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Sample records for twig anole anolis

  1. Morphological variation in the tropical anole, Anolis casildae (Squamata: Polychrotidae).

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    Nicholson, K E; Roberto Ibáñez, D; Jaramillo, C A; Lips, K R

    2001-06-01

    We describe morphological variation (scalation and coloration) observed among eight individuals of the Panamanian lizard species Anolis casildae. This variation was not observed in the holotype and aids in identification of this recently described species (originally described on the basis of a single, male specimen). This species occurs only in the Reserva Forestal Fortuna (Chiriquí Province) and the adjacent Bosque Protector Palo Seco (Bocas del Toro Province) in western Panama. Anolis casildae can be distinguished from all other Panamanian anole species via six features: (1) two enlarged superciliary scales (the first larger than the second); (2) an anterior nasal scale in contact with the rostral scale or separated from the rostral by one scale; (3) 6-8 sublabial scales to the center of the eye; (4) 3-4 scales between the supraobital semicircles; (5) unique coloration (4-6 oblique brown bands interspersed by blue-outlined yellow patches; dewlap is a dirty cream color with broad yellow scale rows irregularly interspersed with smaller emerald green scales) and (6) A. casildae occurs from 1,050 to 1,400 m in the Cordillera Central. We also compare our natural history observations of A. casildae to a similar large anole, A. frenatus, a species which we believe A. casildae to be closely related.

  2. Morphological variation in the tropical anole, Anolis casildae (Squamata: Polychrotidae

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    Kirsten E. Nicholson

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe morphological variation (scalation and coloration observed among eight individuas of the Panamanian lizard species Anolis casildae. This variation was not observed in the holotipe and aids in identification of this recently described species (originally describes on the basis of a single, male specimen. This species occurs only in the Reserva Forestal Fortuna (Chiriquí Province and the adjacent Bosque Protector Palo Seco (Bocas del Toro Province in western Panama. Anolis casildae can be distinguisbed from all other Panamanian anole species via six features: (1 two enlarged superciliary scales (the first larger than the second; (2 an anterior nasal scale in contact with the rostral scale or separated from the rostral by one scale; (3 6-8 sublabial scales to the center of the eye; (4 3-4 scales between the supraorbital semicircles; (5 unique coloration (4-6 oblique brown bands interspersed by blueoutlined yellow patches; dewlap is a dirty cream color with broad yellow scale rows irregularly interspersed with smaller emerald green scales and (6 A. casildae occurs from 1 050 to 1 400 m in the Cordillera Central. We also compare our natural history observations of A. casildae to a similar large anole, A. frenatus, a species which we believe A. casildae to be elosely related.Nosotros describimos la variación morfológica (escamación y coloración observada entre ocho individuos de la especie de lagartija panameña Anolis casildae. Esta variación no fue observada en el holotipo y ayuda en la identificación de esta especie recientemente descrita (originalmente descrita con base en un único espécimen macho. Esta especie ocurre solo en la Reserva Forestal Fortuna (Provincia de Chiriquí y en el Bosque Protector Palo Seco (Provincia de Bocas del Toro adyacente, en el oeste de Panamá. Anolis casildae se puede distinguir de las demás especies panameñas de Anolis por seis características: (1 dos escamas superciliares agrandadas (la

  3. Response of brown anoles Anolis sagrei to multimodal signals from a native and novel predator

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    Omar L.ELMASRI; Marcus S.MORENO; Courtney A.NEUMANN; Daniel T.BLUMSTEIN

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have focused on the importance of single modalities (visual,auditory,olfactory) in eliciting anti-predator behavior,however multiple channels are often engaged simultaneously.While examining responses to multiple cues can potentially reveal more complex behavioral responses,little is known about how multimodal processing evolves.By contrasting response to familiar and novel predators,insights can be gained into the evolution of multimodal responses.We studied brown anoles' (Anolis sagrei) response to acoustic and visual predatory cues of a common potential predator,the great-tailed grackle Quiscalus mexicanus and to the American kestrel Falco sparverius,a species found in other populations but not present in our study population.We observed anole behavior before and after a stimulus and quantified rates of looking,display,and locomotion.Anoles increased their rate of locomotion in response to grackle models,an effect modulated by grackle vocalizations.No such response or modulation was seen when anoles were presented with kestrel stimuli.This suggests that the degree of sophistication of anole response to predators is experience dependent and that relaxed selection can result in reduced anti-predator response following loss of predators

  4. Determinism in the diversification of Hispaniolan trunk-ground anoles (Anolis cybotes species complex).

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    Wollenberg, Katharina C; Wang, Ian J; Glor, Richard E; Losos, Jonathan B

    2013-11-01

    The evolutionary processes that produce adaptive radiations are enigmatic. They can only be studied after the fact, once a radiation has occurred and been recognized, rather than while the processes are ongoing. One way to connect pattern to process is to study the processes driving divergence today among populations of species that belong to an adaptive radiation, and compare the results to patterns observed at a deeper, macroevolutionary level. We tested whether evolution is a deterministic process with similar outcomes during different stages of the adaptive radiation of Anolis lizards. Using a clade of terrestrial-scansorial lizards in the genus Anolis, we inferred the adaptive basis of spatial variation among contemporary populations and tested whether axes of phenotypic differentiation among them mirror known axes of diversification at deeper levels of the anole radiation. Nonparallel change associated with genetic divergence explains the vast majority of geographic variation. However, we found phenotypic variation to be adaptive as confirmed by convergence in populations occurring in similar habitats in different mountain ranges. Morphological diversification among populations recurs deterministically along two axes of diversification previously identified in the anole radiation, but the characters involved differ from those involved in adaptation at higher levels of anole phylogeny.

  5. Resistance of a lizard (the green anole, Anolis carolinensis; Polychridae) to ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression

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    Cope, R.B.; Fabacher, D.L.; Lieske, C.; Miller, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) is the most northerly distributed of its Neotropical genus. This lizard avoids a winter hibernation phase by the use of sun basking behaviors. Inevitably, this species is exposed to high doses of ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Increases in terrestrial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation secondary to stratospheric ozone depletion and habitat perturbation potentially place this species at risk of UVR-induced immunosuppression. Daily exposure to subinflammatory UVR (8 kJ/m2/day UV-B, 85 kJ/m2/day ultraviolet A [UV-A]), 6 days per week for 4 weeks (total cumulative doses of 192 kJ/m2 UV-B, 2.04 ?? 103 kJ/m2 UV-A) did not suppress the anole's acute or delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to horseshoe crab hemocyanin. In comparison with the available literature UV-B doses as low as 0.1 and 15.9 kJ/m2 induced suppression of DTH responses in mice and humans, respectively. Exposure of anoles to UVR did not result in the inhibition of ex vivo splenocyte phagocytosis of fluorescein labeled Escherichia coli or ex vivo splenocyte nitric oxide production. Doses of UV-B ranging from 0.35 to 45 k J/m2 have been reported to suppress murine splenic/ peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis and nitric oxide production. These preliminary studies demonstrate the resistance of green anoles to UVR-induced immunosuppression. Methanol extracts of anole skin contained two peaks in the ultraviolet wavelength range that could be indicative of photoprotective substances. However, the resistance of green anoles to UVR is probably not completely attributable to absorption by UVR photoprotective substances in the skin but more likely results from a combination of other factors including absorption by the cutis and absorption and reflectance by various components of the dermis.

  6. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on thermoregulation in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis).

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    Merchant, Mark; Fleury, Lauren; Rutherford, Renee; Paulissen, Mark

    2008-09-15

    Fever is a non-specific host defense mechanism that comprises part of the innate immune response. Innate immune function is thought to be an important adaptive immunological response to infection because it occurs across a broad diversity of phyla. Some reptiles can mount a febrile response, despite the fact that their internal body temperatures (T(b)s) are, to some extent, controlled by the environmental temperatures in which they live. This study was undertaken to determine if LPS would induce fever in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Lizards were maintained in thermal gradients (22-45 degrees C) with a 12-h diurnal cycle. anoles were injected with LPS, pyrogen-free saline, or left untreated, and their T(b)s were recorded every 15min using internal cloacal probes. All lizards showed a diurnal periodicity in T(b) characterized by decreased temperatures during the scotophase (dark hours) and higher temperatures during the photophase (light phase). Anoles injected with LPS exhibited a hypothermic response, relative to untreated and saline-injected animals. The response varied from 2.1 to 4.6 degrees C lower than control lizards. The hypothermic response was initiated within 12-24h of LPS injection, and continued for 3 days after treatment. However, the anapyrexic response was observed primarily during scotophases, with photophase hypothermia observed only on the first day after LPS injection.

  7. Salmonella infection in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), an invasive alien species on Chichi Island of the Ogasawara archipelago in Japan.

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    Sumiyama, Daisuke; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Kanazawa, Tomoko; Murata, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the presence of Salmonella in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), an invasive alien species on Chichi Island, Japan. Samples were also collected from feral goats and public toilets on the island to examine infectious routes. Salmonellae were isolated from 27.1% of 199 samples; 32.6% of 141 cloacal samples from anoles, 62.5% of 8 intestinal samples from anole carcasses, 16.7% of 12 fecal samples from goats and 2.6% of 38 toilet bowl swabs. The serotype of most isolates was Salmonella Oranienburg (94.4% of 54). Although we did not confirm the infection pathways, our results indicated that green anoles are a risk factor as a source of Salmonella for public health. It is important to consider endemic pathogens that may be amplified by alien species within their introduced areas.

  8. Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles Anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model

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    Sarah R. PARTAN, Peter OTOVIC, Virginia L. PRICE, Scott E. BROWN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Signals used for species identity ought to be highly stereotyped so as to facilitate immediate recognition by conspecifics. It is surprising therefore to find variability in putative species signature displays. The brown anole Anolis sagrei has a high degree of variability in its signature bobbing display. In this study we collected descriptive data on variability in the temporal structure of wild brown anole bobbing patterns, finding that no two displays analyzed had the same temporal structure, and we also tested whether wild brown anoles prefer the signature display over an alternate display pattern by using mechanical robot playbacks in the field. As a response metric we assessed whether or not the lizards showed social responses (pushup, dewlap extension, or head-nod in response to the robotic presentations. We found that the lizards responded slightly more to the signature than to the alternate pattern, providing support for the idea that despite the variability seen in displays, the signature pattern is meaningful to them. We tested two other independent variables: speed of the display and elevation of the robot during its display, neither of which was significant. Dewlap extensions were given predominantly by adult males and were more likely to be given in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season. Pushups and head-nods were given equally by males and a combined class of females and juveniles, and were not seasonal. Head-nods increased after the robot turned off, suggesting that they may be used in a conversational turn-taking style during communication [Current Zoology 57 (2: 140–152, 2011].

  9. Assessing display variability in wild brown anoles Anolis sagrei using a mechanical lizard model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah R.PARTAN; Peter OTOVIC; Virginia L.PRICE; Scott E.BROWN

    2011-01-01

    Signals used for species identity ought to be highly stereotyped so as to facilitate immediate recognition by conspecifics.It is surprising therefore to find variability in putative species signature displays.The brown anole Anolis sasrei has a high degree of variability in its signature bobbing display.In this study we collected descriptive data on variability in the temporal stiucture of wild brown anole bobbing patterns,finding that no two displays analyzed had the same temporal structure,and we also tested whether wild brown anoles prefer the signature display over an alternate display pattern by using mechanical robot playbacks in the field.As a response metric we assessed whether or not the lizards showed social responses(pushup,dewlap extension,or head-nod)in response to the robotic presentations.We found that the lizards responded slightly more to the signature than to the alternate pattern,providing support for the idea that despite the variability seen in displays,the signature pattern is meaningful to them.We tested two other independent variables:speed of the display and elevation of the robot during its display,neither of which was significant.Dewlap extensions were given predominantly by adult males and were more likely to be given in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season.Pushups and head-nods were given equally by males and a combined class of females and juveniles,and were not seasonal.Head-nods increased after the robot turned off,suggesting that they may be used in a conversational turn-taking style during communication.

  10. Structural habitat use by the Many-scaled Anole, Anolis polylepis (Squamata: Polychrotidae

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    Marco D. Barquero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lizards of the genus Anolis are commonly used as models for several ecological studies. Nevertheless, some aspects of their ecology have not been studied and information reported previously for several species must be reanalyzed. The aim of this study is to examine the structural habitat use in a population of the Many-scaled Anole, Anolis polylepis, with the purpose of comparing our results with the information reported previously for this species. Most of the captured individuals were on stems and we did not find any differences in the structural habitat use among sex/age classes. We found differences for perch height among individuals shedding their skin regarding those that are not. We also detected differences among our results and the information reported previously for this species. Such differences could be due to intrinsic factors of each population, such as the proportion of individuals that were molting their skin in a specific time. More studies with greater sample sizes and to a longer term are required to clearly understand the influence of these factors in the habitat use of A. polylepis and other anoline lizards.

  11. Genetic variation in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) reveals island refugia and a fragmented Florida during the quaternary.

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    Tollis, Marc; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    The green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) is a model organism for behavior and genomics that is native to the southeastern United States. It is currently thought that the ancestors of modern green anoles dispersed to peninsular Florida from Cuba. However, the climatic changes and geological features responsible for the early diversification of A. carolinensis in North America have remained largely unexplored. This is because previous studies (1) differ in their estimates of the divergence times of populations, (2) are based on a single genetic locus or (3) did not test specific hypotheses regarding the geologic and topographic history of Florida. Here we provide a multi-locus study of green anole genetic diversity and find that the Florida peninsula contains a larger number of genetically distinct populations that are more diverse than those on the continental mainland. As a test of the island refugia hypothesis in Pleistocene Florida, we use a coalescent approach to estimate the divergence times of modern green anole lineages. We find that all demographic events occurred during or after the Upper Pliocene and suggest that green anole diversification was driven by population divergence on interglacial island refugia in Florida during the Lower Pleistocene, while the region was often separated from continental North America. When Florida reconnected to the mainland, two separate dispersal events led to the expansion of green anole populations across the Atlantic Seaboard and Gulf Coastal Plain.

  12. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae

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    Paul M. Richards

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the spatial relationships of terrestrial lizards, but arboreal species remain poorly studiedbecause they are difficult to observe. The conventional view of home-range size and overlap among territorial, polygynous species of lizards is that: (1 male home ranges are larger than those of females; (2 male home ranges usually encompass, or substantiallyoverlap, those of several females; and (3 male home-range overlap varies but often is minimal, but female home ranges frequently overlap extensively. However, the paucity of pertinent studies makes it difficult to generalize these patterns to arboreal lizards. Weinvestigated home-range size and overlap in the arboreal Knight Anole, Anolis equestris, and compared our findings to published home-range data for 15 other species of Anolis. Using radiotelemetry and mark-recapture/resight techniques, we analyzed the home rangesof individuals from an introduced population of Knight Anoles in Miami, Florida. The home ranges of both sexes substantially overlapped those of the same- and different-sex individuals. In addition, male and female home ranges did not differ significantly, an unusual observation among lizard species. If one compares both male and female home ranges to those of other Anolis species, Knight Anoles have significantly larger home ranges, except for two species for which statistical comparisons were not possible. Our results suggest that home ranges and sex-specific spatial arrangements of canopy lizards may differ from those of more terrestrial species.

  13. Factors restricting the range expansion of the invasive green anole Anolis carolinensis on Okinawa Island, Japan.

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    Suzuki-Ohno, Yukari; Morita, Kenjiro; Nagata, Nobuaki; Mori, Hideaki; Abe, Shintaro; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2017-06-01

    The green anole Anolis carolinensis invaded the Ogasawara Islands in Japan, drove various native species to extinction, and its distribution expanded 14 years after initial establishment. A. carolinensis invaded Okinawa Island, but it has not expanded its distribution in more than 25 years, although its density is extremely high in the southern region. To determine whether A. carolinensis has the potential to expand its distribution on Okinawa Island, we performed phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND2 DNA sequences to study the origin of A. carolinensis that invaded Okinawa Island. We further used a species distribution model (MaxEnt) based on the distribution of native populations in North America to identify ecologically suitable areas on Okinawa Island. Nucleotide sequence analysis shows that the invader A. carolinensis originated in the western part of the Gulf Coast and inland areas of the United States and that a portion of the anoles on Okinawa was not introduced via the Ogasawara Islands. The MaxEnt predictions indicate that most areas in Okinawa Island are suitable for A. carolinensis. Therefore, A. carolinensis may have the potential to expand its distribution in Okinawa Island. The predictions indicate that habitat suitability is high in areas of high annual mean temperature and urbanized areas. The values of precipitation in summer in the northern region of Okinawa Island were higher compared with those of North America, which reduced the habitat suitability in Okinawa Island. Adaptation to low temperatures, an increase in the mean temperature through global warming, and an increase in open environments through land development will likely expand the distribution of A. carolinensis in Okinawa Island. Therefore, we must continue to monitor the introduced populations and be alert to the possibility that city planning that increases open environments may cause their range to expand.

  14. Take only pictures, leave only...fear? The effects of photography on the West Indian anole Anolis cristatellus

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    Brian HUANG; Katie LUBARSKY; Tiffany TENG; Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism encourages an environmentally friendly exploration of the world's natural habitats. Tourists often engage in wildlife photography, an activity that is generally not considered disturbing to animals. We investigated the effects of camera-related stimuli to determine whether shutter noise and/or flash affected the immediate behavior of female crested anoles Anolis cristaellus. Anoles decreased their display rate following stimuli that included shutter noises, but did not change their behavior in response to flash or silence treatments. To determine the relative importance of this response, we observed anole behavior following playbacks of calls from kestrels Falco sparverius, a predator, and bananaquits Coereba flaveola, a non-predator. Anoles decreased display rates following kestrel calls when compared to their response to bananaquit calls. Furthermore, anoles spent a greater proportion of time displaying following bananaquit calls compared to both kestrel calls and silence. The magnitude of response to shutter noises was about the same as that to predator calls. This demonstrates that photography may not be as benign as commonly believed, and we should consider whether restrictions on camera noises should be implemented to reduce animal disturbance.

  15. Take only pictures, leave only...fear? The effects of photography on the West Indian anole Anolis cristatellus

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    Brian HUANG, Katie LUBARSKY, Tiffany TENG, Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism encourages an environmentally friendly exploration of the world's natural habitats. Tourists often engage in wildlife photography, an activity that is generally not considered disturbing to animals. We investigated the effects of camera-related stimuli to determine whether shutter noise and/or flash affected the immediate behavior of female crested anoles Anolis cristaellus. Anoles decreased their display rate following stimuli that included shutter noises, but did not change their behavior in response to flash or silence treatments. To determine the relative importance of this response, we observed anole behavior following playbacks of calls from kestrels Falco sparverius, a predator, and bananaquits Coereba flaveola, a non-predator. Anoles decreased display rates following kestrel calls when compared to their response to bananaquit calls. Furthermore, anoles spent a greater proportion of time displaying following bananaquit calls compared to both kestrel calls and silence. The magnitude of response to shutter noises was about the same as that to predator calls. This demonstrates that photography may not be as benign as commonly believed, and we should consider whether restrictions on camera noises should be implemented to reduce animal disturbance [Current Zoology 57 (1: 77–82, 2011].

  16. Developmental stages for the divergence of relative limb length between a twig and a trunk-ground Anolis lizard species.

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    Wakasa, Hajime; Cádiz, Antonio; Echenique-Díaz, Lázaro M; Iwasaki, Watal M; Kamiyama, Namiko; Nishimura, Yuki; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Tamura, Koji; Kawata, Masakado

    2015-07-01

    The divergent evolution of niche-related traits can facilitate adaptive radiation, yet identification of the genetic or molecular mechanisms underlying such trait changes remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Conducting a detailed morphological comparison along growth trajectories is a powerful method for observing the formation of differences in niche-related traits. Here, we focused on hindlimb length of Anolis lizards, differences in which are related to adaptation for use of different microhabitats. We measured the length of hindlimb skeletons in different ecomorphs of anole lizards (A. sagrei, a trunk-ground ecomorph with long hindlimbs, and A. angusticeps, a twig ecomorph with short hindlimbs) from early embryonic stages to adulthood, to determine which hindlimb elements mainly differentiate the species and the timing of the formation of these differences. With respect to the digit, differences between the species mainly occurred during the embryonic stages of interdigit reduction, when the cartilage of the distal phalanges was simultaneously forming. In addition, we compared the relative length of developing autopods in early embryonic stages using whole-mount in situ hybridization before the formation of the cartilaginous bones, and the results showed that the relative growth rate of the Hoxa11-negative distal region in A. sagrei was greater than that in A. angusticeps. Our results show that there are several important developmental stages for hindlimb length differentiation between A. angusticeps and A. sagrei, depending on which hindlimb element is considered. In particular, the species differences were largely due to variations in digit length, which arose at early embryonic stages.

  17. Tail loss and narrow surfaces decrease locomotor stability in the arboreal green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).

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    Hsieh, Shi-Tong Tonia

    2016-02-01

    Tails play an important role in dynamic stabilization during falling and jumping in lizards. Yet tail autotomy (the voluntary loss of an appendage) is a common mechanism used for predator evasion in these animals. How tail autotomy has an impact on locomotor performance and stability remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine how tail loss affects running kinematics and performance in the arboreal green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Lizards were run along four surface widths (9.5 mm, 15.9 mm, 19.0 mm and flat), before and following 75% tail autotomy. Results indicate that when perturbed with changes in surface breadth and tail condition, surface breadth tends to have greater impacts on locomotor performance than tail loss. Furthermore, while tail loss does have a destabilizing effect during regular running in these lizards, its function during steady locomotion is minimal. Instead, the tail probably plays a more active role during dynamic maneuvers that require dramatic changes in whole body orientation or center of mass trajectories.

  18. Continuous spermatogenesis and the germ cell development strategy within the testis of the Jamaican Gray Anole, Anolis lineatopus.

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    Gribbins, K M; Rheubert, J L; Poldemann, E H; Collier, M H; Wilson, B; Wolf, K

    2009-09-01

    Testicular tissues from Anolis lineatopus were examined histologically to determine testicular structure, germ cell morphologies, and the germ cell development strategy employed during spermatogenesis. Anoles (N=36) were collected from southern Jamaica from October 2004 to September 2005. Testes were extracted and fixed in Trump's fixative, dehydrated, embedded in Spurr's plastic, sectioned, and stained with basic fuchsin/toluidine blue. The testes of Jamaican Anoles were composed of seminiferous tubules lined with seminiferous epithelia, similar to birds and mammals, and were spermatogenically active during every month of the year. However, spermatogenic activity fluctuated based on morphometric data for February, May and June, and September-December. Sequential increases for these months and decreases in between months in tubular diameters and epithelial heights were due to fluctuations in number of elongating spermatids and spermiation events. Cellular associations were not observed during spermatogenesis in A. lineatopus, and three or more spermatids coincided with mitotic and meiotic cells within the seminiferous epithelium. Although the germ cell generations were layered within the seminiferous epithelium, similar to birds and mammals, the actual temporal development of germ cells and bursts of sperm release more closely resembled that reported recently for other reptilian taxa. All of these reptiles were temperate species that showed considerable seasonality in terms of testis morphology and spermatogenesis. The Jamaican Gray Anole has continuous spermatogenesis yet maintains this temporal germ cell development pattern. Thus, a lack of seasonal spermatogenesis in this anole seems to have no influence on the germ cell development strategy employed during sperm development.

  19. Assessment of the mass, length, center of mass, and principal moment of inertia of body segments in adult males of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) and green, or carolina, anole (Anolis carolinensis).

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    Legreneur, Pierre; Homberger, Dominique G; Bels, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    This study provides a morphometric data set of body segments that are biomechanically relevant for locomotion in two ecomorphs of adult male anoles, namely, the trunk-ground Anolis sagrei and the trunk-crown Anolis carolinensis. For each species, 10 segments were characterized, and for each segment, length, mass, location of the center of mass, and radius of gyration were measured or calculated, respectively. The radii of gyration were computed from the moments of inertia by using the double swing pendulum method. The trunk-ground A. sagrei has relatively longer and stockier hindlimbs and forelimbs with smaller body than A. carolinensis. These differences between the two ecomorphs demonstrated a clear relationship between morphology and performance, particularly in the context of predator avoidance behavior, such as running or jumping in A. sagrei and crypsis in A. carolinensis. Our results provide new perspectives on the mechanism of adaptive radiation as the limbs of the two species appear to scale via linear factors and, therefore, may also provide explanations for the mechanism of evolutionary changes of structures within an ecological context.

  20. How forelimb and hindlimb function changes with incline and perch diameter in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis.

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    Foster, Kathleen L; Higham, Timothy E

    2012-07-01

    The range of inclines and perch diameters in arboreal habitats poses a number of functional challenges for locomotion. To effectively overcome these challenges, arboreal lizards execute complex locomotor behaviors involving both the forelimbs and the hindlimbs. However, few studies have examined the role of forelimbs in lizard locomotion. To characterize how the forelimbs and hindlimbs differentially respond to changes in substrate diameter and incline, we obtained three-dimensional high-speed video of green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) running on flat (9 cm wide) and narrow (1.3 cm) perches inclined at 0, 45 and 90 deg. Changes in perch diameter had a greater effect on kinematics than changes in incline, and proximal limb variables were primarily responsible for these kinematic changes. In addition, a number of joint angles exhibited greater excursions on the 45 deg incline compared with the other inclines. Anolis carolinensis adopted strategies to maintain stability similar to those of other arboreal vertebrates, increasing limb flexion, stride frequency and duty factor. However, the humerus and femur exhibited several opposite kinematic trends with changes in perch diameter. Further, the humerus exhibited a greater range of motion than the femur. A combination of anatomy and behavior resulted in differential kinematics between the forelimb and the hindlimb, and also a potential shift in the propulsive mechanism with changes in external demand. This suggests that a better understanding of single limb function comes from an assessment of both forelimbs and hindlimbs. Characterizing forelimb and hindlimb movements may reveal interesting functional differences between Anolis ecomorphs. Investigations into the physiological mechanisms underlying the functional differences between the forelimb and the hindlimb are needed to fully understand how arboreal animals move in complex habitats.

  1. Novel X-linked genes revealed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis.

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    Rovatsos, Michail; Altmanová, Marie; Pokorná, Martina Johnson; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-08-28

    The green anole, Anolis carolinensis (ACA), is the model reptile for a vast array of biological disciplines. It was the first nonavian reptile to have its genome fully sequenced. During the genome project, the XX/XY system of sex chromosomes homologous to chicken chromosome 15 (GGA15) was revealed, and 106 X-linked genes were identified. We selected 38 genes located on eight scaffolds in ACA and having orthologs located on GGA15, then tested their linkage to ACA X chromosome by using comparative quantitative fluorescent real-time polymerase chain reaction applied to male and female genomic DNA. All tested genes appeared to be X-specific and not present on the Y chromosome. Assuming that all genes located on these scaffolds should be localized to the ACA X chromosome, we more than doubled the number of known X-linked genes in ACA, from 106 to 250. While demonstrating that the gene content of chromosome X in ACA and GGA15 is largely conserved, we nevertheless showed that numerous interchromosomal rearrangements had occurred since the splitting of the chicken and anole evolutionary lineages. The presence of many ACA X-specific genes localized to distinct contigs indicates that the ACA Y chromosome should be highly degenerated, having lost a large amount of its original gene content during evolution. The identification of novel genes linked to the X chromosome and absent on the Y chromosome in the model lizard species contributes to ongoing research as to the evolution of sex determination in reptiles and provides important information for future comparative and functional genomics.

  2. The incredible shrinking dewlap: signal size, skin elasticity, and mechanical design in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).

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    Lailvaux, Simon P; Leifer, Jack; Kircher, Bonnie K; Johnson, Michele A

    2015-10-01

    The expression of male secondary sexual traits can be dynamic, changing size, shape, color, or structure over the course of different seasons. However, the factors underlying such changes are poorly understood. In male Anolis carolinensis lizards, a morphological secondary sexual signal called the dewlap changes size seasonally within individuals. Here, we test the hypothesis that seasonal changes in male dewlap size are driven by increased use and extension of the dewlap in spring and summer, when males are breeding, relative to the winter and fall. We captured male green anole lizards prior to the onset of breeding and constrained the dewlap in half of them such that it could not be extended. We then measured dewlap area in the spring, summer, and winter, and dewlap skin and belly skin elasticity in summer and winter. Dewlaps in unconstrained males increase in area from spring to summer and then shrink in the winter, whereas the dewlaps of constrained males consistently shrink from spring to winter. Dewlap skin is significantly more elastic than belly skin, and skin overall is more elastic in the summer relative to winter. These results show that seasonal changes in dewlap size are a function of skin elasticity and display frequency, and suggest that the mechanical properties of signaling structures can have important implications for signal evolution and design.

  3. Microgeographic body size variation in a high elevation Andean anole (Anolis mariarum; Squamata, Polychrotidae

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    Brian C Bock

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra-specific body size variation is common and often is assumed to be adaptive. Studies of body size variation among sites should include or consider environmental and ecological variables in their designs. Additionally, reciprocal transplant or common garden studies will support which variables are really contributing to the observed body size variation. This study analyzed the microgeographic body size variation in Anolis mariarum, a small lizard endemic to Antioquia, Colombia. Parameters such as body size, shape, and lepidosis variation were quantified in 217 adult A. mariarum, belonging to six populations separated by less than 80km. Results showed that significant body size variation was not related to differences among sites in mean annual temperature, but covaried with mean annual precipitation, with the largest individuals occurring in dryer sites. Mark-recapture data obtained from 115 individuals from both the wettest and dryest sites from October 2004 to April 2005 showed that growth rates were higher at the latter. Eight males from each site were captured at the end of the mark- recapture study and reared for two months under identical conditions in a common garden study. Individuals from both sites grew faster when reared in the laboratory with food provided ad libitum. Although growth rates of males from the two populations did not differ significantly in the laboratory, males from the dryest site still maintained a significantly larger asymptotic body size in their growth trajectories. Multivariate analyses also demonstrated that both males and females from the six populations differed in terms of body shape and lepidosis. However, only female body size was found to covary significantly with an environmental gradient (precipitation. A. mariarum does not conform to Bergmann’s rule, but the relationship found between mean body size and asympotic growth with mean annual precipitation at these sites needs further analysis

  4. A new species of pine anole from the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae: Anolis).

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    Köhler, Gunther; Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo; Petersen, Claus Bo P; de La Cruz, Fausto R Mendez

    2014-01-09

    We describe the new species Anolis peucephilus sp. nov. from the Pacific versant of southern Mexico. Anolis peucephilus differs from all congeners by having a combination of (1) smooth ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) extremely short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening, ratio shank length/snout-vent length 0.18-0.21; (4) circumnasal usually in contact with first supralabial; and (5) a large yellowish orange dewlap in males and a very small to small white dewlap in females. In external morphology, A. peucephilus is most similar to A. omiltemanus from which it differs by having even shorter hind legs with the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between levels of axilla and ear opening (versus usually to ear opening, occasionally to slightly beyond ear opening or to a point between shoulder and ear opening in A. omiltemanus), a slightly larger dewlap in females, to 64 mm2 (versus to 41 mm2 in A. omiltemanus), the circumnasal usually in contact with the first supralabial (versus those scales separated by the presence of a subnasal in A. omiltemanus), and 4-6 internasal scales in the new species (versus usually 6-7 in A. omiltemanus). Furthermore, A. peucephilus differs from A. omiltemanus in hemipenial morphology (no finger-like processus on asulcate side in A. peucephilus versus such a processus present in A. omiltemanus). Also, in a preliminary molecular genetic analysis of the mitochondrial CO1 gene fragment, A. peucephilus has a genetic distance of 11.5% from A. omiltemanus. Anolis peucephilus was collected at night while the lizards were sleeping in pine trees, 2-10 m above the ground.

  5. Intraspecific variation in body size and shape in an Andean highland anole species, Anolis ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Dactyloidae

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    Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.

  6. Intraspecific variation in body size and shape in an Andean highland anole species, Anolis ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Dactyloidae

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    Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.La diversificación fenotípica al interior de una especie en características de dimensiones corporales relacionadas con la locomoción de los lagartos, se ha estudiado poco en especies de Anolis. Los datos de algunas especies de isla revelan patrones distintos de variación geográfica y sugieren que la adaptación local, debida a la heterogeneidad del hábitat, ocurre a este nivel. Los estudios de especies de continente son particularmente escasos y sugieren patrones distintos: un lagarto altoandino altamente variable y poblaciones poco

  7. Developing a community-based genetic nomenclature for anole lizards

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    Kusumi Kenro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative studies of amniotes have been hindered by a dearth of reptilian molecular sequences. With the genomic assembly of the green anole, Anolis carolinensis available, non-avian reptilian genes can now be compared to mammalian, avian, and amphibian homologs. Furthermore, with more than 350 extant species in the genus Anolis, anoles are an unparalleled example of tetrapod genetic diversity and divergence. As an important ecological, genetic and now genomic reference, it is imperative to develop a standardized Anolis gene nomenclature alongside associated vocabularies and other useful metrics. Results Here we report the formation of the Anolis Gene Nomenclature Committee (AGNC and propose a standardized evolutionary characterization code that will help researchers to define gene orthology and paralogy with tetrapod homologs, provide a system for naming novel genes in Anolis and other reptiles, furnish abbreviations to facilitate comparative studies among the Anolis species and related iguanid squamates, and classify the geographical origins of Anolis subpopulations. Conclusions This report has been generated in close consultation with members of the Anolis and genomic research communities, and using public database resources including NCBI and Ensembl. Updates will continue to be regularly posted to new research community websites such as lizardbase. We anticipate that this standardized gene nomenclature will facilitate the accessibility of reptilian sequences for comparative studies among tetrapods and will further serve as a template for other communities in their sequencing and annotation initiatives.

  8. Evolution of Anolis lizard dewlap diversity.

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    Kirsten E Nicholson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dewlaps of Anolis lizards provide a classic example of a complex signaling system whose function and evolution is poorly understood. Dewlaps are flaps of skin beneath the chin that are extended and combined with head and body movements for visual signals and displays. They exhibit extensive morphological variation and are one of two cladistic features uniting anoles, yet little is known regarding their function and evolution. We quantified the diversity of anole dewlaps, investigated whether dewlap morphology was informative regarding phylogenetic relationships, and tested two separate hypotheses: (A similar Anolis habitat specialists possess similar dewlap configurations (Ecomorph Convergence hypothesis, and (B sympatric species differ in their dewlap morphologies to a greater extent than expected by chance (Species Recognition hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that dewlap configurations (sizes, patterns and colors exhibit substantial diversity, but that most are easily categorized into six patterns that incorporate one to three of 13 recognizable colors. Dewlap morphology is not phylogenetically informative and, like other features of anoles, exhibits convergence in configurations. We found no support for the Ecomorph Convergence hypothesis; species using the same structural habitat were no more similar in dewlap configuration than expected by chance. With one exception, all sympatric species in four communities differ in dewlap configuration. However, this provides only weak support for the Species Recognition hypothesis because, due to the great diversity in dewlap configurations observed across each island, few cases of sympatric species with identical dewlaps would be expected to co-occur by chance alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite previous thought, most dewlaps exhibit easily characterizable patterns and colorations. Nevertheless, dewlap variation is extensive and explanations for the origin and

  9. Anolis lizards as biocontrol agents in mainland and island agroecosystems.

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    Monagan, Ivan V; Morris, Jonathan R; Davis Rabosky, Alison R; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2017-04-01

    Our knowledge of ecological interactions that bolster ecosystem function and productivity has broad applications to the management of agricultural systems. Studies suggest that the presence of generalist predators in agricultural landscapes leads to a decrease in the abundance of herbivorous pests, but our understanding of how these interactions vary across taxa and along gradients of management intensity and eco-geographic space remains incomplete. In this study, we assessed the functional response and biocontrol potential of a highly ubiquitous insectivore (lizards in the genus Anolis) on the world's most important coffee pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypothalemus hampei). We conducted field surveys and laboratory experiments to examine the impact of land-use intensification on species richness and abundance of anoles and the capacity of anoles to reduce berry borer infestations in mainland and island coffee systems. Our results show that anoles significantly reduce coffee infestation rates in laboratory settings (Mexico, p = .03, F = 5.13 df = 1, 35; Puerto Rico, p = .014, F = 8.82, df = 1, 10) and are capable of consuming coffee berry borers in high abundance. Additionally, diversified agroecosystems bolster anole abundance, while high-intensity practices, including the reduction of vegetation complexity and the application of agrochemicals were associated with reduced anole abundance. The results of this study provide supporting evidence of the positive impact of generalist predators on the control of crop pests in agricultural landscapes, and the role of diversified agroecosystems in sustaining both functionally diverse communities and crop production in tropical agroecosystems.

  10. Identification and comparative analysis of the protocadherin cluster in a reptile, the green anole lizard.

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    Xiao-Juan Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vertebrate protocadherins are a subfamily of cell adhesion molecules that are predominantly expressed in the nervous system and are believed to play an important role in establishing the complex neural network during animal development. Genes encoding these molecules are organized into a cluster in the genome. Comparative analysis of the protocadherin subcluster organization and gene arrangements in different vertebrates has provided interesting insights into the history of vertebrate genome evolution. Among tetrapods, protocadherin clusters have been fully characterized only in mammals. In this study, we report the identification and comparative analysis of the protocadherin cluster in a reptile, the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the anole protocadherin cluster spans over a megabase and encodes a total of 71 genes. The number of genes in the anole protocadherin cluster is significantly higher than that in the coelacanth (49 genes and mammalian (54-59 genes clusters. The anole protocadherin genes are organized into four subclusters: the delta, alpha, beta and gamma. This subcluster organization is identical to that of the coelacanth protocadherin cluster, but differs from the mammalian clusters which lack the delta subcluster. The gene number expansion in the anole protocadherin cluster is largely due to the extensive gene duplication in the gammab subgroup. Similar to coelacanth and elephant shark protocadherin genes, the anole protocadherin genes have experienced a low frequency of gene conversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that similar to the protocadherin clusters in other vertebrates, the evolution of anole protocadherin cluster is driven mainly by lineage-specific gene duplications and degeneration. Our analysis also shows that loss of the protocadherin delta subcluster in the mammalian lineage occurred after the divergence of mammals and reptiles

  11. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  12. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  13. The evolutionary dynamics of autonomous non-LTR retrotransposons in the lizard Anolis carolinensis shows more similarity to fish than mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Peter A; Basta, Holly; Floumanhaft, Mark; McClure, Marcella A; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2009-08-01

    The genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis (the green anole) is the first nonavian reptilian genome sequenced. It offers a unique opportunity to comparatively examine the evolution of amniote genomes. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons in the anole using the Genome Parsing Suite. We found that the anole genome contains an extraordinary diversity of elements. We identified 46 families of elements representing five clades (L1, L2, CR1, RTE, and R4). Within most families, elements are very similar to each other suggesting that they have been inserted recently. The rarity of old elements suggests a high rate of turnover, the insertion of new elements being offset by the loss of element-containing loci. Consequently, non-LTR retrotransposons accumulate in the anole at a low rate and are found in low copy number. This pattern of diversity shows some striking similarity with the genome of teleostean fish but contrasts greatly with the low diversity and high copy number of mammalian L1 elements, suggesting a fundamental difference in the way mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates interact with their genomic parasites. The scarcity of divergent elements in anoles suggests that insertions have a deleterious effect and are eliminated by natural selection. We propose that the low abundance of non-LTR retrotransposons in the anole is related directly or indirectly to a higher rate of ectopic recombination in the anole relative to mammals.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian anole lizards (Dactyloa): taxonomic implications, new insights about phenotypic evolution and the timing of diversification.

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    Prates, Ivan; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Carnaval, Ana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The ecology and evolution of Caribbean anoles are well described, yet little is known about mainland anole species. Lack of phylogenetic information limits our knowledge about species boundaries, morphological evolution, and the biogeography of anoles in South America. To help fill this gap, we provide an updated molecular phylogeny of the Dactyloa (Dactyloidae), with emphasis on the punctata species group. By sampling understudied Amazonian taxa, we (i) assess the phylogenetic placement of the 'odd anole', D. dissimilis; (ii) infer the relationships of the proboscis-bearing D. phyllorhina, testing the hypothesis of independent nasal appendage evolution within the anole radiation; and (iii) examine genetic and dewlap color variation in D. punctata and D. philopunctata. Combining multiple nuclear loci with a review of the fossil record, we also (iv) estimate divergence times within the pleurodont iguanian clade of lizards, including Amazonian representatives of Dactyloa and Norops (Dactyloidae) and of Polychrus (Polychrotidae). We recover the five Dactyloa clades previously referred to as the aequatorialis, heteroderma, latifrons, punctata and roquet species groups, as well as a sixth clade composed of D. dissimilis and the non-Amazonian D. neblinina and D. calimae. We find D. phyllorhina to be nested within the punctata group, suggesting independent evolution of the anole proboscis. We consistently recover D. philopunctata nested within D. punctata, and report limited genetic divergence between distinct dewlap phenotypes. The most recent common ancestor of Dactyloa, Anolis and Norops dates back to the Eocene. Most Amazonian taxa within both Dactyloa and Norops diverged in the Miocene, but some diversification events were as old as the late Eocene and late Oligocene. Amazonian Polychrus diverged in the Pliocene. Our findings have broad implications for anole biogeography, disputing recent suggestions that modern dactyloid genera were present in the Caribbean region

  15. Resurrection of Anolis ustus Cope, 1864 from synonymy with Anolis sericeus Hallowell, 1856 (Squamata, Dactyloidae)

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    Lara-Tufiño, José Daniel; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Gray, Levi N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, based on a morphological analysis, the resurrection of the name Anolis ustus Cope 1864, is proposed for populations from the Yucatán Peninsula (Campeche, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo, Mexico, and Belize), formerly referred as Anolis sericeus Hallowell, 1856. Anolis ustus differs from Anolis sericeus by its mean snout-vent length and number of gorgetal scales in males, in tibia length and head width in females, and dorsal and ventral scales for both sexes. In addition, Anolis ustus has a small dewlap of similar size between males and females, whereas in Anolis sericeus males have a dewlap much larger than that of the females. These characteristics allow Anolis ustus to be identified within the Anolis sericeus complex. In this study, a description of the characteristics of the hemipenis is also provided, and its importance in the taxonomy of Anolis is discussed. PMID:27829791

  16. Resurrection of Anolis ustus Cope, 1864 from synonymy with Anolis sericeus Hallowell, 1856 (Squamata, Dactyloidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Tufiño, José Daniel; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Gray, Levi N

    2016-01-01

    In this study, based on a morphological analysis, the resurrection of the name Anolis ustus Cope 1864, is proposed for populations from the Yucatán Peninsula (Campeche, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo, Mexico, and Belize), formerly referred as Anolis sericeus Hallowell, 1856. Anolis ustus differs from Anolis sericeus by its mean snout-vent length and number of gorgetal scales in males, in tibia length and head width in females, and dorsal and ventral scales for both sexes. In addition, Anolis ustus has a small dewlap of similar size between males and females, whereas in Anolis sericeus males have a dewlap much larger than that of the females. These characteristics allow Anolis ustus to be identified within the Anolis sericeus complex. In this study, a description of the characteristics of the hemipenis is also provided, and its importance in the taxonomy of Anolis is discussed.

  17. Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands.

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    Sugawara, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hiroo; Hayashi, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity.

  18. Evolution of Dosage Compensation in Anolis carolinensis, a Reptile with XX/XY Chromosomal Sex Determination

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    Rupp, Shawn M.; Webster, Timothy H.; Olney, Kimberly C.; Hutchins, Elizabeth D.; Kusumi, Kenro

    2017-01-01

    In species with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the degradation of one of the sex chromosomes will result in unequal gene expression between the sexes (e.g. between XX females and XY males) and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Dosage compensation is a process whereby genes on the sex chromosomes achieve equal gene expression. We compared genome-wide levels of transcription between males and females, and between the X chromosome and the autosomes in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. We present evidence for dosage compensation between the sexes, and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. When dividing the X chromosome into regions based on linkage groups, we discovered that genes in the first reported X-linked region, anole linkage group b (LGb), exhibit complete dosage compensation, although the rest of the X-linked genes exhibit incomplete dosage compensation. Our data further suggest that the mechanism of this dosage compensation is upregulation of the X chromosome in males. We report that approximately 10% of coding genes, most of which are on the autosomes, are differentially expressed between males and females. In addition, genes on the X chromosome exhibited higher ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution than autosomal genes, consistent with the fast-X effect. Our results from the green anole add an additional observation of dosage compensation in a species with XX/XY sex determination. PMID:28206607

  19. Intersexual chemo-sensation in a “visually-oriented” lizard, Anolis sagrei

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    Simon Baeckens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While the conspicuous visual displays of anoles have been studied in great depth, the possibility that these lizards may also interact through chemical signalling has received hardly any consideration. In this study, we observed the behaviour of male brown anoles (Anolis sagrei when introduced into an environment previously inhabited by female conspecifics, and compared it to when they were introduced into an untreated environment. The males in our tests exhibited significantly more elaborate display behaviour (i.e., greater number of dewlap extensions and head-nods and a significantly greater number of tongue extrusions while in the cage formerly occupied by females than when placed in the untreated, control cage. The absolute numbers of tongue extrusions, however, were relatively low in comparison to average tongue-flick rates of ‘true’ chemically-oriented lizards. Our results strongly suggest that the males were capable of detecting chemical cues left behind by the females. These observations provide the first evidence of intersexual chemo-sensation in an anole lizard.

  20. Placing cryptic, recently extinct, or hypothesized taxa into an ultrametric phylogeny using continuous character data: a case study with the lizard Anolis roosevelti.

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    Revell, Liam J; Mahler, D Luke; Reynolds, R Graham; Slater, Graham J

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, enormous effort and investment has been put into assembling the tree of life: a phylogenetic history for all species on Earth. Overwhelmingly, this progress toward building an ever increasingly complete phylogeny of living things has been accomplished through sophisticated analysis of molecular data. In the modern genomic age, molecular genetic data have become very easy and inexpensive to obtain for many species. However, some lineages are poorly represented in or absent from tissue collections, or are unavailable for molecular analysis for other reasons such as restrictive biological sample export laws. Other species went extinct recently and are only available in formalin museum preparations or perhaps even as subfossils. In this brief communication we present a new method for placing cryptic, recently extinct, or hypothesized taxa into an ultrametric phylogeny of extant taxa using continuous character data. This method is based on a relatively simple modification of an established maximum likelihood (ML) method for phylogeny inference from continuous traits. We show that the method works well on simulated trees and data. We then apply it to the case of placing the Culebra Island Giant Anole (Anolis roosevelti) into a phylogeny of Caribbean anoles. Anolis roosevelti is a "crown-giant" ecomorph anole hypothesized to have once been found throughout the Spanish, United States, and British Virgin Islands, but that has not been encountered or collected since the 1930s. Although this species is widely thought to be closely related to the Puerto Rican giant anole, A. cuvieri, our ML method actually places A. roosevelti in a different part of the tree and closely related to a clade of morphologically similar species. We are unable, however, to reject a phylogenetic position for A. roosevelti that places it as sister taxon to A. cuvieri; although close relationship with the remainder of Puerto Rican anole species is strongly rejected by our method.

  1. A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Gunther; Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo; Petersen, Claus Bo P; De La Cruz, Fausto R Méndez

    2014-09-19

    We revise the species of anoles occurring along the Pacific versant of Mexico west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla. Based on our analyses of morphological and molecular genetic data, we recognize 21 species, six of which we describe as new (i.e., Anolis carlliebi sp. nov., A. immaculogularis sp. nov., A. nietoi sp. nov., A. sacamecatensis sp. nov., A. stevepoei sp. nov., and A. zapotecorum sp. nov.). Furthermore, we synonymize Anolis forbesi Smith & Van Gelder 1955 with Anolis microlepidotus Davis 1954. Of the recognized species, six have smooth ventral scales (i.e., Anolis dunni, A. gadovii, A. liogaster, A. omiltemanus, A. peucephilus, and A. taylori) and 14 have keeled ventral scales (i.e., A. boulengerianus, A. carlliebi, A. immaculogularis, A. megapholidotus, A. microlepidotus, A. nebuloides, A. nebulosus, A. nietoi, A. quercorum, A. sacamecatensis, A. stevepoei, A. subocularis, A. unilobatus, and A. zapotecorum). In one species, A. macrinii, the ventral scales vary from smooth to weakly keeled. For each species we provide color descriptions in life, color photographs in life, descriptions and illustration of hemipenis morphology (if available), description of external morphology, distribution maps based on the specimensexamined, comments on the conservation status, and natural history notes. Finally, we provide a dichotomous key for the identification of the 21 species of anoles occurring along the Pacific versant of Mexico west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla. 

  2. Functional morphology and comparative anatomy of appendicular musculature in Cuban Anolis lizards with different locomotor habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Wataru; Omura, Ayano; Diaz, Antonio Cadiz; Kawata, Masakado; Endo, Hideki

    2014-07-01

    We examined the diversity of the musculoskeletal morphology in the limbs of Anolis lizards with different habitats and identified variations in functional and morphological adaptations to different ecologies or behaviors. Dissection and isolation of 40 muscles from the fore- and hindlimbs of five species of Anolis were performed, and the muscle mass and length of the moment arm were compared after body size effects were removed. Ecologically and behaviorally characteristic morphological differences were observed in several muscles. Well-developed hindlimb extensors were observed in ground-dwelling species, A. sagrei and A. bremeri, and were considered advantageous for running, whereas adept climber species possessed expanded femoral retractors for weight-bearing during climbing. Moreover, morphological variations were observed among arboreal species. Wider excursions of the forelimb joint characterized A. porcatus, presumably enabling branch-to-branch locomotion, while A. equestris and A. angusticeps possessed highly developed adductor muscles for grasping thick branches or twigs. These findings suggest divergent evolution of musculoskeletal characteristic in the limbs within the genus Anolis, with correlations observed among morphological traits, locomotor performance, and habitat uses.

  3. Ultrastructure of Sporozoites of Schellackia golvani (Eimeriorina: Lankesterellidae) in the Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    D. G. YOUNG§ *Department of Entomology, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Washington. DC...European Journal of Cell Biology 47: 81-87. mininia I Apicomplexa ) in its anuran host and leech vector. SINDEN R. E. & MOORE 1. 1974. Fine structure of

  4. Biomonitoring with lichens on twigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsholm, René Larsen; Wolseley, Pat; Søchting, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    Two surveys of the lichen and bryophyte flora growing on oak twigs from a Welsh and a Danish locality were compared with additional data on bark pH and % nitrogen in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes. Despite differences in climate and lichen flora, both sites showed a shift in the lichen communities...

  5. Genome reannotation of the lizard Anolis carolinensis based on 14 adult and embryonic deep transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckalbar Walter L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis, is a key species for both laboratory and field-based studies of evolutionary genetics, development, neurobiology, physiology, behavior, and ecology. As the first non-avian reptilian genome sequenced, A. carolinesis is also a prime reptilian model for comparison with other vertebrate genomes. The public databases of Ensembl and NCBI have provided a first generation gene annotation of the anole genome that relies primarily on sequence conservation with related species. A second generation annotation based on tissue-specific transcriptomes would provide a valuable resource for molecular studies. Results Here we provide an annotation of the A. carolinensis genome based on de novo assembly of deep transcriptomes of 14 adult and embryonic tissues. This revised annotation describes 59,373 transcripts, compared to 16,533 and 18,939 currently for Ensembl and NCBI, and 22,962 predicted protein-coding genes. A key improvement in this revised annotation is coverage of untranslated region (UTR sequences, with 79% and 59% of transcripts containing 5’ and 3’ UTRs, respectively. Gaps in genome sequence from the current A. carolinensis build (Anocar2.0 are highlighted by our identification of 16,542 unmapped transcripts, representing 6,695 orthologues, with less than 70% genomic coverage. Conclusions Incorporation of tissue-specific transcriptome sequence into the A. carolinensis genome annotation has markedly improved its utility for comparative and functional studies. Increased UTR coverage allows for more accurate predicted protein sequence and regulatory analysis. This revised annotation also provides an atlas of gene expression specific to adult and embryonic tissues.

  6. Comparative tests of the role of dewlap size in Anolis lizard speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Travis; Harrison, Alexis; Mahler, D Luke; Castañeda, María Del Rosario; Glor, Richard E; Herrel, Anthony; Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B

    2016-12-28

    Phenotypic traits may be linked to speciation in two distinct ways: character values may influence the rate of speciation or diversification in the trait may be associated with speciation events. Traits involved in signal transmission, such as the dewlap of Anolis lizards, are often involved in the speciation process. The dewlap is an important visual signal with roles in species recognition and sexual selection, and dewlaps vary among species in relative size as well as colour and pattern. We compile a dataset of relative dewlap size digitized from photographs of 184 anole species from across the genus' geographical range. We use phylogenetic comparative methods to test two hypotheses: that larger dewlaps are associated with higher speciation rates, and that relative dewlap area diversifies according to a speciational model of evolution. We find no evidence of trait-dependent speciation, indicating that larger signals do not enhance any role the dewlap has in promoting speciation. Instead, we find a signal of mixed speciational and gradual trait evolution, with a particularly strong signal of speciational change in the dewlaps of mainland lineages. This indicates that dewlap size diversifies in association with the speciation process, suggesting that divergent selection may play a role in the macroevolution of this signalling trait.

  7. Visual pigments and oil droplets in diurnal lizards: a comparative study of Caribbean anoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Ellis R; Fleishman, Leo J; Foster, Russell G; Provencio, Ignacio

    2002-04-01

    We report microspectrophotometric (MSP) data for the visual pigments and oil droplets of 17 species of Caribbean anoline lizard known to live in differing photic habitats and having distinctly different dewlap colors. The outgroup Polychrus marmoratus was also examined to gain insight into the ancestral condition. Except for Anolis carolinensis, which is known to use vitamin A(2) as its visual pigment chromophore, all anoline species examined possessed at least four vitamin-A(1)-based visual pigments with maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) at 564, 495, 455 and 365 nm. To the previously reported visual pigments for A. carolinensis we add an ultraviolet-sensitive one with lambda(max) at 365 nm. Five common classes of oil droplet were measured, named according to apparent color and associated with specific cone classes - yellow and green in long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones, green only in medium-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) cones and colorless in short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) and ultraviolet-sensitive (UVS) cones. MSP data showed that the colorless droplet in the SWS cone had significant absorption between 350 and 400 nm, while the colorless droplet in the UVS cone did not. The pattern for Polychrus marmoratus was identical to that for the anoles except for the presence of a previously undescribed visual cell with a rod-like outer segment, a visual pigment with a lambda(max) of 497 nm and a colorless oil droplet like that in the UVS cones. These findings suggest that anoline visual pigments, as far as they determine visual system spectral sensitivity, are not necessarily adapted to the photic environment or to the color of significant visual targets (e.g. dewlaps).

  8. Burlap bands as a sampling technique for green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) and other reptiles commonly found in tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2006-01-01

    A variety of methods have been used to study lizard populations including rubber bands, active searching and noosing (Campbell and Christman 1982; Karns 1986; Simmons 1987), pitfall traps (Fair and Henke 1997; Moseley 2004; Sutton et al. 1999), glue boards (Bauer and Sadlier 1992; Downes and Borges 1998; Durtsche 1996; Moseley 2004;...

  9. Burlap bands as a sampling technique for green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) and other reptiles commonly found on tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2006-01-01

    A variety of methods have been used to study lizard populations including rubber bands, active searching and noosing (Campbell and Christman 1982; Karns 1986; Simmons 1987), pitfall traps (Fair and Henke 1997; Moseley 2004; Sutton et al. 1999), glue boards (Bauer and Sadlier 1992; Downes and Borges 1998; Durtsche 1996; Moseley 2004; Whiting 1998), extraction by hook (...

  10. Influence of geography and climate on patterns of cell size and body size in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Rachel M; Echternacht, Arthur C; Hall, Jim C; Deng, Lihan D; Welch, Jessica N

    2013-06-01

    Geographic patterns in body size are often associated with latitude, elevation, or environmental and climatic variables. This study investigated patterns of body size and cell size of the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis, and potential associations with geography or climatic variables. Lizards were sampled from 19 populations across the native range, and body size, red blood cell size and size and number of muscle cells were measured. Climatic data from local weather stations and latitude and longitude were entered into model selection with Akaike's information criterion to explain patterns in cell and body sizes. Climatic variables did not drive any major patterns in cell size or body size; rather, latitude and longitude were the best predictors of cell and body size. In general, smaller body and cell sizes in Florida anoles drove geographic patterns in A. carolinensis. Small size in Florida may be attributable to the geological history of the peninsular state or the unique ecological factors in this area, including a recently introduced congener. In contrast to previous studies, we found that A. carolinensis does not follow Bergmann's rule when the influence of Florida is excluded. Rather, the opposite pattern of larger lizards in southern populations is evident in the absence of Florida populations, and mirrors the general pattern in squamates. Muscle cell size was negatively related to latitude and red blood cell size showed no latitudinal trend outside of Florida. Different patterns in the sizes of the 2 cell types confirm the importance of examining multiple cell types when studying geographic variation in cell size.

  11. Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Kristin M; Reynolds, R Graham; Prado-Irwin, Sofia R; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly important dimension of global change, and urban areas likely impose significant natural selection on the species that reside within them. Although many species of plants and animals can survive in urban areas, so far relatively little research has investigated whether such populations have adapted (in an evolutionary sense) to their newfound milieu. Even less of this work has taken place in tropical regions, many of which have experienced dramatic growth and intensification of urbanization in recent decades. In the present study, we focus on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas in three of the most populous municipalities on the island of Puerto Rico. We found that environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, and substrate availability differ dramatically between neighboring urban and natural areas. We also found that lizards in urban areas use artificial substrates a large proportion of the time, and that these substrates tend to be broader than substrates in natural forest. Finally, our morphological data showed that lizards in urban areas have longer limbs relative to their body size, as well as more subdigital scales called lamellae, when compared to lizards from nearby forested habitats. This shift in phenotype is exactly in the direction predicted based on habitat differences between our urban and natural study sites, combined with our results on how substrates are being used by lizards in these areas. Findings from a common-garden rearing experiment using individuals from one of our three pairs of populations provide evidence that trait differences between urban and natural sites may be genetically based. Taken together, our data suggest that anoles in urban areas are under significant differential natural selection and may be evolutionarily adapting to their human-modified environments.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Hutchins

    Full Text Available Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Elizabeth D; Markov, Glenn J; Eckalbar, Walter L; George, Rajani M; King, Jesse M; Tokuyama, Minami A; Geiger, Lauren A; Emmert, Nataliya; Ammar, Michael J; Allen, April N; Siniard, Ashley L; Corneveaux, Jason J; Fisher, Rebecca E; Wade, Juli; DeNardo, Dale F; Rawls, J Alan; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Kusumi, Kenro

    2014-01-01

    Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  14. Immunolocalization of loricrin in the maturing α-layer of normal and regenerating epidermis of the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Strasser, Bettina; Eckhart, Leopold

    2015-03-01

    Numerous corneous proteins are produced during the differentiation of the complex lizard epidermis, comprising hard β-layers and softer α-layers. In the present ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study, we have localized a homolog of the mammalian skin barrier protein loricrin in the skin of the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis). We used an antibody specific to the carboxyterminus of loricrin 1, a gene of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) of A. carolinensis. Lizard loricrin is present in the maturing α-layer (lacunar cells) of normal scale epidermis and in the accumulating corneocytes of the wound epidermis (lacunar cells) of the regenerating epidermis. The protein appears as a component of the α-layer but not of the β-layer. Lizard loricrin is diffused in the cytoplasm of pre-corneous α-keratinocytes but eventually concentrates in the packing corneous material of the maturing corneocytes of the α-layer (lacunar) in normal epidermis or in the wound epidermis of regenerating epidermis. The protein likely contributes to the composition and pliability of the corneous material but is not specifically accumulated on the corneous cell envelope (marginal layer) that is scarcely differentiated in these cells. The study contributes to the knowledge on the distribution of specific corneous proteins that give rise to the different material properties of α-layers versus β-layers in lizard epidermis.

  15. The effects of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 agonists and antagonists on sexual and aggressive behaviors in male green anoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra N.

    2017-01-01

    The propensity to exhibit social behaviors during interactions with same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics is modulated by various neurotransmitters, including dopamine. Dopamine is a conserved neurotransmitter among vertebrates and dopaminergic receptors are also highly conserved among taxa. Activation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes has been shown to modulate social behaviors, especially in mammalian and avian studies. However, the specific behavioral functions of these receptors vary across taxa. In reptiles there have been few studies examining the relationship between dopaminergic receptors and social behaviors. We therefore examined the effects of D1 and D2 agonists and antagonists on sexual and aggressive behaviors in the male green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis). Treatment with high doses of both D1 and D2 agonists was found to impair both sexual and aggressive behaviors. However, the D1 agonist treatment was also found to impair motor function, suggesting that those effects were likely nonspecific. Lower doses of both agonists and antagonists failed to affect social behaviors. These findings provide some evidence for D2 receptor regulation of social behaviors, but in contrast with previous research, these effects are all inhibitory and no effects were found for manipulations of D1 receptors. A potential reason for the lack of more widespread effects on social behaviors using moderate or low drug doses is that systemic injection of drugs resulted in effects throughout the whole brain, thus affecting counteracting circuits which negated one another, making measurable changes in behavioral output difficult to detect. Future studies should administer drugs directly into brain regions known to regulate sexual and aggressive behaviors. PMID:28187160

  16. Conserved sex chromosomes across adaptively radiated Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Altmanová, Marie; Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-07-01

    Vertebrates possess diverse sex-determining systems, which differ in evolutionary stability among particular groups. It has been suggested that poikilotherms possess more frequent turnovers of sex chromosomes than homoiotherms, whose effective thermoregulation can prevent the emergence of the sex reversals induced by environmental temperature. Squamate reptiles used to be regarded as a group with an extensive variability in sex determination; however, we document how the rather old radiation of lizards from the genus Anolis, known for exceptional ecomorphological variability, was connected with stability in sex chromosomes. We found that 18 tested species, representing most of the phylogenetic diversity of the genus, share the gene content of their X chromosomes. Furthermore, we discovered homologous sex chromosomes in species of two genera (Sceloporus and Petrosaurus) from the family Phrynosomatidae, serving here as an outgroup to Anolis. We can conclude that the origin of sex chromosomes within iguanas largely predates the Anolis radiation and that the sex chromosomes of iguanas remained conserved for a significant part of their evolutionary history. Next to therian mammals and birds, Anolis lizards therefore represent another adaptively radiated amniote clade with conserved sex chromosomes. We argue that the evolutionary stability of sex-determining systems may reflect an advanced stage of differentiation of sex chromosomes rather than thermoregulation strategy.

  17. A new species of Anolis lizard (Squamata, Iguania from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Poe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Anolis is described from western Panama and eastern Costa Rica. Populations of the new form were previously allocated to A. chocorum. However, the new species differs from A. chocorum in characters of color pattern, scalation and proportion.

  18. TwigStack+: Holistic Twig Join Pruning Using Extended Solution Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Junfeng; XIE Min; MENG Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    XML has been used extensively in many applications as a de facto standard for information representation and exchange over internet. Huge volumes of data are organized or exported in tree-structured form and the desired information can be got by traversing the whole tree structure using a twig pattern query. A new definition, Extended Solution Extension, is proposed in this paper to check the usefulness of an element from both forward and backward directions. Then a novel Extended Solution Extension based algorithm, TwigStack+, is also proposed to reduce the query processing cost, simply because it can check whether other elements can be processed together with the current one. Compared with existing methods, query evaluation cost can be largely reduced. The experimental results on various datasets indicate that the proposed algorithm performs significantly better than the existing ones.

  19. Colorful displays signal male quality in a tropical anole lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellee G.; Murphy, Troy G.; Johnson, Michele A.

    2013-10-01

    Parasites influence colorful ornaments and their behavioral display in many animal hosts. Because coloration and display behavior are often critical components of communication, variation in these traits may have important implications for individual fitness, yet it remains unclear whether such traits are signals of quality in many taxa. We investigated the association between ectoparasitic mite load and the color and behavioral use of the throat fan (dewlap) by male Anolis brevirostris lizards. We found that heavily parasitized lizards exhibited lower body condition, duller dewlaps, and less frequent dewlap displays than less parasitized individuals. Our results thus suggest that highly parasitized individuals invest less in both ornamental color and behavioral display of that color. Because the two components of the signal simultaneously provide information on male quality, this study provides novel support for the long-standing hypothesis that colorful traits may function as social or sexual signals in reptiles.

  20. The effect of light on melatonin secretion in the cultured pineal glands of Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashli F; Menaker, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is important for regulating circadian rhythms in many animals. Light at night causes an acute suppression of melatonin in nearly all vertebrate species. A previous study found that light failed to suppress melatonin in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. This is a surprising result given that the Anolis pineal gland is intrinsically photosensitive, is a key pacemaker controlling locomotor activity, and can be directly entrained to a light-dark cycle. To find out if the lack of photic suppression is widespread in the Anolis genus, we investigated the acute effects of light on melatonin secretion in five different species of Anolis using flow-through tissue culture. We administered a two-hour pulse of bright light to isolated pineal glands during the night. The results show photic suppression of melatonin in all five Anolis species, but the suppression is weak relative to that seen in other vertebrates. Moreover, Anolis species differ in the magnitude of the effect. These findings are discussed in the context of vertebrate pineal evolution and the ecology of Anolis lizards. Given their extensive phylogenetic and ecological divergence, Anolis lizards provide a promising system for investigating the ecology and evolution of circadian organization.

  1. Four new coccidia (Apicomplexia: Eimeriidae) from anoles (Lacertilia: Polychrotidae) in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisper, G L; Huntington, C; Smith, D D; Powell, R; Parmerlee, J S; Lathrop, A

    1995-04-01

    Fecal samples from 25 Anolis armouri, 2 Anolis bahorucoensis, 48 Anolis cybotes, and 21 Anolis olssoni (Lacertilia: Polychrotidae) from southern Hispaniola were examined for coccidian oocysts. Two eimerians and 2 isosporans are herein described as new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria schwartzi n. sp. from A. armouri are ellipsoidal, 22.7 (20.8-25.0) x 15.7 (14.6-17.7) microns, with spherical to subspherical sporocysts, 7.9 (6.2-9.4) x 7.4 (6.2-8.3) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora reui n. sp. from A. bahorucoensis are spherical to subspherical, 18.2 (15.6-20.0) x 17.8 (15.6-19.8) microns, with ovoid sporocysts, 11.9 (10.4-12.7) x 8.5 (7.5-9.4) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora hendersoni n. sp. from A. armouri and A. cybotes are spherical to subspherical, 23.2 (20.8-26.0) x 21.1 (18.4-23.9) microns, with ellipsoidal sporocysts, 14.7 (12.5-15.6) x 10.0 (9.2-11.4) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria avilae n. sp. from A. olssoni are cylindrical, 29.3 (26.0-33.3) x 15.9 (13.5-18.9) microns, with ellipsoidal sporocysts 10.2 (9.4-11.4) x 6.8 (5.2-8.0) microns.

  2. A New Cytotoxic Clerodane Diterpene from Casearia graveolens Twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Sripisut, Tawanun; Maneerat, Wisanu; Machan, Theeraphan; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The first phytochemical investigation of Casearia graveolens twigs led to the isolation and identification of a new clerodane diterpene, caseariagraveolin (1), together with six known compounds (2-7). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed strong cytotoxicity against oral cavity and breast cancer cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 2.48 and 6.63 µM, respectively.

  3. Twig Pattern Matching Based on Compressed Path Labeling Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Bo; WANG Guoren; DONG Ke

    2007-01-01

    Holistic twig query processing techniques based on region encoding have been developed to minimize the intermediate results, namely, those root-to-leaf path matches that are not in the final twig results. These algorithms have to scan all the streams of tags in query patterns. However, useless path matches cannot be completely avoided. TJFast which is based on the labeling scheme of Extended Dewey has been proposed to avoid useless intermediate results, and it only needs to access the labels of the leaf query nodes. However, it don't concern about the characteristics of elements with the same parent, and it has to merge join all the intermediate results which are evaluated during the first phrase. We propose a new labeling scheme to compress the XML elements which have the same characteristic. Based on the compressed path-labeled streams, a new novel holistic twig query algorithm named CPJoin is designed. Finally, implementation results are provided to show that CPJoin has good performance on both real and synthetic data.

  4. Developing citizen science projects: Cut twigs for 'chilling' pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Matiu, Michael; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Citizen science projects mainly involve two aims, science and education. Depending on the setting, either the data delivery part for answering questions raised by scientists or the educating part e.g. on scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, application of core science contents or awareness for environmental problems prevails. In this respect, spring phenology is a grateful topic because it addresses both aspects nearly symmetrically. In science, it remains unresolved which factors besides spring warming also trigger spring bud development, namely chilling / photoperiod / humidity / nutrient availability. The appearance of fresh leaves in spring has been fascinating for humans; it is linked to cultural heritage, festivals and has always attracted nature lovers, from young children to senior citizens. In our study, we set up a twig experiment to study the chilling effect on bud burst of Corylus avellana L. which was conducted by trained citizen scientists at their home. We asked the scientific question if the effects of chilling can be analysed by the twig method, and how sampling and experimental setting should be designed. Furthermore we tested if the twig method is feasible for citizen scientist projects, and report minimum requirements, successes and drawbacks.

  5. Bark ecology of twigs vs. main stems: functional traits across eighty-five species of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Castorena, Matiss; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Although produced by meristems that are continuous along the stem length, marked differences in bark morphology and in microenvironment would suggest that main stem and twig bark might differ ecologically. Here, we examined: (1) how closely associated main stem and twig bark traits were, (2) how these associations varied across sites, and (3) used these associations to infer functional and ecological differences between twig and main stem bark. We measured density, water content, photosynthesis presence/absence, total, outer, inner, and relative thicknesses of main stem and twig bark from 85 species of angiosperms from six sites of contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regimes. Density and water content did not differ between main stems and twigs across species and sites. Species with thicker twig bark had disproportionately thicker main stem bark in most sites, but the slope and degree of association varied. Disproportionately thicker main stem bark for a given twig bark thickness in most fire-prone sites suggested stem protection near the ground. The savanna had the opposite trend, suggesting that selection also favors twig protection in these fire-prone habitats. A weak main stem-twig bark thickness association was observed in non fire-prone sites. The near-ubiquity of photosynthesis in twigs highlighted its likely ecological importance; variation in this activity was predicted by outer bark thickness in main stems. It seems that the ecology of twig bark can be generalized to main stem bark, but not for functions depending on the amount of bark, such as protection, storage, or photosynthesis.

  6. Incubation temperature modifies neonatal thermoregulation in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Rachel M; Walguarnery, Justin W

    2007-08-01

    The thermal environment experienced during embryonic development can profoundly affect the phenotype, and potentially the fitness, of ectothermic animals. We examined the effect of incubation temperature on the thermal preferences of juveniles in the oviparous lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Temperature preference trials were conducted in a laboratory thermal gradient within 48 hr of hatching and after 22-27 days of maintenance in a common laboratory environment. Incubation temperature had a significant effect on the upper limit of the interquartile range (IQR) of temperatures selected by A. carolinensis within the first 2 days after hatching. Between the first and second trials, the IQR of selected temperatures decreased significantly and both the lower limit of the IQR and the median selected temperature increased significantly. This, along with a significant incubation temperature by time interaction in the upper limit of the IQR, resulted in a pattern of convergence in thermoregulation among treatment groups. The initial differences in selected temperatures, as well as the shift in selected temperatures between first and second trials, demonstrate plasticity in temperature selection. As a previous study failed to find environmentally induced plasticity in temperature selection in adult A. carolinensis, this study suggests that this type of plasticity is exclusive to the period of neonatal development.

  7. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  8. A new chromone from the twig of Mallotus apelta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tailiang; Deng, Shengping; Li, Chen; Wu, Liangdeng; Yang, Ruiyun; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A new chromone, 7-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-8-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid, named melachromone, along with 13 known compounds (2-14), including chromones, flavonoids, coumarins and phenylpropane derivatives, were isolated from the twig of Mallotus apelta. Their chemical structures were elucidated by using various spectroscopic methods. Anti-tumour evaluation of the compounds suggested that compound 1 exhibited medium cytotoxic activity against KB and HeLa Cells, with IC50 values of 9.50 and 9.23 μg mL(-1), respectively.

  9. Cytotoxic alkaloids from stems, leaves and twigs of Dasymaschalon blumei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakul, Waraporn; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Pohmakotr, Manat; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Jariyawat, Surawat; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Jaipetch, Tharworn; Nuntasaen, Narong; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2011-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the cytotoxic ethyl acetate extract from the stems of Dasymaschalon blumei (Annonaceae) led to the isolation of four aristololactam alkaloids, including the hitherto unknown 3,5-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyaristolactam (1), as well as the three known compounds, aristolactam BI, goniopedaline, and griffithinam. Additionally, the cytotoxic extract from the combined leaves and twigs of the same plant yielded three known oxoaporphine alkaloids, oxodiscoguattine, dicentrinone, and duguevalline. The structures of aristolactams and oxoaporphine alkaloids were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a panel of mammalian cancer cell lines and a noncancerous human embryonic kidney cell Hek 293.

  10. Descripción de un neotipo para Anolis meridionalis Boettger, 1885 (Sauria: Polychrotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte, Martha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Anolis es uno de los géneros de lagartijas más grandes con más de 380 especies presentes en el Centro y Sur de América, lo cual dificulta muchas veces su identificación. Particularmente Anolis meridionalis fue descrito en base a un ejemplar procedente de Paraguay. Esta especie se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en Brasil, Paraguay y Bolivia. Sin embargo, debido a que la descripción original es pobre en caracteres diagnósticos y a que el holotipo se encuentra perdido, es difícil en ocasiones conocer la identidad de ejemplares de especies afines. Es por eso que en este trabajo se designa y describe un neotipo para Anolis meridionalis con la esperanza de que ayude a resolver los problemas taxonómicos de las especies más australes del género. Anolis is one of the largest genus of lizards with more than 380 species distributed in Central and South America, which often difficult their identification. Particularly Anolis meridionalis was described upon one specimen from Paraguay. This species is widely distributed in Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. Nevertheless, because the original description is poor in diagnostic characters and the holotype is currently lost, sometimes is difficult to know the identity of specimens of related species. For that reason in this work is designed and described a neotype for Anolis meridionalis with the hope that this helps to solve some taxonomic problems in the southernmost species of the genus.

  11. Crypsis via leg clustering: twig masquerading in a spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichang; Mao, Kuei-Kai; Lin, Po-Ting; Ho, Chiu-Ju; Hung, Wei; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    The role of background matching in camouflage has been extensively studied. However, contour modification has received far less attention, especially in twig-mimicking species. Here, we studied this deceptive strategy by revealing a special masquerade tactic, in which the animals protract and cluster their legs linearly in the same axis with their bodies when resting, using the spider Ariamnes cylindrogaster as a model. We used cardboard papers to construct dummies resembling spiders in appearance and colour. To differentiate the most important factors in the concealment effect, we manipulated body size (long or short abdomen) and resting postures (leg clustered or spread) of the dummies and recorded the responses of predators to different dummy types in the field. The results showed that dummies with clustered legs received significantly less attention from predators, regardless of the body length. Thus, we conclude that A. cylindrogaster relies on the resting posture rather than body size for predator avoidance. This study provides, to the best of our knowledge, empirical evidence for the first time that twig-mimicking species can achieve effective camouflage by contour modification.

  12. Biogeographic patterns of structural traits and C:N:P stoichiometry of tree twigs in China's forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fanyun; Chen, Yahan; Yan, Zhengbing; Li, Peng; Han, Wenxuan; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies on biogeographic patterns of plant leaf functional traits; however, the variations in traits of other plant organs such as twigs are rarely investigated. In this study, we sampled current-year twigs of 335 tree species from 12 forest sites across a latitudinal span of 32 degrees in China, and measured twig specific density (TSD), twig dry matter content (TDMC), and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) contents, to explore the latitudinal and environmental patterns of these twig traits. The overall mean of TSD and TDMC was 0.37 g cm(-3) and 41%, respectively; mean twig C, N and P was 472 mg g(-1), 9.8 mg g-1 and 1.15 mg g(-1), respectively, and mean N:P mass ratio was 10.6. TSD was positively correlated with TDMC which was positively associated with twig C but negatively with twig N and P. There were no significant differences in TSD between conifer, deciduous-broadleaf and evergreen-broadleaf plants, but evergreen-broadleaf plants had the lowest and conifers the highest TDMC. Conifer twigs were lowest in C, N, P and N:P, whereas deciduous-plant twigs were highest in N and P and evergreen-plant twigs were highest in C and N:P. As latitude increased or temperature/precipitation dropped, TDMC and P increased, but N:P ratio decreased. Our results also showed that the patterns of twig P and N:P stoichiometry were consistent with those reported for leaves, but no significant trends in twig N were observed along the gradient of latitude, climate and soils. This study provides the first large-scale patterns of the twig traits and will improve our understanding of the biogeochemistry of carbon and other key nutrients in forest ecosystems.

  13. Biogeographic patterns of structural traits and C:N:P stoichiometry of tree twigs in China's forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyun Yao

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies on biogeographic patterns of plant leaf functional traits; however, the variations in traits of other plant organs such as twigs are rarely investigated. In this study, we sampled current-year twigs of 335 tree species from 12 forest sites across a latitudinal span of 32 degrees in China, and measured twig specific density (TSD, twig dry matter content (TDMC, and carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorous (P contents, to explore the latitudinal and environmental patterns of these twig traits. The overall mean of TSD and TDMC was 0.37 g cm(-3 and 41%, respectively; mean twig C, N and P was 472 mg g(-1, 9.8 mg g-1 and 1.15 mg g(-1, respectively, and mean N:P mass ratio was 10.6. TSD was positively correlated with TDMC which was positively associated with twig C but negatively with twig N and P. There were no significant differences in TSD between conifer, deciduous-broadleaf and evergreen-broadleaf plants, but evergreen-broadleaf plants had the lowest and conifers the highest TDMC. Conifer twigs were lowest in C, N, P and N:P, whereas deciduous-plant twigs were highest in N and P and evergreen-plant twigs were highest in C and N:P. As latitude increased or temperature/precipitation dropped, TDMC and P increased, but N:P ratio decreased. Our results also showed that the patterns of twig P and N:P stoichiometry were consistent with those reported for leaves, but no significant trends in twig N were observed along the gradient of latitude, climate and soils. This study provides the first large-scale patterns of the twig traits and will improve our understanding of the biogeochemistry of carbon and other key nutrients in forest ecosystems.

  14. Uso nocturno de perchas en dos especies de Anolis (Squamata: Polychrotidae en un bosque Andino de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Molina Zuluaga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio registramos el uso de sitios para dormir por Anolis "anoriensis" y Anolis mariarum en un bosque montano al norte de la Cordillera Central de Colombia, con el objetivo de examinar la ocurrencia de segregación espacial entre ellas. Además, estimamos la disponibilidad de perchas en ambos sitios. Anolis mariarum durmió con mayor frecuencia en arbustos (51% que en otros tipos de perchas (arboles, helechos, herbáceas, y lo hizo en proporción similar a su disponibilidad. Anolis "anoriensis" utilizó de manera diferencial los tipos de percha en los dos sitios muestreados, dependiendo de la presencia/ausencia de la otra especie. Esta variación en la selección de los arbustos por A. "anoriensis" sugiere la existencia de competencia entre ambas especies cuando ocurren sintópicamente.In this study we recorded the use of sleeping site by Anolis "anoriensis" and Anolis mariarum in two study sites located in the montane forest of the extreme northern of Cordillera Central, Colombia. We also tested the occurrence of spatial segregation between the two species. Furthermore, we estimated perch availability in both study sites. Anolis mariarum slept more frequently on shrubs (51% than other kinds of perches (ferns, herbs, trees, but did so in proportion to their availability. Anolis "anoriensis" used different kinds of perches in each site, depending on the presence/absence of A. mariarum. Such variation in response to shrubs as sleeping perches by A. "anoriensis" suggests the existence of competition between the species when they are in syntopy.

  15. Scaling relationships of twig biomass allocation in Pinus hwangshanensis along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Zheng, Yuan; Fan, RuiRui; Zhong, QuanLin; Cheng, DongLiang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the response of biomass allocation in twigs (the terminal branches of current-year shoots) to environmental change is crucial for elucidating forest ecosystem carbon storage, carbon cycling, and plant life history strategies under a changing climate. On the basis of interspecies investigations of broad-leaved plants, previous studies have demonstrated that plants respond to environmental factors by allocating biomass in an allometric manner between support tissues (i.e., stems) and the leaf biomass of twigs, where the scaling exponent (i.e., slope of a log-log linear relationship, α) is constant, and the scaling constant (i.e., intercept of a log-log linear relationship, log β) varies with respect to environmental factors. However, little is known about whether the isometric scaling exponents of such biomass allocations remain invariant for single species, particularly conifers, at different altitudes and in different growing periods. In this study, we investigated how twig biomass allocation varies with elevation and period among Pinus hwangshanensis Hsia trees growing in the mountains of Southeast China. Specifically, we explored how twig stem mass, needle mass, and needle area varied throughout the growing period (early, mid-, late) and at three elevations in the Wuyi Mountains. Standardized major axis analysis was used to compare the scaling exponents and scaling constants between the biomass allocations of within-twig components. Scaling relationships between these traits differed with growing period and altitude gradient. During the different growing periods, there was an isometric scaling relationship, with a common slope of 1.0 (i.e., α ≈ 1.0), between needle mass and twig mass (the sum of the total needle mass and the stem mass), whereas there were allometric scaling relationships between the stem mass and twig mass and between the needle mass and stem mass of P. hwangshanensis. The scaling constants (log β) for needle mass vs. twig

  16. TWIG BLIGHT AND DEFOLIATION CAUSED BY Colletotrichum horii IN PERSIMMONS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOUISE LARISSA MAY DE MIO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persimmon anthracnose has been a great concern to Brazilian producers. This study aimed to identify and characterized the causal species from Brazilian persimmons byassessing morphological and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity tests. Five fungal isolatesobtained from diseased twigs and fruits were identified as Colletotrichum horii, based on morphologicalcharacteristics and nucleotide sequences of ITS region. Inoculation tests revealed that the fungal isolates caused necrotic spots followed by defoliation of leaves, blight of twigs and buds of potted persimmon plants.

  17. Browsed twig environmental DNA: diagnostic PCR to identify ungulate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Ruth V; Königsson, Helena; Danell, Kjell; Spong, Göran

    2012-11-01

    Ungulate browsing can have a strong effect on ecological processes by affecting plant community structure and composition, with cascading effects on nutrient cycling and animal communities. However, in the absence of direct observations of foraging, species-specific foraging behaviours are difficult to quantify. We therefore know relatively little about foraging competition and species-specific browsing patterns in systems with several browsers. However, during browsing, a small amount of saliva containing buccal cells is deposited at the bite site, providing a source of environmental DNA (eDNA) that can be used for species identification. Here, we describe extraction and PCR protocols for a browser species diagnostic kit. Species-specific primers for mitochondrial DNA were optimized and validated using twigs browsed by captive animals. A time series showed that about 50% of the samples will amplify up to 12 weeks after the browsing event and that some samples amplify up to 24 weeks after browsing (12.5%). Applied to samples of natural browsing from an area where moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Cervus dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) are sympatric, amplification success reached 75%. This method promises to greatly improve our understanding of multispecies browsing systems without the need for direct observations.

  18. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  19. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from heated needles and twigs of Pinus pumila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feng-jun; SHU Li-fu; WANG Qiu-hua; WANG Ming-yu; TIAN Xiao-rui

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the mechanism that emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from heated needles and twigs (200℃, within 15 min) of Pinus purnila affect fire behaviours using the technology of Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The results indicated that the main components of VOC from heated needles and twigs are terpenoids. Most of these terpenoids are monoterpenes. Terpenoids account for 72.93% for the needles and 92.40% for the twigs of the total VOC, and their emis sion ratios are 61.200 μg·g-1 and 217.060 μtg·g-1 respectively. Heated twigs can emit more terpenoids than heated needles because twigs had more volatile oils than needles. In actual fires, these large amounts of terpenoid emissions, especially the monoterpene emissions, have strong effects on fire behaviors that are not only in the initial stage but also in the fast propagation stage of fires. These flammable gases are capable of causing violent combustion and creating crown fires. In addition, if these gases accumulate in an uneven geographical area, there will be a possible for eruptive fires and/or fires fiashover to occur.

  20. Repeated modification of early limb morphogenesis programmes underlies the convergence of relative limb length in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Thomas J; Revell, Liam J; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J; Losos, Jonathan B

    2012-02-22

    The independent evolution of similar morphologies has long been a subject of considerable interest to biologists. Does phenotypic convergence reflect the primacy of natural selection, or does development set the course of evolution by channelling variation in certain directions? Here, we examine the ontogenetic origins of relative limb length variation among Anolis lizard habitat specialists to address whether convergent phenotypes have arisen through convergent developmental trajectories. Despite the numerous developmental processes that could potentially contribute to variation in adult limb length, our analyses reveal that, in Anolis lizards, such variation is repeatedly the result of changes occurring very early in development, prior to formation of the cartilaginous long bone anlagen.

  1. Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity in a successional series of subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-Rong; Wang, Xi-Hua; Chang, Scott X; He, Fangliang

    2013-06-01

    Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity fundamentally influence the twig-leaf deployment pattern, a property that affects the architecture and functioning of plants. However, our understanding of how these relationships change within a species or between species as a function of forest succession is unclear. We determined log-log scaling relationships between twig cross-sectional area (twig size) and each of total and individual leaf area, and leafing intensity (the number of leaves per twig volume) for 78 woody species along a successional series in subtropical evergreen forests in eastern China. The series included four stages: secondary shrub (S1), young (S2), sub-climax (S3) and climax evergreen broadleaved forests (S4). The scaling slopes in each of the three relationships did not differ among the four stages. The y-intercept did not shift among the successional stages in the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area; however, the y-intercept was greatest in S4, intermediate in S3 and lowest in S2 and S1 for the relationship between twig size and individual leaf area, while the opposite pattern was found for the twig size-leafing intensity relationship. This indicates that late successional trees have few but large leaves while early successional trees have more small leaves per unit twig size. For the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area, there was no difference in the regression slope between recurrent (appear in more than one stages) and non-recurrent species (appear in only one stage) for each of the S1-S2, S2-S3 and S3-S4 pairs. A significant difference in the y-intercept was found in the S2-S3 pair only. In the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and individual leaf area, the regression slope between recurrent and non-recurrent species was homogeneous in the S1-S2 and S3-S4 pairs, but heterogeneous in the S2-S3 pair. We conclude that forest succession caused

  2. A mid-Pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the Atlantic Forest by Amazonian anole lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Rivera, Danielle; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Carnaval, Ana C

    2016-10-01

    Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change.

  3. Tests of the contribution of acclimation to geographic variation in water loss rates of the West Indian lizard Anolis cristatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Siegel, Jeremy; Leal, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can contribute to the process of adaptive radiation by facilitating population persistence in novel environments. West Indian Anolis lizards provide a classic example of an adaptive radiation, in which divergence has occurred along two primary ecological axes: structural microhabitat and climate. Adaptive plasticity in limb morphology is hypothesized to have facilitated divergence along the structural niche axis in Anolis, but very little work has explored plasticity in physiological traits. Here, we experimentally ask whether Puerto Rican Anolis cristatellus from mesic and xeric habitats differ in desiccation rates, and whether these lizards exhibit an acclimation response to changes in relative humidity. We first present microclimatic data collected at lizard perch sites that demonstrate that abiotic conditions experienced by lizards differ between mesic and xeric habitat types. In Experiment 1, we measured desiccation rates of lizards from both habitats maintained under identical laboratory conditions. This experiment demonstrated that desiccation rates differ between populations; xeric lizards lose water more slowly than mesic lizards. In Experiment 2, lizards from each habitat were either maintained under the conditions of Experiment 1, or under extremely low relative humidity. Desiccation rates did not differ between lizards from the same habitat maintained under different treatments and xeric lizards maintained lower desiccation rates than mesic lizards within each treatment. Our results demonstrate that A. cristatellus does not exhibit an acclimation response to abrupt changes of hydric conditions, and suggest that tropical Anolis lizards might be unable to exhibit physiological plasticity in desiccation rates in response to varying climatic conditions.

  4. Vulnerability to climate change of Anolis allisoni in the mangrove habitats of Banco Chinchorro Islands, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marlin; Fernández, Jimena B; Charruau, Pierre; de la Cruz, Fausto Méndez; Ibargüengoytía, Nora

    2016-05-01

    As niche specialist species, lizards from tropical environments are characterized by a low tolerance and high physiological sensitivity to temperature changes. The extent of vulnerability to thermal changes depends on the lizard's physiological plasticity to adjust the environmental changes. Herein we studied the thermal biology of Anolis allisoni, an endemic arboreal lizard from the tropical islands of the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, carried out during April and May 2012 and April 2014. We report field body (Tb) and preferred body temperatures in the laboratory (Tpref), operative temperatures (Te) and restriction of hours of activity. Anolis allisoni showed high and identical Tb and Tpref (33°C), not significantly different than the mean Te (32.15°C). The effectiveness of thermoregulation (E=-0.30) and the analysis of hours of restriction suggested that the high temperatures of Te (40-62.5°C) registered at midday (from 12:00 to 15:00) of A. allisoni habitat are hostile and force lizards to take refuge during a period of 3h of their daily time of activity. The scarcity of opportunities to find alternative refuges for thermoregulation in Banco Chinchorro point out the vulnerability of A. allisoni and the risk of local extinction when considering future predictions of increase in global environmental temperatures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Do gravid female Anolis nebulosus thermoregulate differently than males and non-gravid females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Ramírez-Silva, Juan Pablo

    2015-08-01

    In lizards, the role of gravid oviparous females in controlling the temperature experienced by developing embryos prior to oviposition has been rarely examined. In particular, relatively little is known about the effect of gravidity on the thermal ecology of female Anolis lizards. Here we examine the thermal ecology of Anolis nebulosus from Nayarit, Mexico, with a particular goal of comparing the thermal ecology of gravid females to that of non-gravid females and males. The thermal efficiency (E) of gravid female A. nebulosus (E=0.782) was higher than in males (E=0.464), and to a lesser extent, non-gravid females (E=0.637), despite no significant differences observed in body, air, operative, or set point temperatures among males, gravid females, and non-gravid females. Gravid females had smaller differences between body temperatures and set point temperatures (db), but did not differ in the difference between operative temperature and set point temperature (de). Gravid females used sun-shade and shaded microhabitats proportionately more than males and non-gravid females, and rarely used sunny microhabitats. Our results suggest that gravid A. nebulosus are using a different and more efficient thermoregulatory strategy than other adults in the population. Such efficient thermoregulation is possibly related to females attempting to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the development of embryos in eggs prior to oviposition.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus additions alter nutrient dynamics but not resorption efficiencies of Chinese fir leaves and twigs differing in age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Sheng; Niklas, Karl Joseph; Liu, Yu; Fang, Xiang-Min; Wan, Song-Ze; Wang, Huimin

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear how or even if phosphorus (P) input alters the influence of nitrogen (N) deposition in a forest. In theory, nutrients in leaves and twigs differing in age may show different responses to elevated nutrient input. To test this possibility, we selected Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) for a series of N and P addition experiments using treatments of +N1 - P (50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), +N2 - P (100 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), -N + P (50 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)), +N1 + P, +N2 + P and -N - P (without N and P addition). Soil samples were analyzed for mineral N and available P concentrations. Leaves and twigs in summer and their litters in winter were classified as and sorted into young and old components to measure N and P concentrations. Soil mineral N and available P increased with N and P additions, respectively. Nitrogen addition increased leaf and twig N concentrations in the second year, but not in the first year; P addition increased leaf and twig P concentrations in both years and enhanced young but not old leaf and twig N accumulations. Nitrogen and P resorption proficiencies in litters increased in response to N and P additions, but N and P resorption efficiencies were not significantly altered. Nitrogen resorption efficiency was generally higher in leaves than in twigs and in young vs old leaves and twigs. Phosphorus resorption efficiency showed a minimal variation from 26.6 to 47.0%. Therefore, P input intensified leaf and twig N enrichment with N addition, leaf and twig nutrients were both gradually resorbed with aging, and organ and age effects depended on the extent of nutrient limitation.

  7. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group.

  8. Nutrient allocation strategies of woody plants: an approach from the scaling of nitrogen and phosphorus between twig stems and leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengbing Yan; Peng Li; Yahan Chen; Wenxuan Han; Jingyun Fang

    2016-01-01

    Allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), among plant organs reflects the influences of evolutionary and ecological processes on functional traits of plants, and thus is related to functional groups and environmental conditions. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by exploring the stoichiometric scaling of N and P concentrations between twig stems and leaves of 335 woody species from 12 forest sites across eastern China. Scaling exponents of twig stem N (o...

  9. Histology and testicular and epididimal ultraestructure in Anolis sagrei (Sauria: Polychrotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Sanz Ochotorena

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the testis and epididymis of the lizard Anolis sagrei using light microscopy and transmission electron is described. The architecture of testicular germ epithelium is similar to the other reptiles. Inside the seminiferous tubules spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids in varying degrees and numerous sperm in a gradual progression from the basement membrane to the lumen were found. This appears to be prelude of radial organization of amniotes. Particularities are described as intense pigmentation of the testicles and epididymis and its presence is attributed to protection strategies. All animals had a strong spermatogenic activity. The sperm has the nucleus with chromatin filament, an acrosome with double membranes, absence of dense bodies and 10 mitoncodrias in the middle piece. The epididymis is remarkable it´s columnar cell height and secretory activity.

  10. 桂枝汤溢汗解%Interpretation of Cassia Twig Decoction Transpiration Phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶发期; 王毅华

    2012-01-01

    Many doctors thinks it is controversial that cassia twig decoction can make them sweat, this article thinks cassia twig decoction can't force them sweat, but for full and natural liquid spill.%历代对桂枝汤能否发汗多有争议.作者认为这主要是因为“发汗”一词在《伤寒论》中常包含或分别指代发汗及溢汗两种意义所造成的.在现代文中桂枝汤发汗应修正为“溢汗”比较合理.

  11. Hepatic abscess secondary to a rosemary twig migrating from the stomach into the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The ingestion of a foreign body that penetrates the gastric wall and migrates to the liver, where it causes an abscess is uncommon. A case of an ingested rosemary twig perforating the gastric antrum, then migrating to the liver, complicated by hepatic abscess and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is reported. A 59-year-old man without a history of foreign body ingestion was admitted to our hospital because of sepsis and epigastralgia, which had progressively worsened. No foreign body was identified at preoperative imaging, but a rosemary twig was discovered during laparotomy. The liver abscess and sepsis were controlled successfully with surgery and antibiotics. This unusual condition should be kept in mind when dealing with cases of hepatic abscess, or even sepsis of unknown origin. Despite the improvement of non-surgical techniques such as percutaneous drainage and interventional endoscopy, surgery still remains important in the treatment of hepatic abscess caused by an ingested foreign body.

  12. Differentially expressed genes associated with adaptation to different thermal environments in three sympatric Cuban Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Hiroshi D; Cádiz Díaz, Antonio; Shigenobu, Shuji; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-05-01

    How animals achieve evolutionary adaptation to different thermal environments is an important issue for evolutionary biology as well as for biodiversity conservation in the context of recent global warming. In Cuba, three sympatric species of Anolis lizards (Anolis allogus, A. homolechis and A. sagrei) inhabit different thermal microhabitats, thereby providing an excellent opportunity to examine how they have adapted to different environmental temperatures. Here, we performed RNA-seq on the brain, liver and skin tissues from these three species to analyse their transcriptional responses at two different temperatures. In total, we identified 400, 816 and 781 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two temperatures in A. allogus, A. homolechis and A. sagrei, respectively. Only 62 of these DEGs were shared across the three species, indicating that global transcriptional responses have diverged among these species. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that large numbers of ribosomal protein genes were DEGs in the warm-adapted A. homolechis, suggesting that the upregulation of protein synthesis is an important physiological mechanism in the adaptation of this species to hotter environments. GO analysis also showed that GO terms associated with circadian regulation were enriched in all three species. A gene associated with circadian regulation, Nr1d1, was detected as a DEG with opposite expression patterns between the cool-adapted A. allogus and the hot-adapted A. sagrei. Because the environmental temperature fluctuates more widely in open habitats than in forests throughout the day, the circadian thermoregulation could also be important for adaptation to distinct thermal habitats.

  13. New Neolignans and a Phenylpropanoid Glycoside from Twigs of Miliusa mollis

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    Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the twigs of Miliusa mollis Pierre, three new compounds including (2S,3S-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl-3-methyl-5-[1(E-propenyl]benzofuran, (7S,8S- threo-Δ8'-4-methoxyneolignan and tyrosol-1-O-β-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-O-β-gluco-pyranoside were isolated, along with seven known compounds. Their structures were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data.

  14. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  15. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%, β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%, and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%. HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and PCA (Principal Component Analyses were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  16. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  17. Characterization of a New Flavone and Tyrosinase Inhibition Constituents from the Twigs of Morus alba L.

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    Long Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The twigs of Morus alba L. were found to show strong tyrosinase inhibition activity, and the responsible active components in the extract were further investigated in this study. A flavone, named morusone (1, and sixteen known compounds 2–17 were isolated from M. alba twigs and their structures were identified by interpretation of the corresponding ESI-MS and NMR spectral data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory test, the compounds steppogenin (IC50 0.98 ± 0.01 µM, 2,4,2′,4′-tetrahydroxychalcone (IC50 0.07 ± 0.02 µM, morachalcone A (IC50 0.08 ± 0.02 µM, oxyresveratrol (IC50 0.10 ± 0.01 µM, and moracin M (8.00 ± 0.22 µM exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition activities, much stronger than that of the positive control kojic acid. These results suggest that M. alba twig extract should served as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods as antibrowning agents or in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents.

  18. Repeated modification of early limb morphogenesis programmes underlies the convergence of relative limb length in Anolis lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Sanger, Thomas J.; Revell, Liam J.; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Losos, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    The independent evolution of similar morphologies has long been a subject of considerable interest to biologists. Does phenotypic convergence reflect the primacy of natural selection, or does development set the course of evolution by channelling variation in certain directions? Here, we examine the ontogenetic origins of relative limb length variation among Anolis lizard habitat specialists to address whether convergent phenotypes have arisen through convergent developmental trajectories. De...

  19. Effects of estradiol, sex, and season on estrogen receptor alpha mRNA expression and forebrain morphology in adult green anole lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L A; Wade, J

    2009-05-19

    Steroid hormones, especially estradiol, facilitate reproductive behaviors in male and female rodents and birds. In green anole lizards estradiol facilitates receptivity in females but, unlike in some other species, is not the activating hormone for courtship and copulatory behavior in males. Instead, testicular androgens directly facilitate male courtship and copulation. Yet, activity of the estradiol synthesizing enzyme aromatase is higher in the brain of male than female green anoles, and it is increased during the breeding compared to the non-breeding season. The functional relevance of these differences in local estradiol production is unknown. They might prime the male forebrain to facilitate production of appropriate sexual behaviors, perhaps by modifying morphology of relevant brain regions. In addition, we recently reported increased expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in selected brain regions in females compared to males [Beck LA, Wade J (2009b) Sexually dimorphic estrogen receptor alpha mRNA expression in the preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus of green anole lizards. 55:398-403]. Thus, it is possible that the hormone serves to downregulate its receptor in males to inhibit the expression of estradiol-dependent receptive behaviors. To begin to address these ideas, the present study examines the effects of estradiol treatment, sex, and season on forebrain morphology and ERalpha mRNA abundance in three regions important for anole reproductive behavior-the preoptic area, ventromedial amygdala, and ventromedial hypothalamus. While a number of effects of sex and season on forebrain morphology were detected, direct effects of estradiol treatment on these measures were minimal. ERalpha expression was greatest in the ventromedial hypothalamus, and a large female-biased sex difference was detected in this area alone; it resulted from estradiol-treated animals. These results indicate a sex- and region-specific mechanism by which estradiol can

  20. Dihydrochalcones with Antiinflammatory Activity from Leaves and Twigs of Cyathostemma argenteum

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    Wilart Pompimon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new dihydrochalcone derivative, 4',6'-dihydroxy-2',4-dimethoxy-5'-(2''-hydroxybenzyldihydrochalcone (1 and one known dihydrochalcone, 4',6'-dihydroxy-2',4- dimethoxydihydrochalcone (2 were isolated from leaves and twigs of Cyathostemma argenteum. Their structures were established by spectral methods, mainly 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, which involved combined applications of DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC. The molecular structure of 1 was also confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The test compounds 1 and 2 displayed significant inhibitory activity at a dose of 1 mg/ear on edema formation at all determination times, with similar intensity as phenylbutazone.

  1. Antifeedant Diterpenoids against Tribolium castaneum from the Stems and Twigs of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae

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    Zhi Wei Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese mangrove plants for insecticidal principles showed that ethanol extract of Ceriops tagal stems and twigs possessed significant feeding deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Family: Rhizophoraceae. From the ethanol extract, three feeding deterrent diterpenoids were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as tagalsin A, B, and H on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Tagalsin A, B, and H exhibited strong feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum adults with EC50 values of 375.3 ppm, 277.3 ppm, and 285.45 ppm, respectively.

  2. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  3. New clerodane diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenghong; Ning, Desheng; Wu, Xingde; Huang, Sisi; Li, Dianpeng; Lv, Shihong

    2015-03-15

    Three new nor-clerodane diterpenoids, crotoeurins A-C (1-3), together with four known ones were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus. Among them, crotoeurin A (1) is a new nor-clerodane diterpenoid dimer with a unique cyclobutane ring via a [2+2] cycloaddition. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity on NGF-mediated PC12 cells at concentration of 10μM.

  4. [Study on chemical constituents from twig and leaf of Juniperus sabina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Fang; Ji, Teng-fei; Ma, Long

    2013-12-01

    To isolate and determine chemical constituents from twig and leaf of Juniperus sabina. Five compounds were isolated and purified by extraction and different kinds of column chromatography. The structures were determined on the basis of the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. The structures were elucidated as quercetin-3-O-(6"-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(1), hypolaetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(2), isoquercetin(3),4-epi-abietic acid(4), beta-sitosterol(5). Compounds 1-3 are obtained from Juniperus genus for the first time.

  5. Pulmonary infection in two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae) and Anolis brasiliensis (Polychrotidae) from a cloud forest in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S C; Ferreira, F S; Brito, S V; Teles, D A; Ávila, R W; Almeida, W O; Anjos, L A; Guarnieri, M C

    2012-11-01

    The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15). The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.

  6. Pulmonary infection in two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae and Anolis brasiliensis (Polychrotidae from a cloud forest in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SC. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15. The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.

  7. Variation in spatial scale of competing polydomous twig-nesting ants in coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Philpott, Stacy M; Ramirez, Santiago R

    2016-08-01

    Arboreal ants are both highly diverse and ecologically dominant in the tropics. This ecologically important group is particularly useful in ongoing efforts to understand processes that regulate species diversity and coexistence. Our study addresses how polydomy can influence patterns of nest occupation in competing arboreal ants. We examined the spatial structure of nest occupation (nest distance, abundance and density) in three polydomous co-occurring twig-nesting ant species (Pseudomyrmex simplex, P. ejectus and P. PSW-53) by mapping twigs occupied by ants from each species within plots in our study site. We then used two colony structure estimators (intraspecific aggression and cuticular hydrocarbon variation) to determine the relative degree of polydomy for each species. All work was conducted in coffee agroforests in Chiapas, Mexico. Our results revealed that the two species with highest abundance and nest density were also highly polydomous, where both species had either single or multiple non-aggressive colonies occupying nests on a large spatial scale (greater than the hectare level). Our results also indicate that the species with the lowest abundance and density is less polydomous, occupying several overlapping and territorial colonies at the hectare level in which multiple colonies never co-occur on the same host plant. These results contribute evidence that successful coexistence and highly polydomous colony structure may allow ants, through reduced intraspecific aggression, to successfully occupy more nests more densely than ant species that have multiple territorial colonies. Furthermore our study highlights the importance of considering intraspecific interactions when examining community assembly of ants.

  8. Twig and foliar biomass estimation equations for major plant species in the Tanana River Basin of interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Yarie; Bert R. Mead

    1988-01-01

    Equations are presented for estimating the twig, foliage, and combined biomass for 58 plant species in interior Alaska. The equations can be used for estimating biomass from percentage of foliar cover of 10-centimeter layers in a vertical profile from 0 to 6 meters. Few differences were found in regressions of the same species between layers except when the ratio of...

  9. Treatment of California stone fruit with methyl bromide or phosphine to eliminate peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to develop postharvest chamber fumigations that ensure complete mortality of peach twig borer (PTB) in California stone fruit exports; results from preliminary toxicological and phytotoxicological research are presented. Fumigations with 1500 ppm phosphine over a 24 h ex...

  10. Nutrient Allocation Strategies of Woody Plants: An Approach From the Scaling of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Between Twigs and Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z.; Li, P.; Chen, Y.; Han, W.; Fang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), among plant organs reflects the influences of evolutionary and ecological processes on functional traits of plants, and thus is related to functional groups and environmental conditions. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by exploring the stoichiometric scaling of N and P concentrations between twigs and leaves of 335 woody species from 12 forest sites across eastern China. There were significant scaling relationships between twig N (or P) and leaf N (or P) using reduced major axis (RMA) regression analysis; yet their scaling exponents varied among functional groups and changed with environmental factors. Evergreen broad-leaved plants had a higher exponent (αP) of twig P to leaf P than that of deciduous broad-leaved plants (1.26 vs. 0.96, p 1 at low latitude (23.2°N) to nutrient concentration increased, plants at low latitudes showed a faster increase in twig nutrient concentration, whereas plants at high latitudes presented a faster increase in leaf nutrient concentration. Such shifts in nutrient allocation strategy from low to high latitudes may be controlled by temperature. Overall, our findings provide a new approach to explore plant nutrient allocation strategies by analysing the stoichiometric scaling of nutrients among organs, which could broaden our understanding of the interactions between plants and their environments.

  11. Within-twig leaf distribution patterns differ among plant life-forms in a subtropical Chinese forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengqun; Cao, Rui; Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J; Sun, Shucun

    2013-07-01

    In theory, plants can alter the distribution of leaves along the lengths of their twigs (i.e., within-twig leaf distribution patterns) to optimize light interception in the context of the architectures of their leaves, branches and canopies. We hypothesized that (i) among canopy tree species sharing similar light environments, deciduous trees will have more evenly spaced within-twig leaf distribution patterns compared with evergreen trees (because deciduous species tend to higher metabolic demands than evergreen species and hence require more light), and that (ii) shade-adapted evergreen species will have more evenly spaced patterns compared with sun-adapted evergreen ones (because shade-adapted species are generally light-limited). We tested these hypotheses by measuring morphological traits (i.e., internode length, leaf area, lamina mass per area, LMA; and leaf and twig inclination angles to the horizontal) and physiological traits (i.e., light-saturated net photosynthetic rates, Amax; light saturation points, LSP; and light compensation points, LCP), and calculated the 'evenness' of within-twig leaf distribution patterns as the coefficient of variation (CV; the higher the CV, the less evenly spaced leaves) of within-twig internode length for 9 deciduous canopy tree species, 15 evergreen canopy tree species, 8 shade-adapted evergreen shrub species and 12 sun-adapted evergreen shrub species in a subtropical broad-leaved rainforest in eastern China. Coefficient of variation was positively correlated with large LMA and large leaf and twig inclination angles, which collectively specify a typical trait combination adaptive to low light interception, as indicated by both ordinary regression and phylogenetic generalized least squares analyses. These relationships were also valid within the evergreen tree species group (which had the largest sample size). Consistent with our hypothesis, in the canopy layer, deciduous species (which were characterized by high LCP, LSP and

  12. A developmental staging series for the lizard genus Anolis: a new system for the integration of evolution, development, and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Thomas J; Losos, Jonathan B; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J

    2008-02-01

    Vertebrate developmental biologists typically rely on a limited number of model organisms to understand the evolutionary bases of morphological change. Unfortunately, a typical model system for squamates (lizards and snakes) has not yet been developed leaving many fundamental questions about morphological evolution unaddressed. New model systems would ideally include clades, rather than single species, that are amenable to both laboratory studies of development and field-based analyses of ecology and evolution. Combining an understanding of development with an understanding of ecology and evolution within and between closely related species has the potential to create a seamless understanding of how genetic variation underlies ecologically and evolutionarily relevant variation within populations and between species. Here we briefly introduce a new model system for the integration of development, evolution, and ecology, the lizard genus Anolis, a diverse group of lizards whose ecology and evolution is well understood, and whose genome has recently been sequenced. We present a developmental staging series for Anolis lizards that can act as a baseline for later comparative and experimental studies within this genus.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of Anolis sex chromosomes revealed by sequencing of flow sorting-derived microchromosome-specific DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichigin, Ilya G; Giovannotti, Massimo; Makunin, Alex I; Ng, Bee L; Kabilov, Marsel R; Tupikin, Alexey E; Barucchi, Vincenzo Caputo; Splendiani, Andrea; Ruggeri, Paolo; Rens, Willem; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Trifonov, Vladimir A

    2016-10-01

    Squamate reptiles show a striking diversity in modes of sex determination, including both genetic (XY or ZW) and temperature-dependent sex determination systems. The genomes of only a handful of species have been sequenced, analyzed and assembled including the genome of Anolis carolinensis. Despite a high genome coverage, only macrochromosomes of A. carolinensis were assembled whereas the content of most microchromosomes remained unclear. Most of the Anolis species have homomorphic XY sex chromosome system. However, some species have large heteromorphic XY chromosomes (e.g., A. sagrei) and even multiple sex chromosomes systems (e.g. A. pogus), that were shown to be derived from fusions of the ancestral XY with microautosomes. We applied next generation sequencing of flow sorting-derived chromosome-specific DNA pools to characterize the content and composition of microchromosomes in A. carolinensis and A. sagrei. Comparative analysis of sequenced chromosome-specific DNA pools revealed that the A. sagrei XY sex chromosomes contain regions homologous to several microautosomes of A. carolinensis. We suggest that the sex chromosomes of A. sagrei are derived by fusions of the ancestral sex chromosome with three microautosomes and subsequent loss of some genetic content on the Y chromosome.

  14. In vitro cytotoxic activity guided essential oil composition of flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tavleen S; Agnihotri, Vijai K; Kumar, Dharmesh; Pal, Probir K; Koundal, Rajkesh; Kumar, Ashish; Padwad, Yogendra S

    2014-05-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from the flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae) was fractioned by chromatography. Forty-three constituents were characterized with the help of GC, GC-MS and other spectroscopic techniques. The essential oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono- and sesqui-terpenes. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil and its fractions was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) based assay against two cancer cell types viz. C-6 (rat glioma cells) and CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells). The essential oil and its fractions showed promising cytotoxicity against both cell lines. The highest activity (95.6+/-0.6%) was show by the essential oil on the C-6 cell line at a concentration of 400 microg/mL, which was comparable with that of the standard drug vinblastin.

  15. Six new cassane diterpenes from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongyang; Li, Yuanping; Tang, Hongbo; Ma, Ruijing; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Liqin

    2015-09-01

    Six new cassane diterpenes, isoneocaesalpin H (1), caespinosin A (2), caespinosin B (3), a cassane diterpene with unique 6/6/7 carbon rings, and caespinosins C-E (4-6) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze). The absolute configuration of isoneocaesalpin H (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 represents a class of rare natural cassane diterpene bearing unique 6/6/7 carbon rings. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Cassane diterpenes were firstly reported from Tara. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  16. Biphenyls from the Twigs of Garcinia multiflora and their AntiTobacco Mosaic Virus Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmeng Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For more bioactive compounds, p hytochemical investigations of the acetone extract of the twigs G arcinia multiflora resulted in the isolation of two new bipheny ls, multiflorabiphenyls A and B (1 and 2 , along with four known biphenyl derivatives (3-6 . Structural elucidations of 1 and 2 were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 were also evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (Anti-TMV activity. The results showed that compound s 1 and 2 showed high anti-TMV activit ies with inhibition rate s of 25.4 % and 28.3%, respectively, which is close d to that of Ningnanmycin ( 3 3.5 %.

  17. Anti-inflammatory Terpenoids from the Leaves and Twigs of Dysoxylum gotadhora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kan; Chen, Lu-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Wang, Yi; Li, Ya; Gao, Kun

    2015-05-22

    Nine new terpenoids (1-3, 5-10), including three cyclolanostane triterpenoids (1-3) and six isopimarane diterpenoids (5-10), along with six known terpenoids (4, 11-15), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Dysoxylum gotadhora. Compound 1 represents a class of rare natural 21,24-epoxy cyclolanostane-type triterpenoids, and compounds 2 and 3 are the first examples of 21,25-epoxy cyclolanostane-type triterpenoids. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 8, and 15 exhibited noteworthy inhibition of nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 25.5, 41.5, 27.4, 14.5, and 45.2 μM, respectively.

  18. Genetic structuring in the threatened "Lagartijo del Bosque Seco" (Anolis cooki) from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Jezkova, Tereza; Leal, Manuel

    2008-02-01

    Species with restricted geographic distributions consisting of isolated populations are particularly susceptible to extinction because these demes face an increased risk of disappearing due to environmental, demographic, and genetic stochasticity. We used partial DNA sequences of the cytochrome b (1083 bp) and ND2 (1041 bp) mitochondrial genes to investigate the phylogeography and population genetics of Anolis cooki, a threatened lizard endemic to the southwestern coast of the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed relatively shallow genetic differentiation among 27 unique haplotypes (from 52 individuals) from the known extant populations of A. cooki in mainland Puerto Rico. Despite this pattern, specimens from the same geographic area tended to nest together. The most basal division within A. cooki is between haplotypes from the three westernmost populations (Punta Aguila, Morrillos, Playa Santa) and the remainder demes (Bahía Ballena, La Cueva, Punta Verraco). The three westernmost populations of A. cooki are separated from their conspecific demes by the Guánica Bay and the Loco River drainage system, which together may represent a physiographic barrier for A. cooki. Each population of A. cooki only has private haplotypes; in other words, there are no shared mitochondrial types between populations. Because the number of private haplotypes can be used as an indirect measure of gene flow, this finding suggests that currently there is no migration among demes, and that each is an independent demographic unit, despite the relatively short distances (ca. 2 km) that separate some of them. Pairwise F(ST) values and spatial analyses of molecular variation confirmed the existence of distinct groups of genetically defined sampling areas, and of significant molecular variation among populations within groups and within populations. The conservation status of the populations of A. cooki varies greatly. The demes from Punta Aguila

  19. Biosynthesis of t-anethole in anise: characterization of t-anol/isoeugenol synthase and an O-methyltransferase specific for a C7-C8 propenyl side chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeduka, Takao; Baiga, Thomas J; Noel, Joseph P; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-01-01

    The phenylpropene t-anethole imparts the characteristic sweet aroma of anise (Pimpinella anisum, family Apiaceae) seeds and leaves. Here we report that the aerial parts of the anise plant accumulate t-anethole as the plant matures, with the highest levels of t-anethole found in fruits. Although the anise plant is covered with trichomes, t-anethole accumulates inside the leaves and not in the trichomes or the epidermal cell layer. We have obtained anise cDNA encoding t-anol/isoeugenol synthase 1 (AIS1), an NADPH-dependent enzyme that can biosynthesize t-anol and isoeugenol (the latter not found in anise) from coumaryl acetate and coniferyl acetate, respectively. In addition, we have obtained a cDNA encoding S-[methyl-14C]adenosyl-l-methionine:t-anol/isoeugenol O-methyltransferase 1 (AIMT1), an enzyme that can convert t-anol or isoeugenol to t-anethole or methylisoeugenol, respectively, via methylation of the para-OH group. The genes encoding AIS1 and AIMT1 were expressed throughout the plant and their transcript levels were highest in developing fruits. The AIS1 protein is 59% identical to petunia (Petunia hybrida) isoeugenol synthase 1 and displays apparent Km values of 145 microm for coumaryl acetate and 230 microm for coniferyl acetate. AIMT1 prefers isoeugenol to t-anol by a factor of 2, with Km values of 19.3 microm for isoeugenol and 54.5 microm for S-[methyl-14C]adenosyl-l-methionine. The AIMT1 protein sequence is approximately 40% identical to basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Clarkia breweri phenylpropene O-methyltransferases, but unlike these enzymes, which do not show large discrimination between substrates with isomeric propenyl side chains, AIMT1 shows a 10-fold preference for t-anol over chavicol and for isoeugenol over eugenol.

  20. Morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis of Petriella setifera and Oidiodendron setiferum from twigs of diseased oak

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    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of isolates of Petriella setifera and Oidiodendron setiferum revealed new diagnostic morphological charactcristics. Chlamydosporcs formed by P. setifera, isolated from twigs of sessile oak (Quercus petraea showing symptoms of oak decline, are described for the first time. The first pictures of P. setifera anamorphs since the publication of its original description in 1912 are presented. Isolates of O. setiferum, from sessile oak twigs and from a log of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, were found to have swollen, hyaline, thin-walled, sterile apices on the non-fertile hairs surrounding the fertile heads of conidiophores. They also had numerous coils formed by thin hyphae in the submerged mycelium in agar culture. The taxonomy of both fungi was confirmed by rDNA sequence analysis.

  1. The First Occurrence in the Fossil Record of an Aquatic Avian Twig-Nest with Phoenicopteriformes Eggs: Evolutionary Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Grellet-Tinner; Xabier Murelaga; Juan C Larrasoaña; Silveira, Luis F.; Maitane Olivares; Ortega, Luis A.; Trimby, Patrick W.; Ana Pascual

    2012-01-01

    14 p. Background: We describe the first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with five eggs in situ (Early Miocene Tudela Formation, Ebro Basin, Spain). Extensive outcrops of this formation reveal autochthonous avian osteological and oological fossils that represent a single taxon identified as a basal phoenicopterid. Although the eggshell structure is definitively phoenicopterid, the characteristics of both the nest and the eggs are similar to those of modern greb...

  2. Phylogeny, genomic organization and expression of lambda and kappa immunoglobulin light chain genes in a reptile, Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wei, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Tao; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Qinghong; Robert, Jacques; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2010-05-01

    The reptiles are the last major taxon of jawed vertebrates in which immunoglobulin light chain isotypes have not been well characterized. Using the recently released genome sequencing data, we show in this study that the reptile Anolis carolinensis expresses both lambda and kappa light chain genes. The genomic organization of both gene loci is structurally similar to their respective counterparts in mammals. The identified lambda locus contains three constant region genes each preceded by a joining gene segment, and a total of 37 variable gene segments. In contrast, the kappa locus contains only a single constant region gene, and two joining gene segments with a single family of 14 variable gene segments located upstream. Analysis of junctions of the recombined VJ transcripts reveals a paucity of N and P nucleotides in both expressed lambda and kappa sequences. These results help us to understand the generation of the immunoglobulin repertoire in reptiles and immunoglobulin evolution in vertebrates.

  3. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

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    Asfers Adil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study

  4. Fungal endophytic communities on twigs of fast and slow growing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ros, Antonio V; Müller, Michael M; San Martín, Roberto; Diez, Julio J

    2015-10-01

    Most plant species harbour a diverse community of endophytic, but their role is still unknown in most cases, including ecologically and economically important tree species. This study describes the culturable fungal endophytic community of Pinus sylvestris L. twigs in northern Spain and its relationship with diametric growth of the host. In all, 360 twig samples were collected from 30 Scots pines in fifteen stands. Isolates were obtained from all twig samples and 43 fungal taxa were identified by morphogrouping and subsequent ITS rDNA sequencing. All isolates were Ascomycetes, being Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes the most abundant classes. Half of the species were host generalists while the others were conifer or pine specialists. We found three new endophytic species for the Pinaceae: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Phaeomoniella effusa and Plectania milleri, and additional six new species for P. sylvestris: Daldinia fissa, Hypocrea viridescens, Nigrospora oryzae, Ophiostoma nigrocarpum, Penicillium melinii and Penicillium polonicum. The endophytic community of fast and slow growing trees showed differences in species composition, abundance and evenness, but not in diversity. Phoma herbarum was associated to fast growing trees and Hypocrea lixii to those growing slow. Our results support the hypothesis that some endophytic species may affect growth of P. sylvestris.

  5. Nutrient allocation strategies of woody plants: an approach from the scaling of nitrogen and phosphorus between twig stems and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengbing; Li, Peng; Chen, Yahan; Han, Wenxuan; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-02-05

    Allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), among plant organs reflects the influences of evolutionary and ecological processes on functional traits of plants, and thus is related to functional groups and environmental conditions. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by exploring the stoichiometric scaling of N and P concentrations between twig stems and leaves of 335 woody species from 12 forest sites across eastern China. Scaling exponents of twig stem N (or P) to leaf N (or P) varied among functional groups. With increasing latitude, these scaling exponents significantly decreased from >1 at low latitude to nutrient concentration increased, plants at low latitudes showed a faster increase in twig stem nutrient concentration, whereas plants at high latitudes presented a faster increase in leaf nutrient concentration. Such shifts in nutrient allocation strategy from low to high latitudes may be controlled by temperature. Overall, our findings provide a new approach to explore plant nutrient allocation strategies by analysing the stoichiometric scaling of nutrients among organs, which could broaden our understanding of the interactions between plants and their environments.

  6. GEOGRAPHIC BODY SIZE AND SHAPE VARIATION IN A MAINLAND Anolis (SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE FROM NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA (COLOMBIA

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    MARTHA L. CALDERÓN-ESPINOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anolis auratus se distribuye desde Costa Rica en Centro América, el norte de Sur América, incluyendo Colombia, Venezuela, norte de Brasil, Surinam y las Guyanas. En Colombia, su amplia distribución en distintas zonas de vida sugiere que estos lagartos ocupan distintos ambientes, y por tanto, posiblemente exhiben variación geográfica en el uso de microhabitat. Por otra parte, algunas observaciones sugieren que estos lagartos prefieren zonas abiertas, seleccionando pastizales y por tanto, una hipótesis alternativa es que usan el mismo microhabitat en toda su distribución. En Anolis, las variables corporales relacionadas con el movimiento (tamaño y forma corporal definen el uso del microhabitat, así que pueden esperarse dos patrones en esta especie: tamaño y forma corporal conservativos o altamente variables a lo largo de su distribución. Caracterizamos la variación geográfica en variables morfométricas de esta especie en Colombia. Hembras y machos mostraron tamaño corporal similar, pero fueron distintos en la forma del cuerpo. La forma corporal varía también en machos y hembras de distintas regiones, sugiriendo un uso heterogéneo del microhabitat estructural. Como alternativa, la divergencia filoge- nética entre poblaciones podría explicar las diferencias obser- vadas. La ausencia de datos ecológicos y filogenéticos para la especie limita las hipótesis sobre causas de este patrón. Provee- mos un marco general para explorar hipótesis que expliquen la evolución de tamaño y forma corporal en esta especie.

  7. MORFOLOGÍA Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA DE LOS ESPERMATOZOIDES DE DOS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO Anolis (SAURIA: POLYCHROTIDAE EN CUBA

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    Yamilka Rodríguez-Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe la morfología de los espermatozoides de dos especies de lagartos cubanos, Anolis sagrei y Anolis porcatus, abordando también aspectos ultraestructurales. Para ello se colectaron tres ejemplares machos adultos en la provincia de Ciudad de La Habana, y se les extrajeron ambos testículos. Se realizaron preparaciones permanentes de cortes de túbulos seminíferos teñidos con hematoxilina-eosina y frotis de suspensiones de espermatozoides en solución Ringer. Un troceado de los testículos de ambas especies fue procesado para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. En los cortes de testículo se observaron los túbulos seminíferos redondeados u ovoides en sección transversal, en su interior las células sexuales se disponen desde la base al lumen, en diferentes grados de desarrollo. La cabeza de los espermatozoides es alargada. Al microscopio electrónico de transmisión se observa el acrosoma y el núcleo, los centríolos de la región del cuello, y la cola con pieza media, pieza principal y pieza final. El axonema, en su interior, presenta el patrón de microtúbulos de 9+2. Los resultados arrojaron que la morfología de los espermatozoides, en los caracteres analizados, no muestra diferencias entre las dos especies analizadas, aun a nivel ultraestructural.

  8. Mercury adsorption of modified mulberry twig chars in a simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tong; Lu, Ping; He, Nan

    2013-05-01

    Mulberry twig chars were prepared by pyrolysis, steam activation and impregnation with H2O2, ZnCl2 and NaCl. Textural characteristics and surface functional groups were performed using nitrogen adsorption and FTIR, respectively. Mercury adsorption of different modified MT chars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed absorber. The results indicated that steam activation and H2O2-impregnation can improve pore structure significantly and H2O2-impregnation and chloride-impregnation promote surface functional groups. However, chloride-impregnation has adverse effect on pore structure. Mercury adsorption capacities of impregnated MT chars with 10% or 30% H2O2 are 2.02 and 1.77 times of steam activated MT char, respectively. Mercury adsorption capacity of ZnCl2-impregnated MT char increase with increasing ZnCl2 content and is better than that of NaCl-impregnated MT char at the same chloride content. The modified MT char (MT873-A-Z5) prepared by steam activation following impregnation with 5% ZnCl2 exhibits a higher mercury adsorption capacity (29.55 μg g(-1)) than any other MT chars.

  9. [A new monoterpenoid glucoside from the twigs of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Chen, Ke-Li; Tan, Ning-Hua; Liu, Yi-Mei

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii, various column chromatography and spectroscopic methods were used for the isolation and elucidation of compounds. One new monoterpenoid glucoside, (4S)-4-isopropylcyclohex-l-enecarboxylic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with five known compounds, (4R)-p-menth-l-ene-7, 8-diol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), skimmin (3), 7-[[6-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5) and 1, 4-benzenedicarboxylic acid 1-butyl-4-(2-methylpropyl) ester (6) were isolated and identified from the twigs of this plant. All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The methanol extract of this plant showed cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, Du145 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 0.94, 1.07, 0.95 and 0.96 microg x mL(-1), respectively. Yet, compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed no cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines HeLa, BGC-823 and A549.

  10. Composition, in vitro Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils from Leaf and Twig Parts of Cupressus cashmeriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Chang; Hsu, Kuan-Ping; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition and in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaf and twig of Cupressus cashmeriana have been investigated. The essential oils were isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The leaf oil mainly consisted of alpha-pinene (21.8%), epizonarene (8.0%), sabinene (7.9%), limonene (7.6%), gamma-terpinene (7.0%), and allo-aromadendrene (7.0%); the twig oil was mostly carvacrol methyl ether (35.4%), manool (16.1%), carvacrol (14.2%), and (2Z,6E)-farnesol (6.9%). Twig oil, but not leaf oil, was able to reduce nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages RAW 264.7 without reducing the cell viability. In addition, twig oil showed better antioxidant and antimicrobial activities than leaf oil. The major ingredient of the twig oil that was responsible for the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities was carvacrol.

  11. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Test Area C-74 Complex, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-18

    Sarracenis purpurea Green Anole Anolis carolinensis Red Titi Cyrilla racemiflora Garter Snake Thamnophis sirtalis Tulip Poplar Liriodendrom... Tephrosia mohrii) Eglin’s open canopy Sandhills and upland pine forest Sweet Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rubra) Wet flatwoods, wet prairies, and baygalls

  12. A phylogenetic analysis of body size evolution in the Anolis roquet group (Sauria: Iguanidae): character displacement or size assortment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannasi, N; Thorpe, R S; Malhotra, A

    2000-02-01

    The important role that competition plays in structuring communities is well documented; however, the role of competition in an evolutionary context remains unclear. Evolutionary investigations into the role of competition have often focused on the process of character displacement, and a good example of this is the evolution of body size in the Anolis lizards of the Caribbean islands. Previous work on the A. roquet species group has taken a phylogenetic approach and concluded that patterns of body size differences are not caused by character displacement but are a result of size assortment. Using a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene (cyt-b) and ancestral character-state reconstruction methods, we investigated the roles of character displacement and size assortment. Our results indicated that size assortment alone was insufficient to explain the observed patterns of body size differences. Furthermore, we found that change in body size was associated with a change in allopatry/sympatry, thus supporting the character-displacement hypothesis. We conclude that patterns of body size differences in the A. roquet species group appear to be the result of a combination of character displacement and size assortment because character displacement was only found to be possible on three occasions.

  13. Immunocytochemical detection of beta-defensins and cathelicidins in the secretory granules of the tongue in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Previous molecular studies indicated that antimicrobial peptides in lizard are expressed in the skin and tongue among other epithelial organs. The present ultrastructural immunogold study aimed to detect the specific location of three broadly expressed antimicrobial peptides in the tongue of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. The immunocytochemical study indicated that beta-defensin-15, the likely main defensin of granulocytes and skin, is poorly expressed in some dense and medium-dense granules of glandular cells of the papillated tongue. Conversely beta-defensin-27 appears highly expressed in numerous pale and cribriform dense granules of glandular cells and is also secreted on the tongue surface. The immunostaining for cathelicidin-1 indicated a variable but however positive immunolabeling in numerous granules in the tongue glands, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide previously found on the epidermal surface is also present in the tongue secretions and participates to the formation of the anti-microbial oral barrier. The study suggests that among the numerous beta-defensins and cathelicidins identified in the genome of this lizard is present a specific distribution of different peptide subtypes in various body regions, including the tongue, and that these peptides contribute to the formation of local antimicrobial barriers.

  14. Influence of Binasal and Uninasal Inhalations of Essential Oil of Abies koreana Twigs on Electroencephalographic Activity of Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO) was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%), bornyl acetate (19.31%), camphene (12.48%), α-pinene (11.88%), β-pinene (6.45%), and eudesm-7(11)-en-ol (5.38%) were the major components in the essential oil. In the EEG study, the absolute alpha (left frontal and right parietal) and absolute fast alpha (right parietal) values significantly increased during the binasal inhalation of AEO. In the uninasal inhalation, absolute beta and theta values decreased significantly, especially in the right frontal and left and right parietal regions. The results revealed that the AEO produced different EEG power spectrum changes according to the nostril difference. Conclusion. The changes in EEG values due to the inhalation of AEO may contribute to the enhancement of relaxation (binasal inhalation) and alertness/attention (right uninasal inhalation) states of brain which could be used in aromatherapy treatments. PMID:28042202

  15. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant.

  16. Influence of Binasal and Uninasal Inhalations of Essential Oil of Abies koreana Twigs on Electroencephalographic Activity of Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Seo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%, bornyl acetate (19.31%, camphene (12.48%, α-pinene (11.88%, β-pinene (6.45%, and eudesm-7(11-en-ol (5.38% were the major components in the essential oil. In the EEG study, the absolute alpha (left frontal and right parietal and absolute fast alpha (right parietal values significantly increased during the binasal inhalation of AEO. In the uninasal inhalation, absolute beta and theta values decreased significantly, especially in the right frontal and left and right parietal regions. The results revealed that the AEO produced different EEG power spectrum changes according to the nostril difference. Conclusion. The changes in EEG values due to the inhalation of AEO may contribute to the enhancement of relaxation (binasal inhalation and alertness/attention (right uninasal inhalation states of brain which could be used in aromatherapy treatments.

  17. Infecção pulmonar em dois lagartos simpátricos, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae) e Anolis brasiliensis na mata-úmida da Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Os parâmetros de infecção por parasitas pulmonares em dois lagartos simpátricos, Mabuya arajara e Anolis brasiliensis, da floresta úmida da encosta da Chapada do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil, foram analisados entre setembro de 2009 e julho de 2010. Um total de 202 lagartos foi coletado, sendo 125 espécimes de Mabuya arajara e 77 de Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara estava infectado pelo pentastomídeo Raillietiella mottae, enquanto A. brasiliensis apresentava infecção pelo nematódeo Rhabdias sp.,...

  18. Dimorphism, habitat use and diet for Anolis maculiventris (Lacertilia: Dactyloidae, in tropical rainforest in Chocó, Colombia

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    Jhon Tailor RENGIFO-MOSQUERA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied some aspects of the population biology of A. maculiventris, in areas of tropical rainforest in the natural region of Choco. The males and females brown coloration with a small mole on the back of the head, the proportions and gender in the captured individuals showed significant statistical differences (X2: 4.81, gl: 1, p: 0.028. The degree of sexual dimorphism (GDS and sexual dimorphism index was 1.08, mm and 8.5 mm respectively. Females differ significantly from males in all the parts of the body measures. 30 Individuals have spread, which was determined to their reproductive status and failed to register a size minimum of maturity (LHA in females is 30.7 mm, with a maximum of 39.9 mm and an average of 36.5 mm. In the male the minimum maturity sexual 30.4 mm, and a maximum of 36.7 mm, with an average of 33.8 mm; which indicates that females were more large than males. Assessed habitat use, showing significant statistical differences between the used substrate (X2 = 16.89, gl: 3, p: 0.001; and for vertical positions, showed the same behavior (X2 = 3.77, gl: 3, p: 0.207. For analyzing dietary species spread 30 stomach, of which 15 belonged to males and 15 females, will register a total 46 gastrointestinal dams that compose its diet showing the orders Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae as the of greater relative importance in the diet.DIMORFISMO, USO DE HÁBITAT Y DIETA DE Anolis maculiventris (LACERTILIA: DACTYLOIDAE, EN BOSQUE PLUVIAL TROPICAL DEL CHOCÓ, COLOMBIASe estudiaron algunos aspectos de la biología poblacional de Anolis maculiventris, en zonas de bosque pluvial tropical de la región natural chocoana. Los machos y hembras presentaron una coloración café claro con un pequeño lunar en la parte posterior de la cabeza, las proporciones de sexo en los individuos capturados mostraron diferencias estadísticas significativas (X2: 4,81, gl: 1, p: 0,028. El grado de dimorfismo sexual (GDS e índice de dimorfismo sexual fue

  19. BIOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DE UNA POBLACIÓN DE ANOLIS TOLIMENSIS (SAURIA: IGUANIDAE EN LOS ANDES COLOMBIANOS

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    ARDILA-MARÍN DANIEL ALEXANDER

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos algunas características morfométricas y el estado reproductivo deespecímenes de ambos sexos de Anolis tolimensis en una población de los Andescolombianos (Tena, Cundinamarca; 2250 m. Las observaciones se hicieron en unbosque secundario, entre las épocas de lluvia (noviembre 2004 y febrero 2005 y desequía (diciembre 2004 - enero 2005. En el campo realizamos recorridos diurnosentre las 8:00 y 18:00 horas y recolectamos individuos de forma manual y con lazada.En el laboratorio medimos los individuos y determinamos el estado reproductivo.Las hembras adultas y juveniles presentaron mayor longitud rostro-cloacal que losmachos. El tamaño mínimo promedio de madurez sexual en machos fue 43.7 mmy en hembras 46.4 mm. El estado reproductivo más común en hembras adultas fuevitelogénico y ovígero, el menos frecuente fue ovígero con dos huevos oviductales.Esta condición de ovo-retención podría relacionarse con condiciones ambientalesdesfavorables. No se encontraron hembras adultas en estado previtelogénico. Hubopresencia generalizada de un huevo oviductal. Entre los periodos de muestreose encontró que los machos fueron sexualmente activos y observamos presenciageneralizada de hembras embarazadas o con huevos oviductales. Estas observacionesindicarían reproducción continua de A. tolimensis a lo largo del año

  20. Evaluating thermal resource partitioning : By sympatric lizards Anolis cooki and A. cristatellus: a field test using null hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, P E

    1992-04-01

    The field thermal biology of sympatric Anolis cooki and A. cristatellus were evaluated in January and in August in desert scrub forest at Playa de Tamarindo near Guanica, Puerto Rico. Data on randomly positioned copper models of lizards, each equipped with a built-in thermocouple, established null hypotheses about basking frequency and operative temperatures (T e) against which the behavior and body temperatures (T b) of live lizards were evaluated. Both species exhibited non-random hourly basking rates (more marked in cristatellus than in cooki), and cristatellus was virtually inactive during the warm mid-day hours. The relationship between lizards' T b and randomly sampled T e differed between the species: cristatellus's mean T b was 2° to 3° C lower than randomly sampled mean T e in both months, whereas cooki's mean T b was slightly higher than mean T e in January and slightly lower in August. Although cooki's mean T b was higher than that of cristatellus in both months, the T b's of the two species overlapped substantially over an annual cycle. Given the similarities in their field active T b and the low thermal heterogeneity among microsites at Playa de Tamarindo, these species appear not to partition the thermal environment there in a coarse-grained way. Instead, the relatively small differences in their field active T b probably result from small differences in their use of similar microhabitats within their mutually exclusive territories. Thermal resource partitioning by territorial animals is unlikely unless thermal heterogeneity is coarse-grained in relation to territory size.

  1. Decomposition of lignin and holocellulose on Acacia mangium leaves and twigs by six fungal isolates from nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djarwanto; Tachibana, S

    2010-06-15

    This research was conducted in the aim of preventing wild fire through reducing potential energy source to become in situ fertilizer. To prevent forest fires by reducing wood waste using lignocellulose-degrading fungi, six fungal isolates were tested for lignin and cellulose-degrading activity with Acacia mangium leaves and twigs over a period of 1 to 3 months. The fungi degraded 8.9-27.1% of the lignin and 14-31% of the holocellulose. The degradation rate varied depending on the fungal species. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of holocellulose and lignin. However, the hot water soluble tended to increase following a longer incubation period. From the results obtained here, more time was needed to degrade lignin rather than other components in the sample.

  2. Analysis on Mechanisms of Activating Blood Circulation and Compatible Regularity of Cinnamon Twig%桂枝活血机理及配伍规律探析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慕鸽; 魏凯峰(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

    This paper states the function of activating blood circulation in Cinnamon Twig, as well as the compatible regularity. The function on activating blood circulation of Cinnamon Twig is resulted from regulating body's blood, Qi and fluid. We should use it flexibly according to rational combination with blood-activating drugs, blood-enriching drugs and Qi-tonifying drugs in clinical practice.%阐述了桂枝功能与活血的关系,以及相关的配伍。认为桂枝的活血功效是通过调节机体血、气、水发挥,根据证候配伍活血药、养血药、温里药、理气药、补气药而在临床灵活使用。

  3. Study on The Content of Pb in Twigs And Leaves of Kangkung (Ipomoea reptans Poir Boiled With The Addition of NaCl And Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Hartatie Hardjo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangkung is a kind of favorable vegetables that used to grow near a river, and is cultivated and watered with water from the river. If the river is polluted by heavy metals, there is a risk that the plant is contaminated too. A study on the content of Pb in kangkung planted in Pb contaminated media has been conducted, and it was proven that Pb was found in the plant. Land kangkung (Ipomoea reptans was used as sample, and was planted in hydrophonic media, and watered with Multigrow Complete Plant Food (2000 mg/L and Pb solution (2 mg/L twice a day. Samples were taken based on the age of 54 days, then the twigs and leaves were boiled in different ways: I. Boiled with no addition, II. Boiled with addition of NaCl , and III. Boiled with addition of acetic acid. IV. Unboiled sample as the control. Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer (ICPS Fison 3410+ was used to measure the Pb content. It was shown that boiling the kangkung reduced the Pb content in the leaves as well as in the twigs; however, the acetic acid addition showed the least effect. In the leaves the three different ways of boiling did not show significant different, while in twigs the different was significant.

  4. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-03-28

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  5. Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. and Pinus sibirica Du Tour).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpatov, Alexander V; Popov, Sergey A; Salnikova, Olga I; Kukina, Tatyana P; Shmidt, Emma N; Um, Byung Hun

    2017-02-01

    Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, and Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p-coumarate, heterocyclic 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10-nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p-coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8-O-functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8-O-functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ(5) -unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines' metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α-glucosidase (IC50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC50 3.6 μg/ml).

  6. The Inhibitory Effects of Aqueous Extract from Guava Twigs, Psidium guajava L., on Mutation and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Chyang Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the inhibitory effects of the aqueous extract from guava twigs (GTE, Psidium guajava L., on mutation and oxidative damage. The results show that GTE inhibits the mutagenicity of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO, a direct mutagen, and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA, an indirect mutagen, toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. In addition, GTE shows radical scavenging, reducing activities, tyrosinase inhibition, and liposome protection effects. Meanwhile, GTE in the range of 0.1–0.4 mg/mL protects liver cells from tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP- induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity inhibition of GTE in the t-BHP-treated cells was demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis suggests that the major phenolic constituents in GTE are gallic acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin. These active phenolic components may contribute to the biological protective effects of GTE in different models. The data suggest that GTE exhibiting biological activities can be applied to antimutation, antityrosinase, and antioxidative damage.

  7. Discovery of Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, Associated with Forested Black Walnut, Juglans nigra, in the Eastern U.S.

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    Gregory J. Wiggins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD is an insect-mediated disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp. involving walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis and a fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida. Although first documented on walnut species in the western U.S., TCD is now found on black walnut (J. nigra in five states in the eastern U.S. Most collections of P. juglandis or G. morbida are from trees in agriculturally- or residentially-developed landscapes. In 2013, 16 pheromone-baited funnel traps were deployed in or near black walnuts in forested conditions to assess the risk of infestation of forested trees by P. juglandis. Four of the 16 funnel traps collected adult P. juglandis from three forested areas (one in North Carolina and two in Tennessee. These collections, while in forested settings, may still be strongly influenced by human activities. The greatest number of P. juglandis (n = 338 was collected from a forested location in an urbanized area near a known TCD-positive tree. The other two forested locations where P. juglandis (n = 3 was collected were in areas where camping is common, and infested firewood may have introduced P. juglandis unintentionally into the area. Future studies to assess P. juglandis on more isolated forested walnuts are planned.

  8. The ethanolic extract of Juglans sinensis leaves and twigs attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nuts of Juglans sinensis Dode, walnut tree, are rich in unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity on liver damages. However, hepatoprotective activity of the leaves and twigs of J. sinensis have not intensively studied yet. Objective: Hepatoprotective activity of the refined ethanolic extract of J. sinensis (JSE3 was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for 6 weeks in the presence or absence of JSE3 (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The hepatoprotective activity of JSE3 was assessed by biochemical parameters including plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxide, reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione, along with histopathological studies on hepatic tissue. Results: JSE3 significantly decreased the elevated levels of AST and ALT and restored the reduced levels of antioxidant enzymes. JSE3 also decreased the amounts of collagen content accumulated by CCl4 intoxication. Conclusion: These results suggested that the refined extract of J. sinensis may have a potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent to treat hepatic diseases, such as fatty liver and hepatic fibrosis.

  9. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of (15)N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huysen, Tiff L; Harmon, Mark E; Perakis, Steven S; Chen, Hua

    2013-12-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using (15)N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7-20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  10. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of 15N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huysen, Tiff L.; Harmon, Mark E.; Perakis, Steven S.; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using 15N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7–20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  11. 杠柳枝皮的化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents of Twig Bank from Periploca sepium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马养民; 史清华; 孔阳

    2008-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the twig bark powder of Periploca sepium was suspended in water and successively treated with petroleum ether,ethyl acetate and n-butanol.The ethyl acetate fraction was repeatedly separated on silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 column to give the four compounds.The structures of four compounds were elucidated as β-amyrin acetate(1),β-amyrin (2),periplogenin(3) and perilocoside N(4)by combined spectral analysis.Among them,compounds 1 and 2 were found for the first time in the plant.%将杠柳枝皮粉末的乙醇提取物悬浮于水后,依次用石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取.对乙酸乙酯萃取物采用各种柱层析进行多次分离后得到4个化合物,经波谱分析,鉴定它们的结构分别为β-香树素乙酸酯(1)、β-香树素(2)、periplogenin(3)和perilocoside N(4),其中化合物1和2是首次从该植物中分离得到.

  12. The first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with Phoenicopteriformes eggs: evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Murelaga, Xabier; Larrasoaña, Juan C; Silveira, Luis F; Olivares, Maitane; Ortega, Luis A; Trimby, Patrick W; Pascual, Ana

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with five eggs in situ (Early Miocene Tudela Formation, Ebro Basin, Spain). Extensive outcrops of this formation reveal autochthonous avian osteological and oological fossils that represent a single taxon identified as a basal phoenicopterid. Although the eggshell structure is definitively phoenicopterid, the characteristics of both the nest and the eggs are similar to those of modern grebes. These observations allow us to address the origin of the disparities between the sister taxa Podicipedidae and Phoenicopteridae crown clades, and traces the evolution of the nesting and reproductive environments for phoenicopteriforms. Multi-disciplinary analyses performed on fossilized vegetation and eggshells from the eggs in the nest and its embedding sediments indicate that this new phoenicopterid thrived under a semi-arid climate in an oligohaline (seasonally mesohaline) shallow endorheic lacustine environment. High-end microcharacterizations including SEM, TEM, and EBSD techniques were pivotal to identifying these phoenicopterid eggshells. Anatomical comparisons of the fossil bones with those of Phoenicopteriformes and Podicipediformes crown clades and extinct palaelodids confirm that this avian fossil assemblage belongs to a new and basal phoenicopterid. Although the Podicipediformes-Phoenicopteriformes sister group relationship is now well supported, flamingos and grebes exhibit feeding, reproductive, and nesting strategies that diverge significantly. Our multi-disciplinary study is the first to reveal that the phoenicopteriform reproductive behaviour, nesting ecology and nest characteristics derived from grebe-like type strategies to reach the extremely specialized conditions observed in modern flamingo crown groups. Furthermore, our study enables us to map ecological and reproductive characters on the Phoenicopteriformes evolutionary lineage. Our results demonstrate that the nesting

  13. Phylogeography of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the vector of thousand cankers disease in North American walnut trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Rugman-Jones

    Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD of walnut trees (Juglans spp. results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB, Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties (in Arizona, California, and New Mexico, but the species has now (2014 invaded over 115 counties, representing much of the western USA, and at least six states in the eastern USA. The eastern expansion places TCD in direct proximity to highly valuable (> $500 billion native timber stands of eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, from nearly 1100 individuals, we examined variation among 77 samples of WTB populations across its extended range in the USA, revealing high levels of polymorphism and evidence of two divergent lineages. The highest level of genetic diversity for the different lineages was found in the neighboring Madrean Sky Island and Western New Mexico regions, respectively. Despite their proximity, there was little evidence of mixing between these regions, with only a single migrant detected among 179 beetles tested. Indeed, geographic overlap of the two lineages was only common in parts of Colorado and Utah. Just two haplotypes, from the same lineage, predominated over the vast majority of the recently expanded range. Tests for Wolbachia proved negative suggesting it plays no role in "driving" the spread of particular haplotypes, or in maintaining deep levels of intraspecific divergence in WTB. Genotyping of ribosomal RNA corroborated the mitochondrial lineages, but also revealed evidence of hybridization between them. Hybridization was particularly prevalent in the sympatric areas, also apparent in all invaded areas, but absent from the most haplotype-rich area of each mitochondrial lineage. Hypotheses about the specific status of WTB, its recent expansion, and potential evolutionary origins of TCD

  14. The first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with Phoenicopteriformes eggs: evolutionary implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Grellet-Tinner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe the first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with five eggs in situ (Early Miocene Tudela Formation, Ebro Basin, Spain. Extensive outcrops of this formation reveal autochthonous avian osteological and oological fossils that represent a single taxon identified as a basal phoenicopterid. Although the eggshell structure is definitively phoenicopterid, the characteristics of both the nest and the eggs are similar to those of modern grebes. These observations allow us to address the origin of the disparities between the sister taxa Podicipedidae and Phoenicopteridae crown clades, and traces the evolution of the nesting and reproductive environments for phoenicopteriforms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multi-disciplinary analyses performed on fossilized vegetation and eggshells from the eggs in the nest and its embedding sediments indicate that this new phoenicopterid thrived under a semi-arid climate in an oligohaline (seasonally mesohaline shallow endorheic lacustine environment. High-end microcharacterizations including SEM, TEM, and EBSD techniques were pivotal to identifying these phoenicopterid eggshells. Anatomical comparisons of the fossil bones with those of Phoenicopteriformes and Podicipediformes crown clades and extinct palaelodids confirm that this avian fossil assemblage belongs to a new and basal phoenicopterid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the Podicipediformes-Phoenicopteriformes sister group relationship is now well supported, flamingos and grebes exhibit feeding, reproductive, and nesting strategies that diverge significantly. Our multi-disciplinary study is the first to reveal that the phoenicopteriform reproductive behaviour, nesting ecology and nest characteristics derived from grebe-like type strategies to reach the extremely specialized conditions observed in modern flamingo crown groups. Furthermore, our study enables us to map ecological and reproductive characters on

  15. Detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, from symptomless fruits and twigs, and from pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA GALLELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa, the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, was monitored in symptomless fruits, twigs and pollen of the host using bacterial isolation and DNA-extraction followed by two PCR-assays (direct-PCRs. A procedure for Psa detection from symptomless twigs was established. Out of 16 symptomless twigs samples, Psa was detected in 12 samples by isolation and 13 samples by direct-PCR. Thirteen pollen samples were treated using two different procedures; Psa was detected in eight samples by isolation and ten samples by direct-PCR. By washing 108 samples of fruits, Psa was detected by isolation in only two samples, collected from severely affected orchards. However, one of these samples contained wilted fruits, whereas for the other, only one colony was isolate. From 60 bulk-samples of fruits, endophytic Psa was detected in six samples by isolation and ten samples by direct-PCRs. A Psa-positive bulk-sample of fruits was analyzed separately as individual fruits: there was a faint signal in five or seven fruits out of 50 depending on the PCR assay used. Isolation was negative for these samples. Presence of the pathogen on bulk-fruit samples could be due to low amounts of inoculum distributed over many fruits: as a consequence, there is a negligible risk of introducing the pathogen into countries free of bacterial canker. This integrated approach (isolation plus PCR is proposed as a tool for the analysis of symptomless kiwifruit material for the presence of Psa.  

  16. Gojenie się ran w pędach wiśni odm. Minister Podbielski [Wound healing in twigs of sour cherry cv. Minister Podbielski

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    A. Golisz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on anatomical changes in sour cherry twigs after pruning. Changes in the surface of wounds begin by the filling of cells and vessels with gum substances. At the same time drying and splitting of tissues was observed. Healing of the wounds starts from the layer of parenchyma cells from which callus develops. At the end of the growing season spring-made wounds were healed with a thick layer of callus tissue, while healing of summer-made wounds was hastened shortly after formation of the primary callus layer.

  17. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range--A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P < 0.001). Parenchyma was weakly (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.35, P < 0.05) or not associated with vessel properties nor with height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P < 0.05). However, vessel traits were fairly well correlated with height and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P < 0.001). Modulus of elasticity was mainly driven by fibre wall plus vessel wall fraction rather than by the parenchyma component. Overall, there seem to be at least three axes of variation in xylem, substantially independent of each other: a wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.

  18. Coagulating Colubrids: Evolutionary, Pathophysiological and Biodiscovery Implications of Venom Variations between Boomslang (Dispholidus typus and Twig Snake (Thelotornis mossambicanus

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    Jordan Debono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus and the twig snakes (Thelotornis species are iconic African snakes belonging to the family Colubridae. Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced for treating bites by D. typus, and the mechanisms of action of both venoms have been understudied. In this study, we investigated the venom of D. typus and T. mossambicanus utilising a range of proteomic and bioactivity approaches, including determining the procoagulant properties of both venoms in relation to the human coagulation pathways. In doing so, we developed a novel procoagulant assay, utilising a Stago STA-R Max analyser, to accurately detect real time clotting in plasma at varying concentrations of venom. This approach was used to assess the clotting capabilities of the two venoms both with and without calcium and phospholipid co-factors. We found that T. mossambicanus produced a significantly stronger coagulation response compared to D. typus. Functional enzyme assays showed that T. mossambicanus also exhibited a higher metalloprotease and phospholipase activity but had a much lower serine protease activity relative to D. typus venom. The neutralising capability of the available boomslang antivenom was also investigated on both species, with it being 11.3 times more effective upon D. typus venom than T. mossambicanus. In addition to being a faster clotting venom, T. mossambicanus was revealed to be a much more complex venom composition than D. typus. This is consistent with patterns seen for other snakes with venom complexity linked to dietary complexity. Consistent with the

  19. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  20. 桂枝汤和营调卫法之探析%Exploratory analysis on the method of ying and wei harmonization by Cinnamon Twig Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 纪立金

    2012-01-01

    桂枝汤乃仲景群方之首,临证应用广泛.本文基于藏象及营卫理论,从桂枝汤和营调卫之理、法、药、用四个方面探析桂枝汤营卫不和的内涵,提出了卫病伤营是营卫不和的重要病机、滋营化卫是和营调卫的前提条件,调营治卫是辨治思路、建中调营是关键环节的观点.%Cinnamon Twig Decoction is the first prescription of Shanghanlun, and it is widely used in clinics. Based on the visceral state and ying-wei theory, it analyses the connotation of Cinnamon Twig Decoction of ying-wei disharmony from the theory, method, Chinese herbal and clinical application, and put forward the view that ying-wei impaired is the important pathomechanism of disorder between ying and wei, nourishing ying-wei is the premise condition of ying and wei harmonization, harmonization the ying and wei is the differentiation ideas, and nourishing middle-jiao to balance ying is the key point.

  1. The roles of allopatric divergence and natural selection in quantitative trait variation across a secondary contact zone in the lizard Anolis roquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Helena; Surget-Groba, Yann; Thorpe, Roger S

    2008-12-01

    Populations of the Caribbean lizard, Anolis roquet, are thought to have experienced long periods of allopatry before recent secondary contact. To elucidate the effects of past allopatry on population divergence in A. roquet, we surveyed parallel transects across a secondary contact zone in northeastern Martinique. We used diagnostic molecular mitochondrial DNA markers to test fine-scale association of mitochondrial DNA lineage and geological region, multivariate statistical techniques to explore quantitative trait pattern, and cline fitting techniques to model trait variation across the zone of secondary contact. We found that lineages were strongly associated with geological regions along both transects, but quantitative trait patterns were remarkably different. Patterns of morphological and mitochondrial DNA variation were consistent with a strong barrier to gene flow on the coast, whereas there were no indications of barriers to gene flow in the transitional forest. Hence, the coastal populations behaved as would be predicted by an allopatric model of divergence in this complex, while those in the transitional forest did not, despite the close proximity of the transects and their shared geological history. Patterns of geographical variation in this species complex, together with environmental data, suggest that on balance, selection regimes on either side of the secondary contact zone in the transitional forest may be more convergent, while those either side of the secondary contact zone on the coast are more divergent. Hence, the evolutionary consequences of allopatry may be strongly influenced by local natural selection regimes.

  2. Divergence in morphology, but not habitat use, despite low genetic differentiation among insular populations of the lizard Anolis lemurinus in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, M.L.; Montgomery, Chad E.; Boback, Scott M.; Reed, R.N.; Campbell, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of recently isolated populations are useful because observed differences can often be attributed to current environmental variation. Two populations of the lizard Anolis lemurinus have been isolated on the islands of Cayo Menor and Cayo Mayor in the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago of Honduras for less than 15 000 y. We measured 12 morphometric and 10 habitat-use variables on 220 lizards across these islands in 2 y, 2008 and 2009. The goals of our study were (1) to explore patterns of sexual dimorphism, and (2) to test the hypothesis that differences in environment among islands may have driven divergence in morphology and habitat use despite genetic homogeneity among populations. Although we found no differences among sexes in habitat use, males had narrower pelvic girdles and longer toe pads on both islands. Between islands, males differed in morphology, but neither males nor females differed in habitat use. Our data suggest that either recent selection has operated differentially on males despite low genetic dill'erentiation, or that they display phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation. We suggest that patterns may be driven by variation in intrapopulation density or differences in predator diversity among islands.

  3. Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain,northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongling; LI Qingkang; ZHENG Jinping; LIU Wande; FAN Chunnan; MA Yuandan; YU Guirui; HAN Shijie

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2003,the litter decomposition dynamics of dominant tree species were conducted using a litterbag burying method in the broadleaf-Korean pine forest,spruce-fir forest and Ermans birch forest,which represents three altitudinal belts in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The spatial and temporal dynamics of litter decomposition and the effects of litter properties were examined.Furthermore,the decomposition trend of different species was simulated by the Olson model,and results showed that annual mass loss rates increased over time,but was not significantly correlated.Leaf decomposition rates increased after decomposing for 638 days (1.75 years),and the order of dry weight remaining rates of leaf litter for different species is:Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) (24.56%)<Amur linden (Tilia amurensis) (24.81%) < Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)(38.48%)<spruce (Picea jezoensis var. microsperma)(41.15%)< Ermans birch (Betula ermanii) (41.53%)<fir (Abies nephrolepis) (42.62%).The dry weight remaining rates of twig litter was smaller than that of leaf litter,and followed the order of Amur linden (44.98%)<fir (64.62%)<Korean pine (72.07%)<spruce (73.51%)<Asian white birch (77.37%)<Ermans birch (80.35%).The simulation results by the Olson model showed that,in leaf,the 95%-decomposition rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 years,and annual decomposition rate (k) followed the order of Amur linden (0.686)>Asian white birch (0.624)>Korean pine (0.441)>spruce (0.406)>fir (0.397)>Ermans birch (0.385);in twig,it ranged from 7.8 to 29.3 years,and k follows the order:Amur linden (0.391)>fir (0.204)>Korean pine (0.176)>spruce (0.157)>Asian white birch (0.148)>Ermans birch (0.102).In general,the differences of decomposition rate are evident between leaf and twig litter and among species,and were higher in broad-leaved species compared with coniferous species at the same elevation,and decreased with the ascending of elevation.

  4. ISOLATION IPG3-1 AND IPG3-3, ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM DELIMA (PUNICA GRANATUM LINN. TWIGS AND IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF THEIR ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirly Kumala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available IPG3-1,2,3,4,5 were endophytic fungi isolated from Delima twigs via direct seed inoculation on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. Macroscopic identification of the isolates showed clearly that IPG3-3 and 4 have radial wrinkles in the centre with black spots while IPG3-5 has flower shape in the middle. The microscopic observation on the other hand, showed that IPG3-1 and 3 has branched septate while IPG3-4 has unbranched septate. Furthermore, IPG3-2 and 5 were branched but septateless. Overall, these endophytes showed no spore formation. Secondary metabolites of IPG3-1 and IPG3-3 endophytic fungi isolates demonstrated stronger inhibition zone percentage against Candida albicans and than towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli when campare to their respectively positive control amphotericin B and Chloramphenicol.

  5. 祁连山北坡霸王枝-叶性状关系的个体大小差异%Plant size differences with twig and leaf traits ofZygophyllum xanthoxylumin the northern slope of Qilian Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晶; 赵成章; 宋清华; 史元春; 王继伟; 陈静

    2016-01-01

    枝与叶片权衡关系的个体大小差异性,是物种形成不同冠层结构充分利用空间资源的一种策略,有利于植株通过构型调整自身的光合效率和增强竞争力。在祁连山北坡荒漠草地,根据体积将霸王(Zygophyllum xanthoxylum)分为3个大小等级(I级:(植株体积的立方根(d)≤60 cm)、II级(60 cm 120 cm)),采用标准化主轴估计方法,研究了不同大小等级霸王种群枝长度与叶面积、叶数量的生长关系。结果表明:随着植株大小等级增大,霸王的枝长度、叶面积、枝横截面积逐渐增大,叶数量呈逐渐减小趋势;霸王枝长度的增长速度大于或等于叶面积的增长速度,枝长度的增加速度大于叶数量的增加速度;随着个体大小等级的增加,霸王枝长度与叶面积的异速斜率、枝长度与叶数量回归方程的y轴截距均显著减小,即植株叶面积与枝长度比值、叶数量的投入均显著降低。为提高资源利用效率,霸王小个体植株倾向于短枝上着生大量的小叶,大个体植株趋向于长枝上着生少量的大叶,随植株大小等级增加,叶面积增加而叶数量降低,对小枝的资源配置具有一定的影响。%Aims Understanding the effects of plant size on the trade-off between twigs and leaves is important for revealing strategies of plants forming different canopy structure, making full use of space resources, and enhancing their photosynthetic efficiency and competitiveness with adjusting plant configuration. Our objective was to study how twig and leaf traits ofZygophyllum xanthoxylum depended on size in the northern slope of Qilian Mountains, China. MethodsThe study was conducted in a desert grassland on the northern slope of the Qilian Mountains, Gansu Province, China. A transect was laid out horizontally along latitudinal direction, and three sample plots were set up along the transect at the interval of 50 m. Community traits

  6. Use of sleeping perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae in the fragmented tropical rainforest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico Uso de perchas para dormir por la lagartija Anolis uniformis (Squamata: Polychrotidae en el bosque tropical fragmentado de Los Tuxtlas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of nocturnal perches by the lizard Anolis uniformis is described. Bimonthly surveys were made throughout a year in small fragments and continuous tropical rainforest areas at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Twenty three juvenile individuals and 7 adults were recorded sleeping during the sampling time (18:00 - 23:00 h.. All individuals were found on leaves of plants of 14 species. Perch height ranged from 41.0 to 140.5 cm (mean: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adults and the most frequent sleeping position observed was with the body oriented along the longitudinal axis of the leaf and the head facing the stem of the plant. This apparently vulnerable position can permit the perception of external stimuli such as proximity of predators; although, eco-physiological factors may also influence selection of sleeping perch sites.Se describe el uso de perchas nocturnas por parte de la lagartija Anolis uniformis. Durante un año se ralizaron muestreos bimensuales en fragmentos pequeños y áreas continuas de bosque tropical perennifolio en Los Tuxtlas, México. Se registraron 23 individuos juveniles y 7 adultos durmiendo durante las horas de muestreo (18:00 a 23:00 hrs. Todos los individuos fueron encontrados en hojas de plantas pertenecientes a 14 especies. La altura de las perchas varió entre 41.0 y 140.5 cm (promedio: 90.1 cm juveniles; 80.6 cm adultos y la posición más frecuente de las lagartijas al dormir fue con el cuerpo extendido a lo largo del eje longitudinal de la hoja y la cabeza dirigida hacia el tallo de la planta. Esta posición, aparentemente vulnerable, puede permitir la percepción de estímulos externos como la aproximación de depredadores; sin embargo, factores eco-fisiológicos pueden también influir en la selección de sitios para dormir.

  7. Application of Cassia Twig decoction and its similar prescriptions in TCM Gynecology%桂枝汤及其类方在中医妇科中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅慧群

    2012-01-01

    Cassia Twig decoction comes from treatise on febrile diseases of ZHANG Zhong-jing. It is a prescription for treating sun stroke. "Solar disease, headache, fever, sweating, aversion to wind, is mainly treated with cassia twig decoction. " It is the first prescription of ZHANG Zhong-jing in treatise on febrile diseases and is named as the "crown prescription". The prescription is rigorous, extremely changeful, widely used, therefore has received attention by doctors in different dynasties. Because of the woman' s difference of the fetal pregnancy, childbearing and internal hemorrhage different prescriptions should be used in gynecology. The practice has verified that cassia twig decoction and its similar prescriptions has unique curative effect in gynecological disease.%桂枝汤出自东汉张仲景的《伤寒杂病论》,为主治太阳病中风之方剂.“太阳病,头痛,发热,汗出,恶风,桂枝汤主之.”是张仲景《伤寒论》第一名方,世称“群方之冠”.其组方严谨,变化多端,运用广泛,故受历代医家所重视.经过实践验证桂枝汤及其类方在妇科病的许多方面有独到的疗效.

  8. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of Radix Astragali Cassia Twigs Five Decoction in the Treatment of Postpartum Body Pain%黄芪桂枝五物汤加减治疗产后身痛的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative ef ect of Radix Astragali cassia twigs Five Decoction in the treatment of postpartum body pain. Methods From 2012 March to 2014 February, postpartum body pain in patients with application of Radix Astragali cassia twigs Five Decoction in the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine clinic in our hospital diagnosis and treatment, observation of its curative ef ect. Results 26 cases were cured, 17 cases markedly ef ective, the total ef ective rate was 89.58%. Conclusion The therapeutic ef ect of Radix Astragali cassia twigs Five Decoction in the treatment of postpartum body pain and reliable, worthy of clinical use.%目的观察黄芪桂枝五物汤治疗产后身痛的疗效。方法对自2012年3月~2014年2月,我院中医门诊诊治的产后身痛患者应用黄芪桂枝五物汤治疗,观察其治疗效果。结果痊愈26例,显效17例,总有效率为89.58%。结论黄芪桂枝五物汤治疗产后身痛疗效可靠,值得临床推广使用。

  9. A pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase homologue from the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) catalyzes the efficient in vitro conversion of p-coumaryl/coniferyl alcohol esters into the allylphenols chavicol/eugenol, but not the propenylphenols p-anol/isoeugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassão, Daniel G; Kim, Sung-Jin; Milhollan, Jessica K; Eichinger, Dietmar; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2007-09-01

    The creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) accumulates a complex mixture of 8-8' regiospecifically linked lignans, of which the potent antioxidant nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is the most abundant. Its tetra-O-methyl derivative (M4N) is showing considerable promise in the treatment of refractory (hard-to-treat) brain and central nervous system tumors. NDGA and related 9,9'-deoxygenated lignans are thought to be formed by dimerization of allyl/propenyl phenols, phenylpropanoid compounds that lack C-9 oxygenation, thus differentiating them from the more common monolignol-derived lignans. In our ongoing studies dedicated towards elucidating the biochemical pathway to NDGA and its congeners, a pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase homologue was isolated from L. tridentata, with the protein obtained in functional recombinant form. This protein efficiently catalyzes the conversion of p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol esters into the corresponding allylphenols, chavicol and eugenol; neither of their propenylphenol regioisomers, p-anol and isoeugenol, are formed during this enzyme reaction.

  10. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2017-06-30

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. 新疆沙枣果枝饲料特性的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Characteristics of Fruit and Twigs from Elaeagnus Angustifolia as Feedstuff in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈丽代·热合木江; 哈斯亚提·托逊江; 艾比布拉·伊马木

    2012-01-01

    秋季沙枣成熟时,新疆各地摘取沙枣果枝,以果枝整体或果汁中分离的果实和叶子为原料,对其营养成分分析和消化性研究。沙枣干燥果枝整体、果实和叶子含粗蛋白(CP)分别为8.36%、6.87%、14.49%.果实的可溶性糖含量高达19.07%.叶子的酸性洗涤纤维(NDF)含量为33.35%。果枝整体、果实和叶子的体外干物质消化率分别为68.72%、69.03%、75.20%,可见沙枣的果实和叶子都具较高的营养价值,可作饲料开发利用。%Fruit and twigs from Elaeagnus angustifolia were collected in the autumn from different areas Xinjiang and all twigs , fruits and leaves were analyed to evulate the nutrient components and digestibility. The fruit is rich in soluble sugars, while the leaves are rich in crude protein. Crude protein content of all twigs, fruits and leaves were 8.36%, 6.87% and 14.49% in the dry mater based, respectively. Soluble sugar in fruits is up to 19.07%, and the cellulose content of all fruiting twigs is not very high. The dry matter digestibility of all fruiting twigs, fruits and leaves was 68.72% ,69.03% ,75.20%, respectively. These results showed that The fruit and leaves from Elaeagnus angustifolia had higher nutritional value, can be used as feedstuff.

  12. B61 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) Weapons Systems Evaluation Program (WSEP) Eglin Air Force Base, FL Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Water Tupelo Nyssa biflora Five-lined Skink Eumeces fasciatus Pitcher Plant Sarracenis purpurea Green Anole Anolis carolinensis Red Titi Cyrilla...Unknown C-52C Lilium iridollae Panhandle lily SE C-52C Tephrosia mohrii Pineland Hoary Pea ST C-52C Sarracenia rubra Red-flowered Pitcher Plant SE C

  13. 米仔兰枝条中杀虫活性成分研究%Insecticidal active constituents from twig of Aglaia odorata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨四海; 曾水云; 郑烈生

    2004-01-01

    Object To study the insecticidal activity constituents from the twigs of traditional Chinese folk medicine "Mizilan" or "Shu-Lan" (Aglaia odorata Lour. ). Methods Seperation and purification under bioassay-directed were performed on silica gel CC, Sephadex LH-20 CC and preparative TLC. Their structures were established on the basis of physicochemical and spectral analysis. Results Seven compounds were isolated and identified as rocaglamide ( Ⅰ ), desmethyl rocaglamide ( Ⅱ ), 8-methoxymarikarin (Ⅲ), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (Ⅳ), 3′-hydroxy-methylrocaglate (Ⅴ), 3′-hydroxyrocaglamide (Ⅵ), marikarin (Ⅶ), respectively. Conclusion Compound Ⅳ is isolated from the plant of Aglaia Lour. for the first time and compounds Ⅲ and Ⅶ are isolated from A. odorata for the first time.%目的研究中国传统民族植物药米仔兰(又称树兰)Aglaia odorata Lour.枝条中杀虫活性成分.方法以生物测定为指导,采用硅胶柱、Sephadex LH-20柱以及制备薄层分离板对其成分进行分离和纯化,并通过物化性质和光谱分析对其结构鉴定.结果从中分离得到7个化合物,分别鉴定为rocaglamide(Ⅰ)、desmethyl rocaglamide(Ⅱ)、8-methoxymarikarin(Ⅲ)、7-羟基-6-甲氧基-香豆素(Ⅳ)、3′-hydroxy-methylrocaglate(Ⅴ)、3′-hydroxyrocaglamide(Ⅵ)、marikarin(Ⅶ).结论化合物Ⅳ为首次从Aglaia Lour.属植物中分离得到,化合物Ⅲ和Ⅶ为首次从米仔兰植物中分离得到.

  14. [A Case of Aplastic or Twig-Like Middle Cerebral Artery Presenting with an Intracranial Hemorrhage Two Years after a Transient Ischemic Attack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Koguchi, Motofumi; Tajima, Yutaka; Suzuyama, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Aplastic or twig-like middle cerebral artery (Ap/T-MCA) is a rare anatomical anomaly, which can be associated with intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral ischemia. A 52-year-old woman who presented with sudden headache was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormality; however, magnetic resonance angiogram revealed an occlusion or severe stenosis in the left middle cerebral artery. Three-dimensional CT angiography demonstrated severe stenosis in the left middle cerebral artery. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit; however, she subsequently complained of temporary weakness in the right hand. It was possibly due to a transient ischemic attack; therefore, cilostazol 200 mg/day was administered for prevention of cerebral ischemia. Single photon emission computed tomography(with or without administration of acetazolamide)showed neither significant decrease in the cerebral blood flow nor cerebrovascular reactivity; hence, surgical revascularization was not performed. However, two years after the initial admission, she was urgently admitted to our hospital with sudden headache and nausea followed by aphasia and weakness of the right extremities. CT images showed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporo-parietal lobe. Cerebral angiography revealed that the left middle cerebral artery was Ap/T-MCA without cerebral aneurysms. The patient was treated conservatively, and she eventually recovered without any neurological deficit except mild aphasia. Since Ap/T-MCA is associated with both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, antiplatelet therapy should be administered carefully. Moreover, it is necessary to consider extracranial-intracranial bypass to reduce hemodynamic stress on the abnormal vessels.

  15. Anticancer activity of an extract from needles and twigs of Taxus cuspidata and its synergistic effect as a cocktail with 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Weihu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botanical medicines are increasingly combined with chemotherapeutics as anticancer drug cocktails. This study aimed to assess the chemotherapeutic potential of an extract of Taxus cuspidata (TC needles and twigs produced by artificial cuttage and its co-effects as a cocktail with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. Methods Components of TC extract were identified by HPLC fingerprinting. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay or ATP assay. Apoptosis studies were analyzed by H & E, PI, TUNEL staining, as well as Annexin V/PI assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. 5-FU concentrations in rat plasma were determined by HPLC and the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using 3p87 software. Synergistic efficacy was subjected to median effect analysis with the mutually nonexclusive model using Calcusyn1 software. The significance of differences between values was estimated by using a one-way ANOVA. Results TC extract reached inhibition rates of 70-90% in different human cancer cell lines (HL-60, BGC-823, KB, Bel-7402, and HeLa but only 5-7% in normal mouse T/B lymphocytes, demonstrating the broad-spectrum anticancer activity and low toxicity to normal cells of TC extract in vitro. TC extract inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Most interestingly, TC extract and 5-FU, combined as a cocktail, synergistically inhibited the growth of cancer cells in vitro, with Combination Index values (CI ranging from 0.90 to 0.26 at different effect levels from IC50 to IC90 in MCF-7 cells, CI ranging from 0.93 to 0.13 for IC40 to IC90 in PC-3M-1E8 cells, and CI TC extract did not affect the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in rats. Conclusions The combinational use of the TC extract with 5-FU displays strong cytotoxic synergy in cancer cells and low cytotoxicity in normal cells. These findings suggest that this cocktail may have a potential role in cancer treatment.

  16. 五叶子嫩枝叶茶饮料的研制%Research on Tea Beverages from Fresh Twigs and Leaves of Schisandra chinens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽杰; 胡平平; 薛伟利

    2011-01-01

    The Schisandra chinensis tea beverage was made with the fresh twigs and leaves of Schisandra chinensis as the principal material and then mixed with the essence or extracts of medlar and longan. The sugar, total acid and taste of 15 popular Schisandra chinensis tea beverage were determined and analyzed, so as to determine its flavor and sugar-acid ratio through the orthogonal experiment. According to the taste of Schisandra chinensis tea beverage, 8 flavors of green tea beverage and 8 flavors of ice black tea beverage were designed and produced with 10% of Schisandra chinensis extracts (V/V), 50 - 100 g,/L sugar, O. 4 - 4.0 g/L acid, 4% of medlar and longan extracts (V/V) or 0.05%-0.06% of essence (V/V). Through the evaluation of the sensory quality, 8 kinds of Schisandra chinensis tea beverage with good taste and flavor were produced, which had broad development prospect.%以五味子嫩枝叶为主要原料,辅以枸杞和桂圆的浸提汁或香精,研制五味子茶饮料.对市场上流行的15种茶饮料进行糖度、总酸的测定和口味分析,在此基础上采用正交设计法确定五味子茶饮料的口味和糖酸比.对五味子茶饮料的口味进行设计并加工出8种口味五味子绿茶饮料和8种口味的五味子冰红茶饮料,确定配方中原汁量占10%(v/v),糖度50~100 g/L、酸度0.4~4.0 g/L.调味汁占4%(v/v)或香精0.05%~0.06%(v/v).经过感官质量评定后,研制出了8种口味和口感都非常适宜的五味子茶饮料,具有较好的开发前景.

  17. The Effect of Twig-Picking and Fertilized Intervals on Yield of Moringa olei~era%不同采摘方法与施肥间隔对辣木嫩梢产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨焱

    2012-01-01

    Two randomized blocks are designed to study the effect of twig-picking ways and fertilized intervals on yield of Morin- ga oleifera. Of all treatments, the yield of Moringa oleifera would reach the highest when pick all 30-centimeter-long twigs and prune the same time combined with fertilization every 45 days.%采用三种不同采摘方法和两种施肥间隔做两因素随机区组设计试验,探讨在维持正常生长情况下不同采摘方法和施肥间隔对嫩梢产量的影响,结果表明,在相同的生产条件下,采摘全部30cm以上嫩梢,每采摘一次修剪一次,采摘与修剪同时进行,隔45d施肥一次的技术组合,辣木嫩梢产量最高。

  18. 螺旋环剥、环割处理对龙眼幼树的控梢促花效应研究%Effect of Spiral-girdling and Girdling on Twig Growth and Blossom in Longan Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义刚; 张; 杨世勇; 王虹; 刘剑飞

    2012-01-01

    对龙眼树主干进行螺旋环剥、环割,研究两种不同处理在龙眼控梢和促花上的效应,结果表明,在重庆地区,适度螺旋环剥是大乌圆结果幼树控冬梢、促花较理想的技术措施;石硖、蜀冠幼树采用环割控梢促花效应最好;对于晚秋梢抽发较多的植株,大乌圆于11月中旬短剪后进行螺旋环剥处理,石硖和蜀冠短剪后环割处理,是争取翌年增加产量较好的一项补救措施.%The effects of controlling twig growth and blossom of longan were studied using spiral-girdling and girdling. The results showed that the measure using spiral-girdling to Dawuyuan was more effective in controlling twig growth and blossom, and girdling to Shixia and Shuguan was more suitable. If the late-autumn shoots were more in this year, spiral-girdling to Dawuyuan and girdling to Shixia and Shuguan after tree shot pruning was an economic and effective remedial measure of increasing yield in next year.

  19. 改良黄芪桂枝五物汤治疗产后风湿病研究%The study for treatment of postpartum rheumatism by improved decoction of five ingredients of astragalus membranaceus and cassia twig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    镇树清; 镇万雄

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum rheumatism ( known as the “month of disease”) was caused by postpartum frail , wind-cold-wetness evil, the deficiency of blood and nutrition .In this study, 62 patients of postpartum rheumatism were cured by improved decoc-tion of five ingredients of Astragalus membranaceus and Cassia twig , the trial results showed that the total curative effective rate of improved formula group was 93.5%.Compared to the control group (its total curative effective rate was 61.1%), the difference of the curative effect of improved decoction of five ingredients of Astragalus membranaceus and Cassia twig was very significant (P <0.01).%产后风湿病,俗称“月子病”,多因妇女产后体虚、感受风寒湿邪、营卫失调,营血不足所致。以改良黄芪桂枝五物汤治疗产后风湿病患者62例,总有效率为93.5%,与对照组(总有效率为61.1%)相比较,差异极显著(P<0.01).

  20. 桂枝加桂汤治疗阳虚型慢性荨麻疹的疗效观察%Cassia twig and laurel soup treatment curative effect observation of Yang deficiency type of chronic urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔丹霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察桂枝加桂汤治疗阳虚型慢性荨麻疹的疗效。方法:将40例阳虚型慢性荨麻疹患者随机分为观察组(20例)和治疗组(20例),对照组采取盐酸西替利嗪治疗,治疗组采取桂枝加桂汤予以口服治疗,观察两组临床疗效情况。结果:治疗28天,观察组总有效率为90.0%,对照组总有效率为75.0%,两组总有效率比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),治疗组高于对照组。结论:桂枝加桂汤治疗阳虚型慢性荨麻疹疗效优于盐酸西替利嗪。%Objective:To observe the cassia twig and laurel soup treatment the curative effect of chronic urticaria Yang deficiency type. Methods:Fourty cases of Yang deficiency in patients with chronic urticaria were randomly divided into observation group (20 cases) and treatment group (20 cases) and control group treated with cetirizine hydrochloride;Treatment group take cassia twig and laurel soup to oral therapy, observe two groups of clinical curative effect. Results:28 days, observation group total effective rate was 90.0%, control group total effective rate was 75.0%, two groups total effective rate was significant difference (P < 0.05), the treatment group is higher than the control group. Conclusion:Cassia twig and laurel soup Yang deficiency type chronic urticaria curative effect is better than that of cetirizine hydrochloride.

  1. 多效唑对杨梅枯枝病的影响及防治%Effect of paclobutrazol (PP333) on twig dieback of Myrica rubra and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方永; 倪海枝; 王引; 任正初; 刘继红; 王一光

    2014-01-01

    Summary Red bayberry ( Myrica rubra ( Lour .) Zucc) is one of the major fruits planted in Zhejiang Province , China . It provides an important financial support for the farmers in this area . However , the fungal disease twig dieback severely threats the growth of red bayberry . Once one plant is infected by this disease , it would spread and destroy the whole orchard in three years . Controlling technology on this disease is urgently needed at this area .Paclobutrazol ( PP333 ) is a chemical widely used for plant growth regulation . It causes plant growth shorter , stronger , more branches and better fruiting . It has been widely used on the red bayberry for higher production . However , over‐dosage use of the chemical PP333 is suspected to connect with the epidemic of twig dieback in Zhejiang , China . The causal agent of the twig dieback disease was proved to be Pestalotiopsis species . It is postulated that the application of PP333 inhibits some bacteria growth and breaks microbial community balance in the soil , so that the causal agent of twig dieback is predominant .In order to test the hypothesis , we investigated the correlation between application amount of PP 333 and disease severity in eight farms in Zhejiang in four years . In the eight farms , we investigated the connection of application dosage of PP333 with the residues of the chemical in leaves , roots and fruits respectively . In different treatments of PP333 , leaf colour , root architecture and fruit quality were also investigated . Application of three concentrations of PP333 , T1 (200 mg/kg) , T2 (300 mg/kg) and T 3 ( 500 mg/kg) , resulted in light , moderate and heavy twig dieback disease , respectively . The results showed that over‐dosage application of PP333 in successive years caused fruit tree early senility and server diseases infection .In order to cure the infected fruit trees , we applied a new home‐made chemical to the infected trees . The results showed that the home

  2. Mercury adsorption performance by modified mulberry twig chars%改性桑树枝焦对模拟烟气中汞的吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    树童; 卢平; 何楠; 王秦超

    2013-01-01

    Several mulberry twig (MT) chars were prepared by conventional pyrolysis, steam activation, and impregnation with H2O2, ZnCl2 and NaCl. Adsorption performance of mercury in a simulated flue gas by MT chars were studied in a bench-scale fixed bed absorber, and the effects of steam activation, impregnation agent, adsorption temperature, and the composition of simulated flue gas, etc. on mercury adsorption performance were analyzed. The results indicated that steam activation could significantly increase surface areas of MT pyrolysis chars. Impregnation with H2O2 can further improve surface areas of steam activated MT chars and its pore structure. However, impregnation with ZnCl2 and NaCl led to decrease of surface areas, D-R micro-pore and total pore volume of MT chars in some extent. The mercury adsorption capacities of MT chars impregnated with 10% and 30% H2O2 were 2. 02 and 1. 77 times of that for steam activated MT char, respectively, and that of MT char impregnated with ZnCl2 was a little better than that impregnated with NaCl at the same impregnation concentration. The performance of mercury adsorption enhanced with increase of ZnCl2 concentration for modified MT char. The mercury adsorption for MT600-A-ZnCl2 (5 % ) was 29.55μg·g-1,3.37 times of that for steam activated MT char. At temperature of 60-120℃, the mercury adsorption efficiency and capacity of MT chars impregnated with H2O2 decreased with increase of adsorption temperature. However, the capacity of MT chars impregnated with ZnCl2 showed an increase trend at first and then decrease, and its optimum adsorption temperature was 90℃. SO2 and NO in the simulated flue gas showed adverse effect on mercury adsorption. Both mercury adsorption efficiency and capacity decreased slightly with increase of SO2 and NO concentration.%采用固定床热解、蒸汽活化和改性剂(H2O2、ZnCl2和NaCl)浸渍等方法制得不同的桑树枝焦.在固定床吸附实验台上,研究了蒸汽活化、改性剂

  3. 树冠喷药毒杀光肩星天牛成虫效果及农药残留分析%Efficacy of 4 Insecticides Used as Cover Spray for Controlling Adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) and the Levels of these Insecticides Detected in Leaves and Twigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞桐; Wang Baode; Victor C. Mastro; Richard C. Reardon; 李国宏

    2005-01-01

    We reported in this paper the results of our test of four insecticides used through cover spray for controlling the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabriennis (Motsch.). The four insecticides were ASTRO (A. I. 36.8% permethrin) by FMC Corp. , AllPro DURSBAN 4E (A. I. 44.9% chlorpyrifos) by Sureco Inc. , ORTHENE 75 S (A. I. 75% acephate) by VALENT USA Corp., and SEVINXLR PLUS (A. I. 44.1% carbaryl) by Rhone-Poulenc AG Co. (now part of Bayer CropScience). The insecticides were sprayed onto 1.5 years old poplar ( Populus sp. ) trees until insecticide run-off from twigs.Twigs were collected from treated trees once every 3 d until the 21~t day after insecticide application to feed chged adult beeries.Adult mortality was recorded once every day for 3 d. Leaf and twig samples of treated poplar were collected from each treatment 3, 6, 9, 20, 40 d after spray to determine the levels of insecticides in these parts of trees. Although all insecticides showed promise for short term efficacy ( > 95% 3 d mortality for adults feed on twigs collected 1 after application), permethrin (concentration 920 mg~ kg-l) was the best among the 4 tested insecticides for longer residual activity with 3 d cumulative mortality > 95% for adults feed on twigs collected within 15 days after application. Chlorpyrifos (2 245 mg·kg-1) was the least effective with 3 d cumulative mortality around 60% for adults feed on twigs collected within 6 d after application, while the mortality was around 90 % and 75 % for acephate (7 500 mg·kg-1 ) and carbaryl ( 17 640 mg·kg-1 ), respectively. However,high concentrations of acephate and carbaryl are not feasible for controlling adult beetles, especially in urban areas. In general,levels of insecticides were higher in leaves than in twigs for the 4 insecticide. Levels in leaf 3-9 d after application was 0.9-4.1 mg·kg-1 for permethrin, 2.5-1.6 mg·kg-1 for chlorpyrifos, 2.6 - 2.3 mg·kg-1 for acephate, and 35.2-49.6 mg·kg-1 for carbaryl. Residual levels

  4. 炙桂枝与肉桂对普萘洛尔致心动过缓大鼠Na+-K+-ATP酶活性研究%Effect of prepared cassia twigs and cassia on Na+-K+-ATPase activity in rats with bradycardia caused by propranolol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琳; 陈一江

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study effect of prepared cassia twigs and cassia on Na +-K +-ATPase activity in rats with bradycardia caused by propranolol. Methods:70 rats were randomly divided into prepared cassia twig group,prepared cassia twig model group,cassia group,cassia model group,blank group,propranolol group and atropine group (n=10). Model rats were constructed by propranolol.7 d after treatment,heart rate and activity of Na+-K+-ATPase were observed. Results:Compared with propranolol group,the drop rate of 30 min heart rate was decreased in prepared cassia twig model group and cassia model group (P<0.01). The activity of Na+-K+-ATPase in prepared cassia twig model group and cassia model group was higher than that in propranolol group(P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion:Both prepared cassia twig and cassia can obviously increase the heart rate in bradycardia rats caused by propranolol through improving the activity of Na+-K+ATpase.%目的:比较炙桂枝与肉桂对普萘洛尔所致心动过缓大鼠心率及Na+-K+-ATP酶活性的影响,分析炙桂枝与肉桂在抗心动过缓中的作用机制及两者差异。方法:将70只大鼠随机分为炙桂枝组、炙桂枝模型组、肉桂组、肉桂模型组、空白组、普萘洛尔模型对照组,每组10只。连续给药7 d,以普萘洛尔造模,比较各组大鼠心率变化及Na+-K+-ATP酶活性。结果:炙桂枝组与肉桂组30 min心率减慢变化率较普萘洛尔模型对照组明显升高(P<0.01);炙桂枝模型组、肉桂模型组Na+-K+-ATP酶活性较普萘洛尔模型对照组高(P<0.01)。结论:炙桂枝与肉桂均能显著提高普萘洛尔致心动过缓的大鼠的Na+-K+-ATP酶活性,以增加心率。

  5. Effects of Plant Growth Regulator on Cutting and Rooting of Celastrus orbiculatus Twigs%植物生长调节剂对南蛇藤嫩枝扦插生根的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银华

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study the effects of kinds,concn. and treating time of plant growth regulators on cutting and rooting of Celastrus orbiculatus twigs. [ Method] 4 kinds of plant growth regulators including NAA 、IBA 、ABT1 and GGR6 were made into the solutions with different concn. and C. orbiculatus twigs were made for the full-light automatic spraying cutting after soaking or speedily dipping the cuttings base of C.orbiculatus by different solutions of plant growth regulators, with the clean water as the CK. The cutting and rooting condition was investigated after treatment for 2 months. [ Result] The treatment of soaking the cuttings base of C. orbiculatus with 300 mg/L IBA for 40 min and the treatment of speedily dipping the cuttings base of C. orbiculatus with 1000 mg/L NAA had better rooting effect, with the mean rooting number of 45.6 and 38.5 resp. and the cutting survival rate of 87.0% and 91.5% resp. [ Conclusion ] The study provided the reference for the rap reproduction of C. orbiculatus.%[目的]研究植物生长调节剂种类、浓度及处理时间对南蛇藤插穗生根的影响.[方法]用NAA、IBA、ABT1和GGR6 4种植物生长调节剂配成不同浓度溶液,对南蛇藤插穗基部浸泡或速蘸后进行全光照自动喷雾扦插,以清水为对照,2个月后对插穗生根状况进行调查.[结果]南蛇藤插穗基部在浓度300 mg/L的IBA溶液中浸泡40 min和插穗基部用浓度1 000 mg/L的NAA速蘸的处理生根效果较好,平均生根数分别为45.6、38.5条,扦插成活率分别为87.0%和91.5%.[结论]该研究为南蛇藤的快速繁殖提供了参考.

  6. 一种基于XML小枝查询片段松弛的近似查询与结果排序方法%Approximate Query and Results Ranking Approach Based on XML Twig Query Fragment Relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏珂; 任建华; 孟祥福

    2012-01-01

    Based on XML twig query fragments relaxation, this paper proposed an approximate querying and results ranking approach to achieve the approximate query results against XML documents: our method gathers the query history to speculate the user's preferences, which is used to calculate the importance for each query fragment of the twig query,and relax the original query according to the sequence of the fragments' importance; based on the number of query fragments we adopt different relax way:if the number>2,relax the original query according to the granularity of the fragment; if the number<2, relax the original query according to the granularity of query node, and adopt a different way to relax the numerical query and non-numerical query,and then obtain the most relevant query results. Finally, the relevant query results are ranked based on their satisfaction degree to the original query and the user preferences. Our experiment shows that the approximate querying and the results ranking approach can efficiently meet the user's needs and user's preferences,has the high recall and precision.%提出了一种基于XML小枝查询片段松弛的近似查询与结果排序方法来实现用户在XML文档中的近似查询:通过收集用户的查询历史来推测用户偏好,并以此计算原始小枝查询分解得到的查询片段的重要程度,然后按照重要程度的排序进行查询松弛;在松弛方法中,根据查询片段数目的不同采用不同的松弛方法,若片段数目较多则以查询片段为粒度对其松弛,较少则以查询结点为粒度对数值查询与非数值查询采用不同的方法进行松弛,得到最为相关的近似查询结果;最后接近似查询结果对原始查询和用户偏好的满足程度进行排序并输出.实验证明,该近似查询方法能够较好地满足用户的需求和偏好,具有较高的查全率和准确率.

  7. Control Effect of Fungicides Against Twig Rot of Loquat Tree in Panxi Area of Sichuan%攀西地区枇杷枝干腐烂病农药防治试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元良; 陈雪梅; 王凤屏; 刘科华; 卢照富

    2015-01-01

    Experiment of fungicides against twig rot of loquat was conducted in Panxi area of Sichuan Province during 2013 to 2014. Of all tested fungicides, Guoshukang, thiophanate-methyl + 1-naphthylacetic acid and dioctyl divinyltriamino glycine have significant effect on this disease, with recovery averaged in 90% or more. The other two fungicides, named thiodia-zole copper and procymidone, also have a certain control effect (85% above). They can be recommended to production use.%2013-2014年在四川攀西地区进行枇杷枝干腐烂病的农药防治试验,结果表明,果树康、甲硫·萘乙酸、菌清对枇杷枝干腐烂病防治有明显效果,平均病斑治愈率在90%以上,其次为噻菌酮、腐霉利,平均病斑治愈率在85%以上,均可向生产推荐使用。

  8. Full sun-spay-cutting method of Rosa Davurica Pall ' twig cutting%全光雾喷法在刺玫果嫩枝扦插上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军方; 段进潮; 徐岩; 任跃英; 王远亮; 肖兴利; 王秀萍

    2011-01-01

    全光雾喷法扦插育苗是近几年应用较多的快速育苗技术,它具有生根快、繁殖率高的特点,是快速繁殖优良品种苗木的一条重要途径。笔者对刺玫果分别用普通扦插和全光雾喷法进行夏季嫩枝扦插试验,结果表明用浓度为2×10-5g/mL的IBA浸泡16小时处理的插穗使用全光雾插法生根率可高达96%。%Full sun-spay-cutting method is the most applied on rapid seedling technique in recent years, its characteristic takes root quickly and reproductive rate high. It is important way of good varieties 'rapid propagation. By using chemical treatments of IBA on twig cuttings under common cutting and the full sun-spay-cutting method for summer cuttings test .The results show that adopted full sun-spay-eutting method ,which was cutting stems in summer, dousing in 2×10-5g/mL IBA for 16 hours .The rooting rate could reach 96%.

  9. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Double-Dummy, Active-Controlled, and Multiple-Dose Clinical Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Mulberry Twig (Ramulus Mori, Sangzhi Alkaloid Tablet and Acarbose in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mulberry twig alkaloid (SZ-A tablet compared with acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. This clinical trial enrolled 38 patients who were randomized into two groups (SZ-A: 23; acarbose: 15 and were treated for 24 weeks. Patients and clinical trial staffs were masked to treatment assignment throughout the study. The primary outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and 1-hour and 2-hour postprandial and fasting plasma glucose levels from baseline to the end of treatment. Analysis included all patients who completed this study. Results. By the end of this study, HbA1c level in SZ-A group was decreased from baseline significantly (P<0.001. No significant difference was found when compared with acarbose group (P=0.652. Similarly, 1-hour and 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels in SZ-A group were decreased from baseline statistically (P<0.05, without any significant differences compared with acarbose group (P=0.748 and 0.558, resp.. The fasting plasma glucose levels were not significantly changed in both groups. One of 23 patients in SZ-A group (4.76% and 5 of 15 patients in acarbose group (33.33% suffered from gastrointestinal adverse events. Conclusions. Compared with acarbose, SZ-A tablet was effective and safe in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Amber fossils demonstrate deep-time stability of Caribbean lizard communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Emma; del Rosario Castañeda, María; Garwood, Russell J; Mahler, D Luke; Sanger, Thomas J; Herrel, Anthony; de Queiroz, Kevin; Losos, Jonathan B

    2015-08-11

    Whether the structure of ecological communities can exhibit stability over macroevolutionary timescales has long been debated. The similarity of independently evolved Anolis lizard communities on environmentally similar Greater Antillean islands supports the notion that community evolution is deterministic. However, a dearth of Caribbean Anolis fossils--only three have been described to date--has precluded direct investigation of the stability of anole communities through time. Here we report on an additional 17 fossil anoles in Dominican amber dating to 15-20 My before the present. Using data collected primarily by X-ray microcomputed tomography (X-ray micro-CT), we demonstrate that the main elements of Hispaniolan anole ecomorphological diversity were in place in the Miocene. Phylogenetic analysis yields results consistent with the hypothesis that the ecomorphs that evolved in the Miocene are members of the same ecomorph clades extant today. The primary axes of ecomorphological diversity in the Hispaniolan anole fauna appear to have changed little between the Miocene and the present, providing evidence for the stability of ecological communities over macroevolutionary timescales.

  11. Amber fossils demonstrate deep-time stability of Caribbean lizard communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Emma; del Rosario Castañeda, María; Garwood, Russell J.; Mahler, D. Luke; Sanger, Thomas J.; Herrel, Anthony; de Queiroz, Kevin; Losos, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Whether the structure of ecological communities can exhibit stability over macroevolutionary timescales has long been debated. The similarity of independently evolved Anolis lizard communities on environmentally similar Greater Antillean islands supports the notion that community evolution is deterministic. However, a dearth of Caribbean Anolis fossils—only three have been described to date—has precluded direct investigation of the stability of anole communities through time. Here we report on an additional 17 fossil anoles in Dominican amber dating to 15–20 My before the present. Using data collected primarily by X-ray microcomputed tomography (X-ray micro-CT), we demonstrate that the main elements of Hispaniolan anole ecomorphological diversity were in place in the Miocene. Phylogenetic analysis yields results consistent with the hypothesis that the ecomorphs that evolved in the Miocene are members of the same ecomorph clades extant today. The primary axes of ecomorphological diversity in the Hispaniolan anole fauna appear to have changed little between the Miocene and the present, providing evidence for the stability of ecological communities over macroevolutionary timescales. PMID:26216976

  12. Salicortin-Derivatives from Salix pseudo-lasiogyne Twigs Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells via Modulation of C/EBPα and SREBP1c Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Pyo Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reported to be associated with excessive growth of adipocyte mass tissue as a result of increases in the number and size of adipocytes differentiated from preadipocytes. To search for anti-adipogenic phytochemicals, we screened for inhibitory activities of various plant sources on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Among the sources, a methanolic extract of Salix pseudo-lasiogyne twigs (Salicaceae reduced lipid accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. During our search for anti-adipogenic constituents from S. pseudo-lasiogyne, five salicortin derivatives isolated from an EtOAc fraction of this plant and bearing 1-hydroxy-6-oxo-2-cyclohexene-carboxylate moieties, namely 2′,6′-O-acetylsalicortin (1, 2′-O-acetylsalicortin (2, 3′-O-acetylsalicortin (3, 6′-O-acetylsalicortin (4, and salicortin (5, were found to significantly inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In particular, 2′,6′-O-acetylsalicortin (1 had the most potent inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation, with an IC50 value of 11.6 μM, and it significantly down-regulated the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1c. Furthermore, 2′,6′-O-acetylsalicortin (1 suppressed mRNA expression levels of C/EBPβ during the early stage of adipocyte differentiation and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS expression, target genes of SREBP1c. In the present study, we demonstrate that the anti-adipogenesis mechanism of 2′,6′-O-acetylsalicortin (1 may be mediated via down-regulation of C/EBPα and SREBP1c dependent pathways. Through their anti-adipogenic activity, salicortin derivatives may be potential novel therapeutic agents against obesity.

  13. From Source to Sink: Integration and Alteration of Oxygen Isotope Signals during the Transfer from Precipitation to Leaf Water, Leaf Sugars, Twig Phloem Sugars into the Stem Phloem Sugars of Four Mature European Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, N.; Werner, R. A.; Buchmann, N. C.; Kahmen, A.

    2014-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of stem cellulose record physiological and ecohydrological information and are increasingly being used for the reconstruction of past environments. Studies that have investigated the environmental and physiological drivers of δ18O values in tree ring cellulose have typically focused either on the source of the signal, e.g. the leaf and the water therein, or on the sink, e.g. the cellulose in the stem. In contrast, hardly any research has investigated the transfer of the δ18O signal from precipitation, to soil water, xylem water, leaf water, leaf sugars, phloem sugars all the way to cellulose in the tree ring. As such, critical uncertainties remain regarding the seasonal integration and precision by which precipitation and leaf water δ18O signals are recorded in the tree ring cellulose δ18O values. In our talk, we will present a unique three year dataset that shows the seasonal variation of δ18O values in precipitation, soil water, xylem water, leaf water, leaf sugars, twig and stem phloem sugars for four common European tree species, which are growing in a mature temperature Swiss mixed broadleaf/evergreen forest. This dataset allows us to assess, (i) to what degree the substantial seasonal variation in precipitation δ18O values influences the δ18O values of tree ring cellulose and (ii) if physiological and environmental δ18O signals imprinted on the tree's leaf water δ18O values and the assimilates formed therein are altered on their way downstream to the tree stem. The new insight that we provide into the integration and possible alteration of δ18O signals along the leaf-stem pathway will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the environmental and physiological signals that can be obtained from tree ring δ18O chronologies. In addition it will be relevant for the incorporation and parameterization of tree ring isotope models into dynamic global vegetation models.

  14. William James Sidis, The Broken Twig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montour, Kathleen

    1977-01-01

    By presenting cases of prodigies who entered college as early as William James Bidis but who succeeded, this paper attempts to dissuade the public from its opposition to educational acceleration for precocious children, to which the "Sidis fallacy" has helped give rise. (Author)

  15. A new monoterpenoid glucoside from the twigs of Chamaecyparis obtusa var.breviramea f.crippsii%黄叶扁柏枝叶中的一个新单萜苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 张玉梅; 陈科力; 谭宁华; 刘义梅

    2012-01-01

    为了研究黄叶扁柏(Chamaecyparis obtusa var.breviramea f.crippsii)的化学成分,用硅胶柱、Sephadex LH-20、C18反相硅胶柱色谱、制备液相等色谱方法从其枝叶中分离得到6个化合物,通过波谱方法将它们的结构分别鉴定为(4S)-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarboxylic acid 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1)、(4R)-p-menth- 1-ene-7,8-diol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2)、skimmin (3)、7-[[6-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4)、stigmast-4-en-3-one (5)和1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid l-butyl-4-(2-methylpropyl) ester (6).其中化合物1为新化合物,化合物2~6为首次从该植物中分离得到.体外细胞毒活性筛选发现,黄叶扁柏枝叶的甲醇提取物在人A549、BGC-823、Du145和MDA-MB-231肿瘤细胞株上均显示一定的细胞毒活性,其IC50值分别为0.94、1.07、0.95和0.96 μg·mL-1,但化合物1、2和3在人HeLa、BGC-823和A549细胞株上均无明显细胞毒活性.%To investigate the chemical constituents of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii, various column chromatography and spectroscopic methods were used for the isolation and elucidation of compounds. One new monoterpenoid glucoside, (4S)-4-isopropylcyclohex-l-enecarboxylic acid 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with five known compounds, (4R)-p-menth-l-ene-7, 8-diol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), skimmin (3), 7-[[6-O-(6-deoxy-α-Z-mannopyranosyl)-β-Z)-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5) and 1, 4-benzenedicarboxylic acid l-butyl-4-(2-methylpropyl) ester (6) were isolated and identified from the twigs of this plant. All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The methanol extract of this plant showed cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, Dul45 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 0.94, 1.07, 0.95 and 0.96 μg·mL-1, respectively. Yet, compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed no cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines HeLa, BGC-823 and A549.

  16. Clinical observation of Cinnamon Twig, Peony, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae decoction combined with Pubescent Angelica and Mistletoe decoction in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in 28 cases%桂枝芍药知母汤合独活寄生汤治疗类风湿性关节炎28例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边志强

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨桂枝芍药知母汤合独活寄生汤治疗类风湿性关节炎的临床效果。方法选取我院2014年9月~2015年9类风湿性关节炎患者共28例,随机分为观察组和对照组。对照组采用西药治疗,观察组采用桂枝芍药知母汤合独活寄生汤治疗。观察疗效。结果观察组总有效率为92.9%,关节疼痛度、关节肿胀度、晨僵时间及关节功能情况,均优于对照组,组间比较有统计学差异(P<0.05)。结论桂枝芍药知母汤合独活寄生汤治疗类风湿性关节炎,能够改善患者的临床症状,具有良好的临床效果。%Objective To explore the clinical effect of Cinnamon Twig, Peony, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae Decoction combined with Pubescent Angelica and Mistletoe Decoction in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Methods 28 patients with rheumatoid arthritis in our hospital from September 2014 to September 2015 were selected and they were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group. The control group was received treatment of western medicine while the observation group was received treatment of Cinnamon Twig, Peony, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae Decoction combined with Pubescent Angelica and Mistletoe decoction. Curative effects were observed.Results Total effective rate of the observation group was 92.9%. Joint pain degree, joint swelling degree, time of morning stiffness and joint function of the observation group were all superior to those of the control group. There are differences between two groups when compared (P<0.05).Conclusion Cinnamon Twig, Peony, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae decoction combined with Pubescent Angelica and Mistletoe decoction in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis can improve clinical symptoms of patients, which has good clinical effect.

  17. 桂枝汤药物规律性组合及其类方系统结合病机理论探讨“证”内涵(二)%Regularity Drugs Combination of Cinnamon Twig Decoction and Study on Connotation of Syndrome Based on Its Class Decoction System Combined with the Theory of Pathogenesis (Two)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文娟; 烟建华

    2012-01-01

    用文献和数据挖掘的[方法]和方药——病机——证的逆向思维,从桂枝汤的药物规律性组合及其类方系统与证机相关性来探讨“证”的内涵.得出“证”内涵具有如下特性:功能关系性、整体关联性、动态时空性、模型性、多维意象性.%By the methods of literature and data mining and the reverse thinking of herbs - pathogenesis - syndrome, study on the connotation of syndrome from regularity drugs combination of cinnamon twig decoction was made from its class decoction system combined with the theory of pathogenesis. We obtained the following characteristics of the connotation of syndrome:function relation, integrated relation,dynamic 3pace-time relation,modularity and multi -dimensional image.

  18. Study on Connotation of Syndrome by Combination of Regularity Drugs Combination of Cinnamon Twig Decoction and Its Class Decoction System and Theory of Pathogenesis(One)%桂枝汤药物规律性组合及其类方系统结合病机理论探讨“证”内涵(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文娟; 烟建华

    2012-01-01

    用文献和数据挖掘的方法和方药——病机——证的逆向思维,从桂枝汤的药物规律性组合及其类方系统与其证机相关性来探讨“证”内涵.得出“证”内涵具有如下特性:功能关系性、整体关联性、动态时空性、模型性、多维意象性.%Study on the connotation of syndrome from regularity drugs combination of cinnamon twig decoction and its class decoction system combined with the theory of pathogenesis was made with the methods of literature and data mining and the reverse thinking of herbs - pathogenesis - syndrome. We obtained the following characteristics of the connotation of syndrome:function,overall and relative relation, dynamics of space - time,model and multi - dimensional image.

  19. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Anke C; Blahak, Silvia; Heckers, Kim O; Wiechert, Jutta; Behncke, Helge; Mathes, Karina; Günther, Pascale; Zwart, Peer; Ball, Inna; Rüschoff, Birgit; Marschang, Rachel E

    2013-09-27

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards.

  20. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards. PMID:24073785

  1. Predation Risk Perception, Food Density and Conspecific Cues Shape Foraging Decisions in a Tropical Lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Drakeley

    Full Text Available When foraging, animals can maximize their fitness if they are able to tailor their foraging decisions to current environmental conditions. When making foraging decisions, individuals need to assess the benefits of foraging while accounting for the potential risks of being captured by a predator. However, whether and how different factors interact to shape these decisions is not yet well understood, especially in individual foragers. Here we present a standardized set of manipulative field experiments in the form of foraging assays in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus in Puerto Rico. We presented male lizards with foraging opportunities to test how the presence of conspecifics, predation-risk perception, the abundance of food, and interactions among these factors determines the outcome of foraging decisions. In Experiment 1, anoles foraged faster when food was scarce and other conspecifics were present near the feeding tray, while they took longer to feed when food was abundant and when no conspecifics were present. These results suggest that foraging decisions in anoles are the result of a complex process in which individuals assess predation risk by using information from conspecific individuals while taking into account food abundance. In Experiment 2, a simulated increase in predation risk (i.e., distance to the feeding tray confirmed the relevance of risk perception by showing that the use of available perches is strongly correlated with the latency to feed. We found Puerto Rican crested anoles integrate instantaneous ecological information about food abundance, conspecific activity and predation risk, and adjust their foraging behavior accordingly.

  2. Predation Risk Perception, Food Density and Conspecific Cues Shape Foraging Decisions in a Tropical Lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakeley, Maximilian; Lapiedra, Oriol; Kolbe, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    When foraging, animals can maximize their fitness if they are able to tailor their foraging decisions to current environmental conditions. When making foraging decisions, individuals need to assess the benefits of foraging while accounting for the potential risks of being captured by a predator. However, whether and how different factors interact to shape these decisions is not yet well understood, especially in individual foragers. Here we present a standardized set of manipulative field experiments in the form of foraging assays in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus in Puerto Rico. We presented male lizards with foraging opportunities to test how the presence of conspecifics, predation-risk perception, the abundance of food, and interactions among these factors determines the outcome of foraging decisions. In Experiment 1, anoles foraged faster when food was scarce and other conspecifics were present near the feeding tray, while they took longer to feed when food was abundant and when no conspecifics were present. These results suggest that foraging decisions in anoles are the result of a complex process in which individuals assess predation risk by using information from conspecific individuals while taking into account food abundance. In Experiment 2, a simulated increase in predation risk (i.e., distance to the feeding tray) confirmed the relevance of risk perception by showing that the use of available perches is strongly correlated with the latency to feed. We found Puerto Rican crested anoles integrate instantaneous ecological information about food abundance, conspecific activity and predation risk, and adjust their foraging behavior accordingly.

  3. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... 2Bioactivity Programme, Natural Products Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 ... are solitary or clusters and possessing a strong aromatic ... plants resulted in the isolation of several compounds for.

  4. From the twig tips to the deeper branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum continues. From an applied perspective, however, molecular markers help to "tag" and "track" worms during their transmission cycle(s), providing new insights into host range, as well as methods for assessing parasite population dynamics through time and contingent...

  5. Implications of Black Coffee Twig Borer on cocoa in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    other ecological roles including atmospheric ... information on biology, ecology, control and the actual yield loss ... (ANOVA) with general linear model .... 2013, extension staff in Harugale sub- county ... Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R.Br. ... natural mixed-forest habitat, and it is only ... effects due to this pest will, therefore, not.

  6. THE EFFECT OF CITY POLLUTION ON VB2 CONTENT IN TWIGS AND LEAVES OF SOPHORA JAPONICA AND ON THE POPULATION OF EULECANIUM GIGANTEA%城市污染对国槐树体VB2含量及瘤坚大球蚧种群影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛皎亮; 谢映平; 李艳芳

    2001-01-01

    瘤坚大球蚧Eulecanium gigantea Shinji近年来是我国城市林木的重要害虫。作者于1998~1999年在太原市和太谷县城设点,测定了该蚧虫的寄主树木国槐体内维生素B2(VB2)的变化规律,用蚧虫的虫口密度和生物学节律相对照,分析了污染-VB2含量-蚧虫种群消长之间的关系。结果证明,污染区国槐枝条和叶片的VB2含量极显著地高于清洁区;VB2的变化与虫口密度呈正相关关系,回归式为y=1507.76x-170.56,相关系数r=0.839。在一年中,VB2的含量呈现两个高峰期,正好与该蚧虫的两个取食期相吻合。由此认为,污染使树体内VB2含量增高很可能是促进该蚧虫种群增长的一个原因。%Eulecanium gigantea Shinji(Homoptera: Coccidae)is an important pest in the cities of Northern China in recent years. Experimental districts were selected in Taiyuan City and Taigu County from 1998 to 1999. Vitamin B2 (VB2) was determined monthly in twigs and leaves of Sophora japonica, the most favorable host of the scale insect. The results showed that the population density and biological rhythm of the scale insect were contrasted with the content of VB2 and the VB2 content in the two pollution districts were significantly higher than that in the cleaning district. The more the city environment polluted, the more VB2 content in the host tree was. A positive relativity between the density of the scale insect and the VB2 contents was found. The regression equation was made out as Y = 1507.76x - 170.56,and the coefficient, r = 0.839. From March to October, the two peaks of VB2 content were corresponded to the two feeding and quick development stages of the scale insect. It was concluded that a higher VB2 content in the host plant in some degree was benefit to the scale insect occurring greatly in the polluted city environment.

  7. Biased gene conversion and GC-content evolution in the coding sequences of reptiles and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Ballenghien, Marion; Romiguier, Jonathan; Galtier, Nicolas

    2014-12-19

    Mammalian and avian genomes are characterized by a substantial spatial heterogeneity of GC-content, which is often interpreted as reflecting the effect of local GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a meiotic repair bias that favors G and C over A and T alleles in high-recombining genomic regions. Surprisingly, the first fully sequenced nonavian sauropsid (i.e., reptile), the green anole Anolis carolinensis, revealed a highly homogeneous genomic GC-content landscape, suggesting the possibility that gBGC might not be at work in this lineage. Here, we analyze GC-content evolution at third-codon positions (GC3) in 44 vertebrates species, including eight newly sequenced transcriptomes, with a specific focus on nonavian sauropsids. We report that reptiles, including the green anole, have a genome-wide distribution of GC3 similar to that of mammals and birds, and we infer a strong GC3-heterogeneity to be already present in the tetrapod ancestor. We further show that the dynamic of coding sequence GC-content is largely governed by karyotypic features in vertebrates, notably in the green anole, in agreement with the gBGC hypothesis. The discrepancy between third-codon positions and noncoding DNA regarding GC-content dynamics in the green anole could not be explained by the activity of transposable elements or selection on codon usage. This analysis highlights the unique value of third-codon positions as an insertion/deletion-free marker of nucleotide substitution biases that ultimately affect the evolution of proteins.

  8. 杨梅凋萎病菌异色拟盘多毛孢菌(Pestalotiopsis versicolor)的生物学特性研究%Biological characteristics of Pestalotiopsis versicolor,the agent of bayberry twig blight in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海英; 李岗; 戚行江; 韦继光; 梁森苗; 郑锡良; 颜丽菊; 朱潇婷

    2013-01-01

    为了明确杨梅凋萎病的病原菌之一异色拟盘多毛孢菌( Pestalotiopsis versicolor)的生物学特性,对其3个代表菌株XJ27、XJ42、RA2-1在不同培养基、碳源、氮源、温度、pH、光照条件下的生长以及产孢情况进行研究。研究结果表明,在7种培养基上25℃培养时,PDA和PSA最适合菌株气生菌丝生长,菌丝生长速度快而茂盛。杨梅汁(BFA)上菌丝生长较快,但是不茂盛。燕麦培养基(OMA)和查氏培养基(CDA)中等适合,杨梅叶煎汁( BLA)和杨梅枝干煎汁( BBA)不适合气生菌丝生长。10种不同碳源培养基以及硝酸钾、硝酸铵、尿素和8种测定的氨基酸作氮源的培养基上3个菌株都生长良好,但是木糖培养基上生长较差。菌株在25~28℃能很好地生长,20℃和30℃生长中等,但是在5℃和35℃不能生长。 pH 5~10菌丝生长较好,但是pH 11.0菌丝不能很好生长。光照条件下,XJ27和XJ42生长后10天,有光照的产孢量大大多于没有光照的,但是RA2-1产孢不受光照影响。总之,杨梅凋萎病菌异色拟盘多毛孢菌具有广泛的培养基、碳源、氮源、温度以及pH的适应性,光照对部分菌株产孢性能有促进作用。%To study the biological characters of Pestalotiopsis versicolor, one of the agents of bayberry twig blight dis-ease, the effects of media type, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sources, temperature, pH, and light on P.versicolor were examined to determine optimal conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation .Three independent isolates showed a similar trend of growth and sporulation with different C and N sources .However , the growth rates varied significantly among seven agar media .Fungal growth rates were the highest on potato dextrose agar ( PDA) and pota-to sucrose agar (PSA).The fungi grew fast on bayberry fruit extract agar (BFA) but sparsely.Growth rates were moderate on oatmeal agar ( OMA) and

  9. Cryptic sex-ratio bias provides indirect genetic benefits despite sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert M; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2010-04-02

    When selection favors sexual dimorphism, high-fitness parents often produce low-fitness progeny of the opposite sex. This sexual conflict is thought to overwhelm the genetic benefits of mate choice because preferred males incur a cost through the production of low-fitness daughters. We provide a counterpoint in a lizard (Anolis sagrei) that exhibits sexual conflict over body size. By using mate-choice experiments, we show that female brown anoles produce more sons than daughters via large sires but more daughters than sons via small sires. Measures of progeny fitness in the wild suggest that maximal fitness payoffs can be achieved by shifting offspring production from daughters to sons as sire size increases. These results illustrate how the resolution of sexual conflict can restore the genetic benefits of mate choice.

  10. Predators determine how weather affects the spatial niche of lizard prey: exploring niche dynamics at a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Darias, Marta; Schoener, Thomas W; Spiller, David A; Losos, Jonathan B

    2012-12-01

    Although abiotic and biotic factors can interact to shape the spatial niche of a species, studies that explore the interactive effects of both at a local scale are rare. We demonstrate that one of the main axes (perch height) characterizing the spatial niche of a common lizard, Anolis sagrei, varies according to the interactive effects of weather and the activity of a larger predatory lizard, Leiocephalus carinatus. Results were completely consistent: no matter how favorable the weather conditions for using the ground (mainly characterized by temperature, humidity, wind speed, rain), A. sagrei did not do so if the predator was present. Hence, great behavioral plasticity enabled A. sagrei to adjust its use of space very quickly. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first field demonstration for anoles (and possibly for other animals as well) of how time-varying environmental conditions and predator presence interact to produce short-term changes in utilization along a major niche axis.

  11. Temporal responses to environmental scale in the lizard Anolis carolinensis (reptila, lacertilia, iguanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Long, A J; Greenberg, N; Keaney, C

    1986-12-01

    An influence of spatial scale on temporal processing has been described in humans (De Long, 1981). The hypothesis that a similar relationship exists in reptiles was tested by placing twelve lizards in volumetrically constant but large-scale or small-scale "home" environments and alternately exposing them to large and small scale novel environments in a counterbalanced design. Behavioral measures included latencies and frequencies for four types of behavior associated with behavioral arousal and exploration and for duration of behavioral states. Results indicate (1) behavioral latencies are significantly reduced in small-scale novel environments and (2) as predicted, the ratio of latencies in large-scale divided by small-scale novel environments is essentially identical to the ratio of the scales of the environments themselves. Linear regression analyses relating latencies to the ratio yield results remarkably similar to those previously reported for temporal experience and spatial scale in human subjects. This research suggests that an experiential temporal-spatial relativity may be phylogenetically primitive.

  12. Parental Pressure, Self-Esteem and Adolescent Reported Deviance: Bending the Twig too Far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskilson, Arlene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaire responses from upper-status junior and senior high school students show the importance of perceived parental pressure in understanding adolescent self-esteem and deviant behavior. Adolescents who feel unduly pressured to achieve in school are likely to report low self-esteem, deviant activity, and feelings of inability to reach goals…

  13. Two novel clerodane diterpenenes with NGF-potentiating activities from the twigs of Croton yanhuii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yihang; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Li, Shen; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-Qing; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-06-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and analog reagents to promote the neurite outgrowth of nerve cells against the neuron degeneration are expected to be potentially useful for the medical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In our focus on the discovery of bioactive diterpenes, we investigated the chemical constituents of the plant Croton yanhuii. This investigation led to the isolation and identification of two novel clerodane diterpenes (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and mass (ESIMS and HR-ESIMS) spectroscopic data analyses. Further biological screenings showed that both of the compounds enhanced NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells.

  14. Mapping the footsteps of the green anole: A template for publishing ecological data on the World Wide Web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, E.T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Truett, D.F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In the handful of years since the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) came into being, Web sites have developed at an astonishing rate. With the influx of Web pages comes a disparity of site types, including personal homepages, commercial sales sites, and educational data. The variety of sites and the deluge of information contained on the Web exemplify the individual nature of the WWW. Whereas some people argue that it is this eclecticism which gives the Web its charm, we propose that sites which are repositories of technical data would benefit from standardization. This paper proffers a methodology for publishing ecological research on the Web. The template we describe uses capabilities of HTML (the HyperText Markup Language) to enhance the value of the traditional scientific paper.

  15. Recy a ycling applica of vin ation i asse i n Egyp n etha ptian d anol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-11-09

    Nov 9, 2014 ... added to the fermentation media under the applied concentrations of urea and ... percent of ethanol yield when vinasse was used in relation to the percent of ethanol yield in the ..... Philippine J. Sci. Vol.138 No. 1 June 2009.

  16. Parallel shifts in ecology and natural selection in an island lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Buermann, Wolfgang; Smith, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural selection is a potent evolutionary force that shapes phenotypic variation to match ecological conditions. However, we know little about the year-to-year consistency of selection, or how inter-annual variation in ecology shapes adaptive landscapes and ultimately adaptive radiations. Here we combine remote sensing data, field experiments, and a four-year study of natural selection to show that changes in vegetation structure associated with a severe drought altered both habitat use and natural selection in the brown anole, Anolis sagrei. Results In natural populations, lizards increased their use of vegetation in wet years and this was correlated with selection on limb length but not body size. By contrast, a die-back of vegetation caused by drought was followed by reduced arboreality, selection on body size, and relaxed selection on limb length. With the return of the rains and recovery of vegetation, selection reverted back to pre-drought pattern of selection acting on limb length but not body size. To test for the impact of vegetation loss on natural selection during the drought, we experimentally removed vegetation on a separate study island in a naturally wet year. The experiment revealed similar inter-annual changes in selection on body size but not limb length. Conclusion Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecology driving natural selection on Anolis morphology and emphasize the importance of inter-annual environmental variation in shaping adaptive variation. In addition, results illustrate the utility of using remote sensing data to examine ecology's role in driving natural selection. PMID:19126226

  17. Postcopulatory fertilization bias as a form of cryptic sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Bonneaud, Camille

    2008-05-01

    Males and females share most of their genetic material yet often experience very different selection pressures. Some traits that are adaptive when expressed in males may therefore be maladaptive when expressed in females. Recent studies demonstrating negative correlations in fitness between parents and their opposite-sex progeny suggest that natural selection may favor a reduction in trait correlations between the sexes to partially mitigate intralocus sexual conflict. We studied sex-specific forms of selection acting in Anolis lizards in the Greater Antilles, a group for which the importance of natural selection has been well documented in species-level diversification, but for which less is known about sexual selection. Using the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), we measured fitness-related variation in morphology (body size), and variation in two traits reflecting whole animal physiological condition: running endurance and immune function. Correlations between body size and physiological traits were opposite between males and females and the form of natural selection acting on physiological traits significantly differed between the sexes. Moreover, physiological traits in progeny were correlated with the body-size of their sires, but correlations were null or even negative between parents and their opposite-sex progeny. Although results based on phenotypic and genetic correlations, as well as the action of natural selection, suggest the potential for intralocus sexual conflict, females used sire body size as a cue to sort sperm for the production of either sons or daughters. Our results suggest that intralocus sexual conflict may be at least partly resolved through post-copulatory sperm choice in A. sagrei.

  18. Parallel shifts in ecology and natural selection in an island lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural selection is a potent evolutionary force that shapes phenotypic variation to match ecological conditions. However, we know little about the year-to-year consistency of selection, or how inter-annual variation in ecology shapes adaptive landscapes and ultimately adaptive radiations. Here we combine remote sensing data, field experiments, and a four-year study of natural selection to show that changes in vegetation structure associated with a severe drought altered both habitat use and natural selection in the brown anole, Anolis sagrei. Results In natural populations, lizards increased their use of vegetation in wet years and this was correlated with selection on limb length but not body size. By contrast, a die-back of vegetation caused by drought was followed by reduced arboreality, selection on body size, and relaxed selection on limb length. With the return of the rains and recovery of vegetation, selection reverted back to pre-drought pattern of selection acting on limb length but not body size. To test for the impact of vegetation loss on natural selection during the drought, we experimentally removed vegetation on a separate study island in a naturally wet year. The experiment revealed similar inter-annual changes in selection on body size but not limb length. Conclusion Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecology driving natural selection on Anolis morphology and emphasize the importance of inter-annual environmental variation in shaping adaptive variation. In addition, results illustrate the utility of using remote sensing data to examine ecology's role in driving natural selection.

  19. A comparison of reptilian and avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: Species-specific expansion of group γ genes in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempenaers Bart

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of odorants is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs. ORs are G-protein coupled receptors that form a remarkably large protein superfamily in vertebrate genomes. We used data that became available through recent sequencing efforts of reptilian and avian genomes to identify the complete OR gene repertoires in a lizard, the green anole (Anolis carolinensis, and in two birds, the chicken (Gallus gallus and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata. Results We identified 156 green anole OR genes, including 42 pseudogenes. The OR gene repertoire of the two bird species was substantially larger with 479 and 553 OR gene homologs in the chicken and zebra finch, respectively (including 111 and 221 pseudogenes, respectively. We show that the green anole has a higher fraction of intact OR genes (~72% compared with the chicken (~66% and the zebra finch (~38%. We identified a larger number and a substantially higher proportion of intact OR gene homologs in the chicken genome than previously reported (214 versus 82 genes and 66% versus 15%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that lizard and bird OR gene repertoires consist of group α, θ and γ genes. Interestingly, the vast majority of the avian OR genes are confined to a large expansion of a single branch (the so called γ-c clade. An analysis of the selective pressure on the paralogous genes of each γ-c clade revealed that they have been subjected to adaptive evolution. This expansion appears to be bird-specific and not sauropsid-specific, as it is lacking from the lizard genome. The γ-c expansions of the two birds do not intermix, i.e., they are lineage-specific. Almost all (group γ-c OR genes mapped to the unknown chromosome. The remaining OR genes mapped to six homologous chromosomes plus three to four additional chromosomes in the zebra finch and chicken. Conclusion We identified a surprisingly large number of potentially functional avian OR genes. Our data

  20. Development of the hearts of lizards and snakes and perspectives to cardiac evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; van den Berg, Gert; van den Doel, Rick; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Wang, Tobias; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2013-01-01

    Birds and mammals both developed high performance hearts from a heart that must have been reptile-like and the hearts of extant reptiles have an unmatched variability in design. Yet, studies on cardiac development in reptiles are largely old and further studies are much needed as reptiles are starting to become used in molecular studies. We studied the growth of cardiac compartments and changes in morphology principally in the model organism corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus), but also in the genotyped anole (Anolis carolinenis and A. sagrei) and the Philippine sailfin lizard (Hydrosaurus pustulatus). Structures and chambers of the formed heart were traced back in development and annotated in interactive 3D pdfs. In the corn snake, we found that the ventricle and atria grow exponentially, whereas the myocardial volumes of the atrioventricular canal and the muscular outflow tract are stable. Ventricular development occurs, as in other amniotes, by an early growth at the outer curvature and later, and in parallel, by incorporation of the muscular outflow tract. With the exception of the late completion of the atrial septum, the adult design of the squamate heart is essentially reached halfway through development. This design strongly resembles the developing hearts of human, mouse and chicken around the time of initial ventricular septation. Subsequent to this stage, and in contrast to the squamates, hearts of endothermic vertebrates completely septate their ventricles, develop an insulating atrioventricular plane, shift and expand their atrioventricular canal toward the right and incorporate the systemic and pulmonary venous myocardium into the atria.

  1. Reptile Toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogdt, Carlos G P; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Kik, Marja J L; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2016-01-07

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vertebrate evolution. Here we report the cloning, characterization, and function of TLR5 of the reptile Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole lizard). The receptor (acTLR5) displays the typical TLR protein architecture with 22 extracellular leucine rich repeats flanked by a N- and C-terminal leucine rich repeat domain, a membrane-spanning region, and an intracellular TIR domain. The receptor is phylogenetically most similar to TLR5 of birds and most distant to fish TLR5. Transcript analysis revealed acTLR5 expression in multiple lizard tissues. Stimulation of acTLR5 with TLR ligands demonstrated unique responsiveness towards bacterial flagellin in both reptile and human cells. Comparison of acTLR5 and human TLR5 using purified flagellins revealed differential sensitivity to Pseudomonas but not Salmonella flagellin, indicating development of species-specific flagellin recognition during the divergent evolution of mammals and reptiles. Our discovery of reptile TLR5 fills the evolutionary gap regarding TLR conservation across vertebrates and provides novel insights in functional evolution of host-microbe interactions.

  2. Comprehensive primer design for analysis of population genetics in non-sequenced organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Tezuka

    Full Text Available Nuclear sequence markers are useful tool for the study of the history of populations and adaptation. However, it is not easy to obtain multiple nuclear primers for organisms with poor or no genomic sequence information. Here we used the genomes of organisms that have been fully sequenced to design comprehensive sets of primers to amplify polymorphic genomic fragments of multiple nuclear genes in non-sequenced organisms. First, we identified a large number of candidate polymorphic regions that were flanked on each side by conserved regions in the reference genomes. We then designed primers based on these conserved sequences and examined whether the primers could be used to amplify sequences in target species, montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris, anole lizard (Anolis sagrei, guppy (Poecilia reticulata, and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster, for population genetic analysis. We successfully obtained polymorphic markers for all target species studied. In addition, we found that sequence identities of the regions between the primer sites in the reference genomes affected the experimental success of DNA amplification and identification of polymorphic loci in the target genomes, and that exonic primers had a higher success rate than intronic primers in amplifying readable sequences. We conclude that this comparative genomic approach is a time- and cost-effective way to obtain polymorphic markers for non-sequenced organisms, and that it will contribute to the further development of evolutionary ecology and population genetics for non-sequenced organisms, aiding in the understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation.

  3. Experimentally replicated disruptive selection on performance traits in a Caribbean lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Smith, Thomas B

    2008-02-01

    A central theme underlying studies of adaptive radiation is that ecologically mediated selection drives diversification. However, demonstrating the ecological basis of natural selection and linking this process to patterns of morphological diversity represents a formidable challenge. This is because selection experiments that test correlations between an organism's phenotype and its ecology are difficult to perform in the wild. Previous studies of Anolis lizards have shown that divergent morphologies are correlated with habitat use and have evolved repeatedly on islands throughout the Greater Antilles. Here, we show that the forms of selection acting within a species support an ecological mechanism for diversification. In natural populations, performance-related traits such as limb length are subject to correlational and disruptive selection driven by differences in habitat use. Experimental manipulations in the wild verify the same pattern of selection and indicate that both the targets and forms of selection are consistent through time. Elsewhere, we have demonstrated that these traits are heritable and should therefore evolve in response to selection. Our results provide evidence for the short-term repeatability of selection and its potency in the diversification of anoles.

  4. Salient features of otoacoustic emissions are common across tetrapod groups and suggest shared properties of generation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A; Köppl, Christine

    2015-03-17

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are faint sounds generated by healthy inner ears that provide a window into the study of auditory mechanics. All vertebrate classes exhibit OAEs to varying degrees, yet the biophysical origins are still not well understood. Here, we analyzed both spontaneous (SOAE) and stimulus-frequency (SFOAE) otoacoustic emissions from a bird (barn owl, Tyto alba) and a lizard (green anole, Anolis carolinensis). These species possess highly disparate macromorphologies of the inner ear relative to each other and to mammals, thereby allowing for novel insights into the biomechanical mechanisms underlying OAE generation. All ears exhibited robust OAE activity, and our chief observation was that SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peak frequencies clustered about an integral number of cycles. Being highly similar to published results from human ears, we argue that these data indicate a common underlying generator mechanism of OAEs across all vertebrates, despite the absence of morphological features thought essential to mammalian cochlear mechanics. We suggest that otoacoustic emissions originate from phase coherence in a system of coupled oscillators, which is consistent with the notion of "coherent reflection" but does not explicitly require a mammalian-type traveling wave. Furthermore, comparison between SFOAE delays and auditory nerve fiber responses for the barn owl strengthens the notion that most OAE delay can be attributed to tuning.

  5. Comprehensive primer design for analysis of population genetics in non-sequenced organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Ayumi; Matsushima, Noe; Nemoto, Yoriko; Akashi, Hiroshi D; Kawata, Masakado; Makino, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear sequence markers are useful tool for the study of the history of populations and adaptation. However, it is not easy to obtain multiple nuclear primers for organisms with poor or no genomic sequence information. Here we used the genomes of organisms that have been fully sequenced to design comprehensive sets of primers to amplify polymorphic genomic fragments of multiple nuclear genes in non-sequenced organisms. First, we identified a large number of candidate polymorphic regions that were flanked on each side by conserved regions in the reference genomes. We then designed primers based on these conserved sequences and examined whether the primers could be used to amplify sequences in target species, montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris), anole lizard (Anolis sagrei), guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), for population genetic analysis. We successfully obtained polymorphic markers for all target species studied. In addition, we found that sequence identities of the regions between the primer sites in the reference genomes affected the experimental success of DNA amplification and identification of polymorphic loci in the target genomes, and that exonic primers had a higher success rate than intronic primers in amplifying readable sequences. We conclude that this comparative genomic approach is a time- and cost-effective way to obtain polymorphic markers for non-sequenced organisms, and that it will contribute to the further development of evolutionary ecology and population genetics for non-sequenced organisms, aiding in the understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation.

  6. Insects as stem engineers: interactions mediated by the twig-girdler Oncideres albomarginata chamela enhance arthropod diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Calderón-Cortés

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecosystem engineering may influence community structure and biodiversity by controlling the availability of resources and/or habitats used by other organisms. Insect herbivores may act as ecosystem engineers but there is still poor understanding of the role of these insects structuring arthropod communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effect of ecosystem engineering by the stem-borer Oncideres albomarginata chamela on the arthropod community of a tropical dry forest for three consecutive years. The results showed that ecosystem engineering by O. albomarginata chamela had strong positive effects on the colonization, abundance, species richness and composition of the associated arthropod community, and it occurred mainly through the creation of a habitat with high availability of oviposition sites for secondary colonizers. These effects cascade upward to higher trophic levels. Overall, ecosystem engineering by O. albomarginata chamela was responsible for nearly 95% of the abundance of secondary colonizers and 82% of the species richness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that ecosystem engineering by O. albomarginata chamela is a keystone process structuring an arthropod community composed by xylovores, predators and parasitoids. This study is the first to empirically demonstrate the effect of the ecosystem engineering by stem-boring insects on important attributes of arthropod communities. The results of this study have important implications for conservation.

  7. [As the twig is bent, so is the tree inclined: children and the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental's eugenic programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, J R

    2000-01-01

    Created in the early 1920s, at a moment when the country's psychiatric field was embracing the preventive outlook, the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental included within its members the elite of Brazilian psychiatry, along with a number of physicians and intellectuals. The article discusses the institution's proposals for intervention among children. The league ended up incorporating into its theoretical arsenal the basic themes of mental hygiene and eugenics as part of its general goal of collaborating in Brazil's process of "racial sanitation". With this objective in mind, and viewing the child as a "pre-citizen" who is a "fundamental part within the man of the future", league members included the children's issue in their projects and saw an imperative need for mental health care from early ages on.

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MESSANGER RIBONUCLEIC ACID (MRNA) EXPRESSION AND IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN OF THE GREEN ANOLE LIZARD. (R826301)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1147 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1147 gb|ABW06635.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Anolis carolinensis]... gb|ABW06637.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Anolis carolinensis] gb|ABW06641.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Anolis caroline...nsis] gb|ABW06642.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Anolis carolinensis] gb|ABW06644.1| NA...DH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Anolis carolinensis] gb|ABW06646.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Anolis carolinensis] ABW06635.1 0.66 25% ...

  10. Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert M; Lovern, Matthew B; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2014-07-01

    The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in reproductive investment was created using unilateral and bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) along with intact (SHAM) control. Next, this manipulation was decoupled from its downstream effects on energy storage by surgically ablating the abdominal fat stores from half of the females in each reproductive treatment. As predicted, unilateral OVX (intermediate reproductive investment) induced levels of growth, body condition, fat storage and breeding-season survival that were intermediate between the high levels of bilateral OVX (no reproductive investment) and the low levels of SHAM (full reproductive investment). Ablation of abdominal fat bodies had a strong and persistent effect on energy stores, but it did not influence post-breeding survival in any of the three reproductive treatments. This suggests that the energetic savings of reduced reproductive investment do not directly enhance post-breeding survival, with the caveat that only one aspect of energy storage was manipulated and OVX itself had no overall effect on post-breeding survival. This study supports the emerging view that simple energy-allocation models may often be insufficient as explanations for the life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival.

  11. Molecular detection of invertebrate prey in vertebrate diets: trophic ecology of Caribbean island lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartzinel, Tyler R; Pringle, Robert M

    2015-07-01

    Understanding community assembly and population dynamics frequently requires detailed knowledge of food web structure. For many consumers, obtaining precise information about diet composition has traditionally required sacrificing animals or other highly invasive procedures, generating tension between maintaining intact study populations and knowing what they eat. We developed 16S mitochondrial DNA sequencing methods to identify arthropods in the diets of generalist vertebrate predators without requiring a blocking primer. We demonstrate the utility of these methods for a common Caribbean lizard that has been intensively studied in the context of small island food webs: Anolis sagrei (a semi-arboreal 'trunk-ground' anole ecomorph). Novel PCR primers were identified in silico and tested in vitro. Illumina sequencing successfully characterized the arthropod component of 168 faecal DNA samples collected during three field trips spanning 12 months, revealing 217 molecular operational taxonomic units (mOTUs) from at least nine arthropod orders (including Araneae, Blattodea, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera). Three mOTUs (one beetle, one cockroach and one ant) were particularly frequent, occurring in ≥50% of samples, but the majority of mOTUs were infrequent (180, or 83%, occurred in ≤5% of samples). Species accumulation curves showed that dietary richness and composition were similar between size-dimorphic sexes; however, female lizards had greater per-sample dietary richness than males. Overall diet composition (but not richness) was significantly different across seasons, and we found more pronounced interindividual variation in December than in May. These methods will be generally useful in characterizing the diets of diverse insectivorous vertebrates.

  12. High-coverage sequencing and annotated assembly of the genome of the Australian dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Arthur; Li, Qiye; Lian, Jinmin; O'Meally, Denis; Deakin, Janine; Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Pei; Fujita, Matthew; Patel, Hardip R; Holleley, Clare E; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Xiuwen; Matsubara, Kazumi; Waters, Paul; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Sarre, Stephen D; Zhang, Guojie

    2015-01-01

    The lizards of the family Agamidae are one of the most prominent elements of the Australian reptile fauna. Here, we present a genomic resource built on the basis of a wild-caught male ZZ central bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps. The genomic sequence for P. vitticeps, generated on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, comprised 317 Gbp (179X raw read depth) from 13 insert libraries ranging from 250 bp to 40 kbp. After filtering for low-quality and duplicated reads, 146 Gbp of data (83X) was available for assembly. Exceptionally high levels of heterozygosity (0.85 % of single nucleotide polymorphisms plus sequence insertions or deletions) complicated assembly; nevertheless, 96.4 % of reads mapped back to the assembled scaffolds, indicating that the assembly included most of the sequenced genome. Length of the assembly was 1.8 Gbp in 545,310 scaffolds (69,852 longer than 300 bp), the longest being 14.68 Mbp. N50 was 2.29 Mbp. Genes were annotated on the basis of de novo prediction, similarity to the green anole Anolis carolinensis, Gallus gallus and Homo sapiens proteins, and P. vitticeps transcriptome sequence assemblies, to yield 19,406 protein-coding genes in the assembly, 63 % of which had intact open reading frames. Our assembly captured 99 % (246 of 248) of core CEGMA genes, with 93 % (231) being complete. The quality of the P. vitticeps assembly is comparable or superior to that of other published squamate genomes, and the annotated P. vitticeps genome can be accessed through a genome browser available at https://genomics.canberra.edu.au.

  13. Gene : CBRC-ACAR-01-0922 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve opsin (Blue photoreceptor pigment) (RH2 opsin) gb|AAB35062.1| RH2 opsin [Anolis carolinensis] gb|AAD32620.1| RH2 opsin [Anolis car...olinensis] 0.0 100% MNGTEGINFYVPLSNKTGLVRSPFEYPQYYLAEPWKYKVVCCYIFFLIFTGLPINILTLLVTF

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10938-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 ( FG695682 ) G1144P330RK9.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 48 1.1 1 ( FG...695634 ) G1144P330FK9.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 48 1.1 1 ( EY384411 ) CAXA5136.rev CAXA Helobd...( FG793546 ) G1148P311RA12.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 46 4.2 1 ( FG668115 ) G1143P32RE1.T0 Anolis caroline

  15. Long-Term Data Reveal a Population Decline of the Tropical Lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a Negative Affect of El Nino Years on Population Growth Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Stapley, Jessica; Garcia, Milton; Andrews, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total li...

  16. Long-term data reveal a population decline of the tropical lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a negative affect of el nino years on population growth rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Stapley

    Full Text Available Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature. We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years' southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population's future persistence.

  17. 紫丁香树枝化学成分研究%Study on chemical constituents in twigs of Syringa oblata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明; 韩晶; 吕嵩岩; 张树军

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究紫丁香Syringa oblata树枝的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱和高效液相色谱等进行分离纯化,通过薄层色谱及波谱数据分析进行结构鉴定.结果 分离得到了20个化合物,分别鉴定为橄榄苦苷(1)、(8E)-ligstroside(2)、对羟基苯乙醇乙酸酯(3)、4-羟基-3,5-二甲氧基苯甲醛(4)、对羟基苯乙醇(5)、3,5-二甲氧基-4-羟基肉桂醛(6)、3,4-亚甲基二氧苯酚(7)、(+)-pinoresinol(8)、芹菜素(9)、2-(3,4二羟基)苯乙醇乙酸酯(10)、(+)-丁香树脂酚(11)、落叶松脂醇(12)、落叶松脂醇-9-乙酸酯(13)、丁香苦苷(14)、丁香素(15)、(9R)-9-O-methylcubebin(16)、胡萝卜苷(17)、(9S)-9-O-methylcubebin(18)、4,4',8,9-四羟基-3,3'-二甲氧基-7,9'-单环氧木脂素(19)、4,4 '-二羟基-3,3 ',5-三甲氧基双四氢呋喃木脂素(20).结论 化合物4、6、7、13、16、18~20为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  18. 《伤寒论》桂枝的应用功效%Exploration and analysis on application of cassia twig in Treatise on Febrile Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴瑞震

    2005-01-01

    “桂枝”——药名,最早见于汉·张仲景所著的《伤寒论》。书中所用“桂枝”为樟科植物肉桂(Cinnamomum cassia Presl)的树干及粗枝之皮,即今所用之肉桂。因其采集肉桂树及枝皮的老幼与加工方法不同,故有“牡桂”、“菌桂”、“桂心”及“桂”等异名。现今所用桂枝,原名“柳桂”,始载于宋·陈承《本草别说》。

  19. 野生树头菜抗氧化活性%Antioxidant Activity of the Wild Edible Vegetable-the Twig of Crateva Unilocularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红梅; 肖建青; 刘锡葵

    2011-01-01

    采用DPPH自由基清除法分别对云南民间食用植物树头菜乙醇、石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇和水提取物的体外自由基清除作用进行了研究,并应用TLC方法对它们的化学成分组成进行了比较.结果表明树头菜不同提取物对DPPH自由基清除作用差别较大,树头菜抗氧化活性主要集中在正丁醇和乙酸乙酯提取物部分,IC50值分别为43.7,42.2 μg/mL,活性十分接近,主要是中等极性和皂苷类化合物,但远较BHA和Vc弱,自由基清除作用比较弱.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 1,3,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone Isolated from Twigs of Garcinia esculenta on Stimulated Macrophage

    OpenAIRE

    Dan-Dan Zhang; Hong Zhang; Yuan-zhi Lao; Rong Wu; Jin-wen Xu; Ferid Murad; Ka Bian; Hong-Xi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia Linn. plants having rich natural xanthones and benzophenones with anti-inflammatory activity attracted a great deal of attention to discover and develop them as potential drug candidates. Through screening targeting nitric oxide accumulation in stimulated macrophage, we found that 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone (TIE) had potential anti-inflammatory effect. To understand how TIE elicits its anti-inflammatory activity, we uncovered that it significantly inhibits the productio...

  1. Anti-inflammatory phenolics isolated from Juniperus rigida leaves and twigs in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Seo, Hanee; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Jinwoong; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2012-12-01

    Inflammation is an essential host defense system particularly in response to infection and injury; however, excessive or undesirable inflammatory responses contribute to acute and chronic human diseases. A high-throughput screening effort searching for anti-inflammatory compounds from medicinal plants deduced that the methanolic extract of Juniperus rigida S. et L. (Cupressaceae) inhibited significantly nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Activity-guided fractionation and isolation yielded 13 phenolic compounds, including one new phenylpropanoid glycosides, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1). Among the isolated compounds, phenylpropanoid glycosides with p-hydroxy group (2, 4) and massoniaside A (7), (+)-catechin (10), amentoflavone (11) effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells.

  2. Moving water well: comparing hydraulic efficiency in twigs and trunks of coniferous, ring-porous, and diffuse-porous saplings from temperate and tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine McCulloh; John S. Sperry; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick D. Meinzer; Peter B. Reich; Steven Voelker

    2010-01-01

    Coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous trees vary in their xylem anatomy, but the functional consequences of these differences are not well understood from the scale of the conduit to the individual. Hydraulic and anatomical measurements were made on branches and trunks from 16 species from temperate and tropical areas, representing all three wood types. Scaling of...

  3. Moving water well: comparing hydraulic efficiency in twigs and trunks of coniferous, ring-porous, and diffuse-porous saplings from temperate and tropical forests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katherine McCulloh; John S. Sperry; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter B. Reich; Steven Voelker

    2010-01-01

    Coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous trees vary in their xylem anatomy, but the functional consequences of these differences are not well understood from the scale of the conduit to the individual...

  4. A new bush anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Polychrus) from the upper Marañon basin, Peru, with a redescription of Polychrus peruvianus (Noble, 1924) and additional information on Polychrus gutturosus Berthold, 1845.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Garcia-Bravo, Antonio; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We herein describe a new colorful species of Polychrus with a conspicuous sexual dimorphism from the dry forest of the northern portion of Región de La Libertad, Peru. The new species differs from all other Polychrus species, in that this species has very small dorsal scales and thus a higher number of scales around midbody and in the middorsal line from behind the occipital scales to the level of the posterior edge of the thigh. Furthermore, we redescribe Polychrus peruvianus whose original description is short and lacks information on intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism. Also, we add some information on intraspecific variation and ecology of Polychrus gutturosus. Finally, we synonymize Polychrus spurrelli Boulenger with Polychrus gutturosus.

  5. A randomised controlled trial of Heparin versus EthAnol Lock THerapY for the prevention of Catheter Associated infecTion in Haemodialysis patients – the HEALTHY-CATH trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broom Jennifer K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tunnelled central venous dialysis catheter use is significantly limited by the occurrence of catheter-related infections. This randomised controlled trial assessed the efficacy of a 48 hour 70% ethanol lock vs heparin locks in prolonging the time to the first episode of catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI. Methods Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD via a tunnelled catheter were randomised 1:1 to once per week ethanol locks (with two heparin locks between other dialysis sessions vs thrice per week heparin locks. Results Observed catheter days in the heparin (n=24 and ethanol (n=25 groups were 1814 and 3614 respectively. CRBSI occurred at a rate of 0.85 vs. 0.28 per 1000 catheter days in the heparin vs ethanol group by intention to treat analysis (incident rate ratio (IRR for ethanol vs. heparin 0.17; 95%CI 0.02-1.63; p=0.12. Flow issues requiring catheter removal occurred at a rate of 1.6 vs 1.4 per 1000 catheter days in the heparin and ethanol groups respectively (IRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.20-3.5 p =0.82 (for ethanol vs heparin. Conclusions Catheter survival and catheter-related blood stream infection were not significantly different but there was a trend towards a reduced rate of infection in the ethanol group. This study establishes proof of concept and will inform an adequately powered multicentre trial to definitively examine the efficacy and safety of ethanol locks as an alternative to current therapies used in the prevention of catheter-associated blood stream infections in patients dialysing with tunnelled catheters. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000493246

  6. Rationale and design of the HEALTHY-CATH trial: A randomised controlled trial of Heparin versus EthAnol Lock THerapY for the prevention of Catheter Associated infecTion in Haemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broom Jennifer K

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catheter-related bacteraemias (CRBs contribute significantly to morbidity, mortality and health care costs in dialysis populations. Despite international guidelines recommending avoidance of catheters for haemodialysis access, hospital admissions for CRBs have doubled in the last decade. The primary aim of the study is to determine whether weekly instillation of 70% ethanol prevents CRBs compared with standard heparin saline. Methods/design The study will follow a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled design. Inclusion criteria are adult patients with incident or prevalent tunneled intravenous dialysis catheters on three times weekly haemodialysis, with no current evidence of catheter infection and no personal, cultural or religious objection to ethanol use, who are on adequate contraception and are able to give informed consent. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive 3 mL of intravenous-grade 70% ethanol into each lumen of the catheter once a week and standard heparin locks for other dialysis days, or to receive heparin locks only. The primary outcome measure will be time to the first episode of CRB, which will be defined using standard objective criteria. Secondary outcomes will include adverse reactions, incidence of CRB caused by different pathogens, time to infection-related catheter removal, time to exit site infections and costs. Prospective power calculations indicate that the study will have 80% statistical power to detect a clinically significant increase in median infection-free survival from 200 days to 400 days if 56 patients are recruited into each arm. Discussion This investigator-initiated study has been designed to provide evidence to help nephrologists reduce the incidence of CRBs in haemodialysis patients with tunnelled intravenous catheters. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609000493246

  7. A new bush anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Polychrus) from the upper Marañon basin, Peru, with a redescription of Polychrus peruvianus (Noble, 1924) and additional information on Polychrus gutturosus Berthold, 1845

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J.; Garcia-Bravo, Antonio; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We herein describe a new colorful species of Polychrus with a conspicuous sexual dimorphism from the dry forest of the northern portion of Región de La Libertad, Peru. The new species differs from all other Polychrus species, in that this species has very small dorsal scales and thus a higher number of scales around midbody and in the middorsal line from behind the occipital scales to the level of the posterior edge of the thigh. Furthermore, we redescribe Polychrus peruvianus whose original description is short and lacks information on intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism. Also, we add some information on intraspecific variation and ecology of Polychrus gutturosus. Finally, we synonymize Polychrus spurrelli Boulenger with Polychrus gutturosus. PMID:22287882

  8. Phylogenomic investigation of CR1 LINE diversity in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Andrew M

    2006-12-01

    It is unlikely that taxonomically diverse phylogenetic studies will be completed rapidly in the near future for nonmodel organisms on a whole-genome basis. However, one approach to advancing the field of "phylogenomics" is to estimate the structure of poorly known genomes by mining libraries of clones from suites of taxa, rather than from single species. The present analysis adopts this approach by taking advantage of megabase-scale end-sequence scanning of reptilian genomic clones to characterize diversity of CR1-like LINEs, the dominant family of transposable elements (TEs) in the sister group of mammals. As such, it helps close an important gap in the literature on the molecular systematics and evolution of retroelements in nonavian reptiles. Results from aligning more than 14 Mb of sequence from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), painted turtle (Chrysemys picta), Bahamian green anole (Anolis smaragdinus), Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), and Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) against a comprehensive library approximately 3000 TE-encoding peptides reflect an increasing abundance of LINE and non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon repeat types with the age of common ancestry among exemplar reptilian clades. The hypothesis that repeat diversity is correlated with basal metabolic rate was tested using comparative methods and a significant nonlinear relationship was indicated. This analysis suggests that the age of divergence between an exemplary clade and its sister group as well as metabolic correlates should be considered in addition to genome size in explaining patterns of retroelement diversity. The first phylogenetic analysis of the largely unexplored chicken repeat 1 (CR1) 3' reverse transcriptase (RT) conserved domains 8 and 9 in nonavian reptiles reveals a pattern of multiple lineages with variable branch lengths, suggesting presence of both old and young elements and the existence of several

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08743-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FG764070 ) G1146P324FM6.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 54 0.001 2 ( D...B775134 ) Apis mellifera head cDNA, RIKEN full-length enric... 56 0.004 1 ( FG779811 ) G1147P347FH16.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled norma... 54 0.014 1 ( FG766620 ) G1147P341RG4.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal...... 54 0.014 1 ( FG766572 ) G1147P341FG4.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 54 ...0.014 1 ( FG764118 ) G1146P324RM6.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 54 0.014 1 ( FG722743 ) G1144P319FK5.T0 Anolis caroline

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10390-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available X347464 ) Sequence 111 from Patent WO0200705. 34 1.8 2 ( FG762458 ) G1146P331FL7.T0 Anolis carolinensis pool...ed normal... 32 1.9 2 ( FG742760 ) G1145P325FN19.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled no...rma... 32 1.9 2 ( FG709579 ) G1144P333RC17.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 32 1.9 2 ( FG744879 ) G1145P314FE24.T0 Anolis carol...inensis pooled norma... 32 1.9 2 ( FG744927 ) G1145P314RE24.T0 Anolis carolinensis ...pooled norma... 32 1.9 2 ( FG762504 ) G1146P331RL7.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 32 1.9 2 ( FG7429

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14038-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available turicatae 91E135, complete genome. 40 3e-04 2 ( FG746532 ) G1146P36FN10.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma...l... 50 3e-04 2 ( FG793956 ) G1148P318FN2.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal...... 50 3e-04 2 ( FG793983 ) G1148P318FL16.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 50 3e-04 2 ( FG707317 ) G1144P346FA9.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled normal... 50 3e-04 2 ( FG692864 ) G1144P35FN11.T0 Anolis carolinensis p...orsitans Fat body ... 40 0.061 2 ( FG724038 ) G1144P310FJ8.T0 Anolis carolinensis

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15854-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 2 ( EH639253 ) EST10361 LK04 Laupala kohalensis cDNA clone 10610... 58 0.001 1 ( FG696305 ) G1144P326FI12.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled norma... 44 0.002 2 ( FG776875 ) G1147P357FL5.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled normal... 44 0.002 2 ( FG680413 ) G1143P331FA24.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma...... 44 0.002 2 ( FG712420 ) G1144P311FF3.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 44 0.002 2 ( FG750808 ) G1146P38FC24.T0 Anolis carol...inensis pooled normal... 44 0.002 2 ( FG697927 ) G1144P314FM9.T0 Anolis carolinensi

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13237-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone:ddc35m14, 5' ... 46 0.58 1 ( FG773829 ) G1147P356RG20.T0 Anolis carolinensi...s pooled norma... 46 0.58 1 ( FG709308 ) G1144P348RM4.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 46 0.58 1 ( FG...703736 ) G1144P329RM15.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 46 0.58 1 ( FG701690 ) G1144P323RG23.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled norma... 46 0.58 1 ( FG700300 ) G1144P337RK20.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled norma... 46 0.58 1 ( FG699488 ) G1144P343RL21.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 46 0.58

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06620-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lobal-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 56 0.001 1 ( FG750600 ) G1146P341RM14.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled no...rma... 38 0.016 2 ( FG791706 ) G1148P317RP2.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal...... 38 0.016 2 ( FG764681 ) G1146P340RF1.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 38 0.016 2 ( FG755303 ) G1146P319RO5.T0 Anolis caroli...nensis pooled normal... 38 0.016 2 ( FG739146 ) G1145P336RD6.T0 Anolis carolinensis... pooled normal... 38 0.016 2 ( FG764622 ) G1146P348RA20.T0 Anolis carolinensis po

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10123-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 0.072 3 ( FG804620 ) G1148P38FL22.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 34 0....074 3 ( FG678538 ) G1143P323FP20.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 34 0.081 3 ( FG706233 ) G1144P319FC20.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled norma... 34 0.081 3 ( FG669895 ) G1143P317FM5.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled... normal... 34 0.082 3 ( FG706638 ) G1144P346FN7.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 34 0.083 3 ( EJ96154...olinensis pooled normali... 34 0.086 3 ( FG781828 ) G1147P357FH18.T0 Anolis caroline

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03204-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:ddc10l02, 5' ... 121 5e-24 1 ( FG796802 ) G1148P39RA10.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled normal... 46 0.22 1 ( FG793917 ) G1148P327RE7.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 46 0.2...2 1 ( FG716496 ) G1144P316RG11.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 46 0.22 1 ( AC197553 ) Zea mays chromo...7 clone CH201-145I15; ZMMBBc0... 44 0.85 1 ( FG803163 ) G1148P316RF12.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma...... 44 0.85 1 ( FG799307 ) G1148P322RM22.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 44 0.85 1 ( FG798313 ) G1148P327RD3.T0 Anolis caroline

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14060-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66 1 ( AC116330 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 3191214... 353 e-141 3 ( FG703394 ) G1144P324FL12.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled norma... 46 1.4 1 ( FG655505 ) G1142P325FN20.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled n...orma... 46 1.4 1 ( FG655409 ) G1142P325RN20.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma..

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Sterna antillarum N T Mammals Florida panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians ...Casuarina glauca Australian pine Dioscorea bulbifera Air potato Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla...Cuban treefrog (Osteophilus septentrionalis), Cuban brown anole (Anole sagrei) and the Indo-Pacific gecko (Hemidactylus garnoti) are some amphibian and

  19. Environ: E00249 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00249 Cinnamon twig (non-JP) Cinamomi ramulus Cinnamon branch Keishi Crude drug Ci...nnamon cassia [TAX:119260] Same as: D10232 Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamon cassia twig; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ...

  20. Drug: D10232 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10232 Crude, Drug Cinnamon twig (non-JP); Cinamomi ramulus; Cinnamon branch; Keishi Cinnamon cassia... [TAX:119260] Same as: E00249 Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamon cassia twig; Standards for

  1. 76 FR 63719 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... twigs and resin ducts discarded from feeding, as well as fecal pellets, lichens, dead twigs, and conifer..., forest fires, and logging (Maser et al. 1981, p. 206). Carey (1991, p. 8) suggested that forest fires and...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01954-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 426 ) G1146P319RJ18.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 36 1.4 2 ( AC152091 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-1B10....2 2 ( FG721907 ) G1144P328RK18.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 34 3.5 3 (

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09422-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a ... 44 6.6 1 ( FG763616 ) G1146P339FM18.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... ...44 6.6 1 ( FG676150 ) G1143P325FB17.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 44 6.6 1 ( FD940199 ) RS1GM66TF R

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13195-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available discoideum cDNA clone:dds19o06, 5' ... 129 3e-26 1 ( FG753555 ) G1146P313FK13.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled... norma... 44 1.2 1 ( FG725605 ) G1144P339FH6.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal

  5. Etude de la relation entre le scolyte des rameaux du cafeier, Xyleborus compactus Eichh. (X. morstatti Hag.), et sa plante-hote

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brader, L.

    1964-01-01

    The mutual relation between the coffee-twig beetle, an ambrosia beetle, and the coffee plant was analysed as an example of the relation between insect and host plant. By boring passages in the twigs of the coffee plant, the beetle killed the twigs. Control was hindered by the feeding of the beetle

  6. The within-season and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid trunk-injected into Acer platanoides (Sapindales: Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-04-01

    Norway maple trees, Acer platanoides L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae), that were trunk-injected with imidacloprid as part of an Asian longhorned beetle eradication program, were used to study the temporal and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid in twigs from June through September. The effect of injection time during spring on imidacloprid residues across the summer season and the distribution of imidacloprid in twig bark versus twig xylem were also investigated. Overall, we observed a significant decline in imidacloprid concentrations within each plant part sampled across the study period, although the 19 trees used in the study varied greatly in the pattern of imidacloprid residues over time. The concentration of imidacloprid in twig bark per dry mass was approximately two times higher than that of the twig xylem (means +/- SD of 1.21 +/- 2.16 ppm vs. 0.63 +/- 1.08 ppm imidacloprid, respectively). The majority (> 50%) of whole twig, twig bark and twig xylem samples from injected trees contained 5 ppm imidacloprid, with a maximum of 49 ppm. The concentrations ofimidacloprid in whole twigs, twig bark, and twig xylem were highly correlated, and levels in leaves were correlated with imidacloprid levels in whole twigs.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11440-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ma mobile 163K complete genome. 36 1.5 12 ( FG704274 ) G1144P348FJ19.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... ...36 1.6 2 ( FG776620 ) G1147P355FC21.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 36 1.6 2 ( AM608068 ) Entamoeba i...nvadens IP1 GSS, clone inv085d06.p1k. 36 1.6 2 ( FG663035 ) G1142P320FI20.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled norma... 36 1.6 2 ( FG734330 ) G1145P316FA11.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 3...6 1.6 2 ( FG742268 ) G1145P39FB11.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 36 1.6 2 ( AM617467 ) Entamoeba in

  8. Detecting Leaf and Twig Temperature of Some Trees by Using Thermography%用红外热像法检测一些树木枝叶温度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斐; 山本晴彦

    2010-01-01

    用红外热像非接触地检测物体的温度已经在许多领域得以应用,本研究旨在用该法检测树木的枝叶温度.通过阳光直射加热升温的过程,用红外热像监测一些树木枝叶的温度变化,检测到了由于水分含量和蒸腾强度的不同而造成不同枝叶部位的比热和潜热的差别.应用红外热像不仅可以检测这些树木叶温和枝叶枯死,而且还成功地探测到了断脉后北美枫香叶片的蒸腾衰减现象.专门设计的断脉试验使北美枫香(Liquidambar styraciflua L.)叶片局部水分亏缺和增温,使其成为研究叶温和蒸腾冷却的特殊材料.断脉叶片上温度梯度的存在使得热像拍摄更加容易,系统误差也小;同一叶片上断脉和未断脉裂片的可比性更高.此外还观测到了北美枫香断脉叶片上明显的高温区,这些高温区域与叶色变红部位相吻合.

  9. 桂枝化合物的分离与鉴定及神经保护作用%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Lauraceae) and their neuroprotective activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李希哲; 黄海燕; 赵威; 张雨晨; 原忠

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究桂枝的化学成分及其神经保护作用.方法 运用多种色谱方法对桂枝体积分数90%乙醇提取物的化学成分进行分离纯化,并根据波谱数据和理化性质确定其化学结构.采用建立体外脂多糖(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)激活N9小胶质细胞异常活化的筛选模型对所分离化合物的活性进行评价.结果 分离得到了10个化合物,分别鉴定为桂皮醛(cinnamaldehyde,1)、肉桂酸(cinnamic acid,2)、肉桂醇(cinnamyl alcohol,3)、原儿茶醛(protocatechuic aldehyde,4)、原儿茶酸(protocatechuic acid,5)、香豆素(coumarin,6)、钩果草苷(harpagoside,7)、二氢肉桂苷(dihy出ocinnacasside,8)、3,4,5-三甲氧基-1-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(3,4,5-trimethoxypheny-1-β-D-glucopyranoside,9)和邻香豆酸葡萄糖苷(O-coumaric acid glucoside,10).抑制活性试验表明,化合物3能够较好地抑制LPS刺激的N9小胶质细胞NO释放,在其发挥抑制作用的浓度范围内不影响小胶质细胞的存活率.结论 从桂枝乙醇提取物中分离得到10个化合物,其中化合物7、9和10为首次从樟科植物中分离得到.化合物3具有较好的抑制活性.

  10. Changes of some major and micro-nutrients during the decomposition process of oak twigs%几种常微量元素在辽东栎枝条分解过程中的变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建辉; 陈灵芝; 韩兴国

    2000-01-01

    应用分解网袋法,对暖温带落叶阔叶林主要优势树种辽东栎小枝进行连续5a的分解研究,测定了Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn和Mn 5种元素在凋落物分解过程中的含量和剩余百分率的变化,发现这两个指标在这几种元素之间既有一定的相似性,又有一定的差异.相似性表现在这几种元素在分解开始时,其含量都有一个不断上升的过程.但有的表现为不断上升(Ca和Zn),而有的则在分解阶段的中期,已开始明显下降(Mg,Cu和Mn).从丢失速率常数上看(根据Olson的失重率常数k),由于Ca和Cu在分解过程中的大量增加,因而用Olson指数方程的拟合效果较差,而其它3种元素用Olson指数方程拟合结果相比较,发现Mn的失重率略高于Mg,而超过Zn的2倍.但这些元素的失重率都明显低于一些大量营养元素如N、P、K的失重率.

  11. Proposal - Herpetofaunal inventory and occurrence species mapping in the Culebra National Wildlife Refuge’s offshore cays.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is designed to address the inventory of herpetofauna on the 12 cays of Culebra NWR and determine if the Virgin Island tree boa or the giant anole are...

  12. Interim Report -Herpetofaunal inventory and occurrence species mapping in the Culebra National Wildlife Refuge’s offshore cays.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is designed to address the inventory of herpetofauna on the 12 cays of Culebra NWR and determine if the Virgin Island tree boa or the giant anole are...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01063-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available I-S-GG0-aas-p-20-0-UI.s1 UI-S-GG0 Euprymna scolo... 44 6.0 1 ( FG762703 ) G1146P348RI10.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled norma... 44 6.0 1 ( FG762655 ) G1146P348FI10.T0 Anolis carolinensis poo...led norma... 44 6.0 1 ( FG759676 ) G1146P340RJ9.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 44 6.0 1 ( FG759631 ...) G1146P340FJ9.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal... 44 6.0 1 ( EX148562 ) cr25

  14. Inferring responses to climate dynamics from historical demography in neotropical forest lizards

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We apply a comparative framework to test for concerted demographic changes in response to climate shifts in the neotropical lowland forests, learning from the past to inform projections of the future. Using reduced genomic (SNP) data from three lizard species codistributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii, and Polychrus marmoratus), we first reconstruct former population history and test for assemblage-level responses to cycles of moisture transport recent...

  15. Una nueva especie de saurio para la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia (Sauria; Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda José Vicente

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de especies referidas al complejo de Anolis tiqrinus constituye un pequeño conjunto autóctono suramericano de distribución muy amplia, incluido dentro de la Sección a de los Anolis, que se caracterizan esencialmente por la ausencia de procesos transversos sobre las vértebras caudales y de septos autotómicos (ETHERIDGE, 1967.

  16. Identification of the optimal structure required for a Shiga toxin neutralizer with oriented carbohydrates to function in the circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kiyotaka; Matsuoka, Koji; Watanabe, Miho; Igai, Katsura; Hino, Kumiko; Hatano, Ken; Yamada, Akihiro; Abe, Nobuhisa; Terunuma, Daiyo; Kuzuhara, Hiroyoshi; Natori, Yasuhiro

    2005-06-15

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is a major virulence factor of Stx-producing Escherichia coli. Recently, we developed a therapeutic Stx neutralizer with 6 trisaccharides of globotriaosyl ceramide, a receptor for Stx, in its dendrimer structure (referred to as "SUPER TWIG [1]6") to function in the circulation. Here, we determined the optimal structure of SUPER TWIG for it to function in the circulation and identified a SUPER TWIG with 18 trisaccharides, SUPER TWIG (2)18, as another potent Stx neutralizer. SUPER TWIGs (1)6 and (2)18 shared a structural similarity, a dumbbell shape in which 2 clusters of trisaccharides were connected via a linkage with a hydrophobic chain. The dumbbell shape was found to be required for formation of a complex with Stx that enables efficient uptake and degradation of Stx by macrophages and, consequently, for potent Stx-neutralizing activity in the circulation. We also determined the binding site of the SUPER TWIGs on Stx.

  17. BIOECOLOGIA DE Oncideres cervina (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE EM CANELA-GUAICÁ (Ocotea puberula: Lauraceae NA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Witeck Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe insect fauna knowledge of forest ecosystems have their importance in relation to damage caused bytheir different segments. The bioecology of theOncideres cervina(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae inOcoteapuberula(Lauraceae was studied in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. In 49 cut twigswere analyzed the cutoff frequency, the diameter of cut twigs and sections, twig length, posture incisionsfrequency, adult emergence, exit orifice size, length and volume of the larvae gallery of this species. Thecut twigs period extends from February to March and this species is fit as thick cutter twigs. The incisionsposture number is variable, but the highest concentration is found on sections 20 to 40 cm from the cut, withan average value of 11 incisions. Two hundred adults emerged from 27 twigs, with the most emergent onthe first half of December. In order to complete its development, this species requires less wood volume ifcompared to other twig girdlers species.

  18. Burseraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.; Kalkman, C.; Lam, H.J.

    1955-01-01

    Dioecious, rarely monoecious trees or shrubs. Bark of twigs with a whorl of resiniferous ducts, bordered on the outer side by a distinct, closed or more or less interrupted sinuous sclerenchymatic cylinder. Pith of the twigs, petioles and petiolules not rarely with vascular strands, those in the twi

  19. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  20. Dichapetalaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1955-01-01

    Monoecious or dioecious trees, (often scrambling) shrubs, or lianas. Twigs and bark rather tough; medullary rays in twigs many, distinct; pith rather small, usually dark-coloured and often disappearing early; wood rather hard. Stipules narrowly triangular to subulate, sometimes rather early caducous

  1. Scyphostegiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1955-01-01

    Erect, glabrous, dioecious shrub or small tree. Twigs 4-angular, rhomboid in section, more or less zigzag, pithy; pith in young twigs ± terete, in older ones cross-like in section; medullary rays very regular, finely radial-parallel. Leaves simple, alternate, bifarious, flat in flush, shortly

  2. Nest-site limitation and nesting resources of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Russell; Philpott, Stacy M

    2009-06-01

    Urbanization impacts biodiversity, yet few studies examine general impacts of urbanization on insects. Furthermore, few studies examine availability and limitation of potential cavity nesting sites for ants, an important regulating factor in ant communities that may vary in different urban habitats. We compared three urban habitat types (gardens, vacant lots, and forests) in Toledo, OH, to examine availability and ant preferences for different cavity nesting resources (small and large hollow twigs and cavities). We added 72 artificial large hollow twigs (83 by 6 mm), small hollow twigs (140 by 2 mm), and spherical hollow cavities (6.52-31.1 cm(3) in volume, 1-mm opening) to six sites from May to August 2007 to determine whether nest-site limitation impacts ant communities. We collected natural nests to compare natural abundance and occupancy of cavity nests in different urban habitats. We opened artificial and natural nests to calculate the percentage occupied by cavity-nesting ants. Across all habitats, small twigs represented 81.1% of natural nests, spherical nests represented 10.1%, and large twigs 8.2%. Ants occupied 8.1% of natural large twigs, 14.6% of cavities, and 4.1% of small twigs. For artificial nests, 21.5% of large twigs, 1% of small twigs, and 1% of spheres were occupied. The high percentage of occupied artificial large twigs could imply this is a preferred and limiting resource in urban habitats. The results show that certain types of nesting resources may be an important factor mediating ant communities in urban green spaces.

  3. 东北红豆杉枝叶不同提取部位体外降血糖活性研究%Study on the Hypoglycemic Activity of the Leaves and Twigs of Taxus Cuspidata Sieb et Zucc in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛平; 姚鑫

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨东北红豆杉枝叶不同提取部位对胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞葡萄糖消耗量和抑制α-葡萄糖苷活性的影响。方法采用胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞和α-葡萄糖苷酶作为体外受体模型,研究东北红豆杉枝叶不同提取部位的降血糖效果。结果对于胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞,醇提液、乙酸乙酯部位和正丁醇部位均能促进胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞的葡萄糖消耗量,其中醇提液和乙酸乙酯部位在浓度为0.01mg・ mL -1效果最佳,正丁醇部位在浓度为0.05mg・ mL -1效果最佳,而且都与模型组相比具有极显著性差异(P<0.01);东北红豆杉提取物均有不同程度抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活性,以乙酸乙酯部位效果最佳(IC50=17.08mg・ L -1),其次正丁醇部位(IC50=28.48mg・ L-1)和醇提物(IC50=31.03mg・L -1),水部位(IC50=80.99mg・ L -1)石油醚部位(IC50=132.38mg・ L -1)最弱。结论初步确定东北红豆杉具有降血糖潜力的部位在乙酸乙酯与正丁醇部位。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the action of different extracts of Taxus cuspidata Sieb et Zucc on alpha-glu-cosidase and HepG2 cells′insulin resistance in vitro to supply the separating base of the effective chemical compo -nents.METHODS The HepG2 cells and alpha-glucosidase were used as receptor model to study the hypoglycemic activity in vitro of Taxus cuspidata Sieb et Zucc.RESULTS The ethyl acetate extrac(0.01mg・ mL-1)、ethanol ex-tract(0.01mg・ mL-1) and n-butanol extract(0.05mg・ mL-1) of Taxus cuspidata Sieb et Zucc could promote glu-cose consumption of insulin resistant HepG 2 cell model.The ethyl acetate extract showed strong activity in the inhibi-tory activities ofα-glucoside.( IC50 =17.08 mg・ L-1 ) The ethanol extract ( IC50 =31.03 mg・ L-1 ) and n-butanol ex-tract(IC50 =28.48mg・ L-1) displayed lower activity.Petroleum ether fraction(IC50 =132.38mg・ L-1) and water fraction( IC50 =80.99 mg・ L-1 ) have a little activity.CONCLUSION The components of hypoglycemic activity could be testified in the ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract.

  4. Study on Inhibition of Alpha-glucoside and Antioxidation of from Leaves and Twigs of Taxus chinensis var mairei in vitro%南方红豆杉枝叶不同提取部位抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶及抗氧化活性筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛平; 汤彬; 陈建伟; 王玉; 姚晓; 李祥

    2013-01-01

    目的:考察南方红豆杉枝叶不同提取部位体外抑制α-葡萄糖苷活性和抗氧化活性.方法:对南方红豆杉的醇提液、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位、正丁醇部位、水部位采用体外α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制模型进行酶抑制活性研究,并通过其清除1,1二苯基苦基苯肼(DPPH)自由基和Fe3±还原能力(FRAP)测定南方红豆杉提取物的体外抗氧化作用.结果:南方红豆杉提取物均有不同程度抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活性,以乙酸乙酯部位效果最佳(IC50 27.854 1 mg·L-1),其次醇提物(IC5029.215 5 mg·L-1)和正丁醇部位(IC50 38.913 0 mg·L-1),水部位(IC50 74.505 9 mg·L-1)石油醚部位(IC50 128.729 5 mg·L-1)最弱.抗氧化活性依次为醇提液(DPPH IC506.370 7 mg·L-1,FRAP 4.266 mmol·g-1)>乙酸乙酯部位(DPPH IC50 9.535 8 mg·L-1,FRAP 3.275 mmol·g-1)>正丁醇部位(DPPH IC50 20.461 3 mg·L-1,FRAP 1.498 mmol·g-1)>水部位(DPPH IC5026.685 5 mg·L-1,FRAP 0.678 mmol·g-1)>石油醚部位.结论:初步确定南方红豆杉抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活性有效成分主要在乙酸乙酯与正丁醇部位,抗氧化及其相关成分主要在乙酸乙酯部位.%Objective: Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and antioxidation of different extracts from the branches and leaves of Taxus chinensis var mairei were studied in vitro to supply the separating base of the effective chemical components. Method: The inhibitory activities of α-glucoside were assayed in external. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were assessed bytwo complementary test systems, namely 1, l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Result: The ethyl acetate extract showed strong activity in the inhibitory activities of a-glucoside. ( IC50 27. 854 1 mg ·L-1 ) The ethanol extract ( IC50 29. 215 5 mg·L-1) and n-butanol extract ( IC50 38. 913 0 mg·L-1) displayed lower activity. Petroleum ether fraction (IC50 128.729 5 mg·L-1) and water fraction ( IC50 74.505 9 mg·L-1) have a little activity. The antioxidant activities: ethanol extract (DPPH IC50 6. 370 7 mg·L-1, FRAP 4. 266 mmol ·g-1) > ethyl acetate extract ( DPPH IC50 9. 535 8 mg ·L-1 , FRAP 3. 275 mmol ·g-1) > n-butanol extract ( DPPH IC50 20. 461 3 mg ·L-1, FRAP 1. 498 mmol ·g-1) > water fraction ( DPPH IC50 26. 685 5 mg ·L-1, FRAP 0. 678 mmol ·g-1 ) >petroleum ether fraction. Conclusion: The components of inhibition a-glucoside could be testified in the ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract. Antioxidative components were in the ethyl acetate extract.

  5. 万家辉柔枝互叶白千层生长量及其挥发油含量动态研究%A Dynamic Study on Tree Growth and Contents of Volatile Oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Limber Twig Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴玲; 刘布鸣; 何开家; 林霄; 白懋嘉; 陈明生

    2015-01-01

    通过跟踪测定万家辉柔枝互叶白干层定植后1年生长周期内植物生长量、挥发油得油率以及主成分含量等指标,研究其生长发育规律及主要功能成分的含量变化情况,为万家辉柔枝互叶白干层的优质高产种植以及茶树油生产提供科学依据.

  6. Intelligent Sensors for Atomization Processing of Molten Metals and Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    usingj ria’l anole scat:.2ring aria ~xz rlodcr.’-anq’Ie scattering analysis, and dooler analysis; elect-r4ICal methods usn sur face i: o and...51ff. 21. Meyer, Patricia . An Analysis of the Atomization Process in Coal-Water Slurry Sprays. Ph.D. Th., Carnegie Mellon University, 1986. 22. Myers

  7. Comparison of the pathogenicity, growth, sporulation and morphology of Pezicula alba Guthrie (Gloeosporium album Osterw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen isolates of Pezicula alba Guthr. were examined. The intensity of growth on various media, pathogenicity to apple fruits and twigs, colour of cultures and size of conidia were measured. Some isolates are pathogenic to fruits, some others to twigs; one isolate (only no. 19 is pathogenic to both twigs and fruits; many isolates are not - pathogenic at all. Culture growth, sporulation and size of conidia are not correlated with the pathogenicity of the isolate. The mean size of conidia is 21.29µm x 3.48µm.

  8. The braconid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae: Hieroxestinae) in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Mehrnejad, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Two species of Braconidae (Chelonus kermakiae (Tobias, 2001) (Cheloninae) and Centistidea pistaciella spec. nov. (Miracinae)) have been reared from the pistachio twig borer moth (Kermania pistaciella Amsel) (Tineidae). Both species are described and illustrated; Centistidea pistaciella spec. nov. is

  9. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like branches, twigs and roots to use a gardening metaphor and then after it has these connections there’s also another gardening metaphor called pruning or cutting back or eliminating ...

  10. Life-form and Density of Valuable Non-timber Plants in Ukpom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    State, Nigeria was assessed for the abundance of plant species producing ... vegetables, twigs, nuts and industrial products like rafter, gum, tannin, latex and dyes ... classified into four life-forms, namely: trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers. The.

  11. Pentaphylacaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1955-01-01

    Evergreen, subglabrous shrubs or trees. Twigs lengthwise grooved and ridged. Buds perular. Leaves simple, entire, penninerved, spirally arranged; midrib and petiole sulcate. Stipules absent. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, rather small, in ± sessile, bracteate, axillary pseudo-spikes or -racemes wh

  12. Emotive Ink-Wash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIYING

    2005-01-01

    Sprouting twigs reach for the sky, as birds glide through the treetops, Xu Jianwei's pointing is the view from a window, Its deconstruction brings into relief skilful strokes that convincingly intimate flowers and birds.

  13. Practical problems and their solutions in studying the biology of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnson

    their natural enemies from orchards regularly sprayed with insecticides, and combating vandalism in study orchards. ... biology and to determine its natural enemies. In this ... usually kept on twigs or leaves in dark containers and the emerging ...

  14. Classroom Critters and the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneidel, Sally

    This resource book presents 37 behavioral experiments that can be performed with commonly-found classroom animals including hamsters, gerbils, mice, goldfish, guppies, anolis lizards, kittens, and puppies. Each experiment explores the five steps of the scientific method: (1) Question; (2) Hypothesis; (3) Methods; (4) Result; and (5) Conclusion.…

  15. Does serotonin influence aggression? Comparing regional activity before and during social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Summers, C.H.; Korzan, W.J.; Lukkes, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin is widely believed to exert inhibitory control over aggressive behavior and intent. In addition, a number of studies of fish, reptiles, and mammals, including the lizard Anolis carolinensis, have demonstrated that serotonergic activity is stimulated by aggressive social interaction in b...

  16. Owning the Environment: Stealth Soldier - Research Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    during the Vietnam war, the 1973 Middle East War, Operation Allied Force (the Kosovo war), the 1991 Persian Gulf war, the Hezbollah deceptive tactics...painting, twigs), Australian Aborigines ( mud , twigs), and ninjas in the XIVth century Japan (clothes) (e.g., Crowdy [2006]). However, even though...Soviet Operational Deception: The Red Cloak. Combat Studies Institute: Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1988. Barthorp, M. The British Army and Campaign

  17. Influence of floral structure and flower bud quality on productivity and fruit shape in different apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Hansen Madail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between floral structure and bud quality with the productivity and fruit shape of Gala, Fuji and Daiane apple cultivars under the mild winter conditions in Southern Brazil. Six different types of floral structures were characterized in field growing plants, according to their nature and bud size: spurs, short and long twigs with weak and vigorous buds. Variables related to the phenology and the productivity for these different structures were evaluated. Gala and Fuji cvs. showed earlier phenological development in the twigs, and cv. Daiane in the spurs. For the three cvs. the highest percentage of buds in each phenological phase was observed in the long twigs. The long twigs also showed the highest sprout and fruit set index, floral number per cluster, and leaf area in the three cvs., while the bud abortion was higher in the spurs than in the twigs. No difference was observed among the structures in cvs. Gala and Fuji regarding to the fruit shape. In the cv. Daiane, however, a tendency to higher length diameter ratio of the fruits produced by the long twigs was observed.

  18. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 4. Communicable Diseases Transmitted Chiefly through Respiratory and Alimentary Tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-01-01

    Theater of Operations The Physiologic EfJects of Wounds Vascular Surgery 1 Iiscellaneous: Cold Injury, Ground Type United States Army Dental Serrice in...literature from 1805 to 1882. Netter and Debr 1. su_,1pplemlented thlose accounts anol completed the record uip to 1911. 1-eimiani and Feld stei c b ave...access to tile meninges. Thle. first, supported by Netter andl Debr," suggested the direct, tranlsmission of tile organism from thle noF’e to the

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Air Force Plant 38, Porter, New York, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    break through the cement surface which surrounds the pad. 3.2.3 Laboratory Program All samples were split in the field and the split portions were...and specific capacity (3) Present and projected groundwater development and use (4) Corrosion, incrustation , well interference, and similar...AND/ORl PLUGS _ .ANO_L FNo _ __ ,______ ENTONIT-E. L F- No CEMENT -LF, No. ________SECURITY CAP (Y OR NJ _ _, WELL DEVELOPMENT (Y Oi N) t__ J LOCATION

  20. Freezing pattern and frost killing temperature of apple (Malus domestica) wood under controlled conditions and in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert

    2012-07-01

    The freezing pattern and frost killing temperatures of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) xylem were determined by differential thermal analysis and infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA). Results from detached or attached twigs in controlled freezing experiments and during natural field freezing of trees were compared. Non-lethal freezing of apoplastic water in apple xylem as monitored during natural winter frosts in the field occurred at -1.9 ± 0.4 °C and did not change seasonally. The pattern of whole tree freezing was variable and specific to the environmental conditions. On detached twigs high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs) occurred 2.8 K below the temperature observed under natural frosts in the field with a seasonal mean of -4.7 ± 0.5 °C. Microporous apple xylem showed freezing without a specific pattern within a few seconds in IDTA images during HTEs, which is in contrast to macroporous xylem where a 2D freezing pattern mirrors anatomical structures. The pith tissue always remained unfrozen. Increasing twig length increased ice nucleation temperature; for increased twig diameter the effect was not significant. In attached twigs frozen in field portable freezing chambers, HTEs were recorded at a similar mean temperature (-4.6 ± 1.0 °C) to those for detached twigs. Upon lethal intracellular freezing of apple xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) low-temperature freezing exotherms (LTEs) can be recorded. Low-temperature freezing exotherms determined on detached twigs varied significantly between a winter minimum of -36.9 °C and a summer maximum -12.7 °C. Within the temperature range wherein LTEs were recorded by IDTA in summer (-12.7 ± 0.5 to -20.3 ± 1.1 °C) various tiny clearly separated discontinuous freezing events could be detected similar to that in other species with contrasting XPC anatomy. These freezing events appeared to be initially located in the primary and only later in the secondary xylem. During the LTE no

  1. Insecticidal Activity of Extracts of Aglaia spp. (Meliaceae Against Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Prijono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal potential of eleven species of Aglaia (Meliaceae was evaluated in the laboratory against the cabbage cluster caterpillar, Crocidolomia binotalis. The feeding treatment of second-instar larvae C. binotalis for 48 hours with ethanol twig extract of A. odorata at 0.5% caused 98.7% larval mortality; leaf and twig extracts of A. elaeagnoidea caused 17.3% and 6.7% mortality, respectively; twig extracts of A. argentea, A. formosana, and A. latifolia caused only 1.3% mortality each; whereas extracts of the other six Aglaia species were inactive (0% mortality. Further tests with A. odorata showed that twigs gave the most active extract compared to other plant parts (leaves, flowers, and roots, and air-drying of plant materials for 2 weeks markedly decreased the activity of the derived extracts. The active extracts also delayed the development of surviving larvae in similar degree to the level of their lethal effect. LC50 of ethyl acetate fraction of A. odorata twig extract and its main active compound, rocaglamide, against C. binotalis larvae were 310.2 and 31.4 ppm, respectively. This active compound was about 8.7 times less potent than azadirachtin (LC50 3.6 ppm. Key words: Aglaia, botanical insecticides, Crocidolomia binotalis

  2. Composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of a full grown tree of Pinus cembra L. from the Calimani mountains (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apetrei Lungu Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the essential oils of Pinus cembra L. needles and twigs. The chemical composition was analyzed using both GC and GC-MS techniques. α-Pinene (69.14% was the major constituent of the needle essential oil while the twig essential oil was characterized by a high content of limonene+ β-phellandrene (40.97% and α-pinene (24.94%. The needle and twig essential oils showed weak DPPH radical scavenging effects (EC50=19.93±0.75 and EC50=18.66±0.70 mg ml-1, respectively. In antimicrobial assays, both essential oils showed high activity against Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus and no activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The needle and twig essential oils had similar antimicrobial effects against Sarcina lutea with MIC and MBC values of 0.12 and 0.24 mg ml-1, respectively. The twig essential oil (MIC=1.95 mg ml-1, MBC=3.9 mg ml-1 was more active against Staphylococcus aureus than the needle essential oil (MIC=3.9 mg ml-1, MBC=15.62 mg ml-1 and also exhibited a moderate activity against Candida albicans (MIC=7.81 mg ml-1, MFC=15.62 mg ml-1.

  3. Modifications of the dermis during scale regeneration in the lizard tail

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    During scale morphogenesis in the regenerating tail of lizards (Anolis and Lampropholis) the structure of the dermis undergoes changes in relation to the ingrowth of epidermal papillae to form the new scales. Cell proliferation in the dermis, as revealed by the uptake of 3~-thymidinei,s high in the prescaling region of the regenerating tail but lower than the proliferation in the epidermis. Under the epidermis of the scaling region dermal cell proliferation rap...

  4. Histological evidence of reproductive activity in lizards from the APM Manso, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.9228

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Strüssmann; Mônica Cassel; Adelina Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The construction of dams causes major impacts on fauna by changing or eliminating irreversibly their habitats. The resulting changes lead to deep potential modifications on reproductive biology and population structure of lizards, snakes and amphisbaenas. The reservoir in the Multiple Use Area of Manso (APM-Manso) is located near to Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, in Mato Grosso State. We analyzed comparatively the male gonads of Anolis meridionalis, Colobosaura modesta, Cercosaura ocell...

  5. Thermal dependence of passive electrical properties of lizard muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B A

    1987-11-01

    1. The thermal dependence of passive electrical properties was determined for twitch fibres from the white region of the iliofibularis (IF) muscle of Anolis cristatellus (15-35 degrees C) and Sceloporus occidentalis (15-40 degrees C), and for twitch fibres from the white (15-45 degrees C) and red (15-40 degrees C) regions of the IF of Dipsosaurus dorsalis. These species differ in thermal ecology, with Anolis being the least thermophilic and Dipsosaurus the most thermophilic. 2. Iliofibularis fibres from the three species reacted similarly to changing temperature. As temperature was increased, input resistance (Rin) decreased (average R10 = 0.7), length constant (L) decreased (average R10 = 0.9), time constant (tau) decreased (average R10 = 0.8), sarcoplasmic resistivity (Rs) decreased (average R10 = 0.8) and apparent membrane resistance (Rm) decreased (average R10 = 0.7). In contrast, apparent membrane capacitance (Cm) increased with increasing temperature (average R10 = 1.3). 3. Rin, L, tau and apparent Rm were lowest in fibres from Anolis (the least thermophilic species) and highest in fibres from Dipsosaurus (the most thermophilic species). Anolis had the largest and Dipsosaurus the smallest diameter fibres (126 and 57 micron, respectively). Apparent Cm was highest in fibres from Sceloporus, which had fibres of intermediate diameter (101 micron). Rs did not differ significantly among species. 4. The effect of temperature on the passive electrical properties of these lizard fibres was similar to that reported for muscle fibres from other ectothermic animals (crustaceans, insects, fish and amphibians) but qualitatively different from that reported for some mammalian (cat tenuissimus, goat intercostal) fibres. The changes that occur in the passive electrical properties render the fibres less excitable as temperature increases.

  6. Investigation of the antimutagenic effects of selected South African medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaeve, L; Kestens, V; Taylor, J L S; Elgorashi, E E; Maes, A; Van Puyvelde, L; De Kimpe, N; Van Staden, J

    2004-02-01

    Dichloromethane extracts from different parts of Rhamnus prinoides, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Gardenia volkensii, Spirostachys africana, Diospyros whyteana, Syzigium cordatum and Prunus africana were investigated for mutagenic and antimutagenic effects in Salmonella/microsome and micronucleus tests. None of the extracts tested in the Ames test were found to induce mutations or to modify the effect of the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-oxide (4NQO). In the micronucleus test, extracts from twigs/bark of R. prinoides, twigs of D. whyteana, P. africana and S. cordatum significantly lowered the effect of the mutagen mitomycin C (MMC). Extracts from twigs/bark of G. volkensii and S. africana were genotoxic in the micronucleus test, while extracts of O. longibracteatum leaves potentiated the genotoxicity of MMC. This preliminary investigation shows that plant extracts used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to mutagenicity and antimutagenicity indicating careful use in some instances and the need to isolate their active principles for further research.

  7. Associations of Two Ecologically Significant Social Insect Taxa in the Litter of an Amazonian Rainforest: Is There a Relationship between Ant and Termite Species Richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Mertl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the ecological dominance of Neotropical ants and termites, little is understood about how their interactions influence their species richness and distribution. We surveyed ground-dwelling termite and ant species in a primary rainforest in Ecuador and analyzed ecological correlates of diversity. Termite richness was positively correlated with ant richness and abundance of twig-nesting ants. We found no evidence of competition for twigs between termites and ants. No ecological factors were correlated with termite diversity although elevation and twig and log abundance influenced ant diversity. When ant richness was compared to the richness of termites employing different predator defenses, a positive correlation was found with soldierless termites, but not genera employing chemical or mechanical defense. Our results suggest that multiple ecological factors influence ant and termite diversity, and that ant predation on termites may have a greater effect than competition between ant and termites for nest sites and food sources.

  8. The seasonal change of flavonoid contents in different organs of Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd.et Wils.%大血藤不同器官黄酮类化合物含量的季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钧敏; 金则新; 钟章成; 陈永辉

    2002-01-01

    The contents of flavonoid in the leaf and stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd. Et Wils. Were determined. In a whole growth season, the dynamic chang of flavonoid in the leafblade of S. Cuneata showed the two-peak pattern. The first peak appeared at June and the second at September. The seasonal dynamic change of flavonoids in leafstalk, annual twig and perennial stem were different and inconspicuous. The flavonoid cumulated maximally in the leafblade and the followed was seccessively annual twig, leafstalk, and perennial stem. The flavonoid content in leafblade was 31.79 mg/g(DW), while that in annual twig, leafstalk and perennial stem was 5.41 mg/g(DW), 5.30 mg/g(DW) and 3.95 mg/g(DW) respectively. There was markedly higher flavonoid content in leafblade. It is considered that the leaf of Sargentodoxa cuneata is significant in further exploitation.

  9. Early Holocene turnover, followed by stability, in a Caribbean lizard assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Melissa E.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how communities are impacted by environmental perturbations is integral for addressing the ongoing biodiversity crisis that impacts ecosystems worldwide. The fossil record serves as a window into ancient interactions and the responses of communities to past perturbations. Here, we re-examine paleontological data from Katouche Bay, Anguilla, a Holocene site in the Lesser Antilles. We reveal that the site was more diverse than previously indicated, with long-term, continuous records of three genera of extant lizards (Anolis, Ameiva, and Thecadactylus), and the early Holocene presence of Leiocephalus, a large ground-dwelling lizard that has since been completely extirpated from the Lesser Antilles. The disappearance of Leiocephalus from Katouche Bay resulted in high turnover, decreased evenness, and decreased species richness-a trend that continues to the present day. Our body size reconstructions for the most abundant genus, Anolis, are consistent with the presence of only one species, Anolis cf. gingivinus, at Katouche Bay throughout the Holocene, contrary to previously published studies. Additionally, we find no evidence of dwarfism in A. cf. gingivinus, which contrasts with a global study of contemporary insular lizards. Our data reveal that the impacts of diversity loss on lizard communities are long lasting and irreversible over millennia.

  10. Characterization of endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an artificial plantation: media effect and tissue-dependent variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Qi

    Full Text Available The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek's, WA and Sabouraud's, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark. Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF or isolation frequency (IF. To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance and Czapek's-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance, respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek's, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3 except for bark and annual twigs (0.63. Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity.

  11. Essential oil composition variability among natural populations of Pinus mugo Turra in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Ahmeti, Gresa; Pulaj, Bledar; Lukas, Brigitte; Ibraliu, Alban; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Pinus mugo Turra, is a native pine species in central and southern Europe, growing in high mountains area (altitudes 1.800-2.300 m.a.s.l.). In Kosovo, it is one of the native pines too, distributed in high altitudes in the Sharri Mountains and Albanian Alps Mountains. Its populations represent an important wealth of essential oil resources available, which make this species very important in terms of economic values. The chemical composition and yields of the essential oils of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) needles, twigs and cones from six wild populations in Kosovo were investigated with the aim to assess their natural variability. The identity of P. mugo was confirmed by morphology and DNA barcoding. Sixty-two compounds were identified representing 69-95 % of the total identified compounds. The yield ranged from 0.3-0.8 % v/w in needles, 1.0-2.4 % v/w in twigs and 0.1-0.5 % v/w in cones, depending on the origin of plant material and plant organs. α-Pinene (needles: 16.9-24.5 %; twigs: 4.5-8.8 %; cones: 3.1-5.6 %), β-pinene (needles: 1.5-5.4 %; twigs: 2.2-15.4 %; cones: 1.3-14.2 %), δ-3-carene (needles: 15.4-27.8 %; twigs: 24.0-51.6 %; cones: 10.5-31.5 %), limonene + β-phellandrene (needles: 1.9-5.9 %; twigs: 12.6-24.2 %; cones: 2.1-9.3 %), (E)-caryophyllene (needles: 4.4-8.9 %; twigs: 4.0-10.8 %; cones: 10.3-26.9 %) and germacrene D (needles: 4.0-8.3 %; twigs: 0.2-6.19 %; cones: 0.1-12.4 %) were the major components of the essential oil. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) suggests that the population of P. mugo clustering is not related to their geographic location, but rather seemed to be linked to local selective forces acting on chemotype diversity. Low variability related to their geographic location has an economic importance since samples originating from different locations in Kosovo can treated with same standards.

  12. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kondo, Takumasa

    2015-01-01

    A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) species, Pulvinariacaballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficussoatensis Dugand (Moraceae) in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles Pulvinariadrymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimyswinteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae), but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., Pulvinariacaballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas Pulvinariadrymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  13. Effect of trifluralin on production of male bicellular cells in “Sai Num Phueng” mandarin (Citrus reticulata, calamondin (Citrofortunella mitis, and “Paen” lime (Citrus aurantifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahha Toolapong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The doubling of male cellular cells of the flowers of mandarin (cultivar "Sai Num Phueng", calamondin, and lime (cultivar "Paen" by using different concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.40% of trifluralin, which were directly applied to the 35-40 cm length of flush twigs, was studied. The citrus twigs, upon increasing the trifluralin concentration, produced a correspondingly high number of flowers with male bicellular cells (except calamondin that showed an opposite trend, as well as a high number of the male bicellular cells themselves. The normal and male bicellular cells, however, appeared to be similar in size.

  14. First report of Pilidiella granati causing dieback and fruit rot of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirabolfathy, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Iran is the largest producer of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in the world, with more than 60,000 ha currently in production. In the spring of 2011, a decline and dieback of young pomegranate trees (7 to 10 years old) were observed in the Kheir area of Fars Province. Dieback and twig blight develope

  15. Efficacy of traps, lures, and repellents for Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles on Coffea arabica plantations and Acacia koa nurseries in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. G. Burbano; M.G. Wright; N.E. Gillette; S. Mori; N. Dudley; N. Jones; M. Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a pest of coffee and many endemic Hawaiian plants. Traps baited with chemical attractants commonly are used to capture ambrosia beetles for purposes of monitoring, studying population dynamics, predicting outbreaks, and mass trapping to reduce damage...

  16. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  17. Community structure of endophytic fungi of four mangrove species in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Long Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests play an important role in subtropical and tropical coastal ecosystems. Endophytic fungi are widely distributed in various ecosystems and have great contribution to global biodiversity. In order to better understand the effects of mangrove species and tissue types on endophytic fungal community, we investigated cultivable endophytic fungi in leaves and twigs of four mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Kandelia candel in Guangxi, China. The four tree species had similar overall colonisation rates of endophytic fungi (24–33%. The colonisation rates of endophytic fungi were higher in twigs (30–58% than in leaves (6–25% in the four plant species. A total of 36 endophytic fungal taxa were identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, including 35 Ascomycota and 1 Basidiomycota, dominated by Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Xylaria, Leptosphaerulina, and Pestalotiopsis. The diversity of endophytic fungi was higher in twigs than in leaves in the four plant species. Some endophytic fungi showed host and tissue preference. The endophytic fungal community composition was different among four mangrove species and between leaf and twig tissues.

  18. The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.), with special reference to Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van G.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The brown rot fungi of fruit crops ( Monilinia spp.) cause blossom blight, twig blight, and fruit rot in rosaceous fruit crops in the temperate regions of the world. Three species are distinguished, of which M. fructicola and M. laxa

  19. Cryptic speciation and community structure of Herpotrichia juniperi, the causal agent of brown felt blight of conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Grünig, Christoph R; Holdenrieder, Ottmar; Sieber, Thomas N

    2009-08-01

    Conifer twigs showing brown felt blight were collected along 100-m long transects at the timberline in the Swiss Alps and single-hyphal-tip cultures were prepared. Forty-seven of the sequenced 48 strains were Herpotrichia juniperi based on sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS). A non-sporulating strain was tentatively identified as another, undescribed Herpotrichia species. Herpotrichia coulteri was not isolated. Most strains were from Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, the rest from Picea abies and Pinus mugo. Each twig was colonized by a different genotype as revealed by ISSR-PCR fingerprinting. More than one clone was present on some needles and twigs. Thus, importance of vegetative mycelial growth for dispersal seems to be limited to the spread of the disease to twigs of the same tree or of immediately adjacent trees, and, consequently, dispersal occurs mainly by ascospores. The H. juniperi strains could be assigned to five distinct groups based on the ISSR-PCR data. The strains from P. abies formed one of these groups but the other groups did not correlate with either host, transect or position along the transects. Multi-locus analysis based on beta-tubulin, elongation factor 1-alpha and ITS sequences confirmed the subdivision into five groups. Population differentiation among groups was distinct with N(ST) values varying between 0.545 and 0.895. H. juniperi seems to be composed of several cryptic species, one of them specific to P. abies.

  20. Isoprenylated flavonoids and adipogenesis-promoting constituents from Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Wu, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Huang, Jian-Ming; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

    2011-04-25

    Ten new isoprenylated flavonoids, nigrasins A-J (1-10), and three known compounds were isolated from the twigs of Morus nigra. Compounds 8 and 9 promoted adipogenesis, characterized by increased lipid droplet and triglyceride content in 3T3L1 cells, and induced up-regulation of the expression of adipocyte-specific genes, aP2 and GLUT4.

  1. Anacardiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1974-01-01

    Trees, erect or scandent shrubs, or climbers, very rarely epiphytic shrubs; usually with acrid, often turpentine smelling sap becoming black when exposed to the air. Buttresses sometimes present. Stipules absent. Leaves often crowded at the (thickened) end of twigs, spiral or alternate (only opposit

  2. Commodity chemicals from forest biomass - Bioforest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstrom, T. [Aalto University, Espoo (Finland)], email: tom.granstrom@aalto.fi

    2012-07-01

    To develop an economic process for production of commodity chemicals from mixed forest biomass (tree tops, limbs, twigs and stumps from softwoods and hardwoods) and recycled fibers within an integrated forest products complex. The chemicals that will be produced are: butanol, isopropanol and ethanol.

  3. Aboveground biomass subdivisions in woody species of the savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rutherford, MC

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground peak season biomass is given for 11 woody species in each of five belt transects under study. Mean aerial biomass for all species was 16 273 kg ha, made up of 14 937 kg ha wood, 236 kg ha current season's twigs and 1 100 kg ha leaves...

  4. Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange in a traveling wave ion guide for the examination of protein conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Pringle, Steven D; Murphy, James P; Fadgen, Keith E; Brown, Jeff; Engen, John R

    2009-12-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that solution-phase conformations of small globular proteins and large molecular protein assemblies can be preserved for milliseconds after electrospray ionization. Thus, the study of proteins in the gas phase on this time scale is highly desirable. Here we demonstrate that a traveling wave ion guide (TWIG) of a Synapt mass spectrometer offers a highly suitable environment for rapid and efficient gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX). Gaseous ND(3) was introduced into either the source TWIG or the TWIG located just after the ion mobility cell, such that ions underwent HDX as they passed through the ND(3) on the way to the time-of-flight analyzer. The extent of deuterium labeling could be controlled by varying the quantity of ND(3) or the speed of the traveling wave. The gas-phase HDX of model peptides corresponded to labeling of primarily fast exchanging sites due to the short labeling times (ranging from 0.1 to 10 ms). In addition to peptides, gas-phase HDX of ubiquitin, cytochrome c, lysozyme, and apomyoglobin were examined. We conclude that HDX of protein ions in a TWIG is highly sensitive to protein conformation, enables the detection of conformers present on submilliseconds time scales, and can readily be combined with ion mobility spectrometry.

  5. Regression methods for spatially correlated data: an example using beetle attacks in a seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler Haiganoush; Nancy G. Rappaport; David L. Wood

    1997-01-01

    We present a statistical procedure for studying the simultaneous effects of observed covariates and unmeasured spatial variables on responses of interest. The procedure uses regression type analyses that can be used with existing statistical software packages. An example using the rate of twig beetle attacks on Douglas-fir trees in a seed orchard illustrates the...

  6. Environ: E00650 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ohol [CPD:C00556], Salicylaldehyde [CPD:C06202], Benzaldehyde [CPD:C00261] Cinnamomum cassia [TAX:119260] Sa...me as: D06713 Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum cassia the dried leaves, twigs, and bark Obtained by stea

  7. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research, Vol. 13, No.2, 2013 USE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UCHE

    ... and 8m in girth. The tree is common along river banks and may be ... the rough fibrous back which peals off in untidy patches and often exudes a brownish bitterly ... collection for seed extraction is usually by natural seed fall. ... after collection is done to remove unwanted materials such as twigs, leaves and other materials.

  8. Potential global and regional geographic distribution of Phomopsis vaccinii on Vaccinium species projected by two species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narouei-Khandan, H.A.; Harmon, C.L.; Harmon, P.; Olmstead, J.; Zelenev, V.V.; Werf, van der W.; Worner, S.P.; Senay, S.D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccinium twig blight (caused by Phomopsis vaccinii, teleomorph Diaporthe vaccinii) is a major endemic disease on blueberries and cranberries in the Eastern and Northwestern USA and Canada. It has also been found in Europe, Chile and China. Publications on its occurrence in the USA and Canada ind

  9. Thousand cankers disease: Geosmithia morbida spores isolated from a weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Warmund; Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Geosmithia morbida, the canker-causing fungus associated with thousand cankers disease, was isolated from Stenomimus pallidus weevils found on two stressed black walnut trees in Yellowwood State Forest near Nashville, Indiana. This is the first report of Geosmithia fungus occurring on an insect other than the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis)....

  10. Aesthesis in anatomy. Materiality and elegance in the Eighteenth-Century Leiden Anatomical Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Marieke Maria Anna

    2012-01-01

    A life-like human arm decorated with lace sleeves, holding an eyelid on a string, fragments of skin swivelling in a phial with a twig, a shiny silvery liver, a dog with a cleft palate, a human ear with a tiny pox mark, foetuses decorated with colourful beads. At first sight, it seems an odd collecti

  11. 76 FR 67379 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... importation of living plants, plant parts, seeds, and plant cuttings for planting to prevent the introduction... coffee twig beetle. In the PRA, the likelihood and consequences of introducing these pests into the... places named and Prohibited article (includes seeds Foreign places from capable of being transported...

  12. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve cuvettes were installed on current year's twigs in the top of the canopy of a 35 years old Norway spruce stand in Denmark. From 10 to 16 hours, six of the cuvettes received 5-60 nl l(-1) ozone in addition to ambient air and six cuvettes received ambient air with a 40% reduced ozone concent...

  13. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  14. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  15. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  16. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  17. Inositol Hexakis Phosphate is the Seasonal Phosphorus Reservoir in the Deciduous Woody Plant Populus alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Yuko; Baba, Kei'ichi; Ohnishi, Miwa; Matsubara, Ryosuke; Kosuge, Keiko; Anegawa, Aya; Shichijo, Chizuko; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kaneko, Yasuko; Hayashi, Masahiko; Suzaki, Toshinobu; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal recycling of nutrients is an important strategy for deciduous perennials. Deciduous perennials maintain and expand their nutrient pools by the autumn nutrient remobilization and the subsequent winter storage throughout their long life. Phosphorus (P), one of the most important elements in living organisms, is remobilized from senescing leaves during autumn in deciduous trees. However, it remains unknown how phosphate is stored over winter. Here we show that in poplar trees (Populus alba L.), organic phosphates are accumulated in twigs from late summer to winter, and that IP6 (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis phosphate: phytic acid) is the primary storage form. IP6 was found in high concentrations in twigs during winter and quickly decreased in early spring. In parenchyma cells of winter twigs, P was associated with electron-dense structures, similar to globoids found in seeds of higher plants. Various other deciduous trees were also found to accumulate IP6 in twigs during winter. We conclude that IP6 is the primary storage form of P in poplar trees during winter, and that it may be a common strategy for seasonal P storage in deciduous woody plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Variation in water-use efficiency and delta-C-13 levels in eucalyptus-grandis clones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olbrich, BW

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether the delta-C-13 levels in the foliage and twigs of four Eucalyptus grandis clones were related to their water use efficiency (WUE). This relationship has previously been demonstrated in a number of herbaceous...

  19. Isolation of a new carboline alkaloid from Trigonostemon lii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Luo, Yanping; Zhao, Hongmei; Wu, Jichun; Chen, Yegao

    2016-01-01

    A new carboline alkaloid, 1-(7-methoxy-quinolinyl-4'-yl)-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline (1), was isolated from the leaves and twigs of Trigonostemon lii Y.T. Chang, together with three known ones, trigonostemonines C and D (2 and 3), and trigonoliimine A (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D-NMR techniques.

  20. Potential global and regional geographic distribution of Phomopsis vaccinii on Vaccinium species projected by two species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narouei-Khandan, H.A.; Harmon, C.L.; Harmon, P.; Olmstead, J.; Zelenev, V.V.; Werf, van der W.; Worner, S.P.; Senay, S.D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccinium twig blight (caused by Phomopsis vaccinii, teleomorph Diaporthe vaccinii) is a major endemic disease on blueberries and cranberries in the Eastern and Northwestern USA and Canada. It has also been found in Europe, Chile and China. Publications on its occurrence in the USA and Canada

  1. Chemical cues for host location by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most damaging pests of Castanea spp. Behavioral, chemical, and electrophysiological investigations were employed to examine the role of plant volatiles for host location by this thelytokuos cynipid. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays showed that adult wasps are significantly attracted by C. sativa twigs with at least 1-hr-old mechanical damage. Odors of undamaged host seedlings, intact twigs, and twigs with a fresh mechanical damage were not attractive. Wasps were repelled by plant materials of the non-host Prunus laurocerasus. Fourteen compounds, mainly general green leaf volatiles, were identified in the head-space of attractive host plant twigs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All compounds elicited dose-dependent antennal responses in adult wasps. A synthetic blend comprising all identified compounds in the same ratio as in the attractive host source induced significant positive responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The study gives a basis for future identification of host plant attractants that could contribute to semiochemical-based monitoring and management practices of this pest.

  2. Two diterpene rhamnosides, mimosasides B and C, from Mimosa hostilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Ayumi; Yokoyama, Ritsuko; Miyatake, Haruka; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2006-12-01

    Two new diterpene rhamnosides, mimosasides B and C (1, 2) were isolated together with mimosaside A (3), a known diterpene rhamnoside (4), four known flavones (5-8), five known flavanones (9-13), and four known chalcones (14-17) from the leaves and twigs of a Brazilian medicinal plant, Mimosa hostilis.

  3. 77 FR 37997 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton... leatherleaf slug); Succinea costaricana; Xylosandrus morigerus (brown coffee twig beetle... benefits), travel expenses (including per diem expenses), and other incidental expenses incurred by...

  4. Isolation of a minor nitro-alkaloid from the aerial parts of Duguetia furfuracea--Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; de Siqueira, Joao Maximo

    2009-01-01

    The refractionation of an alkaloidal extract of the leaves and twigs of Duguetia furfuracea has provided a minor aporphinoid alkaloid, named (+)-8-nitrous-isocorydine or (+)-1,2,3-trymethoxy-11-hydroxy-8-nitrous- aporphine. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic methods, notably 2D NMR and HRESIMS.

  5. Root uptake and translocation of perfluorinated alkyl acids by three hydroponically grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.S.; de Voogt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato, cabbage, and zucchini plants were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. They were exposed to 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) at four different concentrations via the nutrient solution. At maturity the plants were harvested, and the roots, stems, leaves, twigs (where applicable), and ed

  6. Vegetative anatomy and the affinities of Aquifoliaceae, Sphenostemon, Phelline, and Oncotheca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1975-01-01

    The anatomy of leaf, node, twig, and bark of Ilex, Nemopanthus, Oncotheca, Phelline, and Sphenostemon is described, together with the wood anatomy of the 4 latter genera. Several characters are recorded for the first time. The systematic value of some anatomical characters for judging the wider

  7. PALEOBOTANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132573 Hill Christopher R.(Department of Palaeobotany and Palynology,Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Nanjing 210008,China);Yang Xiaoju Exceptionally Preserved Conifer Twigs of Pseudofrenelopsis from the Marine Lower Cretaceous of Yorkshire,England

  8. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA, leaf N concentration (LN, and total leaf area per twig size (TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests.

  9. A revision of the genus Cratoxylum Bl. (Guttiferae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogelein, A.J.F.

    1967-01-01

    A complete revision is given of the Indo-Malesian genus Cratoxylum. The subdivision of the genus into 3 sections, as given by Engler (1925) and Corner (1939), has been found correct. The characters by which these sections are discriminated concern the interpetiolar scars on the twig, the type of ven

  10. Trap deployments in black walnut tree canopies help inform monitoring strategies for bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousand cankers disease is caused by plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida Kolarík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat; a fungus vectored primarily by the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis (Blackman). The role of other bark and ambrosia beetle species in persistence and spread of this disease r...

  11. Simaroubaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1960-01-01

    Trees or shrubs, in Mal. evergreen or almost so, usually containing very bitter substances. Twigs pithy. Hairs mostly simple and 1-cellular, sometimes glandularcapitate. Leaves (in Mal.) spirally arranged, simple or 1-pinnate, often articulated, often provided beneath (rarely also above) with

  12. Anacardiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1974-01-01

    Trees, erect or scandent shrubs, or climbers, very rarely epiphytic shrubs; usually with acrid, often turpentine smelling sap becoming black when exposed to the air. Buttresses sometimes present. Stipules absent. Leaves often crowded at the (thickened) end of twigs, spiral or alternate (only opposit

  13. A new view of sooty blotch and flyspeck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gleason, M.L.; Batzer, J.C.; Sun, G.; Zhang, R.; Díaz Arias, M.M.; Sutton, T.B.; Crous, P.W.; Ivanovic, M.; McManus, P.S.; Cooley, D.R.; Mayr, U.; Weber, R.W.S.; Yoder, K.S.; Ponte, Del E.M.; Biggs, A.R.; Oertel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi colonize the surface wax layer of the fruit of apple, pear, persimmon, banana, orange, papaya, and several other cultivated tree and vine crops. In addition to colonizing cultivated fruit crops, SBFS fungi also grow on the surfaces of stems, twigs, leaves, and

  14. A New View of Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gleason, M.L.; Batzer, J.C.; Sun, G.Q.; Zhang, Rong; Arias, M.; Sutton, Turner B.; Crous, P.W.; Ivanovic, M.; McManus, Patricia S.; Cooley, D.R.; Mayr, Ulrich; Weber, Roland W. S.; Yoder, Keith S.; Del Ponte, Emerson M.; Biggs, A.R.; Oertel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi colonize the surface wax layer of the fruit of apple, pear, persimmon, banana, orange, papaya, and several other cultivated tree and vine crops. In addition to colonizing cultivated fruit crops, SBFS fungi also grow on the surfaces of stems, twigs, leaves, and

  15. A plant toxin mediated mechanism for the lag in snowshoe hare population recovery following cyclic declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bryant, John P.; Liu, Rongsong; Gourley, Stephen A.; Krebs, Charles J; Reichardt, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    A necessary condition for a snowshoe hare population to cycle is reduced reproduction after the population declines. But the cause of a cyclic snowshoe hare population's reduced reproduction during the low phase of the cycle, when predator density collapses, is not completely understood. We propose that moderate-severe browsing by snowshoe hares upon preferred winter-foods could increase the toxicity of some of the hare's best winter-foods during the following hare low, with the result being a decline in hare nutrition that could reduce hare reproduction. We used a combination of modeling and experiments to explore this hypothesis. Using the shrub birch Betula glandulosa as the plant of interest, the model predicted that browsing by hares during a hare cycle peak, by increasing the toxicity B. glandulosa twigs during the following hare low, could cause a hare population to cycle. The model's assumptions were verified with assays of dammarane triterpenes in segments of B. glandulosa twigs and captive hare feeding experiments conducted in Alaska during February and March 1986. The model's predictions were tested with estimates of hare density and measurements of B. glandulosa twig growth made at Kluane, Yukon from 1988–2008. The empirical tests supported the model's predictions. Thus, we have concluded that a browsing-caused increase in twig toxicity that occurs during the hare cycle's low phase could reduce hare reproduction during the low phase of the hare cycle.

  16. Bignoniaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1974-01-01

    Trees, shrubs, lianas, very rarely herbaceous (extra-Mal.); twigs often lenticellate and nodes with gland fields; spines very rare (extra-Mal.). Stipules absent. Leaves simple or mostly compound (digitate or impari-1-4-pinnate), (in Mal.) decussate, rarely in whorls of 3-4, often provided with gland

  17. With a little help from your friends (and neighbors) : A potentially faster way to accumulate knowledge in the field of purchasing and supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, Frits

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Purchasing and supply management is a relatively young twig on the tree of management science. There are excellent empirical studies that explore key issues in this subdiscipline, that are well designed and executed, and have far-reaching conclusions for the research community and/ or p

  18. 77 FR 3423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the `I'iwi as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... (Hawaii Audubon Society 2011, p. 97), and are cup-shaped nests made of twigs and lined with lichens and... increases the risk of fire (Petition, p. 8). According to the petitioners, rats (Rattus spp.) consume native... alter fire characteristics by opening areas where successive fires can burn farther into native habitats...

  19. Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    F.C. Nwachukwu, L.S. Bilbis, U.Z. Faruk. * and A.Y. Abbas ... Twigs pubescent with 20-40 pairs leaflets each. (Houerou ..... 31:1862-1867. Dahanukar, S.A., Kulkarni, R.A. and Rege N.N. .... London; 3-44; 117-132; 154-159. Uriyo, A. P. and ...

  20. Dogwood Anthracnose and its Spread in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Anderson; John L. Knighten; Mark Windham; Keith Langdon; Floyd Hedrix; Ron Roncadori

    In the 15 years since it was first reported in the United States, dogwood anthracnose (caused by Discula destructive sp. nov.) has spread rapidly and caused serious losses among flowering dogwoods (Cornus florida L.), particularly in the South. Infection begins in leaves and spreads to twigs and branches, which dieback. Main-stem infections cause cankers, which kill...

  1. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity assays of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent for lime anthracnose in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several distorted Mexican lime [Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm). Swingle] fruit, leaf, and twig samples with lime anthracnose symptoms were collected from three trees in residential areas of Brownsville, Texas. The causal fungal organism, Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds was isolated from leave...

  2. The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.), with special reference to Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van G.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The brown rot fungi of fruit crops ( Monilinia spp.) cause blossom blight, twig blight, and fruit rot in rosaceous fruit crops in the temperate regions of the world. Three species are distinguished, of which M. fructicola and M.

  3. An Examination of the Quality of Current and Future Military Enlisted Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OP twIg PAGE f111%e Dese StifoeQd ________________ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PACE R"A !ITRUCTIONWS 1, REPORT 04UMRM... graphical breakdown of the mental categories of accessions from 1964 to 1977 (See Exhibit 5) illustrates the percentages of each category each service

  4. First report of Pilidiella granati causing dieback and fruit rot of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirabolfathy, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Iran is the largest producer of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in the world, with more than 60,000 ha currently in production. In the spring of 2011, a decline and dieback of young pomegranate trees (7 to 10 years old) were observed in the Kheir area of Fars Province. Dieback and twig blight

  5. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Carolina Sapphire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needles-twigs (NT) and wood barks (WB) of ‘Carolina Sapphire’ [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC...

  6. Moisture Sources in Relation to Conidial Dissemination and Infection by Cladosporium carpophilum Within Peach Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Z; Scherm, H

    2003-12-01

    ABSTRACT Cladosporium carpophilum, the causal agent of peach scab, overwinters in lesions on 1-year-old twigs, from which conidia infect the developing fruit during spring and early summer. Twig lesions constitute the sole source of initial inoculum; therefore, the mode of dissemination of conidia from such lesions to the fruit is of considerable interest. In a 4-year study, we determined the relative importance of air- versus water-borne conidia and their interaction with different fruit wetness sources (splash, twig runoff, and dew) in a peach orchard with areas that had been treated or not treated with fungicide the previous year. The rareness of scab twig lesions in the previously sprayed trees implied that fruit infection in these trees would occur primarily by airborne conidia from unsprayed trees nearby (located within the same tree row or the adjacent row). In the unsprayed areas, additional infections could occur by short-distance waterborne dissemination of conidia from locally abundant twig lesions via splashing or runoff. Beginning at calyx fall, individual fruit were protected from splash by rain shields, protected from runoff by cotton wicks placed proximal to the peduncle, or left untreated. Rain shields were adjustable, allowing rain or dew to be excluded selectively. Various combinations of the shield and wick treatments were implemented in the previously sprayed and unsprayed areas, and statistical comparison of fruit scab severity between individual treatments by linear contrasts allowed us to untangle the relative contributions of the various sources of inoculum and fruit wetness. Results showed that aerial dissemination of conidia contributed little to fruit scab development, even in the presence of fruit surface wetness caused by splashing, runoff, or dew. In contrast, waterborne conidia contributed considerably and significantly (P disease development. This was due primarily to the importance of splash in disseminating conidia from twig

  7. Experimental evidence for friction-enhancing integumentary modifications of chameleons and associated functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khannoon, Eraqi R; Endlein, Thomas; Russell, Anthony P; Autumn, Kellar

    2014-01-22

    The striking morphological convergence of hair-like integumentary derivatives of lizards and arthropods (spiders and insects) demonstrates the importance of such features for enhancing purchase on the locomotor substrate. These pilose structures are responsible for the unique tractive abilities of these groups of animals, enabling them to move with seeming ease on overhanging and inverted surfaces, and to traverse inclined smooth substrates. Three groups of lizards are well known for bearing adhesion-promoting setae on their digits: geckos, anoles and skinks. Similar features are also found on the ventral subdigital and distal caudal skin of chameleons. These have only recently been described in any detail, and structurally and functionally are much less well understood than are the setae of geckos and anoles. The seta-like structures of chameleons are not branched (a characteristic of many geckos), nor do they terminate in spatulate tips (which is characteristic of geckos, anoles and skinks). They are densely packed and have attenuated blunt, globose tips or broad, blade-like shafts that are flattened for much of their length. Using a force transducer, we tested the hypothesis that these structures enhance friction and demonstrate that the pilose skin has a greater frictional coefficient than does the smooth skin of these animals. Our results are consistent with friction being generated as a result of side contact of the integumentary filaments. We discuss the evolutionary and functional implications of these seta-like structures in comparison with those typical of other lizard groups and with the properties of seta-mimicking synthetic structures.

  8. The Role of Akt and its Substrates in Resistance of Breast Cancer to Trastuzumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Herrera,R. and Nunez,G. Interleukin-3-induced phosphorylation of BAD through the protein kinase Akt, Science, 278: 687-689, 1997 . 4 Burgering,B.M.T...chloroform-meth- anol to precipitate proteins and separate aqueous and lipid- soluble metabolites as described [19]. The lyophilised aque - ous and lipid...Biology 1997 , 7:R295-R298. 33. Crouin C, Arnaud M, Gesbert F, Camonis J, Bertoglio J: A yeast two-hybrid study of human p97/Gab2 interactions with its SH2

  9. Kennedy病散发病例1例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玫; 张社卿; 王文章; 徐晓云; 丁素菊

    2009-01-01

    @@ Kennedy病,又称为X连锁隐性脊髓延髓型肌萎缩症(X-linked spinal anol bulbar museular atrophy,SBMA),1968年由Kennedy首先报道~([1]),是一种晚发的X连锁遗传病.国内对本病认识较晚,2006年张社卿等首次报道了一个经基因诊断证实的完整家系~([2]).

  10. Species richness and ecological characterization of myxomycetes and myxomycete-like organisms in the canopy of a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittler, Martin; Unterseher, Martin; Tesmer, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The ecological community of myxomycetes and myxomycete-like organisms (MMLO) in the canopy of living deciduous trees was studied in a riparian deciduous forest at Leipzig, Germany. A systematic survey carried out with a total of 146 moist chamber cultures resulted in 386 records of 37 taxa, with 32 myxomycetes, two myxobacteria, two protostelids and the fruit body forming ciliate Sorogena stoianovitchae, the latter recorded for the first time for Europe. With 94% of all cultures positive for MMLO, these organisms are present consistently in the investigated sections of white-rotten twigs attached to living trees at 10-30 m above the ground. Our sampling recovered a majority of the likely species, with 37 out of the 42-45 predicted according to a species-accumulation curve and two other estimators of species richness. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed pH, water-holding capacity and stage of decay to explain most of the variation in species distribution. Arcyria cinerea and Perichaena depressa as the most common species occurred in 32% and 29% of all samples, respectively. Viewing the sampled twigs as habitat islands and a single spore as sufficient to establish a population, a simulation program assuming a random spore rain estimated an average of 0.4 and 0.35 spore hits per twig as necessary to explain the observed frequencies. This is matched by the potential productivity of the substrate. All fruit bodies from the cultured twigs would be able to create a spore rain of 86 (A. cinerea) or 40 (P. depressa) spore hits per twig when dispersed evenly over the plot. The terminal fall velocity of spores was measured, revealing that it took about 5 h for a spore to land (30 m) in still air and indicating high dispersal ability for canopy-inhabiting MMLO.

  11. Detecting trace components in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data sets with two-dimensional wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Duane C.; Snapp, Robert R.

    2007-09-01

    TWiGS (two-dimensional wavelet transform with generalized cross validation and soft thresholding) is a novel algorithm for denoising liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data for use in "shot-gun" proteomics. Proteomics, the study of all proteins in an organism, is an emerging field that has already proven successful for drug and disease discovery in humans. There are a number of constraints that limit the effectiveness of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for shot-gun proteomics, where the chemical signals are typically weak, and data sets are computationally large. Most algorithms suffer greatly from a researcher driven bias, making the results irreproducible and unusable by other laboratories. We thus introduce a new algorithm, TWiGS, that removes electrical (additive white) and chemical noise from LC-MS data sets. TWiGS is developed to be a true two-dimensional algorithm, which operates in the time-frequency domain, and minimizes the amount of researcher bias. It is based on the traditional discrete wavelet transform (DWT), which allows for fast and reproducible analysis. The separable two-dimensional DWT decomposition is paired with generalized cross validation and soft thresholding. The Haar, Coiflet-6, Daubechie-4 and the number of decomposition levels are determined based on observed experimental results. Using a synthetic LC-MS data model, TWiGS accurately retains key characteristics of the peaks in both the time and m/z domain, and can detect peaks from noise of the same intensity. TWiGS is applied to angiotensin I and II samples run on a LC-ESI-TOF-MS (liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization) to demonstrate its utility for the detection of low-lying peaks obscured by noise.

  12. Peace-Enforcement: Mission, Strategy, and Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-17

    Stratey: Theory and Anoli t.jgo, (Carlisle, PA: US Army War College, 1989), pp 3-5. 61 FM 100-5, OgerarilLj , (Ft. Monroe , VA: US Army Training and...pp. 111-20 - 22. 72 Joint Pub 3-57, Doctrina for Joint Civil Affairs, (Washington, D.C.: The Joint Staff, October 1991), pp. 11-12 - 13. 73 Ibid., p. 1...Field Manual (PM) 100-5. oparatiognL, (Prelimi nary Draft). Ft. Monroe , VA: US Army Training and Doctrine Command, August 21, 1992. 53 Field Manual

  13. Study on Synthesis of Methyl Oleate Catalyzed by Acidic Ionic Liquid of Imidazolium%咪唑类酸性离子液体催化油酸甲酯化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新国

    2015-01-01

    制备了一种甲基咪唑类硫酸氢盐离子液体,并将其用于油酸与甲酯的酯化反应。结果表示,最佳酯化条件是:反应温度90℃,反应时间14h;甲醇:油酸=2.5:1;离子液体用量为油酸的25%,酯化产率可达92%以上。%A acidic ionic liquid of imidazolium was systhesized and application in esterification utilizing oleic acid and meth-anol was explored. Under optimal esterification conditions:reaction temperature and time,respectively is 90℃,14h;n(meth-anol):n(oleic acid)=2. 5:1;the amount of oleic acid ionic liquids is 25%,the esterification rate can reach more than 92%.

  14. Synthesis and chiral HPLC analysis of the dibenzyltetrahydrofuran lignans, larreatricins, 8'-epi-larreatricins, 3,3'-didemethoxyverrucosins and meso-3,3'-didemethoxynectandrin B in the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata): evidence for regiospecific control of coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinuddin, Syed G A; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Cho, Man-Ho; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2003-07-07

    The creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) lignans are linked via 8-8' bonds, with the simplest apparently being E-p-anol derived. Of the latter, four of the six theoretically possible diastereoisomers were isolated, namely (-)-larreatricin, (-)-8'-epi-larreatricin, meso-3,3'-didemethoxynectandrin B and the new compounds, (+)- and (-)-3,3'-didemethoxyverrucosins. Following synthesis of each in either racemic or meso form, and chiral HPLC separation of the antipodes of the racemates, it was established that naturally occurring (-)-larreatricin and (-)-8'-epi-larreatricin were present in 92 and 98% enantiomeric excess, respectively, whereas 3,3'-didemethoxyverrucosin was essentially racemic and 3,3'-didemethoxynectandrin B was in the meso-form. The evidence suggests that formation of these lignans occurs under regiospecific, rather than stereoselective, coupling control. This contrasts with laccase-catalyzed "random" coupling of E-p-anol in vitro which generates the corresponding racemic 8-8', 8-3' and 8-O-4' linked dimeric moieties.

  15. Tannins from Canarium album with potent antioxidant activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-liang ZHANG; Yi-ming LIN

    2008-01-01

    The contents of total phenolics and extractable condensed tannins in the leaves,twigs and stem bark of Canarium album were determined.The structural heterogeneity of condensed tannins from stem bark was characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses.The results show the predominance of signals representative of procyanidins and prodelphinidins.In addition,epicatechin and epigallocatechin polymers with galloylated procyanidin or prodelphinidin were also observed.The tannins were screened for their potential antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) model systems.Tannins extracted from leaves,twigs and stem bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  16. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Tanaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae species, Pulvinaria caballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficus soatensis Dugand (Moraceae in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles P. drymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae, but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., P. caballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas P. drymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  17. HiSC: A Hybrid XML Index Composing Structure-Encoded with Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jincai; ZHANG Lin

    2007-01-01

    A new way of indexing and processing twig patterns in an XML documents is proposed in this paper. Every path in XML document can be transformed into a sequence of labels by Structure-Encoded that constructs a one-to-one correspondence between XML tree and sequence. Base on identifying characteristics of nodes in XML tree, the elements are classified and clustered. During query proceeding, the twig pattern is also transformed into its Structure-Encoded. By performing subsequence matching on the set of sequences in XML documents, all the occurrences of path in the XML documents are refined. Using the index, the numbers of elements retrieved are minimized. The search results with pertinent format provide more structure information without any false dismissals or false alarms. The index also supports keyword search.Experiment results indicate the index has significantly efficiency with high precision.

  18. A new method of tree xylem water extraction for isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierke, C.; Newton, B. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Sacramento Mountain Watershed Study in the southern Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico is designed to assess the forest restoration technique of tree thinning in mountain watersheds as an effective method of increasing local and regional groundwater recharge. The project is using a soil water balance approach to quantify the partitioning of local precipitation within this watershed before and after thinning trees. Understanding what sources trees extract their water from (e.g. shallow groundwater, unsaturated fractured bedrock, and soils) is difficult due to a complex hydrologic system and heterogeneous distribution of soil thicknesses. However, in order to accurately quantify the soil water balance and to assess how thinning trees will affect this water balance, it is important determine the sources from which trees extract their water. We plan to use oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic analysis of various end member waters to identify these different sources. We are in the process of developing a new method of determining the isotopic composition of tree water that has several advantages over conventional methods. Within the tree there is the xylem which transports water from the roots to the leaves and the phloem which transports starches and sugars in a water media throughout the tree. Previous studies have shown that the isotopic composition of xylem water accurately reflects that of source water, while phloem water has undergone isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis and metabolism. The distillation of water from twigs, which is often used to extract tree water for isotopic analysis, is very labor intensive. Other disadvantages to distillation methods include possible fractionation due to phase changes and the possible extraction of fractionated phloem waters. Employing a new mixing method, the composition of the twig water (TW) can be determined by putting twigs of unknown isotopic water composition into waters of known compositions or initial

  19. Convergent evolution of sexual dimorphism in skull shape using distinct developmental strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Thomas J; Sherratt, Emma; McGlothlin, Joel W; Brodie, Edmund D; Losos, Jonathan B; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2013-08-01

    Studies integrating evolutionary and developmental analyses of morphological variation are of growing interest to biologists as they promise to shed fresh light on the mechanisms of morphological diversification. Sexually dimorphic traits tend to be incredibly divergent across taxa. Such diversification must arise through evolutionary modifications to sex differences during development. Nevertheless, few studies of dimorphism have attempted to synthesize evolutionary and developmental perspectives. Using geometric morphometric analysis of head shape for 50 Anolis species, we show that two clades have converged on extreme levels of sexual dimorphism through similar, male-specific changes in facial morphology. In both clades, males have evolved highly elongate faces whereas females retain faces of more moderate proportion. This convergence is accomplished using distinct developmental mechanisms; one clade evolved extreme dimorphism through the exaggeration of a widely shared, potentially ancestral, developmental strategy whereas the other clade evolved a novel developmental strategy not observed elsewhere in the genus. Together, our analyses indicate that both shared and derived features of development contribute to macroevolutionary patterns of morphological diversity among Anolis lizards. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. A taxonomic revision of small neotropical saurian Malarias allied to Plasmodium minasense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, S R

    1979-01-01

    Saurian malaria species which produce schizonts smaller than normal erythrocyte nuclei, with 4-8 merozoietes and gametocytes equal to or smaller than erythrocyte nuclei in size, parasitizing hosts of the lizard families Scincidae, Iguanidae and Teiidae in the Neotropics are considered to be Plasmodium minasense Carini and Rudolph, 1912. Subspecific designations are given to distinctive populations parasitizing different host species: P. minasense minasense is recognized from the type host, Mabuya mabouya of Brasil; P. minasense carinii Leger and Mouzels, 1917 from Iguana iguana of coastal South America; P. minasense anolisi subsp. nov. from Anolis limifrons of Panama; P. minasense capitoi subsp. nov. from Anolis capito of Panama; P. minasense plicae subsp. nov. from Plica umbra of Guyana; P. minasense tegui subsp. nov. from Tupinambis teguixin of Venezuela; and P. minasense diminutivum Telford, 1973, new combination, from Ameiva ameiva of Panama. Plasmodium rhadinurum Thompson and Huff, 1944 is recognized as a distinct species at present on the basis of possessing schizonts of different shape, asexual stages with filamentous projections in most portions of its range, and larger gametocytes, as well as apparent sympatry with P. minasense carinii in some areas.

  1. Four new species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea Parasitizing amphibians and lizards from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreddine Ben Slimane

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of four new species of Oswaldocruzia parasitizing Iguanidae and Leptodactylidae from Ecuador, demonstrate that they are morphologically close to each other. Like most of the other neotropical and holarctic Oswaldocruzia , they are characterized by spicules with three main branches: blade, shoe and fork; the division of the fork within the distal third of the spicule length appears to be characteristic of the neotropical species. - Oswaldocruzia bainae n. sp. parasitizing Anolis chrysolepis and Anolis fuscoauratus possesses a synlophe visible only on transversal sections of the body. It is composed of rounded and not pointed ridges. - Oswaldocruzia tcheprakovae n. sp. parasitizing Eleutherodactylus altamazonicus is closely related to O. bainae , but the synlophe is present only in the anterior and posterior extremities of the body. - Oswaldocruzia cassonei n. sp. parasitizing Eleutherodactylus lanthanites is closely related to O. taranchoni, Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset, 1995, a parasite of Bufo marinus from Brazil. It is differentiated by the synlophe and the measurements. - Oswaldocruzia petterae n. sp. parasitizing Leptodactylus pentadactylus is closely related to O. chambrieri, Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset, 1993, parasitizing Bufo and Eleutherodactylus in the same region. It is differentiated since, for an equivalent length of the body, the ridges are almost two times fewer and the spicules smaller.

  2. Inferring responses to climate dynamics from historical demography in neotropical forest lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Xue, Alexander T; Brown, Jason L; Alvarado-Serrano, Diego F; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Hickerson, Michael J; Carnaval, Ana C

    2016-07-19

    We apply a comparative framework to test for concerted demographic changes in response to climate shifts in the neotropical lowland forests, learning from the past to inform projections of the future. Using reduced genomic (SNP) data from three lizard species codistributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii, and Polychrus marmoratus), we first reconstruct former population history and test for assemblage-level responses to cycles of moisture transport recently implicated in changes of forest distribution during the Late Quaternary. We find support for population shifts within the time frame of inferred precipitation fluctuations (the last 250,000 y) but detect idiosyncratic responses across species and uniformity of within-species responses across forest regions. These results are incongruent with expectations of concerted population expansion in response to increased rainfall and fail to detect out-of-phase demographic syndromes (expansions vs. contractions) across forest regions. Using reduced genomic data to infer species-specific demographical parameters, we then model the plausible spatial distribution of genetic diversity in the Atlantic Forest into future climates (2080) under a medium carbon emission trajectory. The models forecast very distinct trajectories for the lizard species, reflecting unique estimated population densities and dispersal abilities. Ecological and demographic constraints seemingly lead to distinct and asynchronous responses to climatic regimes in the tropics, even among similarly distributed taxa. Incorporating such constraints is key to improve modeling of the distribution of biodiversity in the past and future.

  3. Identification and Characterization of a Class of MALAT1-like Genomic Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The MALAT1 (Metastasis-Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 gene encodes a noncoding RNA that is processed into a long nuclear retained transcript (MALAT1 and a small cytoplasmic tRNA-like transcript (mascRNA. Using an RNA sequence- and structure-based covariance model, we identified more than 130 genomic loci in vertebrate genomes containing the MALAT1 3′ end triple-helix structure and its immediate downstream tRNA-like structure, including 44 in the green lizard Anolis carolinensis. Structural and computational analyses revealed a co-occurrence of components of the 3′ end module. MALAT1-like genes in Anolis carolinensis are highly expressed in adult testis, thus we named them testis-abundant long noncoding RNAs (tancRNAs. MALAT1-like loci also produce multiple small RNA species, including PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs, from the antisense strand. The 3′ ends of tancRNAs serve as potential targets for the PIWI-piRNA complex. Thus, we have identified an evolutionarily conserved class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs with similar structural constraints, post-transcriptional processing, and subcellular localization and a distinct function in spermatocytes.

  4. Australian blackwood acacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samraj, P.; Chinnamani, S.

    1981-01-01

    An account of the silviculture and uses of Tasmanian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The species is grown in the hills of Nilgiris and Pulneys (above altitude 1500 metres). It can also be grown near centre of livestock farming where the land is unsuitable for intensive cultivation of grasses and legumes, and planted as field boundaries, shelterbelts and ornamental or shade trees. The leaves are used as livestock fodder, twigs as fuelwood, and the wood for pulp, cabinet making, agricultural implements and construction timber.

  5. Topical Lime Application for the Management of Munitions Constituents Following Blow-in-Place Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Pebbles, roots, twigs, and pieces of grass were manually removed, and the large clumps of dirt were broken up to spread each sample evenly over the...surface of the tray. At this point a 10-g subsample was removed for a pH measurement, and a 15- to 25-g subsample was removed for moisture analysis...application on training ranges. RDX deposited during training exercises presumably consists of very fine particles (អ µm) (Hewitt et al. 2003). These

  6. A New Antimicrobial Flavonol Glycoside from Alchornea davidii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new flavonol glycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-xyloside, was isolated from the extract of leaves and twigs of Alchornea davidii (Euphorbiaceae). Its structure was established on the basis of the spectral analysis and chemical degradation. Antimicrobial assay showed that it moderately inhibited the growth of test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Trichophyton rubrum) with MICs at 50 μg/Ml.

  7. Decomposition of Different Litter Fractions in a Subtropical Bamboo Ecosystem as Affected by Experimental Nitrogen Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Li-Hua; HU Hong-Ling; HU Ting-Xing; ZHANG Jian; LIU Li; LI Ren-Hong; DAI Hong-Zhong; LUO Shou-Hua

    2011-01-01

    As an important component of the global carbon (C) budget,litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems is greatly affected by the increasing nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally.We hypothesized that different litter fractions derived from a single tree species may respond to N deposition differently depending on the quality of the litter substrate.To test the hypothesis,a two-year field experiment was conducted using the litterbag method in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in the rainy region of Southwest China.Four N treatment levels were applied:control (no N added),low-N (50 kg N ha-1 year-1),medium-N (150 kg N ha-1 year-1),and high-N (300 kg N ha-1 year-1).We observed different patterns of mass loss for the three P.amarus litter fractions (leaves,sheaths,and twigs) of varying substrate quality in the control plots.There were two decomposition stages with different decay rates (fast rate in early stages and slow rate in the later stages) for leaves and sheaths,while we did not observe a slower phase for the decay of twigs during the 2-year study period.The annual decomposition rate (k) of twigs was significantly lower than that of leaves or sheaths.Addition of N slowed the decomposition of leaves and twigs in the later stages of decomposition by inhibiting the decay of lignin and cellulose,while addition of N did not affect the mass loss of sheaths during the study period.In the decomposition of all three litter fractions,experimental N deposition reduced the net N accumulation in the early stages and also decreased the net N release in the later stages.The results of this study suggest that litter substrate quality may be an important factor affecting litter decomposition in a bamboo ecosystem affected by N deposition.

  8. A Discussion on Drought Tolerance Through Hydraulic Architecture of Woody Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, ten woody plants grew on the campus of the Beijing Forestry University were selected for measuring hydraulic architecture parameters and water potential of one-year-old twigs. The results show that day and night change of water potential and hydraulic architecture parameters appear to be obviously convex trend. The relationship models between water potential and hydraulic conductivity, special conductivity and leaf special conductivity were respectively established, which were simulated b...

  9. Calorific Value and Chemical Composition of Five Semi-Arid Mexican Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maginot Ngangyo-Heya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global energy crisis has generated growing interest in looking for alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, presenting lignocellulosic materials as a promising resource for sustainable energy production. In this paper, the calorific values and chemical composition of the trunks, branches, twigs and leaves of five timber species of the semi-arid land of Mexico (Helietta parvifolia (Gray Benth., Ebenopsis ebano (Berl. Barneby, Acacia berlandieri (Benth., Havardia pallens (Benth. Britton & Rose and Acacia wrightii (Benth. were determined according to international standards. The results highlighted the calorific value ranges of 17.56 to 18.61 MJ kg−1 in trunks, 17.15 to 18.45 MJ kg−1 in branches, 17.29 to 17.92 MJ kg−1 in twigs, and 17.35to 19.36 MJ kg−1 in leaves. The pH presented an acidic trend (3.95–5.64. The content of mineral elements varied in trunks (1.09%–2.29%, branches (0.86%–2.75%, twigs (4.26%–6.76% and leaves (5.77%–11.79%, showing the higher proportion in Ca (57.03%–95.53%, followed by K (0.95%–19.21% and Mg (0.88%–13.47%. The highest amount of extractives was obtained in the methanolic solvent (3.96%–17.03%. The lignin recorded values of 28.78%–35.84% for trunks, 17.14%–31.39% for branches and 20.61%–29.92% for twigs. Lignin showed a moderately strong correlation (r = 0.66 with calorific value, but the best mathematical model was registered with the calorific value depending on the pH and lignin (R2 = 58.86%.

  10. A new species of Xorides Latreille (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Xoridinae parasitizing Pterolophia alternata (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Robinia pseudoacacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Ling Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species is described, Xorides benxicus Sheng, sp. n., reared from the cerambycid twig-boring pest of Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus, Pterolophia alternata Gressitt 1938, in Benxi County, Liaoning Province, China. A key is given to the species similar to Xorides benxicus Sheng, namely X. asiasius Sheng & Hilszczański 2009, X. cinnabarius Sheng & Hilszczański 2009 and X. sapporensis (Uchida 1928.

  11. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Merten; Jerome Grant; Carla Coots; Katheryne Nix; Paris Lambdin

    2013-01-01

    Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in othe...

  12. Long-chain alkanoic acid esters of lupeol from Dorstenia harmsiana Engl. (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poumale, Herve Martial P; Awoussong, Kenzo Patrice; Randrianasolo, Rivoarison; Simo, Christophe Colombe F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    In addition to lupeol (1a), three long-chain alkanoic acid esters of lupeol, in which two were new, were isolated from the hexane and ethyl acetate twigs extract of Dorstenia harmsiana Engl. (Moraceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Some isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. The lupeol and its three long-chain alkanoic acid esters showed antifungal and antibacterial activities.

  13. Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basholli-Salihu, Mimoza; Schuster, Roswitha; Hajdari, Avni; Mulla, Dafina; Viernstein, Helmut; Mustafa, Behxhet; Mueller, Monika

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation and cell differentiation lead to a number of severe diseases. In the recent years, various studies focused on the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of essential oils (EOs) of numerous plants, including different Pinus species. The phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of EOs from needles and twigs of Pinus heldreichii Christ (Pinaceae) and P. peuce Griseb., and from needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo Turra were determined. For separation and identification of the EOs, gas chromatography/flame ion detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry were performed. The amount of secreted IL-6 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model was quantified (concentration of oils: 0.0001-0.2%, 3 h incubation). Cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines HeLa, CaCo-2 and MCF-7 were determined using a MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) assay (concentration of oils: 0.001-0.1%, 24 h incubation). The most prominent members in the oils include: δ-3-carene, α-pinene and linalool-acetate (P. mugo); α-pinene, β-phellandrene and β-pinene (P. peuce); limonene, α-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene (P. heldreichii). EOs showed significant cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines (IC50 0.007 to >0.1%), with a reduction in cell viability with up to 90% at a concentration of 0.1%, and anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 0.0008-0.02%) with a reduction of IL-6 secretion with up to 60% at a concentration of 0.01%. The EOs of needles and twigs from P. peuce and P. heldreichii as well as of needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo can be considered as promising agents for anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  14. Chemical constituents from Dendropanax dentiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Chun; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Nineteen compounds and an HPLC inseparable mixture, composed of compounds 20 and 21, were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Dendropanax dentiger (Harms ex Diels) Merr. Of these, syringin (1) is the most abundant, 6'-O-apiofuranosyl dendranthemoside A (16) is a new megastigmane glycoside, and 3-methoxy-D-mannono-1,4-lactone (21) is a new hexono-1,4-lactone. Their structures were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic and MS analyses.

  15. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  16. First report of Pestalotiopsis diospyri causing canker on persimmon trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 to 2009 season symptoms of a canker disease were observed on twigs and branches of young and mature persimmon trees (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu in the States of Santa Catarina and Paraná in the Southern Brazil. The cankers result in severe damage and reduced production. Isolations from the margins of these cankers revealed a genus of Pestalotiopsis. Koch's postulates were confirmed using two isolates of the pathogen which was identified as Pestalotiopsis diospyri.

  17. Prehistoric and Historic Cultural Resources of Selected Sites at Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska: Test Excavations and Determination of Significance for 28 Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    429 91 Freshwater mussels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 92 Fauna from 25HN36 . ........... . 435 93 Preferred habitats of fauna from...Unit I Picea Qlauca white spruce, numerous needles, twigs and a few cones bryophytes mosses insects MNI percentage Gastocopta rmife mollusc 20 0.67...to be extinct bison (B. occidentalis). While bison occured in a variety of Pleistocene habitats , nobel marten was somewhat more restricted in its

  18. Two new natural products from Croton kongensis Gagnep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Meng, Zhaoqing; Li, Zhaoliang; Yang, Biao; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, 14β-hydroxy-3-oxo-ent-kaur-16-ene (1), and a new nor-lignan, 8S-( - )-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl)-dihydrofuran-8(8'H)-one (4), along with five known compounds were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton kongensis Gagnep. Their isolations were clarified and structures were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D NMR experiments.

  19. Hierarchical rendering of trees from precomputed multi-layer z-buffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Chen and Williams show how precomputed z-buffer images from different fixed viewing positions can be reprojected to produce an image for a new viewpoint. Here images are precomputed for twigs and branches at various levels in the hierarchical structure of a tree, and adaptively combined, depending on the position of the new viewpoint. The precomputed images contain multiple z levels to avoid missing pixels in the reconstruction, subpixel masks for anti-aliasing, and colors and normals for shading after reprojection.

  20. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones and the unusual compounds anthraquinobenzophenones from Cratoxylum sumatranum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Wani, Mansukh C; Wall, Monroe E; Navarro, Hernán A; Burgess, Jason P; Kawanishi, Kazuko; Kardono, Leonardus B S; Riswan, Soedarsono; Rose, William C; Fairchild, Craig R; Farnsworth, Norman R; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-03-01

    Six new xanthones, cratoxyarborenones A-F (1-6), were isolated from the leaves, twigs, and/or stem bark of Cratoxylum sumatranum along with the known compound, vismione B (9), as active constituents by bioassay-directed fractionation using the KB human cancer cell line cytotoxicity assay. In addition, two novel anthraquinobenzophenones, cratoxyarborequinones A (7) and B (8), and two known compounds, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone 4-O-geranyl ether and delta-tocotrienol, were obtained as inactive constituents.

  1. Tasumatrols U-Z, taxane diterpene esters from Taxus sumatrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya-Ching; Wang, Shih-Sheng; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Khalil, Ashraf Taha

    2008-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves and twigs of Taxus sumatrana afforded six new taxane diterpene esters, tasumatrols U-Z ( 1- 6). Compounds 2 and 5 contained a rare five-membered lactone ring at C-8, C-9, C-10, and C-19. The structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses, particularly HRESIMS and 2D NMR techniques. Compound 5 showed cytotoxicity against a human hepatoma (Hep2) cell line.

  2. Influence of tree water potential in inducing flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in the central Himalayan region

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari A; Bhatt J; Mittal A

    2016-01-01

    Rise in temperature has been reported as the principal cause of variation in flowering phenology in several tree species around the globe. In this study, we hypothesized that not only temperature but also rainfall periodicity, soil moisture and the related changes of twig water potential (ψ) in winter and early spring are important drivers of bud expansion and flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in central Himalayas. To this purpose, phenological and physiological variables (flowering time, fl...

  3. Distribution of radionuclides between atmosphere and ash during combustion of contaminated vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liufang Jenny; Rao, Raghu; Corcoran, Emily; Kelly, David

    2016-12-01

    A series of laboratory-scale combustion tests were conducted under well-controlled conditions to measure the release of (90)Sr and (137)Cs nuclides to the atmosphere (air) from combustion of vegetation and organic soil samples contaminated with radioactivity. These vegetation and soil samples were collected from a controlled contaminated forest area within the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories - Chalk River site. The combustion products including ash and smoke particulates, along with gaseous emissions, were collected and then analyzed for (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentrations by radiometric techniques. The experimental results reveal that the releases of (90)Sr to the atmosphere (air) from combustion of vegetation are very low with most of the (90)Sr activity remaining in ash residues, even at a temperature of 800 °C. The detailed combustion experiments with surface litter and twigs, alder twigs, alder leaves, and organic soil indicate that 0.5 ± 0.1%, 0.3 ± 0.1%, 0.9 ± 0.1%, and 0.3 ± 0.1% of (90)Sr is released to the atmosphere (air), respectively. On the other hand, the releases of (137)Cs are found to be highly dependent on the combustion temperature as well as the nature of vegetation. The releases of (137)Cs obtained at 800 °C are 45 ± 7%, 77 ± 9%, 92 ± 5%, and 2.4 ± 0.5% for surface litter and twigs, alder twigs, alder leaves, and organic soil, respectively. The mechanism associated with the high release of (137)Cs at a high temperature of 800 °C was explored. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Flat and Seasonally Inundated Depression Wetlands on the Highland Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    e.g., succession, channel migration, fire , erosion, and sedimentation) as well as cultural alteration. The reference domain is the geographic area...matter such as leaves, needles, sticks, or twigs ɘ.6 cm in diameter, flowers, fruits, insect frass, moss, or lichens on or near the surface of the...affecting plant growth. Changes in hydrology or vegetation, deposition of fill material, excavation, or recent fire can alter the amount of soil

  5. New 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes from Gardenia sootepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Wu; Wang, Xue-Qin; Li, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Two new 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes, named sootepins H (1) and I (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves and twigs of Gardenia sootepensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), infrared (IR), and ultra violet (UV).

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiatis, P; Melliou, E; Skaltsounis, A L; Chinou, I B; Mitaku, S

    1999-12-01

    The chemical composition of the three essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the mastic gum, leaves and twigs of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, was studied by GC/MS. Sixty nine constituents were identified from the oils. alpha-Pinene, myrcene, trans-caryophyllene and germacrene D were found to be the major components. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the three essential oils and of the resin (total, acid and neutral fraction) against six bacteria and three fungi is reported.

  7. Effect of browsing on willow in the Steel Creek grazing allotment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Gale, Gil

    2000-01-01

    The Steel Creek drainage serves as both wildlife range (primarily moose and elk) and as a livestock grazing allotment. For some years there has been concern about the effect of browsing on willows. Dense clusters of twigs have formed at the end of branches; entire stems of some plants have died. As of 1996, the relative impacts attributable to each of the ungulate species had not been documented.

  8. Determination of lignans in edible and nonedible parts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and products derived therefrom, particularly focusing on the quantitation of isolariciresinol using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ulrike Anna; Jaksch, Ariane Verena; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar Rolf

    2012-01-11

    A method for the characterization and quantitation of phyto-estrogenic lignans from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits and fruit-derived products by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) was developed. For this purpose, edible and nonedible parts of pomegranate (aril, peel, mesocarp, seed, and twigs), commercial juices, juices produced on pilot-plant scale, and encapsulated dietary supplements were analyzed. In addition to the peel, mesocarp, and twigs, lignans were detected in two juices obtained from entire fruits, four commercial juices, and three encapsulated pomegranate extracts. Isolariciresinol was the predominant lignan with contents of 5.0, 10.5, and 45.8 mg/kg dry matter in processed pomegranate mesocarp, peel, and twigs, respectively. In contrast, due to their low amounts, quantitation of lignans in pomegranate products was impossible. Therefore, contrary to previous assumptions, lignans were found to be less relevant in pomegranate-derived products. However, the byproduct from pomegranate processing may be used for lignan extraction. The method presented allows one to differentiate between pomegranate-derived products obtained from fruits without peels or by dejuicing applying low pressures, which were devoid of lignans, and those obtained from entire fruits applying high pressures, thus containing lignans. Consequently, this study helps to optimize process technology aiming at the recovery of preparations with well-desired compositions, which may reduce the risk of a wide range of diseases, such as certain types of cancer.

  9. Comparison of ponderosa pines as feed and nonfeed trees for abert squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, J C; Welch, B L

    1985-02-01

    Twigs from five ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa) used by Abert squirrels (Sciurus aberti) as feed trees and five nonfeed trees were collected every 45 days and their monoterpenoid and nutrient content determined. Thet tests (unpaired observations) detected no significant difference in the level of monoterpenoids in the outer bark of feed (0.77%) and nonfeed (0.75%) trees. The same was true for inner bark of feed (0.10%) and nonfeed (0.16%) trees. Monoterpenoid levels in outer bark (0.75%) were significantly higher than inner bark (0.13%). The inner bark is what is eaten by Abert squirrels. Protein and other nutrients did not differ significantly between feed and nonfeed trees. However, both outer and inner bark were easier to remove from the woody portion of the feed tree twigs than those twigs collected from nonfeed trees. Therefore, due to the lack of differences in monoterpenoid and nutrient content between feed and nonfeed trees, we attributed the use of certain trees for use as feed trees to the ease of peeling and separating outer from inner bark.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE ECKLONIA MAXIMA EXTRACT ON SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF YELLOW PINE, SPRUCE AND THUJA STABBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski Sosnowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the impact of an extract of Ecklonia maxima on selected morphological features of yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex C. Lawson, prickly spruce (Picea pungens Engelm. Variety Glauca, thuja (Thuja occidentalis variety Smaragd. The experiment was established in April 12, 2012 on the forest nursery in Ceranów. April 15, 2013 was introduced research agent in the form of a spraying an aqueous solution extract of Ecklonia maxima with trade name Kelpak SL. Biologically active compounds in the extract are plant hormones: auxin and cytokinin. There were studied increment in plant height, needle length of yellow pine, twigs length in prickly spruce and thuja. The measurements of increment in length of twigs and needles were made in each case on the same, specially marked parts of plants and have carried them on the 27th of each month beginning in May and ending in September. The results were evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance. Medium differentiations were verified by Tukey's test at a significance level p ≤ 0.05. The study showed that the diversity of traits features in the experiment was depended on the extract, the tree species and the measurement time. The best results after the extract using showed a pine and spruce. Seaweed preparation contributed to increment increased of trees height for in the pine and spruce and the needles length of pine and twigs of spruce. The species showing no reaction to the extract was thuja.

  11. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  12. Density-dependent predation influences the evolution and behavior of masquerading prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhorn, John; Rowland, Hannah M; Delf, Jon; Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2011-04-19

    Predation is a fundamental process in the interaction between species, and exerts strong selection pressure. Hence, anti-predatory traits have been intensively studied. Although it has long been speculated that individuals of some species gain protection from predators by sometimes almost-uncanny resemblances to uninteresting objects in the local environment (such as twigs or stones), demonstration of antipredatory benefits to such "masquerade" have only very recently been demonstrated, and the fundamental workings of this defensive strategy remain unclear. Here we use laboratory experiments with avian predators and twig-mimicking caterpillars as masqueraders to investigate (i) the evolutionary dynamics of masquerade; and (ii) the behavioral adaptations associated with masquerade. We show that the benefit of masquerade declines as the local density of masqueraders relative to their models (twigs, in our system) increases. This occurs through two separate mechanisms: increasing model density both decreased predators' motivation to search for masqueraders, and made masqueraders more difficult to detect. We further demonstrated that masquerading organisms have evolved complex microhabitat selection strategies that allow them to best exploit the density-dependent properties of masquerade. Our results strongly suggest the existence of opportunity costs associated with masquerade. Careful evaluation of such costs will be vital to the development of a fuller understanding of both the distribution of masquerade across taxa and ecosystems, and the evolution of the life history strategies of masquerading prey.

  13. [Estimating nonstructural carbon content of tree crown considering its spatial variability: A case study on Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-yan; Wang, Chuan-kuan

    2015-08-01

    Using Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica as test materials, we examined the variability in nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) concentrations in the branches with different basal diameters with a branch analysis method and explored potential errors in estimating the crown-scale NSC content introduced from various sampling protocols. The results showed that organs significantly influenced the crown NSC concentrations for both species. The mean concentrations of the sum of soluble sugars and starch (TNC) of the leaves, new twigs, old branches, and dead branches were 17.6%, 12.6%, 5.7% and 2.9%, respectively. Most of the NSC concentrations in leaves and new twigs varied insignificantly with basal diameter, age, length and height of the branch. However, the NSC concentration in old branches increased significantly with decreasing the basal diameter, age and length of the branch, and with increasing the relative height of the branch. Among the branch traits, basal diameter was the best predictor for the NSC concentration of the old branch (the R2 between 0.87 and 0.95). The mean TNC contents of leaves, new branches, and old branches for the two species accounted for 28%, 2% and 70% of the crown TNC content, respectively. Considering the effect of the spatial variability in the estimation of NSC content, we recommend the sampling protocol that applies the NSC concentration of new twigs and old branches with a diameter of 3 cm to up-scale the crown NSC content as a simple and practical method.

  14. 'Patrícia branca': mutação somática na videira cultivar Patrícia (IAC 871-41 'Patrícia branca': somatic mutation in 'Patrícia' (IAC 871-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilo Monteiro Terra

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Patrícia' grape of black, fleshy, round, 20° Brix and low acidity berries, has risen through hybridization between 'Soraya' (IAC 501-6 and selection IAC 544-14, made in October 1959 at the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas (IAC. Commercial vineyards of this cultivar were set since 1970 in Jundiaí, Itupeva and Atibaia regions of São Paulo State, expanding to North Paraná and São Francisco Valley in Northeastern Brazil. In 1980, in a commercial vineyard at Chácara Extra Vitis, Bairro do Poste, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil, two bunches of white berries were observed in one plant twig of cultivar Patrícia. Such twig was marked and in the winter of the same year it was used for grafts. All grafts gave also bunches with white berries. In 1981 winter new grafts were made with twigs of these plants at Chácara Extra Vitis and at Estação Experimental de Jundiaí (IAC which confirmed the presence of white berries bunches. Such observation shows a somatic mutation of 'Patrícia' (IAC 871-41 which was named Patrícia Branca.

  15. Evidence for foliar endophytic nitrogen fixation in a widely distributed subalpine conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Kueppers, Lara M; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Carper, Dana L; Vandehey, Nick; O'Neil, James; Frank, A Carolin

    2016-04-01

    Coniferous forest nitrogen (N) budgets indicate unknown sources of N. A consistent association between limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and potential N2 -fixing acetic acid bacteria (AAB) indicates that native foliar endophytes may supply subalpine forests with N. To assess whether the P. flexilis-AAB association is consistent across years, we re-sampled P. flexilis twigs at Niwot Ridge, CO and characterized needle endophyte communities via 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing. To investigate whether endophytes have access to foliar N2 , we incubated twigs with (13) N2 -enriched air and imaged radioisotope distribution in needles, the first experiment of its kind using (13) N. We used the acetylene reduction assay to test for nitrogenase activity within P. flexilis twigs four times from June to September. We found evidence for N2 fixation in P. flexilis foliage. N2 diffused readily into needles and nitrogenase activity was positive across sampling dates. We estimate that this association could provide 6.8-13.6 μg N m(-2)  d(-1) to P. flexilis stands. AAB dominated the P. flexilis needle endophyte community. We propose that foliar endophytes represent a low-cost, evolutionarily stable N2 -fixing strategy for long-lived conifers. This novel source of biological N2 fixation has fundamental implications for understanding forest N budgets.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Madona; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naïm; Iriti, Marcello; Eparvier, Véronique; Stien, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) isolated from the leaves and twigs of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon were characterized, and their antimicrobial activity and antiradical capacity were evaluated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterium, a yeast, and a dermatophyte with the broth microdilution technique. A total of 28 constituents was identified and accounted for 90.1 and 95.6% of the twig and leaf EO composition, respectively. Both EOs were essentially composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (46.7 and 59.6% for twig and leaf EOs, resp.) and sesquiterpenes (39.4 and 32.1%, resp.). The main components were α-pinene, α-cedrol, and δ-car-3-ene. The J. excelsa EOs did not show any antiradical potential, but revealed interesting in vitro antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum (MICs of 64 and 128 μg/ml, resp.). The three major compounds were tested separately and in combination according to their respective amounts in the oil. δ-Car-3-ene was the most active component and is undoubtedly one of the constituents driving the antifungal activity of J. excelsa essential oil, even though synergies are probably involved. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Changes in wood density, wood anatomy and hydraulic properties of the xylem along the root-to-shoot flow path in tropical rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph; Brock, Nicolai; Horna, Viviana

    2013-02-01

    It is generally assumed that the largest vessels are occurring in the roots and that vessel diameters and the related hydraulic conductance in the xylem are decreasing acropetally from roots to leaves. With this study in five tree species of a perhumid tropical rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia), we searched for patterns in hydraulic architecture and axial conductivity along the flow path from small-diameter roots through strong roots and the trunk to distal sun-canopy twigs. Wood density differed by not more than 10% across the different flow path positions in a species, and branch and stem wood density were closely related in three of the five species. Other than wood density, the wood anatomical and xylem hydraulic traits varied in dependence on the position along the flow path, but were unrelated to wood density within a tree. In contrast to reports from conifers and certain dicotyledonous species, we found a hump-shaped variation in vessel diameter and sapwood area--specific conductivity along the flow path in all five species with a maximum in the trunk and strong roots and minima in both small roots and twigs; the vessel size depended on the diameter of the organ. This pattern might be an adaptation to the perhumid climate with a low risk of hydraulic failure. Despite a similar mean vessel diameter in small roots and twigs, the two distal organs, hydraulically weighted mean vessel diameters were on average 30% larger in small roots, resulting in ∼ 85% higher empirical and theoretical specific conductivities. Relative vessel lumen area in percent of sapwood area decreased linearly by 70% from roots to twigs, reflecting the increase in sclerenchymatic tissue and tracheids in acropetal direction in the xylem. Vessel size was more closely related to the organ diameter than to the distance along the root-to-shoot flow path. We conclude that (i) the five co-occurring tree species show convergent patterns in their hydraulic architecture despite different growth

  18. Measurement and modelization of VLE of binary mixtures of propyl acetate, butyl acetate or isobutyl acetate with methanol at pressure of 0.6 MPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Susial; D Garca; R Susial; YC Clavijo; A Martn

    2016-01-01

    The vapor–liquid equilibrium of binary mixtures of propyl acetate, butyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with meth-anol has been determined at a constant pressure of 0.6 MPa. Results have been modeled with the Peng–Robinson equation, a traditional cubic equation of state widely employed in chemical industries, as well as with the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid PC-SAFT theory of Gross–Sadowski. By correlation of the binary inter-action parameters of these equations, the measured vapor–liquid equilibrium data can be accurately predicted. Thus, this work shows that these models are able to represent the experimental data for systems with associating compounds via hydrogen bonding.

  19. Perch-height specific predation on tropical lizard clay models: implications for habitat selection in mainland neotropical lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, John E

    2009-09-01

    Predation has been hypothesized to be a strong selective force structuring communities of tropical lizards. Comparisons of perch height and size-based predation frequencies can provide a unique window into understanding how predation might shape habitat selection and morphological patterns in lizards, especially anoles. Here I use plasticine clay models, placed on the trunks of trees and suspended in the canopy to show that predation frequency on clay models differs primarily according to habitat (canopy vs. trunk-ground), but not according to size. These data are discussed in light of observed lizard abundances in the lowland forests of Costa Rica, and are presented as partial explanation for why fewer lizards are found in tree canopies, and more lizards are found on ground-trunk habitats.

  20. Reptiles de zonas bajas de Yacopí (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Arias Rafael Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un inventario de reptiles que ocurren por debajo de 1.000 m en el municipio de Yacopí, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se registraron 47 especies (26 Sauria, 19 Serpentes, un Amphisbaenia y un Testudinata, la familia y género más ricos fueron Colubridae y Anolis. La riqueza entre Sauria y  Serpentes fue diferente a la que se encuentra en el país. La fauna se agrupó según su distribución en dos tipos:  Trasandino (al oeste de la cordillera Oriental y Amplio (tanto al este como al oeste de la misma cordillera, los Saurios fueron más numerosos en el primero y las Serpentes en el segundo. Se encontró que la mayoría de reptiles se distribuye entre 0 y 2.000 m.

  1. Genome evolution in Reptilia, the sister group of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Daniel E; Organ, Christopher L; Fujita, Matthew K; Shedlock, Andrew M; Edwards, Scott V

    2010-01-01

    The genomes of birds and nonavian reptiles (Reptilia) are critical for understanding genome evolution in mammals and amniotes generally. Despite decades of study at the chromosomal and single-gene levels, and the evidence for great diversity in genome size, karyotype, and sex chromosome diversity, reptile genomes are virtually unknown in the comparative genomics era. The recent sequencing of the chicken and zebra finch genomes, in conjunction with genome scans and the online publication of the Anolis lizard genome, has begun to clarify the events leading from an ancestral amniote genome--predicted to be large and to possess a diverse repeat landscape on par with mammals and a birdlike sex chromosome system--to the small and highly streamlined genomes of birds. Reptilia exhibit a wide range of evolutionary rates of different subgenomes and, from isochores to mitochondrial DNA, provide a critical contrast to the genomic paradigms established in mammals.

  2. Shared Enhancer Activity in the Limbs and Phallus and Functional Divergence of a Limb-Genital cis-Regulatory Element in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Carlos R; Mihala, Alexandra G; Park, Sungdae; Wang, Jialiang S; Johnson, Kenji K; Lauderdale, James D; Menke, Douglas B

    2015-10-12

    The amniote phallus and limbs differ dramatically in their morphologies but share patterns of signaling and gene expression in early development. Thus far, the extent to which genital and limb transcriptional networks also share cis-regulatory elements has remained unexplored. We show that many limb enhancers are retained in snake genomes, suggesting that these elements may function in non-limb tissues. Consistent with this, our analysis of cis-regulatory activity in mice and Anolis lizards reveals that patterns of enhancer activity in embryonic limbs and genitalia overlap heavily. In mice, deletion of HLEB, an enhancer of Tbx4, produces defects in hindlimbs and genitalia, establishing the importance of this limb-genital enhancer for development of these different appendages. Further analyses demonstrate that the HLEB of snakes has lost hindlimb enhancer function while retaining genital activity. Our findings identify roles for Tbx4 in genital development and highlight deep similarities in cis-regulatory activity between limbs and genitalia.

  3. Rock-dwelling lizards exhibit less sensitivity of sprint speed to increases in substrate rugosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clint E; Self, Jessica D; Anderson, Roger A; McBrayer, Lance D

    2013-06-01

    Effectively moving across variable substrates is important to all terrestrial animals. The effects of substrates on lizard performance have ecological ramifications including the partitioning of habitat according to sprinting ability on different surfaces. This phenomenon is known as sprint sensitivity, or the decrease in sprint speed due to change in substrate. However, sprint sensitivity has been characterized only in arboreal Anolis lizards. Our study measured sensitivity to substrate rugosity among six lizard species that occupy rocky, sandy, and/or arboreal habitats. Lizards that use rocky habitats are less sensitive to changes in substrate rugosity, followed by arboreal lizards, and then by lizards that use sandy habitats. We infer from comparative phylogenetic analysis that forelimb, chest, and tail dimensions are important external morphological features related to sensitivity to changes in substrate rugosity.

  4. Description of the Oocysts of Three New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from Iguanid Lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daszak P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Eimeria are described from iguanid lizards of Central and South America. The oocysts of each species have no micropyles or residua and the sporocysts lack Stieda bodies, but all have a sporocyst residuum. Eimeria sanctaluciae n.sp. was found in the St. Lucia tree lizard, Anolis luciae, collected from the Maria Islands, Lesser Antilles. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, averaging 17.3 x 16.5 µm, with a single layered colourless wall; about 60% contain polar granules. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal and average 7.7 x 5.5 µm. Eimeria liolaemi n.sp. was recovered from the blue-gold swift, Liolaemus taenius, from Chile. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, measuring 21 x 20.1 µm with a single-layered colourless wall. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 7.4 x 6.8 µm. Eimeria caesicia n.sp. is described from the Brazilian collared iguanid, Tropidurus torquatus. The oocysts measure 27.4 x 23.7 µm, are spherical to subspherical, with a bilayered wall, the outer surface of which appears pale blue in colour, the thin, inner wall appearing brown, when viewed by direct light under the optical microscope. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 9.4 x 7.2 µm. Unnamed polysporocystid oocysts with dizoic sporocysts are reported from the faeces of the lesser St. Vincent tree lizard, Anolis trinitatis and the possibility of spurious parasitism briefly discussed. In addition, oocysts of an unnamed Isospora sp. with a smooth oocyst wall which closely resembles I. reui were recovered from A. trinitatis.

  5. Gas emission from anaerobic decomposition of plant resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha-Santino

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to quantify the emission rates of gases resulting from the anaerobic decomposition of different plant resources under conditions usually found in sediments of tropical aquatic systems and drained organic soils. Methods Incubations were prepared with green leaves, bark, twigs, plant litter, sugarcane stalks and leaves, soybean leaves, grasses, forest leaves and an aquatic macrophyte (Typha domingensis. Over 10 months, the daily volume of gas evolved from decay was measured and a kinetic model was used to describe the anaerobic mineralization. Results Using the mathematical model, it can be observed that the composition of the plant resources is heterogeneous. The temporal variation of the gas rates indicated that the mineralization of the labile fractions of detritus varied, on a carbon basis, from 16.2 (bark to 100% (samples composed of leaves, grasses and sugar cane stalks. High gas emissions were observed during the mineralization of grasses, sugar cane stalks, leaves and plant litter, while low volumes of gases were measured during the mineralization of bark, twigs, forest leaves and T. domingensis, which are the most fibrous and recalcitrant resources (carbon content: 83.8, 78.2, 64.8 and 53.4%, respectively. The mineralization of labile carbon presented half-life values, which varied from 41 (twigs to 295 days (grasses. Conclusions Considering the high amount of remaining recalcitrant fraction, the anaerobic decomposition of these plant resources showed a strong trend towards accumulating organic matter in flooded soils. Despite the higher temperatures found in the tropical environment, these environments represent a sink of particulate detritus due to its slow decomposition.

  6. Search for biological activities from an invasive shrub species rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRAWAN WIJAYA KUSUMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Kusuma IW, Ainiyati N, Suwinarti W. 2016. Search for biological activities from an invasive shrub species rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 55-59. Research into the potential of diversity, ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology and bioactivity of Indonesia plants is essential. In continuation of our search into biologically-active substances from plant sources, the ethanol extract of fruit, leaves, twig and stem of masisin or rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and toxicity. Antioxidant property was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Antimicrobial activity was examined by agar well diffusion against Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Propionibacterium acnes and Candida albicans. Toxicity of the plant was determined by brine shrimp lethality test. The plant ethanolic extracts showed the occurrences of flavonoid, triterpenoid and carbohydrate in the phytochemical analysis. In the antioxidant assay, the plant extracts exhibited 90-93% of DPPH radical scavenging activity at 50 ppm. Ascorbic acid, a standard compound showed 96-98% activity at the same concentration tested. In the antimicrobial assay, the activities against B. cereus and C. albicans were displayed by the fruit and leaves of R. tomentosa with activity index (AI of 0.42 and 0.35, respectively. Leaves, stem, twig and fruit of the plant showed activity against S. typhi and P. acnes with AI of 0.19-0.50 in comparison to that of reference compound, chloramphenicol. In the brine shrimp lethality test, leaves and fruit showed cytotoxicity with LD50 of 43.4 and 8.5 μg/mL. The stem and twig ethanolic extracts were shown to be cytotoxic inactive. The present results showed potential of R. tomentosa extracts as natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  7. Root system reserve status, a potential barometer of carbon limitations in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Carbon reserve allocation in trees is an important factor in tree growth and survival which in turn influences the distribution of species and forest communities and their associated carbon, water and energy fluxes at multiple scales. We still lack a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of carbon reserve allocation in trees and how they might be influenced by drought, biotic attack, and stand age. This is particularly true for mature trees. Over a period of eight years seasonal non-structural carbon reserves (NSC) were followed in different organs of mature aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Foliar, twig, stem and root tissues were sampled. Over the eight years some of the aspen clones were defoliated in 2000, 2001 and/or 2007; results indicate that after the defoliation events the NSC reserves in the roots required much longer to recover than the NSC reserves in the twigs and stems of the crown. While reserve recovery in twigs was almost immediate in defoliated trees, root starch reserves recovered only fully after two growing seasons to values comparable to undefoliated trees. These results suggest that an allocation priority could exist, which in large part might be determined by a tissue's proximity to the canopy (crown). It is hypothesized that this would be most noticeable in tall trees with small live crown ratios resulting in greater carbon reserve withdrawal along the bole. This top-down allocation could result in carbon reserves shortages in the roots during carbon limitation, which could feedback on to the canopy, further reducing aboveground growth and potentially also resiliency to future stresses.

  8. Modeling the flow resistance of woody vegetation using physically based properties of the foliage and stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västilä, Kaisa; Järvelä, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Both the foliage and stem essentially influence the flow resistance of woody plants, but their different biomechanical properties complicate the parameterization of foliated vegetation for modeling. This paper investigates whether modeling of flow resistance caused by natural woody vegetation can be improved using explicit description of both the foliage and stem. For this purpose, we directly measured the drag forces of Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Salix viminalis, and Salix x rubens twigs in a laboratory flume at four foliation levels, parameterized with the leaf-area-to-stem-area ratio AL/AS. The species differed in the foliage drag but had approximately equal stem drag. For the foliated twigs, increasing AL/AS was found to increase the reconfiguration and the share of the foliage drag to the total drag. The experiments provided new insight into the factors governing the flow resistance of natural woody vegetation and allowed us to develop a model for estimating the vegetative friction factor using the linear superposition of the foliage and stem drag. The model is novel in that the foliage and stem are separately described with physically based parameters: drag coefficients, reconfiguration parameters, and leaf area and frontal-projected stem area per ground area. The model could satisfactorily predict the flow resistance of twig to sapling-sized specimens of the investigated species at velocities of 0.05-1 m/s. As a further benefit, the model allows exploring the variability in drag and reconfiguration associated with differing abundance of the foliage in relation to the stem.

  9. Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits of a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schuldt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In a throughfall displacement experiment on Sulawesi, Indonesia, three 0.16 ha stands of a premontane perhumid rainforest were exposed to a two-year soil desiccation period that reduced the soil moisture in the upper soil layers beyond the conventional wilting point. About 25 variables, including leaf morphological and chemical traits, stem diameter growth and hydraulic properties of the xylem in the trunk and terminal twigs, were investigated in trees of the tall-growing tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae by comparing desiccated roof plots with nearby control plots. We tested the hypotheses that this tall and productive species is particularly sensitive to drought, and the exposed upper sun canopy is more affected than the shade canopy. Hydraulic conductivity in the xylem of terminal twigs normalised to vessel lumen area was reduced by 25%, leaf area-specific conductivity by 10–33% during the desiccation treatment. Surprisingly, the leaves present at the end of the drought treatment were significantly larger, but not smaller in the roof plots, though reduced in number (about 30% less leaves per unit of twig sapwood area, which points to a drought effect on the leaf bud formation while the remaining leaves may have profited from a surplus of water. Mean vessel diameter and axial conductivity in the outermost xylem of the trunk were significantly reduced and wood density increased, while annual stem diameter increment decreased by 26%. In contradiction to our hypotheses, (i we found no signs of major damage to the C. acuminatissima trees nor to any other drought sensitivity of tall trees, and (ii the exposed upper canopy was not more drought susceptible than the shade canopy.

  10. Standard sampling method of Longkong leaf for evaluation of plant nutrient status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-lim, M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis is a tool for effective fertilizer recommendations in fruit trees. To achieve this goal, suitable leaf sampling method is a very important step. This study aimed to investigate leaf age, leaflet from different compound leaf positions and number of trees to be sampled as a representative sample for plant nutrient status of Longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. tree. The middle pair of leaflets from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th compound leaves from growing twigs at the lower canopy of Longkong trees were separately sampled and the following nutrients were determined: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg. The effect of soil fertility management and leaf age collected from twigs flushed at flowering and post harvest stages on nutrient concentration was investigated. Results showed that concentrations of plant nutrients in leaflets collected from different compound leaf positions were not significantly different. The leaf nutrient concentration depended on soil fertility management, higher fertilizer input resulting in higher leaf nutrient concentration. As leaf age increased, concentrations of N, P and K tended to decrease. In contrast, concentrations of Ca and Mg increased with leaf age. However, concentrations of most nutrients showed minimum variation with leaf aged 3-6 months. It is, thus, suggested that the middle pair leaflet of the 2nd compound leaf position aged 3-6 months of the lower twig should be sampled at post harvest stage from 25-35 trees to be used as a composite sample for plant nutrient analysis.

  11. The logging waste as inexhaustible resource for alternative energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryazkin Anatoliy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that during the production and consumption of fuel wood for bioenergy projects in the organization of the Northwest and other regions of Russia there is the problem of lack of raw materials. It is established that the waste timber, during cutting on average, about 20% of the stock of standing timber. This value varies according to region, type forest resources and the skills, and technical equipment performer. Therefore, the main purpose of the article is a system evaluation of the use of forest residues in Russia. The authors present data on volumes of raw materials for production of wood chips and pellets on example, the Northwest region of Russia. Only about 30% of wood chips are now received from wood waste, bulk wood chips, and pellets produced from the wood of stems. Small volume of use of bark, twigs, branches, tops, stumps, and roots is due imperfection of processing technologies. Another important issue addressed in the article – the lack of standards and guides taxation inventory valuation and structure of the waste in many regions of Russia. This primarily relates to the hardwood. Research has shown that, depending on tree species, the structure and volume of waste are significantly different. Expert evaluation conducted by the authors shows that the proportion of forest residues from 5 to 20% of the stock of wood. It is found that in different forest types share twigs, branches, stumps, and roots vary considerably according to species of tree. But even within the forest reserves such as twigs, branches, and underground parts of the same species depend strongly on the age of stands and their completeness, and the differences may reach 2 to 5 times the size.

  12. PUNICA GRANATUM: A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Arun* and D. P. Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of medicinal plant parts is used as raw drugs and they possess varied medicinal properties. The different parts used as raw drugs include root, stem, flower, fruit, twigs exudates and modified plant organs. The Punica granatum is a native shrub of occidental Asia and Mediterranean Europe that has a rich history of traditional use in medicine. For centuries, the barks, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds of this plant have been used to treat various diseases. The aim of this present review is to throw light on the therapeutic utility of various parts of pomegranate.

  13. Hypoxic conditions and oxygen supply in nests of the mangrove ant, Camponotus anderseni, during and after inundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Christian, K.; Malte, H.

    2009-01-01

    The small ant Camponotus anderseni lives exclusively in twigs of the mangrove tree Sonneratia alba, and during inundation, the entrance hole is blocked with a soldier's head which effectively prevents flooding. The nests can be very crowded, with the ants and coccids filling up to 50% of the volume...... is to avoid drowning without suffering anoxia or hypercapnia, and they show a remarkable ability to adapt to the extreme conditions in the mangrove and exploit a niche where the density of other ants is insignificant....

  14. Effects of mist acidity and ambient ozone removal on montane red spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann, D.R. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Strimbeck, D.R.; Johnson, A.H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-10-01

    The effects of acidic mists and ozone on several biochemical and growth parameters in mature montane red spruce were examined. Branch-size environmental chambers were used to introduce mists of controlled composition and to protect selected branches from ambient ozone and acidic mists. Mists of distilled water increased the end-of-season pigment concentration and shoot length of enclosed branches relative to ambient or artificial mists. Needle and twig weights and starch concentrations were not significantly altered by the acidic mist treatments. Removal of ambient ozone had no apparent effect on the variables measured. 8 figs., 2 tabs., 39 refs.

  15. Terpenoids and Steroids from Euphorbia hypericifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Xin; Shi, Shan-Shan; Sheng, Li; Li, Jia; Yue, Jian-Min

    2015-12-01

    Two new triterpenoids and two new sterols, named euphyperins A-D (1-4), including an oleanane-type triterpenoid (1), a lupane-type nortriterpenoid (2), and two cholestane-type steroids (3 and 4), along with five known compounds (5-9) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Euphorbia hypericifolia. Euphyperin B (2) represents a rare lupane-type nortriterpenoid, and euphyperin C (3) is a novel 8,14-secocholestane-type steroid. Euphyperin A (1) exhibited moderate PTP1B inhibitory activity with an IC50 = 17.05 ± 1.12 μg/mL.

  16. Ritual drinks in the pre-Hispanic US Southwest and Mexican Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Ward, Timothy J; Bravenec, Ardith D; Ali, Syed; Kebert, Laura; Berch, Marlaina; Redman, Erin; Lyons, Patrick D; Merewether, Jamie; Phillips, David A; Reed, Lori S; Woodson, Kyle

    2015-09-15

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from 18 sites in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest reveal combinations of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) indicative of stimulant drinks, probably concocted using either cacao or holly leaves and twigs. The results cover a time period from around A.D. 750-1400, and a spatial distribution from southern Colorado to northern Chihuahua. As with populations located throughout much of North and South America, groups in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest likely consumed stimulant drinks in communal, ritual gatherings. The results have implications for economic and social relations among North American populations.

  17. Effectivity of locally wood rot fungal isolates in decomposition of leaf and cocoa pod husk waste

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik; Rosmana, Ade; Dewi, Vien Sartika; Jamila; Baharuddin

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa pod husk is a major waste of cocoa plants that can be used either as an organic fertilizer or as animal feed. For 972.400 hectares of cocoa plantation, produce as much as 572.900 tons of cocoa beans, while the waste generated reached 1.8766 million tons/year. However, only 94.515 tons of cocoa waste has been utilized. Given the composition of twigs, leaves and cocoa pods that contain lots of lignin and cellulose, further research is needed to find microbes that effective ...

  18. Four new tetracyclic alkaloids with cis-decahydroquinoline motif from Myrioneuron effusum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Hui; Guo, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Yu-Xi; Fu, Yan-Hui; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Duo-Zhi; Li, Shun-Lin; Di, Ying-Tong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Four new Myrioneuron alkaloids, mysumamides A-D (1-4), along with three known ones were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Myrioneuron effusum. All of these alkaloids possessed the tetracyclic skeleton and contained the decahydroquinoline (cis-DHQ) moiety. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were also evaluated in vitro.

  19. A method for determination of {sup 90}Sr in vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygren, U

    1998-12-01

    This report describes a method for determination of {sup 90}Sr in vegetation. The method consists of wet-ashing the samples and separating Sr from the sample matrix by oxalate precipitation and extraction chromatography. {sup 90}Y ingrowth is awaited after which Y is separated from Sr and {sup 90}Y measured in a proportional counter. The method has been applied on two reference materials and the {sup 90}Sr results agree well with the recommended values. The method has also been used on 20 samples of blueberry twigs and the mean recovery of Sr was 74%

  20. Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on Pb-210 spiked soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Johnsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    . Calculations of the specific activity in plant material and in the supporting pot soil showed that less than 2% of the Pb content of needles and twigs originates from root uptake and approximately 98% are deposited from the atmosphere. Atmospheric Pb has declined by a factor of 7 from 1980 to 2007 but is still...... a major pathway of Pb to vegetation and topsoils. The conclusion from the experiment is that the internal circulation of Pb through root uptake, translocation and litterfall, gives an insignificant input of Pb to the forest floor compared to atmospheric deposition....

  1. The Origin and Diversification of Osteichthyans and Sarcopterygians:Rare Chinese Fossil Findings Advance Research on Key Issues of Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiaobo; ZHU Min; ZHAO Wenjin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Living organisms represent only 1% of all the biota that has ever existed on earth.All organisms,living or extinct,are related to each other by sharing common ancestors at different levels,like twigs and branches connected to each other at different nodes on the great tree of life.One major task for paleontologists and evolutionary biologists is to find out how the diverse groups of organisms arose and how they are related to each other,thereby reconstructing the history of life and understanding the pattern and process of evolution.

  2. Stephanitis takeyai and S. rhododendri (Heteroptera: Tingidae in Slovakia: first record and economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the occurrence of andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa, 1955, and rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath, 1905, in Slovakia. Syntopic colonies of both species were found on rhododendron shrubs (Rhododendron sp. in south-western Slovakia in 2015. The feeding of the lace bugs resulted in damage to infested rhododendrons. Leaves turned yellow and brown, prematurely dropped what led to continuous drying up of twigs and the whole plants. Details on morphology of adult stages of the two species, description of damage symptoms and economic importance of these pests are presented and discussed.

  3. Diplodia africana causing dieback disease on Juniperus phoenicea: a new host and first report in the northern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENEDETTO LINALDEDDU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch dieback was observed on Phoenicean juniper trees, in a natural growing area on Caprera Island (Italy, during 2009 and 2010. Fungal isolates obtained from symptomatic twigs and branches show­ing dieback and bark necrosis were identified as Diplodia africana by analysis of morphological features and genomic DNA sequences of the ITS region and translation elongation factor 1-α gene. Pathogenicity was verified by stem inoculation of 3-year-old saplings of Phoenicean juniper. This is the first report of D. africana in the northern hemisphere, and of this fungus as a pathogen of Phoenicean juniper

  4. A NEW SPECIES AND TWO NEW RECORDS OF ERIOCOCCIDAE (HEMIPTERA,COCCOIDEA) FROM CHINA%中国毡蚧科一新种和两新纪录种(半翅目,蚧总科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南楠; 陈阿兰; 武三安

    2011-01-01

    dorsum; the thinner ducts 20 long and 4 wide, distribute on the venter. Microducts present in the dorsal margin. Discoidal pore scatter the entire dorsum. Falcate dorsal setae of 3 types, form transverse bands on abdominal segmengts. Anal ring well developed, with a row of pores and eight setae. Cauda arched, with wavy posterior edge. Anal lobe protruding, inner margin smooth, with 3 dorsal conical setae, ventrally each with 3 flagellate setae and a long apical setae.Holotype 9 , collected from Xining City (36. 56°N, 101. 74°E) , Qinghai Province on twigs of Berberis sp. By CHEN A-Lan, 29 June 2009. Paratypes: 5 ♂ ♂ , same data as holotype; 6 ♀ ♀ , collected from Xining City, Qinghai Province on twigs of Berberis sp. By CHEN A-Lan, 24 June 2009; 7 ♀ ♀, collected from Helan Mountain ( 38. 96° N, 105. 84°E) , Inner Mongolia on twigs of B. Corali by NAN Nan, 26 July 2010; 5 ♀ ♀ , collected from Helan Mountain (38. 98°N, 106. 03°E) , Inner Mongolia on twigs of B. Corali by NAN Nan, 5 Aug. 2010.The new species is dose to E. Sojae Kuwana, 1917 for falcate dorsal setae and similar distribution, but can be easily distinguished by the presence of frontal lobes and cauda.Etymology. The new species is named after its host plant.Eriococcus munroi (Boratynski) , 1962 New recordto China (Figs 2-3, 7)3 ♀ ♀ and 2 first instar nymph, collected from Helan Mountain ( 38. 51° N, 105. 83° E ), Inner Mongolia on roots of Artemisia frigida by NAN Nan, 9 Aug. 2010.Rhizococcus herbaceus Danzig, 1962 New record toChina ( Figs 4,6)7 ♀ ♀ , collected from Helan Mountain (38. 96°N, 105. 84° E) , Inner Mongolia on leaves of Leymus secalinus by NAN Nan, 26 July 2010; 11 ♀ ♀, collected from Helan Mountain ( 38.99° N, 106. 01 °E), Inner Mongolia on leaves of L. Secalinus by LIN Mei-Ying, 6 Aug. 2010.%记述毡蚧科1新种,小檗毡蚧Eriococcus berberisi sp.nov.,及中国2新纪录种,委陵菜毡蚧Eriococcus munroi

  5. Identification and quantitative determination of carbohydrates in ethanolic extracts of two conifers using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph

    2008-04-07

    We developed a method for the direct identification and quantification of carbohydrates in raw vegetable extracts using (13)C NMR spectroscopy without any preliminary step of precipitation or reduction of the components. This method has been validated (accuracy, precision and response linearity) using pure compounds and artificial mixtures before being applied to authentic ethanolic extracts of pine needles, pine wood and pine cones and fir twigs. We determined that carbohydrates represented from 15% to 35% of the crude extracts in which pinitol was the principal constituent accompanied by arabinitol, mannitol, glucose and fructose.

  6. New Alkaloids and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Flavonoids from Ficus hispida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng-Feng; Lei, Chun; Yu, Bang-Wei; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Two new pyrrolidine alkaloids, ficushispimines A (1) and B (2), a new ω-(dimethylamino)caprophenone alkaloid, ficushispimine C (3), and a new indolizidine alkaloid, ficushispidine (4), together with the known alkaloid 5 and 11 known isoprenylated flavonoids 6 - 16, were isolated from the twigs of Ficus hispida. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Isoderrone (8), 3'-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)biochanin A (11), myrsininone A (12), ficusin A (13), and 4',5,7-trihydroxy-6-[(1R*,6R*)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-yl]isoflavone (14) showed inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase in vitro.

  7. Effects of ash recycling on spruce stands with whole tree harvesting; Effekter av askaaterfoering till granplanteringar med ristaekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westling, Olle; Andersson, Ingvar [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden); Oerlander, Goeran [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Ash-treated areas were compared to non-treated areas where logging waste (branches, twigs and needles) was/was not harvested. The study shows that: Harvesting of logging waste tends to reduce the leaching of nitrogen the first years after the harvest. Ash fertilization of 3-7 years old harvesting areas had no effects on the leaching, but recycling to a new area increased the leaching for a short period. Six years after recycling, the plant volumes were significantly greater on ash-recycled areas than on the control areas. The growth was smallest on areas with waste harvesting and no ash recycling.

  8. Amyrisins A-C, O-prenylated flavonoids from Amyris madrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Hartley, Rachel M; Fest, Gary A; Mooberry, Susan L

    2012-03-23

    Three new O-prenylated flavonoids, amyrisins A-C (1-3), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Amyris madrensis, along with the known compound polygamain (4). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of the analysis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Amyrisins B (2) and C (3) showed moderate cytotoxicity against PC-3 and DU 145 prostate cancer cells with IC(50) values of 17.5 and 23 μM, respectively, while amyrisin A (1) did not show any cytotoxicity at the highest concentration tested, 50 μM. Polygamain (4) exhibited potent antiproliferative and microtubule-depolymerizing activities.

  9. Amyrisins A - C, O-Prenylated Flavonoids from Amyris madrensis⊥

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Hartley, Rachel M.; Fest, Gary A.; Mooberry, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Three new O-prenylated flavonoids, amyrisins A – C (1 –2), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Amyris madrensis, along with the known compound, polygamain (4). The structures of 1 – 3 were elucidated based on the analysis of spectroscopic data. Amyrisins B (2) and C (3) showed moderate cytotoxicity against PC-3 and DU 145 prostate cancer cells with IC50 values of 17.5 and 23 μM, respectively while amyrisin A (1) did not show any cytotoxicity at the highest concentration tested, 50 μM. Polygamain (4) exhibited potent antiproliferative and microtubule depolymerizing activities. PMID:22260294

  10. New Cytotoxic Tigliane Diterpenoids from Croton caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Yang, Kun-Xian; Yang, Xing-Wei; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Lu; Wang, Bei; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Li, Yan; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Three new tigliane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the methanolic extract of the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus, trivially named crotusins A-C (1-3). The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral methods. These new compounds were highly oxygenated and heavily substituted. Cytotoxic activity against five human tumor cell lines was assessed for compounds 1-3 of which compound 3 showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 4.19 µM against these cells, while crotusins A and B exhibited moderate activity.

  11. The Spring Change in Hydraulic Architecture Characteristics in Some Woody Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ten healthy tree species with regular management were selected on the campus of Beijing Forestry University, and they belong to tall tree, shrub and liana, respectively. Water potential and hydraulic architecture parameters of one-year-old twigs were measured in sunny day in the last ten days of March to the middle ten days of May in 2002. The results show that the daily change in water potential of tree species examined appears convex, i.e. the water potential is higher in the morning and evening, and ...

  12. Extending Symfony 2 web application framework

    CERN Document Server

    Armand, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Symfony is a high performance PHP framework for developing MVC web applications. Symfony1 allowed for ease of use but its shortcoming was the difficulty of extending it. However, this difficulty has now been eradicated by the more powerful and extensible Symfony2. Information on more advanced techniques for extending Symfony can be difficult to find, so you need one resource that contains the advanced features in a way you can understand. This tutorial offers solutions to all your Symfony extension problems. You will get to grips with all the extension points that Symfony, Twig, and Doctrine o

  13. One new species, Guedea lantania, and two new record of hyphomycetes from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three new hyphomycetes in Taiwan are proposed, including one new species, Guedea lantania, and two new records, Isthmotricladia gombakiensis and Wiesneriomyces laurinus. They were isolated from decaying leaves or rotten twigs individually. Morphological characteristics of G. lantania was described, illustrated and compared with the other species in the Guedea genus and a key to the members of this genus was provided. The unique characters of the two newly recorded fungi were also diagnosed and illustrated, and compared with the allied taxa to highlight their distinct characters.

  14. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu islands in the deep Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Magnin, Sandrine; Rousseau, Florence; Zbinden, Magali; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Samadi, Sarah; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Jones, E B Gareth

    2009-12-01

    A new genus of a deep-sea ascomycete with one new species, Alisea longicolla, is described based on analyses of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences and morphological characters. A. longicolla was found together with Oceanitis scuticella, on small twigs and sugar cane debris trawled from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean off Vanuatu Islands. Molecular and morphological characters indicate that both fungi are members of Halosphaeriaceae. Within this family, O. scuticella is phylogenetically related to Ascosalsum and shares similar ascospore morphology and appendage ontogeny. The genus Ascosalsum is considered congeneric with Oceanitis and Ascosalsum cincinnatulum, Ascosalsum unicaudatum and Ascosalsum viscidulum are transferred to Oceanitis, an earlier generic name.

  15. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

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    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  16. Wind induced deformation and vibration of a Platanus acerifolia leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Ping Shao; Ye-Jun Chen; Jian-Zhong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Deformation and vibration of twig-connected single leaf in wind is investigated experimentally.Results show that the Reynolds number based on wind speed and length of leaf blade is a key parameter to the aerodynamic problem.In case the front surface facing the wind and with an increase of Reynolds number,the leaf experiences static deformation,large amplitude and low frequency sway,reconfiguration to delta wing shape,flapping of tips,high frequency vibration of whole leaf blade,recovery of delta wing shape,and twig-leaf coupling vibration.Abrupt changes from one state to another occur at critical Reynolds numbers.In case the back surfacc facing the wind,the large amplitude and low frequency sway does not occur,the recovered delta wing shape is replaced by a conic shape,and the critical Reynolds numbers of vibrations are higher than the ones corresponding to the case with the front surface facing the wind.A pair of ram-horn vortex is observed behind the delta wing shaped leaf.A single vortex is found downstream of the conic shaped leaf.A lift is induced by the vortex,and this lift helps leaf to adjust position and posture,stabilize blade distortion and reduce drag and vibration.

  17. Tyrosinase inhibitory constituents from the roots of Morus nigra: a structure-activity relationship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Zhu, Qin; Wang, Xia-Chang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-05-12

    The phytochemical profiles of Morus nigra roots and twigs were compared by HPLC with those of the old and young twigs of Morus alba which are known to contain oxyresveratrol and mulberroside A as major components. It was found that M. nigra root extract contains some unknown natural products with potential tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The extract (95% ethanol) of the roots of M. nigra was further investigated in this study. One new compound, 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, and twenty-eight known phenolic compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Nine compounds, 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, steppogenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone, moracin N, kuwanon H, mulberrofuran G, morachalcone A, oxyresveratrol-3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and oxyresveratrol-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, showed better tyrosinase inhibitory activities than kojic acid. It was noteworthy that the IC(50) values of 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone and morachalcone A were 757-fold and 328-fold lower than that of kojic acid, respectively, suggesting a great potential for their development as effective natural tyrosinase inhibitors.

  18. Characterization of the polyphenol composition of 20 cultivars of cider, processing, and dessert apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) grown in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Witrick, Katherine A; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hurley, E Kenneth; Peck, Gregory M; Stewart, Amanda C

    2014-10-15

    Polyphenols and maturity parameters were determined in 20 apple cultivars with potential for hard cider production grown in Virginia, U.S.A. Concentrations of five classes of polyphenols were significantly different across cultivar for both peel and flesh. Total polyphenol concentration ranged from 0.9 μg/g wwb in flesh of Newtown Pippin to 453 μg/g wwb in peel of Red Delicious. Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig cultivars contained the highest concentration of total flavan-3-ols in flesh, indicating potential to impart desired astringency and bitterness to cider under processing conditions where extraction of polyphenols from peel is minimal. These results can inform selection of fruit juice, extracts, and byproducts for investigations of bioactivity and bioavailability of polyphenols, and provide baseline data for horticultural and processing research supporting the growing hard cider industry in Virginia. Based on these data, cultivars Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig show high potential for cider production in Virginia.

  19. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  20. Displacement of Aphytis chrysomphali by Aphytis melinus, parasitoids of the California red scale, in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramon Boyero

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are the main natural enemies of the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell and on occasion can regulate their populations. To increase their effectiveness, inoculative or augmentative releases of parasitoids are promoted. Previous to the implementation of any release strategy an important and necessary step is to acquire knowledge on the parasitoid fauna associated with this key phytophagous pest. Parasitoids were surveyed and quantified in Spanish citrus orchards between 2005 and 2009. Aphytis melinus DeBach (87.1% resulted as the dominant species, followed by Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet (15.9%, Encarsia perniciosi (Tower (2.4% and Aphycus hederaceus (Westwood (0.004%. Overall, higher levels of parasitism were recorded in fruit than in twigs. Scales in fruit were parasitized at similar levels by the different parasitoid species whereas E. perniciosi was more active in twigs. Data eventually reveal the recent displacement of A. chrysomphali by A. melinus. The implications of these results on the biological control of A. aurantii are discussed and this information will be useful in the decision of IPM strategies for this pest.

  1. Bud dormancy in apple trees after thermal fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat waves on the evolution of bud dormancy, in apple trees with contrasting chilling requirements. Twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' were collected in orchards in Papanduva, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were exposed to constant (3°C or alternating (3 and 15°C for 12/12 hours temperature, combined with zero, one or two days a week at 25°C. Two additional treatments were evaluated: constant temperature (3°C, with a heat wave of seven days at 25°C, in the beginning or in the middle of the experimental period. Periodically, part of the twigs was transferred to 25°C for daily budburst evaluation of apical and lateral buds. Endodormancy (dormancy induced by cold was overcome with less than 330 chilling hours (CH of constant cold in 'Castel Gala' and less than 618 CH in 'Royal Gala'. A daily 15°C-temperature cycle did not affect the endodormancy process. Heat waves during endodormancy resulted in an increased CH to achieve bud requirements. The negative effect of high temperature depended on the lasting of this condition. Chilling was partly cancelled during dormancy when the heat wave lasted 36 continuous hours or more. Therefore, budburst prediction models need adjustments, mainly for regions with mild and irregular winters, such as those of Southern Brazil.

  2. Aluminum uptake and migration from the soil compartment into Betula pendula for two different environments: a polluted and environmentally protected area of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of soil contamination on aluminum (Al) concentrations in plant parts of Betula pendula and a possible way of migration and transformation of Al in the soil-root-stem-twig-leaf system. A new procedure of Al fractionation based on extraction in water phase was applied to obtain and measure the most available forms of Al in soils and B. pendula samples. In addition, total Al content was determined in biological samples and pseudo total Al content in soil samples collected under plant saplings, using atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization. A number of relations concerning the occurrence of Al and Ca in soils and plant parts of B. pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, and leaves) were observed. Based on the research findings, the mechanism of Al migration from soil to the leaves of B. pendula can be presented. It was found that aluminum uptake may be limited in roots by high calcium concentration. The application of a new procedure based on the simple sequential extraction of water-soluble fractions (the most available and exchangeable fractions of Al) can be used as an effective tool for the estimation of aluminum toxicity in soils and plants.

  3. PENYUSUNAN ALLOMETRIK UNTUK PENDUGAAN KANDUNGAN BIOMASSA JENIS BAKAU (Rhizophora apiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Ali Hamidi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests have ecological functions as an absorber of carbon dioxide and store carbon through photosynthesis. How much carbon stored in mangrove forest can be estimated by biomass contained as an individual constituent mangrove forest vegetation. This research aims to develop allometric model to estimate content of biomass on Rhizophora apiculata which is one of the compilers specific of the mangrove forest. Research methods through logging (destruction with a total sample of 35 trees that represents the distribution diameter of 11-78 cm. The results showed content of the biomass species Rhizophora apiculata as much as 77% on the trunk, 14% on the branch, 6% on the twigs and 3% on the leaves. Allometric are obtained to estimate the biomass content on Rhizophora apiculata types are as follows: Y = 0,1488D2,4310; branch section Y = 0.0229D2,4521; twigs part Y = 0.0375D2,0389; leaf   Y = 0.1898D1,2809; total tree Y = 0.2300D2,3766. Through determination test concluded that the allometric chosen is Y = 0.2300D2,3766 with the value of the determinant coefficient of 0.9479

  4. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  5. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, Line; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2013-04-01

    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO2 or enhanced temperature  +  enhanced CO2 . The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO2 increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth.

  6. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-04-01

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  7. Effects of the apple mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris on antimicrobial, immunostimulatory and histological responses in black tiger shrimp postlarvae fed at varying feeding frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Avenido

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate extracts of the apple mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris as agentof prophylactic/therapeutant for the culture of Penaeus monodon. General types of compounds detectedin the leaf and twig extracts were glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, sterols and flavonoids as determinedby Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Based on the mean clear zone of inhibition, twig extract exhibitedhigher antibacterial activity than did the leaf extract. Furthermore, the methanolic extract of the twiggave the highest antibacterial activity and was thus employed for further tests. It was incorporated inthe basal diet (commercially available shrimp starter feed and was tested at three feeding frequencies(twice, three and four times daily for its effects on the immune responses against a control treatment(pure basal diet fed three times daily. There were no significant differences in respiratory burstactivities between treatments but shrimps fed medicated diets exhibited considerably higher values thandid the control group of shrimps. Phagocytic and phenoloxidase activities were significantly higher inshrimps fed medicated diets at all feeding frequencies than did those fed the control diet; activities werenot significantly different between those fed medicated diets. Bacterial survival index was significantlyhigher in shrimps fed the control diet than did those fed medicated diets; indices of shrimps fedmedicated diets were not significantly different. There were no signs of toxicity or any adversehistological changes in shrimps fed medicated diets at 1000 μg mL-1 apple mangrove extractconcentration.

  8. Modeling heat and mass transfer in the heat treatment step of yerba maté processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Peralta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to estimate the leaf and twig temperature and moisture content of yerba maté branches (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire during heat treatment, carried out in a rotary kiln dryer. These variables had to be estimated (modeling the heat and mass transfer due to the difficulty of experimental measurement in the dryer. For modeling, the equipment was divided into two zones: the flame or heat treatment zone and the drying zone. The model developed fit well with the experimental data when water loss took place only in leaves. In the first zone, leaf temperature increased until it reached 135°C and then it slowly decreased to 88°C at the exit, despite the gas temperature, which varied in this zone from 460°C to 120°C. Twig temperature increased in the two zones from its inlet temperature (25°C up to 75°C. A model error of about 3% was estimated based on theoretical and experimental data on leaf moisture content.

  9. Icelandic Birch Polyploids—The Case of a Perfect Fit in Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anamthawat-Jónsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two birch species coexist in Iceland, dwarf birch Betula nana and tree birch B. pubescens. Both species are variable morphologically, which has been shown to be due to introgressive hybridization via interspecific hybrids. The aim of this study was to examine if the introgression could be related to genome size. We characterized 42 plants from Bifröst woodland morphologically and cytogenetically. The population consisted of diploid B. nana (38%, tetraploid B. pubescens (55%, and triploid hybrids (7%. Genome size was measured from 12 plants, using Feulgen DNA image densitometry (FDM on spring leaf buds and flow cytometry (FCM with dormant winter twigs. The use of winter twigs for FCM is novel. The average 1C-values for diploid, triploid, and tetraploid plants were 448, 666, and 882 Mbp, respectively. Monoploid genome sizes were found to be statistically constant among ploidy levels. This stability is in contrast to the different taxonomic positions of the di- and tetraploids and also contrasts with the frequent occurrence of genome downsizing in polyploids.

  10. Diversity and ecological distribution of endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A total of 973 isolates of endophytic fungi were recovered from 1144 tissue fragments of the six me-dicinal plant species belonging to 4 families collected in the Beijing Botanical Garden. Of these isolates 778 sporulated and were identified into 21 taxa by morphological characteristics. Among the taxa 11 belonged to Coelomycetes, 6 to Ascomycetes, and 4 to Hyphomycetes. Various numbers of endophytic fungi (5―8 taxa) were obtained from each plant. Alternaria alternata was the dominant species in the 6 plants, and Microsphaeropsis conielloides was also dominant in Eucommia ulmoides. There were high colonization rates (47.9%―63.1%) and isolation rates (0.7―0.93) of endophytic fungi, and they were conspicuously higher in twigs than those in leaves in the 6 plants examined. The colonization and isolation rates of endophytic fungi increased with the twig age. The results based on the analyses of cluster and Sorenson’s similarity coefficients indicated that some endophytic fungi showed a certain degree of host and tissue preference.

  11. Accumulation of cadmium and zinc in Evodiopanax innovans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Chisato; Kobayashi, Motoharu; Kanaya, Shotaro

    2009-12-01

    The use of tree species for phytoremediation of contaminated soil offers the advantage of a large biomass in which to store contaminants. We investigated the cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation ability of Evodiopanax innovans, a common deciduous tree species belonging to the Araliaceae family and widely found in secondary forests in Japan. Sampling was conducted at an old silver mine. Leaf samples were collected from nine tree species, including E. innovans. The seasonal variation of metal concentrations in the leaves and the detailed distribution of metals in the leaves and twigs of E. innovans were measured. We also analyzed the contents of organic acids in the leaves. The highest concentration of Cd in the leaves of E. innovans was 118 μg/g, which exceeds the threshold level for being considered a Cd hyperaccumulator (100 μg/g). For Zn, the highest value was 1040 μg/g in leaves, which is less than required to qualify as a Zn hyperaccumulator. Both Cd and Zn were found to accumulate in the petioles and veins of leaves and the bark of twigs. Since the oxalic acid content of leaves showed a weak correlation with Cd concentration, oxalic acid may play an important role in the accumulation of Cd. Taking both the Cd concentration level and the biomass of this woody plant into consideration, it may be possible to use E. innovans for the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  12. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nybakken, L.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Univ. of Eastern Finland. Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO{sub 2} or enhanced temperature? + enhanced CO{sub 2}. The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO{sub 2} increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth. (Author)

  13. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

  14. Domestic use of biomass fuel in the rural Meghna floodplain areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akther S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural households in the developing countries constitute the largest share of the biomass fuel consumption. It is also a major source of energy in the low income country. However, this energy consumption pattern varies from region to region. Different case studies on the biomass fuel consumption will certainly contribute to the understanding on the energy uses of a nation. The present study was conducted in the rural areas of the Meghna floodplain zone in Bangladesh, with a total of 80 sampled households, using the stratified random sampling technique through the semi-structured questionnaires from November 2008 through February 2009. Firewood, cowdung, leaves and twigs, branches, rice straw and rice husk were used as the biomass fuels mainly for the cooking purpose. Leaves and twigs were found as the dominant biomass fuel as 187 ± 25.69 (SE kg month-1 household-1. The major source of biomass fuel collection was identified as the own homestead and agricultural lands, 74%. The households spent 14.56 ± 8.94 US$ month-1 household-1 for biomass fuels. The ratio of the total energy expenditure to the total income of the household was around 11%. But, the ratio of the biomass expenditure to the total energy expenditure of the households was 68%. Monthly income, land ownership and family size were found significantly influencing to the biomass energy expenditure. The study will be useful for the policy makers in the renewable energy, forestry and agriculture sector in Bangladesh.

  15. Solar Energy Storage and Distribution in Bole Stage of Chinese Fir Plantation%杉木林杆材阶段能量积累和分配的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文星; 田大伦; 闫文德; 方晰

    2004-01-01

    The solar energy fixation, storage and distribution of the Chinese Fir plantation in Huitong located Ecology Station of Hunan Province were studied. The results showed that the ability of fixing solar energy in center area for Chinese Fir plantationwas 12 474×108-31943×108J·hm-2 , and the energy fixed by Chinese Fir plantation regularly decreased with the increasing of stand density. The distribution ratio of solar energy in stand was in order as : needle < twig < root < trunk. In evenaged forest,the reason of energy decrease with the increasing of forest density was the decrease of the solar energy accumulations of trunk,while the solar energy accumulation of twig and needle kept stably. When the forest was fully crowned, the ability of fixing solar energy decreased with the increasing of forest ages. The ability of photosynthesis decreased more quickly when the forest density was larger. When the forest density was 3 550·hm-2 the distribution ratio of solar energy in needle was the highest at the 14th year forest, while in the 16th year forest the distribution ratio in bark was 1.91 times of that of trunk, which meant that the trunk stopped growing and the forest was on the wane. When the accessibility entering the pole stage, the forest density was the main factor which affected the solar energy fixation. Proper intermidiate was a necessary means to increase the ability of photosynthesis.

  16. Diversity and ecological distribution of endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianqiu; Guo, Liangdong; Zang, Wei; Ping, Wenxiang; Chi, Defu

    2008-08-01

    A total of 973 isolates of endophytic fungi were recovered from 1,144 tissue fragments of the six medicinal plant species belonging to 4 families collected in the Beijing Botanical Garden. Of these isolates 778 sporulated and were identified into 21 taxa by morphological characteristics. Among the taxa 11 belonged to Coelomycetes, 6 to Ascomycetes, and 4 to Hyphomycetes. Various numbers of endophytic fungi (5-8 taxa) were obtained from each plant. Alternaria alternata was the dominant species in the 6 plants, and Microsphaeropsis conielloides was also dominant in Eucommia ulmoides. There were high colonization rates (47.9%-63.1%) and isolation rates (0.7-0.93) of endophytic fungi, and they were conspicuously higher in twigs than those in leaves in the 6 plants examined. The colonization and isolation rates of endophytic fungi increased with the twig age. The results based on the analyses of cluster and Sorenson's similarity coefficients indicated that some endophytic fungi showed a certain degree of host and tissue preference.

  17. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species.

  18. Course and distribution of the lingual nerve in the ventral tongue region: anatomical considerations for frenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hun-Mu; Woo, Yong-Je; Won, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Da-Hye; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the sublingual and intralingual courses of the lingual nerve (LN) in the ventral tongue region, providing a clinical guide for safe surgical procedures such as frenectomy. We evaluated 16 specimens (32 sides) by gross observation after detailed dissections, and a further 6 specimens were examined after Sihler staining. All specimens were harvested from embalmed Korean cadavers. We classified the innervation patterns of the LN into 5 types and confirmed the distribution of the LN in the tip of the tongue. The classification of the LN was made with reference to a line formed by the interlacing of the styloglossus and genioglossus muscles. Based on the course of LN and the presence of a tiny twig (twigs directly innervating the ventral mucosa of the tongue, TM) directly innervating the sublingual mucosa, the course of the LN was classified as being straight, curved, or vertical and with or without the TM. Straight, curved, and vertical courses without the TM were seen in 9.4%, 46.9%, and 18.8% of the cases, respectively. Straight and curved courses with the TM were observed in 6.3% and 18.8% of the cases, respectively. Sihler staining revealed that the tongue tip is innervated by the LN. These findings indicate that surgical manipulations at the ventral tongue region might damage the LN and result in numbness of the tongue tip, and provide a useful anatomic reference for various surgical procedures involving the ventral tongue region.

  19. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  20. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  1. Exploring the role of asexual multiplication in poplar rust epidemics: impact on diversity and genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrès, Benoît; Dutech, Cyril; Andrieux, Axelle; Halkett, Fabien; Frey, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    Fungal plant pathogens, especially rust fungi (Pucciniales), are well known for their complex life cycles, which include phases of sexual and asexual reproduction. The effect of asexual multiplication on population genetic diversity has been investigated in the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina using a nested hierarchical sampling scheme. Four hierarchical levels were considered: leaf, twig, tree and site. Both cultivated and wild poplar stands were sampled at two time points at the start and end of rust epidemics. A total of 641 fungal isolates was analysed using nine microsatellite markers. This study revealed that the genetic signature of asexual multiplication in the wild poplar stand was seen only at lower hierarchical levels (leaf and twig). Moreover, we observed an erosion of clonal structure through time, with an increase in both gene and genotypic diversity. New genotypes contributed to host infection over time, which demonstrates the importance of allo-infection in the epidemic process in this host-pathogen system. Compared with the wild stands, the nearly lack of detection of clonal structure in the cultivated stands reflects the higher infection level on cultivated poplars. More generally, this genetic analysis illustrates the utility of population genetics approach for elucidating the proportion of asexual reproduction in the multiplication of isolates during an epidemic, and for proper quantification of asexual dispersal in plant pathogens.

  2. A reversible color polyphenism in American peppered moth (Biston betularia cognataria caterpillars.

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    Mohamed A F Noor

    Full Text Available Insect body color polyphenisms enhance survival by producing crypsis in diverse backgrounds. While color polyphenisms are often indirectly induced by temperature, rearing density, or diet, insects can benefit from immediate crypsis if they evolve polyphenisms directly induced by exposure to the background color, hence immediately deriving protection from predation. Here, we examine such a directly induced color polyphenism in caterpillars of the geometrid peppered moth (Biston betularia. This larval color polyphenism is unrelated to the genetic polymorphism for melanic phenotypes in adult moths. B. betularia caterpillars are generalist feeders and develop body colors that closely match the brown or green twigs of their host plant. We expand on previous studies examining the proximal cues that stimulate color development. Under controlled rearing conditions, we manipulated diets and background reflectance, using both natural and artificial twigs, and show that visual experience has a much stronger effect than does diet in promoting precise color matching. Their induced body color was not a simple response to reflectance or light intensity but instead specifically matched the wavelength of light to which they were exposed. We also show that the potential to change color is retained until the final (sixth larval instar. Given their broad host range, this directly induced color polyphenism likely provides the caterpillars with strong protection from bird predation.

  3. Diversity and ecological distribution of endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JianQiu; GUO LiangDong; ZANG Wei; PING WenXiang; CHI DeFu

    2008-01-01

    A total of 973 isolates of endophytic fungi were recovered from 1144 tissue fragments of the six me-dicinal plant species belonging to 4 families collected in the Beijing Botanical Garden. Of these isolates 778 sporulated and were identified into 21 taxa by morphological characteristics. Among the taxa 11 belonged to Coelomycetes, 6 to Ascomycetes, and 4 to Hyphomycetes. Various numbers of endophytic fungi (5-8 taxa) were obtained from each plant. Alternaria alternata was the dominant species in the 6 plants, and Microsphaeropsis conielloides was also dominant in Eucommia ulmoides. There were high colonization rates (47.9%-63.1%) and isolation rates (0.7-0.93) of endophytic fungi, and they were conspicuously higher in twigs than those in leaves in the 6 plants examined. The colonization and isolation rates of endophytic fungi increased with the twig age. The results based on the analyses of cluster and Sorenson's similarity coefficients indicated that some endophytic fungi showed a certain degree of host and tissue preference.

  4. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  5. Perch-height specific predation on tropical lizard clay models: implications for habitat selection in mainland neotropical lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Steffen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation has been hypothesized to be a strong selective force structuring communities of tropical lizards. Comparisons of perch height and size-based predation frequencies can provide a unique window into understanding how predation might shape habitat selection and morphological patterns in lizards, especially anoles. Here i use plasticine clay models, placed on the trunks of trees and suspended in the canopy to show that predation frequency on clay models differs primarily according to habitat (canopy vs. trunk-ground, but not according to size. These data are discussed in light of observed lizard abundances in the lowland forests of Costa Rica, and are presented as partial explanation for why fewer lizards are found in tree canopies, and more lizards are found on ground-trunk habitats. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 859-864. Epub 2009 September 30.Existe la hipótesis de que la depredación es una fuerte fuerza selectiva que estructura las comunidades de lagartijas tropicales. Las comparaciones de las frecuencias de altura de la percha y de depredación con base en el tamaño pueden proveer una ventana única en el entendimiento de cómo la depredación podría moldear la selección del hábitat y los patrones morfológicos en las lagartijas, especialmente anoles. En este estudio uso modelos de plasticina, ubicados en troncos de árboles y suspendidos en el dosel para mostrar que la frecuencia de depredación en los modelos de plasticina difiere primariamente según el hábitat (dosel vs. tronco-suelo pero no según el tamaño. Estos datos se discuten a la luz de las abundancias de lagartijas observadas en los bosques de bajura de Costa Rica, y se presentan como una explicación parcial a porqué menos lagartijas se encuentran en los doseles, y más lagartijas se encuentran en los hábitats suelo-tronco.

  6. Anchoring genome sequence to chromosomes of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) enables reconstruction of ancestral squamate macrochromosomes and identifies sequence content of the Z chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Janine E; Edwards, Melanie J; Patel, Hardip; O'Meally, Denis; Lian, Jinmin; Stenhouse, Rachael; Ryan, Sam; Livernois, Alexandra M; Azad, Bhumika; Holleley, Clare E; Li, Qiye; Georges, Arthur

    2016-06-10

    Squamates (lizards and snakes) are a speciose lineage of reptiles displaying considerable karyotypic diversity, particularly among lizards. Understanding the evolution of this diversity requires comparison of genome organisation between species. Although the genomes of several squamate species have now been sequenced, only the green anole lizard has any sequence anchored to chromosomes. There is only limited gene mapping data available for five other squamates. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the events that have led to extant squamate karyotypic diversity. The purpose of this study was to anchor the recently sequenced central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) genome to chromosomes to trace the evolution of squamate chromosomes. Assigning sequence to sex chromosomes was of particular interest for identifying candidate sex determining genes. By using two different approaches to map conserved blocks of genes, we were able to anchor approximately 42 % of the dragon genome sequence to chromosomes. We constructed detailed comparative maps between dragon, anole and chicken genomes, and where possible, made broader comparisons across Squamata using cytogenetic mapping information for five other species. We show that squamate macrochromosomes are relatively well conserved between species, supporting findings from previous molecular cytogenetic studies. Macrochromosome diversity between members of the Toxicofera clade has been generated by intrachromosomal, and a small number of interchromosomal, rearrangements. We reconstructed the ancestral squamate macrochromosomes by drawing upon comparative cytogenetic mapping data from seven squamate species and propose the events leading to the arrangements observed in representative species. In addition, we assigned over 8 Mbp of sequence containing 219 genes to the Z chromosome, providing a list of genes to begin testing as candidate sex determining genes. Anchoring of the dragon genome has provided substantial insight into

  7. Utilización del patrón de restricción del DNA codificante para el RNA Ribosomal de la subunidad pequeña para la caracterización de Apicomplexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Adelaida

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Apicomplexos constituyen un phylum de protozoarios que se caracterizan por ser parásitos obligados de una gran variedad de huéspedes vertebrados e invertebrados. Hoy en día hay fuertes polémicas en tomo a su clasificación taxonómica, sus relaciones filogenéticas, y los patrones de coevolución con sus hospederos. El gen que codifica para el ARN ribosomal de la subunidad pequeña (ARN-SURp se utiliza como marcador molecular para resolver estas inquietudes. A partir del ADN de las especies de la familia Sarcocystidae (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis sp. de Didelphis marsupialis y Sarcocystis sp. de Columbina talpacoti y Toxoplasma gondii, y de especies de la familia Plasmodiidae (Plasmodium de Anolis chloris, P. simium, y P. falciparumi, se amplificó por PCR el gen que codifica para el ARN de la subunidad ribosomal pequeña (ARN- SURp usando los iniciadores P5-P3, 0009-2134 Y566R-567R. Se compararon
    los patrones de restricción Hind III, Eco RI, Sau 3AI y Alw 261 del DNA ribosomal. La prueba de riboprini mostró que además de discriminar entre familias permite caracterizar diferencias a nivel de género y especie.Apicomplexa is a Protozoa phylum in which all members are obliged parasites of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. There is an ongoing controversy on
    systematics, phylogenetic relationships and parasite - host coevolution patterns. The SSU ribosomal gen has been used as a molecular marker in order to solve these issues.
    From DNA of the species of the Sarcocystidae family (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis sp. from Didelphis marsupialis, Sarcocystis sp. from Columbina talpacoti and Toxoplasma
    gondii, and from the species of the Plasmodiidae family (Plasmodium from Anolis ehloris, P. simium, and P. falciparum, the SSU ribosomal DNA fragemnt was
    amplified by PCR, using the pair of primers P5-P3, 0009-2134 and 566R-567R. Hind III, Eco RI, Sau 3AI and Alw 261 restriction pattems were compared

  8. CAMBIO Estacional EN EL USO DE LOS RECURSOS DE LA COMUNIDAD de reptiles en EL COMPLEJO Cenagoso DE ZAPATOSA, DEPARTAMENTO DEL CESAR (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina-Rangel Guido Fabián

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar cómo los ciclos estacionales influyen en el uso y la agregación de lasespecies de reptiles en los diferentes hábitats, microhábitats y horas de actividad diaria.Se realizaron cuatro salidas de campo en áreas circundantes al complejo cenagoso deZapatosa, entre noviembre de 2006 y octubre de 2007, abarcando la época de lluvias(noviembre de 2006 y octubre de 2007 y la época seca (enero de 2007 y julio de 2007.En total se invirtieron 640 horas/hombre de muestreo, repartidas en cinco hábitats:bosque casmófito, bosque seco, bosque de ribera, palmar y sabana arbolada. Seencontraron 468 individuos distribuidos en 36 especies en época de lluvias y en épocaseca se hallaron 344 individuos repartidos en 35 especies. En época de lluvias el hábitatmás rico en especies fue el bosque casmófito y el más abundante en individuos fue elbosque seco; en época seca el bosque de ribera fue el que presentó el mayor númerode especies e individuos. El mayor recambio temporal de especies dentro del mismohábitat lo presentó la sabana arbolada. Las especies que dominaron la comunidaden ambos periodos climáticos fueron Gonatodes albogularis, Anolis tropidogastery Anolis auratus. La disimilitud en cuanto a las abundancias y la composición delas especies que se presentó entre épocas climáticas fue del 34% y las especies quemás contribuyeron a esto fueron Ameiva praesignis, Mabuya sp. y Holcosus festivus.Las horas de actividad de un período climático a otro fueron similares. Los lagartosmostraron mayor amplitud y las serpientes más alta superposición en el uso del tiempode actividad en los dos periodos climático. La amplitud en el uso de los recursos nopresentó un patrón generalizado por grupos de reptiles de un periodo a otro, ni resultódiferente estadísticamente entre época climática. La superposición en el uso de losrecursos fue mayor en la época seca frente a la de lluvias.

  9. Temporal germ cell development strategy during continuous spermatogenesis within the montane lizard, Sceloporus bicanthalis (Squamata; Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin; Anzalone, Marla; Collier, Matthew; Granados-González, Gisela; Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Maricela; Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2011-10-01

    Sceloporus bicanthalis is a viviparous lizard that lives at higher elevations in Mexico. Adult male S. bicanthalis were collected (n = 36) from the Nevado de Toluca, Mexico (elevation is 4200 m) during August to December, 2007 and January to July, 2008. Testes were extracted, fixed in Trumps, and dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol. Tissues were embedded, sectioned (2 μm), stained, and examined via a light microscope to determine the spermatogenic developmental strategy of S. bicanthalis. In all months examined, the testes were spermiogenically active; based on this, plus the presence of sperm in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, we inferred that S. bicanthalis had year-round or continuous spermatogenesis, unlike most reptiles that occupy a temperate or montane habitat. It was recently reported that seasonally breeding reptiles had a temporal germ cell development strategy similar to amphibians, where germ cells progress through spermatogenesis as a single population, which leads to a single spermiation event. This was much different than spatial development within the testis of other derived amniotes. We hypothesized that germ cell development was temporal in S. bicanthalis. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether reptiles that practice continuous spermatogenesis have a mammalian-like spatial germ cell development, which is different than the typical temperate reptile exhibiting a temporal development. In the present study, S. bicanthalis had a temporal development strategy, despite its continuous spermatogenic cycle, making them similar to tropical anoles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrosynthesized polytyramine-copper oxalate nanocomposite on copper electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robab Abbasi a; Khalil Farhadi a; Sepideh Banisaeid a; Nader Nowroozi Pesyan a; Arezu Jamali a; Fatemeh Rahmani b

    2014-01-01

    A polytyramine-copper oxalate nanocomposite modified copper (PTCOxNMC) electrode prepared by electropolymerization was examined for electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of meth-anol in alkaline solution using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The prepared PTCOxNMC electrode showed a significantly high response for adsorbed methanol oxidation. The effects of various parameters such as potential scan rate and methanol concentration on the elec-trocatalytic oxidation at the surface of the PTCOxNMC electrode were investigated. Spectrometry techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the surface physical characteristics of the modified electrode and revealed that the polytyramine-copper oxalate nanocomposite particles were highly dispersed on the surface of the copper electrode with a narrow size up to 40 nm. The very high current density obtained for the catalytic oxidation may have resulted from the high electrode surface area caused by modifica-tion with the poly-tyramine-copper oxalate nanocomposite.

  11. Identification and comparative analysis of the epidermal differentiation complex in snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigit Holthaus, Karin; Mlitz, Veronika; Strasser, Bettina; Tschachler, Erwin; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Eckhart, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    The epidermis of snakes efficiently protects against dehydration and mechanical stress. However, only few proteins of the epidermal barrier to the environment have so far been identified in snakes. Here, we determined the organization of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC), a cluster of genes encoding protein constituents of cornified epidermal structures, in snakes and compared it to the EDCs of other squamates and non-squamate reptiles. The EDC of snakes displays shared synteny with that of the green anole lizard, including the presence of a cluster of corneous beta-protein (CBP)/beta-keratin genes. We found that a unique CBP comprising 4 putative beta-sheets and multiple cysteine-rich EDC proteins are conserved in all snakes and other squamates investigated. Comparative genomics of squamates suggests that the evolution of snakes was associated with a gene duplication generating two isoforms of the S100 fused-type protein, scaffoldin, the origin of distinct snake-specific EDC genes, and the loss of other genes that were present in the EDC of the last common ancestor of snakes and lizards. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the evolution of the skin in squamates and a basis for the characterization of the molecular composition of the epidermis in snakes. PMID:28345630

  12. A Study on the Bio-mimetic Motion of Reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hochelo; Kim, Changhoi; Eom, Heungseop; Jeong, Kyungmin; Jung, Seungjo

    2013-10-15

    After investigating the locomotion based on the biological characteristics about the from a literature search about the reptile, the locomotion of lizards is captured with marker based motion capture system. Tested lizards are Cuban anole, bearded dragon, domestic lizards such as a white-striped grass lizard and a leopard lizard, After analyzing the motion of the lizards with the measured data, a 25 DOF kinematics model of a lizard was proposed. A periodic gait of the lizard was modeled by defining gait parameters. The body structure of the lizard was analyzed with a bone specimen for the kinematics modeling. Dynamics parameters such as a mass and a inertia of a link are obtained by measuring the weight and the volume of each link. The crawl and the trot gait were simulated with the dynamics model. To control the poly-morphic motion of snake robot, various locomotions of snakes and the motion algorithm of snake robots were investigated. A test model of snake robot and a control system were developed to analyzed the motion and energy efficiency according to the gaits and to realize the poly-morphic motion control.

  13. In Silico Analysis of Gene Expression Network Components Underlying Pigmentation Phenotypes in the Python Identified Evolutionarily Conserved Clusters of Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J. L. Irizarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mammalian pigmentation phenotypes may also be important in python pigmentation phenotypes. We identified 23 python orthologs of mammalian genes associated with variation in coat color phenotypes for which we assessed the extent of pairwise protein sequence identity between pythons and mouse, dog, horse, cow, chicken, anole lizard, and garter snake. We next identified a set of melanocyte/pigment associated transcription factors (CREB, FOXD3, LEF-1, MITF, POU3F2, and USF-1 that exhibit relatively conserved sequence similarity within their DNA binding regions across species based on orthologous alignments across multiple species. Finally, we identified 27 evolutionarily conserved clusters of transcription factor binding sites within ~200-nucleotide intervals of the 1500-nucleotide upstream regions of AIM1, DCT, MC1R, MITF, MLANA, OA1, PMEL, RAB27A, and TYR from Python bivittatus. Our results provide insight into pigment phenotypes in pythons.

  14. Reptile genomes open the frontier for comparative analysis of amniote development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, Marc; Hutchins, Elizabeth D; Kusumi, Kenro

    2014-01-01

    Developmental genetic studies of vertebrates have focused primarily on zebrafish, frog and mouse models, which have clear application to medicine and well-developed genomic resources. In contrast, reptiles represent the most diverse amniote group, but have only recently begun to gather the attention of genome sequencing efforts. Extant reptilian groups last shared a common ancestor ?280 million years ago and include lepidosaurs, turtles and crocodilians. This phylogenetic diversity is reflected in great morphological and behavioral diversity capturing the attention of biologists interested in mechanisms regulating developmental processes such as somitogenesis and spinal patterning, regeneration, the evolution of "snake-like" morphology, the formation of the unique turtle shell, and the convergent evolution of the four-chambered heart shared by mammals and archosaurs. The complete genome of the first non-avian reptile, the green anole lizard, was published in 2011 and has provided insights into the origin and evolution of amniotes. Since then, the genomes of multiple snakes, turtles, and crocodilians have also been completed. Here we will review the current diversity of available reptile genomes, with an emphasis on their evolutionary relationships, and will highlight how these genomes have and will continue to facilitate research in developmental and regenerative biology.

  15. Structure and function of the hearts of lizards and snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Moorman, Antoon F M; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    With approximately 7000 species, snakes and lizards, collectively known as squamates, are by far the most species-rich group of reptiles. It was from reptile-like ancestors that mammals and birds evolved and squamates can be viewed as phylogenetically positioned between them and fishes. Hence, their hearts have been studied for more than a century yielding insights into the group itself and into the independent evolution of the fully divided four-chambered hearts of mammals and birds. Structurally the heart is complex and debates persist on rudimentary issues such as identifying structures critical to understanding ventricle function. In seeking to resolve these controversies we have generated three-dimensional (3D) models in portable digital format (pdf) of the anaconda and anole lizard hearts ('typical' squamate hearts) and the uniquely specialized python heart with comprehensive annotations of structures and cavities. We review the anatomy and physiology of squamate hearts in general and emphasize the unique features of pythonid and varanid lizard hearts that endow them with mammal-like blood pressures. Excluding pythons and varanid lizards it is concluded that the squamate heart has a highly consistent design including a disproportionately large right side (systemic venous) probably due to prevailing pulmonary bypass (intraventricular shunting). Unfortunately, investigations on rudimentary features are sparse. We therefore point out gaps in our knowledge, such as the size and functional importance of the coronary vasculature and of the first cardiac chamber, the sinus venosus, and highlight areas with implications for vertebrate cardiac evolution.

  16. Identification and comparative analysis of the epidermal differentiation complex in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigit Holthaus, Karin; Mlitz, Veronika; Strasser, Bettina; Tschachler, Erwin; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Eckhart, Leopold

    2017-03-27

    The epidermis of snakes efficiently protects against dehydration and mechanical stress. However, only few proteins of the epidermal barrier to the environment have so far been identified in snakes. Here, we determined the organization of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC), a cluster of genes encoding protein constituents of cornified epidermal structures, in snakes and compared it to the EDCs of other squamates and non-squamate reptiles. The EDC of snakes displays shared synteny with that of the green anole lizard, including the presence of a cluster of corneous beta-protein (CBP)/beta-keratin genes. We found that a unique CBP comprising 4 putative beta-sheets and multiple cysteine-rich EDC proteins are conserved in all snakes and other squamates investigated. Comparative genomics of squamates suggests that the evolution of snakes was associated with a gene duplication generating two isoforms of the S100 fused-type protein, scaffoldin, the origin of distinct snake-specific EDC genes, and the loss of other genes that were present in the EDC of the last common ancestor of snakes and lizards. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the evolution of the skin in squamates and a basis for the characterization of the molecular composition of the epidermis in snakes.

  17. Homologue of mammalian apolipoprotein A-Ⅱ in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Choudhury; Shoji Yamada; Masaharu Komatsu; Hideki Kishimura; Seiichi Ando

    2009-01-01

    Although apolipoprotein with molecular weight 14 kDa (apo-14 kDa) is associated with fish plasma highdensity lipoproteins(HDLs),it remains to be determined whether apo-14 kDa is the homologue of mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.We have obtained the full cDNA sequences that encode Japanese eel and rainbow trout apo-14 kDa.Homologues of Japanese eel apo-14 kDa sequence could be found in 14 fish species deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank or TGI database.Fish apo14 kDa lacks propeptide and contains more internal repeats than mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.Nevertheless,phylogenetic analysis allowed fish apo-14 kDa to be the homologue of mammalian apoA-Ⅱ.In addition,in silico cloning of the TGI,Ensembl,or NCBI database revealed apoA-Ⅱs in dog,chicken,green anole lizard,and African clawed frog whose sequences had not so far been available,suggesting both apoA-Ⅰ and apoA-Ⅱas fundamental constituents of vertebrate HDLs.

  18. Origins of Cdx1 regulatory elements suggest roles in vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Stephen J; Paul, Yu-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Cdx1, an upstream regulator of Hox genes, is best characterized for its homeotic effects upon the developing axial skeleton, particularly in the neck. It responds to retinoic acid (RA) in both mouse embryos and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. By use of beta-galactosidase chemiluminescence, we show that a mouse Cdx1/lacZ reporter expressed in P19 EC cells responds to RA by the combined activities of an intron retinoic acid response element (RARE) and an upstream RARE. In contrast, a chicken Cdx1/lacZ reporter responds only by activity of the intron RARE. Database analyses upon Cdx1 from twenty three vertebrate species reveal that the intron RARE is structurally conserved in amniotes (eutherian mammals, marsupials, birds and Anole lizard), but not in Xenopus or fish. The upstream RARE is structurally conserved only in eutherian mammals. We conclude that the intron RARE originated at around the amphibian/amniote division, and the upstream RARE appeared around the marsupial/eutherian mammal division. In view of the site of action of Cdx1, we propose that acquisition of the intron RARE may have facilitated the substantial changes that occurred in the neck and anterior thorax at the advent of the amniotes. We present evidence that Cdx1 is also a developmental regulator of the female urogenital system, and we suggest that acquisition of the upstream RARE may have contributed to morphological divergence of marsupial and eutherian mammals.

  19. In Silico Analysis of Gene Expression Network Components Underlying Pigmentation Phenotypes in the Python Identified Evolutionarily Conserved Clusters of Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mammalian pigmentation phenotypes may also be important in python pigmentation phenotypes. We identified 23 python orthologs of mammalian genes associated with variation in coat color phenotypes for which we assessed the extent of pairwise protein sequence identity between pythons and mouse, dog, horse, cow, chicken, anole lizard, and garter snake. We next identified a set of melanocyte/pigment associated transcription factors (CREB, FOXD3, LEF-1, MITF, POU3F2, and USF-1) that exhibit relatively conserved sequence similarity within their DNA binding regions across species based on orthologous alignments across multiple species. Finally, we identified 27 evolutionarily conserved clusters of transcription factor binding sites within ~200-nucleotide intervals of the 1500-nucleotide upstream regions of AIM1, DCT, MC1R, MITF, MLANA, OA1, PMEL, RAB27A, and TYR from Python bivittatus. Our results provide insight into pigment phenotypes in pythons. PMID:27698666

  20. Convergent evolution within an adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschick, Moritz; Indermaur, Adrian; Salzburger, Walter

    2012-12-18

    The recurrent evolution of convergent forms is a widespread phenomenon in adaptive radiations (e.g., [1-9]). For example, similar ecotypes of anoles lizards have evolved on different islands of the Caribbean, benthic-limnetic species pairs of stickleback fish emerged repeatedly in postglacial lakes, equivalent sets of spider ecomorphs have arisen on Hawaiian islands, and a whole set of convergent species pairs of cichlid fishes evolved in East African Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. In all these cases, convergent phenotypes originated in geographic isolation from each other. Recent theoretical models, however, predict that convergence should be common within species-rich communities, such as species assemblages resulting from adaptive radiations. Here, we present the most extensive quantitative analysis to date of an adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes, discovering multiple instances of convergence in body and trophic morphology. Moreover, we show that convergent morphologies are associated with adaptations to specific habitats and resources and that Lake Tanganyika's cichlid communities are characterized by the sympatric occurrence of convergent forms. This prevalent coexistence of distantly related yet ecomorphologically similar species offers an explanation for the greatly elevated species numbers in cichlid species flocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.