Senior centers in the United States play a vital role in the aging continuum of care as the focal points of a community-based system of services targeting independent older adults to promote their social integration and civically engagement. Although several studies have evaluated the diversity of senior center programs, demographic characteristics of participants, and benefits of participation, very few have explored motivations to volunteer among participants. Many senior centers rely on a cadre of participants who volunteer there to assist with programs and meal services. However, a systematic examination of volunteering interests and the rationale for volunteering among senior center participants has been missing from the literature. This mixed-methods study, conducted at a large suburban senior center, explores the interests and motivations of volunteerism among the participants. The study found that there was limited interest in volunteering among senior center participants. Those who were motivated to volunteer wanted to do so in order to stay connected with their community. There was strong interest in volunteering for single events or projects rather than a long-term commitment. Implications for senior centers are discussed.
Health research mainly relies on volunteers to generate data. Volunteer participants not only help provide necessary information to solve problems but also contribute to free participation which in turn helps the research wheel to continue. People mainly contribute to different nonprofit organizations by giving money for ...
Godbout, Elisabeth; Filiatrault, Johanne; Plante, Michelle
Volunteer work can be a very significant form of social participation for seniors. It can also provide seniors with important physical and psychological health benefits. This explains why occupational therapists and other health care professionals, as well as community workers who are concerned with healthy aging, appeal to seniors to volunteer in health promotion and community support However, the recruitment and ongoing involvement of seniors as volunteers is often challenging. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to enlighten practitioners working in this domain. The objective was to identify factors that influence seniors' participation in volunteer work. Six bibliographic databases were searched using key words. A total of 27 relevant papers were retrieved and allowed an identification of a series of factors that could influence seniors' participation in volunteer work, namely personal factors, environmental factors, and occupational factors. This analysis leads to practical guidelines for facilitating the recruitment and maintenance of seniors' engagement in volunteer work.
In total, 106 youths with and without intellectual disabilities participated in the ... teaching motor skills to an inclusive group of learners with and without disability. ... noted in motor performance for both participants with and without disabilities.
Scholars who study volunteer activities are attaching ever greater importance to the motivations of volunteers who participate in volunteer activities. However, deficiencies are, on the whole, to be found in the empirical studies by scholars in China on the participating volunteers' motivations. To make up for the deficiencies in the research on…
Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.
This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-8. The Twenty-One group participated in the Ad-hoc, CLIR, Adaptive Filtering and SDR tracks. The main focus of our experiments is the development and evaluation of retrieval methods that are motivated by natural language
Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.
This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-7. The Twenty-One group participated in the ad-hoc and the cross-language track and made the following accomplishments: We developed a new weighting algorithm, which outperforms the popular Cornell version of BM25 on the ad-hoc
Full Text Available This article sets forth the early phases of a methodological proposal for designing and developing Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI initiatives based on a system perspective analysis in which the components depend and interact dynamically among each other. First, it focuses on those characteristics of VGI projects that present different goals and modes of organization, while using a crowdsourcing strategy to manage participants and contributions. Next, a tool is developed in order to design the central crowdsourced processing unit that is best suited for a specific project definition, associating it with a trend towards crowd-based or community-driven approaches. The design is structured around the characterization of different ways of participating, and the task cognitive demand of working on geo-information management, spatial problem solving and ideation, or knowledge acquisition. Then, the crowdsourcing process design helps to identify what kind of participants are needed and outline subsequent engagement strategies. This is based on an analysis of differences among volunteers’ participatory behaviors and the associated set of factors motivating them to contribute, whether on a crowd or community-sourced basis. From a VGI system perspective, this paper presents a set of guidelines and methodological steps in order to align project goals, processes and volunteers and thus successfully attract participation. This methodology helps establish the initial requirements for a VGI system, and, in its current state, it mainly focuses on two components of the system: project and participants.
Parkinson, Lynne; Warburton, Jeni; Sibbritt, David; Byles, Julie
As populations age, there will be a need for more volunteers in social welfare, and consequently a need to better understand potential effects of volunteering for older people. Whilst there is a body of international literature exploring health benefits of volunteering in later life, there are currently no longitudinal studies of Australian populations. Internationally, there is a lack of studies focusing on older women, who comprise the majority of the ageing population. The aim of this article was to explore the relationship between volunteering and psychosocial and health factors for a cohort of older Australian women over time. Data for this study were from the oldest cohort of Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a 20-year longitudinal survey of Australian women aged 70-75 years in 1996. Volunteering status was the factor of interest and study factors included a broad range of demographic, health and social factors. A longitudinal model was developed for mediators of volunteering over time. Of 7088 women in 2005, 24.5% reported actively volunteering, 15.5% were continuing, 7.5% were new, 15.3% were intermittent and 34.7% had never been volunteers. Volunteering was associated with increased quality of life and social support. Women were more likely to continue volunteering over time if they lived in a rural area, had higher socioeconomic indicators, and better levels of physical and mental health. This study contributes to the literature on the relationship between volunteering and health for older women. Understanding the potential health implications of volunteering is a critical issue in current policy debates.
Tamara Nezhina; Kseniya Petukhova; Natal'ya Chechetkina; Il'ziya Mindarova
The purpose of this study was to determine existing practices of young volunteer recruitment, retention and motivation in Russian noncommercial and government organizations and compare them with the best practices in American organizations. To know this information is essential for government managers and NGO leaders to successfully attract and retain young people as volunteers in their organizations. The theories of economic man and altruistic man have shaped the methodology and research des...
Shandra, Carrie L
People with disabilities in the United States experience lower levels of social integration than people without disabilities. However, less is known about the association between disability and volunteer participation-despite an extensive literature on other disparities in volunteerism. This study uses data from the 2009-2015 Volunteer Supplement of the Current Population Survey to evaluate how working-aged adults with sensory disabilities, cognitive disabilities, physical disabilities, or multiple disabilities access, participate in, and maintain volunteer roles. Net of sociodemographic characteristics, adults with disabilities are no less likely than those without disabilities to report informal volunteering, although the presence of physical and multiple disabilities negatively associates with formal volunteering. Adults with disabilities report no fewer annual hours or weeks than those without disabilities if they are formal volunteers, but the mechanism through which they initially become involved in volunteer organizations varies. People with different types of disability experience different patterns of volunteering, and the sociodemographic characteristics associated with having a disability exacerbate many of these differences. Results suggest that adults with disabilities can-and do-participate in voluntary work, but may face barriers to accessing formal volunteer roles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nyaoke, Borna A; Mutua, Gaudensia N; Sajabi, Rose; Nyasani, Delvin; Mureithi, Marianne W; Anzala, Omu A
1.5 million Kenyans are living with HIV/AIDS as per 2015 estimates. Though there is a notable decline in new HIV infections, continued effort is still needed to develop an efficacious, accessible and affordable HIV vaccine. HIV vaccine clinical trials bear risks, hence a need to understand volunteer motivators for enrolment, retention and follow-up. Understanding the factors that motivate volunteers to participate in a clinical trial can help to strategize, refine targeting and thus increase enrolment of volunteers in future HIV vaccine clinical trials. The health belief model classifies motivators into social benefits such as 'advancing research' and collaboration with science, and personal benefits such as health benefits and financial interests. A thematic analysis was carried out on data obtained from four HIV clinical trials conducted at KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research in Nairobi Kenya from 2009 to 2015. Responses were obtained from a Questionnaire administered to the volunteers during their screening visit at the research site. Of the 281 healthy, HIV-uninfected volunteers participating in this study; 38% were motivated by personal benefits including, 31% motivated by health benefits and 7% motivated by possible financial gains. In addition, 62% of the volunteers were motivated by social benefits with 20% of who were seeking to help their family/society/world while 42% were interested in advancing research. The majority of volunteers in the HIV vaccine trials at our site were motivated by social benefits, suggesting that altruism can be a major contributor to participation in HIV vaccine studies. Personal benefits were a secondary motivator for the volunteers. The motivators to volunteer in HIV clinical trials were similar across ages, education level and gender. Education on what is needed (including volunteer participation) to develop an efficacious vaccine could be the key to greater volunteer motivation to participate in HIV vaccine clinical trials.
Borna A Nyaoke
Full Text Available 1.5 million Kenyans are living with HIV/AIDS as per 2015 estimates. Though there is a notable decline in new HIV infections, continued effort is still needed to develop an efficacious, accessible and affordable HIV vaccine. HIV vaccine clinical trials bear risks, hence a need to understand volunteer motivators for enrolment, retention and follow-up. Understanding the factors that motivate volunteers to participate in a clinical trial can help to strategize, refine targeting and thus increase enrolment of volunteers in future HIV vaccine clinical trials. The health belief model classifies motivators into social benefits such as 'advancing research' and collaboration with science, and personal benefits such as health benefits and financial interests.A thematic analysis was carried out on data obtained from four HIV clinical trials conducted at KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research in Nairobi Kenya from 2009 to 2015. Responses were obtained from a Questionnaire administered to the volunteers during their screening visit at the research site.Of the 281 healthy, HIV-uninfected volunteers participating in this study; 38% were motivated by personal benefits including, 31% motivated by health benefits and 7% motivated by possible financial gains. In addition, 62% of the volunteers were motivated by social benefits with 20% of who were seeking to help their family/society/world while 42% were interested in advancing research.The majority of volunteers in the HIV vaccine trials at our site were motivated by social benefits, suggesting that altruism can be a major contributor to participation in HIV vaccine studies. Personal benefits were a secondary motivator for the volunteers. The motivators to volunteer in HIV clinical trials were similar across ages, education level and gender. Education on what is needed (including volunteer participation to develop an efficacious vaccine could be the key to greater volunteer motivation to participate in HIV vaccine
Price, Anna E; Reed, Julian A; Grost, Lisa; Harvey, Christina; Mantinan, Karah
This study examined trail use among 857 trail users on 21 trails in Michigan from 2008 to 2011 using a valid and reliable intercept survey. Most of the 857 participants traveled to the trail from their home (92.6%), lived within 15 min of the trails (74.8%), and used active transport to travel to the trails 69.7%. The odds of active transport to the trails were greater among those who had not graduated high school (OR=3.49; 95% CI=1.02, 11.99) and high school graduates (OR=7.432; 95% CI=2.02, 27.30) compared to college graduates. Whites and adults also had greater odds of active transport than non-Whites (OR=3.160, 95% CI: 1.65, 6.05), and older adults (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.54). The majority of respondents (89.7%) reported using trails for recreational purposes. A significantly greater proportion of females (73.3%) compared to males (64.7%) reported using the trail with others. The findings from this study might enable health and parks and recreation professionals to better promote physical activity on trails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rak, Eniko C; Spencer, Lauren
This study examined similarities and differences between persons with and without disabilities on volunteering, donations and group participation. A sample of 1548 individuals participated and 60% of the sample were persons with disabilities. Data for this research was drawn from a major statewide survey in a Midwestern state in the United States. Community participation was measured through involvement with civic, religious and other community-based groups, volunteering activities and donations. Logistic regression was pursued to test the effect of disability on community participation. Findings support different trends in participation between persons with and without disabilities. Individuals without disabilities are more likely to volunteer, donate money and participate in civic organisations (e.g. clubs) and other groups. Employment and household income have a significant contribution in explaining these differences. This study found significant differences in community participation between persons with disabilities and persons without disabilities. Regression analysis outcomes underscore the importance of employment and income in eliminating disparities in community involvement between persons with and without disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Policy change in rehabilitation agencies to fund supported volunteering services. Improve the representation of persons with disabilities in volunteering pursuits by making volunteering positions accessible to them (educate persons with disabilities to be more aware of these opportunities, provide reasonable accommodations at work sites, etc.). Educate stakeholders about the benefits of volunteering and being part of civic, and other community based groups in improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Identification of barriers for persons with disabilities in these pursuits (physical and attitudinal barriers, lack of resources). Identifying and utilising natural supports in the work site
Nonis, Sarath A.; Relyea, Clint
Foreign travel provides excellent opportunities for college students to broaden their global mindset. While empirical research focusing on variables that influence student participation in study abroad programs are available, there is a paucity of research that focuses on travel abroad programs relating to participating in volunteer projects.…
Farré, M; Lamas, X; Camí, J
1. Phase I clinical trials are usually carried out in healthy volunteers. In addition to economic gain, factors that may influence willingness to participate include scientific interest, curiosity and choice for risky activities. 2. We assessed the relationship between personality variables and volunteering for clinical pharmacology research. Two personality questionnaires, the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS, form V) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), were administered to 48 male healthy university students who volunteered to participate in a phase I clinical trial and to 43 male university students who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials. General norm data were also used for the comparison of results. 3. When healthy volunteers were compared with unwilling subjects, significant differences were found in thrill-and-adventure seeking (7.9 vs 6.7, P = 0.0034), experience seeking (6.4 vs 5.2, P = 0.0012), disinhibition (6.2 vs 4.3, P personality profile of healthy volunteers was characterized by a higher sensation seeking trait and extraversion as compared with individuals who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials and general norm data. PMID:7640147
Shimanuki, Hideki; Ueki, Shouzoh; Ito, Tunehisa; Honda, Haruhiko; Takato, Jinro; Kasai, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Niino, Naoakira; Haga, Hiroshi
This study was conducted to assess characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme. We surveyed 1,503 individuals (75 elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme and 1,428 non-leader elderly) among the elderly population living in a rural community, Miyagi Prefecture. Subjects were aged 70-84 years. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic factors, as well as physical, psychology and social variables. To analyze the characteristics of the elderly leaders volunteering to participate in this programme, the relationships of socio-demographic, physical, psychology and social factors to whether the elderly were leaders in the programme were analyzed using logistic regression. As a result of multiple logistic regression analysis, the characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in the fall prevention programme were as follows; 1) being male (OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.14-0.44); 2) young age (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.25-0.73); 3) having a high intellectual activity (OR = 2.72, 95%CI 1.65-4.48); 4) being well satisfied with their health (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.02-2.07), and 5) having a high IKIGAI (OR = 1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.13). Only elderly individuals capable of high-level intellectual activities can fill the roles of elderly volunteer group leaders discussed in this study.
V. Ye. Dobrova
Full Text Available Introduction. Due to the necessity to obtain the reliable results of a clinical trial and to distribute it to the general population of patients the problem of recruiting the adequate number of individuals to participate in the study as objects of observation in the group receiving the investigational medicinal product or as a member of the control group should to be solved. Aim of study. The aim of our study was to research and to justify practically the methodological approaches to determining financial compensation for participation of volunteers in the clinical trials and the appropriate methods of its calculation. Material and methods. For the purpose of determining the baseline factors for calculating the hourly compensation the survey of healthy volunteers and of expert professionals as well as the analysis of its results have been done. Questioning healthy volunteers regarding their attitudes towards inconvenience and discomfort during participation in clinical trials was held at the Ukrainian clinical research centers. Survey participants number was 99, they were healthy volunteers who took part in the first phase clinical trial or bioequivalence studies. The expert survey included questioning of the 193 professionals from Ukrainian clinical research centers, CRO, pharmaceutical manufacturers – research sponsors and collaborators State Expert Center Ministry of Health of Ukraine, who were involved in the planning, organization, implementation and evaluation of clinical trials as well as their regulatory control. Results of study. Using the method of pairwise comparisons and iterative refinement procedures the collective estimate of experts questionnaire results has been performed, by the results of which the nine indicators have been identified and the importance of each of them as units of discomfort have been established. Motivational factors of voluntary participation in clinical trials have been studied. Motivation system for
McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S
The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data.
Jopang, Yupin; Petchmark, Suthep; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Schelp, Frank Peter
The study was conducted to assess the achievement of a thalassemia screening program at a community level supported by village health volunteers (VHVs) of 2 subdistricts in the northeast of Thailand. One subdistrict served as the intervention and the other as the control area. A training program was organized for the village health volunteers from the intervention area. Essential information about the risk and danger of thalassemia was given to the participants who wanted to have children in the community as well. Of the 206 individuals who wanted to have children living in the intervention area, 190 (92.2%) agreed to undergo screening. Of the 196 individuals within the control area, only 26 (13.3%) voluntarily participated in the screening tests. Attitude toward prevention and knowledge about the disease improved significantly in both areas, but the differences between the scores were statistically significantly higher for individuals living in the intervention area. © 2012 APJPH.
Rogers, Nina Trivedy; Demakakos, Panayotes; Taylor, Mark Steven; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark; Shankar, Aparna
Volunteering has been linked to reduced mortality in older adults, but the mechanisms explaining this effect remain unclear. This study investigated whether volunteering is associated with increased survival in participants of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and whether differences in survival are modified by functional disabilities. A multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to estimate the association of volunteering with survival over a period of 10.9 years in 10 324 participants, while controlling for selected confounders. To investigate effect modification by disability, the analyses were repeated in participants with and without self-reported functional disabilities. Volunteering was associated with a reduced probability of death from all causes in univariate analyses (HR=0.65, CI 0.58 to 0.73, pvolunteers had significantly increased survival compared with able-bodied non-volunteers (HR=0.81, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.95, p=0.009). There was no significant survival advantage among disabled volunteers, compared with disabled non-volunteers (HR=1.06, CI 0.88 to 1.29, p=0.53). Volunteering is associated with reduced mortality in older adults in England, but this effect appears to be limited to volunteers who report no disabilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available The changes that occurred in the Jakarta 2012 election may be seen as a change in Indonesiaâ€™s social movements and election tradition. They marked a social movement with special characteristics; specifically, a â€˜partisanâ€™ movement, led by the successful Jokowiâ€“Ahok ticket. The partisan social movement also changed the tradition of money politics, which has always coloured general and local elections in Indonesia. This paper found four main factors in Jokowiâ€“Ahokâ€™s victory. The first was their reputations and track records of leadership and consistency, which, secondly, encouraged unpaid volunteers to motivate the public to participate in the election and vote for the pair. Thirdly, in contrast to previous social movements in Indonesia, the volunteers did not just work to overthrow the current leadership and replace it, and then distance themselves, but instead continued to monitor the candidates; some managed government directly, while others took watch dog position. Fourthly, the relationship between volunteers and local government was not necessarily oppositional. As such, they were partisan not only in that they were supporters of a pair of candidates, but also in their promotion and support of openness, anti-corruption efforts and provision of maximum public services.
Cardarelli, Aldo F.
Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…
Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin
Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...
Withall, Janet; Thompson, Janice L; Fox, Kenneth R; Davis, Mark; Gray, Selena; de Koning, Jolanthe; Lloyd, Liz; Parkhurst, Graham; Stathi, Afroditi
Evidence for the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle among older adults is strong, yet only a small proportion of older people meet physical activity recommendations. A synthesis of evidence identified "best bet" approaches, and this study sought guidance from end-user representatives and stakeholders to refine one of these, a peer-volunteering active aging intervention. Focus groups with 28 older adults and four professional volunteer managers were conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 older volunteers. Framework analysis was used to gauge participants' views on the ACE intervention. Motives for engaging in community groups and activities were almost entirely social. Barriers to participation were lack of someone to attend with, lack of confidence, fear of exclusion or "cliquiness" in established groups, bad weather, transport issues, inaccessibility of activities, ambivalence, and older adults being "set in their ways". Motives for volunteering included "something to do," avoiding loneliness, the need to feel needed, enjoyment, and altruism. Challenges included negative events between volunteer and recipient of volunteering support, childcare commitments, and high volunteering workload. Peer-volunteering approaches have great potential for promotion of active aging. The systematic multistakeholder approach adopted in this study led to important refinements of the original ACE intervention. The findings provide guidance for active aging community initiatives highlighting the importance of effective recruitment strategies and of tackling major barriers including lack of motivation, confidence, and readiness to change; transport issues; security concerns and cost; activity availability; and lack of social support.
Worker, Steven Michael
The purpose of this study was to describe the co-construction of three 4-H STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning by design programs by volunteer educators and youth participants in the 4-H Youth Development Program. The programs advanced STEM learning through design, a pedagogical approach to support youth in planning, designing, and making shareable artifacts. This pedagogical approach is a special case of project-based learning, related to the practices found in the science learning through design literature as well as the making and tinkering movements. Specifically, I explored adult volunteer educators' roles and pedagogical strategies implementing the 4-H Junk Drawer Robotics curriculum (Mahacek, Worker, and Mahacek, 2011) and how that, in turn, afforded and constrained opportunities for youth to display or report engagement in design practices; learning of STEM content; strengthening tool competencies; dispositions of resilience, reciprocity, and playfulness; and psychological ownership. The curriculum targeted middle school youth with a sequence of science inquiry activities and engineering design challenges. This study employed naturalist and multiple-case study methodology relying on participant observations and video, interviews with educators, and focus groups with youth within three 4-H educational robotics programs organized by adult 4-H volunteer educators. Data collection took place in 2014 and 2015 at Santa Clara with an educator and seven youth; Solano with three educators and eight youth; and Alameda with an educator and seven youth. Data analysis revealed six discrete categories of pedagogy and interactions that I labeled as participation structures that included lecture, demonstration, learning activity, group sharing, scripted build, and design & build. These participation structures were related to the observed pedagogical practices employed by the educators. There was evidence of youth engagement in design
Haugen, Heidi; Stevenson, Anne; Meyer, Rebecca L.
This article explores how a one-time training designed to support learning transfer affected 4-H volunteers' comfort levels with the training content and how comfort levels, in turn, affected the volunteers' application of tools and techniques learned during the training. Results of a follow-up survey suggest that the training participants…
Full Text Available The present research tackles the topic of motives as they are developed by volunteers –who offer time-consuming services without expecting any material gains– and specifically the Olympic Volunteers of «Athens 2004». Four hundred-thirty (N = 430 volunteers completed the Scale of Motives, that was adapted in Greek from the functional approach of Omoto et al. (1993 and Chacon et al. (1998, aiming mainly at the testing of the hypothesis that the motives of volunteers who have previous volunteering experience, but also of those who wish (or continue to volunteer after the completion the Olympic Games, will differ from the motives of those volunteers who have not volunteered in the past or who do not aim at providing voluntary work in the future. The results supported the hypothesis, while the modified Greek scale offered high internal consistencies and strong indications of validity. The future review and reapplication of the design of the adapted questionnaire of Motives will likely eliminate any potential weaknesses and will allow the scale to reach full applicability.
Riddiford, N.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Férriz, I.; Owens, N.W.; Royo, L.; Honey, M.R.
This paper puts forward a multi-disciplinary field project, set up in 1989 at the Parc Natural de s’Albufera in Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, as an example of a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in a coastal protected area. Outcomes include the provision
Bowen, Catherine E; Skirbekk, Vegard
Why are older people perceived as more competent in some countries relative to others? In the current study, we investigate the extent to which national variation in perceptions of older people's competence is systematically related to national variation in the extent to which older people participate in paid and volunteer work. We used multilevel regression to analyze data from the European Social Survey and test the relationship between perceptions of older people's competence and older people's participation in paid and volunteer work across 28 countries. We controlled for a number of potentially confounding variables, including life expectancy as well as the gender ratio and average education of the older population in each country. We controlled for the average objective cognitive abilities of the older population in a subsample of 11 countries. Older people were perceived as more competent in countries in which more older people participated in paid or volunteer work, independent of life expectancy and the average education, gender makeup, and average cognitive abilities of the older population. The results suggest that older people's participation in paid and volunteer work is related to perceptions of older people's competence independent of older people's actual competence.
Full Text Available The continued participation of volunteers in clinical trials is crucial to advances in healthcare. Few data are available regarding the satisfaction and impressions of healthy volunteers after participation in phase I trials, many of which lead to unexpected adverse events. We report feedback from over 100 adult volunteers who took part in a first-in-human trial conducted in a high-income country testing an experimental Ebola vaccine causing significant reactogenicity, as well as unexpected arthritis in one fifth of participants. The anonymous, internet-based satisfaction survey was sent by email to all participants upon their completion of this one-year trial; it asked 24 questions concerning volunteers' motivations, impressions of the trial experience, and overall satisfaction. Answers were summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 115 trial participants, 103 (90% filled out the survey. Fifty-five respondents (53% were male. Thirty-five respondents (34% were healthcare workers, many of whom would deploy to Ebola-affected countries. All respondents cited scientific advancement as their chief motivation for participation, while 100/103 (97% and 61/103 (59% reported additional "humanitarian reasons" and potential protection from Ebolavirus, respectively. Although investigators had documented adverse events in 97% of trial participants, only 74 of 103 respondents (72% recalled experiencing an adverse event. All reported an overall positive experience, and 93/103 (90% a willingness to participate in future trials. Given the high level of satisfaction, no significant associations could be detected between trial experiences and satisfaction, even among respondents reporting adverse events lasting weeks or months. Despite considerable reactogenicity and unexpected vaccine-related arthritis, all survey respondents reported overall satisfaction. While this trial's context was unique, the positive feedback is likely due at least in part to the
Wang, San-Mei; Yang, Chang-Shuan; Hou, Yu; Ma, Xiu-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Chun; Liao, Yu-Zhen
This study used magnetic resonance imaging to analyze causes and clinical courses of pediatric occipital lobe injury. Patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging for suspected bilateral occipital lobe injury at our Neurodevelopmental Department between July 2007 and June 2011 were included. We evaluated magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, clinical courses, electroencephalogram monitoring, and Denver Development Screen Test scores. Twenty-one infants were examined. Of these, 10 had been born preterm. Thirteen patients demonstrated hypoglycemia. Perinatal period hypoglycemia comprised the most common cause (71.4%) of occipital brain injury. Visual abnormalities were evident in 18 patients. Seventeen (80.9%) patients manifested epilepsy. Infantile spasms were observed in 13 cases (76.5%). According to Denver Development Screen Test assessment, 17 patients demonstrated delayed motor development. Motor function and language improved in 10 patients after effective control of their seizures. Hypoglycemia constitutes the most common cause of occipital injury in infants. Visual impairment, startle episodes, infantile spasms, and motor developmental delay comprise the most common complications, whereas language function is usually spared. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Forster, Daniella J.; Archer, Jennifer; Tajin, Rukhsana T.
Voluntary professional experience can be a powerful way for initial teacher education (ITE) students to develop an understanding of schools and their communities. Do ITE students make use of these opportunities? There is little Australian research that explores genuine volunteering that does not "require" students to engage with the…
Full Text Available Introduction: The reasons why research participants join clinical trials remains an area of inquiry especially in low and middle income countries. Methods: We conducted exit interviews with participants who took part in a trial which aimed to evaluate whether long term prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole can be safely discontinued among adults who have been stabilised on antiretroviral therapy (ART. Participants were all reported to be stable on ART and had been participating in the trial for between 12 and 36 months; at the end of the trial participants were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. One of the objectives of the exit interview was to find out what motivated the participants to join the research. Results: Participants gave personal reasons for joining the trial, frequently linked to their health and well-being as well as reduction of pill burden. Conclusion: We conclude that underlying reasons for joining clinical trials may extend beyond or can be different from the rationale given to the participants before enrolment by the research team. The reasons that motivate enrolment to clinical trials and research in general require further investigation in different settings. Trial registration number: ISRCTN44723643. Keywords: Randomised clinical trials, Volunteers, Participants
Within the project Twenty-One, which aims at the effective dissemination of information on ecology and sustainable development, a sytem is developed that supports cross-language information retrieval in any of the four languages Dutch, English, French and German. Knowledge of this application domain
Ramos, Juan David Hincapie
, the properties of computational infrastructures provided in the periphery of the user’s attention, and supporting gradual disclosure of detailed information on user’s request. Working with users of the Mini-Grid, this thesis shows the design process of two infrastructure awareness systems aimed at supporting...... the recruitment of participants, the implementation of one possible technical strategy, and an in-the-wild evaluation. The thesis finalizes with a discussion of the results and implications of infrastructure awareness for participative and other computational infrastructures....
Caldron, Paul H; Impens, Ann; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim
Short-term medical missions (STMMs) refer to the provision of direct pro bono medical services in lower and middle income countries for periods ranging from days to a few weeks by physicians from rich countries. Survey data have provided limited information on demographic and professional profiles of physicians as well as monetary and manpower inputs. Understanding why physicians participate, however, remains incomplete. The study's objective was to elicit physicians' motivations directly. Semi-structured interviews of physicians identified through snowball recruiting were conducted to explore motivational themes and then analyzed using narrative software employing directed content analysis methodology. Twenty physicians from varying backgrounds and specialties were interviewed. Responses identified aspects of the decision to participate and the relative influence of economic, diplomatic, value-related, and emotive constructs. Personality traits may be more influential to participation than demographic, professional, or socioeconomic determinants. Word-of-mouth recruitment appears to underlie the increase in STMM activity, facilitated by information technology. Reported key motivators for physician participation in STMMs tend to parallel schools of thought regarding philanthropy and volunteering and include satisfaction from helping in challenging conditions of limited resources, learning experiences, appreciation from patients, sense of renewal, and the legacy effect of teaching. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
van Ingen, Erik; Dekker, Paul
Researchers have examined whether societal developments such as educational expansion, secularization, and changes on the job market affect levels of volunteering. We extend this research by studying the distribution of volunteering or possible changes in the way volunteering is determined. We found
In this paper I approach art through some literary expositions of Uche Okeke. ... importance of Igbo forklore to the creative enterprise, as exemplified by ... mature thinker, I concluded that Uche Okeke was a master artist whose ideas have ...
Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K
We tested whether formal volunteering, in terms of its associations with mental health, compensates for the absence of major work and family roles among older adults or rather complements such roles among both younger and older adults. Two cross-sectional samples of younger (aged 18-42 years, N = 2,346) and older (aged 56-75 years, N = 1,422) German adults were used. We regressed mental health indicators on control variables, 2 indicators of formal volunteering (participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work), and their interactions with employment/partnership status. Participation in voluntary organizations was associated with higher positive affect, higher life satisfaction, and fewer depressive symptoms in younger adults. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction only among working individuals, although the difference from nonworking individuals was not significant. Volunteer work was associated with higher positive affect in both age groups. In younger adults, it had no relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction among nonworking individuals and to fewer depressive symptoms among those without a steady partner. Volunteer work but not participation in voluntary organizations yielded compensatory effects on mental health among older adults.
Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo
It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775
In recent years the promotion of marine observations based on volunteer participation, known as Citizen Science, has provided environmental data with unprecedented resolution and coverage. The Citizen Science based approach has the additional advantage to engage people by raising awareness and knowledge of marine environmental problems. The technological advances in embedded systems and sensors, enables citizens to create their own devices (known as DIY, Do-It-Yourself, technologies) for monitoring the marine environment. Within the context of the CITCLOPS project (www.citclops.eu), a DIY instrument was developed to monitor changes on water transparency as a water quality indicator. The instrument, named KdUINO, is based on quasi-digital sensors controlled by an open-hardware (Arduino) board. The sensors measure light irradiance at different depth and the instrument automatically calculates the light diffuse attenuation Kd coefficient to quantify the water transparency. The buoy construction is an ideal activity for creative STEM programming. Several workshops in high schools were done to show to the students how to construct their own buoy. Some of them used the buoy to develop their own scientific experiments. In order to engage students more motivated in artistic disciplines, the research group developed also a sonification system that allows creating music and graphics using KdUINO measurements as input data.
Ibáñez, Agustín; Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo
It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Roberts, Laura Weiss; Kim, Jane Paik
Ethical controversy surrounds clinical research involving seriously ill participants. While many stakeholders have opinions, the extent to which protocol volunteers themselves see human research as ethically acceptable has not been documented. To address this gap of knowledge, authors sought to assess views of healthy and ill clinical research volunteers regarding the ethical acceptability of human studies involving individuals who are ill or are potentially vulnerable. Surveys and semi-structured interviews were used to query clinical research protocol participants and a comparison group of healthy individuals. A total of 179 respondents participated in this study: 150 in protocols (60 mentally ill, 43 physically ill, and 47 healthy clinical research protocol participants) and 29 healthy individuals not enrolled in protocols. Main outcome measures included responses regarding ethical acceptability of clinical research when it presents significant burdens and risks, involves people with serious mental and physical illness, or enrolls people with other potential vulnerabilities in the research situation. Respondents expressed decreasing levels of acceptance of participation in research that posed burdens of increasing severity. Participation in protocols with possibly life-threatening consequences was perceived as least acceptable (mean = 1.82, sd = 1.29). Research on serious illnesses, including HIV, cancer, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, was seen as ethically acceptable across respondent groups (range of means = [4.0, 4.7]). Mentally ill volunteers expressed levels of ethical acceptability for physical illness research and mental illness research as acceptable and similar, while physically ill volunteers expressed greater ethical acceptability for physical illness research than for mental illness research. Mentally ill, physically ill, and healthy participants expressed neutral to favorable perspectives regarding the ethical
Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Martin, Stanton [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL
To aid in the investigation of the Populus deltoides microbiome we generated draft genome sequences for twenty one Pseudomonas and twenty one other diverse bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides roots. Genome sequences for isolates similar to Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Brevibacillus, Burkholderia, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Phyllobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhizobium, Sphingobium and Variovorax were generated.
Germain, Alison; Nolan, Kate; Doyle, Rita; Mason, Stephen; Gambles, Maureen; Chen, Hong; Smeding, Ruthmarijke; Ellershaw, John
A training programme was developed and delivered to a cohort of volunteers who were preparing for a unique role to provide companionship to dying patients in the acute hospital setting. This comprehensive programme aimed to provide an opportunity for participants to fully understand the nature and responsibilities of the role, whilst also allowing sufficient time to assess the qualities and competencies of participants for their ongoing volunteering role. Participants completed reflective diaries throughout the training course to record their ongoing thoughts and feelings. The purpose of this paper is to present a phenomenological analysis of these entries to understand participants' experiences, perceptions and motivations. The wider study was structured into three phases. Phase 1 was the delivery of a 12 week, bespoke training programme; Phase 2 involved a 26 week pilot implementation of the Care of the Dying Volunteer Service and Phase 3 was the research evaluation of the training and implementation which would inform the further development of the training programme. Self-reflection is a common component of End of Life training programmes and volunteers in this study completed a reflective diary after participation in each of the training sessions. A thematic analysis was undertaken to explore and understand the participants' experience, perceptions and motivations in relation to their participation in the training. All 19 volunteers completed the reflective diaries. From a potential 228 diary entries over the 12 week training programme, 178 diary entries were submitted (78 %). The following key themes were identified: Dying Alone and the importance of being present, Personal loss and the reconstruction of meaning, Self-Awareness and Personal growth, Self-preservation and Coping strategies and group unity/cohesion. The participants in this study demonstrated that they were able to use the diaries as an appropriate medium for reflection. Their reflections were
Brown, James G; Joyce, Kerry E; Stacey, Dawn; Thomson, Richard G
Efficacy of patient decision aids (PtDAs) may be influenced by trial participants' identity either as patients seeking to benefit personally from involvement or as volunteers supporting the research effort. To determine if study characteristics indicative of participants' trial identity might influence PtDA efficacy. We undertook exploratory subgroup meta-analysis of the 2011 Cochrane review of PtDAs, including trials that compared PtDA with usual care for treatment decisions. We extracted data on whether participants initiated the care pathway, setting, practitioner interactions, and 6 outcome variables (knowledge, risk perception, decisional conflict, feeling informed, feeling clear about values, and participation). The main subgroup analysis categorized trials as "volunteerism" or "patienthood" on the basis of whether participants initiated the care pathway. A supplementary subgroup analysis categorized trials on the basis of whether any volunteerism factors were present (participants had not initiated the care pathway, had attended a research setting, or had a face-to-face interaction with a researcher). Twenty-nine trials were included. Compared with volunteerism trials, pooled effect sizes were higher in patienthood trials (where participants initiated the care pathway) for knowledge, decisional conflict, feeling informed, feeling clear, and participation. The subgroup difference was statistically significant for knowledge only (P = 0.03). When trials were compared on the basis of whether volunteerism factors were present, knowledge was significantly greater in patienthood trials (P < 0.001), but there was otherwise no consistent pattern of differences in effects across outcomes. There is a tendency toward greater PtDA efficacy in trials in which participants initiate the pathway of care. Knowledge acquisition appears to be greater in trials where participants are predominantly patients rather than volunteers. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of students' teaching skills is increasingly recognised as an important component of UK undergraduate medical curricula and, in consequence, there is renewed interest in the potential benefits of cross-year peer tutoring. Whilst several studies have described the use of cross-year peer tutoring in undergraduate medical courses, its use in the clinical setting is less well reported, particularly the effects of peer tutoring on volunteer tutors' views of teachers and teaching. This study explored the effects of participation in a cross-year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills ('OSCE tutor' on volunteer tutors' own skills and on their attitudes towards teachers and teaching. Methods Volunteer tutors were final year MBChB students who took part in the programme as part of a Student Selected Component (SSC. Tutees were year 3 MBChB students preparing for their end of year 'OSCE' examination. Pre and post participation questionnaires, including both Likert-type and open response questions, were used. Paired data was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All tests were two-tailed with 5% significance level. Results Tutors reflected their cohort in terms of gender but were drawn from among the more academically successful final year students. Most had previous teaching experience. They were influenced to participate in 'OSCE tutor' by a desire to improve their own teaching and associated generic skills and by contextual factors relating to the organisation or previous experience of the OSCE tutor programme. Issues relating to longer term career aspirations were less important. After the event, tutors felt that participation had enhanced their skills in various areas, including practical teaching skills, confidence in speaking to groups and communication skills; and that as a result of taking part, they were now more likely to undertake further teacher training and to make teaching a major part
The diploma thesis deals with the theme of volunteering of seniors in the community. The work focuses on the specifics of volunteering of seniors, emphasizing the benefits of volunteering for participating seniors and how to identify them with other groups of people. Using a qualitative research work, it examines on a sample of eight respondents how these senior volunteers perceive the benefits of volunteering, how they relate to the geographical location in which they work, and what communit...
Wixom, Joshua A.
This dissertation discusses the complex social relations that link citizen science, scientific literacy, and the dissemination of information to the public. Scientific information is not produced in value-neutral settings by people removed from their social context. Instead, science is a social pursuit and the scientist's social context is embedded in the knowledge produced. Additionally, the dissemination of this information via numerous media outlets is filtered through institutional lenses and subject to journalistic norms. As a result, the general public must be able to recognize the inherent biases in this information. Yet, the rates of scientific literacy in the U.S. are quite low, which suggests that people may not be capable of fully understanding the biases present. Furthermore, people tend to seek out sources that reinforce their values and personal perspectives, thus reinforcing their own biases. Improving scientific literacy allows people to see past these biases and translate media narratives in order to comprehend the facts and evidence presented to them. Citizen science is both an epistemological tool used by scientists to collect and interpret scientific data and a means to improve the scientific literacy of participants. Citizen science programs have the ability to generate real knowledge and improve the critical thinking skills necessary for the general public to interpret scientific information.
Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese
The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...
Discusses changing nature of volunteers in Peter Drucker's book "Managing the Nonprofit Corporation." Points out that most volunteers have full-time jobs, families, very little leisure; they are not willing to do such routine work as stuffing envelopes; they want carefully defined projects with beginning and end. Discusses real…
Okun, Morris; Infurna, Frank J; Hutchinson, Ianeta
Previous research indicates that volunteer satisfaction and enjoyment do not exert direct effects on the cessation of volunteering by older adults. This study examined whether satisfaction with and enjoyment of volunteering indirectly affect volunteer cessation via hours volunteered. Our sample consisted of participants in the Americans' Changing Lives study (N = 380) who were 65 years old and older and who volunteered at Wave 1. Volunteer satisfaction, volunteer enjoyment, hours volunteered, and several covariates were assessed at Wave 1, and volunteer cessation was assessed 3 years later at Wave 2. Volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment were positively associated with hours volunteered, and more hours volunteered was associated with decreased likelihood of volunteer cessation. The indirect effects of volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment on volunteer cessation via hours volunteered were -.023 (p = .059) and -.036 (p = .015), respectively. The dynamics of volunteer cessation are important because a volunteer shortage is forecasted and because the benefits of volunteering may attenuate when volunteering stops. Future research should test the proposed causal sequence using longitudinal data with at least 3 waves. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Green, Jeremy; Derby, Amy; Bothum, Candi
Lack of time is a hindrance for volunteers to participate in educational opportunities, yet volunteer success in an organization is tied to the orientation and education they receive. Meeting diverse educational needs of volunteers can be a challenge for program managers. Scheduling a Volunteer Learning Track for chaperones that is parallel to a…
Herdy Gesmar Volga Haddad
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the cardiac abnormalities and their evolution during the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as to correlate clinical and pathological data. METHODS - Twenty-one patients, admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were prospectively studied and followed until their death. Age ranged from 19 to 42 years (17 males. ECG and echocardiogram were also obtained every six months. After death, macro- and microscopic examinations were also performed. RESULTS - The most frequent causes of referral to the hospital were: diarrhea or repeated pneumonias, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis or Kaposi sarcoma. The most frequent findings were acute or chronic pericarditis (42% and dilated cardiomyopathy (19%. Four patients died of cardiac problems: infective endocarditis, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, bacterial myocarditis and infection by Toxoplasma gondii. CONCLUSION - Severe cardiac abnormalities were the cause of death in some patients. In the majority of the patients, a good correlation existed between clinical and anatomical-pathological data. Cardiac evaluation was important to detect early manifestations and treat them accordingly, even in asymptomatic patients.
Xu, Yadong; Zhao, Guochao; Pu, Ning; Nuerxiati, Abulimiti; Ji, Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Rong, Yefei; Lou, Wenhui; Wang, Dansong; Kuang, Tiantao; Xu, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenchuan
The aims of this study were to introduce our experience with treating patients with pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) and to investigate the clinical risk factors for recurrence of SPTs because no consensus has been established to date. One hundred twenty-one patients underwent surgical resection from January 2008 to December 2015 in our institution. Clinical data were collected from the standardized reports. Of the 121 patients, 93 (76.9%) were women, 28 (23.1%) were men, and the mean age at diagnosis was 33.7 years (range, 11-68 years). Sixty patients were subjected to short-term complications, and 8 patients experienced long-term complications, some of whom may require surgery. The tumor located in the distal pancreas (P = 0.02), and a Ki-67 index value > 1.5 (P = 0.01) indicated malignancy according to the World Health Organization 2000 classification. One hundred three patients responded to follow-up, and 3 cases (2.9%) were subject to liver metastases. Recurrence was more frequently observed in tumors classified as high-grade malignancies according to the World Health Organization 2010 classification (P = 0.013), synchronous metastases (P < 0.001), peripancreatic fat infiltration (P = 0.018), and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001). Evaluating the risk of the recurrence of SPTs still requires systematic and multicenter trials in the future, even some pathological features showed statistical differences.
This paper explores the potential of volunteer tourism to transform “non-volunteers” to volunteers in Japan. Volunteer tourism is defined as travel to a location outside the immediate vicinity of daily life in order to engage in organized volunteer activities. In-depth interviews and a survey were conducted to the employees of Haagen-Dazs Japan, Inc., who participated to volunteer tours to the Kiritappu Wetland Trust in Hokkaido. The study closely examines the motivations of the participants...
Full Text Available Abstract A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.. One taxon (Borago officinalis in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having
Cocca-Bates, Katherine C; Neal-Boylan, Leslie
A qualitative study was done to explore the perceptions of volunteering among retired registered nurses (RNs) in Kansas. Participants were volunteers in formal nursing roles or were using their nursing knowledge and experience in non-nursing roles, such as church work. Regardless of the type of volunteer position, retired RNs reported that they use what they have learned as nurses when they volunteer. Volunteering benefits include enhanced self-worth, intellectual stimulation, reduced social isolation, and opportunities to help others. Increased paperwork, new technology, difficulty finding nursing-specific volunteer opportunities, resistance from health care organizations, and a lack of respect for what these nurses know are challenges and barriers to volunteering. Retired RNs have accumulated years of clinical nursing experience and can be helpful to employed nurses. Health care organizations should launch targeted efforts to recruit and utilize retired RN volunteers. Health care professionals who care for older adults should recommend volunteering as a healthful endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, W.; Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.
To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma
Full Text Available is convenient to the micro-volunteer, and in small pieces of time (bitesized). This paper looks at a micro-volunteering project where participants can volunteer for five to ten minutes at a time using a smart phone and assist pupils with their mathematics....
Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi
In 3 experiments the authors examined how specific characteristics of charitable volunteer organizations contribute to the recruitment of new volunteers. In line with predictions, Study 1 revealed that providing non-volunteers with information about organizational support induced anticipated feelings of respect, which subsequently enhanced their attraction to the volunteer organization. However, information about the current success of the volunteer organization did not affect anticipated pride (as among those who seek paid employment) and in fact caused potential volunteers to perceive the organization as being in less need for additional volunteers. Study 2 further showed that information about support from the volunteer organization is a more relevant source of anticipated respect and organizational attraction than support from co-volunteers. Study 3 finally showed that information about task and emotional support for volunteers contributes to anticipated respect and organizational attractiveness and that this increases the actual willingness of non-volunteers to participate in the volunteer organization. Interventions aimed at attracting volunteers and avenues for further research are discussed.
Yeghicheyan, Delphine; Cloquet, Christophe; Bossy, Cecile; Bouhnik Le Coz, Martine; Douchet, Chantal; Granier, Guy; Heimburger, Alexie; Losno, Remi; Lacan, Francois; Labatut, Marie; Pradoux, Catherine; Lanzanova, Aurelie; Candaudap, Frederic; Chmeleff, Jerome; Rousseau, Tristan C.C.; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Delpoux, Sophie; Tharaud, Mickael; Sivry, Yann; Sonke, Jeroen E.
The natural river water certified reference material SLRS-5 (NRC-CNRC) was routinely analysed in this study for major and trace elements by ten French laboratories. Most of the measurements were made using ICP-MS. Because no certified values are assigned by NRC-CNRC for silicon and 35 trace element concentrations (rare earth elements, Ag, B, Bi, Cs, Ga, Ge, Li, Nb, P, Rb, Rh, Re, S, Sc, Sn, Th, Ti, Tl, W, Y and Zr), or for isotopic ratios, we provide a compilation of the concentrations and related uncertainties obtained by the participating laboratories. Strontium isotopic ratios are also given. (authors)
Handy, Femida; Mook, Laurie
This article examines the phenomenon of volunteering from a benefit-cost perspective. Both the individual making a decision to volunteer and the organization making a decision to use volunteer labor face benefits and costs of their actions, yet these costs and benefits almost always remain unarticulated, perhaps because the common perception of…
The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…
Campbell, Rebecca; Adams, Adrienne E.
There is growing interest in understanding how different research methods are perceived by victims of violence and what survivors will reveal to researchers (termed "meta-research" or "meta-studies"). The purpose of this project was to conduct a qualitative meta-study on why rape survivors chose to participate in community-based, face-to-face…
Danoff, A; Kopel, S
Identification of an individual's motivational need and desired volunteer work enables volunteer administrators to capitalize on the motivation a person brings to the organization as well as to make effective use of the role by being cognizant of the levels of participation behind the differing volunteer assignments. The Motivation by Maslow Questionnaire was used to identify motivational needs of 35 helpline (crisis) volunteers, and three categories of volunteer work were used to classify their levels of participation. Implications for improving volunteer commitment to the formal voluntary organization and recruitment and retention strategies relative to volunteer motivational needs are discussed.
Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita
Background : Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods : Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results : Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life
Okun, Morris A; O'Rourke, Holly P; Keller, Brian; Johnson, Kathryn A; Enders, Craig
This study investigates the interplay among religiosity, spirituality, value-expressive volunteer motivation, and volunteering. We examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering and whether religiosity moderated the relations between (a) spirituality and value-expressive volunteer motivation and (b) value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering. After applying multiple imputation procedures to data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study among participants 64-67 years old who survived beyond 2004 (N = 8,148), we carried out regression analyses to predict value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering from religiosity and spirituality controlling for demographic variables, physical, emotional, and cognitive health, health risk behaviors, and personality traits. Both religiosity and spirituality were significant (p motivation. Value-expressive volunteer motivation and religiosity were significant (p motivation and volunteering (p motivation (p > .45). Religiosity may provide the way, and value-expressive volunteer motivation the will, to volunteer. The implications of our findings for the forecasted shortage of older volunteers are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Nikolay S. Pryazhnikov
Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of vocational guidance in the social volunteering system. The essence of volunteer work is closely related with assistance to desperate people in searching for the meaning of living, often coinciding with labour activity that are deemed in terms of “the main matter of life” and “the leading activity”. For adolescents, it is the choice of career, and for adults, it is the work proper (i.e. an essential condition for personal self-realization. The problem of “forced volunteering” for experts in vocational guidance also means that they often have to work voluntarily and unselfishly outside the official guidelines. To clarify the terms «volunteer» and «a person in desperate need of help» the study used the method of analyzing the documents, e.g. the Regulations on Social Volunteering, the generalization of psychological sources, the initial survey of university students as active supporters of the volunteer movement, On the essence of volunteering and the place of career guidance in selfless social work. Vocational guidance is not excluded from the general system of volunteerism, but has an insufficiently defined status and low popularity among participants in social volunteering. Also, the problem of «forced volunteering» of experts in career counseling, which often requires voluntary and unselfish performance of quality work outside the framework of official instructions, is also indicated. Simultaneously, positive aspects of such disinterested career initiatives are noted, in particular, less control by the official inspectors (or customers and, accordingly, greater freedom of creativity than when someone else does the work.
Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.
Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H
A variety of organizations redistribute surplus food to low-income populations through food rescue nutrition. Why volunteers participate in these charitable organizations is unclear. The aim of this study is to document the participation and motivations of volunteers who are involved specifically in food rescue nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, a new instrument, Motivations to Volunteer Scale, was developed and validated in 40 participants (aged ≥18 years). In phase 2, the new scale and a demographics questionnaire were administered to 300 participants who were volunteering in food pantries and churches. The pilot study showed that Motivations to Volunteer Scale exhibited an internal consistency of Cronbach's α of 0.73 (P 0.05). The scale was validated also by comparison to the Volunteer Function Inventory (r = 0.86, P social life, and altruism. The mean motivation score of the 300 volunteers was 9.15 ± 0.17. Greater motivations were observed among participants who were aged >45 years, women, Hispanics, college/university graduates, physically inactive, non-smokers, and had an income ≥ $48,000. The Motivations to Volunteer Scale is a valid tool to assess why individuals volunteer in food rescue nutrition. The extent of motivations of participants was relatively high, and the primary reason for volunteering was altruism. Health professionals should be encouraged to participate in food redistribution. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lane, Martha A.
This guide is designed to assist volunteer tutors participating in an adult literacy program. Discussed in the first chapter are the meaning of the term functional literacy, the way in which we get meaning from print, and word identification skills. The next two sections deal with the history of literacy education in industrialized countries and…
van Dijk, Jouke; Boin, Ronald
The main aim of this paper is to provide insight in the determinants of the decision to participate (yes or no) in volunteer work and the decision with regard to the number of hours spent on volunteer work. These decisions are empirically analyzed with Dutch microdata for 1982 by means of a logit
Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Schneider, Greg; Oliver, Debra Parker
Although the role of volunteers is at the heart of hospice care, little is known about hospice volunteer training and volunteer activity. A survey was used to assess current training programs for hospice volunteers. Hospices were invited to participate in the study from a link on the website for the Hospice Volunteer Association and Hospice Educators Affirming Life Project. Survey results revealed that the majority of volunteer work is in patient care, with most hospice agencies requiring a minimum 12-month volunteer commitment and an average 4-hour volunteer shift per week. Volunteer training is separate from staff training, is provided by paid agency staff, and costs approximately $14,303 per year. Communication and family support are considered important curriculum topics. Revisions to current volunteer training curriculum and format are suggested.
Kim, Jibum; Kang, Jeong-Han; Lee, Min-Ah; Lee, Yongmo
Faced with aging societies, there is an immense need to better understand the nature of volunteering outside advanced Western industrial countries. As a case of a rapidly aging society, we identify robust factors associated with elderly volunteering in Korea in terms of a resource framework. Data were derived from the Social Statistics Survey conducted by the Korea National Statistical Office in 1999 (N = 7,135) and 2003 (N = 8,371). We first determined overall and age-related volunteer rates for Korea compared to the United States. Using logistic regression, we then examined the effects of human, cultural, and social capital variables on volunteering. Approximately 6% of Koreans aged 65 years and older participate in volunteer programs. All human capital variables are positively related with volunteering. For cultural capital, those who identify their religion as Buddhism or Catholicism are more likely to volunteer than those who have no religion. But surprisingly, Protestantism does not consistently promote volunteering across both years. For social capital, older adults who live alone or with a spouse are more likely to volunteer than those living with both a spouse and children. In contrast to human capital, cultural and social capital on elderly volunteering appears to be contoured by social contexts.
Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita
Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an
Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara; Baert, Stijn
Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.
In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in
Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David
volunteering within the three major welfare fields: social service, health, and education. It could be argued that this is a more heterogeneous type of volunteering, because some volunteers work in ‘service organizations' aiming at particular client groups (battered women, homeless, elderly people etc.) while...
Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.
Lavenburg, Philip; Bernt, Frank M
We surveyed volunteers from 8 hospices in the Delaware Valley regarding training, perceived needs, and role satisfaction. Results were consistent with previous studies: satisfaction with preservice training and with volunteering was very high; respondents reported feeling very prepared and confident about doing hospice work as a result of their volunteer training. In addition, longer volunteer preservice training was associated with higher levels of overall satisfaction with training; levels of volunteer satisfaction and fulfillment tended to be lower during the first year of volunteering; and participation in volunteer support teams was associated with finding volunteer work rewarding and with feeling a part of the hospice team. Implications for preservice training and ongoing support and education of hospice volunteers are discussed.
The participants discussed recruitment, training, rewards, retention, and roles of village health volunteers. This paper presents background data on village health volunteers in Malawi and elsewhere and reviews the key issues facing health care providers in working with village health volunteers. A copy of the workshop ...
Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich
Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28…
Many young people look forward to volunteering abroad and overlook the ample volunteer opportunities at home. There are several advantages to volunteering at home: you help people in your own community; you can make a long-term commitment; and you have continuity of care for your patients. There are >1200 free clinics in the United States whose main goal is to provide care to the indigent population. These free clinics are always looking for volunteers with specialized medical training. This article reviews the medically related and unrelated volunteer opportunities available in the United States. Volunteering at home is a worthwhile experience, and I encourage the otolaryngology community to explore these opportunities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen
Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…
Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale
Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…
Knauft, E. B.
Two national in-home interview surveys conducted by the Gallup Organization and information from a national workshop conference attended by 70 teen volunteers from 28 states and 200 teachers and adult leaders indicate that about three-fifths of youth aged 12 to 17 volunteer an average of just over 3 hours a week. The most frequent volunteer…
Takahashi, Mayu; Ezuka, Isamu; Kakinuma, Kenichi; Yamada, Haruyuki; Harada, Atsukuni; Kanazawa, Tsutomu
The purpose of this study was to identify the cisternal segment of the abducens nerve and to investigate its anatomical features using three-dimensional Fourier transform constructive interference in steady-state (3-D CISS) sequence with a 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system. Images of abducens nerve palsy were also studied. Using this imaging system, the following procedures were performed to identify the abducens nerve. First, gray scale of the original images was inverted (inverted image). Second, Dollero's canal was identified, which contains the abducens nerve, and third, the nerve was followed to the root exit zone with a multiple-planar reconstruction method. Twenty-one volunteers and 3 patients with abducens nerve palsies participated in this study and following results were derived: all nerves in volunteers were clearly identified in the coronal and sagittal planes, the images closely resembled autopsy cases, seven nerves in asymptomatic cases were remarkably distorted by the vessels, and the cause of the palsy was not clear by their shapes in the images; this technique, however, can play a great role in evaluating abducens nerve palsy. (author)
Carlindo Rodrigues de Oliveira
Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz um balanço dos direitos sociais previstos na Constituição de 1988, destacando seus avanços e limitações ao longo destes últimos 21 anos. Começando pelos direitos dos trabalhadores e, em seguida, pelos dispositivos relativos à Seguridade Social, o trabalho busca compreender as motivações do legislador constituinte e o histórico de constantes disputas no interior da sociedade, em torno da regulamentação, manutenção e aprimoramento desses direitos ao longo dos anos.This paper is an attempt to make a balance of the social rights forseen in the Brazilian 1988 Constitution, stressing its advances and limitations during the last twenty one years. Beginning with the labour rights and following with the Social Security articles, it is an effort to understand both the motivations of the legislators and the historic of permanent disputes within the Brazilian society around the regulation, maintenance and improvement of these rights along the years.
Full Text Available Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro environmental factors of influence are also investigated. A mixed method approach with focus group discussions and an online survey is followed. A background to the volunteer program is presented with the activities available to volunteers. The key findings indicate that most volunteers are young females that volunteer for a minimum of two weeks; are internally motivated to ‘give back and be useful’ and ‘to work with the white lions’ for the purpose of self-actualisation. External motivation is mainly social in terms of concern about the well-being of the lions, and South Africa being an economically affordable destination. The GWLPT strives to fulfil the needs of volunteers, especially intrinsic needs associated with self-actualisation and self-transcendence.
A. V. Matiychyk
Another prerequisite of volunteerism was the surge of Advantages Revolution in 2013-2014, and after it – the anti-terrorist operation in eastern Ukraine. In 2015 the aid organization in terms of ATO and internally displaced persons has increased directions volunteering. Important indicators of volunteering were high levels of involvement of Ukrainian philanthropy and consequently public confidence in voluntary organizations, qualitative growth of volunteerism, the founders of which were gradually included among the managerial elite Ukraine. At the same time, there are number of problems that discredit the work of volunteers and the idea of volunteering in general, for example, fraud volunteers and fake organizations. Moreover, the increased activity of the volunteer movement was caused by the internal crisis that led to the imbalance of public administration, lack of high-quality management decisions, lack of resource capabilities. Also it was caused by external factors, such as the need to participate in the organization of international events and conduct military operations against separatist groups in eastern Ukraine. So, volunteer activity gradually becomes an effective mechanism of self-organization of citizens.
Department of Transportation — Allows users to add themselves to a Service Area wide ?volunteer for emergency duty? list (was created after Gulf Coast Hurricanes). Approval and email by managers,...
Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Stuckler, David
Food insecurity has been rising across Europe following the Great Recession, but to varying degrees across countries and over time. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, nor are what factors might protect people's access to food. Here we test the hypothesis that an emerging gap between food prices and wages can explain increases in reported inability to afford protein-rich foods and whether welfare regimes can mitigate its impact. We collected data in twenty-one countries from 2004 to 2012 using two databases: (i) on food prices and deprivation related to food (denoted by reported inability to afford to eat meat, chicken, fish or a vegetarian equivalent every second day) from EuroStat 2015 edition; and (ii) on wages from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 edition. After adjusting for macroeconomic factors, we found that each 1 % rise in the price of food over and above wages was associated with greater self-reported food deprivation (β=0·060, 95 % CI 0·030, 0·090), particularly among impoverished groups. However, this association also varied across welfare regimes. In Eastern European welfare regimes, a 1 % rise in the price of food over wages was associated with a 0·076 percentage point rise in food deprivation (95 % CI 0·047, 0·105) while in Social Democratic welfare regimes we found no clear association (P=0·864). Rising prices of food coupled with stagnating wages are a major factor driving food deprivation, especially in deprived groups; however, our evidence indicates that more generous welfare systems can mitigate this impact.
Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R
We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Anderson, Charles T; Smithpeter, Megan V; Rogers, Melinda K
To examine the perspectives and preferences regarding ethically important aspects of recruitment, consent, and debriefing of people with schizophrenia who volunteered for research protocols. A structured interview to assess research-related views of people with schizophrenia was developed and piloted. Data collection occurred at three sites. For this analysis, we examined the subset of responses from schizophrenia patients currently enrolled in a protocol. Data from 28 schizophrenia research volunteers were analyzed. Of these, 22 were men and 11 were voluntary inpatients. Most (n=23) recalled speaking with someone before enrolling in the protocol, and most (n=26) reported trusting the person who told them about it. Participants reported a moderate understanding of their protocols. All but one person (n=27) remembered signing a consent form. Twenty-one volunteers indicated that consent forms are meant to help both the patient and the researcher. Most (n=23) reported making the enrollment decision alone, with 22 making this decision prior to reviewing the consent form. The decision was described as relatively easy. Respondents felt some pressure to enroll, with women experiencing more pressure. Debriefing practices were strongly endorsed by participants. All 28 of the volunteers wished to be informed if a health problem (i.e., "something wrong") was discovered during the protocol. The persons living with schizophrenia who were interviewed for this project expressed interesting perspectives and preferences regarding ethically important aspects of recruitment, consent, and debriefing in clinical research that may help guide efforts to make research processes more attuned to participants and merit further inquiry.
Jones, David A
An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work
Jones, David A.
An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work
CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...
Atkins, Robert; Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.
Using a longitudinal design, we investigated the relation of childhood personality type to volunteering during adolescence. We hypothesized that participants with more adaptive personality functioning during childhood would be more likely to volunteer during adolescence and that membership in social organizations would mediate the relation of…
Dillivan, K. D.
Extension volunteers benefit from participation in training activities. Furthermore, Extension personnel are best positioned to provide volunteers with relevant training. However, trainers neglecting relationship building and failing to attend to the communicative process may achieve unsatisfactory results. Social constructionism, a theoretical…
Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C
Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.
The purpose of this research was to study the phenomenon of volunteering through South African volunteers' experiences of volunteering at the 2010 FIFA World Cup, specifically in the City of Tshwane (COT) in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area (TMA). A qualitative research design was employed, with specific reference to ...
This paper shows that charity begins at home. Using retrospective reports on youth experiences from the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964, 2001) I find that (1) parents who volunteer when their children are young promote giving and volunteering of their children once they have become adults; (2) the intensity of youth participation in nonprofit organizations is positively related to current giving and volunteering; (3) that parental volunteering and youth participation promote c...
Farideh Sharififar; Zahra Jamalian; Reza Nikbakhsh; Zahra Nobakht Ramezani
In sport, human resources management gives special attention to method of applying volunteers, their maintenance, and participation of volunteers with each other and management approaches for better operation of events celebrants. The recognition of volunteers- characteristics and motives is important to notice, because it makes the basis of their participation and commitment at sport environment. The motivation and commitment of 281 volunteers were assessed using the org...
Culum, Bojana; Forcic, Gordana
Volunteering is one of the strongest elements of shaping democratic change within the society. It is also an essential element in citizenship development and in re-establishing a sense of community. Volunteering empowers individuals, builds solidarity, encourages participation and protects vulnerable groups against social and economic…
It is a common belief that participation in voluntary associations makes citizens more trusting of others. This paper reports longitudinal analyses of volunteering and trust on the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Study (2002-2004; n=1246) refuting this belief. I find that volunteering has little
Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.
McFadden, Amanda; Smeaton, Kathleen
Student volunteer experiences are ubiquitous within higher education contexts. Despite this, there is further scope for understanding the qualitatively different ways students experience volunteering. To achieve this an explicit focus on understanding volunteer experiences from the students' perspective and the relationship these experiences have…
Lockett, Landry L.; Boyd, Barry
This article describes how professionals leading volunteers can purposefully work toward developing the "leadership identity" of individual volunteers. These concepts and the application of them are presented in the context of Cooperative Extension volunteer groups. Specific methods of developing the leadership identity and capacity of individual…
Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.
Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects
This thesis looked into volunteer team management in a project in AIESEC in Finland through the action research method. AIESEC in Finland is a non-profit non-government organization with a purpose of “peace and fulfilment of humankinds potential” through development of the youth’s future leadership. AIESEC was not a commissioning party; the project was the basis for the thesis without the supervision of the company. The thesis is based on a project that the author was in charge of, in ...
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
If campaigns do not accommodate this view, all but a hard core of regulars and fired-up partisans will drift away, leaving it for staffers and hired hands to do all the hard work of identifying voters, canvassing people by foot and by phone, and turning out the vote. [...] ironically, a campaign...... that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....
Kamaludin, Kauthar Mohamad; Muhammad, Mazanah; Wahat, Nor Wahiza Abdul; Ibrahim, Rahimah
The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.
Adams, Carey H.; And Others
Compares volunteers' and paid employees' attitudes toward their jobs and supervisors. Finds that volunteers are higher in intrinsic motivation and are more satisfied with their supervisors' decision-making. Suggests that supervisors of volunteers should use participative decision-making tactics and employ compliance-gaining behavior strategies…
Law, Ben M F; Shek, Daniel T L
The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function). When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.
Ben M. F. Law
Full Text Available The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function. When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.
Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night (see here) takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe - promoting research in engaging and fun ways for the general public. This year, CERN will be participating once again, hosting dozens of events across the Balexert shopping centre – and we’ll need YOUR help to make the celebration a success. From film screenings and celebrity Q&A sessions to “Ask a Researcher” and build-your-own LEGO LHC events, this year’s Researchers’ Night is going to be jam-packed! The fun will kick off prior to the night itself with a mock-up of the LHC tunnel installed in the central court of the Balexert shopping centre, 8-12 September*. CERN people will be on hand to speak to shoppers about the LHC, and to encourage them to participate in Researchers’ Night! The CERN organisers are recruiting volunteers and support staff for Researchers’ ...
Riiser, Nina Milling
Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no option of becoming independent. How does volunteering affect the youth and why does the youth volunteer? Does the youth get closer to adulthood by volunteering and what di they gain? Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no o...
Ramos Romualdo; Brauchli Rebecca; Bauer Georg; Wehner Theo; Hämmig Oliver
OBJECTIVE To understand the relationship between volunteering and health in the overlooked yet highly engaged working population, adopting a contextualizing balance approach. We hypothesize that volunteering may function as a psychosocial resource, contributing to work-life balance and, ultimately, health. METHODS A total of 746 Swiss workers participated in an online survey; 35% (N = 264) were additionally volunteers in a nonprofit organization. We assessed volunteering, work-life balance...
This article utilizes Pierre Bourdieu’s theories of habitus and cultural capital to offer some explanation as to why there is a lack of class diversity in formal volunteering in the United Kingdom. Recent studies have shown that participation in volunteering is heavily dependent on social class revolving around a highly committed middle-class “civic core” of volunteers. This article draws on original qualitative research to argue that the delivery of recent youth volunteering policies has uni...
Full Text Available Recent research has critically evaluated the rapid growth of volunteer urban environmental stewardship. Framings of this phenomenon have largely focused upon environmentality and/or neoliberal environments, unfortunately often presenting a totalising picture of the state and/or market utilising power from above to create environmental subjects with limited agency available to local citizens. Based upon qualitative research with volunteer urban environmental stewards in Philadelphia, affective labour is proposed as an alternative explanation for participation. Stewards volunteered their time and labour due to the intense emotional attachments they formed with their neighbourhoods, neighbours, and nonhuman others in relationships of affective labour. Volunteer urban environmental stewardship as affective labour provides room for agency on the part of individuals and groups involved in volunteer urban environmental reproduction and opens up new ways of relating to and being with human and nonhuman others.
Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique
This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework. © The Author(s) 2014.
Molsher, Robyn; Townsend, Mardie
Environmental volunteering (EV) can provide a unique way to optimise the wellbeing of participants while fostering environmental stewardship. However, the potential of EV to create human health benefits remains an under-researched area. This study provides evidence for improved wellbeing and mood state for 32 participants from diverse backgrounds undertaking EV activities. Most participants also reported improved environmental stewardship with a greatly improved understanding of the environment and the need to conserve it. Other benefits included: 31% of those seeking work obtained it; and 50% joined a volunteer group at program completion. EV provides a unique mechanism to enhance the wellbeing of the participants, while conserving the environment.
The numbers of disasters in the world have multiplied in recent years. The same goes for community volunteers that respond to these events. In developing countries community volunteers are often the largest resource available in the first 48 hours until a more skilled team of rescuers arrives.
Woitha, Kathrin; Hasselaar, Jeroen; van Beek, Karen; Radbruch, Lukas; Jaspers, Birgit; Engels, Yvonne; Vissers, Kris
In Europe, volunteers have an important role in the delivery of palliative care. As part of the EU co-funded Europall project, 4 aspects of volunteering in palliative care were studied for 7 European countries (Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain). These included (1) involvement of volunteers in palliative care, (2) organization of palliative care volunteering, (3) legal regulations concerning volunteering, and (4) education and training of palliative care volunteering. A literature search combined with an interview study. Information from the scientific literature, and country-specific policy documents were obtained and completed, along with data of consecutive semi-structured interviews with experts in the field of palliative care in the participating countries. In all countries, volunteers appeared to be involved in palliative care, yet their involvement across health care settings differed per country. England, for example, has the highest number of volunteers whereas Spain has the lowest number. Volunteering is embedded in law and regulations in all participating countries except for England and the Netherlands. In all participating countries, training programs are available and volunteers are organized, both on a national and a regional level. This study provides a descriptive overview of volunteer work in palliative care in 7 European countries, with a focus on the organizational aspects. Further research should concentrate on the roles and responsibilities of volunteers in the care for the terminally ill in different European health systems. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi
This study builds upon and extends the social-identity-based model of cooperation with the organization (T. R. Tyler, 1999; T. R. Tyler & S. L. Blader, 2000) to examine commitment and cooperative intent among fundraising volunteers. In Study 1, structural equation modeling indicated that pride and respect related to the intent to remain a volunteer with an organization, and that this relation was mediated primarily by normative organizational commitment. In Study 2, structural equation modeling indicated that the perceived importance of volunteer work was related to pride, that perceived organizational support related to the experience of respect, and that pride and respect mediated the relation between perceived importance and support on the one hand and organizational commitment on the other. Overall, the results suggest that volunteer organizations may do well to implement pride and respect in their volunteer policy, for instance to address the reliability problem (J. L. Pearce, 1993). 2007 APA, all rights reserved
This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of 4-H Youth Development Educators to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. There were 498 Oregon adult 4-H volunteers randomly selected to participate. Participants rated the leadership style of their 4-H Youth Development Educator (YDE) using Bass…
Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Morin, Charles M; Lavoie, André
To compare the long-term psychological functioning of 3 groups of survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI): (1) those who report being regularly active either by working or studying, (2) those who are not competitively employed but are active volunteers, and (3) those who report neither working, studying, nor volunteering. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE: Two hundred eight participants aged 16 years and older with minor to severe TBI were classified as (1) Working/Studying (N = 78), (2) Volunteering (N = 54), or (3) Nonactive (N = 76). Measures of psychological distress (anxiety, depression, cognitive disturbance, irritability/anger), fatigue, sleep disturbance, and perception of pain. Survivors of TBI who report being active through work, studies, or volunteering demonstrate a significantly higher level of psychological adjustment than persons who report no activity. Even among participants who are unable to return to work and are declared on long-term disability leave, those who report engaging in volunteer activities present significantly better psychological functioning than participants who are nonactive. Volunteering is associated with enhanced psychological well-being and should be encouraged following TBI.
Thurber, John C.
This document reports on a project aimed at developing, implementing, and evaluating a plan for using volunteer classroom aides in the Palm Beach County (Florida) schools as a means for meeting various financial, human, and community needs. The desirability of a comprehensive volunteer plan was presented in a 10-point summary by an ad hoc…
Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen
Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…
This poster offers information about volunteer computing for science gateways that offer high-throughput computing services. Volunteer computing can be used to get computing power. This increases the visibility of the gateway to the general public as well as increasing computing capacity at little cost.
Lee, Sei J; Steinman, Michael A; Tan, Erwin J
To evaluate how accounting for driving status altered the relationship between volunteering and mortality in U.S. retirees. Observational prospective cohort. Nationally representative sample from the Health and Retirement Study in 2000 and 2002 followed to 2006. Retirees aged 65 and older (N=6,408). Participants self-reported their volunteering, driving status, age, sex, race or ethnicity, presence of chronic conditions, geriatric syndromes, socioeconomic factors, functional limitations, and psychosocial factors. Death by December 31, 2006, was the outcome. For drivers, mortality in volunteers (9%) and nonvolunteers (12%) was similar; for limited or non-drivers, mortality for volunteers (15%) was markedly lower than for nonvolunteers (32%). Adjusted results showed that, for drivers, the volunteering-mortality odds ratio (OR) was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.66-1.22), whereas for limited or nondrivers, the OR was 0.62 (95% CI=0.49-0.78) (interaction P=.05). The effect of driving status was greater for rural participants, with greater differences between rural drivers and rural limited or nondrivers (interaction P=.02) and between urban drivers and urban limited or nondrivers (interaction P=.81). The influence of volunteering in decreasing mortality seems to be stronger in rural retirees who are limited or nondrivers. This may be because rural or nondriving retirees are more likely to be socially isolated and thus receive more benefit from the greater social integration from volunteering. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively, to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’ model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not
Full Text Available Volunteering is one of manifestations of citizenship. It indicates the individual’s quality in terms of citizenship and the readiness to take an active part in public activities. The current paper analyses the phenomenon of volunteering (its place and role in ensuring public development and sustainability. The influence of volunteer - ing on the youth socialization and personal development of competences (in particular, social, professional and communicative is disclosed in the article. The article also highlights the motives and factors that promote and prevent the youth participation in voluntary activities.
The Task Force in charge of the organization of the LHC Inauguration is looking for 40 volunteers to support the team of molecular cooks directed by international chef Ettore Bocchia. The "molecular" volunteers will help in the preparation of liquid nitrogen ice-cream. Your help is requested from 12h to 18h on October 21st. Your participation in a general rehearsal on October 20th is also required - (the time of the rehearsal will be communicated at a later moment). Dress code: black pants and shoes, long sleeved white shirt. Do not miss this opportunity to take part in an extraordinary event! For further information and to enrol, contact: mailto:Catherine.Brandt@cern.ch
Raddick, Jordan; Bracey, G.; Gay, P. L.
Galaxy Zoo is a citizen science website in which members of the public volunteer to classify galaxies, thereby helping astronomers conduct publishable research into galaxy morphologies and environments. Although the site was originally created to answer a few specific questions, some members of the community - both scientists and volunteers - have spontaneously developed an interest in a wider variety of questions. Volunteers have pursued answers to these questions with guidance from professional astronomers; in completing these projects, volunteers have independently used some of the same data viewing and analysis tools that professional astronomers use, and have even developed their own online tools. They have created their own research questions and their own plans for data analysis, and are planning to write scientific papers with the results to be submitted to peer-reviewed scientific journals. Volunteers have identified a number of such projects. These volunteer-initiated projects have extended the scientific reach of Galaxy Zoo, while also giving volunteers first-hand experience with the process of science. We are interested in the process by which volunteers become interested in volunteer-initiated projects, and what tasks they participate in, both initially and as their involvement increases. What motivates a volunteer to become involved in a volunteer-initiated project? How does his or her motivation change with further involvement? We are conducting a program of qualitative education research into these questions, using as data sources the posts that volunteers have made to the Galaxy Zoo forum and transcripts of interviews with volunteers.
Marizete Argolo Teixeira
Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality
At its core, this concise textbook presents standard material for a first course in complex analysis at the advanced undergraduate level. This distinctive text will prove most rewarding for students who have a genuine passion for mathematics as well as certain mathematical maturity. Primarily aimed at undergraduates with working knowledge of real analysis and metric spaces, this book can also be used to instruct a graduate course. The text uses a conversational style with topics purposefully apportioned into 21 lectures, providing a suitable format for either independent study or lecture-based teaching. Instructors are invited to rearrange the order of topics according to their own vision. A clear and rigorous exposition is supported by engaging examples and exercises unique to each lecture; a large number of exercises contain useful calculation problems. Hints are given for a selection of the more difficult exercises. This text furnishes the reader with a means of learning complex analysis as well as a subtl...
of genetic diversity, population genetic structure and genetic resource ..... Schizothoracinae species, which may help in the effective conservation of these ... how the computer program CERVUS accommodates genotyping error increases ...
PALEXPO, GENEVA, from 4 - 13 December Are you concerned by the digital divide between the North and the South? Would you like to contribute personally to the success of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), in particular the activities of civil society? Join the team of volunteers and/or offer accommodation to an international volunteer! Contact: Charlotte (Project Coordinator WSIS) Kathy (Volunteer Coordinator) ICVolunteers PO Box 755 - CH-1211 Genève 4 Phone: +41 22 800 1436 - Fax: +41 22 800 14 37 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com For further information, please consult the website: http://www.icvolunteers.org
Proulx, Christine M; Curl, Angela L; Ermer, Ashley E
The present study examines the association between formal volunteering and cognitive functioning over time. We also examine the moderating roles of race, sex, education, and time. Using 11,100 participants aged 51 years and older and nine waves of data from the Health and Retirement Survey, we simultaneously modeled the longitudinal associations between engaging in formal volunteering and changes in cognitive functioning using multilevel models. Formal volunteering was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning over time, especially with aspects of cognitive functioning related to working memory and processing. This association was stronger for women than it was for men, and for those with below average levels of education. The positive association between formal volunteering and cognitive functioning weakened over time when cognitive functioning was conceptualized as memory, but strengthened over time when conceptualized as working memory and processing. Volunteering is a productive activity that is beneficial not just to society, but to volunteers' levels of cognitive functioning in older age. For women and those with lower levels of education, formal volunteering appears particularly beneficial to working memory and processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The involvement of volunteers in ecological monitoring is a realistic, cost-effective, and beneficial way to obtain important information which might otherwise be unavailable due to lack of resources at government agencies.
Warner, Lisa M; Wolff, Julia K; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne
Volunteering is presumed to confer health benefits, but interventions to encourage older adults to volunteer are sparse. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial with 280 community-dwelling older German adults was conducted to test the effects of a theory-based social-cognitive intervention against a passive waiting-list control group and an active control intervention designed to motivate physical activity. Self-reports of weekly volunteering minutes were assessed at baseline (5 weeks before the intervention) as well as 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Participants in the treatment group increased their weekly volunteering minutes to a greater extent than participants in the control groups 6 weeks after the intervention. We conclude that a single, face-to-face group session can increase volunteering among older community-dwelling adults. However, the effects need some time to unfold because changes in volunteering were not apparent 2 weeks after the intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Generation Z (Gen Z, the future of America’s workforce, is forecasted to represent more than 30 million persons by 2020. Volunteer rates have been declining since 2002. Most compelling is that overall lowest volunteer rates were found to be within the Gen Z segment, with expectations of continued decline. Thus, this study explored motivations associated with sustainable volunteering by Gen Z based upon past research that documented intent to volunteer is strongly associated with age. In doing so, the Volunteer Functions Inventory was adopted to identify Gen Z motivations for volunteering. This study then employed the theory of planned behavior to test the relationships between Gen Z volunteering motivations, their attitudes and job performance using data obtained from 306 Gen Z volunteer special event participants. Among five motives identified to be important to Gen Z, only four motives (“value”, “career”, “learning” and “self-esteem” were found to significantly influence their attitudes. The ‘social’ motive was found to have no significant effect on their attitudes towards volunteering. This research framework was supported by validating the significant relationships between volunteer motivations, attitudes and job performance specific to the Gen Z volunteer segment. “Job training appropriateness” was found to be an important moderator for improving the relationships between Gen Z volunteer attitudes and job performance.
Daoud, Nihaya; Shtarkshall, Ronny; Laufer, Neri; Verbov, Gina; Bar-El, Hagar; Abu-Gosh, Nasreen; Mor-Yosef, Shlomo
Ambiguous feelings regarding women engaging in formal volunteering and concerns about their exploitation might explain the dearth of studies regarding the volunteering benefits specifically experienced by low socioeconomic status women. The current study examined benefits of volunteering among women participating in Women for Women's Health (WWH), a lay health volunteers (LHV) programme implemented in Jewish and Arab communities in Israel, and aiming at empowering such women to become active volunteers and promote health activities in their communities. Two years after the introduction of WWH in each community, all 45 Jewish and 25 Arab volunteers were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the focus group discussions. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 25/42 Jewish volunteers in 2003 and four with 20/25 Arab volunteers in 2005. The other volunteers could not attend the scheduled meetings or became inactive for personal reasons. Four benefit categories were identified in both ethnic groups: 1. Personal benefits of having increased knowledge, feeling self-satisfaction, mastering new skills and performing healthy behaviours; 2. Group-social benefits of social support and sense of cohesion; 3. Purposive benefits of achieving the WWH mission and goals; 4. Sociopolitical benefits of learning to accept the other and experiencing increased solidarity. However, the relatively less privileged Arab volunteers enumerated more benefits within the personal and purposive categories. They also identified the unique sociocultural category of improving women's status in the community by creating a legitimate space for women by public sphere involvement, traditionally solely a male domain. We conclude that volunteering in community-based health promotion programmes can be an empowering experience for lay women without being exploitative. Positive volunteering benefits will be even more discernable among underprivileged women who enjoy fewer opportunities in
Full Text Available Few studies in urban forestry have examined the motivations of urban forestry volunteers. In this research, two social psychological theories (Volunteer Functions Inventory and Volunteer Process Model are utilized to examine motivations for participating in tree planting activities. The Volunteer Functions Inventory can be used to examine the needs, goals and motivations that individuals seek to fulfill through volunteerism. The Volunteer Process Model sheds light on the antecedents, experiences and consequences of volunteerism at multiple levels (individual, interpersonal, organizational, societal. An understanding of volunteer motivations can aid practitioners in the development and implementation of participatory urban forestry programs that are attractive to stakeholders. We conducted a survey of volunteers who participated in a MillionTreesNYC volunteer planting event and a focus group of urban forestry practitioners. Survey results reveal that volunteers have varied motivations and a limited knowledge of the community level impacts of trees. Results from the focus group reveal that providing education about the benefits of trees and maintaining long-term communication with volunteers are frequently used strategies for engagement. However, the public’s lack of knowledge about urban forestry and an inability to connect to audiences are practitioner-identified challenges for recruiting stakeholders to participate in their programs.
Principi, Andrea; Galenkamp, Henrike; Papa, Roberta; Socci, Marco; Suanet, Bianca; Schmidt, Andrea; Schulmann, Katharine; Golinowska, Stella; Sowa, Agnieszka; Moreira, Amilcar; Deeg, Dorly J H
It has been widely recognised that poor health is one of the main barriers to participation in volunteer activities in older age. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the participation of older people in volunteering, especially those in poor health. Based on the resource theory of volunteering, the aim of this study is to better understand the correlates of volunteering among older people with different health statuses, namely those without health problems (neither multimorbidity nor disability), those with mild health problems (multimorbidity or disability), and those with severe health problems (multimorbidity and disability). Data were drawn from the fourth wave (2011-2012, release 1.1.1) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, which includes European people aged 50 years or older. The results showed that variables linked to volunteering were generally similar regardless of health status, but some differences were nevertheless identified. For older people with mild or severe health problems, for instance, depressive symptoms were negatively associated with their involvement in volunteer activities. We found a positive association of being widowed (rather than married) with volunteering in older people with particularly poor health, whereas high income was associated with volunteering in the case of mild health problems only. These results demonstrate that variables associated with volunteer participation partially differ between older people depending on their health status. These differences should be considered by policy makers in their attempts to promote volunteering in older people, as a means of preventing their social exclusion.
Abstract Background: Volunteering in sport is the most popular and media form of pro-social work in Europe. In Poland, to such activity the conditions are still creating by the largest growth of numbers of institutions active in the public sector in the field of sport, recreation, tourism and hobbies. Interest in volunteering at sport events is increasing, especially among young people. The media image of sport volunteering is adopted by the organizer with chosen promotional strategy. The associated expectations of the participants, their motivation and style of behaving during participation in volunteer project as a consequence are also factors determining the media image of sport volunteering. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the style of engaging in social work of their participants and motives of taking that kind of work by volunteers working in Poznan. Material and Method: The analysis included data available on the Internet regarding to organization of volunteer work during the UEFA Euro 2012™ in Poland and Ukraine as well as literature review regarding to the motivation to unpaid work in Poland. The motives of engaging in to volunteering as well as style of that work was compared between groups of participants of volunteering at UEFA Euro 2012™ in Poznan and Poland. Results: Volunteering at UEFA Euro 2012™ was separated on two areas, sports and urban and was coordinated by different organizers. The convergence between the motivational climate created by organizers of two independent volunteer projects at UEFA Euro 2012™ and motives for social work of its participants is visible. Encouraging volunteers to unpaid work in sport area of tournament by presenting it as a possibility to feel the sports atmosphere was similar to motives and significant more often reported by its volunteers than volunteers working in urban zone. Altruistic motives underlying in social activities significantly more often were reported by volunteers working in
Kim, Jinho; Morgül, Kerem
Despite the renewed interest in youth volunteering in recent years, there remain major gaps in our knowledge of its consequences. Drawing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine the long-term effects of youth volunteering on the civic and personal aspects of volunteers' lives. Our results suggest that youth volunteering has a positive return on adult volunteering only when it is voluntary, and that net of contextual factors neither voluntary nor involuntary youth service has a significant effect on adult voting. Regarding personal outcomes, our findings indicate that the psychological benefits of youth volunteering accrue only to voluntary participants, whereas both voluntary and involuntary youth service are positively associated with educational attainment and earnings in young adulthood. Taken together, these results lend support to the case for youth volunteer programs, though the civic benefits of these programs appear to be less dramatic than generally suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramos, Romualdo; Brauchli, Rebecca; Bauer, Georg; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
To understand the relationship between volunteering and health in the overlooked yet highly engaged working population, adopting a contextualizing balance approach. We hypothesize that volunteering may function as a psychosocial resource, contributing to work-life balance and, ultimately, health. A total of 746 Swiss workers participated in an online survey; 35% (N = 264) were additionally volunteers in a nonprofit organization. We assessed volunteering, work-life balance perceptions, paid job demands, and resources and health outcomes. After controlling for job characteristics, volunteering was associated with less work-life conflict, burnout and stress, and better positive mental health. Results further revealed that balance perceptions partly explained the relationship between volunteering and health. Volunteering, albeit energy and time-consuming, may contribute to a greater sense of balance for people in the workforce, which might, in turn, positively influence health.
Richard M. Clerkin
Full Text Available In this paper, we apply public service motivation to the ongoing discussion of formal and informal volunteering and whether these are two distinct constructs or variations on the same theme. This exploratory research uses survey data of undergraduate students reporting their participation in both types of volunteering activities. Using structural equation modeling, these formal and informal volunteering activities show different influences on three dimensions of PSM. In addition to PSM, high school volunteering and religiosity have direct effects on rates of formal volunteering, which in turn positively influence the PSM dimensions of civic duty and self-sacrifice. Being an Evangelical Christian is associated with increased informal volunteering, which is positively related to the PSM compassion dimension. These results indicate that the different dimensions of PSM, and how formal and informal volunteering influences them, should be useful tools for scholars and practitioners seeking to understand these distinct types of pro-social behaviors.
K. Kurita (Ken-ichi); M. Yoshida (Masayuki); Y. Miyazaki (Yoshihisa)
textabstractLocal communities in Japan are struggling to increase the number of participants in volunteer activities in order to revitalize local life. To maintain the enthusiasm of active volunteers and entice new volunteers, a new type of reward to increase motivation is needed. Accordingly,
Duggal, Shalu; Farah, Peggy; Straatman, Lynn Patricia; Freeman, Leanne; Dickson, Susan
Canuck Place Children's Hospice (CPCH) is regarded as one of the leading pediatric palliative care systems in the world. Since 1995, it has been providing hospice care free of charge to children and their families living with life-threatening conditions. The pediatric palliative hospice is a relatively new practice in health care, in comparison to the longstanding adult model. As a result, development and implementation of volunteer programs in pediatric hospices is not currently represented in literature. With over 300 volunteers at present, CPCH has built a successful program that can serve as a model in pediatric volunteer services. To present the unique volunteer roles and experience at CPCH, and share ways volunteers work to support the efforts of the clinical team. Strategies to address current challenges in the volunteer program are also addressed. Descriptive design. A current CPCH volunteer discusses the volunteer program. Interviews were conducted with the founding volunteer director of CPCH and current volunteers. The volunteer program at CPCH fully embraces the life of each child and family. Volunteer selection is the groundwork for ensuring a cohesive work force, while training equips volunteers with the knowledge to carry out their role with confidence. Areas of improvement that have been recognized include offering effective feedback to volunteers and delivering adequate level of training for non-direct care roles. The talents of volunteers at CPCH are diverse, and CPCH aims to recognize and thank volunteers for their continuous contributions.
Hustinx, L.; Shachar, I.Y.; Handy, F.; Smith, D.H.; Smith, D.H.; Stebbins, R.A.; Grotz, J.
Most other chapters in this Handbook focus on volunteering in associations, but this chapter focuses instead mainly on volunteering in volunteer service programs (VSPs). As discussed at length in Handbook Chapter 15, VSPs are essentially volunteer departments of other, larger, controlling, parent
This article reports on a study of volunteer levels of Catholics from various World regions who attended an international youth Catholic festival. Volunteering levels, types of volunteering, reason for volunteering, Catholic group membership and pro-social values are analysed. An online survey was administered five months after the Festival to…
I. A. Zaitseva
Full Text Available The article examines the involvement of students in volunteer activities, examines the organization of students volunteer activities and volunteer projects realization at the university. The potential of volunteerism as an effective mechanism for addressing the urgent social problems is revealed.Theauthorstudiesexperience of volunteer services organization the I.A. Bunin State University in Yelets.
Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007
This pack aims to provide materials to help all those involved in youth volunteering and post-16 citizenship education to ensure that there are some citizenship learning outcomes from these valuable experiences. The pack has been produced by the Post-16 Citizenship Support Programme to help the integration of citizenship education into post-16…
Infurna, Frank J; Okun, Morris A; Grimm, Kevin J
To examine whether psychosocial factors that can be a target for interventions, such as volunteering, are associated with risk of cognitive impairment. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data from 1998 to 2012, a nationally representative longitudinal panel survey of older adults assessed every 2 years, were used. The HRS interviews participants aged 50 and older across the contiguous United States. Individuals aged 60 and older in 1998 (N = 13,262). Personal interviews were conducted with respondents to assess presence of cognitive impairment, measured using a composite across cognitive measures. Volunteering at the initial assessment and volunteering regularly over time independently decreased the risk of cognitive impairment over 14 years, and these findings were maintained independent of known risk factors for cognitive impairment. Greater risk of onset of cognitive impairment was associated with being older, being female, being nonwhite, having fewer years of education, and reporting more depressive symptoms. Consistent civic engagement in old age is associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment and provides impetus for interventions to protect against the onset of cognitive impairment. Given the increasing number of baby boomers entering old age, the findings support the public health benefits of volunteering and the potential role of geriatricians, who can promote volunteering by incorporating "prescriptions to volunteer" into their patient care. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Elnawawy, Omnia; Lee, Andrew C K; Pohl, Gerda
International medical volunteering has grown in recent decades. It has the potential to benefit and harm the volunteer and host countries; but there is a paucity of literature on the impacts of international medical volunteering and a need to find ways to optimise the benefits of such placements. In this study, one example of international medical volunteering was examined involving British GPs on short-term placements in Nepal. The intention was to explore the expectations and experiences of the local health workers, volunteers, and host organisation to try and understand what makes volunteer placements work. Qualitative study of key informant interviews. Stakeholders of a short-term international medical volunteer (IMV) placement programme in Nepal. Key informant interviews were carried out via face-to-face or telephone/internet interviews with five previous volunteers, three representatives from a non-governmental organisation providing placements, and five local health workers in Nepal who had had contact with the IMVs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using standard thematic framework approaches. All the stakeholders had their own specific motives for participating in the IMV programme. The relationship between volunteers and the Nepalese health workers was complex and characterised by discrepant and occasionally unrealistic expectations. Managing these different expectations was challenging. Contextual issues and cultural differences are important considerations in medical volunteer programmes, and this study highlights the importance of robust preparation pre-placement for the volunteer and host to ensure positive outcomes. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.
Fyffe, Ian Alexander
The purpose of this thesis is to examine differences in volunteering experiences between middle-aged and older aged persons participating in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics. Erik Erikson’s (1959/1994) concept of generativity is applied in order to test hypotheses pertaining to age-related associations between a pre-existing community volunteer role and meaning, self-esteem and meaning as well as sense of belonging and meaning. Data were utilized from the Older Olympic Volunteer Project ...
Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related well-being can function as a driver of volunteer work. Moreover, building on the Conservations of Resources Theory (Hobfoll,), we propose that the relationship between work-related well-being (burnout an...
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…
For several decades, a variety of Canadian academic and nonacademic programs have enabled young Canadians to undertake international practicums through volunteer and work abroad programs. More than 65 000 Canadians have participated in such programs over the last half-century. During the past decade, ...
Beasley, Elizabeth; Brooker, Joanne; Warren, Narelle; Fletcher, Jane; Boyle, Christopher; Ventura, Adriana; Burney, Susan
Many patients approaching death experience hopelessness, helplessness, and a depressed mood, and these factors can contribute to a difficult end-of-life (EoL) period. Biography services may assist patients in finding meaning and purpose at this time. The aim of our study was to investigate the lived experience of volunteers involved in a biography service in Melbourne, Australia, using a qualitative methodology. The participants were 10 volunteers who had participated in a biography service within a private palliative care service. Each volunteer was interviewed separately using a study-specific semistructured interview guide. The transcripts of these interviews were then subjected to thematic analysis. Analysis yielded the following themes: motivations for volunteering; dealing with death, dying, and existential issues; psychosocial benefits of volunteering; and benefits and challenges of working with patients and their families. Our results indicated that volunteering gave the volunteers a deeper appreciation of existential issues, and helped them to be more appreciative of their own lives and gain a deeper awareness of the struggles other people experience. They also suggested that volunteers felt that their involvement contributed to their own personal development, and was personally rewarding. Furthermore, the results highlighted that volunteers found that encounters with family members were sometimes challenging. While some were appreciative, others imposed time limits, became overly reliant on the volunteers, and were sometimes offended, hurt, and angered by what was included in the final biography. It is hoped that the findings of the current study will provide direction for improvements in the biography services that will benefit patients, family members, and volunteers. In particular, our findings highlight the need to provide ongoing support for volunteers to assist them in handling the challenges of volunteering in a palliative care setting.
Guinevere M. Lourens
Full Text Available Background: A volunteer programme with 50 registered volunteers was established in 2007 at a secondary-level public, semi-rural regional hospital in the Cape Winelands, South Africa. This was a rapid response to the extensive renovations and system changes brought about by the hospital revitalisation initiated in 2006 and the resultant expanded services, which required additional human resources. This study describes the hospital volunteer programme and provides hospital administrators with practical planning guidance for hospital volunteer programme implementation. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to (1 describe the outcomes of the hospital volunteer programme implementation intervention and (2 to make sound recommendations for volunteer programme implementation. Methodology and approach: A qualitative case-study methodology was employed using purposive sampling as a technique. Participants were recruited from a public hospital in the Western Cape. A case-study design was applied to explore the hospital volunteer programme implementation. In-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with thematic content analysis of transcripts as well as document reviews were conducted to conclude the study during 2015. The key participants were individually interviewed and included two members of the hospital management, two volunteers and one volunteer coordinator. A focus group discussion consisting of three volunteers was also conducted. Findings: The findings of this study indicate that a volunteer programme can meet needs and be a motivational force for both the individual volunteer and the organisation. However, it requires co-ordination and some secure funding to remain sustainable. Such a programme holds huge benefits in terms of human resource supplementation, organisational development, as well as the possibility of gainful employment for the previously unemployed. Practical implications: In practice, a health service contemplating a
This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…
Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related
Andrews, Kevin B.; Lockett, Landry L.
Extension professionals can gain much-needed competencies in volunteer administration through experiential learning by participating in volunteer activities. Experiential learning is a means of behavior change that allows the individual learner to reflect on, abstract, and apply their experiences to new situations. This article expands on…
Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be…
Brown, Kevin; Lipsig-Mumme, Carla; Zajdow, Grazyna
Volunteering is often seen as an essential element in active citizenship and community participation, and existing literature suggests that those who volunteer young are more likely to volunteer through later stages of life. Analysis of Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), which identified factors that contribute to volunteering for…
Aspectos éticos e estratégias para a participação voluntária da criança em pesquisa Aspectos éticos y estrategias para la participación voluntaria de niños en la investigación Ethical issues and strategies for the voluntary participation of children in research
Cecília Helena de Siqueira Sigaud
Full Text Available A literatura de saúde tem abordado os aspectos éticos da investigação com seres humanos há décadas, mas ainda há desafios a serem reconhecidos e superados, tais como os referentes à pesquisa com crianças. Este artigo apresenta e discute aspectos éticos da pesquisa com crianças. Descreve estratégias de abordagem conformes às necessidades infantis, segundo seu processo de desenvolvimento e características individuais, para garantir a participação voluntária da criança na pesquisa.La literatura de salud ha tratado de los aspectos éticos de la investigación con seres humanos hace décadas, pero aun hay retos que deben ser reconocidos y superados, tales como los referentes a la investigación con la población infantil. Este artículo presenta y discute aspectos éticos de la investigación con niños y niñas. Describe estrategias de abordaje adecuadas a las necesidades infantiles, según su proceso de desarrollo y características individuales, para garantizar la participación voluntaria de niños y niñas en investigaciones.Ethical issues about research with human beings have been addressed in health literature since decades. In spite of this, it is necessary to enhance actions to face many challenges, like the ones related to investigation of childhood. This paper presents and discusses ethical issues in research with children. It describes some strategies to perform with children, considering their developmental process and individual characteristics, in order to guarantee their voluntary participation in research.
Mojza, Eva J; Lorenz, Christian; Sonnentag, Sabine; Binnewies, Carmen
This study focused on the role of volunteer work for daily recovery from work. In a 1-week diary study with 166 employees, we assessed the amount of time spent on volunteer work during leisure time, and the recovery facets of psychological detachment from work (i.e., mentally switching off from work), mastery experiences (i.e., pursuing challenging activities), and community experiences (i.e., cultivating relationships) every day before participants went to bed. Results from hierarchical linear modeling (n = 529 days) showed volunteer work during leisure time to be positively related to mastery experiences and community experiences suggesting volunteer work to contribute to successful recovery by creating new resources.
Wei, J. H.; Force, A.
From a volunteer's perspective, citizen science can provide a direct connection between outdoor enthusiasts and the scientists who study these natural environments. These experiences are both rewarding and engaging, as participants become aware of field sites, the scientific method, and their own environmental impacts. Recent technological advances (i.e. smart phones and mobile applications) have the potential to transform citizen science, specifically as technology can both enable and modernize the networks between a large community of potential volunteers and scientists using these data. By providing volunteers who venture into largely understudied and remote areas with an easy method for data collection and entry, it becomes easier to encourage volunteer engagement in science, while maintaining quality control over the data collection process. Participating in Adventure Scientists' projects demonstrates the application of technology as an effective engagement tool, especially when compared to traditional pen and paper surveys often conducted. Pairing volunteers with simple, familiar technology increases engagement, particularly for volunteers otherwise intimidated by the scientific process. When equipped with useful features, such as GPS functionality, smartphone apps offer a simple and standardized method of data collection and description. Yet a variety of factors can complicate field sampling; final choices are ultimately left to the judgment of the volunteer and perhaps could be guided by use of a phone/app. Importantly, Adventure Scientists conducts follow ups and volunteer surveys, which are critical to the continued evaluation of volunteer experiences and the sampling methods themselves. For future projects, creating a forum in which scientists and volunteers can interact (perhaps also through a phone app) could provide scientific context for volunteers, further investing them in the scientific process and their continued participation. Overall, the
Chacón, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Gema; Sauto, Verónica; Vecina, María L; Pérez, Alfonso
The objective of this research study was to conduct a systematic review of the research on volunteers using Clary et al.’s VFI (1998). A total of 48 research studies including 67 independent samples met eligibility criteria. The total sample of the studies analyzed ranged from 20375 to 21988 participants, depending on the motivation analyzed. The results show that the Values factor obtained the highest mean score, both overall and in each type of volunteering, whereas the lowest scores were for the Career and Enhancement factors. Studies conducted with samples with a mean age under 40 years obtain higher scores on Career and Understanding scales when compared to studies in older samples. The group of studies with less than 50% women yield higher mean scores on the Social scale than studies with more than 50% women in the sample. All the scales show reliability coefficients between .78 and .84. Only eight of the articles provide data on the reliability of the scale with a mean value of .90. Of the 26 studies that performed factor analysis, 18 confirmed the original structure of six factors.
Full Text Available Ulrika Söderhamn1, Bjørg Landmark2,3, Live Aasgaard2, Hilde Eide3, Olle Söderhamn11Center for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Institute of Research and Development for Nursing and Care Services, Municipality of Drammen, Drammen, Norway; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayIntroduction: The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strengthen community health care services more in the future than they do today.Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate lived experiences of working as a volunteer in an activity center with adapted activities for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia.Methods: Qualitative interviews were implemented in a group of nine female volunteers from an activity center in southern Norway. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Results: Volunteering in an activity center for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia was reported to provide experiences of being useful and feeling satisfied with performing a good job. It was an advantage for the volunteers to have had experiences from life in general, but also as a health professional or as being the next of kin of a dementia sufferer. It was important for the volunteers to focus on the dementia sufferer and show caring behavior, and interaction with and the appreciation of the health care professionals were also important. The volunteers were motivated by being able to have influence and participate in the planning of the work, to be a part of the social setting, and to learn. However, for some volunteers it was difficult to adjust to an appropriate role.Conclusion: In order to promote volunteering in a caring context, mutual
Full Text Available While research has been conducted concerning the effects of school-based mentoring on atrisk students, limited work has focused on the volunteer mentors. This study examined the motivations of adult volunteers and the benefits of their participation in a six-month,school-based mentoring program. A total of 31 volunteers completed adapted versions of the Volunteer Functions Inventory and a post-survey as part of a program in which they mentored at-risk elementary school students. Volunteers were more satisfied with theirmentoring experience when their perceived benefits matched their initial motivations, though this did not seem to impact their intentions to mentor again in the future. Volunteers’ motivations tended toward expressing important values or gaining greaterunderstanding, though some younger volunteers were also motivated to gain career-related experience. Implications for school-based mentoring programs are addressed.
Lederer, Alyssa M; Autry, Dana M; Day, Carol R T; Oswalt, Sara B
To examine the impact of work and volunteer hours on 4 health issues among undergraduate college students. Full-time undergraduate students (N = 70,068) enrolled at 129 institutions who participated in the Spring 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II survey. Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to examine work and volunteer hour impact on depression, feelings of being overwhelmed, sleep, and physical activity. The impact of work and volunteer hours was inconsistent among the health outcomes. Increased work hours tended to negatively affect sleep and increase feelings of being overwhelmed. Students who volunteered were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines, and those who volunteered 1 to 9 hours per week reported less depression. College health professionals should consider integrating discussion of students' employment and volunteering and their intersection with health outcomes into clinical visits, programming, and other services.
Full Text Available Training within volunteer humanitarian organisations is one of the most important areas of adult education nowadays. It comprises informal types of education and independent learning (workshops, study circles, activities within small groups, project work, discussions, exchanging opinions and · experiences, visits, presentations, consulting for members. Its goal is primarily encouraging members to act more appropriately, to develop and change fixed habits, viewpoints and behaviour patterns, as well as developing the organisation they belong to.
The aim of this article is to describe the potential with respect to volunteer work among 55 to 70-year-old persons along with a two-dimensional typology (actual volunteer work and intention of volunteering or expanding actual volunteer work) and to identify the influencing factors. Based on the dataset from the transitions and old age potential (TOP) study, a total of 4421 men and women born between 1942 and 1958 were included. A multinomial regression model showed the predictors for group affiliation along with an engagement-related typology (internal, utilized and external volunteer potential as well as definite non-volunteers). More than a half of the persons in the study sample could be classified as internal or external volunteer potential. Volunteers and potential volunteers revealed more similarities regarding resources and social factors than potential volunteers and definite non-volunteers. Potential volunteers were more active in other informal fields of activity (e.g. nursing or child care) than definite non-volunteers. With respect to volunteer work, definite non-volunteers showed various social disadvantages (in particular with respect to education and health) compared to (potential) volunteers. Other informal activities did not seem to be in major conflict with volunteer activities, e.g. nursing or child care, as long as they were carried out with moderate or low intensity.
This study evaluates the predictive effects of different aspects of volunteering (e.g. volunteering status, number of hours, number of years, and type of volunteering activity) on all-cause mortality. A seven-year follow-up dataset of a nationally representative sample of Israelis, 60 years and older was used. As expected, volunteering was associated with a reduced mortality risk even after adjusting for age, gender, education, baseline mental health and physical health, activity level, and social engagement. Those who volunteered for 10 to 14 years had a reduced mortality risk relative to non-volunteers. In addition, those who volunteered privately, not as part of an official organization, also had a reduced mortality risk compared to non-volunteers. The number of hours of volunteering was not a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in the fully adjusted model. In additional sensitivity analyses limited to those who volunteered, none of the various aspects of volunteering was associated with a reduced mortality risk. Results suggest that not all aspects of volunteering have the same predictive value and that the protective effects of length of volunteering time and type of volunteering are particularly important. However, whether or not volunteering is the most consistent predictor of mortality and whether once a person volunteers the various aspects of volunteering are no longer associated with mortality risk.
Aguado Sanchez, Carlos; Blomer, Jakob; Buncic, Predrag; Ellis, John; Harutyunyan, Artem; Marquina, Miguel; Mato, Pere; Schulz, Holger; Segal, Ben; Sharma, Archana; Skands, Peter; Chen Gang; Wu Jie; Wu Wenjing; Garcia Quintas, David; Grey, Francois; Lombrana Gonzalez, Daniel; Rantala, Jarno; Weir, David; Yadav, Rohit
Computing for the LHC, and for HEP more generally, is traditionally viewed as requiring specialized infrastructure and software environments, and therefore not compatible with the recent trend in v olunteer computing , where volunteers supply free processing time on ordinary PCs and laptops via standard Internet connections. In this paper, we demonstrate that with the use of virtual machine technology, at least some standard LHC computing tasks can be tackled with volunteer computing resources. Specifically, by presenting volunteer computing resources to HEP scientists as a v olunteer cloud , essentially identical to a Grid or dedicated cluster from a job submission perspective, LHC simulations can be processed effectively. This article outlines both the technical steps required for such a solution and the implications for LHC computing as well as for LHC public outreach and for participation by scientists from developing regions in LHC research.
Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R
While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present engaged anthropology and its methodological tools with a specific perspective of the research field and the position of the researcher with regard to research subjects. The study focuses on corporate volunteering as one of the forms of collaboration between the non-profit and the private sectors seeking solutions to social problems and community development. Volunteering projects contribute to the interlinking of the knowledge, skills, experience and resources of corporate employees and the representatives of the non-profit or the public sector. It is a part of the philanthropic strategy of companies which are willing to present themselves as entities responsible towards the environment in which they run their business, and towards their employees, partners and customers. Engaged anthropology can bring, through its methodological tools, a new perspective of corporate volunteering. Community-based participatory research on the process of knowledge creation includes all partners on an equal basis and identifies their unique contribution to problem solution and community development.
Ahn, SangNam; Phillips, Karon L; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G
This study aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with volunteering among older adults. Based on data from the 2008 Aging Texas Well (ATW) Indicators Survey, we examined the degree to which demographic factors, health status, spiritual participation, and community involvement are associated with volunteering among adults aged 60 years or older (n = 525). Rates of volunteering varied by race/ethnicity: non-Hispanic Whites (56.4%), African Americans (51.1%), and Hispanics (43.2%). Bivariate analyses showed that non-Hispanic White older adults were more likely to participate in formal volunteering activities, while their African American and Hispanic counterparts tended to participate in informal volunteering activities. Logistic regression analyses revealed that volunteering was less observed among Hispanics (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.78). Volunteering was more observed among those who reported providing informal care (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.28), having very good or excellent mental health (OR = 1.90 and 2.07, 95% CI 1.09-3.32 and 1.20-3.55, respectively), having weekly or daily spiritual participation (OR = 2.15 and 2.35, 95% CI 1.28-3.63 and 1.29-4.28, respectively), perceiving community involvement very important (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.55-3.62), and being very satisfied with the community interaction (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.85). Given the positive associations of mental health, spirituality, and social engagement with volunteering among older adults, system-level efforts to increase the sense of community among older adults and recognize their roles as volunteers will be helpful in recruiting and retaining older volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Helgerson, Linda; And Others
This manual presents guidelines for planning, monitoring, and controlling the development and operation of volunteer assistance programs. The materials included address questions related to both the process of establishing a volunteer program and the administration of a volunteer management system. The manual is not intended to provide a blueprint…
Terry, Bryan; Harder, Amy; Pracht, Dale
Volunteers can be an important resource of many nonprofit organizations. The ability to meet the mission, goals and objectives of nonprofit organizations often depends upon the effectiveness of volunteer involvement in direct service delivery or indirect program support. Volunteer involvement utilizes financial and non-financial resources of an…
Gerhard, Gary W.
This model was developed to provide a systematic, staged approach to volunteer personnel management. It provides a general process for dealing with volunteers from the point of organization entry through volunteer career stages to the time of exiting the organization. The model provides the structural components necessary to (1) plan, coordinate,…
... designed to provide educationally related work assignments for students in non-pay status. The volunteer... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Volunteer Programs AGENCY... the Volunteer Programs. DATES: We will consider comment that we received by July 22, 2011. ADDRESSES...
Holdsworth, Clare; Quinn, Jocey
Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross-party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and…
Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven
This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…
Describes results of a study focused on the role and relationship of 4-H agents working with program management volunteers in clubs, communities, and counties. Factors found to be instrumental in the expanded involvement of key volunteers include agent self-confidence, belief in volunteerism, strong support system, and careful volunteer selection.…
Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Experiences in adolescence may have a lasting impact on adulthood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between adolescent (12-18 years of age) volunteerism with the incidence of illegal behaviors, arrests, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age). We conducted a retrospective cohort study using secondary data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Students from grades 7-12 were recruited in 1994-1995 (n = 20,745), and then followed in 2001-2002 (n = 14,322) and in 2008-2009 (n = 12,288). In 2000-2001, participants were retrospectively asked about their volunteering experience from 12 to 18 years of age. Consequently, participants were divided into non-volunteers, self-volunteers, adult-required volunteers, and court-ordered volunteers. Groups were compared for rates of illegal behaviors, arrest, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age) using weighted generalized linear mixed negative binomial models while accounting for sampling design. Relative to non-volunteers, self-volunteers reported 11 % fewer illegal behaviors (RR: 0.89, 95 % CI: 0.80, 0.99), 31 % fewer arrests (RR: 0.69, 95 %: 0.57, 0.85), and 39 % fewer convictions (RR: 0.61, 95 % CI: 0.47, 0.79) by age 18-28 years, and 28 % fewer illegal behaviors, 53 % fewer arrests, and 36 % fewer convictions by age 24-34. In comparison the adult-required volunteers also reported fewer arrests and convictions; however, they reported more illegal behaviors than the non-volunteers. The court-ordered volunteers reported higher rates of criminal involvement than the non-volunteers, throughout. This study suggests that volunteering in adolescence may reduce crime involvement in adulthood.
Morley, Katharine E; Barysauskas, Constance M; Carballo, Victoria; Kalibatas, Orinta; Rao, Sandhya K; Jacobson, Joseph O; Cummings, Brian M
The Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program provides quality improvement training for clinicians and administrators, utilizing graduates as volunteer peer coaches for mentorship. We sought to understand the factors associated with volunteer coach participation and gain insight into how to improve and sustain this program. Review of coach characteristics from course database and survey of frequent coaches. Out of 516 Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program graduates from March 2010 to June 2015, 117 (23%) individuals volunteered as coaches. Sixty-one (52%) individuals coached once, 31 (27%) coached twice, and 25 (21%) coached 3 or more times. There were statistically significant associations between coaching and occupation (P = .005), Partners Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program course taken (P = .001), and course location (P = .007). Administrators were more likely to coach than physicians (odds ratio: 1.75, P = .04). Reasons for volunteering as a coach included further development of skills, desire to stay involved with program, and enjoying mentoring. Reasons for repeated coaching included maintaining quality improvement skills, expanding skills to a wider variety of projects, and networking. A peer graduate volunteer coach model is a viable strategy for interprofessional quality improvement mentorship. Strategies that support repeat coaching and engage clinicians should be promoted to ensure an experienced and diversified group of coaches.
Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.
Full Text Available Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers have contributed to the settlement of newcomers into Canadian society. Despite their important contribution, little has been reported about the experiences and perspectives of these volunteers. Using the information collected from face-to-face interviews with 60 Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers who support newcomers, this article discusses factors that motivate people to volunteer with newcomers. The study results revealed among other findings that (1 to become a volunteer, one not only needs to be motivated but also needs to believe that volunteering will produce the expected positive results and to have confidence in one’s ability to complete the assigned tasks, (2 once people become volunteers, the experience of volunteering tests their perceived self-efficacy and their belief about the effectiveness of their volunteer work. Success or failure in their expectations influences their decision tocontinue or discontinue their volunteer work.
... children or disadvantaged youth, helping in youth programs as camp counselors, soliciting contributions or participating in civic or charitable benefit programs and volunteering other services needed to carry out...
The Medical & Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System collects demographic and medical information on subjects who participate in research. Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.
This review summarizes the current knowledge about volunteering in later life and suggests 5 research questions at the forefront of knowledge development. Rates of volunteering do not decline significantly until the middle of the 7th decade, and older volunteers commit more hours than younger volunteers. Older adults with more human and social capital tend to volunteer, and there is good evidence of a reciprocal relationship between volunteering and well-being. Program and policy developments in the field are outstripping production of knowledge to support evidence-based practices. Research on the dynamics of volunteering over the life course as well as the patterns of activities that co-occur with volunteering is needed to guide program development. Research methods and findings from transdisciplinary work on the mechanisms through which psychosocial conditions affect health must be extended to the study of the effects of volunteering on older adults. Finally, we need to engage in more applied social science aimed at improving volunteer management, especially recruitment and retention of older volunteers.
Yamashita, Takashi; Keene, Jennifer R; Lu, Chi-Jung; Carr, Dawn C
Volunteering is beneficial not only for individuals' well-being but also for society's well-being; yet only a fraction of U.S. citizens regularly engage in volunteer activities. This study examined how underlying motivations are associated with interest in volunteering for individuals in three major life phases: early, middle, and later adulthood. Data were collected from 1,046 adults who volunteered through nonprofit organizations in Nevada (USA). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that community service, career advancement, and well-being were common underlying motivations for individuals across life stages. However, generativity among the later adulthood group, and social networking among the early and middle adulthood groups were unique motivations for volunteering. Regression analysis showed that the community service motivation was significantly associated with individuals' interest in volunteering among all life stages. Simultaneously, generativity for the later adulthood group, and career advancement for the early adulthood group were unique motivations linked to their actual interest in volunteering.
Brown, Mary V
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the interpretation of stress, the appraisal of the stressors, as well as the top stressors experienced by hospice volunteers. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, using qualitative research methods. Although the results indicated that the hospice volunteers did not perceive their work as stressful, 2 main themes regarding challenging experiences did emerge. Hospice-related issues and personal issues were of concern to the volunteers. In addition, the timing of the stressors revealed that the most stress was felt at the beginning of their volunteer services, which has implications for hospice volunteer coordinators as they support their volunteers in the field.
This text concentrates on volunteering in volunteer organizations. It examines the connection between volunteer management professionalization level and volunteer work satisfaction in these organizations. In the theoretical part is defined the concepts of volunteering, professionalization and satisfaction are defined and their particular aspects associated with the focus of the thesis are highlighted. The empirical part describes the construction of the research method and presents the analys...
Bradford, S; Hills, L; Johnston, C
Sport has become a major setting for youth volunteering in the UK. Volunteering has become understood as a means of enhancing responsible citizenship and of adding various capitals to young people’s identities. Much research on young people’s volunteering in sport has typically (and sometimes by default) focused on middle class experiences, highlighting the combination of instrumental and altruistic motives for volunteering, the importance of family and school in decisions about volunteering ...
Kinnane, Nicole Anne; Waters, Trish; Aranda, Sanchia
Volunteers from Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (Peter Mac) Patient Information and Support Centre (PISC) assist the Cancer Support Nurse by helping patients and families/carers find information and provide face-to-face peer support. Benefits of shared personal experiences between volunteer and patient are clearly different from professional support. Volunteers require specific skill sets and detailed preparation for this role. Volunteers completed a 3-day training programme adapted from the Cancer Council Victoria's 'Cancer Connect Telephone Peer Support Volunteer' training programme. The focus was role expectations and boundaries for peer support volunteers, debriefing, communication skills training, support services, complementary and alternative therapies and internet information. Assessment included a quiz and observation for a range of competencies. Role-play with simulated patients developed appropriate support skills. Eight volunteers participated. Pre-training questionnaires revealed all volunteers highly self-rated existing skills supporting people affected by cancer. During training, volunteers recognised these skills were inadequate. All agreed that role-play using an actor as a 'simulated patient' helped develop communication skills; however, the experience proved challenging. Post-training all reported increased knowledge of role definition and boundaries, supportive communication skills, supports available for patients and families/carers and importance of self-care. Facilitators recommended seven of the eight participants be accredited PISC Peer Support Volunteers. One volunteer was assessed unsuitable for consistently overstepping the boundaries of the peer support role and withdrew from training. Success of the programme resulted in a trained 'face-to-face peer support volunteer' group better equipped for their role. Sixteen months following training, all who completed the programme remain active volunteers in the PISC. Planned educational updates
Bardin, P G; Sanderson, G; Robinson, B S; Holgate, S T; Tyrrell, D A
Experimental viral disease studies in volunteers have clarified many aspects of the pathogenesis of human viral disease. Recently, interest has focused on rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations, and new volunteer studies have suggested that airway responsiveness (AR) is enhanced during a cold. For scientific, ethical and safety reasons, it is important to use validated methods for the preparation of a virus inoculum and that the particular virological characteristics and host responses should not be altered. We have prepared a new human rhinovirus (HRV) inoculum using recent guidelines and assessed whether disease characteristics (for example, severity of colds or changes in AR) were retained. Studies were conducted in 25 clinically healthy volunteers using a validated HRV inoculum in the first 17 and a new inoculum in the subsequent eight subjects. Severity of cold symptoms, nasal wash albumin levels and airway responsiveness were measured, and the new inoculum was prepared from nasal washes obtained during the cold. The new inoculum was tested using standard virological and serological techniques, as well as a polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. No contaminating viruses or organisms were detected and the methods suggested were workable. Good clinical colds developed in 20 of the 25 subjects and median symptom scores were similar in the validated and new inoculum groups (18 and 17.5, respectively; p=0.19). All subjects shed virus, and there were no differences noted in viral culture scores, nasal wash albumin and rates of seroconversion in the two groups. Although airway responsiveness increased in both groups (p=0.02 and p=0.05), the degree of change was similar. We have performed experimental rhinovirus infection studies and demonstrated similar clinical disease in two inoculum groups. Amplified airway responsiveness was induced; continuing studies will define the mechanisms and suggest modes of treatment.
Glenton, Claire; Scheel, Inger B; Pradhan, Sabina; Lewin, Simon; Hodgins, Stephen; Shrestha, Vijaya
The Female Community Health Volunteer (FCHV) Programme in Nepal has existed since the late 1980s and includes almost 50,000 volunteers. Although volunteer programmes are widely thought to be characterised by high attrition levels, the FCHV Programme loses fewer than 5% of its volunteers annually. The degree to which decision makers understand community health worker motivations and match these with appropriate incentives is likely to influence programme sustainability. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of stakeholders who have participated in the design and implementation of the Female Community Health Volunteer regarding Volunteer motivation and appropriate incentives, and to compare these views with the views and expectations of Volunteers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2009 with 19 purposively selected non-Volunteer stakeholders, including policy makers and programme managers. Results were compared with data from previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers and from interviews with four Volunteers and two Volunteer activists. Stakeholders saw Volunteers as motivated primarily by social respect, religious and moral duty. The freedom to deliver services at their leisure was seen as central to the volunteer concept. While stakeholders also saw the need for extrinsic incentives such as micro-credit, regular wages were regarded not only as financially unfeasible, but as a potential threat to the Volunteers' social respect, and thereby to their motivation. These views were reflected in interviews with and previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers, and appear to be influenced by a tradition of volunteering as moral behaviour, a lack of respect for paid government workers, and the Programme's community embeddedness. Our study suggests that it may not be useful to promote a generic range of incentives, such as wages, to improve community health worker programme sustainability. Instead, programmes should ensure that
Full Text Available Volunteer workers contribute to many aspects of society. There are volunteer organisations which formally assist in many areas such as health, education, housing, safety and security. Virtual volunteering is less common. Virtual volunteering...
Yeung, Jerf W K; Zhang, Zhuoni; Kim, Tae Yeun
Although the health benefits of volunteering have been well documented, no research has examined its cumulative effects according to other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering on multiple health outcomes in the general adult public. This study examined other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering in cumulative contribution to health outcomes (mental and physical health, life satisfaction, social well-being and depression). Data were drawn from the Survey of Texas Adults 2004, which contains a statewide population-based sample of adults (n = 1504). Multivariate linear regression and Wald test of parameters equivalence constraint were used to test the relationships. Both forms of volunteering were significantly related to better health outcomes (odds ratios = 3.66% to 11.11%), except the effect of self-oriented volunteering on depression. Other-oriented volunteering was found to have better health benefits than did self-volunteering. Volunteering should be promoted by public health, education and policy practitioners as a kind of healthy lifestyle, especially for the social subgroups of elders, ethnic minorities, those with little education, single people, and unemployed people, who generally have poorer health and less participation in volunteering.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on volunteer tourism as a sustainable form of tourism relating to the volunteer service at a tourism destination and specific tourism activities. The aim of the paper is to explore volunteer tourism in Slovakia with examples of organized events, especially to search exactly how event’s organizers support the development of domestic and inbound volunteer tourism in Slovakia. This paper is based on a sociological survey. We addressed 653 heterogeneous event’s organizers in Slovakia. 18% of them participated in the questionnaire survey. The collected data were processed by selected mathematical and statistical methods in SPSS statistics program. As such, we found most events organizers team up with volunteers. Only half of the organizers cooperate with local volunteers, while the second half also support the development of volunteer tourism engaging in voluntourism. In the case of attractive events, the engagement of voluntourists could be more effective. The current situation has resulted from missing information about the management of volunteers but it could be improved through an e-manual for event organizers providing an outline guide for volunteer management.
This paper explores the manner in which two hospices--one located in Denmark and one in Australia--negotiate and determine the boundaries of volunteer workers vis-à-vis paid staff. A comparative case study approach was used to juxtapose organisations with similar activity fields located in different welfare state systems, i.e. a social democratic welfare state and a liberal welfare state. This study involved non-participant observation of volunteers at work and unstructured interviews with volunteers, staff and management in the hospices (n = 41). Data were collected between August 2012 and February 2013. Data were managed using NVivo and analysed thematically. A key finding is that volunteers in the Danish hospice were excluded from all direct care work due to the effective monopoly of the professional care providers, whereas the Australian volunteers participated in the provision of care to the extent that risk could be eliminated or mitigated to an acceptable level. The findings suggest two different models of the roles of volunteers in tension with professional care providers. Both models recognise that volunteers add to the level of care delivered by the organisations and allow for a discussion that moves away from the normative discussions of 'not taking somebody's job', while also recognising that volunteers must be more than just the 'nice extra' if they are to be of any real value to the organisation and to care receivers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leonida Kobal Možina
Full Text Available Distinctions among different attachment styles often appear to be unclear. These distinction inadequacies also result from superficial knowledge of psychodynamic factors of the attachment system, which the concept of internal working models often neglects. In my research I have examined the appearance of specific object relations characteristics in the adulthood period. In other words, I have examined the solution of the separation-individuation process according to the internal working models of self and other, which exist in the background of the attachment system. Twenty-one young adult volunteers included in this research took part in a psychotherapeutic camp in order to help children and adolescents with psychosocial problems. Information was gathered with the Interpersonal Relations Questionnaire (Bartholomew in Horowitz, 1991, the Test of Object Relations (Žvelc, 1998 and with two semi-structured interviews. Among volunteers with a negative self-model, dimensions of symbiotic merging, egocentrism, separation anxiety and social isolation were more evident, whereas volunteers with a negative other-model expressed fear of engulfment more clearly. Results have confirmed that volunteers with prevailingly insecure attachment styles have problems with separation-individuation process and with achieving reciprocal autonomy.
... communication of VISTA policies to VISTA volunteers. (c) Encourage and develop VISTA volunteer leadership and... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roles of volunteers. 1217.6 Section 1217.6 Public... VISTA VOLUNTEER LEADER § 1217.6 Roles of volunteers. VISTA volunteer leaders may have the following...
Yeomans, Daniel; Le, Grace; Pandit, Hemant; Lavy, Chris
Locally requested and planned overseas volunteering in low-income and middle-income countries by National Health Service (NHS) staff can have benefits for the host or receiving nation, but its impact on the professional development of NHS staff is not proven. The Knowledge and Skills Framework (KSF) and Leadership Framework (LF) are two tools used by employers as a measure of individuals' development. We have used dimensions from both tools as a method of evaluating the benefit to NHS doctors who volunteer overseas. 88 NHS volunteers participating with local colleagues in Primary Trauma Care and orthopaedic surgical training courses in sub-Saharan Africa were asked to complete an online self-assessment questionnaire 6 months following their return to the UK. The survey consisted of questions based on qualities outlined in both the KSF and LF. 85 completed responses to the questionnaire were received. In every KSF domain assessed, the majority of volunteers agreed that their overseas volunteering experience improved their practice within the NHS. Self-assessed pre-course and post-course scores evaluating the LF also saw a universal increase, notably in the 'working with others' domain. There is a growing body of literature outlining the positive impact of overseas volunteering on NHS staff. Despite increasing evidence that such experiences can develop volunteers' essential skills, individuals often find it difficult to gain support of their employers. Our study, in line with the current literature, shows that overseas volunteering by NHS staff can provide an opportunity to enhance professional and personal development. Skills gained from volunteering within international links match many of the qualities outlined in both KSF and LF, directly contributing to volunteers' continued professional development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless
Participation or active engagement with life is advocated internationally and is the core for successful aging of individuals. Although participating in volunteering has been proven to benefit older adults' health and well-being, men participate less in volunteerism than do women. Experiences are considered the primary resources for adults' growth…
Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne
Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....
Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne
Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....
This paper describes a study that was undertaken to investigate the effects of participating in a community volunteering programme (the Community Mothers Programme) on volunteers (Community Mothers). The aim of the study was to investigate if volunteering in this programme acted as a pathway to lifelong learning; did the volunteers recognise the learning of new knowledge and/or skills, and did their participation in the programme trigger them to progress to further education in other settings? A self-administered questionnaire method was used for data collection: 115 questionnaires being distributed to volunteers, with a response rate of eighty-two (71 per cent). Findings show that the majority of the respondents cited the learning of new knowledge and/or skills as a result of their participation in the Community Mothers Programme. Learning appeared to stem from the various training and activities, suggesting an educational process within the volunteer setting. Findings also show that the majority of respondents had progressed to further education. In this instance, therefore, volunteering did appear to act as a pathway to lifelong learning.
Andajani-Sutjahjo, Sari; Liew, Theresa C H; Smith, John F; Esekielu, Iutita; Mason, Gabrielle; Tariu, Imele
This article discusses the experiences of community volunteers' participation in a community-based participatory research project in Tāmaki, a low socio-economic and ethnically diverse suburban community within greater Auckland City, New Zealand. In the Tāmaki Community Action Research project, community volunteers were recruited and trained to conduct random household surveys (RHS) and asset mapping commissioned by community groups and government agencies in that area. The volunteers were involved in planning, coordination and ongoing governance of the project and ∼70 residents and local university students participated at different stages of the 2-year project. Over 600 RHS were completed and the volunteers' experiences were recorded in field notes, informal group discussions, daily team meetings and individual interviews and form the basis of this article. Only their experiences are discussed here, not the survey results which will be presented elsewhere. The project reflected the inherent asset-rich nature of the community via examples of individual volunteer empowerment and collective social/community capacity building. Volunteers increased their interpersonal and organizational skills, their understanding of the complexity of their community's logistics and cultural diversity, and gained an increased sense of community purpose and commitment. There was very strong endorsement of culturally sensitive research practice to recognize cultural differences and to engage productively within their richly ethnically diverse community. Full community volunteer participation in the project's governance (i.e. through design, training, implementation and ongoing consultation/management phases) was considered key to sustaining the life of project.
Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David; Koch-Nielsen, Inger
Citizens’ civic engagement and participation in voluntary associations is shaped by several factors, some of which are institutional while others are characteristics about the individual and the environment to which s/he belongs. Based on a comprehensive population survey carried out as part of t...... of the Danish Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this article explores determinants of formal and informal volunteering in a ‘state friendly society’ like the Danish....
Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Werner, Mads U
We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... separate trial days, with or without a nicotine patch applied 10 h previously. Pain perception at baseline, and 2 and 6 h after LPS was assessed by pressure algometry and tonic heat stimulation at an increasing temperature (45-48℃) during both trials. Compared with baseline, pain pressure threshold...... was reduced 2 and 6 h after LPS, while heat pain perception was accentuated at all testing temperatures after 2 but not 6 h. The magnitude of changes in pain perception did not correlate to cytokine release. No effect of transdermal nicotine or training status was observed. In conclusion, LPS administration...
Petrovski, Erik; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Holm, Anders
In addition to benefiting others, volunteer work is argued to supply volunteers themselves with skills, reputation, and social connections that increase overall employability. We test this hypothesized causal link between volunteer work and employability with a high-quality 2012 Danish survey...... sample of 1,867 individuals of working age. The survey data are linked to administrative registers containing individual-level data on unemployment. A combination of detailed controls, lagged dependent variables, and instrumental variable regression is used to determine cause and effect. Our findings...... show that performing volunteer work does not statistically significantly affect the risk or rate of unemployment for the typical individual on the labour market....
Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah
The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.
Vecina Jiménez, M L; Chacón Fuertes, Fernando; Sueiro Abad, Manuel J
Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations. The concept of satisfaction is considered theoretically relevant in practically all the studies that have investigated the factors that influence the permanence of volunteer participation in organizations. However, the practical results are not conclusive, perhaps due to the wide range of ways in which the concept is understood and measured. The object of this study is: to analyse the internal structure of satisfaction and to verify its relationship with volunteer duration in organizations. The results of the factor analysis yield a three-factor structure: Satisfaction with the management of the organization, Satisfaction with the tasks, Satisfaction of motivations. The three factors allow us to differentiate between individuals who remain in the organization for a period of 12 consecutive months, and those who leave earlier. The results of structural equation model analysis show that the relationship between satisfaction and the length of time that volunteers stay with the organization is affected by the intention to remain.
Chuba, T.J.; Dimmick, E.
While the sinking of the Tenyo Maru and resultant oil spill off Washington's Olympic Peninsula in July 1991 was tragic, it fostered the birth of a cooperative effort by federal and state agencies to train volunteer responders prior to another oil spill. This effort, under the auspices of an Oregon nonprofit group known as SOLV (Stop Oregon Littering and Vandalism), is known as the SOS (SOLV Oil Spill) Steering committee. The purpose of the group is to train volunteer responders to aid federal, state, and local agencies in future oil spill cleanup activities. For the first time in the nation, governmental agencies have joined with corporations and environmental organizations in coordinating educational programs involving citizens in oil spill remediation efforts before the advent of a major spill that could affect coastal areas or inland waterways. Free classes meeting federal and state hazardous waste training criteria are offered quarterly to citizens interested in either volunteer wildlife rehabilitation or beach cleanup. The four-hour course was developed by the US Coast Guard, Oregon State Department of Environmental Quality, and Oregon OSHA. Topics covered include agency responsibilities, site safety plans, general safety, toxicology, material safety data sheets, personal protective equipment, decontamination, heat stress, helicopter safety, and wildlife safety. In addition to course materials, participants receive a certificate and identification card verifying their training. A 1-800 number, computer data base, and newsletter are used to maintain contact with graduates. So far more than 600 volunteers have been trained and are ready to assist should the need arise
Imamov, A A; Balabanova, L A; Zamalieva, M A
The article presents experience of Rospotrebnadzor in the Republic of Tatarstan in the field of preventive medicine concerning training of volunteers on issues of infection safety with purpose of prevention of ictuses of infection diseases during mass activities with international participation in the period of XXVII World Summer Students Games. The model of hygienic training for volunteers provides two directions: training for volunteers ’ leaders on issues of infection safety and remote course for involved volunteers. During period of preparation for the Students Games-2013 hygienic training was organized for volunteers-leaders in the field of infection safety with following attestation. The modern training technologies were applied. The volunteers-leaders familiarized with groups of infection diseases including the most dangerous ones, investigated with expert algorithm of actions to be applied in case of suspicion on infection disease in gest or participant of the Games-2013 to secure one's health and health of immediate population. The active volunteers-leaders became trainers and coaches in the field of infection safety. The second stage of infection safety training organized by youth trainers' pool in number of 30 individuals the training technology "Equal trains equal" was applied for hygienic training of volunteers involved at epidemiologically significant objects (food objects, hotels, accompaniment of guests and sportsmen). The volunteers-leaders trained to infection safety 1400 volunteers. The format of electronic personal cabinet and remote course were selected as tools of post-training monitoring.
Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H
Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects.
Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H
Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. PMID:1619628
Full Text Available Programmes targeting student volunteering and service learning are part of encouraging civic behaviour amongst young people. This article reports on a large scale international survey comparing volunteering amongst tertiary students at universities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The data revealed high rates of student volunteering and the popularity of occasional or episodic volunteering. There were strong commonalities in student volunteering behaviour, motivations and benefits across the five Western predominately English-speaking countries. Altruism and self-orientated career motivations and benefits were most important to students; however volunteering and non-volunteering students differed in the relative value they attached to volunteering for CV-enhancement and social factors.
Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others
This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)
Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lee, Yung Soo; McCrary, Stacey; McBride, Amanda
Research on outcomes of volunteering in later life largely focuses on the health of volunteers. This is in contrast to studies of youth, where attention is directed toward the effects of volunteering on subsequent productive and citizen behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of volunteering on subsequent social and civic activity of older adults. This study was conducted with volunteers from Experience Corps® (EC), a national program that brings older adults into schools to work with students. Data were derived from a baseline survey of older adults who were new EC volunteers in fall of 2006 and 2007. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 338 volunteers in fall 2010 to capture work, education, and community activities undertaken subsequent to joining EC. Subsequent to joining EC, 16% of volunteers reported that they started a new job, 53% started another volunteer position, 40% started a community activity, and 39% took a class/started educational program. When asked if and how EC participation played a role in their new involvements, 71% said it increased confidence, 76% said it increased realization of the importance of organized activities/daily structure, and more than 40% said they made social connections that led to new involvements. Most reported they were more likely to be involved in advocacy efforts for public education. Volunteering among older adults is a means as well as an end--just as it is for young people. Programs can do more to attract and serve older adults by promoting volunteering as a pathway to other engagements, including work, social, and civic activities. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and completion of secondary school were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescent volunteering was associated with an in...
Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...
Natalia Ivanovna Gorlova
Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the topic of development of corporate volunteering, which is topical for Russian society. The subject of the analysis is corporate volunteering in Russia and its impact on the sustainable development of the organization. Corporate volunteering is seen at the intersection of the interests of the company, employees and the local community. The aim of the research is a theoretical analysis of modern practices of corporate volunteer activity as a factor of sustainable development of the organization. Methodology. Within the framework of the article, using the method of comparison and grouping, we analyzed and studied the materials of the latest international and Russian studies based on expert opinions from business, government, civil society on this phenomenon. Results. The results of the work consist in the fact that the authors grouped and summarized the motivational attitudes of participants in the corporate volunteer movement, presented practical recommendations on the formation of a system for supporting corporate volunteering, and showed the relationship between the organization’s sustainable development and corporate volunteering. Practical implications. The practical significance of the study is that its conclusions and recommendations can be used in the organization of corporate volunteering in Russian companies.
Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and…
... programs under this part to volunteer assistance, in the form of mentoring, tutoring, and other activities. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Volunteer program. 628.540 Section 628.540 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE II OF...
Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias
This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…
Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam; MacCallum, Judith; Young, Susan; Walker, Gabrielle; Holmes, Kirsten; Haski-Leventha, Debbie; Scott, Rowena
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six…
Darwen, Jamie; Rannard, Andrea Grace
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of student volunteering in English universities, and show how it contributes to some of the core activities of higher education, including teaching and learning, employability, and public engagement. The paper goes on to describe challenges currently faced by student volunteering,…
Eric, B. Wolf; Poore, Barbara S.; Caro, Holly K.; Matthews, Greg D.
Since 1994, citizen volunteers have helped the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) improve its topographic maps. Through the Earth Science Corps program, citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in 2001, as many as 300 volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process.
Marcelo, Karlo Barrios
College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…
Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.
This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…
Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.
Full Text Available From its’ conception, 4-H has encouraged volunteerism and utilized volunteers to accomplish its’ mission - to assist youth in acquiring knowledge, developing life skills, and forming attitudes that will enable them to become self-directing, productive and contributing members of society. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the factors that motivated [state] 4-H camp volunteers to volunteer with 4-H youth. The Volunteer Functions Inventory was used as the theoretical base for this study. The Values construct (M=3.68 of the VFI was the highest motivating factor of adult 4-H volunteers. The Understanding construct (M=3.39 ranked the second highest motivational factor in volunteerism followed by Social construct (M=3.28, the Enhancement construct (M = 3.05 and the Protective construct (M=2.78. The Career construct (M=2.61 was the least motivating factor to adult volunteers. It was also found that participants that were not involved with 4-H as a youth volunteered more days per year than did participants who were former 4-H members.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.
Ariffin, Izyana; Solemon, Badariah; Anwar, Rina Md; Din, Marina Md; Azmi, Nor Nashrah
The advancement of technologies nowadays enables participation by nonprofessionals, known as volunteers to participate in producing, sharing and consuming geographic information. Such information, termed as volunteered geographic Information (VGI) has created a new approach of gathering geographic information. This paper discusses the traditional way of acquiring geographic information and potentials of VGI as an information source in GIS applications. We also review four commonly cited applications which rely on volunteers for their geographic information based on five criteria; the geometry type available in the applications, availability of user profile, average number of attributes used in the applications, data type of the information (raster or vector) and the domain the application belongs to. This review serves as a preliminarv study in designing a GIS application used for asset management which aims at exploiting volunteers to produce geographic information related to assets
Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H
Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. ...
Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....
Townsend, Anne; Amarsi, Zubin; Backman, Catherine L; Cox, Susan M; Li, Linda C
While use of the Internet is increasingly widespread in research, little is known about the role of routine electronic mail (email) correspondence during recruitment and early volunteer-researcher interactions. To gain insight into the standpoint of volunteers we analyzed email communications in an early rheumatoid arthritis qualitative interview study. The objectives of our study were (1) to understand the perspectives and motivations of individuals who volunteered for an interview study about the experiences of early rheumatoid arthritis, and (2) to investigate the role of emails in volunteer-researcher interactions during recruitment. Between December 2007 and December 2008 we recruited 38 individuals with early rheumatoid arthritis through rheumatologist and family physician offices, arthritis Internet sites, and the Arthritis Research Centre of Canada for a (face-to-face) qualitative interview study. Interested individuals were invited to contact us via email or telephone. In this paper, we report on email communications from 12 of 29 volunteers who used email as their primary communication mode. Emails offered insights into the perspective of study volunteers. They provided evidence prospectively about recruitment and informed consent in the context of early rheumatoid arthritis. First, some individuals anticipated that participating would have mutual benefits, for themselves and the research, suggesting a reciprocal quality to volunteering. Second, volunteering for the study was strongly motivated by a need to access health services and was both a help-seeking and self-managing strategy. Third, volunteers expressed ambivalence around participation, such as how far participating would benefit them, versus more general benefits for research. Fourth, practical difficulties of negotiating symptom impact, medical appointments, and research tasks were revealed. We also reflect on how emails documented volunteer-researcher interactions, illustrating typically
Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy
Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…
Duncan, Geraldine; Shepherd, Madeleine; Symons, Jessica
The Australian Government encourages the regional settlement of refugees and it is expected that 45% of refugees to Australia be regionally located. Wagga Wagga, an inland regional city in New South Wales (NSW), a destination for both primary and secondary migration, offers settlement for refugees under the Australian Integrated Humanitarian Settlement Strategy (IHSS) and the Settlement Grants Program. Refugees currently represent 1% of Wagga Wagga's 60 000 population. For people previously living in cities or crowded camps with a background of disruption, torture and trauma, relocation to rural areas of Australia is confronting, and they require dedication and effort from those supporting resettlement. Currently, caseworkers working for settlement agencies do not have formal training. Volunteers are offered induction days and information sessions but have training needs beyond this. Two projects were undertaken during 2007 and 2008. Refugee services in regional and rural NSW and their efficacy were reviewed, exploring models of care in four NSW locations and clarifying needs via a literature search. Training and resources available to caseworkers and volunteers were also investigated. The objective was to design and construct a basic manual addressing the needs of this workforce informed by a literature search and consultation with key stakeholders in refugee resettlement. Literature searches of electronic databases, relevant websites and journals informed the questions for participants of focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Additional data were obtained via self-report questionnaires from caseworkers, volunteers and mainstream agencies. Information was also disseminated to refugees, inviting community to participate in focus groups. Our study supported others noting difficulties associated with the settlement of refugees in regional Australia, and recommendations of improvements were developed using the social determinants of health. The supporting
Full Text Available Background: Currently, volunteer forces are among the main members of the healthcare services, particularly in the treatment sector, and play a key role in healthcare and treatment services. Since efficient human resources are the greatest and most important assets of all organizations, they constantly work to train, retain, and get the best of these valuable assets. The main objective of this work was to prioritize the motivational factors and satisfaction of the volunteer forces participating in treatment and health programs in the case of emergencies. Materials and Methods: The study population of this research was all volunteers (N=600 in treatment and health programs of Kerman Province. Using the Morgan Table, 360 subjects were selected. The data-gathering instrument was Andam’s questionnaire of motivational factors with reliability of 0.94, and Galindo-Kuhn and Guzley (2001 questionnaire of satisfaction with reliability of 0.92. To determine research data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied. Moreover, for data analysis inferential statistics tests of Friedman, Mann–Whitney U, and Kruskal–Wallis were used at significance level of P<0.05. Results: The present research revealed that the most and least important motivational factors in volunteers of treatment and health units were purposeful motivation and financial motivation with average rankings of 5.45 and 1.99, respectively. In addition, among the satisfaction factors, the volunteers reported communication with volunteers and organizational communication as the most and least important satisfaction factors, respectively. The results of this research indicated that the female volunteers participated in volunteer activities with greater occupational, support, progress, and social motivations. In addition, single participants had greater occupational, social, and financial motivations towards participation in these activities as compared to married participants
Full Text Available This paper presents the perspectives of youth participating in the Society for Educational Visits and Exchanges in Canada's Volunteer Youth Experience (VYE as gathered by way of pre- and post-program questionnaires, observations, interviews, and journals. The pan-Canadian questionnaire results suggest that this short, bilingual volunteer experience enhances participant motivation to learn a second official language and to be part of the target community. Triangulated findings from observations, interviews and journals indicate that participants' willingness to communicate (WTC in the second language (MacIntyre, Dörnyei, Clément, & Noels, 1998 may have been influenced by situational factors inherent to the volunteer experience such as access to native speakers of the target language and opportunities for authentic community participation.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the perspectives of youth participating in the Society for Educational Visits and Exchanges in Canada's Volunteer Youth Experience (VYE as gathered by way of pre- and post-program questionnaires, observations, interviews, and journals. The pan-Canadian questionnaire results suggest that this short, bilingual volunteer experience enhances participant motivation to learn a second official language and to be part of the target community. Triangulated findings from observations, interviews and journals indicate that participants' willingness to communicate (WTC in the second language (MacIntyre, Dörnyei, Clément, & Noels, 1998 may have been influenced by situational factors inherent to the volunteer experience such as access to native speakers of the target language and opportunities for authentic community participation.
Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara
The Volunteering-in-Place (VIP) Program was developed to provide individualized meaningful volunteer activities matched to interests and capabilities for older adults with MCI in assisted living. The purposes of this single-site pre-test/post-test pilot study were to (1) establish feasibility of the VIP Program based on treatment fidelity (design, treatment, delivery, enactment); and (2) evaluate preliminary efficacy via improvement in psychological health (depressive symptoms, usefulness, purpose, resilience, and life satisfaction) and decreased sedentary activity (survey and Fitbit) at 3 and 6 months. Ten residents participated. The majority was white, female and educated, and on average 88 years old. The VIP Program was feasible and most participants continued to volunteer at 6 months. There were non-significant improvements in depressive symptoms, usefulness, purpose, resilience and recreational physical activity. The results of this study provide support for the feasibility of the VIP Program. Further study is necessary to examine efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A considerable number of young Europeans live or risk ending up in socially vulnerable situations. Different social channels (e.g., education, on the job training, leisure exist through which youths can enhance their chances to improve their social position. There is a growing belief that sports in particular can help personal and social development of socially vulnerable youths. Nevertheless, there is little understanding of the mechanisms through which sports can foster development. In addition to participating in sports, volunteering in sports is also regarded as providing developmental opportunities for socially vulnerable youths. Today, however, there is an underrepresentation of socially vulnerable youths in volunteering and volunteer training programs. A case study in Brussels was set up within a volunteer soccer training program focused on socially vulnerable youths. A qualitative research design was used to analyze developmental experiences of participants (n = 11 and program organizers (n = 3. The study also aimed to gain more insight into the mechanisms underlying the program. Participating youths indicated development in both technical and key competences. It is concluded that a systematic approach of the volunteer training program can play an important role in the development of competences of socially vulnerable youths both as a volunteer and an individual.
Ford-Jones, Polly; Daly, Tamara
Volunteers and voluntary organizations can connect preventative health care programs to communities and may play an important role in addressing the health needs of older adults. Despite this, tensions may exist in the structures that drive volunteers and voluntary organizations representing immigrant communities to provide unpaid labour to augment and supplement health care services. Furthermore, organizational challenges may exist for community agencies relying on volunteers to sustain a health screening and education program. The intervention program was led by one voluntary agency specifically for South Asian communities in partnership with the university and five local organizations. This paper draws on volunteer surveys (n = 22) and key informant interviews (n = 12) to detail volunteer experiences providing this intervention. Volunteers were university students and other community volunteers. A total of 810 adults participated in the intervention within the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada between October 2014 and June 2016. We found that volunteers often used their experience as a 'stepping stone' position to other education or work. They also gained from the knowledge and used it to educate themselves and their family members and friends. This paper provides a critical reflection on the role of volunteers in a preventative and educational healthcare intervention program for older adults from the South Asian community. Tensions exist when relying on volunteer labour for the implementation of preventative community health care programming and must be explored to ensure program sustainability as well as equity within the health care system.
Chung, Jenny C C
To examine the values of a reminiscence programme, adopting an intergenerational approach, on older persons with early dementia and youth volunteers. A pre- and post- one group design was adopted. Forty-nine elderly participants with early dementia and 117 youth volunteers participated in the study. Each elderly participant was assigned to two youth participants. This dyad group participated in a 12-session reminiscence programme. The youth participants acted as facilitators to prompt the elderly participants to share and discuss past events and experiences, and to support them to fabricate a personalized life-story book. An occupational therapist provided ongoing support and monitoring. The elderly participants were evaluated by the Chinese version of Mini-mental State Examination, Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD), and Chinese version of Geriatric Depression Scale (CGDS) before and after the programme. Dementia Quiz (DQ), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and a 20-item feedback questionnaire on the programme were used to evaluate the youth participants. Significant pre- and postprogramme differences were found for QoL-AD (mean change = -1.91; 95% CI = -3.18, -0.64) and CGDS (mean change = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.92, 2.80) among the elderly participants, and for DQ (mean change = -1.14; 95% CI = -2.11, -0.17) among the youth participants. Volunteers also showed positive appreciation of older persons and opined that this community service provided them an opportunity to reflect on their relationship with elderly relatives. Some volunteers, however, commented the heavy workload of the reminiscence programme. The intergenerational reminiscence programme suggests mutually beneficial values for both groups of participants. Whilst it is feasible to involve trained volunteers in the implementation of dementia-related programmes, it is essential that they are adequately trained and that ongoing support and monitoring are provided.
Lin, Mei-Chih; Li, I-chuan; Lin, Kuan-chia
The purpose of the study was to understand the relationship between job satisfaction and personal traits in health volunteers in one community in Taiwan. Among different kinds of community resources, the human resource is most essential for the process of developing healthy communities and cities. However, it is not easy to keep voluntary workers as part of health programmes even though they have been trained. Previous research has shown that to increase the job satisfaction of such a person, the volunteer needs to improve effectively his/her need to achieve. The need to achieve is an important part of a person's personal traits. A cross-sectional survey design was used to interview 317 health volunteers in various community health centres in I-lan county, northern Taiwan. The research instruments of this study included the 'locus of control orientation scale' for personality measurement, the 'achievement orientation scale' and the 'job satisfaction scale'. Most of the sample volunteers were female with an average age of 49.55 years; the majority was married and living with their spouses. In terms of the volunteers' personal traits, most of them are internal control orientation. The job satisfaction of the volunteers who took part in this research was extremely high. Significant variables correlating with job satisfaction in this study were gender, educational level, religious preference, participation in training, working to promote community health, the willingness to work, the frequency of participating in job training, and cooperation with other volunteer partners. The explainable variance for the prediction of job satisfaction from a combination of achievement orientation and the frequency of collaboration with other people was 9.1%. The results suggest that there is a need to strengthen cooperative relationships among volunteer by initiating well-planned volunteer training programmes and growth groups with the aim of enhancing their interpersonal
Pieczynski, Lauren M; Laudanski, Krzysztof; Speck, Rebecca M; McCunn, Maureen
The objective of this study was to identify key experiences and common motifs of volunteer doctors who have participated in anaesthesia-related volunteer experiences abroad through the Health Volunteers Overseas (HVO) programme. An additional goal was to understand the effects of medical volunteerism in developing countries on the volunteers themselves. After a medical mission with HVO, anaesthesia volunteers submit a post-experience report. Twenty-five reports were randomly selected from the 58 available trip reports, including five from each of the five countries collaborating with HVO. Data in the reports were analysed using a modified grounded theory and constant comparative technique until thematic saturation was achieved. Three major discoveries emerged from the analysis of post-experience reports: (i) anaesthesia residents and attending physicians find their volunteer experiences in the developing world to be personally rewarding and positive; (ii) most participants feel their educational interventions have a positive impact on local students and anaesthesia providers, and (iii) global volunteerism poses challenges, primarily caused by lack of resource availability and communication issues. Our results give new insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by a cohort of HVO-sponsored anaesthesia volunteers while abroad and validates the positive effects these global health experiences have on the volunteers themselves. This group of anaesthesia volunteers was able to further their personal and professional growth, sharpen their physical diagnosis and clinical reasoning skills in resource-poor environments and, most importantly, provide education and promote an exchange of ideas and information. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Parker, Christopher J; May, Andrew; Mitchell, Val
This paper investigates the influence of presenting volunteered and professionally created geographic information to 101 wheelchair users through an interactive website that included information collected by wheelchair-using volunteers. The aim of this experiment was to understand the influence that (1) knowing a map-based website contains volunteered information and (2) actually including volunteered information within an online interactive map (a mashup) have on the perceived trust of the user, described in terms of quality and authority. Analysis using Kruskal-Wallis showed that judgements of currency were influenced by including geo-information from untrained volunteers (volunteered geographic information) within the mashup, but not influenced by the participant being told that the online map contained volunteered information. The participants appeared to make judgements based on what information they saw, rather than what they were told about the source of the information. Since 2004, information services have combined crowdsourced (volunteered) alongside professional information within online interactive maps. An online experiment presented both of these information types to wheelchair users within a travel context. Including volunteered information was shown to increase the perceptions of how up-to-date the maps were.
Esra Erturan-Ogut E.
Full Text Available The European Voluntary Service of the European Union is thought to play a key role in promoting and encouraging volunteering among young people. Integrating the social work of EVS volunteers into activities through sport organizations is believed to help develop the perception of volunteering as an element of social commitment. The aim of this study is to therefore examine a case of youth volunteering practice in an EVS project in Turkey within the context of the benefits of volunteering. Data was collected using various tools. These included semi-structured interviews, participant observation (non-structured, and document analyses. Content analyses were applied to the interview data. The study established that the EVS is a beneficial channel for youth volunteering and provides benefits for each of the parties: the volunteers, the organization, and the sport participants.
Shah, I.; Malik, M.O.; Khan, M.J.; Fatima, S.; Habib, S.H.
Angiogenesis is involved in many cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, including atherosclerosis and is controlled by a fine balance between angiogenic and angiostatic mediators. Endostatin is one of the main angiostatic mediators, and inhibits angiogenesis and prevents progression of atherosclerosis. The available literature shows a broad range of concentrations in relatively small samples of healthy controls and is calculated by using different techniques. This study was aimed to determine the basal endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy volunteers, to fully understand its physiological role. Methods: Fifty healthy adult volunteers were recruited to the study. Participants were advised not to participate in any physical activity on the day before the blood sampling. The volunteers' physical activity, height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. The samples were analysed for plasma endostatin concentration, using ELISA. The participants were divided by gender and ethnic groups to calculate any difference. Results: Endostatin and other variables were normally distributed. Most of the participants had a moderate level of physical activity with no gender related difference (p=0.370). The mean value for plasma endostatin in all samples was 105+-12 ng/ml with range of 81-132 ng/ml. For males, it was 107+-13 ng/ml, while for females; 102+-12 ng/ml. There were no significant gender or ethnicity related differences in endostatin concentration. Moreover, endostatin was not significantly related with any anthropometric and physical variable. Conclusion: This study gives endostatin levels in normal healthy people and show no gender and ethnicity related differences in endostatin levels. Endostatin was not related with any anthropometric and physical variable. (author)
Janet Witucki Brown
Full Text Available This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers.
Witucki Brown, Janet; Chen, Shu-li; Mefford, Linda; Brown, Allie; Callen, Bonnie; McArthur, Polly
This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category) for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers. PMID:21994824
... full-time community volunteer (including criminal justice volunteer, volunteer in justice, and VET... institution of higher learning; or (3) In another activity which, in the agency's view, warrants extension. (c...
Contents: executive summary; volunteers in water monitoring; planning a volunteer monitoring program; implementing a volunteer monitoring program; providing credible information; costs and funding; and descriptions of five successful programs
Lehtinen, Emilia K; Ucar, Ebru; Glenthøj, Birte Y
Prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating, which is demonstrated to be impaired in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, a disruption of the circadian rhythm together with blunted melatonin secretion is regularly found in patients...... with schizophrenia and it is theorized that these may contribute to their attentional deficits. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acute melatonin on healthy human sensorimotor gating. Twenty-one healthy male volunteers were administered melatonin or placebo after which their levels of PPI were...... assessed. Melatonin significantly reduced startle magnitude and ratings of alertness, but did not influence PPI, nor sensitization and habituation. However, when taking baseline scores in consideration, melatonin significantly increased PPI in low scoring individuals while significantly decreasing...
Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H
This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taplin, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne; Scherrer, Pascal
The rapid expansion and commercialisation of the volunteer tourism sector and the potential for negative impacts on host communities have put the sector under increasing scrutiny. Monitoring and evaluation are key aspects of sustainable tourism planning and management, and play important roles...... in the project planning and implementation cycles of volunteer tourism organisations and destination managements. However, they can be both value-laden and politically charged, making an understanding of context, purpose and various approaches to monitoring and evaluation important. Drawing from evaluation...... highlights the important influence of context (the issue the volunteer tourism programme is addressing, the nature of the intervention, the setting, the evaluation context and the decision-making context), and identifies four dimensions of volunteer tourism (stakeholders, organisations, markets...
Dickson, Murray; Dickson, Geraldine Gerri
Volunteering internationally appeals to health care professionals and students for a variety of reasons and serves a number of purposes. If international voluntarism is to be mutually advantageous, however, host countries, volunteers and project sponsors need to understand how best they can work together and what can be achieved by volunteers for the greatest benefit of all concerned. This paper is intended to contribute to the growing dialogue on international voluntarism and offers suggestions to strengthen its value, from the perspectives of health workers in a developing country and the authors" experiences over the past 30 years. The paper also identifies undesirable side effects and disabling interventions of international initiatives and examines the notions of aid and assistance. One strategy to prepare volunteers for upcoming international efforts as well as to address inequities at home is involvement with underserved populations in our own country.
Huda, W.; Scrimger, J.W.
The preliminary assessment of many radiopharmaceuticals is often carried out with the help of normal volunteers. These volunteers are drawn from the general public, are fully informed of the procedure to be performed and its attendant risks, and in many cases are compensated financially for their trouble. The cooperation of such people is of vital importance to the full understanding of the normal kinetics and metabolism of many new radiopharmaceuticals. The restrictions on the choice of normal volunteers, and the radiation dose limits which must be observed are not explicitly defined in any of the current guidelines, and in this paper we propose a rationale, based upon available information, which sets acceptable limits for volunteers, and provides a framework within which scientists and physicians can work
Welk, T A
Volunteers are integral members of the hospice interdisciplinary team. They are distinguished from other members of the team only by role, not by expectation. The distinction is not between "volunteer" and "professional," because every team member is to be professional in the best sense of that word. If a distinction is to be made, it is that some hospice staff members are salaried while others donate their services. Volunteer staff members are expected to be as responsible and accountable as every other member of the team. ALL staff members must realize the importance of taking care of personal needs in order to be able to care for others. Even though the following article deals primarily with the volunteer hospice staff member, the points outlined can just as easily be applied to the salaried staff member.
Smith, R N
Safeguards for healthy volunteers in drug studies have not been as strict as those involving patients. The shortcomings include the lack of surveillance over the scientific validity of the protocol and its ethical review, and over the financial inducements to volunteers. Recruitment is open to abuse because the volunteers may have some allegiance to the investigators. There is an urgent need to institute checks on these aspects. Most important, however, is the lack of legal safeguards for volunteers taking part in research done outside the pharmaceutical industry. The suggested procedure for obtaining consent, for health checks, and for providing compensation can be equitable to all concerned, and yet not restrict initiative, nor curtail research aims.
The bachelor thesis on the topic: "Volunteers and their motivation for canistherapy" is divided into the theoretical and practical part. The aim is to find out what motives lead people to do voluntary work in canistherapy. The theoretical part defines the basic concepts of motivation, volunteering and canistherapy, because these concepts are related with the name and with the aim of my work. First, there is defined motivation, basic concepts of motivation in relation to personality, motives a...
Watts, Jacqueline H.
Volunteering is now a regular feature of health and social care service provision with volunteers working in diverse contexts such as day care centres, ‘after school’ clubs, hospitals and hospices. The promotion of the idea of an active civil society by successive UK governments has led to the professionalisation of some voluntary work as the product of a partnership between the voluntary sector, government and business. More standardised working practices and semi-formalised aspects of volun...
van der Mei, Sijrike F; van Sonderen, Eric L P; van Son, Willem J; de Jong, Paul E; Groothoff, Johan W; van den Heuvel, Wim J A
To explore and describe the degree of social participation after kidney transplantation and to examine associated factors. A cross-sectional study on 239 adult patients 1-7.3 years after kidney transplantation was performed via in-home interviews on participation in obligatory activities (i.e., employment, education, household tasks) and leisure activities (volunteer work, assisting others, recreation, sports, clubs/associations, socializing, going out). Kidney transplantation patients had a lower educational level, spent less time on obligatory activities, had part-time jobs more often, and participated less in sports compared to a control group from the general population. No difference was found in socializing, church attendance, volunteer work and going out. Multivariate regression analysis showed a negative association of age and a positive association of educational status and time since transplantation with obligatory participation. Multivariate logistic regression showed positive associations of education and time since transplantation with volunteer work; age was negatively and education positively associated with sports and going out, whereas living arrangement was also associated with going out. Although kidney transplantation patients participate less in employment and sports, they do participate in household tasks, volunteer work, going out, socializing and other leisure activities. Participation is associated with factors as age, educational status and time since transplantation.
Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva
The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....
Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Jones, Richard
In all, 119 hospice palliative care volunteers from 3 community-based hospice programs completed the Volunteer Retention Questionnaire (VRQ), a 33-item survey designed for this study. The VRQ asks volunteers to rate the importance of each item to their decision to continue volunteering. The items that received the highest mean importance ratings included enjoying the work they do, feeling adequately prepared/trained to perform their role, and learning from their patients' experiences/listening to their patients' life stories. Being recognized (eg, pins for years of service or being profiled in the hospice newsletter), receiving phone calls/cards from their volunteer coordinator on special occasions, and being reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses were among the items that received the lowest mean importance ratings. Suggestions for improving volunteer retention are provided.
Allmark, P; Mason, S
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) sometimes recruit participants who are desperate to receive the experimental treatment. This paper defends the practice against three arguments that suggest it is unethical first, desperate volunteers are not in equipoise. Second clinicians, entering patients onto trials are disavowing their therapeutic obligation to deliver the best treatment; they are following trial protocols rather than delivering individualised care. Research is not treatment; its ethical justification is different. Consent is crucial. Third, desperate volunteers do not give proper consent: effectively, they are coerced. This paper responds by advocating a notion of equipoise based on expert knowledge and widely shared values. Where such collective, expert equipoise exists there is a prima facie case for an RCT. Next the paper argues that trial entry does not involve clinicians disavowing their therapeutic obligation; individualised care based on insufficient evidence is not in patients best interest. Finally, it argues that where equipoise exists it is acceptable to limit access to experimental agents; desperate volunteers are not coerced because their desperation does not translate into a right to receive what they desire.
Older adults in most societies are keen volunteers in a myriad of contexts for the betterment of individuals and for the agencies in which they volunteer. This article discusses how volunteerism among older adults may enhance their learning and the kinds of benefits and challenges they encounter in their work for employing authorities. It also considers how agencies can be better attuned to the lifelong learning aspirations of older volunteers. Research related to older adults, lifelong learning and the character of volunteerism is reviewed with examples provided from New Zealand and Australia of older adults' participation in volunteerism and consequential impact. While volunteerism is normally viewed as a "win-win" situation for the volunteers and the organisations in which knowledge is further developed for varied purposes (economic sufficiency; personal development; active citizenship; social inclusion), there are nevertheless challenges for both parties. The article explores salient factors which function as enhancers or limitations for older volunteers in their work and learning. It is important that the motives of volunteers for participation are fully transparent and understood by the older adults themselves and by the relevant agencies. Organisations can provide considerable opportunities for older people to engage in continuing learning/ education but they need to be aware of effective recruitment and retention strategies; older people can provide a much needed labour resource where their previous life experiences can be drawn upon and they should be fully cognisant of the organisation's mission and how they can help to enhance it.
Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne; Scherrer, Pascal
interviews with representatives from 29 organisations, the research found that monitoring and evaluation practices vary greatly. Participants readily accept a lack of time and resources as barriers to monitoring an evaluation, there is an assumption that any volunteer-host community interaction is positive......Monitoring and evaluation are tools that can facilitate sustainable and responsible tourism planning and management in organisations through encouraging good practice and the continuous improvement of programmes. However, to date, there is limited knowledge and understanding of how, or indeed if...... and actual practices are discussed and opportunities for improved practices identified....
Lisa T. Washburn
Full Text Available Volunteer leaders are increasingly being utilized to deliver community strength training classes, but the factors affecting adoption of volunteer delivery approaches by educators or program managers have not been well explored. This study sought to identify these factors by comparing perspectives of adopting and nonadopting county Extension educators for a group strength training program delivered through county Cooperative Extension offices. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of adopting (n=6 and nonadopting (n=13 educators. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using thematic content analysis. Review of codes related to adoption or nonadoption of volunteer delivery approaches produced common themes. Both groups acknowledged role differences between educators and volunteers and expressed concerns about maintaining program quality. Adopters expressed greater comfort with volunteer-led program approaches and understanding of the educator-volunteer role. Nonadopters were hesitant to request program participants serve as leaders but felt participants were capable. Both groups were motivated to offer the program for dual personal and community benefit, but nonadopters expressed reliance on the program to maintain physical activity habits and for social support. Findings can inform others seeking to adapt community programs for volunteer delivery or engage volunteers in existing program delivery.
participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.2-2 Section 1220.2-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Criminal Proceedings § 1220.2-2 Part-time volunteers. (a) With respect to a part-time volunteer, ACTION will reimburse a sponsor for the reasonable expenses it incurs...
Shagurova, Angelina Alexandrovna; Ivanovna, Efremova Galina; Aleksandrovna, Bochkovskaya Irina; Denisenko, Sergey Ivanovich; Valerievich, Tarasov Mihail; Viktorovna, Nekrasova Marina; Potutkova, Svetlana Anatolievna
The article discusses the basic ideas of volunteering; it analyzes the data of psychological studies on social activity and it highlights the importance of studying the motivational part of volunteering. The conclusion on structure and content of volunteering is made. Key focus is on the fact that volunteering is of particular importance in the…
Helms, Sara E.; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios
Volunteer rates vary tremendously across states and age groups. In recent years, young people have exhibited rising volunteering rates, particularly high school students and college freshmen, but 2006 witnessed a drop in the volunteering rate among. When comparing the volunteer rates for different age groups from 2002 to 2006, 16-18 year olds…
Many have had difficulty attracting and retaining volunteers because of failure to understand volunteer motivation. The study explores volunteerism and emphasizes that volunteers derive personal satisfactions from voluntary activities other than monetary compensation. Volunteers “expect a return on their investment”.
The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?
Iryna PetrenkоPurpose: identification of the main structural components and content of sports volunteer activities. Material & Methods: used analysis of literature and documents, organizational analysis. Result: basic structural components of sports volunteer activity are defined. The content of sports volunteer activity is disclosed. Conclusion: sports volunteer activity includes the following structural components: subject, object, purpose, motivation, means, actions; subject is a sport...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part time volunteers. 1226.11 Section 1226.11... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.11 Part time volunteers. (a) The provisions in this section are applicable to part time volunteers, as defined in § 1226.3...
Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George
This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…
Kasahara, Hiroo; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo; Endoh, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Karasawa, Akihide.
In order to characterize age-related and chronological changes of the brain, longitudinal studies of aged volunteers were conducted using computed tomography since 1982. The present paper discusses correlations between brain function and findings of MR images which were obtained using a 1.5 T superconductive MR instrument since 1989. A total of 118 volunteers aged 60 to 88 years old with a mean age of 75.0±6.7 participated in the study, which consisted of MRI, EEG recording, the Benton Visual Retention Test and a medical interview. Subjects with a past history or clinical evidence of CVD, head trauma or dementia were excluded from the study. Incidence of T 2 high signal intensity lesions increased with age. Some showing T 1 low signal intensity in the same lesion were considered to be lacunar infarction, over all incidence of which was 24.6%. Numbers of correct responses on the BVRT showed a negative correlation with numbers of T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Although the aged volunteers in the present study could achieve all activity of daily living without any trouble, high cortical function evaluated by visuoperceptual performance of BVRT was somewhat disturbed in participants with multiple T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Brain atrophy seems to be more advanced in groups with T 2 hyper intensity lesions than in the group without them. These findings may support the notion that T 2 high signal intensity lesions are not merely an index of aging but pathologic lesions accompanied with senescence, although further studies including clinico-pathological correlation are necessary to establish this concept. (author)
Full Text Available Most studies of volunteers’ motivations use standardized questionnaires with one of the most commonly-used being the Volunteer Function Inventory. Open-ended questions about what drives individuals to be volunteers are seldom used. We hypothesize that questionnaires tend to overestimate the number of motivations and to underestimate their variety. Therefore, in this paper we analyze the answers of 1515 volunteers to an open-ended question and categorize these answers. Results show that volunteers give an average of 2 motivations, fewer than the questionnaires, and that the Value motivation is the most frequently mentioned and the most important for volunteers. In addition, this motivation coexists with other motivations, which are lacking in the standard questionnaires, such as Organizational Commitment, Personal Development, Religiosity, Social Change or Interest in the Activity.
Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Bourdarios, Claire; Lan\\c con, Eric
ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers' resources make up a sizable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one job to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.
Arakawa, Yumiko; Yoshida, Hiroko; Hozumi, Yoshimi
A questionnaire survey was given to Japanese undergraduate students to determine their personal experiences of `volunteer activities'. And their views and images of `volunteer' in Japan. The results showed that almost 80% experienced `volunteer activities' in schools before entering university. The details of their experiences did not relate to their views and images of `volunteer' and the `volunteer activities' at schools did not seem to play an important role in developing the concept of `v...
Full Text Available Understanding personality characteristics of volunteers are important for their recruitment and retention in sport associations. This study compared self-concept as a personality characteristic between volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations. The method of this research was survey and descriptive. The statistical population consisted of volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations of Iran universities. Two hundred and fifty two students (120 volunteers and 132 non-volunteers from 10 universities were selected as subjects by using random clustered sampling method. Pyryt and Mandaglio Self Perceived Survey (PMSPS was used to collect the data. The content and face reliability of questionnaire was checked and confirmed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire (alfa=0.90. Independent t test and U Mann-Whitney test were used for comparison of the factors between volunteers and non-volunteers. Findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference between volunteer and non-volunteer students in social and athletic self-concept. The mean of scientific and value factors were higher in volunteers than non-volunteers, however, they were not statistically significant. We concluded that the nature of sport (active and sport volunteering (social encourage students who have higher self-concept for volunteering. Moreover, the characteristics of sport associations can increase self-concept in sport volunteers.
Samson, André; Lavigne, René M; MacPherson, Paul
With the decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection, the majority of people living with HIV (PWHIV) experience a higher quality of life and longer life expectancy. Since this diagnosis no longer prevents an active lifestyle, many PWHIV are re-integrating into the workplace or are contemplating this possibility. Despite the multiple advantages associated with a return to work, research has identified barriers related to work and HIV infection. These barriers could prevent an important minority of PWHIV who wish to return to work from re-integrating into this environment. In this context, volunteering could be an alternate way to regain an active lifestyle. This research found that volunteer work allowed participants to enrich their social lives, to regain a sense of psychological well-being, and to apply their abilities to the benefit of others. However, participants are restricted by their preference to volunteer for HIV-related organizations in order to avoid social stigma and rejection.
During the last 20–30 years Western societies have witnessed large scale migration from the Global South. This has given rise to important challenges in securing the social, civic and political integration of non-Western immigrants into Western societies. Previous research has suggested that part......During the last 20–30 years Western societies have witnessed large scale migration from the Global South. This has given rise to important challenges in securing the social, civic and political integration of non-Western immigrants into Western societies. Previous research has suggested...... that participation in volunteering in civil society can serve as a ‘stepping stone’ towards integration for immigrants. Whilst the previous studies have shown marked gaps in the propensity to participate in volunteering between immigrants and natives, little work has been done to identify the mechanisms that explain...... these gaps. In this study, high-quality survey data, linked with data from administrative registers, are used, with the application of logistic regression based on the Karlson–Holm–Breen method to conduct mediation analysis. The mediation analysis shows that non-Western immigrants are significantly less...
Knispel, B; Allen, B; Cordes, J M; Deneva, J S; Anderson, D; Aulbert, C; Bhat, N D R; Bock, O; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Crawford, F; Demorest, P B; Fehrmann, H; Freire, P C C; Gonzalez, M E; Hammer, D; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kasian, L; Kaspi, V M; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Lyne, A G; Machenschalk, B; McLaughlin, M A; Messenger, C; Nice, D J; Papa, M A; Pletsch, H J; Prix, R; Ransom, S M; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A
Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this pulsar is likely a disrupted recycled pulsar. PSR J2007+2722's pulse profile is remarkably wide with emission over almost the entire spin period; the pulsar likely has closely aligned magnetic and spin axes. The massive computing power provided by volunteers should enable many more such discoveries.
Full Text Available The Texas Tech University Health Sciences (TTUHSC Garrison Institute on Aging (GIA was established to promote healthy aging through cutting edge research on Alzheimer ’s disease (AD and other diseases of aging, through innovative educational and community outreach opportunities for students, clinicians, researchers, health care providers, and the public. The GIA sponsors the Lubbock Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP. According to RSVP Operates Handbook, RSVP is one of the largest volunteer efforts in the nation. Through this program, volunteer skills and talents can be matched to assist with community needs. It is a federally funded program under the guidance of the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS and Senior Corps (SC. Volunteers that participate in RSVP provide service in the following areas: food security, environmental awareness building and education, community need-based volunteer programs, and veteran services.
Akintola, Olagoke; Hlengwa, Wellington Mthokozisi; Dageid, Wenche
To conduct a quantitative investigation of stress and the relationship with burnout among AIDS care volunteers. Volunteer caregivers experience stress that could lead to burnout. Yet, very few studies quantify stress and its relationship with burnout among AIDS care volunteers. This study uses a cross-sectional, exploratory survey design. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 126 volunteer caregivers working in 13 semi-rural communities (townships) in Durban, South Africa in April 2009. All participants were women, Christian and with low levels of education. A 22-item instrument was drawn from Pearlin et al.'s role overload and role captivity scales, Van Dyk's stress factor scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Most of the volunteers had moderate-to-high levels of stress. 'Role/work overload' 'lack of support' and 'overwhelming nature of the disease' explained most of the variance in stress. Volunteers' age and number of patients in their care were predictors of stress. Caring for only AIDS patients, lack of support, stress emanating from perceived stigma and lack of training; and the overwhelming nature of AIDS were predictors of burnout. High levels of stress could negatively impact volunteers' health and well-being and on-the-job performance. Policy makers must develop and fund home-based care models that take into account the stressors associated with AIDS care, by reducing the work load, providing ongoing psychosocial support and recruiting nurses to assist volunteers. The small non-probability sample used in this study highlights the need to treat the findings with caution. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maxwell, Shane; Renier, Colleen; Sikka, Robby; Widstrom, Luke; Paulson, William; Christensen, Trent; Olson, David; Nelson, Benjamin
This study examined whether an online course would lead to increased knowledge about the medical issues volunteers encounter during a marathon. Health care professionals who volunteered to provide medical coverage for an annual marathon were eligible for the study. Demographic information about medical volunteers including profession, specialty, education level and number of marathons they had volunteered for was collected. A 15-question test about the most commonly encountered medical issues was created by the authors and administered before and after the volunteers took the online educational course and compared to a pilot study the previous year. Seventy-four subjects completed the pre-test. Those who participated in the pilot study last year (N = 15) had pre-test scores that were an average of 2.4 points higher than those who did not (mean ranks: pilot study = 51.6 vs. non-pilot = 33.9, p = 0.004). Of the 74 subjects who completed the pre-test, 54 also completed the post-test. The overall post-pre mean score difference was 3.8 ± 2.7 (t = 10.5 df = 53 p online education demonstrated a long-term (one-year) increase in test scores. Testing also continued to show short-term improvement in post-course test scores, compared to pre-course test scores. In general, marathon medical volunteers who had no volunteer experience demonstrated greater improvement than those who had prior volunteer experience.
Pradubwong, Suteera; Augsornwan, Darawan; Pathumwiwathana, Pornpen; Prathanee, Benjamas; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp
Cleft lip and palate (CLP) congenital anomalies have a high prevalence in the Northeast of Thailand. A care team's understand of treatment plan would help to guide the family of patients with CLP to achieve the treatment. To examine the impact of the empowering volunteer project, established in the northeast Thailand. The Empowering Volunteer project was conducted in 2008 under the Tawanchai Royal Granted project. The patients and family's general information, treatment, the group brainstorming, and satisfaction with the project were analysed. Participants were 12 children with CLP their families and five volunteers with CLP; the participating patients were predominantly females and the mean age was 12.2 years. The treatment comprised of speech training, dental hygiene care, bone graft and orthodontic treatment. Four issues were addressed including: problems in taking care of breast feeding, instructions' needs for care at birth, difficulty in access information and society impact, and needs in having a network of volunteers. Empowering volunteer is important for holistic care of patients with CLP which provides easy access and multiple channels for patients and their families. It should be developed as part of the self-help and family support group, the development of community based team and comprehensive CLP care program.
Langley, Shaun A; Messina, Joseph P; Moore, Nathan
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has strong potential to be increasingly valuable to scientists in collaboration with non-scientists. The abundance of mobile phones and other wireless forms of communication open up significant opportunities for the public to get involved in scientific research. As these devices and activities become more abundant, questions of uncertainty and error in volunteer data are emerging as critical components for using volunteer-sourced spatial data. Here we present a methodology for using VGI and assessing its sensitivity to three types of error. More specifically, this study evaluates the reliability of data from volunteers based on their historical patterns. The specific context is a case study in surveillance of tsetse flies, a health concern for being the primary vector of African Trypanosomiasis. Reliability, as measured by a reputation score, determines the threshold for accepting the volunteered data for inclusion in a tsetse presence/absence model. Higher reputation scores are successful in identifying areas of higher modeled tsetse prevalence. A dynamic threshold is needed but the quality of VGI will improve as more data are collected and the errors in identifying reliable participants will decrease. This system allows for two-way communication between researchers and the public, and a way to evaluate the reliability of VGI. Boosting the public's ability to participate in such work can improve disease surveillance and promote citizen science. In the absence of active surveillance, VGI can provide valuable spatial information given that the data are reliable.
Høimyr, N; Blomer, J; Buncic, P; Giovannozzi, M; Gonzalez, A; Harutyunyan, A; Jones, P L; Karneyeu, A; Marquina, M A; Mcintosh, E; Segal, B; Skands, P; Grey, F; Lombraña González, D; Zacharov, I
Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name “LHC at home 2.0” and the BOINC project: “Test4Theory”. At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC at home, and has been running the “Sixtrack” beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup into a generic BOINC application service that will allow scientists and engineers at CERN to profit from volunteer computing. This paper describes the experience with the two different approaches to volunteer computing as well as the status and outlook of a general BOINC service.
Ross, Linda; Kabidi, Sophia
Paramedics require a wide range of skills that are beyond clinical or technical skills in order to meet the demands of the role and provide quality and compassionate care to patients. Non-technical or "soft" skills and attributes are generally challenging to teach and develop in the classroom setting. Volunteerism provides an opportunity for students to gain exposure to different communities and develop interpersonal skills. This cross-sectional study used one-on-one interviews with 12 third-year Bachelor of Emergency Health (Paramedic) students from Monash University, Australia, who completed a community volunteering program. Results suggest that paramedic students see volunteering as a highly valuable means of developing a number of skills crucial to their future roles and paramedic practice. Volunteering also provided students with an opportunity to learn about themselves and the broader community, develop confidence, and improve overall job-readiness and employability. This study demonstrates that embedding volunteering into paramedic education is an effective way to develop the broad range of paramedic attributes required for the role. These experiences allow students to make the important transition to a job-ready graduate paramedic who can provide holistic patient-centred care.
Hank, Karsten; Erlinghagen, Marcel
Purpose: To investigate the dynamics of volunteering in the population aged 50 years or older across 11 Continental European countries. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data from the first 2 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, we run multivariate regressions on a set of binary-dependent variables indicating…
Lorentzen, Håkon; Henriksen, Lars Skov
the Norwegian centers lacked a national coordinating unit. Third, an independent legal form in which local associations are members may have helped Danish centers bring about a sense of local ownership. In Norway, volunteer centers had weak ties to other local voluntary associations and were at times perceived...
..., service and social innovation will play an essential role in achieving our highest ambitions--from a world-class education for every child to an economy built to last. During National Volunteer Week, we pay... landmark national service law that laid out a strategy to link service with innovation, established the...
Baytiyeh, Hoda; Pfaffman, Jay
Wikipedia is a reliable encyclopedia with over seven million articles in several languages all contributed and maintained by volunteers. To learn more about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to building and maintaining this remarkable resource, surveys with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations were…
Rothwell, Andrew; Charleston, Brandon
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of individuals in transition between education and work during international volunteering expeditions. While it was expected that outcomes might include employability enhancement and skill development, the authors aimed to clarify what the main factors were, examine employability…
Benjamin, Ellen J.
A survey of 15 corporate volunteer program managers found that administration was complicated by limited staff time and lack of clear policies; employee preferences and incentives/rewards had a higher priority than impact on customers and community; feedback on program results was mostly informal; and 73% reported no measurement process. (Contains…
Both groups were compared at baseline and after 6 months of the experiment on their knowledge of malaria prevention and treatment. Level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: In the ... attainment of millennium development goals 4. Key words: Community volunteers, malaria, Nigeria, task shifting, under ‑ 5 children ...
Bromnick, Rachel; Horowitz, Ava; Shepherd, Daniel
Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of…
Knispel, B.; Allen, B.; Cordes, J.M.; Deneva, J.S.; Anderson, D.; Aulbert, C.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Bock, O.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Demorest, P.B.; Fehrmann, H.; Freire, P.C.C.; Gonzalez, M.E.; Hammer, D.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Jenet, F.A.; Kasian, L.; Kaspi, V.M.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D.R.; Lyne, A.G.; Machenschalk, B.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Messenger, C.; Nice, D.J.; Papa, M.A.; Pletsch, H.J.; Prix, R.; Ransom, S.M.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I.H.; Stappers, B.W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.
Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this
Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.; Youniss, James; Atkins, Robert
The influences of high school community service participation, extracurricular involvement, and civic knowledge on voting and volunteering in early adulthood were examined using the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The major finding in this study is that both voluntary and school-required community service in high school were strong…
Veldboer, Lex; Kleinhans, Reinout; van Ham, Maarten
This small exploratory study aims to reveal the perceptions of female participants in mandatory volunteering programmes and to formulate directions for further research. We analyse how in Rotterdam the transition from labour market re-integration policies to a mandatory reciprocity approach is
Demonstrating how international education programs can be used to study theoretical issues relevant to comparative education, this article reports on a scholarly analysis of 83 handover letters written by US participants in a volunteer program in Ecuador to their incoming counterparts between 2006 and 2010. It applies Swidler's notion of…
Brown, S T
The most common opportunities for nurse anesthetists to be involved in volunteer anesthesia overseas are usually on a surgical team to provide direct care for selected types of patients or to be involved in teaching local anesthesia providers. The challenges are numerous and unique in each setting. Sharing of knowledge, directly as an instructor or indirectly as a provider, provides for a great impact on health care delivery in many emerging nations. The anesthesia provider who is working to deliver care in another country must consider many variables before taking on such a venture. The type of surgical team or teaching assignment one accepts will determine the type of preparation that must be done before departing. In addition to the many organizational items, one should consider some personal issues as well. Lost wages, transportation costs, and lodging expenses are often paid for by the volunteer. Time away from one's family may also be a consideration. Health care, such as updated immunizations, must be attended to before to departure. Volunteers must be able to provide good care in less than ideal situations, and often with much less equipment and medications than are available in the United States. A review of some of the issues that one should consider before deciding to be a volunteer are outlined in this article. The nurse anesthetist who successfully anticipates and deals with the challenges of volunteer anesthesia will be rewarded with an intense degree of personal satisfaction. The ability to give back to the profession and those who would otherwise not have access to one's skills or knowledge produces a sense of accomplishment that is unique.
In medical research radiation is sometimes used to obtain data from healthy individuals. These subjects gain no specific benefit from the research. To safeguard their welfare, constraints are imposed on the dose to be received, on the selection of volunteer subjects, on ensuring their understanding of the procedures and risks, and on obtaining their free consent to participate. The research proposals are assessed by peer review prior to being approved by the host institution. The first example presented describes the use of diagnostic radiography to obtain in vivo data on the femur bone. Conservative dosimetry indicates an expected dose-equivalent per film of 0.5 mSv in bone and 0.18 mSv in bone marrow and gonad tissue. The critical organ total dose-equivalent is estimated to be 7% of the dose-equivalent limit for a volunteer. The second example involves the internal administration of radioactive tracers. Dosimetric calculations indicate an expected whole-body dose-equivalent of 0.5 mSv in the case of C-14 and 0.37 mSv in the case of H-3, these values bejng 10% and 7% of the relevant dose-equivalent limit. Both proposals were given conditional approval. In the generalized research use of volunteer human subjects the rights of the subject, the investigator and the institution need to be protected. At the University of New South Wales procedures have been introduced to govern all experjmental procedures involving human subjects. Some interesting problems which have arisen are discussed. (author)
Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried
This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect.
The involvement of local communities in public space planning and design processes is widely promoted as an essential element of landscape architecture and urban design practice. Despite this, there has been little theorisation of this topic within these fields. Furthermore, the implementation of ideals and principles commonly found in theory are far from becoming mainstream practice, indicating a significant gap between the theory and practice of participation. This thesis aims to contri...
Sheu, Leslie C; Zheng, Patricia; Coelho, Anabelle D; Lin, Lisa D; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; O'Brien, Bridget C; Yu, Albert Y; Lai, Cindy J
Student-run clinics (SRCs) are widespread, but studies on their educational impact are limited. We surveyed preclinical medical, nursing, and pharmacy students about their experiences in a hepatitis B elective which provided opportunities to they could volunteer at hepatitis B screening and vaccination SRCs. Student responses revealed positive perceptions of the volunteer experience. Benefits included interacting with patients, developing clinical skills, providing service to disadvantaged populations, and collaborating with health professional peers. Students who participated in clinic reported enhanced skills compared to those who did not attend. SRCs play a valuable role in instilling positive attitudes and improving skills.
Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng
Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.
Dietrich, Tobias Johannes; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [University of Zurich, Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Figueira da Silva, Flora Luciana [University of Zurich, Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiology, Hospital Mae de Deus and Mae de Deus Center, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abreu, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Radiology, Hospital Mae de Deus and Mae de Deus Center, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Klammer, Georg [University of Zurich, Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland)
To evaluate the spectrum and frequency of MR findings of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) in asymptomatic volunteers. MR imaging of 30 asymptomatic forefeet was performed with a dedicated extremity 1.5-Tesla system. Participants were between 20 and 49 years of age (mean ± SD: 35.5 ± 8.4 years). Two radiologists assessed cartilage, bone, capsuloligamentous structures, and tendons of first MTPJs on MR images. Cartilage defects were observed in 27 % (n = 8) of first MTPJs, most frequently located at the base of the proximal phalanx (23 %, n = 7), whereas cartilage defects of the metatarsal head (13 %, n = 4) and the metatarsosesamoid compartment were rare (0 %-3 %, n = 0-1). Bone marrow oedema-like signal changes were present in 37 % (n = 11) and subchondral cysts in 20 % (n = 6) of first MTPJs. Hyperintense areas on intermediate-weighted sequences (range: 30-43 %, n = 9-13) and on fluid-sensitive sequences with fat suppression (range: 33-60 %, n = 10-18) within the medial and lateral collateral ligament complex were common. Plantar recesses (77 %, n = 23) and distal dorsal recesses (87 %, n = 26) were frequently observed. Cartilage defects, bone marrow oedema-like signal changes, subchondral cysts, plantar recesses, and distal dorsal recesses were common findings on MRI of first MTPJs in asymptomatic volunteers. The collateral ligaments were often heterogeneous in structure and showed increased signal intensity. (orig.)
Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine
The article discuss the conflicts, potentials and possible alliances of do-it-yourself (DIY) urbanism when it takes the form of spontaneous place appropriations, when it is performed as participatory urban design and when it is integrated strategically in planning. DIY urbanism and experimentation...... with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...
Kim, Eric S; Konrath, Sara H
Although observational and experimental studies have shown that volunteering is linked with better mental health, physical health, and health behaviors, no studies have examined whether volunteering is associated with patterns of health care use. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether volunteering was associated with a greater use of preventive health care services, but fewer doctor visits and nights spent in the hospital. Participants (n = 7168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 51, and tracked for one wave (2 years). Logistic regression and generalized linear models were used for analyses. In analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic factors and baseline health, volunteers were 30% more likely to receive flu shots (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.16-1.47), 47% more likely to receive cholesterol tests (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.24-1.74); female volunteers were 53% more likely to receive mammograms/x-rays (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.28-1.83) and 21% more likely to receive Pap smears (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.03-1.41); male volunteers were 59% more likely to receive prostate exams (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.29-1.95). In a model that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, volunteers spent 38% fewer nights in the hospital (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.52-0.76), however volunteering was not associated with frequency of doctor visits (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02). The association between volunteering and number of nights spent in the hospital was minimally affected after adjusting for potential confounding (baseline health) and explanatory variables (health behaviors, social integration, stress, positive psychological factors, personality). This is the first known study to examine the association between volunteering and health care use. If future studies replicate these findings, the results may be used to inform the development of new
... Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... and test models of volunteer management; supply information to LMA program managers and other... is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on the new information...
South African Family Practice ... Aim: The aim of the study was to understand what volunteers perceived to be the factors helping them to continue ... Findings: The volunteers feel that their work consists of various forms of support to patients.
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00068610; The ATLAS collaboration; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Cameron, David; Filipčič, Andrej; Lançon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing
ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers’ resources make up a sizeable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one task to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.
Fridberg, Torben; Larsen, Mona
This report maps the composition of a group of volunteer members of the Home Guard, as well as their opinions and expectations of the Home Guard and their own voluntary efforts. The report is a follow-up to two previous surveys completed in 2007 and 2011 and it therefore also highlights changes...... from 2007 to 2011 and 2016. Based on a questionnaire survey, the report paints a picture of who the volunteers are, what motivates them and how they perceive their surrounding environment’s view of them as members of the Home Guard. The report also focuses on the volunteers’ view of the Home Guard......’s tasks and activities both in Denmark and abroad. Finally, the report describes the volunteers’ perception of the Home Guards’ communication and campaigns. The report was commissioned and financed by the Danish Home Guard Command....
Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Kleif, Helle Bendix; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe
The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’ (NR) was founded in Sweden in 1987 and has, over the years, developed into a Scandinavian concept covering large areas of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The NR programme is a crime prevention initiative with adults walking...... the streets at night in identifiable ‘uniforms’ in areas with high activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the NR programme in Denmark based on a volunteer set-up with a less intrusive approach to situational crime prevention than, for instance, hot spot policing. The analyses...... are based on a longitudinal data set containing socio-demographic information on all 585 postcode districts in Denmark and quarterly records of six different categories of reported crimes in the years 2001–2010.We apply a difference-in-difference design and compare development in crime rates in districts...
Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Bianchi, R.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.; Isacchini, G.; Lançon, E.; Wu, W.; ATLAS Collaboration
ATLAS@Home is a volunteer computing project which allows the public to contribute to computing for the ATLAS experiment through their home or office computers. The project has grown continuously since its creation in mid-2014 and now counts almost 100,000 volunteers. The combined volunteers’ resources make up a sizeable fraction of overall resources for ATLAS simulation. This paper takes stock of the experience gained so far and describes the next steps in the evolution of the project. These improvements include running natively on Linux to ease the deployment on for example university clusters, using multiple cores inside one task to reduce the memory requirements and running different types of workload such as event generation. In addition to technical details the success of ATLAS@Home as an outreach tool is evaluated.
Green, Tyler; Green, Heidi; Scandlyn, Jean; Kestler, Andrew
Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin) to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the individual project. In this exploratory study, project
Calls to investigate leadership development in the nonprofit and voluntary sector have been put forth as concerns about leadership succession have increased. To respond to this call to investigate this under-researched area, this design-based, multiple case study provides rich, thick descriptions of the development of the mentoring relationships, between mentor and mentee pairs, over the course of a virtual mentoring program for volunteer leadership development, in a Catholic nonprofit. I exp...
World War II, women in the United States turned manpower into woman power as housewives across the nation took manufacturing jobs building bombers...delineates responsibilities for the entire volunteer organization. Safety -first Flying Culture CHP CHP’s first- class safety program uses the most...civilian pilots to augment law enforcement based aviation operations. This thesis uses recommendations of the Public Safety Aviation Accreditation
TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Monterey Bay Aquarium, linear programing, network design, multi commodity flow, resilience PAGES 17. SECURITY 18. SECURITY...Volunteers fill many roles that include Aquarium guides, information desk attendants, divers, and animal caregivers . Julie Packard, Executive Director of...further analyze the resiliency of the shifts to changes in staffing levels caused by no-shows or drop-ins. 3 While the guide program managers have
Robert Moses Peaslee
Full Text Available n this initial attempt to bring volunteering, or what we call on-ground fan labor, into the ongoing discussion of fan productivity, we examine volunteer motivations as elicited through interview and participant observation data collected at a 2012 genre film festival, Fantastic Fest, held in Austin, Texas. This case study is a first step toward integrating the volunteer and fan labor literatures and interrogating the role of social capital and civic engagement in volunteerism. We conclude that the media festival (a term intended to encompass such sites as film festivals and fan conventions is a site of particular and emergent importance for those studying the audience's increasing delivery of free labor.
Karilampi, Ulla; Helldin, Lars; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Norlander, Torsten; Archer, Trevor
The aim was to analyze and compare neurocognitive test profiles related to different levels of verbal learning performance among schizopsychotic patients and healthy volunteers. A single-center patient cohort of 196 participants was compared with an equal-sized volunteer group to form three cognitive subgroups based on the shared verbal learning performance. 43.9% of the patients had normal learning ability. Despite this, all patients underperformed the volunteers on all subtests with the exception of working memory, and, for those with high learning ability, even verbal facility. All patients also presented equally poor visuomotor processing speed/efficacy. A global neurocognitive retardation of speed-related processing in schizophrenia is suggested.
Bearman, Christopher; Bremner, Peter A
To meet an identified gap in the literature this paper investigates the tasks that a volunteer incident commander needs to carry out during an incident, the errors that can be made and the way that errors are managed. In addition, pressure from goal seduction and situation aversion were also examined. Volunteer incident commanders participated in a two-part interview consisting of a critical decision method interview and discussions about a hierarchical task analysis constructed by the authors. A SHERPA analysis was conducted to further identify potential errors. The results identified the key tasks, errors with extreme risk, pressures from strong situations and mitigating strategies for errors and pressures. The errors and pressures provide a basic set of issues that need to be managed by both volunteer incident commanders and fire agencies. The mitigating strategies identified here suggest some ways that this can be done. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Marina A. Naidych
Full Text Available The article deals with the legal framework of the European Union, aimed at regulation and promotion of volunteering. We investigate the availability of legislative documents in the community of each country and analyze the factors that influence the willingness or reluctance of young people to get involved in volunteer projects. The basic problems on the way of popularizing volunteer activity and the core issues of youth volunteering in Ukraine are determined.
Lesley Hustinx; Ram A. Cnaan; Femida Handy
While many of the theoretical frameworks for volunteering have beendeveloped and empirically tested in the West, our understanding of volunteering in non-Western countries, such as China, is relatively limited. Nevertheless, in recent decades enormous efforts have been made by the Chinese government to encourage and support volunteering among its citizens, especially youth. Chinese youth are volunteering in greater numbers in response to these initiatives. Given the strongly state-led nature ...
Marcus Dittrich; Bianka Mey
Using unique data from a large-scale online survey conducted in Germany, we examine gender differences in volunteering for charitable organisations. Our findings suggest that men are more likely than women to engage in regular volunteer activities. Additionally, we find that men devote more time to charitable causes than women. However, disaggregating the volunteer labour supply by different organisations reveals that women spend more time performing volunteer work for organisations that help...
Yoon, Sang Wook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; Ji, Hoon
Defacography is a technique of examining the rectum and anal canal by using fluoroscopy during detection. This study was done to determine the range of normal findings of defecography in young asymptomatic Korean volunteers. Twenty nine asymptomatic young volunteers underwent defecography. Anorectal angle, perineal descent, length and width of anal, rectocele, rectal intussusception and incontinence were evaluated. The range of anorectal angle was 82 .deg- 149 .deg in resting state, compared to the 63 .deg-116 .deg in squeezing state, and 95 .deg- 116 .deg in straining state respectively. The pelvic floor in straining state descended on average of 1.62 cm from the inferior margin of ischial tuberosity that its broad range of position from-5.2 cm to 0.8 cm implies a wide variation of anorectal angle and perineal descent. Mild degree of rectocele with less than 2 cm of depth was found in 12 out of 29 cases. Rectal intussusception was noted in six and rectal incontinence was seen in one case. Formation of rectocele and intussusception during defecation was common in asymptomatic young volunteers. The wide range of defacographic measurements warrants the necessity of other complementary studies on anorectal function to improve the diagnostic accuracy. The interpretation of defecographic measurement should therefore be made with caution and should not be used as the sole criteria for selection of treatment modality
ATLAS@Home is a CERN volunteer computing project that runs simulated ATLAS events. As the project ramps up, the project team is looking for CERN volunteers to test the system before planning a bigger promotion for the public. The ATLAS@home outreach website. ATLAS@Home is a large-scale research project that runs ATLAS experiment simulation software inside virtual machines hosted by volunteer computers. “People from all over the world offer up their computers’ idle time to run simulation programmes to help physicists extract information from the large amount of data collected by the detector,” explains Claire Adam Bourdarios of the ATLAS@Home project. “The ATLAS@Home project aims to extrapolate the Standard Model at a higher energy and explore what new physics may look like. Everything we’re currently running is preparation for next year's run.” ATLAS@Home became an official BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network ...
Social participation is an important strategy in promoting successful aging. Although participating in volunteering has been proven to benefit older adults' health and well-being, we often ignore its role as a process of learning while helping others. The purpose of this study was to use the self-defined successful aging concept of seniors to…
Reuveni, Yehudit; Werner, Perla
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with teenagers' willingness to volunteer with elderly persons using an expanded model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Participants consisted of 258 ninth-grade students at a large high school in the northern part of Israel. Participants completed a structured…
Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen
The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…
Lobley, Jennifer; Ouellette, Kristy L.
Face-to-face training for Extension volunteers is no longer the only viable delivery mode. In times of rapid technological advances, we are faced with a plethora of options for offering volunteers the training and support they need. Zoom, an online videoconferencing platform, can easily be used to engage volunteers in professional development.…
Robideau, Kari; Vogel, Eric
Volunteers are central to the delivery of 4-H programs, and providing quality, relevant training is key to volunteer success. Online, asynchronous modules are an enhancement to a training delivery menu for adult volunteers, providing consistent, accessible options traditionally delivered primarily face to face. This article describes how Minnesota…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part-time volunteers. 1220.3-2 Section 1220.3-2... SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES Civil and Administrative Proceedings § 1220.3-2 Part-time volunteers. ACTION will reimburse sponsors for the reasonable expenses incidental to the defense of part-time...
Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.
Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…
Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy
This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling was used to define the latent variables and to test direct and indirect relationships among organizational support, socioemotional benefits, and self-reported health. Organizational support (measured by choice of volunteer activity, training, and ongoing support) had significant direct associations with 2 latent factors of socioemotional benefits, that is, perceived contribution and personal benefits. Perceived contribution was significantly related to mental health. Additionally, older volunteers with lower socioeconomic status (SES) committed more hours and perceived more personal benefits than higher SES peers. These findings suggest that volunteer programs can provide various organizational supports to older volunteers, especially to low-SES volunteers, in order to promote the socioemotional and health benefits of volunteering to older adults. Psychological well-being of older adults can be improved through engagement in meaningful volunteer activities and contribution to others.
Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.
Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…
This paper discusses the role of institutions in the ethical engagement of Canadian youth volunteers abroad. In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the international field have questioned the ethics of volunteering as part of development, with scrutiny on who actually benefits from volunteering initiatives. Since the 1960s, over 65,000…
There has been little research attention in the South African context on volunteer motivation for special events for people with disabilities. This study explored the key factors that motivated volunteers to volunteer their services at three major sport events for people with disabilities in South Africa. A 28-item questionnaire was ...
Motivation of volunteers at disability sports events: A comparative study of volunteers in Malaysia, South Africa and the United States. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences. Journal Home ... Very few cross-cultural comparisons have been done to assess the motivations of volunteers at similar events.
A new approach to volunteer motivation research is developed. Instead of asking what motivates the volunteer (accepting "any" conceptual category), we ask to what extent volunteering rewards the individual with each benefit taken from a complete set of possible benefits. As a "complete set of benefits" we use the 16 human functioning modes…
Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.; San Julian, Gary J.
A unique approach to volunteer marketing research involved a mail survey with natural resources professionals from across Pennsylvania. Previous work identified this group as a source of potential volunteers for the 4-H youth natural resources program. The results give insights into those most likely to volunteer to teach youth through 4-H…
Washburn, Lisa T.; Cornell, Carol E.; Traywick, LaVona; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha
This article describes findings from a qualitative study of volunteer leaders in the StrongWomen strength training program in Arkansas. The study explored reasons volunteers initially agreed to serve, perceptions of volunteer role, and motivations for continuing to lead strength training groups long-term. Findings suggest a combination of factors…
Goldstein, Marc B; Sapere, Heather; Daviau, John
Community coalitions have proliferated as a means of addressing a range of complex community problems. Such coalitions often consist of a small paid staff and volunteer members. The present study examines one likely contributor to coalition effectiveness: the degree of agreement on role expectations between paid staff and volunteer members. Role confusion occurs when paid staff and volunteers differ in their expectations of who is responsible for accomplishing specific tasks. Staff and volunteer members from 69 randomly selected Drug Free Coalitions in the United States as well as 21 Drug Free Coalitions in Connecticut were asked to respond to an online survey asking about 37 specific coalition tasks critical for effective coalition functioning and the degree to which paid staff and/or voluntary members should be responsible for accomplishing each. Our final sample consisted of 476 individuals from 35 coalitions. Using coalitions as the unit of analysis, we found significant differences between paid staff and volunteer coalition members on nine tasks reflecting four domains: meeting leadership and participation, (2) planning and implementation leadership, (3) publicity/media relations, and (4) logistical functions. Implications of these differences and ways that evaluators could help coalitions deal with differing role expectations were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Research purpose: This study aimed at investigating motivations to volunteer, perceived graduate competencies, extent of participating in volunteering, along with gender and faculty of registration, as antecedents of perceived graduate employability among student volunteers and to compare the relative contributions of these antecedences in predicting perceived employability. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional research design and a quantitative data collection method were used. The relative weights analysis was conducted to answer the research question. Main findings: Overall, the results demonstrated, firstly, that different sets of predictors statistically significantly predict Perceived External Employability and Perceived Internal Employability, respectively. In the case of Perceived External Employability, a biographical predictor (faculty of registration is the strongest predictor, whereas in the case of Internal Employability, a questionnaire measurement (of Social Motivation comes out on top. Practical implications/managerial implications: The social motivation factor as a predictor of perceived internal employability suggests that the more students valued the social interactions brought about by their volunteering activities, the better they saw themselves equipped for employment. This gives some weight to the argument that engaging in volunteer activities can help equip students with competencies that make them more prepared for the world of work. Contribution/value-add: The study provided support for the construct validity of the scale for the measurement of perceived employability and evidence that different sets of predictors contribute to perceived internal and external employability.
Fulmer, Terry; Portelli, Ian; Foltin, George L; Zimmerman, Rae; Chachkes, Esther; Goldfrank, Lewis R
Catastrophic events are an ongoing part of life, affecting society both locally and globally. Recruitment, development, and retention of volunteers who offer their knowledge and skills in the event of a disaster are essential to ensuring a functional workforce during catastrophes. These opportunities also address the inherent need for individuals to feel necessary and useful in times of crisis. Universities are a particularly important setting for voluntary action, given that they are based in communities and have access to resources and capabilities to bring to bear on an emergency situation. The purpose of the study was to discern how one large private organization might participate and respond in the case of a large scale disaster. Using a 2-phase random sample survey, 337 unique respondents (5.7%) out of a sample of 6000 replied to the survey. These data indicate that volunteers in a private organization are willing to assist in disasters and have skills that can be useful in disaster mitigation. Much is to be learned related to the deployment of volunteers during disaster. These findings suggest that volunteers can and will help and that disaster preparedness drills are a logical next step for university-based volunteers.
Putri, S. T.; Andriyani, S.
Posbindu is a form of public participation to conduct early detection and monitoring of risk factors for non-communicable diseases(NCD), and where it was carried out in as an integrated manner, routine and periodic event. This paper aims to investigates the needs and problems on Posbindu Program based on community health volunteers(CHVs) perspective. This study used descriptive qualitative method by open ended questions. Content analysis using to explicating the result. There are 3 theme finding about elderly needs in Posbindu; medical care, support group community, and health education. We found four theme problems which in Posbindu program: low motivation from elderly, Inadequate of facilities, physical disability, failed communication. To be effective in Posbindu program, all the stakeholders have reached consensus on the Posbindu program as elderly need. CHVs need given wide knowledge about early detection, daily care, control disease continuously so that the elderly keep feeling the advantages of coming to the Posbindu.
Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo
To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities ("healthy lifestyle," "outreach to family," "outreach to community") and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers' outreach activities. Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the volunteers were associated with the three core health
Full Text Available To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members.A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers.The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community.Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities ("healthy lifestyle," "outreach to family," "outreach to community" and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers' outreach activities.Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%. Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the volunteers were associated with the three core
David Allen Jones
Full Text Available An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs to support and coordinate their employees’ efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities they provide for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers’ self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experience. Study participants were 74 employees who volunteered a few hours of their time once a week for ten weeks in a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit’s records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of ten work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were
Full Text Available Purpose: identification of the main structural components and content of sports volunteer activities. Material & Methods: used analysis of literature and documents, organizational analysis. Result: basic structural components of sports volunteer activity are defined. The content of sports volunteer activity is disclosed. Conclusion: sports volunteer activity includes the following structural components: subject, object, purpose, motivation, means, actions; subject is a sports volunteer, the object is a sports competition, the goal is to provide gratuitous assistance for a quality competition, the means are the special knowledge, skills, communication abilities of sports volunteers, actions should be understood as types of volunteer activities and functions that volunteers perform during the preparation and conduct of competitions. Main types of sports volunteer activity are: 1 organizational; 2 judiciary; 3 coaching; 4 legal; 5 medical. Functions that volunteers perform in the competition system are general and special. Content of the functions of sports volunteering depends on the specifics of the sports, the rank of the competition, the specifics of the competition for people with special needs.
DeVoe, Sanford E; Pfeffer, Jeffrey
These studies examined how the practice of accounting for one's time-so that work can be billed or charged to specific clients or projects-affects the decision to allocate time to volunteer activities. Using longitudinal data collected from law students transitioning to their first jobs, Study 1 showed that exposure to billing time diminished individuals' willingness to volunteer, even after controlling for attitudes about volunteering held before entering the workforce as well as the individual's specific opportunity costs of volunteering time. Studies 2-5 experimentally manipulated billing time and confirmed its causal effect on individuals' willingness to volunteer and actual volunteering behavior. Study 5 showed that the effect of exposure to billing time on volunteering occurred above and beyond any effects on general self-efficacy or self-determination. Individual differences moderated the effects of billing, such that people who did not value money as much were less affected.
Capitão, L P; Murphy, S E; Browning, M; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J
Fluoxetine is generally regarded as the first-line pharmacological treatment for young people, as it is believed to show a more favourable benefit:risk ratio than other antidepressants. However, the mechanisms through which fluoxetine influences symptoms in youth have been little investigated. This study examined whether acute administration of fluoxetine in a sample of young healthy adults altered the processing of affective information, including positive, sad and anger cues. A total of 35 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 21 years old were randomized to receive a single 20 mg dose of fluoxetine or placebo. At 6 h after administration, participants completed a facial expression recognition task, an emotion-potentiated startle task, an attentional dot-probe task and the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Subjective ratings of mood, anxiety and side effects were also taken pre- and post-fluoxetine/placebo administration. Relative to placebo-treated participants, participants receiving fluoxetine were less accurate at identifying anger and sadness and did not show the emotion-potentiated startle effect. There were no overall significant effects of fluoxetine on subjective ratings of mood. Fluoxetine can modulate emotional processing after a single dose in young adults. This pattern of effects suggests a potential cognitive mechanism for the greater benefit:risk ratio of fluoxetine in adolescent patients.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in a phenomenological study aimed at understanding students' perceptions of volunteer experiences from the viewpoint of their existential meanings. In Japan, as volunteer activities have just been recently introduced to youth education, it is necessary to verify the effect of the activity on the students. The authors present phenomenological reduction, which is a fundamental concept in phenomenology, as a health care research method to elucidate the essence of people's lived experiences. The 22 statements presented from volunteer students' group discussion after their practices were redescribed by phenomenological reduction, a method of valid interpretation based on their embodiment and desire. The phenomenological approach allows us to understand the essence of students' perceptions in terms of their purpose in life, which suggests that educators could inspire the students to realize existential growth by participating in volunteer activities through practical communications with others.
O'Brien, Liz; Burls, Ambra; Townsend, Mardie; Ebden, Matthew
Those who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties or mental health problems, are unemployed or bereaved, or have been in trouble with the law can be socially marginalized and can become isolated from their families, community and wider society. This paper explores the role of active hands-on contact with the environment through a general environmental volunteering programme and through a targeted therapeutic volunteer programme, highlighting how these two approaches can potentially aid some marginalized people to reintegrate into society. This study draws on concepts from the well-being and social capital literatures and refers to two separate pieces of research: Study 1 was based on general environmental volunteering primarily in northern England and southern Scotland; and Study 2 focused on mental health participants at Meanwhile Wildlife Garden in London. Ethnographic and interview data were gathered from participants as a means to understand the benefits they gained from their voluntary involvement. The participants all volunteered to undertake the activities they were involved in and chose outdoor nature activity as opposed to other activities. There is self-reported and observed evidence from and of participants in these studies that contact with nature can be beneficial to a range of excluded groups; also the studies show that the learning and curative processes that take place in green spaces can provide benefits in terms of social reintegration of vulnerable young people and adults. Three key themes of particular relevance to the marginalized participants were identified as: (1) improving relations with others and nature; (2) working alongside others who are different; and (3) developing social and employable skills. Active hands-on engagement allows people to work at their own pace, since these approaches are not target focused, and skills and social networks can be developed slowly. Practical engagement in environmental conservation work is one
Sirilak, Supakit; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Wattanagoon, Yupaporn; Chatchaiyalerk, Surut; Tornee, Songpol; Siri, Sukhontha
This is the first report of the large-scale utilization of migrants as health volunteers in a migrant primary-healthcare program. The program recruited migrants who volunteered to serve their communities. This study explores the identities of these volunteers, their relationship with program management, and their attitudes. The study also investigates the impact of the volunteers, from the migrants' and healthcare workers' perspective. The study was conducted in two provinces, Tak (northern Thailand) and Samut Sakhon (central Thailand). Primary and secondary information was collected. Mixed methods, comprising in-depth interviews, observation and questionnaires, were used to gather primary data from three groups of participants-migrant volunteers, migrants and healthcare workers. Secondary data, and in-depth interviews with healthcare workers, showed that migrant volunteers made a significant contribution to the provision of both preventive and curative services. The quantitative study covered 260 migrant volunteers and 446 migrants. The results found that <5% of volunteers were selected by the community. Almost all attended a training course. Most were assigned to be health communicators; four stated they did nothing. Volunteers' attitudes were very positive. Most migrants reported that the volunteers' work was useful. It was concluded that the migrant health-volunteer program did help deal with migrant health problems. However, management of the program should be closely considered for more effective outcomes.
Shorvon, P.; Stevenson, G.W.; McHugh, S.; Somers, P.
This study of young volunteers was set up in an effort to establish true normal measurements for defecography with minimum selection bias. The results describe the mean (and the range) for the following: anorectal angle; anorectal junction position at rest; excursion on lift, strain, and evacuation; anal canal length and degree of closure; and the frequency and degree of features such as rectocele and intussusception which have previously been called abnormalities. The results indicate that there is a very wide range of normal appearances. Knowledge of these normal variations is important to avoid overreporting and unnecessary surgery
Salt, Elizabeth; Crofford, Leslie J; Segerstrom, Suzanne
To improve function and quality of life in patients with chronic pain, a prevalent and costly condition, an understanding of the relationships among well-being, physical activity, depression, and life purpose with pain is needed. Because of the role loss experienced by people with chronic pain, activities such as volunteering could have an important role in improving health and well-being. In one study, chronic pain patients who participated in volunteer activities reported both decreased pain and "a sense of purpose." The aim of this study is to test the relationships among pain and well-being, physical activity, depression, and life purpose and then to determine if volunteering activities mediated or moderated these relationships. This observational study was conducted in a large university setting in Kentucky and used a sample of 200 women older than age 50. We found that people with higher pain were more depressed and had lower life purpose and well-being. People who volunteered less had more pain, lower perceived life purpose, more depressive symptoms, and decreased physical activity. Volunteer activities did have a significant mediating effect on the relationship between pain and depression; approximately 9% of the relationship between pain and depression can be accounted for by volunteering. Moderation by volunteering was found between pain and life purpose. We identified important relationships among pain, volunteering, and health outcomes and found that volunteering has a role in improving depressive symptoms and life purpose in women with pain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ali, Ahmed Loai; Falomir, Zoe; Schmid, Falko; Freksa, Christian
During the last decade, web technologies and location sensing devices have evolved generating a form of crowdsourcing known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). VGI acted as a platform of spatial data collection, in particular, when a group of public participants are involved in collaborative mapping activities: they work together to collect, share, and use information about geographic features. VGI exploits participants' local knowledge to produce rich data sources. However, the resulting data inherits problematic data classification. In VGI projects, the challenges of data classification are due to the following: (i) data is likely prone to subjective classification, (ii) remote contributions and flexible contribution mechanisms in most projects, and (iii) the uncertainty of spatial data and non-strict definitions of geographic features. These factors lead to various forms of problematic classification: inconsistent, incomplete, and imprecise data classification. This research addresses classification appropriateness. Whether the classification of an entity is appropriate or inappropriate is related to quantitative and/or qualitative observations. Small differences between observations may be not recognizable particularly for non-expert participants. Hence, in this paper, the problem is tackled by developing a rule-guided classification approach. This approach exploits data mining techniques of Association Classification (AC) to extract descriptive (qualitative) rules of specific geographic features. The rules are extracted based on the investigation of qualitative topological relations between target features and their context. Afterwards, the extracted rules are used to develop a recommendation system able to guide participants to the most appropriate classification. The approach proposes two scenarios to guide participants towards enhancing the quality of data classification. An empirical study is conducted to investigate the classification of grass
Gaby ePons Van Dijk
Full Text Available AbstractBalance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40-71 year we investigated effects of age-adapted taekwondo training of one hour a week during one year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure, postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire.Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62 degrees towards anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather towards the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/sec (range 0.71-45.86, and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm²/sec (range 17.39-1.22. Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 seconds for the right leg, and with almost 4 seconds for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 seconds (range 1-16, and in 13 participants with 8 seconds (range 1-18. The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better ‘ability to maintain balance’ in sixteen.In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of forty.
To develop a better understanding of the experiences of volunteer work among youth with disabilities. A scoping review was undertaken to assess the benefits and challenges of volunteering among youth with disabilities. Comprehensive searches using six international databases were conducted. Eligible articles included: (a) youth aged 30 or younger, with a disability; (b) empirical research on the benefits or challenges of volunteering; (c) published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1980 and 2014. Of the 1558 articles identified, 20 articles - involving 1409 participants, aged 12-30, across five countries - met the inclusion criteria. Studies linked volunteering to the development of human capital (i.e. practical experience, improved self-determination, self-confidence, coping), enhanced social capital (i.e. social and communication skills, social inclusion) and improved cultural capital (i.e. helping others, contributing to community). Many youth with disabilities also encountered challenges - including lack of accessible volunteer opportunities, difficulties arranging transportation, and negative attitudes from potential supervisors. Young people with disabilities are willing and able to volunteer, and they report benefits of volunteering; however, they face many challenges in finding suitable volunteer positions. More rigorous research is needed to understand the health and social benefits of volunteering and how it can help youth develop career pathways. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians, educators and parents should discuss the benefits of volunteering with youth with disabilities and assist them in finding placements that match their interests and abilities. Managers and clinicians should consider incorporating volunteering into vocational rehabilitation programming (i.e. addressing how to find placements and connecting youth to organisations). Clinicians should encourage youth to take part in social and extracurricular activities to help build their
Information and training sessions are being organised for Open Day volunteers. The Open Days Organising Committee is offering information and training sessions every Thursday in March from 2.00 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. in the Main Building Auditorium. It is important that volunteers attend these sessions to familiarise themselves with the practical arrangements for the two Open Days and with the main messages to be conveyed to the general public in order to make the event a success. General information will be given at each session, followed by information on a specific theme. The sessions will be organised as follows: 2.00 - 2.45 p.m. : first part - general information 2.45 - 3.30 p.m. : second part - specific information * 20 March - specific theme "Organisation of the information points and the visits to the tunnel" 27 March - specific theme "Safety issues for the Open Days" Presentation by Gilles Colin, member of the CERN Fire Brigade 3 April - specific theme "Last-m...
Information and training sessions are being organised for Open Day volunteers. The Open Days Organising Committee is offering information and training sessions every Thursday in March from 2.00 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. in the Main Building Auditorium. The first session will be on Thursday 6 March. It is important that volunteers attend these sessions to familiarise themselves with the practical arrangements for the two Open Days and with the main messages to be conveyed to the general public in order to make the event a success. General information will be given out at each session, followed by information on a specific theme. The sessions will be organised as follows: 2.00 - 2.45 p.m. : first part - general information 2.45 - 3.30 p.m. : second part - specific information * 6 March - specific theme "How to answer questions about the fears surrounding the LHC" * A different theme will be addressed at each session. The themes of subsequent sessions (13 , 20, 27 March and 3 Ap...
Full Text Available It is often assumed that in public goods games, contributors are either strong or weak players and each individual has an equal probability of exhibiting cooperation. It is difficult to explain why the public good is produced by strong individuals in some cooperation systems, and by weak individuals in others. Viewing the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma game as an evolutionary game, we find that whether the strong or the weak players produce the public good depends on the initial condition (i.e., phenotype or initial strategy of individuals. These different evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS associated with different initial conditions, can be interpreted as the production modes of public goods of different cooperation systems. A further analysis revealed that the strong player adopts a pure strategy but mixed strategies for the weak players to produce the public good, and that the probability of volunteering by weak players decreases with increasing group size or decreasing cost-benefit ratio. Our model shows that the defection probability of a "strong" player is greater than the "weak" players in the model of Diekmann (1993. This contradicts Selten's (1980 model that public goods can only be produced by a strong player, is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, and will therefore disappear over evolutionary time. Our public good model with ESS has thus extended previous interpretations that the public good can only be produced by strong players in an asymmetric game.
Høimyr, N; Buncic, P; Giovannozzi, M; Gonzalez, A; Harutyunyan, A; Jones, P L; Karneyeu, A; Marquina, M A; Mcintosh, E; Segal, B; Skands, P; Grey, F; Lombraña González, D; Zacharov, I; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name "LHC@home 2.0" and the BOINC project: "Test4Theory". At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC@home, and has been running the "Sixtrack" beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup i...
Partin, Minerva O.; And Others
A series of guidelines for use by Extension agents, as they involve socially and economically disadvantaged youth and adults in volunteer leadership roles in rural and urban Extension programs, is presented. Section headings are: Know Your Audience, Establish Rapport, Levels of Leadership, Leader Development, Leadership Roles, Volunteer…
van Lange, P.A.M.; Schippers, M.C.; Balliet, D.P.
The central purpose of the present research is to provide a review of social value orientation (i.e., prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientation), a construct measured with methods rooted in game theory (i.e., decomposed games). Also, we examine its ability to predict volunteering in
The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.
Student officials for intramural sports can be given special training to enhance their aptitude in the field, but their attitude is more difficult to develop. This paper suggests 21 ways to develop attitude among student officials. Some of the suggestions are: Athletic departments should emphasize the role of the official in the intramural…
R. S. W. van de Wal
Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.
Zettinig, G.; Kurtaran, A.; Dudczak, R.; Maca, S.; Barisani, T.; Horvat, R.
Full text: A 21-year-old female with multiple granulomas an the right iris with concomitant therapy refractive panuveitis was referred to the Department of Ophthalmology to exclude an ocular malignancy. The patient had a history of minimal change glomerulonephritis and cutaneous granulomas at the age of six years that were successfully treated with cyclophosphamide. Her visual acuity initially already reduced to 30 % decreased rapidly to 'counting fingers'. A clinical work-up including chest x-ray, spiral computed tomography of the lungs and a detailed serological examination including angiotensin converting enzyme showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. Planar scintigraphy 24 hours after administration of 185 MBq Gallium-67 citrate demonstrated an intense tracer accumulation in both lacrimal glands. Salivary gland uptake was normal and there was only a faint accumulation in the mediastinum interpreted as normal. A biopsy of the right iris revealed a granulomatous non caseating inflammation diagnosed as sarcoidosis. A systemic combination treatment with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 months could not control the inflammation. After therapy was changed to cyclosporine the inflammation decreased and visual acuity decreased to 60 %. Neither a 'lambda sign' (characteristic uptake of Ga-67 in intrathoracic lymph nodes resembling the Greek letter lambda) nor a typical 'panda sign' (bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67) commonly present in sarcoidosis were seen in our patient. This case demonstrates that in individual patients with sarcoidosis, lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67 may be the only significant noninvasive finding. (author)
Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.
A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.
Ibach, Kimberly L.
This body of work presents the summary of findings; explanation of implications; discussion of conclusions; and recommendations about practice, policy and future research regarding principal leadership in school districts recognized as national Baldrige Award winners. This study widened the scope and definition of quality management in education…
Full Text Available The responses of termite species to bait depend upon the quality of the food used in the stations. Woods are the most common food sources for termites but different termite species behave differently to different wood species and types. The knowledge of the preference status of different wood species to a termite species helps in effective monitoring and baiting program. The current study was carried out to evaluate the preference of 21 wood species to the termite, Microtermes mycophagus in the field by no-choice and choice feeding tests. The results indicated silk cotton tree and sacred fig woods as the most preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 71.21 ± 5.09% and 68.38 ± 7.27% in no-choice test and 95.02 ± 1.65% and 91.69 ± 2.07% in choice tests, respectively. White cedar was the least preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 7.49 ± 1.64% and 13.92 ± 1.89% in no choice and choice feeding tests, respectively. Based on present studies, sapwood of silk cotton tree and sacred fig may be used in effective monitoring and baiting program against M. mycophagus.
Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson
Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...
Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin
-frequency tinnitus. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants, and the complainants were exposed to these in blind test listening experiments. Furthermore, the low-frequency hearing function of the complainants was investigated, and characteristics of the annoying sound was matched. The results...... showed that some of the complainants are annoyed by a physical sound (20-180 Hz), while others suffer from low-frequency tinnitus (perceived frequency 40-100 Hz). Physical sound at frequencies below 20 Hz (infrasound) is not responsible for the annoyance - or at all audible - in any of the investigated...... cases, and none of the complainants has extraordinary hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. For comparable cases of low-frequency noise complaints in general, it is anticipated that physical sound is responsible in a substantial part of the cases, while lowfrequency tinnitus is responsible in another...
Jorge Felipe Ramírez León
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report and compare the number and grade of major complications presented with non-endoscopic thermal discectomy and nucleoplasty for the treatment of discogenic axial lumbar pain using laser and radiofrequency. Methods: A 21 years retrospective study was conducted of the clinical charts of patients whose reason for consultation was axial lumbar pain from degenerative disc disease, and who underwent surgery using non-endoscopic discectomy and nucleoplasty (NEDN. Two groups were established; the first, NEDN with laser, and second, NEDN with radiofrequency. The number and types of complications reported in the case-series were counted, and their statistical differences determined. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 643 of the medical charts. 26 complications were reported, the most common being radiculitis (n=12. Statistically significant differences were found between the complications occurring in the two groups (p=0.01. Conclusion: The number of complications showed statistically significant difference. The severity of the complications and adverse outcomes provide an argument for choosing one technology over the other. Training and the learning curve stage are important factors to be taken into account, to avoid complications.
Mas, Vicente; Fornas, G.; Lozano, Juan; Rodrigo, Onofre; Fornas, A.; Carreño, A.; Arce, Enrique; Brines, Pedro; Herrero, David
We report on the analysis of photometric observations of 21 main-belt asteroids (MBA) done by Asteroids Observers (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database task that was initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as some additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions.
Friedman, Ori; Ross, Hildy
Within psychology, most aspects of ownership have received scant attention or have been overlooked completely. In this chapter, the authors outline 21 reasons why it will be important (and interesting) to understand the psychological basis of ownership of property, including its developmental origins: (1) Daily life; (2) A human universal, and…
Peñaherrera, Carlos Andrés; Palacios, Michael; Duarte, María Carolina; Santibáñez, Rocío; Tamariz, Leonardo; Palacio, Ana
Up to this date, there are no reports made about the use of media for recruiting research volunteers in Latin American populations. Given the emergence of clinical research in Ecuador, a study of this kind in the local population will be beneficial for future research, and is probably applicable to other countries in the region. Two public calls were made for a cross-sectional study on cognitive function and diabetes. We only included people between 55 and 65 years of age without previous neurocognitive conditions. We invited individuals through interviews on the radio, television broadcasts and local newspapers, along with social media ads. Each individual was asked about the method by which they learned of the project. We calculated the frequency in which each method was reported and a chi-square test was used to assess gender differences in the results. A total of 274 patients were enrolled in the study, 64.2% are women and 35.8% men. We found that 29.93% learned of it from third persons, 20.8% through radio, 8.76% through social media, 8.39% by newspaper, and 5.11% by television, while a remaining 27.01% had not previously heard of the recruitment call. Methods reported varied significantly between men and women (p = 0.03). Traditional media were the most common method of recruitment, with radio interviews being the most frequently reported. Individually, none of them surpassed the frequency of people learning of the project from other people (snowball effect). Social networks play an important role, exceeding certain traditional media. We have described for the first time in Latin America the use of media as methods to recruit volunteers for research, and the importance of project dissemination by the participants to reach more people.
Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Newton, Robert U; Warburton, Jeni; Jackson, Ben
A growing evidence base demonstrates that interventions that focus on participation in physical and social activities can assist in preventing and treating both physical and mental health problems. In addition, there is some evidence that engaging in volunteering activities can provide beneficial social, physical, psychological, and cognitive outcomes for older people. This study will use a randomized controlled trial approach to investigate the potential for interventions involving volunteer activities to produce positive physical and psychological outcomes for older people, thereby contributing to the limited evidence relating to the potential for volunteering to provide multiple health effects. This randomized controlled trial will involve 400 retired/non-employed individuals in good health aged 60+ years living in the metropolitan area in Perth, Western Australia. Participants will be recruited from the Perth metropolitan area using a variety of recruitment methods to achieve a diverse sample in terms of age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Consenting and eligible participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 200) or control group (n = 200). Those in the intervention group will be asked to engage in a minimum 60 min of volunteer activities per week for a period of 6 months, while those in the control group will be asked to maintain their existing lifestyle or take on new activities as they see fit. Physical and psychological outcomes will be assessed. Primary physical outcomes will include physical activity and sedentary time (measured using pedometers and Actigraph monitors) and physical health (measured using a battery of physical functioning tests, resting heart rate, blood pressure, BMI, and girth). Primary psychological outcomes will include psychological well-being, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life (measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Health volunteers are the women who do charity work to prevent, protect and promote the health status of the covered neighbors and hereby cooperate with the health centers. The aim of this study was to compare the health volunteer's performance in the covered health centers by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytical study was performed by the participation of 2060 Health volunteers, who were cooperating with 90 covered health centers by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. These include Shomal, Shargh, Shemiranat, Pakdasht, Damavand and Firoozkooh. We used census sampling method. Demographic data was gathered through interviews with the health volunteers and their performance evaluated by the supervisor of the volunteers; through the evaluation forms and these data gathered together.Results: The mean (SD of the health volunteers performance was 30.9 (16.4 in all centers. They were 35.1 (22 in Shargh, 34 (14.5 in Shomal, 32 (11.3 in Firoozkooh, 28.3 (14 in Shemiranat, 7.9 (9.2 in Damavand and 23.6 (8.5 in Pakdasht respectively. The mean (SD of the efficacy of health volunteers was 8.6 (9.9 in all centers. They were 11.7 (5.6 in Firoozkooh, 10.7 (15.7 in Shargh, 9.4 (6.8 in Shomal, 7.9 (4.9 in Damavand, 7.9 (6.1 in Shemiranat and 4.6 (4.3 in Pakdasht respectively. Older and married volunteers with more experience performed better. There was no significant relationship between the efficacy of health volunteers with their literacy level, employment status and absorber of them. Conclusion: The health volunteers of Shomal, Shargh and Firoozkooh had the best performances respectively. The performances of those in Shemiranat, Damavand and Pakdasht were less than the overall health centers’ mean score. The efficacy score of Firoozkooh, Shomal and Shargh health centers were above the overall health centers’ mean score respectively
Significant amounts of efforts have been taken into monitoring forest and terrestrial carbon by many countries in recent years. As the rapid increase of methodologies and resources, international collaboration is critical now for enhancing capacity of managing and sharing the ongoing research efficiently worldwide. Moreover, much broader citizen participants with or without expert training have been involved in. Fortunately, the emergence of Web2.0, social networking, and geopositioning technology make such wide-range collaboration and participation on geospatial science research possible. The concept of Volunteer Geographical Information (VGI) coined by Michael F. Goodchild enables the ability to contribute georeferenced and disseminated scientific resource and to exchange information over the web. With this in mind, SilvaCarbon, applying the above technologies, is a project conducted by U.S. federal agencies as a U.S. contribution to the Forest Carbon Tracking task of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observation. Clearly, all research activities must rely on geographic data. And because of the observational objectives of Forest Carbon Tracking task, data sharing is a main objective of the project needed to be addressed. Data can be captured directly, contributed by secondary sources, or obtained from historical archive for the past period. Each VGI participant becomes a sensor with the ability to collect and share data. A given phenomenon can be always described more sufficient by data from multiple sources than captured individually. And data sharing can also satisfy the desire to avoid data duplication. Another purpose of Silvacarbon is to describe the activity states of involved countries, communities and individual participants and to help communicating. With the assistant of the other social networking like Facebook and Twitter, VGI participants are given an access to broadcast states of their research or activities. They also can plan travels and trades
Full Text Available Purpose: identify the role sports volunteering in the life of university students. Material and Methods: 256 students of the Kharkov state academy of physical culture took part in research. The analysis of literary sources and documents was utillized; questioning (questionnaire, methods of the mathematical processing of data. Conclusions: sports volunteering is inalienable part of life of modern students and the 35% polled already were in a position to prove as helpers of organizers of sporting competitions of different level. In opinion of students, volunteering enables them to purchase experience of public activity, so the 25% polled consider, to find new friends – 20,8%, realized themselves – 18,3%. 34,5% respondents consider it-volunteering perspective direction the volunteers activity, the here 32,4% polled would like to prove as counsels of all of sporting volunteers work assignments
Full Text Available This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that religious attendance is related positively to volunteering. These results confirm the idea that support of the religious attributes community plays quite a large role in volunteering process. However, it a bear that volunteering is not only dependent on religious community, but also on individual motivation.
Ali Sallam Abdullah AbdulElah
Full Text Available This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that religious attendance is related positively to volunteering. These results confirm the idea that support of the religious attributes community plays quite a large role in volunteering process.. However, it a bear that volunteering is not only dependent on religious community, but also on individual motivation.
Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios
The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not
Burrai, Elisa.; Mostafanezhad, Mary.; Hannam, Kevin.
In this paper, we develop a conceptual approach from which to examine the moral landscape of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru. Drawing from recent work on assemblage theory in geography and tourism studies, we explore how assemblage thinking can facilitate new understandings of volunteer tourism development. Using assemblage as an analytical framework allows us to understand volunteer tourism as a series of relational, processual, unequal and mobile practices. These practices, we ...
A. BALDUCK; A. VAN ROSSEM; M. BUELENS
This study contributes to the emerging empirical studies on roles and responsibilities of boards in nonprofit organizations by identifying competencies of volunteer board members. We identified how two types of constituents—volunteer board members and sports members—perceived competencies of volunteer board members in community sports clubs. We used the repertory grid technique to draw cognitive maps and to reveal the perceived reality of these constituents. Our results suggest that constitue...
Sallam A.A.A.; Abdullah S.; Ramli A.J .; Hussin N.S.; Ahmad Z.; Bahari A.
This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that ...
Fridberg, Torben; Damgaard, Malene
voluntary work than the population as a whole. The report also shows that one in three active members of the Home Guard would like to be deployed on international operations to support the armed forces. The young members are especially willing – and these members have increased in recent years. This report......This report describes the composition of the Home Guard’s volunteer members and their attitudes to and expectations for the Home Guard. A similar survey was carried out in 2007, and the present report therefore also examines the trends from 2007 to 2011. Among other things, the report shows...... that the voluntary members are a stable resource, as on average they have been members of the Home Guard for more than 24 years. There is a clear majority of men aged 25-50. Relatively many have vocational training, and many are employed in the private sector. Members are also relatively more active in other...
Sebastio, Stefano; Amoretti, Michele; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto
The increasing demand of computational and storage resources is shifting users toward the adoption of cloud technologies. Cloud computing is based on the vision of computing as utility, where users no more need to buy machines but simply access remote resources made available on-demand by cloud...... application, intelligent agents constitute a feasible technology to add autonomic features to cloud operations. Furthermore, the volunteer computing paradigm—one of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) trends of the last decade—can be pulled alongside traditional cloud approaches...... management solutions before their deployment in the production environment. However, currently available simulators of cloud platforms are not suitable to model and analyze such heterogeneous, large-scale, and highly dynamic systems. We propose the AVOCLOUDY simulator to fill this gap. This paper presents...
Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.
Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na
Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs.
Tavares, Jane L; Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E
This study investigated race differences in the relationship between formal volunteering and hypertension prevalence among middle-aged and older adults. Using data from the 2004 and 2006 Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,666; 677 African Americans and 4,989 whites), we examined regression models stratified by race to estimate relationships among hypertension prevalence, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and volunteer status and hours spent volunteering among persons aged 51 years old and older. White volunteers had a lower risk of hypertension than white nonvolunteers. A threshold effect was also present; compared with nonvolunteers, volunteering a moderate number of hours was associated with lowest risk of hypertension for whites. Results for hypertension were consistent with results from alternative models of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We found no statistically significant relationship between volunteering activity and hypertension/blood pressure for African Americans. There may be unmeasured cultural differences related to the meaning of volunteering and contextual differences in volunteering that account for the race differences we observed. Research is needed to determine the pathways through which volunteering is related to hypertension risk and that may help explain race differences identified here.
Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W; Grainger, Sarah
Using the concepts in the Fogg Behavioral Model, 37 volunteers aged 50 and older described their preparation for intensive volunteering with faith-based organizations. Their multistage preparation process included decision points where respondents needed to choose whether to drop out or continue preparation. Ability was a stronger determinant of serving than motivation, particularly in terms of health and finances. This model can facilitate understanding of the barriers to volunteering and aid organizations in tailoring support at crucial points for potential older volunteers in intensive service. © The Author(s) 2013.
McIntyre, Joyce K; Schoenbrunner, Anna R; Kelley, Kristen D; Gosman, Amanda A
Plastic surgeons have a long history of international volunteer work. To date, there have been no outcome-based studies among surgeons who volunteer internationally. The purpose of this study was to describe predictors of volunteering, clinical quality markers, and economics of international volunteering among American plastic surgeons. A cross-sectional validated e-mail survey tool was sent to all board-certified plastic surgeons by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. The survey response rate was 15 percent (745 total individuals), of which 283 respondents traveled within the past 5 years. Analysis was performed in R. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of death/complication. Respondents reported high use of medical records, follow-up care, and host affiliation. Fewer than half of all respondents reported use of international safety surgery guidelines, and the majority of respondents reported volunteering abroad outside of their scope of practice. The majority of children younger than 5 years were not cared for by a pediatric anesthesiologist. The majority of participants reported personally spending more than $1000 on their last trip and performing surgery estimated to be worth on average $28,000 each. International surgical volunteer trips attempt to ease the global burden of surgical disease. The authors' study reports variation in quality of care provided on these trips. Most significantly, the majority of children younger than 5 years were not cared for by a pediatric anesthesiologist, and many plastic surgeons operated outside of their scope of practice.
Rebmann, Terri; Loux, Travis M; Zink, Thomas K; Swick, Zachary; Wakefield, Mary
Points of dispensing (PODs) are deployed for medical countermeasure mass dispensing. However, infection prevention and vaccine administration pre-event training offered and just-in-time (JIT) education planned for POD workers have not been assessed. Disaster planners were sent an online questionnaire in 2013. McNemar tests compared training offered to staff versus volunteers and pre-event training versus JIT training. In total, 301 disaster planners participated. The most frequent pre-event training included hand hygiene (59.1% and 28.0%) and personal protective equipment (PPE) selection (52.1% and 24.1%) for staff and volunteers, respectively. Few provided pre-event training on the cold chain technique (14.8% and 5.1%) or smallpox vaccine administration (4.7% and 2.3%) for staff or volunteers. For all topics except smallpox vaccine administration, more staff than volunteers received pre-event training (P training includes hand hygiene (79.8% and 73.5%) and PPE selection (79.4% and 70.0%) to staff and volunteers. For all topics, more JIT education is planned for staff than volunteers (P training is planned than has been given pre-event for all topics (P training is needed on infection prevention and vaccine administration to ensure safe and successful POD deployment. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang
The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics associated with volunteerism and identify the factors that contributed to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among community volunteers following the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea. In total, 2,298 adults (aged 30-70 years) from the Jin-do area, where the Sewol ferry disaster occurred, participated in this study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 1 month after the disaster. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IES-R), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Clinically relevant PTSD symptoms were observed in 151 (19.7%) community volunteers. Age, education, socioeconomic status, religion, and lifetime experiences of natural disasters were associated with volunteering following the disaster. Logistic regression analysis revealed that volunteering was a significant risk factor for the development of PTSD symptoms in this sample. Personal experience with property damage associated with a traumatic event, depression, and anxiety were also significantly associated with the PTSD symptoms of community volunteers. Our results suggest the need for assessment and mental health programs for community volunteers performing rescue work to prevent posttraumatic stress symptoms following a community disaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bautista, Raelene M.
This research project examined the effects of a training program that focused on helping youth volunteers create a learner-centered interaction at an Aquarium. This study explored whether this learner centered training resulted in an increased ability to identify learner-centered engagement as well as reported changes in practice. Most research on training programs and professional development, that introduces learner-centered strategies examines adult teachers working in formal environments. This study examined youth volunteer staff in an informal science institution that participated in a weekly one-hour training for four weeks during their eight week long summer volunteer program. The data showed that some of topics introduced in the learner centered training, such as the importance of visitors' prior knowledge and the use of objects, were identified more often as good practice after the training. In addition, participants seemed to hold on to some of their original perceptions of good practices, such as providing positive reinforcement and modifying their physical posture to make the visitors feel comfortable. The investigation also revealed that conversation patterns changed in some participants' practice as a result of the training.
Михаил Александрович Правдов
Full Text Available The aim: the studing of the motivation of youth to volunteer activity. During the investigation were used methods of discussion, interviewing, interrogation and mathematical processing of data. In the article the experience of forming of youth voluntary social associations in Ivanovo region are regarded and the forming of a volunteers student group–“Sova” on the base of Ivanovo institute of the public fire service of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters. Was the level of Knowledge of Students about volunteer activity revealed, as well as the role student youth’s participation in volunteer organizations and the influence of the student volunteer associations on the development of pupils’ personalities in boarding school.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-41
Pravdov Mikhail Aleksandrovich
Full Text Available The aim: the studing of the motivation of youth to volunteer activity. During the investigation were used methods of discussion, interviewing, interrogation and mathematical processing of data. In the article the experience of forming of youth voluntary social associations in Ivanovo region are regarded and the forming of a volunteers student group–“Sova” on the base of Ivanovo institute of the public fire service of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters. Was the level of Knowledge of Students about volunteer activity revealed, as well as the role student youth’s participation in volunteer organizations and the influence of the student volunteer associations on the development of pupils’ personalities in boarding school.
Saha, Madhusudan; Parveen, Irin; Shil, Bimal Chandra; Saha, Shasanka Kumar; Banik, Ranjit Kumar; Majumder, Monojit; Salam, Mahjuba Umme; Islam, Asm Nazmul
To see the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) and related symptoms following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, and diarrhea were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 25 gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥ 1.1 mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM), i.e., LI. A total of 166 volunteers (123 males, 43 females) with a mean age 34.78 ± 11.45 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 85.54% (n = 142, M = 104, F = 38). The main symptoms of LI were diarrhea (n = 83, 58.4.0%), borborygmi (n = 81, 57.04%), abdominal pain (n = 35, 24.65%), and flatulence (n = 27, 19.0%). Lactose intolerance among healthy adults may be common in Bangladesh. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated symptoms of LI. Saha M, Parveen I, Shil BC, Saha SK, Banik RK, Majumder M, Salam MU, Nazmul Islam ASM. Lactose Intolerance and Symptom Pattern of Lactose Intolerance among Healthy Volunteers. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):5-7.
Paudyal, D. R.; McDougall, K.; Apan, A.
The participation and engagement of grass-root level community groups and citizens for natural resource management has a long history. With recent developments in ICT tools and spatial technology, these groups are seeking a new opportunity to manage natural resource data. There are lot of spatial information collected/generated by landcare groups, land holders and other community groups at the grass-root level through their volunteer initiatives. State government organisations are also interested in gaining access to this spatial data/information and engaging these groups to collect spatial information under their mapping programs. The aim of this paper is to explore the possible utilisation of volunteered geographic information (VGI) for catchment management activities. This research paper discusses the importance of spatial information and spatial data infrastructure (SDI) for catchment management and the emergence of VGI. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate how these emerging spatial information applications and various community volunteer activities can contribute to a more inclusive spatial data infrastructure (SDI) development at local level. A survey of 56 regional NRM bodies in Australia was utilised to explore the current community-driven volunteer initiatives for NRM activities and the potential of utilisation of VGI initiatives for NRM decision making process. This research paper concludes that VGI activities have great potential to contribute to SDI development at the community level to achieve better natural resource management (NRM) outcomes.
Huapaya, Julio A; Maquera-Afaray, Julio; García, Patricia J; Cárcamo, César; Cieza, Javier A
Reductions in health personnel during disasters or epidemics such as an influenza pandemic may need to include volunteer students. The aim of this article is to determine knowledge and practices about pandemic influenza and the attitudes towards volunteer work in Peruvian medical students. We performed a cross-sectional analytic study by simple sampling using a survey regarding "knowledge and practices" about pandemic influenza and the attitudes to volunteer work. From the group of 865 students who were surveyed, 848 accepted to participate in the investigation (54% were male and their mean age was 22.1 ± 3.0). Ninety-seven percent correctly identified the spread routes of influenza and 81% knew its treatment. Regarding preventive measures, covering the mouth when coughing/sneezing and hand-washing were the most commonly recognized options (95% y 92%, respectively), and vaccination was the less recognized one (54%). The most common practice, readily acknowledged as preventive, was covering when coughing/sneezing (86%). Regarding volunteer works, students answered that it is a moral/ethical/professional obligation (77%); that a contingency university service needs to be established (88%), that it does not have to substitute for the lack of workers (49%), and that its role should be related to hospital work (83%). Coming from a public university was more associated to the concept that volunteer work was a moral obligation and that the student should be punished if he/she refuses to be a volunteer, whereas being from a private university was more related to a history of been involved in volunteering programs. In general, medical students have good knowledge and practices toward influenza. There is a good disposition to volunteer their work and skills, recognizing it as a moral/ethical/professional obligation.
Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.
Costello, Joyce; Homberg, Fabian; Secchi, Davide
and thus may inform subsequent empirical work. First, we address academic debates concerning the measurement of volunteer effort. Second, we propose using public service motivation (PSM) theory as a means to understand the motivation of volunteers across sectors. We suggest that different PSM dimensions...
Shantz, A.; Saksida, T.; Alfes, K.
A moderated mediation model was developed to explain the variation in the amount of time volunteers dedicate to their chosen voluntary cause. Data from 534 volunteers of an international aid and development agency in the United Kingdom revealed a positive relationship between prosocial values and
There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…
Uscher-Pines, Lori; Rudin, Robert; Mehrotra, Ateev
Many disadvantaged communities lack sufficient numbers of local primary care and specialty physicians. Yet tens of thousands of physicians, in particular those who are retired or semiretired, desire meaningful volunteer opportunities. Multiple programs have begun to use telehealth to bridge the gap between volunteer physicians and underserved patients. In this brief, we describe programs that are using this model and discuss the promise and pitfalls. Physician volunteers in these programs report that the work can be fulfilling and exciting, a cutting-edge yet convenient way to remain engaged and contribute. Given the projected shortfall of physicians in the United States, recruiting retired and semiretired physicians to provide care through telehealth increases the total supply of active physicians and the capacity of the existing workforce. However, programs typically use volunteers in a limited capacity because of uncertainty about the level and duration of commitment. Acknowledging this reality, most programs only use volunteer physicians for curbside consults rather than fully integrating them into longitudinal patient care. The part-time availability of volunteers may also be difficult to incorporate into the workflow of busy safety net clinics. As more physicians volunteer in a growing number of telehealth programs, the dual benefits of enriching the professional lives of volunteers and improving care for underserved communities will make further development of these programs worthwhile.
Volunteer potatoes can cause significant weed problems in crops following potatoes as large numbers of potato tubers remain behind in the field after mechanical harvesting. These volunteer plants can create havoc with rotation programs and serve as a source of pests and diseases. The aim of this project was to identify a ...
King, Hannah R; Jackson, Joshua J; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Oltmanns, Thomas F
Existing literature has shown that volunteering is related to better physical and mental health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine whether personality traits and volunteering are independent predictors of physical and mental health. The current study utilizes data from the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN), a representative sample of community-based adults between the ages of 55 and 64. Using hierarchical linear regressions, we test whether volunteering is a significant predictor of both physical and mental health while controlling for personality traits. We find that volunteering is not significantly related to either physical or mental health while controlling for personality traits. We also find that lower neuroticism is related to better physical functioning and mental health, whereas higher extraversion is related to better mental health. These results indicate that volunteering may be related to health outcomes because of the personality characteristics of volunteers, not the volunteering experience in and of itself. Future longitudinal studies are needed to further explore the relationship between personality, volunteering, and health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Ruiter, Stijn; Graaf, Nan Dirk de
To what extent does the national religious context affect volunteering? Does a religious environment affect the relation between religiosity and volunteering? To answer these questions, this study specifies individual level, contextual level, and cross-level interaction hypotheses. The authors test
Sullivan, Susan Crawford; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Singleton, Royce A., Jr.
This study examined patterns and predictors of volunteering among students at a liberal arts college with an institutional culture that strongly promotes community service. Results showed that predictors varied across four different types of volunteering: community service, social action, religious service, and service to the college. Year in…
Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Molke Jensen, F
surgery. PPT was determined in 20 healthy volunteers on two separate examinations, and in 14 patients at the incisional site before and following inguinal herniotomy. In volunteers, PPT was higher for men than for women, and no difference was observed between the first and second day of examination...
Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…
Hanson, Ranae; Grove, Barbara
Describes a program in which high school students from St. Paul, Minnesota volunteer at the local Red Cross. Cites examples of students who entered the volunteer program with personal problems and were able to overcome them through meaningful work experience at the Red Cross. (Author/GC)
Mahadevan, Renuka; Ren, Carina Bregnholm
and broad social benefits influenced that decision. For instance, the strong sense that the event has educational value and showcased the arctic region for tourism were important considerations for volunteers becoming paying guests. Although age nor gender of the volunteers was a factor, those who were...
Full Text Available in projects but do not have the time or the means to travel and physically donate their time on location. In such cases, virtual volunteering is a possible way for projects to harness the goodwill of prospective volunteers without the overheads of the travel...
amendment. Suddenly, however, one Senate staffer completely reversed the situation. George C. Will (now a nationally syndicated columnist ) was serving as an...of a volunteer force. Many newspapers and columnists took the position that a volunteer force would be elitist and distant from the restraints of
Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.
The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated
Van der Zee, K.I.; Bakker, A.B.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)
The present study focused on social comparison processes among volunteer caregivers of terminally ill patients in relation to burnout. First, caregivers' (N = 80) affective reactions to a bogus interview with fellow volunteer workers who were either coping better or worse were considered. Upward
We carried out qualitative research with 61 health professionals and volunteer workers to explore their perceptions of their own and their clients' well-being in a context of political violence. We applied content analysis to identify the themes emerging from 8 focus group and 11 individual interviews. Participants were found to define the concept of well-being in terms of three key areas: security, participation, and development. Palestinian health providers see promotion of economic development and professional growth, involvement in political and social life, and resistance to the occupation as factors required to enhance well-being and quality of life for themselves and their clients.
Manning, Lydia K
The purpose of this study is to use a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States to investigate the effect gender and religiosity has on volunteer behavior in later life. This study looks specifically at the gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life. Accounting for gender and religious differences, more specifically, this study examines the assumption that older women are more likely to volunteer in later life as opposed to men, and that gender is a better predictor than being religious for the likelihood of occupying a volunteer role in later life. This study poses questions about the differences in gender and religiosity associated with volunteering in later life; the results indicate there is more work to be done as we conduct research that is clearer about how volunteerism and religiosity are measured in relation to gender, and the overall impact these differences have for older women and their respective communities.
Alexandre Magno Brighenti
Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.
Trembath, David; Balandin, Susan; Stancliffe, Roger J; Togher, Leanne
The aim of this study was to explore the impact that using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) had on the experiences of 24 adults with lifelong disabilities who worked as volunteers. This research forms part of a larger qualitative study of volunteering amongst adults who use AAC. Based on in-depth interviews and grounded theory analysis, the results indicate that communication is central to successful volunteering and, in particular, that access to AAC has the potential to provide valuable support to individuals with complex communication needs who want to volunteer. However, a number of barriers must be addressed in order for this potential to be achieved. Strategies for promoting and supporting adults who use AAC and want to volunteer are discussed.
Justin, Renate G.
A court appointed special advocate (CASA) volunteer is a trained citizen who is appointed by a judge to represent the best interests of an abused and neglected child in court. An independent voice, the volunteer gathers information and reports to the court. The CASA volunteer works in close cooperation with other professionals, physicians, lawyers, social workers, and teachers to find the most suitable permanent placement for a victimized child, whether it be a foster home, parental home, or adoptive home. Another function for CASA volunteers is to be supportive to the child during a time of uncertainty in his or her life and to help the youngster adjust to new and changing situations; the CASA volunteer may be the only consistent adult presence during this difficult period of transition.
Attempts to produce guidelines for use in medical research involving the irradiation of volunteers are surveyed. The recommendations of the British Institute of Radiology (Irradiation of Human Subjects for Medical Research, Bull. Brit. Radiology, 1975, vol.1, no.2, 4) are summarized. These recommendations, based on a preliminary working document produced by the World Health Organization, are considered in three parts, the selection of subjects, the categorisation and the approval of research projects. The importance of freely given and informed consent is emphasized. The suggested four categories of project are classified by the amount of total body radiation to be received by the subject in each project, and the necessary assessment and prior approval procedures are related to this classification. The imposition of a lifetime exposure limit is compared with occupational exposures which are assessed on an annual basis, and the ICRP's 'planned special exposures'. Repeated irradiation of the same subject, although permissible within the recommended limits, may create difficulties. The total lifetime accumulated dose may not always be immediately available if the subject has worked in a number of different establishments. The possibility of compiling an approved list of procedures to reduce some of the anticipated delays in processing applications is discussed. (author)
Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X
Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.
Full Text Available Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.
Gruenwald, S.M.; Larcos, G.
Full text: In the interpretation of cerebral perfusion scans, it is important to know the normal variation in perfusion which may occur between the cerebral hemispheres. For this reason 24 normal volunteers with no neurological or psychiatric history, and who were on no medications, had 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies using a single headed gamma camera computer system. Oblique, coronal and sagittal images were reviewed separately by two experienced observers and any differences were resolved by consensus. Semi-quantitation was performed by summing two adjacent oblique slices and drawing right and left mirror image ROIs corresponding to the mid section level of anterior and posterior frontal lobes, anterior and posterior parietal lobes, temporal lobes and cerebellum. From the mean counts per pixel, right: left ROI ratios and ROI: cerebellar ratios were calculated. On qualitative review 6/24 subjects had mild asymmetry in tracer distribution between right and left cerebral lobes. Semi-quantitation revealed a 5-10% difference in counts between right and left ROIs in 12/24 subjects and an additional three subjects had 10-20% difference in counts between right and left temporal lobes. This study demonstrates the presence of mild asymmetry of cerebral perfusion in a significant minority of normal subjects
Full Text Available There are no published studies that consider the experiences of guide dog puppy raisers. As these people are volunteers, their continued willingness to participate in the training of dogs for assisting the vision impaired and blind is essential for the viability of guide dog schools around the world. Using a qualitative, longitudinal methodology, data were collected from nine guide dog puppy raisers at four time points: before receiving the puppy, one week, then three months after the puppy arrived, and 13 months after the puppy arrived (at which time all puppies had left the raisers. Participants reported more challenges than benefits in raising the puppies. Volunteering to be a guide dog puppy raiser may not be the pleasant experience that is anticipated when community members first offer their services. Understanding what it is like to be a puppy raiser and working towards ways in which to address problems is essential, given that, without volunteers to train and care for puppies, vision impaired and blind people would not have access to guide dogs.
Swift, Catherine Hayes
This study investigated the demographics and perceptions of participants who utilize animals in academic programs, specifically the volunteers who use dogs to work with at-risk children in reading programs. It presented an argument for incorporating research-supported elements of reading tutor skills into the volunteer tutor training for the…
van Goethem, A.A.J.; van Hoof, A.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.
This study examined the relative importance of best friend's and parents' volunteering and civic family orientation (combined with open family communication) in adolescent volunteering, and the moderating effect of age. Results, involving 698 adolescents (M age = 15.19; SD = 1.43), revealed that
Van Goethem, Anne A J; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A G; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W
This study examined the relative importance of best friend's and parents' volunteering and civic family orientation (combined with open family communication) in adolescent volunteering, and the moderating effect of age. Results, involving 698 adolescents (M age. = 15.19; SD= 1.43), revealed that
Raymond Y Lo
Full Text Available Objective: To test the feasibility of establishing a senior volunteer cohort and describe vascular risks, cognitive function, and brain aging indices in a pilot study. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 40 senior volunteers from the Tzu Chi Foundation and other organizations in Hualien in 2014–2015. We conducted in-person interviews to collect information on demographic features, physical fitness, dietary habits, comorbidities, and narratives of aging. Vascular risks including blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, serum glucose level, and lipid profile were examined. Each participant underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Descriptive statistics and tabulation were applied to characterize this pilot cohort. Results: There were more volunteers from the Tzu Chi Foundation (n = 25 than other organizations. The mean age was 66.7 years (standard deviation = 5.1 and there was a female predominance (M:F = 13:27. The mean number of comorbid chronic diseases was 2.1 and the mean BMI was 24.5. Most participants (77.5% engaged in outdoor walking activities every week. Nutrient intake in vegetarians (n = 18 did not differ from nonvegetarians except for lower Vitamin B12 levels (mean = 0.9 μg. All participants but one scored 26 or above in the Mini–Mental State Examination (mean = 28.4. Among the other cognitive tests, only one task related to inhibition and switching abilities was at the low average level. The mean values of vascular risk markers were within the normal ranges. The most common genotype of apolipoprotein E was μ3/μ3 (n = 32. The quality of MRI was sufficient for volumetric analysis. Conclusion: It is feasible to establish a volunteer-based cohort to study brain aging in Taiwan. The senior volunteers were physically active and cognitively healthy. Vascular risks were well distributed among these participants. Future longitudinal study will allow us to observe
Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Miller, Kathryn
The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of hospice palliative care (HPC) volunteers who provide in-home support (n = 47) and members of the community (n = 58) toward the issue of physician-assisted suicide (PAS). On the first part of the survey, participants responded to 15 items designed to assess their attitudes toward PAS. An examination of individual items revealed differences in opinions among members of both the groups. Responses to additional questions revealed that the majority of volunteers and community members (1) support legalizing PAS; (2) would choose HPC over PAS for themselves if they were terminally ill; and (3) think Canadians should place more priority on developing HPC rather than on legalizing PAS. The implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Henriksen, Marius; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie
lateralis, deltoid, and infrapatellar fat pad. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was assessed isometrically at 60-degree knee flexion using a dynamometer. Associations between pain sensitivity and muscle strength were investigated using multiple regressions including age, gender, and body mass index...... as covariates. Results. Knee extension strength was associated with computer-controlled PPT on the vastus lateralis muscle. Computer-controlled PPTs were significantly correlated between sites (r > 0.72) and with cuff PPT (r > 0.4). Saline induced pain intensity and duration were correlated between sites (r > 0......Objectives. To investigate associations between muscle strength and pain sensitivity among healthy volunteers and associations between different pain sensitivity measures. Methods. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (21 females) participated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were obtained from 1...
Guarnieri, Regina V; Buratto, Luciano G; Gomes, Carlos F A; Ribeiro, Rafaela L; de Souza, Altay A Lino; Stein, Lilian M; Galduróz, José C; Bueno, Orlando F A
Dopamine can modulate long-term episodic memory. Its potential role on the generation of false memories, however, is less well known. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment, 24 young healthy volunteers ingested a 4-mg oral dose of haloperidol, a dopamine D 2 -receptor antagonist, or placebo, before taking part in a recognition memory task. Haloperidol was active during both study and test phases of the experiment. Participants in the haloperidol group produced more false recognition responses than those in the placebo group, despite similar levels of correct recognition. These findings show that dopamine blockade in healthy volunteers can specifically increase false recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also......-120 min. This corresponded to a 30% increase in vitamin C and a small but significant increase in total phenols in plasma. Consumption of blueberry juice had no such effects. CONCLUSION: The increase in plasma antioxidant capacity following consumption of cranberry juice could mainly be accounted...
Rydstedt, Leif W; Osterberg, Johan
The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.
National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY. Center for the Child.
Volunteering is a vital and widespread activity in the United States; in fact, volunteers perform many essential community functions. Those who believe that most volunteers are women with time on their hands, that volunteers just do "charity work," and that volunteers are a source of cheap labor who can replace paid professionals and…
Albahari, Amin; Schultz, Carl H
Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster? This retrospective, descriptive case study involved: (1) interviews with Nafeer members that participated in the disaster response to the Khartoum floods; (2) examination of documents generated during the event; and (3) subsequent benchmarking of their efforts with the Sphere Handbook. Members who agreed to participate were requested to provide all documents in their possession relating to Nafeer. The response by Nafeer was then benchmarked to the Sphere Handbook's six core standards, as well as the 11 minimum standards in essential health services. A total of 11 individuals were interviewed (six from leadership and five from active members). Nafeer's activities included: food provision; delivery of basic health care; environmental sanitation campaigns; efforts to raise awareness; and construction and strengthening of flood barricades. Its use of electronic platforms and social media to collect data and coordinate the organization's response was effective. Nafeer adopted a flat-management structure, dividing itself into 14 committees. A Coordination Committee was in charge of liaising between all committees. The Health and Sanitation Committee supervised two health days which included mobile medical and dentistry clinics supported by a mobile laboratory and pharmacy. The Engineering Committee managed to construct and maintain flood barricades. Nafeer used crowd-sourcing to fund its activities, receiving donations locally and internationally using supporters
Gur, R E; Kaltman, D; Melhem, E R; Ruparel, K; Prabhakaran, K; Riley, M; Yodh, E; Hakonarson, H; Satterthwaite, T; Gur, R C
MRIs are obtained in research in healthy and clinical populations, and incidental findings have been reported. Most studies have examined adults with variability in parameters of image acquisition and clinical measures available. We conducted a prospective study of youths and documented the frequency and concomitants of incidental findings. Youths (n = 1400) with an age range from 8-23 years were imaged on the same 3T scanner, with a standard acquisition protocol providing 1.0 mm(3) isotropic resolution of anatomic scans. All scans were reviewed by an experienced board-certified neuroradiologist and were categorized into 3 groups: 1) normal: no incidental findings; 2) coincidental: incidental finding(s) were noted, further reviewed with an experienced pediatric neuroradiologist, but were of no clinical significance; 3) incidental findings that on further review were considered to have potential clinical significance and participants were referred for appropriate clinical follow-up. Overall, 148 incidental findings (10.6% of sample) were noted, and of these, 12 required clinical follow-up. Incidental findings were not related to age. However, whites had a higher incidence of pineal cysts, and males had a higher incidence of cavum septum pellucidum, which was associated with psychosis-related symptoms. Incidental findings, moderated by race and sex, occur in approximately one-tenth of participants volunteering for pediatric research, with few requiring follow-up. The incidence supports a 2-tiered approach of neuroradiologic reading and clinical input to determine the potential significance of incidental findings detected on research MR imaging scans.
Duggleby, Wendy; Pesut, Barbara; Cottrell, Laura; Friesen, Lynnelle; Sullivan, Kelli; Warner, Grace
The purpose of this article is to report the development, implementation, and evaluation of a curriculum designed to prepare volunteer navigators to support community-dwelling older persons with serious chronic illness. The role of the volunteer navigator was to facilitate independence and quality of life through building social connections, improving access to resources, and fostering engagement. A curriculum was constructed from evidence-based competencies, piloted and revised, and then implemented in 7 subsequent workshops. Workshop participants were 51 volunteers and health-care providers recruited through local hospice societies and health regions. Curriculum was evaluated through satisfaction and self-efficacy questionnaires completed at workshop conclusion. Postworkshop evaluation indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the training. One workshop cohort of 7 participants was followed for 1 year to provide longitudinal evaluation data. Participants followed longitudinally reported improved self-efficacy over 12 months and some challenges with role transition. Future improvements will include further structured learning opportunities offered by telephone postworkshop, focusing on advocacy, communication, and conflict management. Overall, volunteers were satisfied with the curriculum and reported good self-perceived efficacy in their new role as navigators.
Full Text Available The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80. The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average significantly (p<0.01. Also, priority of emotional intelligence abilities indicated that self-awareness is first priority and social awareness, relationship management and self-management are second, third and fourth priorities in volunteers. Finally, in the basis of parameter, results stated that there is no difference between male and female volunteers emotional intelligence in first Olympia of public sport. According to results of present research and advantages of attention to emotional intelligence and human behavior in organizations, it recommended sport events managers to be more sensitive relative to human behavior abilities in human behavior abilities in human resource (volunteers under his management. At least, result of this meditation in student's sport is recruitment and development of motivated volunteers for continuous attendance in sport events.
Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana
This review aims to advance understanding of the potential benefits of volunteering in the community for older adults' cognitive functioning by taking an in-depth look at the relevant evidence to date. This review describes the main pathways through which volunteering could plausibly benefit cognitive functioning and critically examines research that has specifically investigated links between volunteering and cognition. Fifteen articles that assessed in adults aged ≥ 55 years the relationship between volunteering (predictor) and cognitive functioning (outcome) were identified via literature database searches. On balance, evidence from the small number of relevant studies to date supports the idea that volunteering can protect against cognitive aging with respect to global functioning and at least some specific cognitive domains. Studies that used robust designs and assessed domain-specific cognitive functioning produced the largest effect sizes. To help advance the field, this review puts forward recommendations for future research, with an emphasis on the need for robust study designs and specific investigations into the nature and extent of the cognitive benefits of volunteering. Through that work, researchers can determine how a simple and accessible activity like volunteering can best be used to help reduce the burden of age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge
Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island.
Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.
Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge
Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165
Mary F. Baxter PhD, OT, FAOTA
Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify the cognitive status of cancer survivors, determine the effect of cognitive status on function and participation in daily activities, and explore how cancer survivors perceive changes in their cognition. The study used a quantitative nonexperimental cross-sectional design. The participants included 35 cancer survivors from two different sites. Instruments included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and the Reintegration to Normal Index-Postal Version (RNLI-P in the measurement of cognitive impairment and functional performance respectively. Data were also collected with a supplemental questionnaire to explore participants’ perspectives on their cognitive difficulties and current function. The participant scores on the MoCA indicated cognitive impairment (μ= 25 and their scores on the RNLI-P demonstrated subpar reintegration (μ=9.64. Twenty-one participants answered the supplemental questionnaire. In content analysis of questionnaire responses, 17/21 participants reported some level of cognitive change related to cancer and cancer treatment. Data from an open-ended question were organized into four categories: decreased participation, more selective in activities, balance in activities, and cognitive changes. Study results indicate a large percentage of cancer survivors demonstrate mild cognitive impairment as well as changes in participation in instrumental activities of daily living.
Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration
The ATLAS collaboration has setup a volunteer computing project called ATLAS@home. Volunteers running Monte-Carlo simulation on their personal computer provide significant computing resources, but also belong to a community potentially interested in HEP. Four types of contributors have been identified, whose questions range from advanced technical details to the reason why simulation is needed, how Computing is organized and how it relates to society. The creation of relevant outreach material for simulation, event visualization and distributed production will be described, as well as lessons learned while interacting with the BOINC volunteers community.
Volunteers are increasingly being relied upon to provide home-based care for people living with AIDS in South Africa and this presents several unique challenges specific to the HIV/AIDS context in Africa. Yet it is not clear what motivates people to volunteer as home-based caregivers. Drawing on the functional theory on volunteer motivations, this study uses data from qualitative interviews with 57 volunteer caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS in six semi-rural South African communities to explore volunteer motivations. Findings revealed complex motivations underlying volunteering in AIDS care. Consistent with functional theorizing, most of the volunteers reported having more than one motive for enrolling as volunteers. Of the 11 categories of motivations identified, those relating to altruistic concerns for others and community, employment or career benefits and a desire by the unemployed to avoid idleness were the most frequently mentioned. Volunteers also saw volunteering as an opportunity to learn caring skills or to put their own skills to good use, for personal growth and to attract good things to themselves. A few of the volunteers were heeding a religious call, hoping to gain community recognition, dealing with a devastating experience of AIDS in the family or motivated for social reasons. Care organizations' poor understanding of volunteer motives, a mismatch between organizational goals and volunteer motivations, and inadequate funding meant that volunteers' most pressing motives were not satisfied. This led to discontentment, resentment and attrition among volunteers. The findings have implications for home-based care policies and programmes, suggesting the need to rethink current models using non-stipended volunteers in informal AIDS care. Information about volunteer motivations could help organizations plan recruitment messages, recruit volunteers whose motives match organizational goals and plan how to assist volunteers to satisfy these motives
Schmitz, Susan; Radcliff, Tiffany A; Chu, Karen; Smith, Robert E; Dobalian, Aram
The US Veterans Health Administration's Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System (DEMPS) is a team of employee disaster response volunteers who provide clinical and non-clinical staffing assistance when local systems are overwhelmed. This study evaluated attitudes and recommendations of the DEMPS program to understand the impact of multi-modal training on volunteer perceptions. DEMPS volunteers completed an electronic survey in 2012 (n=2120). Three training modes were evaluated: online, field exercise, and face-to-face. Measures included: "Training Satisfaction," "Attitudes about Training," "Continued Engagement in DEMPS." Data were analyzed using χ2 and logistic regression. Open-ended questions were evaluated in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology. Most respondents participated in DEMPS training (80%). Volunteers with multi-modal training who completed all 3 modes (14%) were significantly more likely to have positive attitudes about training, plan to continue as volunteers, and would recommend DEMPS to others (P-valuevolunteer engagement. A blended learning environment using multi-modal training methods, could enhance satisfaction and attitudes and possibly encourage continued engagement in DEMPS or similar programs. DEMPS training program modifications in 2015 expanded this blended learning approach through new interactive online learning opportunities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; page 1 of 8).
Charlesworth, Georgina; Sinclair, James B; Brooks, Alice; Sullivan, Theresa; Ahmad, Shaheen; Poland, Fiona
With an ageing population, there are increasing numbers of experienced family carers (FCs) who could provide peer support to newer carers in a similar care situation. The aims of this paper are to: (i) use a cross-sectional study design to compare characteristics of volunteers and recipients of a peer support programme for FCs of people with dementia, in terms of demographic background, social networks and psychological well-being; and (ii) use a longitudinal study design to explore the overall impact of the programme on the volunteers in terms of psychological well-being. Data were collected from programmes run in Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Berkshire and four London boroughs between October 2009 and March 2013. The volunteer role entailed empathic listening and encouragement over a 10-month period. Both carer support volunteers (N = 87) and recipient FCs (N = 109) provided baseline demographic information. Data on social networks, personal growth, self-efficacy, service use and well-being (SF-12; EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Control, Autonomy, Self-Realisation, Pleasure-19) were collected prior to the start of the intervention (N = 43) and at either 3- to 5 month or 10 month follow-up (N = 21). Volunteers were more likely than recipients of support to be female and to have cared for a parent/grandparent rather than spouse. Volunteers were also more psychologically well than support recipients in terms of personal growth, depression and perceived well-being. The longitudinal analysis identified small but significant declines in personal growth and autonomy and a positive correlation between the volunteers' duration of involvement and perceived well-being. These findings suggest that carers who volunteer for emotional support roles are resilient and are at little psychological risk from volunteering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ia. V. Vishniakov
Full Text Available Using original documents from the Russian State Military Historical Archive, many of which are introduced for the first time, the author reveals details of creation and activities of the Serbian Volunteer Corps formed from captured soldiers and officers of the Austro-Hungarian army inOdessain the Summer 1916. The same autumn it received a baptism of fire in Dobruja fighting in the separate corps of the Russian army under the command of General Zayonchkovsky. The research interest in studying the activities of “national” and "international" military units within the Russian army is connected with the question of expediency and effectiveness of using such forces against those for whom they have not so long ago shed blood. The author, contrary to the popular opinion of Serbian historians, shows that the call to join the First Serbian division did not arouse mass enthusiasm among the prisoners of war both Serbs and representatives of other Yugoslav nations because of well-founded fears for their close relatives living in the Dual Monarchy and a fairly comfortable stay in the Russian captivity. At the same time, the author emphasizes that this military unit, commanded by officers of the Serbian regular army, was considered by the political leadership ofSerbiaas the basis of the future armed forces of the new state ofYugoslavia. The article shows that the events of the Russian Revolution of 1917 influenced the future fate of this military formation. Many of its soldiers later found themselves on different sides of the front in the Russian civil war. A special attention is payed to the interethnic conflict erupted in the corps between the Serbs on the one side and the Croats and Slovenes on the other. The author introduces a significant body of primary documents showing the nuances of relations in the corps between representatives of various Yugoslav nations. The article emphasizes that the relationship of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes within the
Jenkinson, Caroline E; Dickens, Andy P; Jones, Kerry; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Taylor, Rod S; Rogers, Morwenna; Bambra, Clare L; Lang, Iain; Richards, Suzanne H
Volunteering has been advocated by the United Nations, and American and European governments as a way to engage people in their local communities and improve social capital, with the potential for public health benefits such as improving wellbeing and decreasing health inequalities. Furthermore, the US Corporation for National and Community Service Strategic Plan for 2011-2015 focused on increasing the impact of national service on community needs, supporting volunteers' wellbeing, and prioritising recruitment and engagement of underrepresented populations. The aims of this review were to examine the effect of formal volunteering on volunteers' physical and mental health and survival, and to explore the influence of volunteering type and intensity on health outcomes. Experimental and cohort studies comparing the physical and mental health outcomes and mortality of a volunteering group to a non-volunteering group were identified from twelve electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, HMIC, SSCI, ASSIA, Social Care Online, Social Policy and Practice) and citation tracking in January 2013. No language, country or date restrictions were applied. Data synthesis was based on vote counting and random effects meta-analysis of mortality risk ratios. Forty papers were selected: five randomised controlled trials (RCTs, seven papers); four non-RCTs; and 17 cohort studies (29 papers). Cohort studies showed volunteering had favourable effects on depression, life satisfaction, wellbeing but not on physical health. These findings were not confirmed by experimental studies. Meta-analysis of five cohort studies found volunteers to be at lower risk of mortality (risk ratio: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.90). There was insufficient evidence to demonstrate a consistent influence of volunteering type or intensity on outcomes. Observational evidence suggested that volunteering may benefit mental health and survival although the causal mechanisms remain
This paper gives a brief introduction to the organization structure, personnel management and dis -tinctive services of the volunteers of Qingdao Marine Product Museum, and shows the effect of their work onscientific popularization and social responsibility.
Initiating a community eye health programme in an unfamiliar culture and language can be a daunting task. This report focuses on an underutilised resource for community eye health: American Peace Corps volunteers.
Alanc, Ozgun U
.... Accordingly, this project report provides a Draft versus All Volunteer Forces (AVF) analysis for the Turkish Armed Forces, by evaluating the feasibility and the desirability of an AVF for the Turkish Armed Forces...
Kreitner and Kinicki (2007) have defined motivation as those ... It has been argued that volunteers are the most important group of customers for a voluntary ... Fisher (2003) asserts that the search for the links between job satisfaction and job.
Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith.
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals. PMID:25843985
Etherington, G.; Smith, J.
At the Board Meeting of the National Radiological Protection Board held on 15 February 1996, approval was given for an experimental study of the deposition and clearance of inhaled particles in the human nasal passage. This is the latest in a series of volunteer biokinetic studies that have been conducted at NRPB since its formation. This article explains the purpose of the study, how ethical approval was obtained, how the study will be performed, what volunteers will be asked to do, and what doses they will receive. Doses will of course be carefully controlled, and will be well below the annual limits set for such experiments. The success of the study is of course crucially dependent on recruitment of a sufficient number of volunteers. The aim of this article is to provide information to anyone who might be interested in volunteering. (UK)
Bekkers, René H.F.P.; Bowman, Woods
Confidence in charitable organizations (charitable confidence) would seem to be an important prerequisite for philanthropic behavior. Previous research relying on cross-sectional data has suggested that volunteering promotes charitable confidence and vice versa. This research note, using new
Le Lann, Marie-Christine
An optional teaching unit on precarity and volunteering can be offered to student nurses. It encourages reflection on facilitating access to care for the most disadvantaged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J; Oltmanns, Thomas F
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals.
Qvist, Hans-Peter; Munk, Martin David
This article examines the individual economic returns to volunteering during different stages of working life. The article uses a unique panel dataset created by combining rich survey data from Denmark with information on wages from administrative registers covering the period from 2004 to 2012....... Applying a two-way fixed effects regression model that controls for both period-specific and individual-specific effects, the article finds that for labour market entrants and for people in the early stages of their working life, an additional year of volunteer work experience yields a significant positive...... return. However, the economic returns to volunteer work experience decrease as a function of professional labour market experience. For people with more than six years of professional labour market experience, the economic returns to volunteer work experience are insignificant. On these grounds...
This case study examines the current state of cultural competence in hospice and palliative care in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Because of changing demographic trends and ethnic minorities underutilizing hospice palliative care services, this research examined the current state of culturally competent care in a hospice setting, and the challenges to providing culturally competent care in a hospice in the GTA. A case study was conducted with a hospice and included in-depth interviews with 14 hospice volunteers. The findings reveal that volunteers encountered cultural clashes when their level of cultural competency was weak. Second, volunteers revealed there was a lack of adequate cultural competency training with their hospice, and finally, there was a lack of ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity among the hospice volunteers.
Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig
Teaching, assessment and feedback skills are documented globally as required graduate attributes for medical students. By integrating teacher training into curricula, the importance of teaching and educational scholarship is highlighted. In this study, we used self-determination theory (SDT) to consider medical students' motivation to voluntarily participate in a short teacher training programme. Thirty-eight senior medical students were invited to attend a teacher training programme at a major tertiary teaching hospital. Participating students were asked to respond to one question: 'Why did you volunteer to take part in the teacher training course?' Self-determination theory was used as a conceptual framework to identify and code recurrent themes in the data. In total, 23/38 (61%) of invited students chose to participate in the programme, and 21/23 (91%) of the students responded to the survey. Students' motivation to participate in the teacher training programme were related to: (1) autonomy - their enjoyment of their current voluntary involvement in teaching; (2) competence - a recognition of the need for formal training and certification in teaching, and as an essential part of their future career in medicine; (3) relatedness - the joint recognition of the importance of quality in teaching, as emphasised by their own learning experiences in the medical programme. Students reported being motivated to take part in teacher training because of their enjoyment of teaching, their desire to increase the quality of teaching within medical education, their desire for formal recognition of teaching as a learned skill, plus their recognition of teaching as a requirement within the medical profession. By integrating teacher training into curricula, the importance of teaching and educational scholarship is highlighted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Warlum, Michael Frank
The study seeks to determine and describe factors which are related to, and which may be responsible for, adult participation or lack of participation in a large-scale, community-wide, cultural arts project involving considerable volunteer effort. While serving as a participant observer, the researcher gathered data from sources directly related…
Full Text Available The study described is part of a broader longitudinal and multi-methodological research project aimed at investigating volunteerism in young people, in order to understand the reasons for the initial choice to volunteer but, more specifically, the reasons to sustain or quit voluntary involvement, as well as the effects of volunteerism. Eighteen volunteers and 18 ex-volunteers, 50% male and 50% female, aged between 22 and 29 years old, from 2 regions in northern Italy (Lombardy and Emilia Romagna participated in in-depth interviews. The paper-and-pencil analysis of the interview pointed to the emergence of several core categories: motivations to volunteer, relations within the organization, influence of family, and effects of volunteerism, especially as related to the process of identity and citizenship construction. On the basis of these categories, 4 typologies were identified: 2 with respect to volunteers (producers of active citizenship and volunteers for personal necessity and 2 related specifically to ex-volunteers (ex-volunteers witnesses for solidarity and active citizenship and ex-volunteers by chance.El estudio descrito es parte de un proyecto de investigación longitudinal y multi-metodológico más amplio sobre el voluntariado juvenil, realizado con el propósito de entender las razones que tuvieron los jóvenes para elegir el voluntariado y, específicamente, las razones para mantener o abandonar el compromiso, así como los efectos de dicho voluntariado. Participaron en entrevistas en profundidad 18 voluntarios y 18 ex-voluntarios, 50% hombres y 50% mujeres, entre 22 y 29 años de edad, de 2 regiones del norte de Italia (Lombardía y Emilia Romagna. El análisis de la entrevista de lápiz y papel permitió trazar varias categorías centrales: las motivaciones al voluntariado, las relaciones dentro de la organización, la influencia de la familia y los efectos del propio voluntariado, especialmente en relación con el proceso de
Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret
To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment
Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and lo...
Ethical problems are common in clinical medicine, so medical volunteers who practice clinical medicine in developing countries should expect to encounter them just as they would in their practice in the developed world. However, as this article argues, medical volunteers in developing countries should not expect to encounter the same ethical problems as those that dominate Western biomedicine or to address ethical problems in the same way as they do in their practice in developed countries. For example, poor health and advanced disease increase the risks and decrease the potential benefits of some interventions. Consequently, when medical volunteers intervene too readily, without considering the nutritional and general health status of patients, the results can be devastating. Medical volunteers cannot assume that the outcomes of interventions in developing countries will be comparable to the outcomes of the same interventions in developed countries. Rather, they must realistically consider the complex medical conditions of patients when determining whether or not to intervene. Similarly, medical volunteers may face the question of whether to provide a pharmaceutical or perform an intervention that is below the acceptable standard of care versus the alternative of doing nothing. This article critically explores the contextual features of medical volunteer work in developing countries that differentiate it from medical practice in developed countries, arguing that this context contributes to the creation of unique ethical problems and affects the way in which these problems should be analyzed and resolved.
Guang-Rui Liu; Pei-Yi Gao; Yan Lin; Jing Xue; Xiao-Chun Wang; Bin-Bin Sui; Li Ma; Zhi-Nong Xi; Qin Bai; Hao Shen
Background: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a recently developed imaging technique that can directly visualize and quantitatively measure tissue elasticity. Purpose: To evaluate the safety of brain MRE on human subjects. Material and Methods: The study included 20 healthy volunteers. MRE sequence scan (drive signal not applied to external force actuator) and MRE study were separately performed on each volunteer at an interval of more than 24 hours. The heart rate and blood pressure of each volunteer were measured immediately before and after MRE sequence scan and MRE study. Electroencephalography (EEG) was also performed within 2 hours after each scan. The volunteers were asked about their experience of the two scans. Randomized-block analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data of blood pressure and heart rate. Paired t test was used to analyze the data of the two EEG examinations. The volunteers were followed up 1 week after the examination. Results: All procedures were performed on each volunteer, and no one complained of obvious discomfort. No related adverse events were reported during follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in heart rate or blood pressure. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in EEG results in the right temporoparietal region. Increased power was found in the theta, delta, alpha, and beta2 bands. No brain injury was detected by the EEG examinations. Conclusion: Based on the study results, brain MRE examinations are safe to perform on human subjects
Intindola, Melissa; Rogers, Sean; Flinchbaugh, Carol; Della Pietra, Doug
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between various characteristics of hospital administration and the utilization of classes of volunteer resource management (VRM) practices. Design/methodology/approach - This paper uses original data collected via surveys of volunteer directors in 122 hospitals in five Northeastern and Southern US states. Findings - Structural equation modeling results suggest that number of paid volunteer management staff, scope of responsibility of the primary volunteer administrator, and hospital size are positively associated with increased usage of certain VRM practices. Research limitations/implications - First, the authors begin the exploration of VRM antecedents, and encourage others to continue this line of inquiry; and second, the authors assess dimensionality of practices, allowing future researchers to consider whether specific dimensions have a differential impact on key individual and organizational outcomes. Practical implications - Based on the findings of a relationship between administrative characteristics and the on-the-ground execution of VRM practice, a baseline audit comparing current practices to those VRM practices presented here might be useful in determining what next steps may be taken to focus investments in VRM that can ultimately drive practice utilization. Originality/value - The exploration of the dimensionality of volunteer management adds a novel perspective to both the academic study, and practice, of volunteer management. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first empirical categorization of VRM practices.
Studies in healthy volunteers have been legalized since December 20th 1988 in France. The healthy volunteer is employed for a variety of studies in phases I and IV of drug development. This type of research can equally be called nontherapeutic in nature. Every experiment involving healthy volunteers should be approved by the Ethics Committee. Using volunteers within the department, company or other organisation, while offering advantages for the investigator should be prohibited as freedom of concept might not be safeguarded. As well, financial incentives may over-persuade individuals, including students, who have low incomes and promote the "professional volunteer". To avoid this problem, French law planned a national register. The potential benefits of such a disposition are still unknown. Having been given appropriate information concerning the drug trial, his obligations and rights, the healthy volunteer gives his written consent. Specific recommendations for nontherapeutic assessments of drug effects are given concerning prisoners, the mentally handicapped, women with a risk of frequency, children. Ethical considerations concerning research on a healthy population must go beyond the law recently promulgated in France.
Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508
de Moraes, Mea; Bezerra, Mm; Bezerra, Faf; de Moraes, Ra; Cavalcanti, Pp; Uchoa, Cra; Lima, Fav; Odorico de Moraes, M
A liquid alcoholic extract of Papaver somniferum named Elixir Paregorico is extensively used for diarrheal diseases in Brazil. Its increased popularity has brought concerns and fears over the safety of this herbal product. Given the lack of investigative clinical studies, in this regard, this study investigated whether Elixir Paregorico administration causes any noticeable toxic effects in healthy volunteers. In all, 28 middle-aged healthy male (n = 14) and female (n = 14) were enrolled. After screening and a washout period, eligible subjects received four oral doses per day of Elixir Paregorico (3 mL diluted in 30 mL of water) over a 10-day period. Altogether, all 28 participants completed the study. The results of hematological and biochemical tests performed pre and post-treatment were within the normal range. In both male and female volunteers, there were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) in the results of clinical and laboratory tests performed at screening, on 5th and 10th day visits, and at final assessment. Although mild adverse events were related, which subsided spontaneously, no serious untoward reactions were reported following Elixir Paregorico administration. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that Elixir Paregorico administered four times a day for 10 days is safe and does not cause any noticeable toxic effect in healthy volunteers.
Full Text Available Today young people experience a world that is being significantly changed by large-scale transformations in education and labour markets. Youth, as a generation, is most affected by those changes, since they are more likely to reshape their ways of living in response to the conditions they face, which inevitably produce inequalities in their lives. Volunteering is one of their responses. This paper aims to discuss the generational motivations and attitudes of a group of 11 European young people to participate in a European Voluntary Service project during a period of one year. The data was collected through an ethnographic methodological approach conducted between 2013 and 2014 in a Youth Centre in northern Portugal. Results clearly indicate that young people have an instrumental relationship with volunteering, which is mainly focused on the individual benefits that they believe they will acquire in their personal and professional life. Volunteering emerges as an opportunity to escape and to overcome the persisting challenges and constraints posed by our society; namely unemployment and precariousness, both of which are on the rise amongst young generations around the world.
Full Text Available Purposeful travel is apparent in relatively new modes of tourism and particularly in volunteer holidays where tourists are searching for meaningful experiences which provide a sense of physical, emotional or spiritual fulfilment. The positive outcomes of volunteer holidays on destinations is heavily debated from questioning the morals and merits of a growing profit-making sector to whether destinations have little or no long term benefit from such travel. Whilst the author acknowledges the wealth of literature in this regard, she concentrates on the notion that volunteering is not just about helping other people or worthy causes but also about personal self-development and social egoism. She concludes that these two features have eudemonic outcomes and that these are worthy of investigation. Based on an ethnographic study, this paper analyses the experiences of participants on an elephant conservation expedition to Bardia National Park, Nepal. In its evaluation it conveys the close relationship between altruism and egoism as well as the eudemonic outcomes that purposeful travel can sometimes provide.