency for bone fractures due to high fragility. The clinical and radiological features of OI manifest in different age groups, although the disease is congenital in nature. Besides bone fragility, features like laxity of the ligaments, blue sclera, growth retardation, and scoliosis are also observed. In severe cases, respiratory distress and death have been reported. The most important oral finding in OI is the presence of yellowish-brown-coloured brittle teeth characteristic of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Genetic factors play a very important role in the pathogenesis of OI either as a dominant or recessive factor. When a child has OI, there is a 25% chance of the sibling to have the same disorder. We report two cases of OI in siblings born to parents with a history of consanguineous marriage. The clinical and radiological features of the two cases are described in detail.

  17. Voice similarity in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, W D; Vercammen, J; Debruyne, F

    2001-01-01

    If people are asked to discriminate visually the two individuals of a monozygotic twin (MT), they mostly get into trouble. Does this problem also exist when listening to twin voices? Twenty female and 10 male MT voices were randomly assembled with one "strange" voice to get voice trios. The listeners (10 female students in Speech and Language Pathology) were asked to label the twins (voices 1-2, 1-3 or 2-3) in two conditions: two standard sentences read aloud and a 2.5-second midsection of a sustained /a/. The proportion correctly labelled twins was for female voices 82% and 63% and for male voices 74% and 52% for the sentences and the sustained /a/ respectively, both being significantly greater than chance (33%). The acoustic analysis revealed a high intra-twin correlation for the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of the sentences and the fundamental frequency (F0) of the sustained /a/. So the voice pitch could have been a useful characteristic in the perceptual identification of the twins. We conclude that there is a greater perceptual resemblance between the voices of identical twins than between voices without genetic relationship. The identification however is not perfect. The voice pitch possibly contributes to the correct twin identifications.

  18. Twin Studies of Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, Camilla; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of population-based twin studies of (a) the concordance and heritability of AD and (b) the relationship between AD and asthma and, furthermore, to reinterpret findings from previous twin studies in the light of the emerging knowledge a...

  19. Ferrobielastic twinning in irradiated quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Cultured quartz is usually free from electrical twinning; however, it may occur if the seed crystal is twinned or if undue applied forces are exerted on the crystal. Ferrobielastic twinning was studied optically (photoelastic effect) and electrically (piezoelectric effect). At room temperature, twins were perceptible at stresses of about 2.l5 x 10 8 N/m 2 , and crystals switched from their original states to the alternative twin states at stresses about 5.0 x 10 8 N/m 2 (called coercive stress). The decrease in coercive stress with increasing temperature was observed, and these coercive stresses become very low as temperatures reach to 300 0 C. The effects of irradiation on the twinning in quartz were also studied. The presence of defects produced by irradiation was utilized to pin the domain wall motion. Both neutrons and gamma rays were employed. The stress required to nucleate an appreciable volume of twins is about twice as high for irradiated crystals than for those unirradiated. This result demonstrated that the irradiated crystals can tolerate higher stresses. However, the coercive stress for complete switch-over was not much different for irradiated and unirradiated crystals. It appears that the defects caused by irradiation eliminate the initial twinning events but do not affect switch-over

  20. Oliver Sacks: Our Correspondence About Twins/Twin Research: Vanishing Twins Syndrome; Discordant Sex in MZ Twins; Pregnancy Outcomes in IVF and ICSI Conceived Twins/Print and Media: Superfetated Twins; Twins Discordant for Smoking; Twins in Fashion; Yale University Twin Hockey Players; Conjoined Twin-Visiting Professor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-08-01

    The late neurologist and author, Oliver Sacks, published an insightful 1986 review of Marjorie Wallace's book, The Silent Twins, in the New York Times. Taking exception to his assertion about Sir Francis Galton, I wrote a letter to the Times' editor. The letter was unpublished, but it brought a wonderful response from Sacks himself that is reproduced and examined. Next, brief reviews of twin research concerning the vanishing twin syndrome (VTS), discordant sex in a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair, and multiple pregnancy outcomes from assisted reproductive technology (ART) are presented. This section is followed by popular coverage of superfetated twins, smoking-discordant co-twins, twins in fashion, Yale University twin hockey players, and a visiting professor who was a conjoined twin.

  1. Enhancing sibling relationships to prevent adolescent problem behaviors: theory, design and feasibility of Siblings Are Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings' engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Autism‐Spectrum Quotient in Siblings of People With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Ring, Howard; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron‐Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This study measures the distribution of autistic traits, using the autism‐spectrum quotient (AQ), in siblings of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Total AQ scores, along with AQ subscales, were collected from child, adolescent and adult controls, siblings, and volunteers with ASC using one of the three age‐appropriate versions of the instrument: the AQ (adult self‐report), the AQ‐adolescent and AQ‐child (both parent‐reports). We examined the effect of Group (case, sibling and control) and AQ version (adult, adolescent and adult) on total and subscale scores. In addition, we tested for sex differences in all groups and on all versions. We found that in male and female adults, AQ scores in siblings fell between cases and controls (cases > siblings > controls). In children and adolescents, female siblings also scored higher than control females (female cases > female siblings > female controls), but there was no difference between male siblings and controls (male cases > male siblings = male controls). An investigation of subscale scores revealed that male siblings only differed from controls on the “Communication” subscale (male cases > male siblings > male controls), while female siblings differed from controls on all subscales except “Imagination” (female cases > female siblings > female controls). This study confirms the broader autism phenotype in siblings, and reveals this is modulated by sex and AQ version. Autism Res 2017, 10: 289–297. © 2016 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. PMID:27333365

  3. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  4. Self-Representations in Early Adolescence: Variations in Sibling Similarity by Sex Composition and Sibling Relationship Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Card, Noel A.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2010-01-01

    Self-representations play an important role in adolescent development. This study compared self-representations for siblings and explored whether sibling relationship characteristics are associated with similarities or differences in sibling self-concepts. We examined self-representations of 438 adolescent sibling dyads (M age younger sibling =…

  5. Minimal mirror twin Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo [Institute of Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich,CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke [Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-11-29

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z{sub 2} parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z{sub 2} breaking, can generate the Z{sub 2} breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism. The theory has constrained and correlated signals in Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection and Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments, over a region of parameter space where the fine-tuning for the electroweak scale is 10-50%. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z{sub 2} breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B−L breaking fields are also discussed.

  6. Familial Hodgkin lymphoma: pediatric onset in three out of five siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Peter; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Clausen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This is a report on FHL describing a family with five children of whom three were HLA class I genotype identical. Within a period of six years, these three siblings (one girl and two boys) were diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods: In......-situ hybridisation for EBV-encoded small nuclear RNAs 1 and 2 (EBER-ISH) was performed by standard non-isotopic technique. Germline mutation analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results: Two of the siblings were diagnosed at age 12, the other at age 5. All three cases were localised at diagnosis i...... on peripheral blood samples of all family members (the five siblings and their parents) did not reveal germline mutations. None of the children had overt immunodeficiency or autoimmune disease. Conclusions: Genetic factors may be involved in HL. In fact, FHL cases may share HLA haplotypes and siblings...

  7. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins’ prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  8. An initial look at sibling reports on children's behavior: comparisons with children's self-reports and relations with siblings' self-reports and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M

    1999-10-01

    The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on the familial transmission of externalizing disorders in adoptive and twin offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Foster, Katherine T; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-10-01

    Twin-family studies have shown that parent-child resemblance on substance use disorders and antisocial behavior can be accounted for by the transmission of a general liability to a spectrum of externalizing disorders. Most studies, however, include only biological parents and offspring, which confound genetic and environmental transmission effects. To examine the familial transmission of externalizing disorders among both adoptive (genetically unrelated) and biological relatives to better distinguish genetic and environmental mechanisms of transmission. Family study design wherein each family included the mother, father, and 2 offspring, including monozygotic twin, dizygotic twin, nontwin biological, and adoptive offspring. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate familial transmission effects and their genetic and environmental influences. Participants were recruited from the community and assessed at a university laboratory. A total of 1590 families with biological offspring and 409 families with adoptive offspring. Offspring participants were young adults (mean age, 26.2 years). Symptom counts of conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, and alcohol, nicotine, and drug dependence. RESULTS There was a medium effect for the transmission of the general externalizing liability for biological parents (r = 0.27-0.30) but not for adoptive parents (r = 0.03-0.07). In contrast, adoptive siblings exhibited significant similarity on the general externalizing liability (r = 0.21). Biometric analyses revealed that the general externalizing liability was highly heritable (a2 = 0.61) but also exhibited significant shared environmental influences (c2 = 0.20). Parent-child resemblance for substance use disorders and antisocial behavior is primarily due to the genetic transmission of a general liability to a spectrum of externalizing disorders. Including adoptive siblings revealed a greater role of shared environmental influences on the general externalizing liability

  10. Therapeutic modalities of twin to twin transfusion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulović N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTTS accounts for approximately 10% of monochorionic twin pregnancies and, if left untreated, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. A net transfusion of blood flow from one fetus (donor twin to the other (recipient twin via placental vascular anastomoses has been supposed as the major etiology of TTTTS. The donor twin becomes hypovolemic and oliguria, oligohydramnios, and a variable degree of growth restriction develop, whereas the recipient twin manifests polyuria, polyhydramnios, and hydrops in response to hypervolemia. TTTTS can be treated by either serial amniocentesis or selective fetoscopic laser coagulation of the communicating vessels. The rationale for removal of large volumes of amniotic fluid is to prevent preterm delivery secondary to polyhydramnios and to improve fetal circulation by reducing pressure on the chorionic plate. On the other hand, the goal of laser therapy is to occlude vascular anastomoses, thereby interrupting intertwin blood exchange. Although laser treatment is associated with increased survival rate and reduced neurologic complications, compared with amnioreduction, it requires highly specialized centers, whereas serial amniocentesis has the advantage of being performed worldwide. Therefore, the optimal treatment for pregnancies complicated with TTTTS is still controversial.

  11. Nineteen and Up study (19Up): understanding pathways to mental health disorders in young Australian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; O'Callaghan, Victoria; Parker, Richard; Mills, Natalie; Kirk, Katherine M; Scott, Jan; Vinkhuyzen, Anna; Hermens, Daniel F; Lind, Penelope A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Connell, Melissa; Zietsch, Brendan P; Scott, James; Wright, Margaret J; Medland, Sarah E; McGrath, John; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2018-03-17

    The Nineteen and Up study (19Up) assessed a range of mental health and behavioural problems and associated risk factors in a genetically informative Australian cohort of young adult twins and their non-twin siblings. As such, 19Up enables detailed investigation of genetic and environmental pathways to mental illness and substance misuse within the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Sample (BLTS). Twins and their non-twin siblings from Queensland, Australia; mostly from European ancestry. Data were collected between 2009 and 2016 on 2773 participants (age range 18-38, 57.8% female, 372 complete monozygotic pairs, 493 dizygotic pairs, 640 non-twin siblings, 403 singleton twins). A structured clinical assessment (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) was used to collect lifetime prevalence of diagnostic statistical manual (4th edition) (DSM-IV) diagnoses of major depressive disorder, (hypo)mania, social anxiety, cannabis use disorder, alcohol use disorder, panic disorder and psychotic symptoms. Here, we further describe the comorbidities and ages of onset for these mental disorders. Notably, two-thirds of the sample reported one or more lifetime mental disorder.In addition, the 19Up study assessed general health, drug use, work activity, education level, personality, migraine/headaches, suicidal thoughts, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology, sleep-wake patterns, romantic preferences, friendships, familial environment, stress, anorexia and bulimia as well as baldness, acne, asthma, endometriosis, joint flexibility and internet use.The overlap with previous waves of the BLTS means that 84% of the 19Up participants are genotyped, 36% imaged using multimodal MRI and most have been assessed for psychological symptoms at up to four time points. Furthermore, IQ is available for 57%, parental report of ADHD symptomatology for 100% and electroencephalography for 30%. The 19Up study complements a phenotypically rich, longitudinal collection of

  12. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partonen Timo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.

  13. Siblings of children with life-limiting conditions: psychological adjustment and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, J M; Totsika, V; Hain, R; Hastings, R P

    2017-05-01

    This study explored psychological adjustment and sibling relationships of siblings of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs), expanding on previous research by defining LLCs using a systematic classification of these conditions. Thirty-nine siblings participated, aged 3-16 years. Parents completed measures of siblings' emotional and behavioural difficulties, quality of life, sibling relationships and impact on families and siblings. Sibling and family adjustment and relationships were compared with population norms, where available, and to a matched comparison group of siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as a comparable 'high risk' group. LLC siblings presented significantly higher levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties, and lower quality of life than population norms. Their difficulties were at levels comparable to siblings of children with ASD. A wider impact on the family was confirmed. Family socio-economic position, time since diagnosis, employment and accessing hospice care were factors associated with better psychological adjustment. Using a systematic classification of LLCs, the study supported earlier findings of increased levels of psychological difficulties in siblings of children with a LLC. The evidence is (i) highlighting the need to provide support to these siblings and their families, and (ii) that intervention approaches could be drawn from the ASD field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Siblings' coping strategies and mental health services: a national study of siblings of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Rose Marie; Lively, Sonja; Rubenstein, Linda M

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the helpfulness of coping strategies and the relative importance of mental health services in coping with schizophrenia from the perspective of siblings. This article presents selected survey data from a national study of 746 respondents that investigated the impact of schizophrenia on siblings' lives. The authors developed the Friedrich-Lively Instrument to Assess the Impact of Schizophrenia on Siblings (FLIISS), a closed-ended questionnaire that included questions about coping strategies and mental health services. Respondents identified services for the ill sibling, including symptom control, adequate housing, and long-term planning, as more important than direct services for themselves. The top-ranked coping strategies were education about schizophrenia, a supportive family, and seeing the ill sibling suffer less because symptoms were controlled. Understanding that families were not to blame for schizophrenia was the most helpful coping strategy for nearly three-fourths of siblings. Siblings had little contact with providers in the past; yet the majority of siblings wanted providers to be available to answer questions and clarify their role in future care. At the time of the study, respondents provided social support and helped with crises, but few coordinated the total care. Siblings identified multiple ways that providers can support and assist them in coping with the impact of schizophrenia. Education and support for siblings without schizophrenia and services for their ill siblings will become increasingly important for the well-being of siblings as they are faced with the responsibility of being the primary caregivers in the future.

  15. Sibling Relationships in Adults Who Have Siblings with or without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Mairead A.; Hastings, Richard P.; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with…

  16. A novel frameshift GRN mutation results in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with a distinct clinical phenotype in two siblings: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Takashi; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Miura, Takeshi; Mezaki, Naomi; Kasuga, Kensaku; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Tamaoka, Akira

    2017-09-15

    Progranulin gene (GRN) mutations are major causes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. To date, 68 pathogenic GRN mutations have been identified. However, very few of these mutations have been reported in Asians. Moreover, some GRN mutations manifest with familial phenotypic heterogeneity. Here, we present a novel GRN mutation resulting in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with a distinct clinical phenotype, and we review reports of GRN mutations associated with familial phenotypic heterogeneity. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with left frontotemporal lobe atrophy who presented with progressive anarthria and non-fluent aphasia. Her brother had been diagnosed with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with right-hand limb-kinetic apraxia, aphasia, and a similar pattern of brain atrophy. Laboratory blood examinations did not reveal abnormalities that could have caused cognitive dysfunction. In the cerebrospinal fluid, cell counts and protein concentrations were within normal ranges, and concentrations of tau protein and phosphorylated tau protein were also normal. Since similar familial cases due to mutation of GRN and microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) were reported, we performed genetic analysis. No pathological mutations of MAPT were identified, but we identified a novel GRN frameshift mutation (c.1118_1119delCCinsG: p.Pro373ArgX37) that resulted in progranulin haploinsufficiency. This is the first report of a GRN mutation associated with familial phenotypic heterogeneity in Japan. Literature review of GRN mutations associated with familial phenotypic heterogeneity revealed no tendency of mutation sites. The role of progranulin has been reported in this and other neurodegenerative diseases, and the analysis of GRN mutations may lead to the discovery of a new therapeutic target.

  17. Successful fetoscopic laser coagulation for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome under local anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, S

    2011-06-01

    A review of the efficacy and outcome of fifteen fetoscopic laser ablations under local anaesthesia for twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in the National Maternity Hospital Dublin was undertaken. The mean gestation at laser was 19.7 weeks (range 16-25 weeks) with a mean gestation at delivery of 29.1 weeks (range 20-35 weeks). The overall liveborn birth rate was 79% (22 infants) and one pregnancy was still ongoing. There were four neonatal deaths secondary to complications of prematurity. The surviving eighteen infants (64%) undergo regular paediatric review. The procedure was performed successfully in all cases with local anaesthesia. In no case was there maternal discomfort that warranted the procedure to be abandoned and good visual access of the vascular anastamoses was obtained in all cases. Local anaesthesia therefore offers a safe effective anaesthetic option for fetoscopic laser coagulation in monochorionic pregnancies complicated by TTTS.

  18. Heritability of tic disorders: a twin-family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilhão, N R; Olthof, M C; Smit, D J A; Cath, D C; Ligthart, L; Mathews, C A; Delucchi, K; Boomsma, D I; Dolan, C V

    2017-04-01

    Genetic-epidemiological studies that estimate the contributions of genetic factors to variation in tic symptoms are scarce. We estimated the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to tics, employing various phenotypic definitions ranging between mild and severe symptomatology, in a large population-based adult twin-family sample. In an extended twin-family design, we analysed lifetime tic data reported by adult mono- and dizygotic twins (n = 8323) and their family members (n = 7164; parents and siblings) from 7311 families in the Netherlands Twin Register. We measured tics by the abbreviated version of the Schedule for Tourette and Other Behavioral Syndromes. Heritability was estimated by genetic structural equation modeling for four tic disorder definitions: three dichotomous and one trichotomous phenotype, characterized by increasingly strictly defined criteria. Prevalence rates of the different tic disorders in our sample varied between 0.3 and 4.5% depending on tic disorder definition. Tic frequencies decreased with increasing age. Heritability estimates varied between 0.25 and 0.37, depending on phenotypic definitions. None of the phenotypes showed evidence of assortative mating, effects of shared environment or non-additive genetic effects. Heritabilities of mild and severe tic phenotypes were estimated to be moderate. Overlapping confidence intervals of the heritability estimates suggest overlapping genetic liabilities between the various tic phenotypes. The most lenient phenotype (defined only by tic characteristics, excluding criteria B, C and D of DSM-IV) rendered sufficiently reliable heritability estimates. These findings have implications in phenotypic definitions for future genetic studies.

  19. Antenatal management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome and twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghekke, Femke; Zhao, Depeng P; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Klumper, Frans J; Haak, Monique C; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS) are severe complications in monochorionic twin pregnancies associated with high mortality and morbidity risk if left untreated. Both diseases result from imbalanced inter-twin blood transfusion through placental vascular anastomoses. This review focuses on the differences in antenatal management between TTTS and TAPS. Expert commentary: The optimal management for TTTS is fetoscopic laser coagulation of the vascular anastomoses, preferably using the Solomon technique in which the whole vascular equator is coagulated. The Solomon technique is associated with a reduction of residual anastomosis and a reduction in post-operative complications. The optimal management for TAPS is not clear and includes expectant management, intra-uterine transfusion with or without partial exchange transfusion and fetoscopic laser surgery.

  20. Joubert syndrome with autism in two siblings: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, D Vijaya; Doshi, V Vimal; Nambi, Shanthi

    2016-01-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with partial or complete agenesis of cerebellar vermis. This syndrome is identified mainly by the presence of molar tooth sign in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain since it has a varied phenotypic presentation. Of the 200 cases reported so far in the literature, only three reports show the presence of autistic symptoms in siblings suggesting a link between the cerebellar vermis and autistic spectrum disorders. In this case report of two siblings, the female child satisfied the criterion for autistic spectrum disorder in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Editon. The boy showed developmental delay with autistic features (not amounting to diagnostic threshold). This report is important in that it adds evidence to the literature that abnormalities of cerebellum are involved in the cognitive development and autistic symptoms.

  1. Using Envision to Assess the Sustainability of Groundwater Infrastructure: A Case Study of the Twin Oaks Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody R. Saville

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ISI (Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure Envision rating system is designed to be a comprehensive sustainability assessment that can be applied to a wide range of infrastructure projects, including water supply. With water supply resiliency, a prominent concern in many arid and semi-arid regions, the implementation of a water sustainability metric would be beneficial to both regulators and planners. This review seeks to assess the merit of applying Envision to water infrastructure projects specifically designed to enhance supply resiliency by retroactively rating the San Antonio Water System (SAWS Twin Oaks Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR project. In this review, we find that the novelty and innovation inherent in ASR is largely overlooked by Envision, which often does not evaluate sector-specific concepts. Furthermore, the project-oriented focus of Envision does not analyze water supply systems, or any infrastructure system, as a whole. This paper proposes that a water specific sustainability index be used in conjunction with Envision, to more specifically address concerns for water supply.

  2. A case of mydriatic fixed pupil with diabetes mellitus, about limited resolution capacity of computed tomography and twin light reflex (Nozaki)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hisashi; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Okamoto, Toshiko; Awaya, Shinobu.

    1982-01-01

    A 56 year old house wife with a ten history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with visual impairment of both eyes. The pupil of the right eye larger than that of the lefteye, and did not react to light. Examination revealed diabetic retinopathy of both eyes with the right dilatedandfixed pupil and ocular movements were not abnormal except convergence. Computed Tomography did not show abnormal findings. It is necessary, however, to keep in mind that normal apperance of CT-scan does not always mean normal conditions, because of it's limited resolution capacity. From clinical signs and symptoms, the mydriatic fixed pupil might be diagnosed as diabetic origin. Thus, despite of outstanding technical advances such as a CT-scan, it should be emphasized that the most important diagnostic procedure is clinical signs, symptoms, accurate history, and clinical examinations. It seems to be a useful procedure that twin light reflex is applied to the fixed pupil with retina or optic nerve involvement as well as direct, consensual light reaction, and swing flashlight test. (author)

  3. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  4. Do Older Siblings Make a Difference? The Effects of Older Sibling Support and Older Sibling Adjustment on the Adjustment of Socially Disadvantaged Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Eric D.; Weiss, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    Examined role of support from a well-adjusted older sibling for positive adjustment of disadvantaged inner-city adolescents. Found that sibling support was nonsignificantly related to delinquency, academic success, and mental health for younger siblings. Only when accompanied by a positive image of their older sibling was support associated with…

  5. The nature of pseudo-twinning modes on the basis of a twin classification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jung B.; Sundararaman, M.; Krishnan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudo-twins can form in ordered structures under high stress conditions. These twins are defined by lattice sites that are at twin positions but are incorrectly occupied by different species of atoms. The present note discusses if it is possible to further classify pseudo-twins into different modes based on the nature of associated twinning elements.

  6. Twins and Kindergarten Separation: Divergent Beliefs of Principals, Teachers, Parents, and Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lynn Melby

    2015-01-01

    Should principals enforce mandatory separation of twins in kindergarten? Do school separation beliefs of principals differ from those of teachers, parents of twins, and twins themselves? This survey questioned 131 elementary principals, 54 kindergarten teachers, 201 parents of twins, and 112 twins. A majority of principals (71%) believed that…

  7. Discordancia de peso al nacer: consecuencias y su perdurabilidad en el desarrollo psicológico del gemelo de menor peso intrapar (Intertwin birth weight discordance: its effects and their persistence in the psychological development of the lightest intrapair twin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Escolano-Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More twins are being born with intrapair birth weight discordances. Discordance in birth weight is a risk factor that can affect the development of twins, especially that of the lightest twin. However, few studies have analysed the possible consequences of birth weight discordance on the lightest twin beyond possible neonatal obstetric problems. Thus,little is known about the consequences of birth weight discordance on the psychological development of such babies.This article reviews the literature and summarizes the effects of birth weight discordance on the psychological development of the lightest intrapair twins compared with their heavier twin siblings and the persistence of these effects during their lifetime. The literature shows that the lightest intrapair twins obtain lower scores than their siblings in cognitive, verbal, and psychomotor skills. They are also more likely to have traits associated with the development of hyperactivity. These differences persist from childhood to youth. There is no information about adulthood. In conclusion, birth weight discordance has marked effects on the psychological development of intrapair lower weight twins, both in relation to the affected dimensions and the persistence of these effects over time. Further research is needed on designing early preventative interventions that would optimize the development of these children. This proposal is of relevance, given that the optimal development of all children is the basis of a society in continuous progress.

  8. The classical twin study and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; Busjahn, A.; Peltonen, L.

    2002-01-01

    Twin studies have been a valuable source of information about the genetic basis of complex traits. To maximize the potential of twin studies, large, worldwide registers of data on twins and their relatives have been established. Here, we provide an overview of the current resources for twin

  9. Monochorionic twin pregnancies: a systematic approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complications unique to these pregnancies include Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS), Twin Polycythaemia Anaemia Sequence (TAPS), Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction (sIUGR) and death of the co-twin. Adhering to a systematic and objective approach of management, can lead to early recognition and ...

  10. Evidence of genetic susceptibility to infectious mononucleosis: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, A E; Hamilton, A S; Cockburn, M G; Ambinder, R; Zadnick, J; Brown, E E; Mack, T M; Cozen, W

    2012-11-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. It is unknown whether genetic factors contribute to risk. To assess heritability, we compared disease concordance in monozygotic to dizygotic twin pairs from the population-based California Twin Program and assessed the risk to initially unaffected co-twins. One member of 611 and both members of 58 twin pairs reported a history of infectious mononucleosis. Pairwise concordance in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was respectively 12·1% [standard error (s.e.)=1·9%] and 6·1% (s.e.=1·2%). The relative risk (hazard ratio) of monozygotic compared to dizygotic unaffected co-twins of cases was 1·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1-3·4, P=0·03], over the follow-up period. When the analysis was restricted to same-sex twin pairs, that estimate was 2·5 (95% CI 1·2-5·3, P=0·02). The results are compatible with a heritable contribution to the risk of infectious mononucleosis.

  11. [Gestational diabetes insipidus during a twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mesmay, M; Rigouzzo, A; Bui, T; Louvet, N; Constant, I

    2013-02-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is an uncommon clinical disease whose prevalence is approximately two to three pregnancies per 100,000. It may be isolated or associated with preeclampsia. We report a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a twin pregnancy, originally isolated during two months, and secondarily complicated by HELLP-syndrome. We recall the specific pathophysiology of polyuric-polydipsic syndrome during pregnancy and summarize its various causes. Finally, we discuss the indications, in case of isolated gestational diabetes insipidus, of treatment by dDAVP. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Sleep-EEG in dizygotic twins discordant for Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Szocs, Katalin; Réthelyi, János M; Gerván, Patrícia; Kovács, Ilona

    2014-01-30

    Reports on twin pairs concordant and discordant for Williams syndrome were published before, but no study unravelled sleep physiology in these cases yet. We aim to fill this gap by analyzing sleep records of a twin pair discordant for Williams syndrome extending our focus on presleep wakefulness and sleep spindling. We performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of the 7q11.23 region of a 17 years old dizygotic opposite-sex twin pair discordant for Williams syndrome. Polysomnography of laboratory sleep at this age was analyzed and followed-up after 1.5 years by ambulatory polysomnography. Sleep stages scoring, EEG power spectra and sleep spindle analyses were carried out. The twin brother showed reduced levels of amplification for all of the probes in the 7q11.23 region indicating a typical deletion spanning at least 1.038 Mb between FKBP6 and CLIP2. The results of the twin sister showed normal copy numbers in the investigated region. Lower sleep times and efficiencies, as well as higher slow wave sleep percents of the twin brother were evident during both recordings. Roughly equal NREM, Stage 2 and REM sleep percents were found. EEG analyses revealed state and derivation-independent decreases in alpha power, lack of an alpha spectral peak in presleep wakefulness, as well as higher NREM sleep sigma peak frequency in the twin brother. Faster sleep spindles with lower amplitude and shorter duration characterized the records of the twin brother. Spectra show a striking reliability and correspondence between the two situations (laboratory vs. home records). Alterations in sleep and specific neural oscillations including the alpha/sigma waves are inherent aspects of Williams syndrome.

  13. Presentation of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Ginjupally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias are a large hereditary group of disorders which are usually manifested as X-linked recessive disorders and have a full expression in males, whereas females show little to no signs of the disorder. The two most common types of ectodermal dysplasias are hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Clouston syndrome. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is characterized by hypodontia, hypotrichosis, and hypohidrosis. Here, we present two female sibling cases of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

  14. Multiple Unerupted Teeth with Amelogenesis Imperfecta in Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Shruthi Hegde

    2012-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta encompasses a group of inherited abnormalities that are generally considered to primarily affect the formation and/or calcification of enamel. This case report describes the unusual presentation of amelogenesis imperfecta in siblings as multiple unerupted teeth, multiple pulpal calcifications, and multiple dilacerations of roots along with the defect in the enamel. The intent of our report is to highlight a rare co-occurrence of amelogenesis imperfecta with multiple mo...

  15. Peak effect in twinned superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, A.I.; Marchetti, M.C.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    A sharp maximum in the critical current J c as a function of temperature just below the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice has recently been observed in both low- and high-temperature superconductors. This peak effect is strongest in twinned crystals for fields aligned with the twin planes. We propose that this peak signals the breakdown of the collective pinning regime and the crossover to strong pinning of single vortices on the twin boundaries. This crossover is very sharp and can account for the steep drop of the differential resistivity observed in experiments. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  16. Ischiopagus and diprosopus in India: two pairs of conjoined twins perceived as incarnations of Hindu deities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ditty, Benjamin; Bosmia, Anand N; Bosmia, Arpan N

    2015-02-01

    This article briefly reviews two specific types of conjoined twins, ischiopagus and diprosopus, and discusses recent cases of such twins born in India. Some members of the Hindu community worshiped these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities. In discussing this phenomenon, the authors aim to elucidate certain features of the faith tradition of Hinduism itself. The reception of these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities can be understood by examining two salient features of Hindu polytheism: the pictorial depiction of Hindu deities with multiple appendages and the concept of an incarnation, or avatar, of a Hindu deity.

  17. Twin anemia polycythemia sequence: a single center experience and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; Nassr, Ahmed A; Espinoza, Jimmy; Ruano, Rodrigo; Bateni, Zhoobin H; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Mandy, George T; Welty, Stephen E; Erfani, Hadi; Popek, Edwina J; Belfort, Michael A; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2016-10-01

    Twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is defined by significant intertwin hemoglobin discordance without the amniotic fluid discordance that characterizes twin-twin-transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monochorionic twin pregnancies. TAPS is an uncommon condition which can either occur spontaneously, or following fetoscopic laser ablation for TTTS. This complication is thought to result from chronic transfusion through very small placental anastomoses; however, the pathogenesis of TAPS remains unknown. Consequently, there is no consensus in the management of TAPS. In this article, three cases of TAPS are described and we review the literature on this uncommon pregnancy complication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN LATE ADOLESCENCE: A Cohort Study of Stability, Correlates and Familial Aggregation in Twin Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Aarnio

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise has been shown to exert many positive effects on health. Sedentary behaviour often originates in childhood and many common adult chronic diseases are related to inactivity. Adolescent physical activity patterns and health habits are important subjects to study because of the known associations of physical activity with other health habits and the evidence that these associations track into adulthood. The data for this study were gathered as a part of FinnTwin16, a longitudinal study of five consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish twins, their siblings and parents. The study material was collected by identifying twins born in 1975-1979. Questionnaires concerning leisure-time physical activity, health-related behaviours, social relationship and health status were sent to twins on their 16th and 17th birthdays, and six months after their 18th. The maximal cohort size was 4906 boys and girls, and the response rate 75.8% to 81.7%. The results of this study reveal that persistently active adolescents smoked less than inactive ones, and usually had better health and nutritional habits, such as use of spreads and regular breakfast eating, and better self-estimated health. They attended high schools rather than vocational schools and tended to have better academic achievement. Participating in organised sport, in many different types of sport, or in power sports and ball games were also associated with persistent physical activity. Parents' and grandparents' physical activity were not associated with adolescent physical activity except in the case of very active mothers and daughters, but a co-twin's physical activity was associated. There was a gender difference in physical activity patterns: boys were more active than girls. No gender difference was found in health related-behaviours, except that girls reported more psychosomatic symptoms such as tension, in the low physical activity categories than boys. The known health benefits of

  19. Sibling Dependence, Uncertainty and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    in the educational decision, which is consistent with a human capital portfolio theory of risk diversification and which cannot be explained by sibling rivalry over scarce resources for credit constrained households. The paper thus provides a complementary explanation to why enrolment rates in developing countries......Primary school enrolment rates are continuously low in many developing countries. The main explanation in the economic literature on schooling is focused on credit constraints and child labour, implying that the indirect cost of schooling in terms of foregone earnings is too high. This paper...

  20. Are elder siblings helpers or competitors? Antagonistic fitness effects of sibling interactions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Aïda; Faurie, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    Determining the fitness consequences of sibling interactions is pivotal for understanding the evolution of family living, but studies investigating them across lifetime are lacking. We used a large demographic dataset on preindustrial humans from Finland to study the effect of elder siblings on key life-history traits. The presence of elder siblings improved the chances of younger siblings surviving to sexual maturity, suggesting that despite a competition for parental resources, they may help rearing their younger siblings. After reaching sexual maturity however, same-sex elder siblings' presence was associated with reduced reproductive success in the focal individual, indicating the existence of competition among same-sex siblings. Overall, lifetime fitness was reduced by same-sex elder siblings' presence and increased by opposite-sex elder siblings' presence. Our study shows opposite effects of sibling interactions depending on the life-history stage, and highlights the need for using long-term fitness measures to understand the selection pressures acting on sibling interactions. PMID:23173210

  1. IVF twins: buy one get one free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Laura; Mittal, Monica; Kalu, Emmanuel

    2012-10-01

    There has been an overall increase in the incidence of multiple pregnancies and assisted reproduction technology is largely responsible for this rise. Although twins may appeal to couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), they have been associated with serious health consequences to the babies, their mothers and the family unit, as well as having massive financial implications for the National Health Service. Transfer of more than one embryo during IVF is mainly responsible for IVF twins, and elective transfer of a single embryo at a time with cryopreservation of surplus embryos for later transfer has been shown to be an effective strategy to minimise the risk of twins without compromising IVF success rates. Factors that will impact on the success of the policy of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) include improvement in embryo selection for transfer, better cryopreservation techniques and adequate state funding for IVF. However, in implementing the policy of eSET it is important that each case is assessed on an individual basis since in some situations (e.g. in older women) the transfer of two embryos may be more cost effective. Adequate and continuous education of all stakeholders is essential if the policy of eSET is to be successful in the UK.

  2. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  3. Prohibitions against Mourning in Childhood Sibling Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Helen

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a research study on sibling loss in childhood which support the idea that the loss of a sibling in childhood may be an especially significant loss for a child, in that both internal, family, and societal influences prohibit the opportunity to mourn the loss. (Author/NRB)

  4. Sibling Kinnections: A Clinical Visitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire; St. John, Melissa; Cannole, Rebecca Ford; Fischer, Tara; Maluccio, Anthony; Peining, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The growing literature on sibling relationships throughout their lifespans is of great importance to those working in the child welfare system, and in adoption services in particular. Sibling bonds are important to all of us, but they are particularly vital to children from disorganized or dysfunctional families. These relationships assume even…

  5. Grieving the Loss of a Sibling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... roles and responsibilities that may change when a sibling dies. You may take on new responsibilities, such as becoming the oldest child or an only child to whom family members look for leadership. This change can cause you ... cancer. Because you and your siblings share many of the same genes, it is ...

  6. Perceived Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Lempers, Jacques D.

    2004-01-01

    Utilizing longitudinal, 3-wave data collected from multiple informants (fathers, mothers, and target children) in 374 families, the potential effects of sibling relationships on adolescent development across early and middle adolescence were investigated. Adolescents who perceived their sibling relationships more positively at Time 1 tended to…

  7. The Sibling: A Lifelong Journey of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Victoria D.

    This paper describes the feelings and needs of children who have siblings with disabilities from the point of view of a woman who has a brother with an intellectual disability. Eight lessons that adult siblings can teach professionals about the significant, often forgotten, family role they play are outlined, supported by descriptive quotations…

  8. Young Children's Apologies to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Sara; Ross, Hildy; Ross, Michael

    2010-01-01

    When children apologize, they accept responsibility for wrongdoings and act to reconcile social relationships. Apologies to siblings were coded in 40 families that were observed for 9 h when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years old, and again 2 years later. We found that sibling apologies were rare, generally simple in form, and more frequent after…

  9. Adult Siblings Consider the Future: Emergent Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of adult siblings regarding a future care role and compare with perceived parental wishes as family often provide a key support role in the lives of people who have an intellectual disability. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 adult siblings and an…

  10. Sibling Family Practices: Guidelines for Healthy Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Toni Cavanagh; Huang, Bevan Emma; Simpson, Pippa M.

    2009-01-01

    A questionnaire was given to 500 mental health and child welfare professionals asking for maximum acceptable ages for siblings to engage jointly in certain family practices related to hygiene, affection, and privacy. A large proportion of respondents felt it was never acceptable for siblings to take showers together (40%), kiss on the mouth (37%),…

  11. Sibling Relationships among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the quality of sibling relationships among children with ADHD relative to those without ADHD. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing and internalizing problems comorbid with ADHD affected sibling relationships. Method: Participants were 77 children with ADHD and 14 nonproblem control children. Sibling…

  12. Interaction between Siblings in Primetime Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…

  13. Parental Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Laurie; Baron, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Parental appraisals of their children's sibling relationships, and their standards for sibling relationships, were assessed. Although parents reported most concern about their children's Agonism and Rivalry/Competition, the largest discrepancies between parental standards and observations involved behaviors reflecting Warmth. Results endorse…

  14. Relationships between Social Cognition and Sibling Constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Barbara L.

    1985-01-01

    First and second born college students (N=178) responded to measures of four social cognition factors. Multivariate analysis of variance identified relationships of social cognition factors with five sibling constellation components: subject's sex, subject's birth order (first or second), adjacent first or second born sibling's sex, spacing…

  15. Non-random X chromosome inactivation in an affected twin in a monozygotic twin pair discordant for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestavik, R.E.; Eiklid, K.; Oerstavik, K.H. [Ulleval Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1995-03-27

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a syndrome including exomphalos, macroglossia, and generalized overgrowth. The locus has been assigned to 11p15, and genomic imprinting may play a part in the expression of one or more genes involved. Most cases are sporadic. An excess of female monozygotic twins discordant for WBS have been reported, and it has been proposed that this excess could be related to the process of X chromosome inactivation. We have therefore studied X chromosome inactivation in 13-year-old monozygotic twin girls who were discordant for WBS. In addition, both twins had Tourette syndrome. The twins were monochorionic and therefore the result of a late twinning process. This has also been the case in previously reported discordant twin pairs with information on placentation. X chromosome inactivation was determined in DNA from peripheral blood cells by PCR analysis at the androgen receptor locus. The affected twin had a completely skewed X inactivation, where the paternal allele was on the active X chromosome in all cells. The unaffected twin had a moderately skewed X inactivation in the same direction, whereas the mother had a random pattern. Further studies are necessary to establish a possible association between the expression of WBS and X chromosome inactivation. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Care work versus career work: sibling conflict over getting priorities right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    As the average age of the Canadian population continues to increase, and providing care at home to frail older adults becomes ever more prevalent, support for family and friend caregivers remains a key social policy issue. Economic support is an important consideration given the impact of caregiving on labour force participation. Yet the caregiving/paid work relationship is not always straightforward. While caregiving often restricts employment, limited attachment to employment may also influence the decision to provide care. Isabel's story, collected as part of a study of sibling views of fairness in sharing parent care as well as parent assets, provides a case study in how siblings give different priority to care work versus career work and what support needs arise including those related to sibling conflict over differing priorities. Isabel claims she sacrificed her career to care for her ailing mother while her siblings argue that through caregiving, Isabel was sheltered from the paid workforce.

  17. Sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Li, Eria Ping

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.

  18. Perinatal Outcomes of Monochorionic-Diamniotic Twin Pregnancies Uncomplicated at 28 Weeks of Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the prevalence of specific perinatal complications of monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies in cases without any abnormal findings until the second trimester of pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort study performed at a tertiary perinatal center in Tokyo, Japan. There were 88 cases of uncomplicated monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies at 28 weeks of gestation. In five of them (5.7%, there were serious complications associated with placental circulatory imbalance between the twins during the third trimester of pregnancy. Two cases were complicated by twin–twin transfusion syndrome, two cases were complicated by twin anemia–polycythemia sequence, and one case was complicated by acute twin–twin transfusion syndrome. In the five cases, no abnormal ultrasonographic findings or symptoms were recognized one or two weeks prior to the diagnosis. Fifty-eight cases (65.9% were delivered at term uneventfully. Serious complications due to placental circulatory imbalance between twins occurred in about 6% of cases during the third trimester of pregnancy.

  19. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome : from placental anastomoses to long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates. Placental vascular anastomoses, almost invariably present in monochorionic placentas, are the essential anatomical substrate for the

  20. Does anemia-polycythemia complicating twin-twin transfusion syndrome affect outcome after fetoscopic laser surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donepudi, R; Papanna, R; Snowise, S; Johnson, A; Bebbington, M; Moise, K J

    2016-03-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) can occur as a unique disease or as a complication of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler studies are not currently part of the routine evaluation of monochorionic twins since they are not used in the Quintero staging system. As such, the true incidence of TAPS is unknown. We aimed to compare the characteristics and outcomes of twin pregnancies with TTTS complicated by spontaneous anemia-polycythemia vs those with TTTS alone. This was a secondary analysis of data collected prospectively from a cohort of 156 consecutive patients undergoing fetoscopic laser surgery for TTTS, between October 2011 and August 2014. TAPS was defined as discordance in the preoperative MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV), with one twin fetus having MCA-PSV ≤ 1.0 multiples of the median (MoM) and the other having MCA-PSV ≥ 1.5 MoM. Maternal demographics as well as preoperative, operative and postoperative variables were analyzed. Included in the final analysis were 133 patients with complete records: 11 cases with TTTS with anemia-polycythemia and 122 cases with TTTS alone. There was no difference in maternal body mass index, gestational age (GA) at procedure, rate of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes or GA at delivery between the two groups. Patients with TTTS and anemia-polycythemia were more likely to be older (P = 0.03) and parous (P = 0.04) and had a significantly lower number of placental anastomoses (P = 0.01). The dual live-birth rate was similar for both groups (P = 0.76). Cases of TTTS with anemia-polycythemia were more likely to be found in parous and older women and were characterized by fewer vascular anastomoses. TTTS with anemia-polycythemia was not associated with worse perinatal outcome after laser therapy. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Considerations of Elder Sibling Closeness in Predicting Younger Sibling Substance Use: Social Learning versus Social Bonding Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent siblings are often similar in a variety of adjustment outcomes, yet little is known about the processes that explain sibling influences during adolescence. Two alternative explanations were tested, attachment (based in social bonding theory) and anaclitic identification (based in social learning theory). Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 613 adolescent sibling pairs (206 non-adopted, 407 adopted; elder sibling Mage = 16.1, younger sibling Mage = 13.8) across three sibling contexts (gender composition, age difference, and genetic similarity). Attachment explanations were supported such that the greater the perceived sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, the lower the likelihood of substance use; however, there were considerable moderating effects of sibling gender composition. Anaclitic identification explanations were not supported; closeness and elder sibling substance use did not interact to predict younger sibling substance use. Overall, this research adds to a body of work demonstrating important sibling influences on adolescent substance use. PMID:21988080

  2. Sibling relationship quality moderates the associations between parental interventions and siblings' independent conflict strategies and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-08-01

    This study extends research on sibling conflict strategies and outcomes by examining unique and interactive associations with age, relative birth order, sibling relationship quality, and caregivers' interventions into conflict. Each of 62 sibling dyads (older sibling mean age = 8.39 years; younger sibling mean age = 6.06 years) discussed 1 recurring conflict alone (dyadic negotiation) and a 2nd conflict with their primary parental caregiver (triadic negotiation). Negotiations were coded for children's conflict strategies, outcomes, and caregiver interventions; each family member provided ratings of sibling relationship quality. Results revealed that age was associated with siblings' constructive strategies, particularly in the dyadic negotiation. With age controlled, younger siblings referred more frequently to their own perspective. Caregivers' future orientation in the triadic negotiation was associated with children's future orientation in the dyadic negotiation; however, this association was most evident when sibling relationship quality was high. Similarly, caregivers' past orientation was positively associated with dyadic compromise, especially when relationship quality was high. Results reveal the value of simultaneously considering associations among parental, affective, and developmental correlates of sibling conflict strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Support Needs of Siblings of People with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Catherine K.; Heller, Tamar; Kramer, John

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the support needs of adult siblings of people with developmental disabilities. A survey completed by 139 siblings of people with developmental disabilities captured the needs of adult siblings through 2 open-ended questions. A grounded theory approach was used, and the sibling responses anchored the analysis,…

  4. Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…

  5. Siblings and Theory of Mind in Deaf Native Signing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfe, Tyron; Want, Stephen C.; Siegal, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the basis of "theory of mind" (ToM) reasoning in 20 native signers (ages 4-8) of British Sign Language. Children and their siblings were given a measure of the quality of sibling relations. Sibling quality as perceived by siblings predicted children's ToM score over age and referential communication. (Contains…

  6. Older (but Not Younger) Siblings Facilitate False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Perner, Josef; Naito, Mika; Parkin, Lindsay; Clements, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments and an analysis of pooled data from English and Japanese children show a linear increase in understanding false beliefs with number of older siblings; no such effect for children younger than 38 months; no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age; no effect of siblings' gender; and no helpful effect of siblings on a source…

  7. Differential Parental Treatment, Sibling Relationships and Delinquency in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Harakeh, Zeena; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effect of the quality of the sibling relationship on the longitudinal association of parental treatment with theft, vandalism, and violence in adolescence. Participants were 416 sibling pairs which were studied over a one-year period. The younger siblings were aged 13 to 15, the older siblings 14 to 17 at…

  8. Rastreamento de sinais e sintomas de transtornos do espectro do autismo em irmãos Screening for signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pontrelli Mecca

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaire (ASQ. Two cases of PDD in siblings were confirmed (10.52% of cases: a monozygotic twin brother and the brother of a proband with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Our data indicate higher rates of PDD in siblings than described in the literature (2-6%, close to the findings that suggest a 10% rate of familial recurrence in dizygotic twins. This result provides evidence of possible neurogenetic factors to explain the occurrence of PDD in relatives of the probands assessed and underscores the need to screen not only the child under evaluation, but also their siblings.

  9. Estimating twin concordance for bivariate competing risks twin data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus K.; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    For twin time-to-event data, we consider different concordance probabilities, such as the casewise concordance that are routinely computed as a measure of the lifetime dependence/correlation for specific diseases. The concordance probability here is the probability that both twins have experience...... events with the competing risk death. We thus aim to quantify the degree of dependence through the casewise concordance function and show a significant genetic component...... the event of interest. Under the assumption that both twins are censored at the same time, we show how to estimate this probability in the presence of right censoring, and as a consequence, we can then estimate the casewise twin concordance. In addition, we can model the magnitude of within pair dependence...... over time, and covariates may be further influential on the marginal risk and dependence structure. We establish the estimators large sample properties and suggest various tests, for example, for inferring familial influence. The method is demonstrated and motivated by specific twin data on cancer...

  10. Comparative examinations on the activity and variant selection of twinning during tension and compression of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dejia [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); School of Mechatronics Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang (China); Xin, Renlong, E-mail: rlxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Hongni, Yu; Liu, Zhe; Zheng, Xuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Liu, Qing, E-mail: qingliu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-03-21

    In the present study, an Mg weld with β-type fiber texture was produced by friction stir welding (FSW) and then was subjected to tension and compression along the transverse direction (TD). The deformed microstructure by 5% strain was examined in various regions of the Mg weld by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. It was found that profuse twinning was activated in stir zone (SZ) -side after tension and in SZ-center and crown zone (CZ) -center after compression due to the presence of relatively large Schmid factor (SF). However, a few twins (2–3%) were also observed in SZ-center after tension and in SZ-side after compression. In this case, the twins have very small and even negative SF. For the twins with large SF, they were likely connected at grain boundaries forming twin pairs, while for those with small or negative SF, they were mostly confined within grains. For connected twins, most of the active variants have favorable SF and geometric compatibility factor (m′). However, the distributions of SF and m′ are different between the twins formed in compression and tension. For isolated twins, the adjacent grains connected with the twins were generally in favorable orientation for basal slip, and the selection of twin variants was likely affected by m′ between the most favorable basal slip and the twins.

  11. Sibling rivalry: related bacterial small RNAs and their redundant and non-redundant roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Clayton C; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G; Murphy, Erin R

    2014-01-01

    Small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are now recognized as key regulators controlling bacterial gene expression, as sRNAs provide a quick and efficient means of positively or negatively altering the expression of specific genes. To date, numerous sRNAs have been identified and characterized in a myriad of bacterial species, but more recently, a theme in bacterial sRNAs has emerged: the presence of more than one highly related sRNAs produced by a given bacterium, here termed sibling sRNAs. Sibling sRNAs are those that are highly similar at the nucleotide level, and while it might be expected that sibling sRNAs exert identical regulatory functions on the expression of target genes based on their high degree of relatedness, emerging evidence is demonstrating that this is not always the case. Indeed, there are several examples of bacterial sibling sRNAs with non-redundant regulatory functions, but there are also instances of apparent regulatory redundancy between sibling sRNAs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of bacterial sibling sRNAs, and also discusses important questions about the significance and evolutionary implications of this emerging class of regulators.

  12. Sibling rivalry: Related bacterial small RNAs and their redundant and non-redundant roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton eCaswell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small RNA molecules (sRNAs are now recognized as key regulators controlling bacterial gene expression, as sRNAs provide a quick and efficient means of positively or negatively altering the expression of specific genes. To date, numerous sRNAs have been identified and characterized in a myriad of bacterial species, but more recently, a theme in bacterial sRNAs has emerged: the presence of more than one highly related sRNAs produced by a given bacterium, here termed sibling sRNAs. Sibling sRNAs are those that are highly similar at the nucleotide level, and while it might be expected that sibling sRNAs exert identical regulatory functions on the expression of target genes based on their high degree of relatedness, emerging evidence is demonstrating that this is not always the case. Indeed, there are several examples of bacterial sibling sRNAs with non-redundant regulatory functions, but there are also instances of apparent regulatory redundancy between sibling sRNAs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of bacterial sibling sRNAs, and also discusses important questions about the significance and evolutionary implications of this emerging class of regulators.

  13. Prognostic and survival analysis of presbyopia: The healthy twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Adiyani; Sung, Joohon

    2015-12-01

    Presbyopia, a vision condition in which the eye loses its flexibility to focus on near objects, is part of ageing process which mostly perceptible in the early or mid 40s. It is well known that age is its major risk factor, while sex, alcohol, poor nutrition, ocular and systemic diseases are known as common risk factors. However, many other variables might influence the prognosis. Therefore in this paper we developed a prognostic model to estimate survival from presbyopia. 1645 participants which part of the Healthy Twin Study, a prospective cohort study that has recruited Korean adult twins and their family members based on a nation-wide registry at public health agencies since 2005, were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis as well as Cox proportional hazard model to reveal the prognostic factors for presbyopia while survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Besides age, sex, diabetes, and myopia; the proposed model shows that education level (especially engineering program) also contribute to the occurrence of presbyopia as well. Generally, at 47 years old, the chance of getting presbyopia becomes higher with the survival probability is less than 50%. Furthermore, our study shows that by stratifying the survival curve, MZ has shorter survival with average onset time about 45.8 compare to DZ and siblings with 47.5 years old. By providing factors that have more effects and mainly associate with presbyopia, we expect that we could help to design an intervention to control or delay its onset time.

  14. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  15. Sibling relationships in individuals with Angelman syndrome: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Victoria; Richters, Lotte; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Machalicek, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n = 44). Sibling relationships were compared on four factors and 16 sub-scales of the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire-Revised. Results showed significant differences in mean scores on each of the four factors (i.e. Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, Rivalry and Dominance/Nurturance) and most of the sub-scales. ANCOVAs showed that demographic variables (number of siblings, living in a two-parent vs single parent household, gender, participant's age, place of residence) did not influence significant differences in sibling relationships between the two groups. Having a brother or sister with Angelman syndrome may influence the way in which the sibling perceives the sibling relationship. This may have important implications for family-centred intervention for this population.

  16. Cochlear Implantation in Siblings With Refsum's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähr, Kerstin; Kuechler, Alma; Gencik, Martin; Arnolds, Judith; Dendy, Meaghan; Lang, Stephan; Arweiler-Harbeck, Diana

    2017-08-01

    Whether the origin of severe hearing loss in Refsum's syndrome is caused by cochlear impairment or retrocochlear degeneration remains unclear. This case report aims to investigate hearing performance before and after cochlear implantation to shed light on this question. Also, identification of new mutations causing Refsum's syndrome would be helpful in generating additional means of diagnosis. A family of 4 individuals was subjected to genetic testing. Two siblings (56 and 61 years old) suffered from severe hearing and vision loss and received bilateral cochlear implants. Genetic analysis, audiological outcome, and clinical examinations were performed. One new mutation in the PHYH gene (c.768del63bp) causing Refsum's disease was found. Preoperative distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPAOEs) were absent. Postoperative speech perception in Freiburger speech test was 100% for bisyllabic words and 85% (patient No. 1) and 65% (patient No. 2), respectively, for monosyllabic words. Five years after implantation, speech perception remained stable for bisyllabic words but showed decreasing capabilities for monosyllabic words. A new mutation causing Refsum's disease is presented. Cochlear implantation in case of severe hearing loss leads to an improvement in speech perception and should be recommended for patients with Refsum's disease, especially when the hearing loss is combined with a severe loss of vision. Decrease of speech perception in the long-term follow-up could indicate an additional retrocochlear degeneration.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of albite twinning and pericline twinning in low albite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Knowles, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Two twinning laws, the albite law and the pericline law, are the predominant growth twinning modes in triclinic plagioclase feldspars such as low albite, NaAlSi 3 O 8 , in which the aluminum and silicon atoms are in an ordered arrangement on the tetrahedral sites of the aluminosilicate framework. In the terminology used formally to describe deformation twinning in a triclinic lattice, these twin laws can be described as Type I and Type II twin laws, respectively, with the pericline twin law being conjugate to the albite twin law. In this study, twin boundaries have been constructed for low albite according to these two twinning laws and studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that suitably constructed twin boundary models are quite stable for both albite twinning and pericline twinning during molecular dynamics simulation. The calculated twin boundary energy of an albite twin is significantly lower than that of a pericline twin, in accord with the experimental observation that albite twinning is the more commonly observed mode seen in plagioclase feldspars. The results of the molecular dynamics simulations also agree with conclusions from the prior work of Starkey that glide twinning in low albite is not favoured energetically. (paper)

  18. The Positive and Negative Experiences of Caregiving for Siblings of Young People with First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; Howie, Linsey; McGorry, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of first episode psychosis (FEP) upon parents’ experience of caregiving has been well-documented. However, the determinants and nature of this remain poorly understood in siblings. It is hypothesized that siblings of young people with FEP are also impacted by caregiving and burden. This study aimed to characterize the experience of caregiving for siblings of young people with FEP. Method: Survey methodology was used to explore the experience of 157 siblings in the first 18 months of their brother or sister’s treatment for FEP. Participants reported on their appraisal of the negative and positive aspects of caregiving as measured by the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI). Descriptive statistics were used to establish the results for the total sample as well as for gender and birth order differences. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between illness characteristics and siblings’ experience of caregiving. Results: Older brothers reported the lowest scores for negative experiences in caregiving and younger sisters reported the highest. Negative experiences in caregiving resulted in less warmth within the sibling relationship and impacted negatively upon quality of life. When the young person with FEP had attempted suicide and/or been physically violent, siblings experienced more caregiver burden. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was a significant factor in explaining the impact of illness related variables on the experience of caregiving. Conclusion: Suicide attempts and a history of violence resulted in higher caregiving burden for siblings regardless of whether they lived with the young person experiencing FEP or not. Female siblings are at higher risk of negative experiences from caregiving resulting in a reduced quality of life and a changed sibling relationship. Suicide attempts and violence are indicators for intensive case management to improve outcomes for

  19. The Positive and Negative Experiences of Caregiving for Siblings of Young People with First Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siann Bowman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of first episode psychosis (FEP upon parents’ experience of caregiving has been well-documented. However, the determinants and nature of this remain poorly understood in siblings. It is hypothesized that siblings of young people with FEP are also impacted by caregiving and burden. This study aimed to characterize the experience of caregiving for siblings of young people with FEP.Method: Survey methodology was used to explore the experience of 157 siblings in the first 18 months of their brother or sister’s treatment for FEP. Participants reported on their appraisal of the negative and positive aspects of caregiving as measured by the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI. Descriptive statistics were used to establish the results for the total sample as well as for gender and birth order differences. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between illness characteristics and siblings’ experience of caregiving.Results: Older brothers reported the lowest scores for negative experiences in caregiving and younger sisters reported the highest. Negative experiences in caregiving resulted in less warmth within the sibling relationship and impacted negatively upon quality of life. When the young person with FEP had attempted suicide and/or been physically violent, siblings experienced more caregiver burden. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was a significant factor in explaining the impact of illness related variables on the experience of caregiving.Conclusion: Suicide attempts and a history of violence resulted in higher caregiving burden for siblings regardless of whether they lived with the young person experiencing FEP or not. Female siblings are at higher risk of negative experiences from caregiving resulting in a reduced quality of life and a changed sibling relationship. Suicide attempts and violence are indicators for intensive case management to

  20. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Karin eKeller; Karin eKeller; Larissa Maria Troesch; Alexander eGrob

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical...

  1. Using Sibling Designs to Understand Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genes and Environments to Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Prime, Heather; Madigan, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders represent a broad class of childhood neurological conditions that have a significant bearing on the wellbeing of children, families, and communities. In this review, we draw on evidence from two common and widely studied neurodevelopmental disorders-autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-to demonstrate the utility of genetically informed sibling designs in uncovering the nature and pathogenesis of these conditions. Specifically, we examine how twin, recurrence risk, and infant prospective tracking studies have contributed to our understanding of genetic and environmental liabilities towards neurodevelopmental morbidity through their impact on neurocognitive processes and structural/functional neuroanatomy. It is suggested that the siblings of children with ASD and ADHD are at risk not only of clinically elevated problems in these areas, but also of subthreshold symptoms and/or subtle impairments in various neurocognitive skills and other domains of psychosocial health. Finally, we close with a discussion on the practical relevance of sibling designs and how these might be used in the service of early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts that aim to alleviate the negative downstream consequences associated with disorders of neurodevelopment.

  2. Using Sibling Designs to Understand Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genes and Environments to Prevention Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental disorders represent a broad class of childhood neurological conditions that have a significant bearing on the wellbeing of children, families, and communities. In this review, we draw on evidence from two common and widely studied neurodevelopmental disorders—autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD—to demonstrate the utility of genetically informed sibling designs in uncovering the nature and pathogenesis of these conditions. Specifically, we examine how twin, recurrence risk, and infant prospective tracking studies have contributed to our understanding of genetic and environmental liabilities towards neurodevelopmental morbidity through their impact on neurocognitive processes and structural/functional neuroanatomy. It is suggested that the siblings of children with ASD and ADHD are at risk not only of clinically elevated problems in these areas, but also of subthreshold symptoms and/or subtle impairments in various neurocognitive skills and other domains of psychosocial health. Finally, we close with a discussion on the practical relevance of sibling designs and how these might be used in the service of early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts that aim to alleviate the negative downstream consequences associated with disorders of neurodevelopment.

  3. The role of older siblings in infant motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Hayley; Hill, EL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings, but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling, or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings, along with parent reports and standardised assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings’ motor skills and the sibling rela...

  4. Attachment representations, parental differential treatment and sibling relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on siblings and sibling relationships. To outline the importance of this under-researched field the review details the link between sibling relationship quality and individual psychosocial outcome. Initial research into the area started with investigations of the influence of structural variables and temperament on sibling relationship quality but found that they explained only a small proportion of the variance in sibling relationship q...

  5. Sibling relationships in adults who have siblings with or without intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Mairéad A; Hastings, Richard P; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with adult siblings with (N=63) and without (N=123) intellectual disability were explored. Contact, warmth, conflict, and rivalry were measured using questionnaires available as an on-line survey. Expressed emotion was measured using the Five Minute Speech Sample over the telephone to establish an independently coded measure of criticism from the participant towards their sibling. Overall, there were few group differences in contact and sibling relationship. There was less telephone contact in the intellectual disability group, and less reported warmth in the relationship with siblings with intellectual disability although this was mainly associated with severe/profound intellectual disability. Exploratory analyses were conducted of the correlates of sibling relationships in both the intellectual disability and control groups. These analyses revealed a small number of different associations especially for conflict, which was lower when either the participant or sibling was younger in the control group but associated with relative age in the intellectual disability group.

  6. Child passenger injury risk in sibling versus non-sibling teen driver crashes: a US study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2007-06-01

    Several international jurisdictions allow family exemptions to graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions. The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers. Insurance claim and telephone survey data were collected on 16 233 child passengers (representing 289 329 children) in 17 US jurisdictions. There was a trend toward higher restraint non-use by child passengers in the non-sibling group than in the sibling group (9.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.08). Children in the sibling group had a 40% lower risk of injury than those in the non-sibling group (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90); however, injury risk was higher in the sibling group than in children traveling with adults (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26). Child passengers riding with sibling teen drivers may be safer than those riding with non-sibling teens, but not as safe as those riding with adult drivers.

  7. Automatic Hidden-Web Table Interpretation by Sibling Page Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; Embley, David W.

    The longstanding problem of automatic table interpretation still illudes us. Its solution would not only be an aid to table processing applications such as large volume table conversion, but would also be an aid in solving related problems such as information extraction and semi-structured data management. In this paper, we offer a conceptual modeling solution for the common special case in which so-called sibling pages are available. The sibling pages we consider are pages on the hidden web, commonly generated from underlying databases. We compare them to identify and connect nonvarying components (category labels) and varying components (data values). We tested our solution using more than 2,000 tables in source pages from three different domains—car advertisements, molecular biology, and geopolitical information. Experimental results show that the system can successfully identify sibling tables, generate structure patterns, interpret tables using the generated patterns, and automatically adjust the structure patterns, if necessary, as it processes a sequence of hidden-web pages. For these activities, the system was able to achieve an overall F-measure of 94.5%.

  8. Digital twins of human robot collaboration in a production setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Ali Ahmad; Bilberg, Arne

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to present a digital twin framework to support the design, build and control of human-machine cooperation. In this study, computer simulations are used to develop a digital counterpart of a human-robot collaborative work environment for assembly work. The digital counterpart remains...... updated during the life cycle of the production system by continuously mirroring the physical system for quick and safe embed for continuous improvements. The case of a manufacturing company with human-robot work teams is presented for developing and validating the digital twin framework....

  9. Congenital infantile myofibroma causing intrauterine death in a twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Yi Ling; Gould, Steve; Akinsola, S Adeyemi

    2011-01-01

    While infantile myofibromatosis is the most common mesenchymal tumour of infancy, only around 300 cases have been reported. The authors report a 33-year-old para 1 with an uncomplicated, dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy who was diagnosed with an intrauterine death of one twin at 36+5 weeks gestation. At caesarean section, a macerated male stillborn weighing 2.72 kg was delivered. Postmortem examination revealed a pedunculated lesion attached to the left shoulder and underlying muscle consistent with a congenital myofibroma. The cause of death was postulated to be haemorrhage from the tumour surface causing fetal anaemia. PMID:22674951

  10. Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Iris Lianne; Brüggemann, Petra; Requena, Teresa; Bulla, Jan; Edvall, Niklas K; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Canlon, Barbara; Mazurek, Birgit; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Cederroth, Christopher R

    2017-09-01

    Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). Cross-sectional data from the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral tinnitus. Heritability was greater in men (0.68) than in women (0.41). However, when female pairs younger than 40 years of age were selected, heritability of 0.62 was achieved with negligible effects of shared environment. Unlike unilateral tinnitus, bilateral tinnitus is influenced by genetic factors and might constitute a genetic subtype. Overall, our study provides the initial evidence for a tinnitus phenotype with a genetic influence.Genet Med advance online publication 23 March 2017.

  11. Congenital varicella syndrome in a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania A Villota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital varicella syndrome encompasses a broad spectrum of malformations present in children of mothers who developed chickenpox during the first 20 weeks of gestation. We report a case of a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy, with maternal exposure to chickenpox during the thirteenth week of gestation, which produced one symptomatic and one healthy child.

  12. Congenital varicella syndrome in a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, Vania A; Delgado, Julián; Pachajoa, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Congenital varicella syndrome encompasses a broad spectrum of malformations present in children of mothers who developed chickenpox during the first 20 weeks of gestation. We report a case of a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy, with maternal exposure to chickenpox during the thirteenth week of gestation, which produced one symptomatic and one healthy child.

  13. Twin - Arch technique. Revival of the "edgewise -Technique"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Karp

    2012-01-01

    The SNB – Bracket brings a new dimension into the orthodontic world which is most apparent in extraction cases. Its Teflon – like material has a very low friction coefficient thus, reducing the treatment time considerably. Through the use of low dimensioned arch wires, the Twin – Arch Technique becomes a Light – wire system and simultaneously provides good anchorage and torque control.

  14. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  15. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arajärvi, Ritva; Ukkola, Jonna; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hintikka, Jukka; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in no...

  16. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  17. Risk of maltreatment for siblings: Factors associated with similar and different childhood experiences in a dyadic sample of adult siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Susanne; Fegert, Jörg M; Walper, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    Siblings share the same environment and thus potentially a substantial number of risk factors for child maltreatment. Furthermore, the number of siblings and the sibling constellation itself might pose a risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about the likelihood that more than one child in a family is maltreated and which factors increase the risk. This study sought to investigate similarities and differences in maltreatment in siblings and risk factors associated with the maltreatment of more than one child from the same family. Data on maltreatment during childhood and adolescence, family background, and sibling constellation were collected from 870 pairs of siblings. In the dyadic analyses, siblings reported similar maltreatment experiences, especially when any type of maltreatment was considered. Parents' mental health problems were significant predictors for maltreatment of at least one sibling. Father's mental health problems were predictive of maltreatment of both or only the younger sibling, mother's mental health problems of both or only the older sibling. Closeness in age and same gender of siblings did not emerge as a consistent predictor. The increasing number of siblings was a risk factor for any type of maltreatment of both siblings. The results highlight the need for preventive measures for families with a large number of children and with parents with mental health problems as well as a repeated risk assessment of all siblings in a family when one sibling was maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of celiac disease in siblings of Iranian patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomeili, Bashir; Aminzadeh, Majid; Hardani, Amir Kamal; Fathizadeh, Payam; Chomeili, Pooya; Azaran, Azarakhsh

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease, one of the best-known autoimmune human leukocyte antigen-dependent disorders, has a relatively increased prevalence in first-degree relatives. To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in siblings of patients with confirmed celiac disease. Siblings of confirmed celiac disease patients in our center were identified and enrolled in this study. Their serum immunoglobulin A and tissue transglutaminase antibody-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (anti-tissue transglutaminase, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin G) were measured and multiple endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimens were obtained with parental consensus. Celiac disease was confirmed by observation of characteristic histological changes. A total of 49 children (male, 29; female, 20; age, 2-16 years) with confirmed celiac disease in a pediatric gastroenterology ward were studied from 1999 to 2006. We found 30 siblings (female, 16) all shared in both parents. The only measurement available was for immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase antibody. A duodenal biopsy was performed in all 30 siblings. Clinical findings such as abdominal pain, fatigue, growth retardation and diarrhea were found in 53.3% of the completely studied siblings, and positive serology without histological changes was identified in four cases. Both serology and biopsy (confirmed new cases) were positive in 2 of the 30 siblings. High prevalence of celiac disease among siblings of patients with confirmed celiac disease necessitates serologic screening (and confirmatory biopsy if indicated) in families having celiac disease. It is advantageous to diagnose the disease as soon as possible because early diagnosis and diet intervention may prevent serious complications such as growth retardation, short stature, chronic diarrhea, and malignancy.

  19. Prevalence of celiac disease in siblings of Iranian patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Chomeili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Celiac disease, one of the best-known autoimmune human leukocyte antigen-dependent disorders, has a relatively increased prevalence in first-degree relatives. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in siblings of patients with confirmed celiac disease. METHODS: Siblings of confirmed celiac disease patients in our center were identified and enrolled in this study. Their serum immunoglobulin A and tissue transglutaminase antibody-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (anti-tissue transglutaminase, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin G were measured and multiple endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimens were obtained with parental consensus. Celiac disease was confirmed by observation of characteristic histological changes. RESULTS: A total of 49 children (male, 29; female, 20; age, 2-16 years with confirmed celiac disease in a pediatric gastroenterology ward were studied from 1999 to 2006. We found 30 siblings (female, 16 all shared in both parents. The only measurement available was for immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase antibody. A duodenal biopsy was performed in all 30 siblings. Clinical findings such as abdominal pain, fatigue, growth retardation and diarrhea were found in 53.3% of the completely studied siblings, and positive serology without histological changes was identified in four cases. Both serology and biopsy (confirmed new cases were positive in 2 of the 30 siblings. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of celiac disease among siblings of patients with confirmed celiac disease necessitates serologic screening (and confirmatory biopsy if indicated in families having celiac disease. It is advantageous to diagnose the disease as soon as possible because early diagnosis and diet intervention may prevent serious complications such as growth retardation, short stature, chronic diarrhea, and malignancy.

  20. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  1. Creating a Different Kind of Normal: Parent and Child Perspectives on Sibling Relationships when One Child in the Family Has Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachraz, Vijetta; Grace, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study that explored the nature of sibling relationships when one child in the family has autism. It employs a collective case study approach to capture the perspectives of parents and young children (aged four to seven years) from three different families. A multifaceted exploration of sibling relationships was…

  2. Simulations of stress-induced twinning and de-twinning: A phase field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shenyang; Henager, Chuck H.; Chen Longqing

    2010-01-01

    Twinning in certain metals or under certain conditions is a major plastic deformation mode. Here we present a phase field model to describe twin formation and evolution in a polycrystalline fcc metal under loading and unloading. The model assumes that twin nucleation, growth and de-twinning is a process of partial dislocation nucleation and slip on successive habit planes. Stacking fault energies, energy pathways (γ surfaces), critical shear stresses for the formation of stacking faults and dislocation core energies are used to construct the thermodynamic model. The simulation results demonstrate that the model is able to predict the nucleation of twins and partial dislocations, as well as the morphology of the twin nuclei, and to reasonably describe twin growth and interaction. The twin microstructures at grain boundaries are in agreement with experimental observation. It was found that de-twinning occurs during unloading in the simulations, however, a strong dependence of twin structure evolution on loading history was observed.

  3. Remembering Irving I. Gottesman: Twin Research Colleague and Friend Extraordinaire/Research Studies: Face-Lift Technique Comparison in Identical Twins; Raising Preterm Twins; Fetal Behavior in Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies; Co-Bedding and Stress Reduction in Twins/Public Interest: Identical Co-Twins' Same Day Delivery; Teaching Twins in Bosnia; Twin Auctioneers; Sister, the Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-12-01

    Dr Irving I. Gottesman, a colleague, friend, and long-time member of the International Society of Twin Studies passed away on June 29, 2016. His contributions to twin research and some personal reflections are presented to honor both the man and the memory. This tribute is followed by short reviews of twin research concerning differences between cosmetic surgical techniques, the rearing of preterm twins, behavioral observations of dichorionic fetal twins, and the outcomes of co-bedding twins with reference to stress reduction. Interesting and informative articles in the media describe identical co-twins who delivered infants on the same day, educational policies regarding twins in Bosnia and the United Kingdom, unusual practices of twin auctioneers, and a theatrical production, Sister, featuring identical twins in the leading roles.

  4. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  5. Development of the preterm gut microbiome in twins at risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Stewart

    Full Text Available The preterm gut microbiome is a complex dynamic community influenced by genetic and environmental factors and is implicated in the pathogenesis of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC and sepsis. We aimed to explore the longitudinal development of the gut microbiome in preterm twins to determine how shared environmental and genetic factors may influence temporal changes and compared this to the expressed breast milk (EBM microbiome. Stool samples (n = 173 from 27 infants (12 twin pairs and 1 triplet set and EBM (n = 18 from 4 mothers were collected longitudinally. All samples underwent PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and a selected subset underwent 454 pyrosequencing. Stool and EBM shared a core microbiome dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae. The gut microbiome showed greater similarity between siblings compared to unrelated individuals. Pyrosequencing revealed a reduction in diversity and increasing dominance of Escherichia sp. preceding NEC that was not observed in the healthy twin. Antibiotic treatment had a substantial effect on the gut microbiome, reducing Escherichia sp. and increasing other Enterobacteriaceae. This study demonstrates related preterm twins share similar gut microbiome development, even within the complex environment of neonatal intensive care. This is likely a result of shared genetic and immunomodulatory factors as well as exposure to the same maternal microbiome during birth, skin contact and exposure to EBM. Environmental factors including antibiotic exposure and feeding are additional significant determinants of community structure, regardless of host genetics.

  6. Development of the preterm gut microbiome in twins at risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher J; Marrs, Emma C L; Nelson, Andrew; Lanyon, Clare; Perry, John D; Embleton, Nicholas D; Cummings, Stephen P; Berrington, Janet E

    2013-01-01

    The preterm gut microbiome is a complex dynamic community influenced by genetic and environmental factors and is implicated in the pathogenesis of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. We aimed to explore the longitudinal development of the gut microbiome in preterm twins to determine how shared environmental and genetic factors may influence temporal changes and compared this to the expressed breast milk (EBM) microbiome. Stool samples (n = 173) from 27 infants (12 twin pairs and 1 triplet set) and EBM (n = 18) from 4 mothers were collected longitudinally. All samples underwent PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis and a selected subset underwent 454 pyrosequencing. Stool and EBM shared a core microbiome dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae. The gut microbiome showed greater similarity between siblings compared to unrelated individuals. Pyrosequencing revealed a reduction in diversity and increasing dominance of Escherichia sp. preceding NEC that was not observed in the healthy twin. Antibiotic treatment had a substantial effect on the gut microbiome, reducing Escherichia sp. and increasing other Enterobacteriaceae. This study demonstrates related preterm twins share similar gut microbiome development, even within the complex environment of neonatal intensive care. This is likely a result of shared genetic and immunomodulatory factors as well as exposure to the same maternal microbiome during birth, skin contact and exposure to EBM. Environmental factors including antibiotic exposure and feeding are additional significant determinants of community structure, regardless of host genetics.

  7. Conjoined twins: implications for blastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, G A

    1993-01-01

    It is difficult to draw sweeping general conclusions about the blastogenesis of CT, principally because so few thoroughly studied cases are reported. It is to be hoped that methods such as painstaking gross or electronic dissection will increase the number of well-documented cases. Nevertheless, the following conclusions can be proposed: 1. Most CT can be classified into a few main anatomic types (or paradigms), and there are also rare transitional types that show gradation between the main types. 2. Most CT have two full notochordal axes (Fig. 5); the ventral organs induced along these axes may be severely disorientated, malformed, or aplastic in the process of being arranged within one body. Reported anatomic types of CT represent those notochordal arrangements that are compatible with reasonably complete embryogenesis. New ventro-lateral axes are formed in many types of CT because of space constriction in the ventral zones. The new structures represent areas of "mutual recognition and organization" rather than "fusion" (Fig. 17). 3. Orientations of the pairs of axes in the embryonic disc can be deduced from the resulting anatomy. Except for dicephalus, the axes are not side by side. Notochords are usually "end-on" or ventro-ventral in orientation (Fig. 5). 4. A single gastrulation event or only partial duplicated gastrulation event seems to occur in dicephalics, despite a full double notochord. 5. The anatomy of diprosopus requires further clarification, particularly in cases with complete crania rather than anencephaly-equivalent. Diprosopus CT offer the best opportunity to study the effects of true forking of the notochord, if this actually occurs. 6. In cephalothoracopagus, thoracopagus, and ischiopagus, remarkably complete new body forms are constructed at right angles to the notochordal axes. The extent of expression of viscera in these types depends on the degree of noncongruity of their ventro-ventral axes (Figs. 4, 11, 15b). 7. Some organs and tissues

  8. Roentgeno-cephalometric analysis on the twin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hi Sup; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The purpose of this investigation can be sought for studying varients between twin by the cephalometric roentgenog raphic technics. The author have applied Down's, Bjork and Sakamoto's technic and measured in various angulations and length of cephalometric points. The results are as follows; 1. No significantly different data were found between twin. 2. There was no differences between normality and twin.

  9. Epigenetic Epidemiology of Complex Diseases Using Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2013-01-01

    through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. This paper reviews the new developments in using twins to study disease-related epigenetic alterations, links them to lifetime environmental exposure with a focus on the discordant twin design and proposes novel data-analytical approaches with the aim of promoting...... a more efficient use of twins in epigenetic studies of complex human diseases....

  10. Analysis of 1:1 Matched Cohort Studies and Twin Studies, with Binary Exposures and Binary Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sjölander, Arvid; Johansson, Anna L. V.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Altman, Daniel; Almqvist, Catarina; Pawitan, Yudi

    2012-01-01

    To improve confounder adjustments, observational studies are often matched on potential confounders. While matched case-control studies are common and well covered in the literature, our focus here is on matched cohort studies, which are less common and sparsely discussed in the literature. Matched data also arise naturally in twin studies, as a cohort of exposure–discordant twins can be viewed as being matched on a large number of potential confounders. The analysis of twin studies will be g...

  11. The crystal structure and twinning of neodymium gallium perovskite single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubizskii, S.B.; Vasylechko, L.O.; Savytskii, D.I.; Matkovskii, A.O.; Syvorotka, I.M.

    1994-01-01

    By means of X-ray structure analysis, the crystal structure of neodymium gallium perovskite (NGP) single crystals (NdGaO 3 ) being used as a substrate for HTSC film epitaxy has been refined and the position of atoms has been determined. The possibility of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film epitaxy on the plane (110) of NGP crystal as well as its advantages and pitfalls are analysed from structural data. The twinning types in the NGP crystal were established. The twinning structure of NGP substrates is found to be stable up to a temperature of 1173 K, as differentiated from the LaGaO 3 and LaAlO 3 substrates. It is intimated that the twinning in the NGP substrates oriented as (001) can result in creation of 90 degrees twin bonds in a film, and in the case of (110)-oriented plates it is possible to ignore the twinning presence in substrate completely. (author)

  12. Natural history of disease in atomic bomb exposed twins in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ohmae, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Naomasa; Abe, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shoji

    1982-01-01

    The subjects of this study are mainly pairs of monozygotic twins, one of whom was exposed to the atomic bomb and the other not exposed, and the natural history of the diseases of these twins was analyzed to find out genetic and environmental factors of the diseases and some biological effect of the atomic bomb exposure or other. In this study, 13 pairs of monozygotic and 5 pairs of dizygotic twins and other 34 cases of non-twins were examined by means of heart and lung X-ray films and electrocardiograms. The results suggest that most of the monozygotic twins show the similar findings of chest X-ray films, though their electrocardiograms have a tendency to deviate to the left in the QRS axis. These findings will not be enough to clear up the relation between the atomic bomb exposed and the abnormal electrocardiograms. (author)

  13. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Irene; Duffy, Anita; Nicholl, Honor

    Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child's siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: 'siblings', 'chronic illness', 'disability', 'cancer', 'sibling relations', 'sibling adjustment', 'coping', 'family-centred care', 'sibling interventions', 'camps', 'autism', 'Down's syndrome'. Seventeen research studies in total were reviewed. This review focuses on three sibling groups related to children suffering from autism, cancer and Down's syndrome, and are discussed under the following headings: sibling adjustment; family functioning and sibling's coping resources; and intervention programmes. The literature revealed that siblings of children with Down's syndrome were well adjusted to living with their brother or sister. However, there was conflicting information on the adjustment of siblings of children with cancer and autism. An awareness of the harmful effect that living with childhood illness and disability can have on some siblings is essential to enable healthcare professionals to provide supportive interventions to protect siblings' physical and emotional wellbeing.

  14. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    in lifetime production than cows single.The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of twinning in Iranian Holstein dairy cows and the estimated effect on production traits and reproductive twinning. Material and method Data from 9 Holstein dairy herds from 2 regions, Khorasan Resavie and Isfahan, in Iran during the period 2001 to 2013 were used. Editing of initial data set was done with Excel. Duplicate observations, missing data for calf condition and cows with age at first calving 45 month were excluded. Following all edits, 160,410 calving records of 52,562 cows were utilized. According to binary nature of twinning, a logistical regression model was constructed to estimate the effect of bio-environmental risk factors on twinning using the LOGISTIC procedure of SAS the used model was as follows: Logit (π = α + β1X1+ β2X2+…. + βnXn (1 A linear mixed model was used to analyze twinning effect on productive and reproductive traits using Proc Mixed of SAS Software. In this model fixed effects were included herd effect, calving season (calving year, parity, twinning, stillbirth and dystocia. The effect of other factors were considered as random. The mixed linear model used for this analysis included: (2 Results and discussion The incidence of twinning cases per cow per year was 2.7 %, on average. Herd, calving year, calving season and parity had a significant relationship with the incidence of twinning (P

  15. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806

  16. Longitudinal Links between Older Sibling Features and Younger Siblings' Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchey, Heather A.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated prospective relations between older siblings' support and academic engagement and younger siblings' academic adjustment from 7th to post-8th grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender…

  17. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eKeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  18. Sibling Voices: The Self-Reported Mental Health of Siblings of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Minett, Belinda; Kapoor, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the experiences and well-being of siblings growing up with a brother or sister with a disability in Australia. However, research to date has primarily obtained parent reports of sibling adjustment and mental health. Therefore, the aim of the current study was threefold: (1) to report on the mental health…

  19. Siblings of Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Sibling Relationships and Wellbeing in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2009-01-01

    We investigated sibling relationships and wellbeing in adolescents and adults with a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Adolescents engaged in more shared activities than did adults. Adolescents reported greater social support, greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and less use of problem-focused coping than adults. In…

  20. Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

  1. Why Siblings Are Important Agents of Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Siblings and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmitia, Margarita; Hesser, Joanne

    1993-01-01

    Found that, in unstructured building sessions, kindergartners were more likely to observe, imitate, and consult their second- or third-grade siblings than their older peers. Older siblings were also more likely to provide additional explanations and positive feedback than older peers when instructing younger children. (MDM)

  2. Wellbeing, mental health knowledge and caregiving experiences of siblings of people with psychosis, compared to their peers and parents: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Murrells, Trevor; Spain, Debbie; Norman, Ian; Henderson, Claire

    2016-09-01

    The wellbeing and caregiving experiences of family carers supporting people with psychosis has garnered increasing interest. Evidence indicates that the burden of caregiving can adversely impact on parents' wellbeing, few studies have investigated whether this is also the case for siblings, who often take on caregiving responsibilities. This exploratory study investigated the wellbeing, mental health knowledge, and appraisals of caregiving in siblings of individuals with psychosis. Using a cross-sectional design, 90 siblings completed three validated questionnaires: Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS), Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS), and Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI). Data obtained were compared to general population norms and parent-carers' scores. Multi-variable regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between questionnaire scores and demographic characteristics including age, sex, birth order, marital status, accommodation and educational level. Siblings, especially sisters, had significantly poorer mental wellbeing, compared to normative scores. Conversely, they had better mental health knowledge. Siblings and parent-carers had comparable high levels of negative appraisals of caregiving experiences, but siblings reported more satisfaction with personal experiences and relationships. Education level was a significant predictor for better mental health knowledge; there were no other relationships between siblings' demographic factors and outcomes. Study findings suggest that siblings have overlapping as well as distinct needs, compared to parent-carers. Further research is required to better understand siblings' experiences so as to inform development of targeted interventions that enhance wellbeing and caregiving capacity.

  3. Successful twin pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to FOLFOX for metastatic colon cancer: a case report and review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne Bakker; Østerlind, Kell

    2011-01-01

    There is limited experience in treating advanced colorectal cancer diagnosed during pregnancy because it is a rare occurrence; however, the incidence of colorectal cancer complicating pregnancy is expected to increase in the future. The combination of cancer and pregnancy is complicated and causes...... diagnosis. This shows a case in which the administration of FOLFOX during the second and third trimester of pregnancy caused no fetal harm. These findings are similar to those of previous studies in which systemic chemotherapy administered during the second and third trimester was relatively safe. However...

  4. The effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome of the second twin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Sofie; Nickelsen, Carsten; Petersen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome in the second twin. Additionally, to investigate predictors of adverse outcome in both twins. Methods: Data included vaginally delivered twins (≥ 36 weeks) from Copenhagen ...

  5. Twin methodology in epigenetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    of diseases to molecular phenotypes in functional genomics especially in epigenetics, a thriving field of research that concerns the environmental regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA and long non-coding RNA expression, etc. The application of the twin method...

  6. The Danish political twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Robert; Hobolt, Sara B; Dinesen, Peter Thisted

    2012-01-01

    We compare a recent Danish twin survey on political attitudes and behaviors to a nationally representative survey covering similar topics. We find very similar means and variances for most of our constructed scales of political attitudes and behaviors in the two surveys, although even small...

  7. Associations between social understanding, sibling relationship quality, and siblings' conflict strategies and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated with positive conflict processes. Younger siblings' second-order false belief scores were negatively associated with constructive conflict strategies, and older siblings' narrative self-referential focus was negatively associated with compromise. Associations between younger children's social understanding (conflict interpretation and narrative perspective references) and siblings' dyadic conflict behavior were moderated by relationship quality. Results suggest that links between social understanding and conflict behavior should be considered in conjunction with the quality of children's relationships.

  8. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Tsamparli; Elvisa Frrokaj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU) and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU). Thirty-six (36) families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old) in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings w...

  9. Mechanisms of sibling socialization in normative family development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Becerra, Julia M; Killoren, Sarah E

    2009-01-01

    Siblings are important sources of social influence throughout childhood and adolescence. Nevertheless, the processes by which siblings influence one another remain relatively unexplored. We highlight two theories of sibling influence-sibling deidentification and social learning-that offer insights as to how and why siblings develop similar and different attributes, attitudes, and behaviors. Recognizing the need to move past post hoc explanations, we suggest several directions for how these two influence processes can be measured directly in future work. Research on sibling influence also can be improved by integrating these theories and attending to their domains of influence.

  10. Twin pack hemodialyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markley, F.W.

    1977-08-08

    The present invention relates to an improved design for a hemodialyzer which provides for increased contact between the blood and the dialysate fluid across the semipermeable membrane by increasing the blood flow path in the dialyzer unit, while at the same time increasing the blood velocity through the unit to prevent buildup of fibrin on the semipermeable membrane surfaces. The hemodialyzer of the present invention includes two independent stacks of parallel flattened semipermeable membrane tubes disposed within a dialyzer casing. The dialysate fluid flows through the casing within the interior of the flattened tubes, while the blood flows through the casing around and between the semipermeable membrane tubes, the two independent stacks of the tubes being arranged within the casing such that the blood passes through each of the two independent stacks in succession.

  11. Fetal growth disorders in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M

    2012-06-01

    Twin growth is frequently mismatched. This review serves to explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie growth aberrations in twin gestations, the prenatal recognition of abnormal twin growth, and the critical importance of stratifying management of abnormal twin growth by chorionicity. Although poor in utero growth of both twins may reflect maternal factors resulting in global uteroplacental dysfunction, discordant twin growth may be attributed to differences in genetic potential between co-twins, placental dysfunction confined to one placenta only, or one placental territory within a shared placenta. In addition, twin-twin transfusion syndrome represents a distinct entity of which discordant growth is a common feature. Discordant growth is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. Intertwin birth weight disparity of 18% or more should be considered to represent a discordance threshold, which serves as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. At this cutoff, perinatal morbidity is found to increase both for the larger and the smaller twin within a discordant pair. There remains uncertainty surrounding the sonographic parameters that are most predictive of discordance. Although heightening of fetal surveillance in the face of discordant twin growth follows the principles applied to singleton gestations complicated by fetal growth restriction, the timing of intervention is largely influenced by chorionicity.

  12. Register-based research on twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Holm, Niels V

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry (DTR) has for more than 50 years been based on surveys and clinical investigations and over the two last decades also on register linkage. Currently these two approaches are merged within Statistics Denmark. Research topics: Here we report on three major...... groups of register-based research in the DTR that used the uniqueness of twinning. First, we focus on the ''long-term prognosis'' of being a twin compared with being a singleton and show that Danish twins have health trajectories in adulthood similar to singletons, which is a result of interest for twins...... illustrate how the co-twin control method in a register setting can be used to control for the effect of rearing environment and genetic factors in studies of the association between exposures and health. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of register-based twin studies is very wide and have changed in accordance...

  13. Conjoined Twins: Philosophical Problems and Ethical Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian; Persson, Ingmar

    2016-02-01

    We examine the philosophical and ethical issues associated with conjoined twins and their surgical separation. In cases in which there is an extensive sharing of organs, but nevertheless two distinguishable functioning brains, there are a number of philosophical and ethical challenges. This is because such conjoined twins: 1. give rise to puzzles concerning our identity, about whether we are identical to something psychological or biological; 2. force us to decide whether what matters from an ethical point of view is the biological life of our organisms or the existence of our consciousness or mind; 3. raise questions concerning when, if ever, it is morally acceptable to sacrifice one of us to save another; 4. force us to reflect on the conditions for ownership of organs and the justification of removal of organs for transplantation which causes the death of the donor; 5. raise questions about who should take decisions about life-risking treatments when this cannot be decided by patients themselves. We examine and suggest answers to these questions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Attention Problems, Inhibitory Control, and Intelligence Index Overlapping Genetic Factors: A Study in 9-, 12-, and 18-Year-Old Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Polderman, T.J.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Posthuma, D.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    It is assumed that attention problems (AP) are related to impaired executive functioning. We investigated the association between AP and inhibitory control and tested to what extent the association was due to genetic factors shared with IQ. Data were available from 3 independent samples of 9-, 12-, and 18-year-old twins and their siblings (1,209 participants). AP were assessed with checklists completed by multiple informants. Inhibitory control was measured with the Stroop Color Word Task (St...

  15. Is that me or my twin? Lack of self-face recognition advantage in identical twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Martini

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in twin studies and the stunning amount of research on face recognition, the ability of adult identical twins to discriminate their own faces from those of their co-twins has been scarcely investigated. One's own face is the most distinctive feature of the bodily self, and people typically show a clear advantage in recognizing their own face even more than other very familiar identities. Given the very high level of resemblance of their faces, monozygotic twins represent a unique model for exploring self-face processing. Herein we examined the ability of monozygotic twins to distinguish their own face from the face of their co-twin and of a highly familiar individual. Results show that twins equally recognize their own face and their twin's face. This lack of self-face advantage was negatively predicted by how much they felt physically similar to their co-twin and by their anxious or avoidant attachment style. We speculate that in monozygotic twins, the visual representation of the self-face overlaps with that of the co-twin. Thus, to distinguish the self from the co-twin, monozygotic twins have to rely much more than control participants on the multisensory integration processes upon which the sense of bodily self is based. Moreover, in keeping with the notion that attachment style influences perception of self and significant others, we propose that the observed self/co-twin confusion may depend upon insecure attachment.

  16. Genetic modification of risk assessment based on staging of preclinical type 1 diabetes in siblings of affected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrena, S; Savola, K; Kulmala, P; Reijonen, H; Ilonen, J; Akerblom, H K; Knip, M

    2003-06-01

    We set out to study the association between human leukocyte antigen-defined genetic disease susceptibility and the stage of preclinical type 1 diabetes and whether genetic predisposition affects the natural course of preclinical diabetes in initially nondiabetic siblings of affected children. A total of 701 initially unaffected siblings were graded into four stages of preclinical type 1 diabetes based on the initial number of disease-associated autoantibodies detectable close to the time of diagnosis of the index case: no prediabetes (no antibodies), early (one antibody specificity), advanced (two antibodies), and late prediabetes (three or more antibodies). Another classification system covering 659 siblings was based on a combination of the initial number of antibodies and the first-phase insulin response (FPIR) to iv glucose: no prediabetes (no antibodies), early (one antibody specificity, normal FPIR), advanced (two or more antibodies, normal FPIR), and late prediabetes (at least one antibody, reduced FPIR). Genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes was defined by human leukocyte antigen identity and DR and DQ genotypes. There was a higher proportion of siblings with late prediabetes initially among those with strong genetic disease susceptibility than among those with decreased genetic predisposition (16.7% vs. 0.5%; P siblings with no signs of prediabetes among those with genotypes conferring decreased risk (91.2% vs. 70.4% among those with high-risk DQB1 genotypes; P siblings than when combined with genetic susceptibility. Genetic susceptibility played a role in whether the initial prediabetic stage progressed (progression in 29.6% of the high-risk siblings compared with 6.6% of the siblings with DQB1 genotypes conferring decreased risk; P siblings of affected children.

  17. Parental Differential Treatment of Siblings in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental differential treatment is an important feature of non-shared family environment which contributes to the development of behavioural differences between siblings growing up in the same family. To investigate the frequency, direction, and patterns of parental differential treatment of siblings in Slovene families, mothers and fathers of 93 sibling-pairs in early/middle childhood provided self-reports in a two-wave longitudinal study. Most of the parents reported on low levels of differential treatment, predominantly expressing somewhat more affection and control towards the older than towards the younger sibling. Over a one-year time period, the average frequency of parental differential treatment did not change significantly, whereas the stability was estimated as moderate for maternal and low for paternal assessments. Maternal and paternal self-ratings were moderately correlated. However, the mothers reported on somewhat higher levels of differential control and (only in wave 1 affection than the fathers. Nearly half of the families were characterized by a congruent pattern of parental differential treatment indicating that both parents showed more affection and control towards the older of the two siblings. A complementary family pattern reflecting an opposite direction of maternal and paternal differential treatment emerged in approximately a quarter of the participating families.

  18. Risk of Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders Among Siblings of Probands With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Elina; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Sucksdorff, Dan; Suominen, Auli; Gyllenberg, David; Chudal, Roshan; Leivonen, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has focused on examining the familial clustering of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is known about the clustering of other psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among siblings of persons with ASD. To examine the risk for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among full siblings of probands with ASD. The Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders used a population-based cohort that included children born from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2005, who received a diagnosis of ASD by December 31, 2007. Each case was individually matched to 4 control participants by sex and date and place of birth. The siblings of the cases and controls were born from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 2005, and received a diagnosis from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2009. This nested case-control study included 3578 cases with ASD with 6022 full siblings and 11 775 controls with 22 127 siblings from Finnish national registers. Data were analyzed from March 6, 2014, to February 12, 2016. The adjusted risk ratio (RR) for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among siblings of probands with ASD vs siblings of matched controls. Additional analyses were conducted separately for ASD subgroups, including childhood autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified. Analyses were further stratified by sex and intellectual disability among the probands. Among the 3578 cases with ASD (2841 boys [79.4%]) and 11 775 controls (9345 boys [79.4%]), 1319 cases (36.9%) and 2052 controls (17.4%) had at least 1 sibling diagnosed with any psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorder (adjusted RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.3-2.6). The largest associations were observed for childhood-onset disorders (1061 cases [29.7%] vs 1362 controls [11.6%]; adjusted RR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.8-3.3), including ASD (374 cases [10.5%] vs 125 controls [1.1%]; adjusted RR, 11.8; 95% CI, 9

  19. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Genetic and Cultural Transmission of Smoking Initiation Using an Extended Twin Kinship Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Hermine H; Morley, Kate; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Heath, Andrew C; Eaves, Lindon J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2018-06-01

    Considerable evidence from twin and adoption studies indicates that genetic and shared environmental factors play a role in the initiation of smoking behavior. Although twin and adoption designs are powerful to detect genetic and environmental influences, they do not provide information on the processes of assortative mating and parent-offspring transmission and their contribution to the variability explained by genetic and/or environmental factors. We examined the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual differences for smoking initiation (SI) using an extended kinship design. This design allows the simultaneous testing of additive and non-additive genetic, shared and individual-specific environmental factors, as well as sex differences in the expression of genes and environment in the presence of assortative mating and combined genetic and cultural transmission, while also estimating the regression of the prevalence of SI on age. A dichotomous lifetime 'ever' smoking measure was obtained from twins and relatives in the 'Virginia 30,000' sample and the 'Australian 25,000'. Results demonstrate that both genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the liability to SI. Major influences on individual differences appeared to be additive genetic and unique environmental effects, with smaller contributions from assortative mating, shared sibling environment, twin environment, cultural transmission, and resulting genotype-environment covariance. Age regression of the prevalence of SI was significant. The finding of negative cultural transmission without dominance led us to investigate more closely two possible mechanisms for the lower parent-offspring correlations compared to the sibling and DZ twin correlations in subsets of the data: (1) age × gene interaction, and (2) social homogamy. Neither of the mechanism provided a significantly better explanation of the data. This study showed significant heritability, partly due to assortment

  20. Bilateral C6 spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis in 3 adolescent siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushare, Indranil V; Colo, Dino; Kadhim, Muayad; Dormans, John P

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis is a rare condition in the pediatric population. The nature of this condition and clinical presentation are important to provide appropriate management. This is a case report of 3 adolescent siblings who had C6 cervical spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis. Two cases were diagnosed insidiously with absence of neurological deficits and no instability on imaging and were treated conservatively. One case had a traumatic presentation associated with instability on imaging and was managed with cervical fusion and instrumentation. All 3 patients were doing well on a follow-up of >2 years. These cases suggest that cervical spondylolysis could be familial. The treatment was offered based on clinical presentation and presence of instability on radiographic studies. Level IV.