WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-four hot-mix recycle

  1. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a hi

  2. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  4. Experimental testing of hot mix asphalt mixture made of recycled aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Muhammad Masood; Qadir, Adnan; Siddiqui, Salman Hameed

    2011-12-01

    The migration of population towards big cities generates rapid construction activities. These activities not only put pressure on natural resources but also produce construction, renovation and demolition waste. There is an urgent need to find out ways to handle this waste owing to growing environmental concerns. This can reduce pressure on natural resources as well. This paper presents the results of experimental studies which were carried out on hot mix asphalt mixture samples. These samples were manufactured by adding recycled aggregates (RA) with natural crushed stone aggregates (CSA). Three levels of addition of RA were considered in the presented studies. RA were obtained from both the concrete waste of construction, renovation and demolition activities and reclaimed asphalt pavement. Separate samples were manufactured with the coarse and fine aggregate fractions of both types of RA. Samples made with CSA were used as control specimens. The samples were prepared and tested using the Marshall method. The performance of the samples was investigated in terms of density-void and stability/flow analysis and was compared with the performance criteria as given by National Highway Authority for wearing course material in Pakistan. Based on this data optimum asphalt contents were determined. All the samples made by adding up to 50% RA conform to the specification requirements of wearing course material as given by National Highway Authority in terms of optimum asphalt contents, voids in mineral aggregates and stability/flow. A statistical analysis of variation of these samples confirmed that addition is also possible statistically.

  5. Mechanical properties of hot mix asphalt made with recycled aggregates from reclaimed construction and demolition debris

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    Taibo, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The mix design for asphalt mixtures containing recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris was evaluated. The tests conducted to characterize the mechanical behaviour of these mixtures showed that the mechanical properties of mixtures with recycled and virgin aggregate are similar. The asphalt mixtures containing recycled aggregate proved to have lower resistance to water action. Nonetheless, recycled aggregate was found to be potentially usable in asphalt mixtures if higher quality materials are selected and such low resistance is corrected. This will call for expanding upon the preliminary work described in the present article.En este trabajo se dosificaron mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con áridos reciclados de residuos de construcción y demolición. Se realizaron una serie de ensayos que permitieron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de estas mezclas. Los parámetros mecánicos de las mezclas con áridos reciclados son similares a los de las mezclas fabricadas únicamente con áridos naturales de cantera. Sin embargo, las mezclas bituminosas con áridos reciclados tuvieron un mal comportamiento frente a la disminución de la resistencia por pérdida de cohesión por la acción del agua. No obstante, mediante la selección de materiales de mejor calidad y corrección de este mal comportamiento, existen posibilidades de utilizar áridos reciclados en mezclas bituminosas. Para ello será necesario ampliar la primera aproximación realizada en este artículo.

  6. Design and Performance of Hot Mix Asphalts with High Percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt: Approach followed in the Paramix Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, F.; Rodriguez, M; Visscher, J.; Vanelstraete, A.; Bock, L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RA) in new asphalt pavements can provide important economical savings, while reducing the negative environmental impact. The European research project PARAMIX aims to improve the techniques for hot mix recycling in plant and cold mix in situ recycling, so as to increase the amount of reclaimed asphalt and develop competitive road pavement rehabilitation techniques. This paper deals with the design of hot mix asphalts for the project. The di...

  7. A review of changes in composition of hot mix asphalt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Diane J; Marano, Kristin M; Nunes, Anthony P; Adams, Robert C

    2009-11-01

    This review researched the materials, methods, and practices in the hot mix asphalt industry that might impact future exposure assessments and epidemiologic research on road paving workers. Since World War II, the U.S. interstate highway system, increased traffic volume, transportation speeds, and vehicle axle loads have necessitated an increase in demand for hot mix asphalt for road construction and maintenance, while requiring a consistent road paving product that meets state-specific physical performance specifications. We reviewed typical practices in hot mix asphalt paving in the United States to understand the extent to which materials are and have been added to hot mix asphalt to meet specifications and how changes in practices and technology could affect evaluation of worker exposures for future research. Historical documents were reviewed, and industry experts from 16 states were interviewed to obtain relevant information on industry practices. Participants from all states reported additive use, with most being less than 2% by weight. Crumb rubber and recycled asphalt pavement were added in concentrations approximately 10% per unit weight of the mix. The most frequently added materials included polymers and anti-stripping agents. Crumb rubber, sulfur, asbestos, roofing shingles, slag, or fly ash have been used in limited amounts for short periods of time or in limited geographic areas. No state reported using coal tar as an additive to hot mix asphalt or as a binder alternative in hot mix pavements for high-volume road construction. Coal tar may be present in recycled asphalt pavement from historical use, which would need to be considered in future exposure assessments of pavers. Changes in hot mix asphalt production and laydown emission control equipment have been universally implemented over time as the technology has become available to reduce potential worker exposures. This work is a companion review to a study undertaken in the petroleum refining

  8. The Use of Coal Bottom Ash In Hot Mix Asphalt

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    Charles Begyina Kodjo Nketsiah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a waste material from coal burnt to generate electric power. It is incombustible and non-biodegradable; hence, the best way to dispose it is by recycling rather than incineration and land filling. Past research on bottom ash in road building have focused mainly on embankment filling, sub-base and base courses; except boiler slag which has received much attention in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. Bottom ash from Tanjung Bin Power Station was thus investigated through laboratory testing to justify its use in HMA construction in Malaysia. This Paper analysed the data with regards to performance in HMA. In the Marshall Mix design, the material largely satisfied the Stability, Flow and Stiffness requirements which were comparable to that of conventional aggregates, although void contents were a bit higher. When blended with granite, all the parameters were met. Contrary to past suggestions that bottom ash in HMA consumes more bitumen, the 6.4% (51.20g Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC achieved in this study does not necessarily translate into high consumption, compared to OBC of 5.3% (59.63g in the case of granite. The HMA also proved to be highly resistant to moisture-induced damage and satisfied the minimum JKR specification for Static Uniaxial Load Strain.

  9. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    the influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  10. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring in finishing cattle housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, D A; Thomason, J D; Reinhardt, C; Bartle, S; Rethorst, D; Loneragan, G H; Thomson, D

    2017-04-01

    Atrial premature complexes have been reported to be the most common arrhythmia in cattle and is suspected to be secondary to systemic disease, especially gastrointestinal disease. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmia in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence should be defined. The objective of this study was to determine the normal heart rate, rhythm, number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and atrial premature complexes (APCs) in unrestrained Angus steers. Twenty-seven client owned steers with unremarkable physical examinations and serum biochemical analyses were used. Twenty-four hour Holter monitors, attached by a custom-made harness, were retrospectively evaluated. Three lead electrocardiographic registrations of good quality and normal sinus rhythm were obtained from all steers in the study. The mean heart rate was 66.8 bpm ± 16.4 bpm. Ventricular premature complexes were rare (noted in 14.8% of steers), and APCs were common (noted in 85% of the steers). Simple second degree AV block was observed in 18.5% of the steers. In summary, healthy steers have rare single VPCs, although it is possible for an individual animal to have apparent more frequent VPCs. Mean heart rate varies with a diurnal pattern similar to other species. Atrial premature complexes are the most prevalent abnormality observed in feedlot steers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  12. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

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    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  13. Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant

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    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in the USA, while the remainder of the Hot-Mix Asphalt is produced using oil, propane, waste oil, or other fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels in various industry and transportation sectors represent a significant portion of human-made greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigates the technical feasibility of using a hybrid wind energy system as a clean source of energy for operating an entire Hot-Mix Asphalt production facility. Since wind blows intermittently, the extracted wind energy will be stored in the form of hydrogen which is considered a lightweight, compact energy carrier, for later use, thus creating a ready source of electricity for the Hot-Mix Asphalt plant when wind is not present or when electricity demand is high.

  14. Use of Recycling Building Demolition waste As Coarse Aggregate in Hot Mix Asphalt

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    Nabil I. Al- Sarrag* Hanaa Khaleel A Suham E. Saleh Al-Maliky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the recent years in Iraq, building demolition increase because of wars and the processes of destruction that lead to increase concrete waste, causing extreme pressure on the available land-filled sites that’s becomes a new challenge to local environment, in addition to south region from country poor from aggregate source.  So this study make as first evaluation to return use concrete aggregate for old and demolition building in concrete asphalt mix, the concrete aggregate obtained from building to live long more than 20 years after crash reinforcement concrete and sieving to get requirement granular particle to make locally asphalt mixture (Type IIIB depends on modified specification of State Commission of Roads and Bridges (2003 with percent (0,25,50,75,100% from weight of coarse aggregate.  Asphalt mixtures were tested by Marshall test, Indirect tensile strength test, and the loss of stability test.

  15. Biomimetic Synthesis of Twenty-four Long-chained Diketones as Precursors for Muscone and Further Macrocyclic Ketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yuan; CHEN,Kang-yu; LI,Jian-Li; SHI,Zhen

    2008-01-01

    The one-carbon unit transfer reaction of tetrahydrofolate coenzyme was initiated. Bisbenzimidazolium salts were used as a tetrahydrofolate coenzyme model, and thus the biomimetic synthesis of twenty-four acyclic dike-tones as precursors for macrocyclic ketones was successfully accomplished by using the addition-hydrolysis reac-tion of the bisbenzimidazolium salts with alkyl magnesium halide, wherein six diketones have not been reported in literature. Accordingly, a short route to muscone analogues was provided.

  16. Evaluating the effects of compaction of hot mix asphalt on selected laboratory tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, SL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) surfaced roads provide good riding quality when properly constructed, but there are serious distresses associated with HMA, and asphalt rutting is one of them. The existence of rutting on roads results in ponding of water...

  17. Hot-mix asphalt testing for the South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available of local and international hot-mix asphalt (HMA) test methods and modify or adapt them to suit South African road pavement conditions. This paper presents various laboratory HMA test protocols developed as part of the project to revise SAPDM. Large scale...

  18. 77 FR 50651 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Mix Asphalt Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA... Hampshire Hot Mix Asphalt Plant Rule at Env-A 2703.02(a). This rule establishes and requires limitations on visible emissions from all hot mix asphalt plants. This revision is consistent with the maintenance of...

  19. 77 FR 50608 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Mix Asphalt Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY... 2703.02 for hot mix asphalt plants. This rule establishes and requires limitations on visible emissions from all hot mix asphalt plants. This revision is consistent with the maintenance of all...

  20. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis

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    V.R.S.G. Monteiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER disorder was studied in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma. Ten children with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis, consecutively attended at the Pediatric Otolaryngology Outpatient Clinic, Federal University of São Paulo, were evaluated. Prolonged esophageal pH monitoring was used to investigate GER disorder. The mean age of the ten patients evaluated (eight males was 7.4 ± 2.4 years. Two patients presented vomiting as a clinical manifestation and one patient presented retrosternal pain with a burning sensation. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring was performed using the Sandhill apparatus. An antimony probe electrode was placed in the lower third of the esophagus, confirmed by fluoroscopy and later by a chest X-ray. The parameters analyzed by esophageal pH monitoring included: total percent time of the presence of acid esophageal pH, i.e., pH below 4 (<4.2%; total number of acid episodes (<50 episodes; number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min (3 or less, and duration of the longest reflux episode (<9.2 min. One patient (1/10, 10% presented a 24-h esophageal pH profile compatible with GER disorder. This data suggest that an association between chronic rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma and GER disorder may exist in children and adolescents, especially in those with compatible GER disorder symptoms. In these cases, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring should be performed before indicating surgery, since the present data suggest that 10% of chronic rhinosinusitis surgeries can be eliminated.

  1. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST – Clinicopathological study and treatment outcome of twenty-four cases

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    DattaGupta Sidharth

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is biologically an aggressive tumor for which the treatment of choice is the surgery. We reviewed the clinical profile, diagnostic methods, treatment patterns, and outcome of twenty-four MPNST patients in this study. Patients and methods A retrospective analysis of 24 MPNST patients, treated from 1994 to 2002, in the department of Surgical Oncology at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, was done. A combination of gross, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, and proliferation markers (MIB1 were considered for diagnosis and grade of the MPNST. Survival analysis was done by the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were evaluated with the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by using Cox's proportional hazards model by using SPSS (Version 9, Chicago, Illinois software. Results MPNST constituted 12% of all soft tissue sarcomas, where 21% (5/24 of patients had associated Von Recklinghausen's disease (VRHD. A higher incidence of male preponderance and multifocal MPNST were noted in the present series. At a mean follow-up of 38 months, 13 (54 % patients had relapse of disease and 5-year over all and disease free survival were 58% and 35% respectively. In univariate analysis, sex (p = 0.05, tumor depth (p p p = 0.04, cellular differentiation (p p = 0.05 for overall survival. However, in multivariate analysis, cellular differentiation (p p Conclusion MPNSTs constituted a significant proportion (12% of soft tissue sarcoma in our medical center. Heterogeneous differentiation and multifocality of the tumor were few distinct features of MPNST. Sex and cellular differentiation were noticed as the new adverse prognostic factors and adjuvant radiotherapy has been proved to be a significant treatment tool in the current series.

  2. Characterizing worker exposure to bitumen during hot mix paving and asphalt mixing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Ferrari, Pietro; Wegh, Hillion; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2002-01-01

    A survey of bitumen exposure was carried out during hot mix paving and asphalt mixing. Four methods of characterizing and quantifying bitumen fume in inhalable particles were used: gravimetric, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and total absorbance (of the particle filter surface). Dermal deposition of bitumen was assessed by determination of cyclohexanesoluble matter in the material collected by paper or cotton pads worn on the inside of a person's wrists. The researchers studied the correlation patterns between results of these methods using pairwise correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (for air concentrations only). For hot mix paving, within- and between-worker variance components were evaluated, adjusting for area paved. Collected fume was dark in color and mainly consisted of aliphatic hydrocarbons of less than 20 carbon atoms. Inconsistent correlation patterns between dermal deposition and air levels were observed. Quantification of organic matter using either infrared spectroscopy or gas chromatography appeared to be good methods for monitoring inhalable bitumen fume. Cotton pads seem to be more promising than paper pads for measuring dermal exposure during paving. Paving workers were uniformly exposed to bitumen fume. Assessment of the uniformity of dermal exposure depended on the type of pad used. Day-to-day variability and intensity of inhalable and dermal bitumen exposures depended on area paved. The small size of the study limits the potential application of the results to the asphalt industry in general. More research is needed to develop a valid and inexpensive method of assessing total bitumen exposure.

  3. 'Where of is mad al mankynde' : an edition of and introduction to the twenty-four poems in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Louis Johan Philip

    2009-01-01

    'Where of is Mad al Mankynde' represents a new critical edition of the collection of twenty-four late-medieval anonymous poems contained, among other pieces, in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102. Each poem is introduced with a brief summary and closes with line-for-line explanatory comments. Th

  4. Control of the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures via hot mixing of reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jing; Li, Xiao-Lei; Qin, Wen-Jing; Niu, Kai-Yang; Yang, Jing; Ling, Tao; Du, Xi-Wen

    2010-09-07

    ZnO nanostructures with controllable morphology were obtained by hot mixing reverse micelles containing Zn(NO(3))(2) or monoethanol amine aqueous solution. The ratio of water to surfactant concentration (omega(0)) was found to play a decisive role in determining the final morphology, namely, nanotetrahedrons formed at a lower omega(0) value and nanorods formed at a higher value. However, the hot mixing technique is propitious for obtaining nanostructures with uniform size. The ZnO nanotetrahedrons obtained gave a strong blue emission arising from interface state, and the ZnO nanorods emitted green light related to donor defects. Our results indicate that the hot mixing of reverse micelles is a unique way to tune the morphology and properties of nanostructures.

  5. Evaluation of steel slag coarse aggregate in hot mix asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedzade, Perviz; Sengoz, Burak

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents the influences of the utilization of steel slag as a coarse aggregate on the properties of hot mix asphalt. Four different asphalt mixtures containing two types of asphalt cement (AC-5; AC-10) and coarse aggregate (limestone; steel slag) were used to prepare Marshall specimens and to determine optimum bitumen content. Mechanical characteristics of all mixtures were evaluated by Marshall stability, indirect tensile stiffness modulus, creep stiffness, and indirect tensile strength tests. The electrical sensitivity of the specimens were also investigated in accordance with ASTM D257-91. It was observed that steel slag used as a coarse aggregate improved the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. Moreover, volume resistivity values demonstrated that the electrical conductivity of steel slag mixtures were better than that of limestone mixtures.

  6. Comparative “from Cradle to Gate” Life Cycle Assessments of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moretti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to compare the environmental impact of two different hot mix asphalt (HMA materials used for road construction in Italy. The analyses used a “from cradle to gate” Life Cycle Assessment (LCA boundary system and the methodology included considerations about raw materials and fuel supply, as well as transport and manufacturing processes. Primary data provided by the producers and secondary data available in the literature were used as part of the analyses. The results suggest that the proposed method offers rigorous criteria for a comprehensive assessment of the environmental impact of HMA materials, which could be used, among others, as an evaluation parameter in public bids.

  7. Method to determine full work of fracture from disk shaped compact tension tests on hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is an important mode of failure in hot-mix asphalt (HMA). As part of the revision of the South African pavement design method (SAPDM) a need was identified to assess the fracture toughness of HMA in terms of fracture energy...

  8. Contributions crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt to the resilient modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyapijati, Raden Hendra; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Sumabrata, R. Jachrizal

    2017-06-01

    Pavement on the structure of the surface layer receives direct load from the vehicles. Road surfaces are designed to withstand the wear from vehicle loads. Therefore, we need a way to improve the durability of the pavement. Road damage may reduce the life of roads and increase the maintenance costs. The retention rate of road surface material is affected by the environmental conditions, one of them is temperature. To overcome the issues related to temperature, material additives are added to the asphalt mixture. These additive materials would change the binding properties of bitumen and the characteristics of strain and stress before the damage due to repeated traffic loading. Crumb rubber (CR) is a type of polymer additives and thermoplastic elastomers are obtained from scrap tires and rubber waste that is utilized in order to preserve the environment. This study investigated the contribution of the crumb rubber in terms of the value of resilient modulus and resistance to deformation. Hot mix asphalt used was asphalt Pen 60/70, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and filler. Crumb rubber was made from scrap tire rubber, in the form of fine powder with sieve no. 30 (0.6 mm). CR additive was added to the base asphalt at several rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% at a temperature of 177° C. The test data used the indirect tensile test with a tool UMATTA at temperatures of 25°, 35°, and 45° C. The test results showed that the levels of crumb rubber on the asphalt decreased the penetration rate, increased the bitumen softening point, and improved the resistance to permanent deformation. The addition of additive materials was evidenced to improve the penetration index, reduce the temperature sensitivity, and increase the viscosity. Subsequently, it can extend the temperature range of viscoelasticity. The contributions of crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt included the increase of the recoverable deformation and the decrease of the value of resilient modulus. This study

  9. Stripping in hot mix asphalt produced by aggregates from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, I; Pasandín, A R; Gallego, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of water on the durability of hot asphalt mixtures made with recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris. Indirect tensile stress tests were carried out to evaluate stripping behaviour. The mixtures tested were fabricated with 0, 20, 40 and 60% recycled aggregates. Two types of natural aggregates were used: schist and calcite dolomite. An increase in the percentage of recycled aggregates was found to produce a decrease in the tensile stress ratio of the hot asphalt mixtures. To study this phenomenon, two and three factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed with indirect tensile stress being used as the dependent variable. The factors studied were the percentage of recycled aggregates (0, 20, 40 and 60%), the moisture state (dry, wet) and the type of natural aggregate (schist, calcite). On the basis of the ANOVA results, it was found that the most important factor affecting resistance was the moisture state (dry, wet) of the specimens. The percentage of recycled aggregate also affected indirect tensile stress, especially in the dry state. The type of natural aggregate did not have a significant effect on indirect tensile stress. The hot asphalt mixture specimens made with different percentages of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris and of natural quarry aggregates showed poor stripping behaviour. This stripping behaviour can be related to both the poor adhesion of the recycled aggregates and the high absorption of the mortar of cement adhered to them.

  10. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O K; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  11. Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Granular Layers Stiffness on Fatigue Life of Hot Mix Asphalts - HMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mainly factors studied to predict fatigue life of hot mix asphalt-HMA in flexible pavements are the loading effect, type of test, compaction methods, design parameters of HMA (e.g., particle size and size distribution curve, fine content, type of bitumen and the variables associated with the environment (mainly moisture, temperature, aging. This study evaluated through a computer simulation, the influence of the granular layers and subgrade on the fatigue life of asphalt layers in flexible pavement structures. Mechanics parameters of granular layers of subgrade, base and subbase were obtained using the mathematical equations currently used for this purpose in the world. The emphasis of the study was the city of Bogotá, where the average annual temperature is 14°C and soils predominantly clay, generally experience CBR magnitudes between 1% and 4%. General conclusion: stiffness of the granular layers and subgrade significantly affect the fatigue resistance of HMA mixtures. Likewise, the use of different equations reported in reference literature in order to characterize granular layers may vary the fatigue life between 4.6 and 48.5 times, varying the thickness of the pavement layers in the design.

  12. A methodology for use of digital image correlation for hot mix asphalt testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Estefany

    Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a relatively new technology which aids in the measurement of material properties without the need for installation of sensors. DIC is a noncontact measuring technique that requires the specimen to be marked with a random speckled pattern and to be photographed during the test. The photographs are then post-processed based on the location of the pattern throughout the test. DIC can aid in calculating properties that would otherwise be too difficult even with other measuring instruments. The objective of this thesis is to discuss the methodology and validate the use of DIC in different hot mix asphalt (HMA) tests, such as, the Overlay Tester (OT) Test, Indirect Tensile (IDT) Test, and the Semicircular Bending (SCB) Test. The DIC system provides displacements and strains in any visible surface. The properly calibrated 2-D or 3-D DIC data can be used to understand the complex stress and strain distributions and the modes of the initiation and propagation of cracks. The use of this observational method will lead to further understanding of the complex boundary conditions of the different test, and therefore, allowing it to be implemented in the analysis of other materials. The use of digital image correlation will bring insight and knowledge onto what is happening during a test.

  13. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md.; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR–asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR–asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR–asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR–asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress. PMID:28182724

  14. An empirical method for estimating surface area of aggregates in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Panda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bitumen requirement in hot mix asphalt (HMA is directly dependent on the surface area of the aggregates in the mix, which in turn has effect on the asphalt film thickness and the flow characteristics. The surface area of aggregate blend in HMA is calculated using the specific surface area factors assigned to percentage passing through some specific standard sieve sizes and the imaging techniques. The first process is less capital intensive, but purely manual and labour intensive and prone to human errors. Imaging techniques though eliminating the human errors, still have limited use due to capital intensiveness and requirement of well-established laboratories with qualified technicians. Most of the developing countries like India are shortage of well-equipped laboratories and qualified technicians. To overcome these difficulties, the present mathematical model has been developed to estimate the surface area of aggregate blend of HMA from physical properties of aggregates evaluated using simple laboratory equipment. This model has been validated compared with the existing established methods of calculations and can be used as one of the tools in different developing and under developed countries for proper design of HMA.

  15. Dielectric characterization of hot-mix asphalt at the smart road using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qadi, Imad L.; Loulizi, A.; Lahouar, S.

    2000-04-01

    To better interpret collected ground penetrating radar (GPR) data, a project is currently underway at the Virginia Smart Road. Twelve different flexible pavement sections and a continuously reinforced concrete rigid pavement section are incorporated in the road design. Thirty-five copper plates were placed at different layer interfaces throughout the pavement sections. The copper plates serve as a reflecting material and thus allow the determination of layers' dielectric constant over the GPR frequency range. An initial development of a method to calculate the complex dielectric constant of hot-mix asphalt over the frequency range of 750 to 1750 MHz using an air-coupled GPR system is presented. Utilizing GPR data, this method will be used to predict changes of the dielectric properties of the different SuperPaveTM mixes used at the Smart Road over time. The method is based on equating the overall reflection coefficient as obtained from the radar measurements with the calculated reflection coefficient using electromagnetic theory. The measured overall reflection coefficient is obtained by dividing the reflected frequency spectrum over the incident one. The theoretical overall reflection coefficient is obtained using the multiple reflection model. A Gauss-Newton method is then used to solve for the complex dielectric constant.

  16. Personal breathing zone exposures among hot-mix asphalt paving workers; preliminary analysis for trends and analysis of work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Linda V; Snawder, John E; Kriech, Anthony J; Cavallari, Jennifer M; McClean, Michael D; Herrick, Robert F; Blackburn, Gary R; Olsen, Larry D

    2013-01-01

    An exposure assessment of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers was conducted to determine which of four exposure scenarios impacted worker exposure and dose. Goals of this report are to present the personal-breathing zone (PBZ) data, discuss the impact of substituting the releasing/cleaning agent, and discuss work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentration for each analyte. One-hundred-seven PBZ samples were collected from HMA paving workers on days when diesel oil was used as a releasing/cleaning agent. An additional 36 PBZ samples were collected on days when B-100 (100% biodiesel, containing no petroleum-derived products) was used as a substitute releasing/cleaning agent. Twenty-four PBZ samples were collected from a reference group of concrete workers, who also worked in outdoor construction but had no exposure to asphalt emissions. Background and field blank samples were also collected daily. Total particulates and the benzene soluble fraction were determined gravimetrically. Total organic matter was determined using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and provided qualitative information about other exposure sources contributing to worker exposure besides asphalt emissions. Thirty-three individual polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were determined using GC with time-of-flight mass spectrometry; results were presented as either the concentration of an individual PAC or a summation of the individual PACs containing either 2- to 3-rings or 4- to 6-rings. Samples were also screened for PACs containing 4- to 6-rings using fluorescence spectroscopy. Arithmetic means, medians, and box plots of the PBZ data were used to evaluate trends in the data. Box plots illustrating the diesel oil results were more variable than the B-100. Also, the highest diesel oil results were much higher in concentration than the highest B-100 results. An analysis of the highest exposure results and field notes revealed a probable association between

  17. Effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing Combined with psychosomatic relaxation on Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingying; Zhou, Yiyi; Lai, Qiujia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing combined with psychosomatic relaxation on depression and anxiety in patients with Type-2 Diabetes. One hundred and twenty (120) patients with Type-2 Diabetes and depressive/anxious symptoms were divided into intervention group (60 cases) and control group (60 cases) according to the minimum distribution principle of unbalanced indicators. Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing group used this intervention combined with psychosomatic relaxation. Control group underwent conventional treatment. All the patients in the two groups completed the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after treatment. Among the 52 people included in the statistical analysis, the recovery rate was 13.3%. The differences between depression and anxiety scores in the intervention group before and after treatment were statistically significant (PBoxing and psychosomatic relaxation has a beneficial auxiliary therapeutic effect on depression and anxiety accompanying Type-2 Diabetes.

  18. Inferring strength and deformation properties of hot mix asphalt layers from the GPR signal: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Adabi, Saba; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    , of both the different strength provision of each layer composing the hot mix asphalt pavement structure, and of the attenuation occurring to electromagnetic waves during their in-depth propagation. Promising results are achieved by matching modelled and measured elastic modulus data. This continuous statistically-based model enables to consider the whole set of information related to each single depth, in order to provide a more comprehensive prediction of the strength and deformation behavior of such a complex multi-layered medium. Amongst some further developments to be tackled in the near future, a model improvement could be reached through laboratory activities under controlled conditions and by adopting several frequency bandwidths suited for purposes. In addition, the perspective to compare electromagnetic data with mechanical measurements retrieved continuously, i.e., by means of specifically equipped lorries, could pave the way to considerable enhancements in this field of research. Acknowledgements - This work has benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".

  19. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  20. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  1. [Changes of twenty-four-hour profile blood pressure and its correction of patients with arterial hypertension on the background of combined antihypertensive therapy application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomennchuk, T M; Slaba, N A; Prots'ko, V V; Bedzaĭ, A O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the study of efficiency and endurance antihypertensive therapy on the basis of fixed combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and enalapril and HCTZ in combination with amlodipine according to the twenty-four-hour (? day-and-night) monitoring of blood pressure (? 24H BPM) of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) 2-3 severity. The study included 33 patients with 2-3 grade of hypertension (average age--54,40 ± 3.45 years). All patients performed ? 24H BPM before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of enalapril and HCTZ allowed to achieve target levels of blood pressure in 79% of patients, amlodipine additional purpose--in 86% of patients. We found that this therapy has a corrective effect on daily blood pressure profile, significantly reducing the load pressure and blood pressure variability. During treatment with the combination of enalapril and HCTZ combination of enalapril, HCTZ with amlodipine optimal daily profile of blood pressure after 12 weeks of reaching respectively 63.1% and 71.4% of patients. The treatment with combination of enalapril and HCTZ and adding of amlodipine is characterized by good endurance and high adherence to treatment.

  2. Recycling Paper Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available What do you do after a product has served its function and is no longer needed? Ideally, you recycle it. What do you do if people have neglected or forgotten so much of what has been learned in recent years about paper recycling? Well, one of the things that someone can do is to write a book. Very little of the contents of such a book may be new. But the book itself can be highly valuable, representing a lot of effort to select and organized material that will be helpful for the current and upcoming generations of papermaking technologists. This editorial describes a new book by Dr. Pratima Bajpai entitled Recycling and Deinking of Recovered Paper. Readers who deal with the recycling of paper will probably want to have a copy of it on a handy shelf.

  3. Surgical treatment of cavus foot in Charcot-Marie-tooth disease: a review of twenty-four cases: AAOS exhibit selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faldini, Cesare; Traina, Francesco; Nanni, Matteo; Mazzotti, Antonio; Calamelli, Carlotta; Fabbri, Daniele; Pungetti, Camilla; Giannini, Sandro

    2015-03-18

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is the single most common diagnosis associated with cavus foot. The imbalance involving intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has been suggested as the main pathogenetic cause of cavus foot in this disease. The goal of surgical treatment is to correct the deformity to obtain a plantigrade foot. In the presence of a flexible deformity and the absence of degenerative arthritis, preserving as much as possible of the overall range of motion of the foot and ankle is advisable. Twenty-four cavus feet in twelve patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease were included in the study. Clinical evaluation was summarized with the Maryland Foot Score. Radiographic evaluation assessed calcaneal pitch, Meary angle, Hibb angle, and absence of degenerative joint changes. Only patients who had a flexible deformity, with varus of the heel reducible in the Coleman-Andreasi test, and did not have degenerative joint arthritis were included in this study. Surgical treatment consisted in plantar fasciotomy, midtarsal osteotomy, extensor hallucis longus tendon transfer to the first metatarsal (Jones procedure), and dorsiflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal. Mean follow-up was six years (range, two to thirteen years). The mean Maryland Foot Score was 72 preoperatively and 86 postoperatively. The postoperative result was rated as excellent in twelve feet (50%), good in ten (42%), and fair in two (8%). Mean calcaneal pitch was 34° preoperatively and 24° at the time of the latest follow-up, the mean Hibb angle was 121° preoperatively and 136° postoperatively, and the mean Meary angle was 25° preoperatively and 2° postoperatively. Plantar fasciotomy, midtarsal osteotomy, the Jones procedure, and dorsiflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal yielded adequate correction of flexible cavus feet in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in the absence of fixed hindfoot deformity. The fact that the improvement in the outcome score was only modest may be attributable

  4. On the Idyllic Realm in the Twenty-four Poetic Genres%论«二十四诗品»的休闲境界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏明

    2016-01-01

    «二十四诗品»不仅是司空图论诗歌艺术风格类型的文学理论作品,也是优美的诗歌作品。综观«二十四诗品»,最重要的是通过对纯洁本性的累积、回归、体悟而达到对“真”“中”“虚”的葆有。«二十四诗品»为我们展示了诗意栖居的生活,也体现了古人内外双修,体验式的生活方式,从而能启示活在当下、顺任自然的诗意人生,启示我们思考如何更聪明地休闲,追求与道同体的永恒境界。%The Twenty-four Poetic Genres written by Si kongtu is not only a theoretic book on the po-etic genres,but also a poetic work itself.Overview the whole book,the essence is to maintain the"true""intrinsic"and"virtual"quality through the accumulation,regression and comprehension of pure nature. It revealed the idyllic settings of our ancestors with the poetic life to inspire us to take relaxation naturally and cleverly for the pursuit of eternal realm of life.

  5. The usefulness of twenty-four molecular markers in predicting treatment outcome with combination therapy of amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder John C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Papua New Guinea (PNG, combination therapy with amodiaquine (AQ or chloroquine (CQ plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP was introduced as first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria in 2000. Methods We assessed in vivo treatment failure rates with AQ+SP in two different areas in PNG and twenty-four molecular drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were characterized in pre-treatment samples. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between infecting genotype and treatment response in order to identify useful predictors of treatment failure with AQ+SP. Results In 2004, Day-28 treatment failure rates for AQ+SP were 29% in the Karimui and 19% in the South Wosera area, respectively. The strongest independent predictors for treatment failure with AQ+SP were pfmdr1 N86Y (OR = 7.87, p pfdhps A437G (OR = 3.44, p pfcrt K76T, A220S, N326D, and I356L did not help to increase the predictive value, the most likely reason being that these mutations reached almost fixed levels. Though mutations in SP related markers pfdhfr S108N and C59R were not associated with treatment failure, they increased the predictive value of pfdhps A437G. The difference in treatment failure rate in the two sites was reflected in the corresponding genetic profile of the parasite populations, with significant differences seen in the allele frequencies of mutant pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 Y184F, pfcrt A220S, and pfdhps A437G. Conclusion The study provides evidence for high levels of resistance to the combination regimen of AQ+SP in PNG and indicates which of the many molecular markers analysed are useful for the monitoring of parasite resistance to combinations with AQ+SP.

  6. Influence of Compaction Temperature on Resistance Under Monotonic Loading of Crumb-Rubber Modified Hot-Mix Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of compaction temperature on resistance under monotonic loading (Marshall of Crumb-Rubber Modified (CRM Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA was evaluated. The emphasis of this study was the application in Bogotá D.C. (Colombia. In this city the compaction temperature of HMA mixtures decreases, compared to the optimum, in about 30°C. Two asphalt cements (AC 60-70 and AC 80-100 were modified. Two particle sizes distribution curve were used. The compaction temperatures used were 120, 130, 140 and 150°C. The decrease of the compaction temperature produces a small decrease in resistance under monotonic loading of the modified mixtures tested. Mixtures without CRM undergo a lineal decrease in its resistance of up to 34%.

  7. Study on infrared differential thermal non-destructive testing technology of the permeability of hot mix asphalt pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duanyi; Shi, Jicun

    2017-06-01

    In order to non-destructive test (NDT) the permeability coefficient of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements fast, A methodology for assessing the permeability coefficient was proposed by infrared differential thermal testing of pavement after rain. The relationship between permeability coefficient and air voids of HMA specimen deter-mined. Finite element method (FEM) models were built to calculate the surface temperature difference with different exposure time after precipitation. Simulated solar radiation source and fully saturated plate specimens were set in laboratory, tests verify that the different exposure time the specimen surface temperature difference. Infrared differential thermal detection permeable pavement hardware and corresponding software developed. Based on many test results, the evaluation index and criteria of permeability coefficient of HMA pavements tested by infrared differential thermal were developed. The results showed that: There is correlation between air voids and permeability coefficient of HMA specimen. Permeability coefficient of HMA pavements can be determined by different surface temperature at different exposure time. 9:00 am - 14:00 pm is the best time to detect permeability coefficient by infrared differential thermal NDT. Permeable asphalt pavement permeability can be achieved by infrared detector quickly and continuously, a lane testing; Per the permeable assessment criteria, in-place pavements permeability coefficients can be accurately evaluated.

  8. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  9. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikalsky, Paul J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bahia, Hussain U. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Deng, An [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Snyder, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  10. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  11. Characterization of hot-mix asphalt concrete containing municipal solid waste incinerator ash using the dynamic modulus (E) test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, H.F. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). College of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In 2001, approximately 229 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) were produced in the United States. MSW consists of items such as paper, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, appliances, paint, and batteries. MSW incinerator ash is the by-product produced during the combustion of municipal solid waste in combustor facilities and has two components, namely bottom ash and fly ash. To reduce the disposal problem, the incinerators are used to reduce the volume and weight of MSW. This is usually a self-sustained process using the waste as a fuel resulting in as much as a 90 and 75 per cent reduction in volume and weight, respectively. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the use of incinerator ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in hot-mix asphalt concrete. MSW incinerator ash was collected from an incinerator facility at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman and a physical and chemical characterization of the ash was conducted. MSW ash was used in the mixture to replace fine aggregate with a percentage ranging from 0 to 40 per cent, by total aggregate weight. The mixes were designed using the Marshall mix design method and the dynamic modulus test was conducted on samples prepared at optimum asphalt contents for mixes containing different percentage of ash and at different temperatures and frequencies. Master curves for different percentages of ash in the mix were developed from the testing results. It was found that the Marshall mix design results for the mixes containing MSW ash indicated a decrease in stability, and specific gravity, and an increase in air voids. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  12. 论《二十四诗品》虚拟人物背后的“五然”理想人格%"Five Good" ldeal Personalities of the Virtual Characters of "Twenty-four Poems"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛刚

    2014-01-01

    "Taste of poetry reflects taste of life and style shows personality in the opposite way." In this sense, "Twenty-four Poems" do absolutely not mean to teach how to write poems and how to cultivate the couplet but to develop human nature to promote personality. It is the aloof personality, light life consciousness, self perfection and the acceptance of natural realization that are prominently revealed in the twenty-four kinds of mood behind the virtual figures. Those spirits have got considerable inspiration for the modern people in self-cultivation.%“诗品映衬人品,风格返现人格。”从这个意义上来说,《二十四诗品》绝对不是教我们如何作诗,如何对句,而是陶冶人的性情,求得人格上的提升。其实在二十四种意境之中,在虚拟人物背后,突出表现的是超然的人格理想、淡然的生命意识和自我完善、自然实现的精神。这对今人在修身养性方面有着极大的启示作用。

  13. Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng; Eckhardt, C.

    1996-04-01

    About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.

  14. On the Beauty of Twenty-four Poetry Style%美感体验中的三维透视--论《二十四诗品》朦胧美

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕甜

    2016-01-01

    A lot of researches have been done about the aesthetics of the Twenty-four Poetry Style for several years. The highly theoretical aesthetic researches which include framing aesthetics, thought aesthetics, ecological esthetics, poetic aesthetics and ideal aesthetics make this book more attractive. But on the other hand, some expansion exists in the aesthetic value of this book because the researchers add their aesthetic theories to the theoretic distillation of the book. In this article, the directly perceived dim beauty and the burden of dim beauty have been analyzed from the experience of the aesthetic perception, which will clearly display the beauty of the Twenty-four Poetry Style.%历年来关于《二十四诗品》的美学研究是层出不穷的,从架构美学到思想美学到生态美学到诗歌美学到理想美学等等,这种高度理论性的美学研究使得整部著作更加具有魅力性。但是这种提炼浓缩后的理论升华在无形中也附加上了论者们的美学理想,使得《二十四诗品》美学价值或多或少地存在着“膨胀”的现象。文章将从美感体验出发,旨在挖掘分析能被直接感知的朦胧美和美的朦胧负担,让《二十四诗品》的美变得更加有迹可循。

  15. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  16. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  17. Biotype identification and epidemiological analysis of twenty-four Brucella strains%24株布鲁菌的种型鉴定和流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 屈平华; 吴尚为; 陈经雕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the biotype and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of twentyfour Brurella strains from the primary hospitals in Guangdong Province.Methods The twenty-four Brucella strains,collected from Oct.2009 to Oct.2015,were identified by routine biochemical methods,VITEK 2 COMPACT automatic microbial identification analyzer,16S rRNA gene sequencing and biology phenotype based on serological and bacteriophages lysis test.The etiology was analyzed based on clinical data,biotypes of the isolates and other clinical information.Results All of the twenty-four strains were Gram-negative coccobacilli,including two strains of Brucella suis biotype Ⅱ,four strains of Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅰ and eighteen strains of Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅲ.By GN card of VITEK 2 COMPACT automatic microbial identification analyzer,one strain was mistaken as Bordetella bronchiseptica and two strains were mistaken as Ochrobaetrum anthropi.The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed they were high homology to Ochrobactrum intermedium and Ochrobaetrum anthropi,which completely excluded the possibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica.Tbe clinical data showed that all of the twenty-four patients were adults with an average age of 49.0 years old,men and women were twelve people respectively,with no significant gender differences and no occupational exposure,which presenting a wide and diverse range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms,but brucellosis was not aware of by the physician.Conclusion Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅲ is the main pathogen of brucellosis,with the characteristics of sporadic outbreak and occult infection in the primary hospitals in Guangdong Province.%目的 对广东省基层地区24株布鲁菌进行种型鉴定和流行病学分析.方法 对24株来自于2009年10月至2015年10月广东省基层医院血培养阳性的布鲁菌进行传统生化鉴定、VITEK 2仪器鉴定、16S rRNA基因测序、血清学试验和噬菌体试验,比较不

  18. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  19. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  20. High-dose statin pretreatment decreases periprocedural myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of twenty-four randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI and major adverse cardiac events (MACE for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.49; P<0.00001 and 39% relative reduction in MACE (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45-0.83; P = 0.002. The benefit of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50-0.95; P = 0.02 and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.65; P = 0.003; and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34-0.79; P = 0.003, but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45-1.10; P = 0.12. Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients

  1. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; Pstatin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients with prior treatment. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE is significant for

  2. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  3. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  4. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  5. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  6. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  7. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  8. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  9. Recycling of demolished concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagataki, S. [Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Iida, K. [Technology Centre of Taisei Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    There is a significant amount of research being conducted in Japan on ways to recycle demolished concrete. The material is already being used for road bases and foundations, but in the future, the concrete will have to be recycled as concrete aggregate. Recycling may also include the cement in the concrete in order to address the issue of global warming and carbon dioxide reductions. This initiative is in response to predictions that in the future there will be tremendous quantities of demolished concrete to deal with. Recycling of cement is also necessary in terms of resolving environmental problems and promoting sustainable development. The properties of concrete made with recycled aggregates were described and were compared with original concrete made of known materials. The paper also proposed an approach that should be taken to recycling concrete in the twenty-first century in which reduced limestone was used to reclaim cement. Recycled concrete with cement requires more energy, but uses less resources and discharges less carbon dioxide. Currently, recycled aggregate does not meet the Japanese Industrial Standard for concrete aggregate. The resistance to freeze/thaw cycles was not adequate. The amount of mortar adhered to the recycled aggregate had little affect on the strength and durability of recycled concrete. It was concluded that the quality of recycled concrete aggregate depends on the quality of original concrete. 11 refs., 12 tabs., 11 figs.

  10. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  11. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  12. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling......It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  13. Efficient paper recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor-Svetec, Diana; Možina, Klemen; Blaznik, Barbara; Urbas, Raša; Vrabič Brodnjak, Urška; Golob, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    Used paper and paper products are important raw material for paper and board industry. Paper recycling increases the material lifespan and is a key strategy that contributes to savings of primary raw material, reduction of energy and chemicals consumption, reduction of the impact on fresh water and improvement of waste management strategies. The paper recycling rate is still highly inhomogeneous among the countries of Central Europe. Since recovered paper is not only recycled in the country w...

  14. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  15. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  16. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  18. Recycling Wood Composite Panels: Characterizing Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Downgraded medium density fiberboard (MDF, particleboard (PB, and oriented strandboard (OSB panels were individually subjected to steam explosion treatment. Downgraded MDF and PB panels were separately treated with thermal chemical impregnation using 0.5% butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA. And downgraded PB panels were processed with mechanical hammermilling. The pH, buffer capacity, fiber length, and particle size of these recycled materials were evaluated. After the steam explosion and thermal chemical impregnation treatments, the pH and buffer capacity of recycled urea formaldehyde resin (UF-bonded MDF and PB furnishes increased and the fiber length decreased. The hammermilling of recycled PB was less likely to break particles down into sizes less than 1 mm2.

  19. Plate tectonics: Crustal recycling evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    The processes that form and recycle continental crust have changed through time. Numerical models reveal an evolution from extensive recycling on early Earth as the lower crust peeled away, to limited recycling via slab break-off today.

  20. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  1. The Fermilab recycler ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  2. Analysis of Temperature-Dropping Characteristics of Warm-Mix Asphalt and Hot-Mix Asphalt%温拌及热拌沥青混合料降温特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯曙光

    2011-01-01

    为研究热拌及温拌沥青混合料降温特性,采用车辙板试件进行试验,分别在110℃和130℃初始温度条件下,测试热拌沥青混合料、“路博”温拌沥青混合料和“Sasobit”温拌沥青混合料的降温特性,试验结果表明:混合料初始温度越高,降温速率越快,初始温度为110℃和130℃的车辙板经25 min后温度接近,分别为66℃和68℃;不同类型混合料降温速率不同,当初始温度为110℃时,热拌混合料降温最快,“Sasobit”温拌沥青混合料降温速率居中,“路博”温拌混合料降温速率最小,经35 min后,3种沥青混合料的温度损失分别为53℃、51℃和49℃.%In order to research on the temperature-dropping characteristics of warm-mix and hot-mix asphalt, in this paper some rutting test panels are used as specimens to determine the temperature-dropping characteristics of hot-mix asphalt(HMA) , warm-mix asphalt(WMA) with warmly mixing agent "Lo-Bo" and warm-mix asphalt with warmly mixing agent "Sasobit" under the conditions with initial temperatures of 110℃ and 130℃. The test results indicate that the higher initial temperature is, the higher temperature-dropping rate is. After 25 min the temperatures of rutting test panels with initial temperatures of 110℃ and 130℃ are close to each other and are in 66℃ and 68℃ separately. The temperature-dropping rates of different types of mixtures are not the same. When the initial temperature is in 110℃ , the tempea-ture-dropping rate of hot-mix asphalt is highest, the temperature-dropping rate of warm-mix asphalt added with "Sasobit" is in the middle, and the temperature-dropping rate of warm-mix asphalt added with "Lu-Bo" is lowest. After 35 min, the temperatures of the three types of asphalt mixtures have fallen by 53℃ , 51℃ and 49℃ separately.

  3. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  4. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  5. Twenty-Four Tuba Harmonics Using a Single Pipe Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 "YouTube: Tuba Harmonics" (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the…

  6. Twenty-four tuba harmonics using a single pipe length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 YouTube: Tuba Harmonics (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the harmonics, measured with the free software program Audacity, fall excellently on a linear fit using a spreadsheet. The skillful musical production of so many harmonics with a fixed pipe length is an extraordinary illustration of physics.

  7. Twenty four Hours Circadian Cortisol Profile in Shift Work Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kakooei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It is well established that adrenal hormone cortisol has long been used in human psychobiological studies as a biological marker of circadian rhythm, stress, and anxiety. There is little information, however, about the interrelationships of night work, plasma cortisol levels in females’ nurses of the developing countries. The aim of the present study was to compare circadian cortisol profile between two groups of nurses with shift and permanent work in a Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between January 2006 to September 2008. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, we examined the reproducibility of plasma cortisol levels during one month period in 34 shift work nurses and 10 permanent day shift works. We evaluated potential associations between night work and hormone levels, using current and shift work information for the health care shift workers. Results: The results clearly revealed that shift work significantly increased nighttime cortisol levels (34.93 μg/dl during night shift and decreased the peak levels of cortisol in the morning (39.03 μg/dl. During the work shift the plasma cortisol presented a decreased concentration in the morning and increasing levels (44.93 μg/dl by the end of the evening. In contrast , the permanent day work nurses, who had never worked at night shifts, showed a lowest secretion of cortisol during the first half of night time sleep (10.02 μg/dl , and a peak value of the cortisol after awakening at 07:00 h ( 59.75 μg/ml. We also observed a significant association between night work and increased levels of cortisol over the remaining of the day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that nurses with night shift work have an abnormal cortisol secretion profile. Shift work nurses on rotating night shifts seem to experience changes in hormones levels that may be associated with increased of circadian disorders risk observed among night – shift workers.

  8. Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for hypertension. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Hypertension occurs when either systolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart contracts, or diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes between beats, are consistently high. Blood pressure (BP) that is consistently more than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) is considered high. A lower threshold, greater than 130/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic), is set for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In 2006 and 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate of diagnosed hypertension in Canada was 25.8 per 1,000 (450,000 individuals were newly diagnosed). During the same time period, 22.7% of adult Canadians were living with diagnosed hypertension. A smaller proportion of Canadians are unaware they have hypertension; therefore, the estimated number of Canadians affected by this disease may be higher. Diagnosis and management of hypertension are important, since elevated BP levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. In Canada in 2003, the costs to the health care system related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension were over $2.3 billion (Cdn). Technology The 24-hour ABPM device consists of a standard inflatable cuff attached to a small computer weighing about 500 grams, which is worn over the shoulder or on a belt. The technology is noninvasive and fully automated. The device takes BP measurements every 15 to 30 minutes over a 24-to 28-hour time period, thus providing extended, continuous BP recordings even during a patient’s normal daily activities. Information on the multiple BP measurements can be downloaded to a computer. The main detection methods used by the device are auscultation and oscillometry. The device avoids some of the pitfalls of conventional office or clinic blood pressure monitoring (CBPM) using a cuff and mercury sphygmomanometer such as observer bias (the phenomenon of measurement error when the observer overemphasizes expected results) and white coat hypertension (the phenomenon of elevated BP when measured in the office or clinic but normal BP when measured outside of the medical setting). Research Questions Is there a difference in patient outcome and treatment protocol using 24-hour ABPM versus CBPM for uncomplicated hypertension? Is there a difference between the 2 technologies when white coat hypertension is taken into account? What is the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of 24-hour ABPM versus CBPM for uncomplicated hypertension? Research Methods Literature Search Search Strategy A literature search was performed on August 4, 2011 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 1997 to August 4, 2011. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer. For those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Articles with unknown eligibility were reviewed with a second clinical epidemiologist and then a group of epidemiologists until consensus was established. The quality of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to GRADE methodology. Inclusion Criteria English language articles; published between January 1, 1997 and August 4, 2011; adults aged 18 years of age or older; journal articles reporting on the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, or safety for the comparison of interest; clearly described study design and methods; health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or randomized controlled trials. Exclusion Criteria non-English papers; animal or in vitro studies; case reports, case series, or case-case studies; studies comparing different antihypertensive therapies and evaluating their antihypertensive effects using 24-hour ABPM; studies on home or self-monitoring of BP, and studies on automated office BP measurement; studies in high-risk subgroups (e.g. diabetes, pregnancy, kidney disease). Outcomes of Interest Patient Outcomes mortality: all cardiovascular events (e.g., myocardial infarction [MI], stroke); non-fatal: all cardiovascular events (e.g., MI, stroke); combined fatal and non-fatal: all cardiovascular events (e.g., MI, stroke); all non-cardiovascular events; control of BP (e.g. systolic and/or diastolic target level). Drug-Related Outcomes percentage of patients who show a reduction in, or stop, drug treatment; percentage of patients who begin multi-drug treatment; drug therapy use (e.g. number, intensity of drug use); drug-related adverse events. Quality of Evidence The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. As stated by the GRADE Working Group, the following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence: High Further research is very unlikely to change confidence in the estimate of effect. Moderate Further research is likely to have an important impact on confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate. Low Further research is very likely to have an important impact on confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. Very Low Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. Summary of Findings Short-Term Follow-Up Studies (Length of Follow-Up of ≤ 1 Year) Based on very low quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies for non-fatal cardiovascular events. Based on moderate quality of evidence, ABPM resulted in improved BP control among patients with sustained hypertension compared to CBPM. Based on low quality of evidence, ABPM resulted in hypertensive patients being more likely to stop antihypertensive therapy and less likely to proceed to multi-drug therapy compared to CBPM. Based on low quality of evidence, there is a beneficial effect of ABPM on the intensity of antihypertensive drug use compared to CBPM. Based on moderate quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies in the number of antihypertensive drugs used. Based on low to very low quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies in the risk for a drug-related adverse event or noncardiovascular event. Long-Term Follow-Up Study (Mean Length of Follow-Up of 5 Years) Based on moderate quality of evidence, there is a beneficial effect of ABPM on total combined cardiovascular events compared to CBPM. Based on low quality of evidence, there is a lack of a beneficial effect of ABPM on nonfatal cardiovascular events compared to CBPM; however, the lack of a beneficial effect is based on a borderline result. Based on low quality of evidence, there is no beneficial effect of ABPM on fatal cardiovascular events compared to CBPM. Based on low quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies for the number of patients who began multi-drug therapy. Based on low quality of evidence, there is a beneficial effect of CBPM on control of BP compared to ABPM. This result is in the opposite direction than expected. Based on moderate quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies in the risk for a drug-related adverse event. PMID:23074425

  9. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  10. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  11. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  12. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production......Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  13. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  14. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  15. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  16. Recycle or pollute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiking, F.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    When growing oil palms, quantities of crop residues are high, which means that recycling is laborious and options to absorb these byproducts are easily saturated. Burning or composting may have harmful environmental effects

  17. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  18. Recycling of nonmetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  20. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  1. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  2. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling......It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  3. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  4. Business Plan: Paper Recycling Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad; Askari, Sana; Salman, Muhammad; Askari, Sheba

    2008-01-01

    This Business Plan was written for Business Plan competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It explains the paper recycling business, its pros and cons, cost of paper recycling, plant options and feasibility.

  5. The Construction Technology and Quality Control of Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete Pavement%热拌沥青混凝土路面施工工艺及质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宪法

    2014-01-01

    热拌沥青混凝土作为公路路面施工的重要组成部分,其选材、施工工艺、质量控制等流程对公路的建成性能都具有决定性的影响。笔者结合近年来的学习工作经验,主要从材料、沥青混凝土的配比、施工工艺、质量控制几个方面作简要阐述。%Hot mix asphalt concrete as an important part of highway pavement construction, the material selection, constr-uction technology and quality control hasa decisive influence on the process of highway completed performance. The author combines with work experience in recent years to elaborate from several aspects of material, the ratio of asphalt concrete, construction technology, and quality control, etc.

  6. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  7. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  8. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  9. Recycled Insect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  10. Inherent Control - Hot-Mix Asphalt Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Recycling, Canadian update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, V. I. [Process Research ORTECH Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Shaw, L. [Canadian Association of Recycling Industries, Almonte, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An update on the recycling industry in Canada is provided by way of selected examples involving the recovery of gallium from electronic scrap, magnesium recovery from mine tailings and energy recovery from metal industry processes. These examples have been selected to illustrate the synergy between major mining, metallurgical and utility industries with end users in the building materials, automotive and electronic industries. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  13. 南京铁心桥钢桥面热拌环氧混凝土铺装工艺研究%Hot-mixing Epoxy Asphalt Concrete Pavement Technology for Steel BridgeDeck Pavement of Tiexin Bridge in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘军; 杨文

    2016-01-01

    Based on the steel bridge deck pavement engineering of Tiexin bridge in Nanjing city,the pavement technologies of hot mixing epoxy asphalt concrete using on steel deck were studied,inclu-ding the pavement structure design,mix design,pavement performance evaluation and construction technology.The difference of pavement construction between hot mixing and warm mixing epoxy as-phalt were also introduced in this paper.Research results show that hot mixing epoxy asphalt is suit-able for steel deck pavement due to its high stability,excellent high temperature performance and con-venient workability.%结合南京铁心桥钢桥面环氧铺装实体工程,对热拌环氧沥青混凝土铺装结构形式、热拌环氧沥青性能与混合料配合比设计、路用性能评价,以及施工工艺进行了系统研究,全面比较了热、温拌环氧沥青铺装施工工艺的区别。结果表明,热拌环氧沥青混凝土具有高强度、出色的高温稳定性,以及便捷的施工可操作性,非常适用于大跨钢桥铺装工程。

  14. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  15. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  16. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  17. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... recycling has been recognised as a backbone of circular economy, with constant measures and initiatives being proposed in order to increase the recycling rates of materials being consumed. Material cycles are complex and dynamic systems where chemicals are added and removed in production, manufacturing...

  18. Design by recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalli, V. [By Design Consultants, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A 'cradle to cradle' concept of building materials' lifecycle is presented in an effort to highlight the advantages of designing buildings in such a way as to ensure sound waste management strategies and practices, facilitate future renovation and demolition by reducing the generation of wastes, and allow for individual materials to be reused and recycled for use in new projects or products, continuing their lifecycle by diverting them from landfill. Some techniques to achieve these objectives include (1) avoidance of concealed, fixed connections, (2) use of reversible type connections, (3) use of materials that have an inherent finish, (4) use of simplified assemblies and modular materials. Examples of 'design for recycling' are cited, including Ottawa's Grace Hospital for the waste management program developed for use during its demolition, and the Mountain Equipment Co-Op for various features such as exposed timber posts with bolted connections, removable interior partitions with inherent finishes and exposed removable light and electrical fixtures. tabs., figs.

  19. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  20. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We anal...

  1. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  2. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful appl

  3. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational...... and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Paper and cardboard are produced from pulp derived from plant fibers, primarily wood. Paper and cardboard is used for many different products, such as for packaging material, newsprint and advertisements. Most of these products have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most...... waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  5. Nanodomains in biomembranes with recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Mareike; Destainville, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes are out of thermodynamic equilibrium notably because of membrane recycling, i.e. active exchange of material with the cytosol. We propose an analytically tractable model of biomembrane predicting the effects of recycling on the size of protein nanodomains. It includes a short-range attraction between proteins and a weaker long-range repulsion which ensures the existence of so-called cluster phases at equilibrium, where monomeric proteins coexist with finite-size domains. Our main finding is that when taking recycling into account, the typical cluster size increases logarithmically with the recycling rate. Using physically realistic model parameters, the predicted two-fold increase due to recycling in living cells is very likely experimentally measurable with the help of super-resolution microscopy.

  6. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling.......Paper and cardboard are produced from pulp derived from plant fibers, primarily wood. Paper and cardboard is used for many different products, such as for packaging material, newsprint and advertisements. Most of these products have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most...

  7. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  8. Urban water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  9. Air Temperature Variation and Mutation Analysis of the Twenty-Four Solar Terms in Xi'an over 60 Years%近60年西安市24节气气温变化特征及突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈姣姣; 徐虹; 李建科; 王靖; 高红燕; 杨新

    2013-01-01

    Based on daily air temperature from 1951-2010, mean air temperature (MAT) and the beginning-day air temperature (BAT), variation characteristics of the twenty-four solar terms in Xi'an were examined. MAT and BAT of phenological solar terms (Waking of Insects, Pure Brightness, Lesser Fullness of Grain and Grain in Beard) were used. We found that MAT of Lesser Heat and Greater Heat was higher than other solar terms, Lesser Cold was the coldest in all. Ending-day air temperature (EAT) was higher than BAT in each solar term from Greater Cold to Lesser Heat, and was lower than BAT in each solar term from Greater Heat to Lesser Cold. Curve of MAT variation of contiguous solar terms showed a single peak at Pure Brightness which was 3.4℃ higher than the Spring Equinox and single valley at the Beginning of Winter which was 3.9℃ lower than Frost's Descent. Daily MAT of seasonal solar terms varied as follows: spring (+0.190℃/ d) > autumn (-0.180℃/d) > winter (-0.105℃/d) > summer (+0.086℃/d). Daily MAT during the Beginning of Winter(-0.303℃/d), Waking of Insects (+0.233℃/d), Lesser Snow(-0.220℃/d) and Spring Equinox(+0.219℃/d) varied violently. MAT and BAT of most twenty-four solar terms showed a significant rising trend in the 1990s or 2000s, but BAT of autumn and winter solar terms did not change significantly in decadal temperature from 1951 to 2010. In 2000s, MAT of the Beginning of Spring, Greater Heat, the Beginning of Autumn, the End of Heat and the Winter Solstice dropped instead of rise. BAT and MAT of Waking of Insects rose in 1998 and 2008 at the 0.05 significant level, then in 2001 and 2010 at the 0.01 significant level. Pure Brightness and Lesser Fullness of Grain suddenly wanned in the 1990s (1999 and 1993), with 0.05 significant level at the beginning of 2000s (2004 and 2003) and 0.01 significant level in the mid-2000s (2006 and 2006). MAT and BAT of Grain in Beard showed a periodic rising and dropping trend, when it suddenly dropped at the

  10. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  11. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  12. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  13. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  14. New approaches to recycling tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.

    1991-03-01

    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  15. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community.

  16. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  17. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  18. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  19. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  20. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  1. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential.

  2. Recycling Expensive Medication: Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jay M

    2004-01-01

    New (and proposed) advances in packaging, preserving, labeling, and verifying product integrity of individual tablets and capsules may allow for the recycling of certain expensive medicines. Previously sold, but unused, medication, if brought back to special pharmacies for resale or donation, may provide a low-cost source of patent-protected medicines. Benefits of such a program go beyond simply providing affordable medication to the poor. This article suggests that medicine recycling may be a possibility (especially if manufacturers are mandated to blister-package and bar-code individual tablets and capsules). This early discussion of medication recycling identifies relevant issues, such as: need, rationale, existing programs, available supplies, expiration dates, new technology for ensuring safety and potency, environmental impact, public health benefits, program focus, program structure, and liability. PMID:15266231

  3. Recycling dodecylamine intercalated vanadate nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Odair P., E-mail: odair@iqm.unicamp.br; Souza Filho, Antonio G., E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br; Alves, Oswaldo L., E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, LQES - Laboratorio de Quimica do Estado Solido, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    In this article, we report the thermal decomposition processes of dodecylamine intercalated vanadate nanotubes and their recycling process. Structural, vibrational, and morphological properties of the annealed samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The data analysis unveiled that vanadate nanotubes (VONTs) decompose into nanoplates which is isostructural to xerogel, and finally to nanoparticle aggregates whose composition is a single V{sub 2}O{sub 5} bulk phase. These aggregates can be successfully recycled for converting the residues of decomposition process into vanadate nanotubes again.

  4. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  5. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  6. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  7. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events). We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A) recycling events a...

  8. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  9. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  10. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  11. Chemical recycling of scrap composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

  12. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  13. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...... the impacts on the external environment from recycling...

  14. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  15. Recycling in Schools: From Fad to Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J. Winston

    1991-01-01

    Numerous business issues arise when organizing a school recycling program. Important questions include the appropriate program organization, deciding what materials to recycle, the selection of appropriate business partners, and various financial issues. Offers suggestions for achieving a successful recycling program. (MLF)

  16. 78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Second World Wars, Americans showed their patriotism by participating in scrap drives and salvage... our health and harm our environment if not recycled properly. Recycling not only reduces pollution... the world around us. In our homes, offices, and schools, let us strive to make recycling a part of...

  17. Greener routes for recycling of polyethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the different routes for recycling of polyethylene terephthalate. Chemical recycling processes are divided into six groups: methanolysis, glycolysis, hydrolysis, ammonolysis, aminolysis, and other methods. In a large collection of researches for the chemical recycling of PET, the primary objective is to increase the monomer yield while reducing the reaction time and/or carrying out the reaction under mild conditions. This article also presents the impact of the new recyclable catalysts such as ionic liquids on the future developments in the chemical recycling of PET.

  18. Some Problems of Recycling Industrial Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; LU Zhong-wu; YUE Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The industrial system should learn from the natural ecosystem.The resource utilization efficiency should be increased and the environmental load should be decreased,depending on the materials recycled in the system.The classification of industrial materials from the viewpoint of large-scale recycling was stated.Recycling of materials,on three different levels,was introduced in the industrial system.The metal flow diagram in the life cycle of products,in the case of no materials recycled,materials partially recycled,and materials completely recycled,was given.The natural resource conservation and the waste emission reduction were analyzed under the condition of materials completely recycled.The expressions for the relation between resource efficiency and material recycling rate,and the relation between eco-effieiency and material recycling rate were derived,and the curves describing the relationship between them were protracted.The diagram of iron flow in the life cycle of iron and steel products in China,in 2001,was given,and the iron resource efficiency,material recycling rate,and iron coo-efficiency were analyzed.The variation of iron resource efficiency with the material recycling rate was analyzed for two different production ratios.

  19. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  20. Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies and Recycled Asphalt Pavements in Truckee Meadows, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Montecino, Cristian

    This study evaluated the properties and laboratory-performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixtures with different levels of Recycled Asphalt Pavements (RAP) content: none for control mixtures, around 15% by dry weight of aggregates, and more than 30% by dry weight of aggregates. The rheological properties were evaluated for virgin and recovered RAP asphalt binders. The target amount of RAP in the mixtures was determined by using Blending Charts and Mortar Experiments. The mixtures are design through the guidelines established in Marshall Mix Design Method considering additional modifications for RAP and WMA from Superpave Mix Design. The mixtures are evaluated for their resistance to moisture damage by means of measuring the Dynamic Modulus |E*| after three freeze/thaw cycles and the indirect tensile strength after one and three freeze/thaw cycles. The resistance of the mixtures to permanent deformation was also evaluated by using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT) to measure the flow number (FN). For this study, it was determined that the resistance to moisture damage decreases as the number of freeze/thaw cycles increases for most of the evaluated mixtures. Mixtures exhibited an increase in dynamic modulus as the RAP percentage increased. A decrease in the resistance to moisture damage was detected with the increase in RAP content for most of the mixtures. HMA mixtures exhibited a better performance in rutting than the WMA mixtures. An increase in rutting resistance was observed with the increase in RAP percentage for HMA mixtures whereas an inconsistent trend was observed for WMA mixtures. Further study is needed to validate the use of the high percentage of RAP in Washoe County.

  1. Recyclable and Green Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Han, Linhong; Yi, Fang; Ma, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A recyclable and green triboelectronic nanogenerator (TENG) is developed based on triboelectrification and designed cascade reactions. Once triggered by water, the TENG can fully dissolve and degrade into environmentally benign end products. With features of rapid dissolution, reproductivity, and green electronic, the TENG has potential of serving as clearable energy harvester and nanosensor for health monitoring and motion sensing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  3. Life cycle and textiles recycling

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Within the vision of development of European textile and clothing industry for 2020 from the standpoint of the European Technology Platform (ETP), the paper analyzes a segment which includes life cycle and recycling of textiles. It is the fact that the complexity of new textile and clothing product has caused the development of new-higher standards. For this reason in development of highly innovative products, today is included also quality assurance during his whole life cycle starting from ...

  4. Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ashley; Gregoire, Mary; Rasmussen, Heather; Witowich, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Commercial institutions have many factors to consider when implementing an effective recycling program. This study examined the effectiveness of three different types of recycling bins on recycling accuracy by determining the percent weight of recyclable material placed in the recycling bins, comparing the percent weight of recyclable material by type of container used, and examining whether a change in signage increased recycling accuracy. Data were collected over 6 weeks totaling 30 days from 3 different recycling bin types at a Midwest University medical center. Five bin locations for each bin type were used. Bags from these bins were collected, sorted into recyclable and non-recyclable material, and weighed. The percent recyclable material was calculated using these weights. Common contaminates found in the bins were napkins and paper towels, plastic food wrapping, plastic bags, and coffee cups. The results showed a significant difference in percent recyclable material between bin types and bin locations. Bin type 2 was found to have one bin location to be statistically different (p=0.048), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin in that location. Bin type 3 had significantly lower percent recyclable material (precycling bin and increased contamination due to the combination of commingled and paper into one bag. There was no significant change in percent recyclable material in recycling bins post signage change. These results suggest a signage change may not be an effective way, when used alone, to increase recycling compliance and accuracy. This study showed two or three-compartment bins located next to a trash bin may be the best bin type for recycling accuracy.

  5. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  6. The recycling industries : a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, L. [CARI, Almonte, ON (Canada); Lakshmanan, V.I. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The economic and environmental benefits that the recycling sector has to offer in terms of resource conservation benefits was discussed with particular focus on the synergies that exist between major mining and metallurgical industries and end users. The main objective of recycling is to conserve natural resources, reducing primary process waste as well as air and water effluent generated by these processes. Recycling provides energy conservation, creates jobs and reduces the demand for sanitary landfills. The main concerns that exist within the recycling industry is the government's actions through laws, regulations and taxes which sometimes discourage recycling. The need for the public to become more informed about the benefits of recycling was emphasized. It was also noted that manufacturers should consider the final disposition of a product in their product design and manufacture. 1 tab.

  7. Recyclability of PET from virgin resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini Sandro Donnini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle grade virgin PET (polyethylene terephthalate resin was investigated through five consecutive injection molding steps to simulate recycling cycles. Tests were carried out after each recycling to evaluate degradation, crystallinity (by density and Differential Scanning Calorimetry-DSC measurements, hardness, and tensile and flexural properties. Consecutive recycling resulted in cumulative chain breaks caused by the material's contact with degrading agents such as temperature, oxygen, mechanical stresses, light, and water. In the fifth recycling step, for example, the number of carboxylic end groups, an indicator of the extent of chain-break, tripled in comparison to the initial molecule. The smaller chains that were formed fit more easily among the larger ones, thus increasing the percentage of crystalline phase in the structure. These two changes in the polymer's structure explained the recycled products' final properties, i.e., the injected samples became progressively harder and more fragile in each recycling step.

  8. Carbon Revenue Recycling - Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Simonova; Rock Lefebvre

    2009-01-01

    Environmental policy instruments that generate budget revenues may become an increasingly attractive policy option for Canada's federal government due to amplified fiscal pressures. If that is the case, revenue recycling is an essential element of pricing carbon. This paper present a brief overview of benefits of recycling carbon revenues and the challenges that may be encountered when choosing a specific option for revenue recycling. The analysis shows that the existing research leaves the o...

  9. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    On their journey over large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation–evaporation cycles (recycling events). We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, the frequency distribution of recycling events is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distingu...

  10. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with Power Recycling and Twin Signal Recycling cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gräf, Christian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled. In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michel...

  11. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  12. Public Perception of Strategies for Increasing Participation in Recycling Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamwange, Monica

    1996-01-01

    Assesses public perception of selected strategies for increasing participation in city recycling programs: increasing the level of knowledge about recycling, using effective channels to inform the community about recycling, increasing the convenience of recycling by placing recycling containers in accessible locations, and getting input from the…

  13. Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930), along with the Transuranic Processing Facility (7920). comprise the Radiochemical Engineering Development Complex. 7930 is a...

  14. Gold recycling; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, Earle B.

    2000-01-01

    This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

  15. An Investigation on Thermal Recycling of Recycled Plastic Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Ryuji; Miura, Katsuya; Ishino, Yojiro; Ohiwa, Norio

    Thermal recycling of recycled plastic resin is focused in this investigation. Fine grinding of plastic resin and preparation of high temperature oxidizing atmosphere are indispensable for effective and successful burn-up of plastic resin. Polyethylene terephthalate resin powder is employed and high temperature oxidizing atmosphere is generated downstream an annular burner. Through a circular nozzle set coaxially in the closed bottom end of the annular burner, PET-powder and propane-air mixture are issued vertically upward into the high temperature oxidizing atmosphere. Temperature and O2 concentration fields downstream the annular burner are first examined by varying the circular jet equivalence ratio with the air flow rate kept constant and without PET-powder supply. PET-powder having a mass-median diameter of either 89.7µm or 145µm is then issued into the high temperature region along with propane-air mixture by varying the PET-powder mass flow rate. Appearances of the PET-powder flame are observed using a high-speed CCD video camera and unburnt PET particles are traced during their passages in the high temperature region. Variation of O2 concentration fields due to PET-powder combustion is also measured in the PET flame. According to the results, overall limit conditions for effective burn-up of PET-powder are finally discussed.

  16. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  17. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse.

  18. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  19. Recycling of typical supercapacitor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermisoglou, Eleni C; Giannouri, Maria; Todorova, Nadia; Giannakopoulou, Tatiana; Lekakou, Constantina; Trapalis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    A simple, facile and low-cost method for recycling of supercapacitor materials is proposed. This process aims to recover some fundamental components of a used supercapacitor, namely the electrolyte salt tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) dissolved in an aprotic organic solvent such as acetonitrile (ACN), the carbonaceous material (activated charcoal, carbon nanotubes) purified, the current collector (aluminium foil) and the separator (paper) for further utilization. The method includes mechanical shredding of the supercapacitor in order to reduce its size, and separation of aluminium foil and paper from the carbonaceous resources containing TEABF4 by sieving. The extraction of TEABF4 from the carbonaceous material was based on its solubility in water and subsequent separation through filtering and distillation. A cyclic voltammetry curve of the recycled carbonaceous material revealed supercapacitor behaviour allowing a potential reutilization. Furthermore, as BF4(-) stemming from TEABF4 can be slowly hydrolysed in an aqueous environment, thus releasing F(-) anions, which are hazardous, we went on to their gradual trapping with calcium acetate and conversion to non-hazardous CaF2.

  20. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

    2013-03-01

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  1. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  2. optimization of the development of a plastic recycling machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    machine and shows that at a speed of 268 rpm the machine functions effectively ... Keywords: recycling machine, plastics-recycling, recyclability/efficiency, throughput/capacity, ...... cycling such as the sorting and cleaning should be efficient so ...

  3. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

  4. Non-Recycled Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Lorimer, Duncan R; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Turk, Philip J; Ransom, Scott M

    2011-01-01

    We place limits on the population of non-recycled pulsars originating in globular clusters through Monte Carlo simulations and frequentist statistical techniques. We set upper limits on the birth rates of non-recycled cluster pulsars and predict how many may remain in the clusters, and how many may escape the cluster potentials and enter the field of the Galaxy.

  5. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the tre

  6. Recycled Pulsars: Spins, Masses and Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Recycled pulsars are mainly characterized by their spin periods, B-fields and masses. All these quantities are affected by previous interactions with a companion star in a binary system. Therefore, we can use these quantities as fossil records and learn about binary evolution. Here, I briefly review the distribution of these observed quantities and summarize our current understanding of the pulsar recycling process.

  7. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... the product lifecycle--from design and manufacturing through their use and eventual recycling... progress and to drawing attention to further developments, including the recycling of electronic products... disposal of these products. Currently, most discarded consumer electronics end up in our landfills or are...

  8. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  9. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical wire

  10. The Effectiveness of Dutch Municipal Recycling Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The EU advocates a household waste recycling rate of more than 70%. Although the Netherlands already years ago invested in recycling policies heavily, this is still a large challenge as nowadays on average this rate is approximately 50% and nearly no municipalities

  11. Recycling Today Makes for a Better Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raze, Robert E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Today's children must be educated about solid waste management and recycling to reduce the amount of waste that goes into landfills. The article describes what can be recycled (newspapers, corrugated cardboard, paper, glass, aluminum, textiles, motor oil, organic wastes, appliances, steel cans, and plastics). It also lists student environment…

  12. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical wire

  13. Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Summary V Chapter?Summary Many membrane proteins are, after endocytic uptake, efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to determine pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in recycling. Plasma membrane-derived clathrin-coated v

  14. Greenelec: Product design linked to recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkenende, R.; Occhionorelli, V.; Van Meensel, W.; Felix, J.; Sjölin, S.; Aerts, M.; Huisman, J.; Becker, J.; Van Schaik, A.; Reuter, M.

    2014-01-01

    GreenElec aims to significantly improve on the resource efficiency of electronics and electronic products. This is accomplished by close cooperation between manufacturers and recyclers. Design guidelines for improved recycling have been formulated and products (lamps and displays) have been redesign

  15. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, S.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing wi

  16. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  17. Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Summary V Chapter?Summary Many membrane proteins are, after endocytic uptake, efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to determine pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in recycling. Plasma membrane-derived clathrin-coated

  18. WATER RESISTANCE OF RECYCLED PAPER PANEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rani Suryandono

    2017-06-01

    Alice Wisler (2015 Facts about Recycling Paper. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Facts_About_Recycling_Paper. Accessed 2 April 2016 Clay Miller (2011 5 Benefits of Recycling Paper. http://www.ways2gogreenblog.com/2011/09/28/5-benefits-of-recycling-paper/. Accessed 10 May 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Grades of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/grade.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Properties of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/paperpro.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Kathryn Sukalich (2016 Everything You Need to Know about Paper Recycling. http://earth911.com/business-policy/business/paper-recycling-details-basics/. Accessed 15 July 2016 [U1] Larry West (2015 Why Recycle Paper. http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/The-Benefits-Of-Paper-Recycling-Why-Recycle-Paper.htm. Accesed 15 June 2016 Marie-Luise Blue (2008 The Advantages of Recycling Paper. http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-recycling-paper-3440.html. Accessed 15 June 2016 Nina Spitzer (2009 http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/810025/the-impact-of-disposable-coffee-cups-on-the-environment. Accessed 15 June 2016 Radio New Zealand (2010 Iwi not Giving Up Fight against Tasman Mill Discharges. http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/regional/64521/iwi-not-giving-up-fight-against-tasman-mill-discharges. Accessed 15 July 2016 Rick LeBlanc (2016 Paper Recycling Facts, Figures and Information Sources. https://www.thebalance.com/paper-recycling-facts-figures-and-information-sources-2877868?_ga=1.192832942.544061388.1477446686. Accesed 2 April 2016 Robinson Meyer (2016 Will More Newspapers Go Nonprofit? http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/newspapers-philadelphia-inquirer-daily-news-nonprofit-lol-taxes/423960/. Accessed 3 August 2016 School of Engineering at Darthmouth (2010 Forest and Paper Industry. http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/Paper.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2016 T. Subramani, V. Angappan. (2015. Experimental Investigation of Papercrete Concrete

  19. Linguistic recycling in typical and atypical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    I present evidence that linguistic "recycling" - i.e., the redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during conversation - is a striking and prevalent feature not only of interaction between typical speakers, but also, and notably, of interaction involving the communication impaired. In the latter case, recycling may sometimes be used as a compensatory communicative resource when linguistic ability is compromised. Despite its prevalence, however, recycling has largely been ignored by clinical linguists. In addition to providing illustrations of linguistic recycling across a range of communication disorders, I also examine how it is subserved by phenomena such as priming, short-term memory and alignment. I subsequently argue for a shift in perspective that puts recycling at the heart of our perception of how typical and atypical interaction works, and suggest a number of potential benefits for clinical linguistics, ranging from the way we understand and analyse communication disorders to how we assess and treat them.

  20. Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2008-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

  1. Waste Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Recycling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chao; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Hui, David Chi Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    With the development of technologies and the change of consumer attitudes, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is increasing annually. As the core part of WEEE, the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) is a dangerous waste but at the same time a rich resource for various kinds of materials. In this work, various WPCB treatment methods as well as WPCB recycling techniques divided into direct treatment (landfill and incineration), primitive recycling technology (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and primitive full recovery of NMF-non metallic fraction), and advanced recycling technology (mechanical separation, direct use and modification of NMF) are reviewed and analyzed based on their advantages and disadvantages. Also, the evaluation criteria are discussed including economic, environmental, and gate-to-market ability. This review indicates the future research direction of WPCB recycling should focus on a combination of several techniques or in series recycling to maximize the benefits of process.

  2. Recycling under a material balance constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, Karen [ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research, ZUE F14, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Amigues, Jean-Pierre [INRA/University of Toulouse, Universite des Sciences Sociales, INRA (IDEI and LERNA), 21 Allee de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Kuhn, Thomas [Chemnitz University of Technology, Department of Economics, TU Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper we analyze the dynamic implications of recycling for resource use, the level of economic activity and the long-run development of the economy. In contrast to former approaches, we take explicit account of the circulation of matter in the economy. We consider virgin resources and recycled wastes as essential inputs to production. These material inputs either end up as waste after consumption or are bound in the capital stock - depending on the utilization of the produced output. As accumulating wastes can be recycled and again be employed in production, the waste stock serves as a source of valuable inputs in our model. We focus on the implications of recycling-related market failures and the integration of material balances on the dynamics of the economy. It is shown that a market for waste and subsidies to resource extractors and recycling firms can restore optimality in the decentralized economy. (author)

  3. Design analysis: Understanding e-waste recycling by generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Wakkary, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand e-waste recycling behavior of Generation Y. It presents a pilot study that explores this generation’s e-waste recycling practices, their attitudes towards ewaste recycling, and the barriers to e-waste recycling. The findings reveal the complexity of the actual e-waste recycling behavior, many participants in this study hold a positive attitude towards e-waste recycling, yet there is a shortage of convenient recycling options and e-waste recycling information. Bas...

  4. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  5. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  6. Processing solid propellants for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whinnery, L.L.; Griffiths, S.K.; Handrock, J.L.; Lipkin, J.

    1994-05-01

    Rapid evolution in the structure of military forces worldwide is resulting in the retirement of numerous weapon systems. Many of these systems include rocket motors containing highly energetic propellants based on hazardous nitrocellulose/nitroglycerin (NC/NG) mixtures. Even as the surplus quantities of such material increases, however, current disposal methods -- principally open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) -- are coming under close scrutiny from environmental regulators. Environmentally conscious alternatives to disposal of propellant and explosives are thus receiving renewed interest. Recycle and reuse alternatives to OB/OD appear particularly attractive because some of the energetic materials in the inventories of surplus weapon systems represent potentially valuable resources to the commercial explosives and chemical industries. The ability to reclaim such resources is therefore likely to be a key requirement of any successful technology of the future in rocket motor demilitarization. This document consists of view graphs from the poster session.

  7. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  8. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica T. Perrier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2 collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  9. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1986-01-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients...... with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery...... are explained by the reappearance of peripheral vasoregulatory mechanisms. Postreconstructive hyperemia was evaluated by the same technique. The changes in SBF following surgery in the positions supine, awake and supine, asleep were found to be insignificant (0.80 less than p less than 0.90). It is concluded...

  10. Remission and rheumatoid arthritis: Data on patients receiving usual care in twenty-four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Hetland, Merete Lund; Mäkinen, Heidi;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of different definitions of remission in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) database, which (as of January 2008) included 5...... exercise were statistically significantly associated with remission. CONCLUSION: The use of different definitions of RA remission leads to different results with regard to remission rates, with considerable variation among countries and between sexes. Reported remission rates in clinical trials...

  11. Twenty-four near-instabilities of Caspar-Klug viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, François; Peeters, Kasper; Taormina, Anne

    2008-09-01

    Group theoretical arguments combined with normal mode analysis techniques are applied to a coarse-grained approximation of icosahedral viral capsids which incorporates areas of variable flexibility. This highlights a remarkable structure of the low-frequency spectrum in this approximation, namely, the existence of a plateau of 24 near zero modes with universal group theory content.

  12. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Four "XIONGBI" (CHEST PAIN) SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongying; Guo Ling; Shang Xiukui

    2001-01-01

    @@ "Xiongbi" chest (or precordial) pain with stuffiness, or chest pain syndrome is referred to choking pain in the chest due to stagnation of chest -yang, failure of qi and blood in warming and nourishing the local meridians. It is usually caused by stagnation of dampness and phlegm in the interior, or by insufficiency of qi and blood stasis, leading to impeded flow of qi and blood in the heart vessels. Its pathological characteristics are deficiency (chest-yang) in origin and excess (i. e., qi stagnation) in superficiality. The therapeutic principles are promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, getting rid of blockage and dredging the passages of yang-qi.

  13. Remission and rheumatoid arthritis: Data on patients receiving usual care in twenty-four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Hetland, Merete Lund; Mäkinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of different definitions of remission in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) database, which (as of January 2008) included 5...

  14. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: The PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, M.A. van; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS: We analyzed data of 3997

  15. Autistic children grow up: an eight to twenty-four year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, L; Goldberg, B

    1986-08-01

    Eighty questionnaires were sent to parents and/or caregivers of autistic persons diagnosed between 1960-73 at CPRI, a regional assessment and treatment centre. The objective was to determine their present place of residence, functioning ability, language development, program involvement, and seizure activity. The results of this study support evidence that more than 50 percent require long-term institutional care; almost one-third suffer epileptic seizures; there is a persistence of symptoms and difficulty in gaining useful speech; few live independently or are capable of employment.

  16. Twenty-four-hour intraocular pressure patterns in a symptomatic patient after ab interno trabeculotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaweh Mansouri,1 Felipe A Medeiros,2 Robert N Weinreb2 1Glaucoma Sector, Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: We report the results of repeated ambulatory continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP monitoring with a contact lens sensor (CLS in a glaucoma patient with ocular pain after ab interno trabeculotomy (Trabectome™ surgery. Our findings show that a combined prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment reduced nighttime IOP peaks and relieved the patient’s symptoms. Keywords: 24-hour, Trabectome contact lens sensor, prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment

  17. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  18. Twenty-four hour radioactive iodine uptake in 35 patients with amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, E.; Aghini-Lombardi, F.; Lippi, F.; Baschieri, L.; Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.; Pinchera, A.

    1985-12-01

    Amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis (AAT) occurs in approximately 10% of patients treated with this iodine rich drug in areas of mild iodine deficiency. The thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) is usually undetectable or very low in iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. In the present study, 35 patients with AAT were evaluated. Twelve patients had no thyroid abnormalities by physical exam and all had 24-hr RAIU less than or equal to 4%. In contrast, nine of 11 patients with AAT and diffuse goiters and eight of 12 patients with AAT and nodular goiters had RAIU values greater than 8%. In patients with AAT and goiter it appears possible that the thyroid fails to adapt normally to the excess iodide load, resulting in an inappropriately high RAIU in the presence of excess plasma iodine.

  19. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  20. Twenty-Four-Hour Mobility During Acute Hospitalization in Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Merete; Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Petersen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inactivity during hospitalization in older medical patients may lead to functional decline. This study quantified 24-hour mobility, validated the accelerometers used, and assessed the daily level of basic mobility in acutely admitted older medical patients during their hospitalization...

  1. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelnes, R.

    1986-08-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery during day activities. During sleep, however, SBF increased by 80% (p less than 0.001). The relative changes in SBF from day to night at the postoperative examination did not differ from that of the control group, i.e., the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern had been obtained. These changes in SBF are explained by the reappearance of peripheral vasoregulatory mechanisms. Postreconstructive hyperemia was evaluated by the same technique. The changes in SBF following surgery in the positions supine, awake and supine, asleep were found to be insignificant (0.80 less than p less than 0.90). It is concluded that the long-term postreconstructive hyperemia merely is a reflection of the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern.

  2. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension : the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, Susanne M. A. J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Engberink, Marielle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women.Methods:We analyzed data of 3997 men

  3. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, van M.A.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS:: We analyzed data of 399

  4. Twenty-Four Veterinary Anatomic Fibs, Half-Truths, and Misleading Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael Jay

    1979-01-01

    A number of statements about well-established information in veterinary anatomy are debated and refuted: (1) sesamoid bones change the direction of tendons, (2) tendons are composed of collagenous connective tissue, (3) anal glands are synonymous with anal sacs, (4) reciprocal apparatus is part of stay apparatus, etc. (Author/MLW)

  5. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raouf S; Carroll, John L; Jeffries, Jenny L; Grone, Charles; Bean, Judy A; Chini, Barbara; Bokulic, Ronald; Daniels, Stephen R

    2004-04-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent elevation of systemic blood pressure (BP) during sleep. To determine whether obstructive apnea in children has a tonic effect on diurnal BP, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained from 60 children with mean age of 10.8 +/- 3.5 years. Thirty-nine children had obstructive apnea and 21 had primary snoring. Children with obstructive apnea had significantly greater mean BP variability during wakefulness and sleep, a higher night-to-day systolic BP, and a smaller nocturnal dipping of mean BP. Variability of mean arterial pressure during wakefulness was predicted by the desaturation, body mass, and arousal indices, whereas variability during sleep was predicted by apnea-hypopnea and body mass indices. Nocturnal BP dipping was predicted by the desaturation index. There were no significant differences in systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial BP during sleep between the groups. Diastolic BP during wakefulness was significantly different between the groups and correlated negatively with apnea-hypopnea index. We conclude that obstructive apnea in children is associated with 24-hour BP dysregulation and that, independent of obesity, the frequency of obstructive apnea, oxygen desaturation, and arousal contributes to abnormal BP control.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-four. Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Michigan governing the regulation of public energy facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. 77 FR 47631 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments on Twenty-Four Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...: NSPS for Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities (40 CFR Part 60, Subpart HHH). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR..., 2012. (9) NSPS for Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities (40 CFR Part 60, Subpart HHH); Learia Williams... Part 60, Subpart HHH); Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OECA-2012-0528; EPA ICR Number 1156.12; OMB...

  8. A Twenty-Four-Year-Old Woman with Left Flank Lipoma-Like Hibernoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Shackelford

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of a left flank mass that was painful on palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 10.0 × 6.0 × 2.5 cm mass consistent with lipoma. A fatty lobulated mass was excised and subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemical analyses. The specimen consisted of mature univacuolated adipocytic cells, with intermixed multivacuolated eosinophilic granular cells. No atypia or hyperchromasia was identified. Most of the cells were S100 positive and Ki-67 immunonegative. A diagnosis of a lipoma-like hibernoma was rendered. Hibernomas are rare benign lipomatous tumors that show differentiation toward brown fat. The lipoma-like hibernoma subtype is rare and can be misdiagnosed as atypical lipoma or well-differentiated liposarcoma. Here we describe an example of this rare tumor.

  9. Twenty-four years of follow-up for a Hanford plutonium wound case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H; Lynch, Timothy P; Antonio, Cheryl L; Medina-Del Valle, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    A 1985 plutonium puncture wound resulted in the initial deposition of 48 kBq of transuranic alpha activity, primarily 239+240Pu and 241Am, in a worker's right index finger. Surgical excisions in the week following reduced the long-term residual wound activity to 5.4 kBq, and 164 DTPA chelation therapy administrations over 17 mo resulted in urinary excretion of about 7 kBq. The case was published in 1988, but now 24 y of follow-up data are available. Annual bioassays have included in-vivo measurements of 241Am in the wound, skeleton, liver, lung, and axillary lymph nodes, and urinalyses for plutonium and 241Am. These measurements have shown relatively stable levels of 241Am at the wound site, with gradually increasing amounts of 241Am detected in the skeleton. Liver measurements have shown erratic detection of 241Am, and the lung measurements indicate Am but as interference from activity in the axillary lymph nodes and skeleton rather than activity in the lung. Urine excretion of Pu since termination of chelation therapy has typically ranged from 10 to 20 mBq d, with Am excretion about 10% of that for 239+240Pu. Annual routine medical exams have not identified any adverse health effects associated with the intake.

  10. Optical properties of polypropylene upon recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Felice; Pantani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  11. Exploring metal recycling business in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, K. [DOWA Environmental Management Co., Ltd., Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2007-07-01

    Recycling activities related to the copper smelting process in China were discussed. Although China is a key player in terms of resource circulation in the world, the lack of proper recycling capabilities has hindered the growth of a recycling industry in China. A recycling network established by DOWA Environmental Management was established by contracting with Chinese smelters and refineries. This paper also provided details of recent recycling initiatives, metal scrap processes, industrial waste treatment processes, and soil remediation programs recently initiated in the country. The study concluded by suggesting that the trade of recycling materials must not remain one-sided between China and other developed countries. The high demand for natural resources in Brazil, Russia, India and China can be used as an incentive to increase recycling processes on a wider scale. A pilot project is now being planned by DOWA to establish an international network to collect and transfer used cellular phones to Japan for resource recovery. The company will research and evaluate feasible collection schemes for each participating country. The project may be expanded to include other products. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice De Santis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  13. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005

  14. CHALLENGES FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES IN RECYCLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lothar Reh

    2006-01-01

    Increasing population and individual wealth have led to a higher demand for energy and raw material resources as well as for steady improvement of processing technology in view of efficient use of resources and avoiding emissions in production and recycling processes. Present situation and future trend of recycling processing are discussed by examples from the aluminium and steel industries, recycling of cars and post-consumer municipal recovery.The importance of more intense observance of thermodynamic laws and of a 4E strategy "Economy, Energy, Environment and Education" is outlined.

  15. Breaking the COPI monopoly on Golgi recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie, B; Pepperkok, R; Nilsson, T

    2000-09-01

    The unexpected discovery of a transport pathway from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) independent of COPI coat proteins sheds light on how Golgi resident enzymes and protein toxins gain access to the ER from as far as the trans Golgi network. This new pathway provides an explanation for how membrane is recycled to allow for an apparent concentration of anterograde cargo at distinct stages of the secretory pathway. As signal-mediated COPI-dependent recycling also involves the concentration of resident proteins into retrograde COPI vesicles, the main bulk of lipids must be recycled, possibly through a COPI-independent pathway.

  16. The continued quest to better recycling behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : ?never really thought about it? (23 and 7%), ?not enough materials to recycle? (21 and 14%) and ?too much effort? (16 and 7%) (Perrin and Barton 2001). In the Robinson and Read (2005) study, almost 60% of the respondents indicated a lack of awareness... of services as a reason for not recycling. Other reasons for non-recycling, with indication of the percentage responses are: disinterest 14.3%; lack of time 8.2%; inadequate provision/poor service 7.2%; lack of storage space 6.5%; and, insufficient waste 3...

  17. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-09-01

    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  18. Ascorbate recycling in human neutrophils: Induction by bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaohui; Russo, Thomas A.; Kwon, Oran; Chanock, Stephen; Rumsey, Steven C.; Levine, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Ascorbate (vitamin C) recycling occurs when extracellular ascorbate is oxidized, transported as dehydroascorbic acid, and reduced intracellularly to ascorbate. We investigated microorganism induction of ascorbate recycling in human neutrophils and in microorganisms themselves. Ascorbate recycling was determined by measuring intracellular ascorbate accumulation. Ascorbate recycling in neutrophils was induced by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and the fungal pathogen C...

  19. Exploring the recycling dilemma: consumer motivation and experiences in mandatory garbage recycling programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Smeesters, Dirk; Warlop, Luk; Vanden Abeele, Pierre; Ratneshwar, S

    1999-01-01

    Household recycling is conceptualized as a social dilemma in which households have a choice between cooperative and defective options. Promoting cooperative choice in the recycling dilemma has emerged as an important issue for social marketing in recent years. Most of the available insights that could guide policy makers in designing appropriate social marketing strategies are based on research conducted in the context of voluntary recycling programs. Increasingly social marketing action take...

  20. Recycling industrial architecture : the redefinition of the recycling principles in the context of sustainable architectural design

    OpenAIRE

    Šijaković, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the elucidation of the concept of architectural recycling as an environmentally sustainable alternative to demolition and preservation. More precisely, the research aim relates to the redefinition of recycling design principles in the context of the sustainable architectural design. The process of architectural recycling was placed in the context of a sustainable architectural design, as the global concept of sustainable development is imposed as a general context fo...

  1. ONE – STAGE METAL WASTES RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace is the most efficient installation for recycling of dispersible metal wastes of any alloy. Several constructions have been designed for chips heating and melting, scale recovery, ets.

  2. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  3. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  4. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  5. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal.

  6. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratkovic, Branislava; Popovic, Drazen; Radivojevic, Gordana; Bjelic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling...

  7. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2010-11-15

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  8. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  9. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  10. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  11. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  12. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing) and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental) of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation ...

  13. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  14. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør

    2015-01-01

    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  15. Survey of metallurgical recycling processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemsler, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    In the year 2000, the US will consume about 3.2 x 10/sup 15/ Btu to produce the seven major nonferrous metals Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mg, and Ti. Of this amount, 82% will be used in the production of Al. It is projected that 0.6 x 10/sup 15/ Btu will be saved by the recycle of secondary metals. Major opportunities for increasing the extent of recycle and thereby increasing the energy savings are discussed. An inherent feature in the energistics of recycle is that physical processes such as magnetic separation, density separations, melting, and in some instances vaporization are far less energy intensive than are chemical processes associated with dissolution and electrowinning. It is in the domain of scrap of complex composition and physical form, difficult to handle by existing technology, that opportunities exist for new chemical recycle technology. Recycle of scrap metal of adequate grade is currently achieved through pyrometallurgical processes which, in many cases, are not very energy intensive as compared with hydrometallurgical processes. Preliminary flowsheets are presented for the recovery of value metals from batteries considered for use in vehicular propulsion and load leveling applications. The battery types examined are lead/acid, nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide, and sodium/sulfur. A flow sheet has been outlined for an integrated hydrometallurgical process to treat low-grade copper scrap. A fully integrated hydrometallurgical process is outlined, and costs and energy consumption are derived, for recovering zinc metal from electric furnace flue dusts. Costs and energy are high and the process does not appear to warrant development at this time. Improvement in the recycle of magnesium is associated primarily with improved recycle in the Al industry where Mg is an important alloy additive. Ni and Ti recycle are associated with improved collection and sorting of stainless steel and specialty alloys.

  16. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  17. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  18. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, Liu; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  19. Recycling of coal combustion wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Derya; Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin

    2009-05-01

    The separation of unburned carbon from coal-fired power plant bottom ashes was conducted in order to increase the possibility of the recycling of coal combustion wastes. A two-stage flotation technique was used for this study. In the rougher flotation experiments the amounts of collector, dispersant and frother, pulp density, pH, particle size distribution, flotation time and flotation temperature were tested as variables. After rougher flotation experiments, at optimum conditions, the carbon content of the concentrate increased from 13.85 to 51.54% at a carbon recovery of 54.54%. Under the same conditions, the carbon content was reduced to 4.54% at a weight yield of over 80% in the tailings fraction. This fraction meets the industrial specifications and can be utilized as a cement additive. After the cleaner flotation experiment the carbon content of the product was enhanced to 64.81% with a 52.16% carbon recovery. This fraction can be blended back into the coal feed to the power plant boilers.

  20. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  1. Molecular recycling within amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulla, Natàlia; Caddy, Gemma L; Hall, Damien R; Zurdo, Jesús; Gairí, Margarida; Feliz, Miguel; Giralt, Ernest; Robinson, Carol V; Dobson, Christopher M

    2005-07-28

    Amyloid fibrils are thread-like protein aggregates with a core region formed from repetitive arrays of beta-sheets oriented parallel to the fibril axis. Such structures were first recognized in clinical disorders, but more recently have also been linked to a variety of non-pathogenic phenomena ranging from the transfer of genetic information to synaptic changes associated with memory. The observation that many proteins can convert into similar structures in vitro has suggested that this ability is a generic feature of polypeptide chains. Here we have probed the nature of the amyloid structure by monitoring hydrogen/deuterium exchange in fibrils formed from an SH3 domain using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results reveal that under the conditions used in this study, exchange is dominated by a mechanism of dissociation and re-association that results in the recycling of molecules within the fibril population. This insight into the dynamic nature of amyloid fibrils, and the ability to determine the parameters that define this behaviour, have important implications for the design of therapeutic strategies directed against amyloid disease.

  2. The nonlinear relationship between paper recycling and primary pulp requirements : modeling paper production and recycling in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Potting, Josepha

    2004-01-01

    Waste paper is suitable for recycling back into paper or for incineration for energy recovery. If waste paper is used for recycling, secondary pulp replaces virgin pulp. Fiber recycling is limited, however, because of physical constraints—particularly the breakage of fiber in the recycling process—a

  3. The improvement of pavement performance using asphalt rubber hot mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The need of a better pavement performance has led researchers to develop new road materials, mainly for the asphalt layers, where the modification of the asphalt is the main example. This modification usually forces the use of polymers and fibers and, more recently, the use of crumb rubber from ground tires, where the modified asphalt is known as asphalt rubber. This asphalt rubber used in asphalt mixtures produces a superior performance if compared to the asphalt mixtures with...

  4. Forensic investigation into the performance of hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available the rutting and fatigue behaviour of HMA wearing courses in South Africa. The findings of the forensic investigation were used, in conjunction with the outcomes of a state of the art survey, to define the scope of a multi-year HMA research programme currently...

  5. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  6. Recycling BiCG for Model Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Kapil; Chang, Eun R; Gugercin, Serkan

    2010-01-01

    Science and engineering problems frequently require solving a sequence of dual linear systems. Two examples are the Iterative Rational Krylov Algorithm (IRKA) for model reduction and Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods in electronic structure calculations. This paper introduces Recycling BiCG, a BiCG method that recycles two Krylov subspaces from one pair of linear systems to the next pair. We develop an augmented bi-Lanczos algorithm and a modified two-term recurrence to include recycling in the iteration. The recycle spaces are approximate left and right invariant subspaces corresponding to the eigenvalues close to the origin. These recycle spaces are found by solving a small generalized eigenvalue problem alongside the dual linear systems being solved in the sequence. We test our algorithm in two application areas. First, we solve a discretized partial differential equation of convection-diffusion type, because these are well-known model problems. Second, we use Recycling BiCG for the linear systems arising ...

  7. Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, I-L; Eklund, J; Krook, J; Björkman, M; Sundin, E

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist.

  8. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber.

  9. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events. We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last advected across the ocean-land boundary. In case (B recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last evaporated from the ocean. For case B we show by means of a simple scale analysis that, given the conditions on Earth, realistic frequency distributions may be regarded as a mixture of a Poisson distribution and a geometric distribution. By contrast, in case A the Poisson distribution generally appears as a reasonable approximation. This conclusion is consistent with the simulation results of an earlier study where an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water vapor tracers was used. Our results demonstrate that continental moisture recycling can be interpreted as a Poisson process.

  10. The Development of Recycling Agent for Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A type of recycling agent was developed and its use for modifying used asphalt is described.The results show that the viscosity and three main properties of the aged asphalt were remarkably improved.With 5%-7% content of recycling agent, the main properties of recycled asphalt comported with China GB asphalt standard AH-70 and the recycled asphalt concrete could be used as high-grade highway.Furthermore,the recycling mechanism of the aged asphalt is discussed.

  11. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  12. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  13. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  14. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.

  15. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  16. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  17. Urban mining : Recycling gypsum waste in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamley, J.A. [New West Gypsum Recycling Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Wallboard manufacturing, construction and deconstruction activities in North America, Europe and Japan result in large amounts of gypsum scrap, which creates an environmental problem. Disposing of this gypsum scrap in landfills often leads to hydrogen sulfide emissions and metallic sulfide groundwater leachates. Europe has dealt with the problem by enacting legislation that will come into effect in July 2005. The legislation is designed to strongly encourage gypsum recycling throughout entire jurisdictions. It is estimated that approximately 10 to 17 per cent of all gypsum used in the wallboard industry ends up as gypsum scrap. In North America, it represents almost one per cent of total waste. Each year in the United States, between 2.5 and 4.5 million tonnes of gypsum scrap are generated, with numbers very similar to Europe (the higher use of brick and concrete in Europe reduces the percentage of total tonnage). Gypsum has been banned from the landfills of British Columbia's Greater Vancouver region, forcing the recycling of all gypsum scrap. Large quantities of gypsum scrap are processed by New West Recycling, a Canadian firm using proprietary technology. This process leads to the re-incorporation of scrap gypsum into new wallboard, with the percentages sometimes reaching as high as 25 per cent. A case study of New West Recycling Inc., located in Langley, British Columbia was presented and recommendations were made concerning how other urban regions can implement gypsum scrap recycling programs modeled after this one. 6 refs.

  18. Life cycle perspective of plastic recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballhorn, R. [Targeted Research on Waste Minimization and Recycling Project, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Some recent European Union directives on recycling plastics are discussed, with particular reference to the automobile industry, highlighting developing chemical technologies such as selective solution/precipitation approaches, to increase the fraction of high quality recyclates. Some promising technologies, including separation by tribo-electrical charging, sorting by optical means, separation by gasification, dissolution, hydrogenation and co-processing with heavy oil residues are described, with examples involving the conversion of mixed plastic waste by gasification, and the production of PA6 monomer from carpet waste. Conclusion based on study results to date indicate that with regard to 'end of life' vehicles the driving force for dismantling is the recovery of resalable parts and metal, not plastic. Technologies for dismantling are seen as relatively crude. Moreover, the large investment required to construct a full dismantling facility and the lack of a well-developed 'after market' for recycled products makes it unlikely that such a facility will be built in the near future. The most promising way to cope with the economic and ecological challenges appears to be a combination of chemical recycling and energy recovery, accompanied by an aggressive effort to develop the 'after market' for the recycled products. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Building recycling rates through the informal sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Araba, Adebisi O; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-02-01

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  20. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Adamson, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  1. Developing sustainable resource recovery and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapham, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Minerals and Metals Sector

    2003-07-01

    The issues that should be addressed when developing resource recovery and recycling programs and initiatives were highlighted. When well thought out, these initiatives result in substantial increases in the recovery of products and materials at their end-of-life cycle. The issues discussed included design for the environment, consumption patterns, sustainable markets for recovered products, infrastructure, policy mechanisms, and technology. Each issue was examined from a life cycle approach. The author outlined several benefits associated with a resource recovery and recycling program including materials and energy efficiencies, reduced burdens to landfill, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and social implications. The author also presented some examples of Canadian initiatives in the resource recovery and recycling sector. 15 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Carboxymethylcellulose from recycled newspaper in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Cüneyt H

    2013-08-14

    Recycled paper cellulose has some drawbacks, for example loss in mechanical strength, to use in paper industry alone. However, derivatives of cellulose can find applications in other industrial areas. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is one of the most used cellulose derivatives and can be obtained by heterogeneous modification of cellulose. In general carboxymethylation of cellulose achieved in alkaline alcoholic dispersions. In this work modification of cellulose from recycled newspaper in aqueous alkaline solution was aimed. First cellulose was recovered from newspaper under oxidative alkaline conditions. Cellulose recovery was determined as 75-90% (w/w) of starting material. Carboxymethylation reactions were carried out to find optimum conditions for derivatization, changing concentrations of components and reaction temperature. Obtained CMC samples had a DS of 0.3-0.7% and 84-94% CMC content. As a result, carboxymethylation of cellulose from recycled newspaper was achieved in aqueous alkaline dispersion giving commercial grade CMC for industrial use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recycling of magnesium drive train components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel FEGHNER; Carsten BLAWERT; Norbert HORT; Karl Ulrich KAINER

    2009-01-01

    With the development of new heat resistant magnesium alloys, the automotive industry has introduced several parts to the drive train. The rising number of large magnesium components will result in a higher quantity of automotive post consumer scrap. It was the aim of this work to find a reasonable alloy system for the recycling of these magnesium drive train components. A matrix of potential recy-cling alloys based on the magnesium alloy AM50 was prepared via permanent mould casting. The ma-terials were investigated via tensile testing, creep tests and salt spray tests. Three alloys were selected for processing via high pressure die casting and the tests were repeated on the new materials. A promising system for recycling has been isolated and will be investigated more deeply for the influence of impurities.

  4. Recycling of magnesium drive train components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; FECHNER; Carsten; BLAWERT; Norbert; HORT; Karl; Ulrich; KAINER

    2009-01-01

    With the development of new heat resistant magnesium alloys, the automotive industry has introduced several parts to the drive train. The rising number of large magnesium components will result in a higher quantity of automotive post consumer scrap. It was the aim of this work to find a reasonable alloy system for the recycling of these magnesium drive train components. A matrix of potential recy-cling alloys based on the magnesium alloy AM50 was prepared via permanent mould casting. The materials were investigated via tensile testing, creep tests and salt spray tests. Three alloys were selected for processing via high pressure die casting and the tests were repeated on the new materials. A promising system for recycling has been isolated and will be investigated more deeply for the influence of impurities.

  5. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  6. Reverse logistics for recycling: The customer service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer service is a central concern in the logistics practice and a study topic in the forward logistics research. This article investigates the elements of customer service and their importance in reverse logistics for recycling. Since consumer is the first intervenient in any reverse system that aims to recycle household residues, the provision of an adequate customer service gains an increased importance. Applying multivariate statistical methods (exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant analysis to the data from a sample of 267 Portuguese citizens, this study identifies the levels of customer service in this reverse logistics chain and evaluates their relative importance in achieving consumers’ participation. The study finds that, as in forward logistics, the customer service in reverse channels for recycling also has a hard and a soft level, being the former more important than the later. The results of this research suggest important guidelines to improve such a complex logistics service.

  7. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  8. Erasing Data and Recycling of Optical Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fujita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical disks, DVDs and CDs, are convenient recording media on which to safely store data for a long period of time. However, the complete data erasure from recorded media is also important for the security of the data. After erasure of data from optical disks, recycling the material is needed in order to recover the valuable components of the optical disks. Here, data erasure methods for optical disks are discussed in the view of material recycling. The main finding of the study is that the explosion of optical disks in water is a very suitable method for complete erasure of data on the disks as well as recycling of their materials.

  9. Reuse and recycling - reverse logistics opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopicki, R.; Berg, M.J.; Legg, L.

    1993-12-31

    This book is intended to serve as a managerial guide for planning and implementing waste reduction programs. It is based on the premise that proactive management of environmental issues is becoming vital to corporate success, and that these issues are creating new roles and opportunities for logistic professionals. Examined in detail are nonhazardous waste reduction activities; reuse and recycling activities; and source reduction. The book is based on in-depth interviews with seventeen firms and several trade associations acknowledged to be leaders in waste reduction efforts. Topics discussed include adapting inbound supply chains to use more recycled goods; minimizing packaging waste; reverse distribution capabilities for taking back products and packaging; and the use of third party services for recycling, reuse, and source reduction activities. Included are two case analyses of progressive firms like E.I. Dupont Nemours and Home Depot and their waste reduction efforts.

  10. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type...

  11. Testing commercial catalysts in recycle reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle reactors for quality control of catalyst production and for testing new catalysts for known or new processes have the following advantages over tubular reactors: they can reproduce the physical and chemical regime which surrounds the catalyst in a commercial reactor; they can achieve high mass and heat transfer; they exhibit uniform coke deposit; and they provide independence of mass velocity and space velocity. Their disadvantage is the unconventional specification of experiments in terms of discharge concentration which derives from the implicit nature of the basic mathematical relationships. Recycle reactor test methods are outlined for quality control and for testing catalysts, e.g., supported nickel from different manufacturers, for processes whose chemistry is well known. Approaches for testing catalysts for new processes are discussed. The standard recycle reactor developed at Union Carbide Corp. and manufactured by Autoclave Engineers, and several of its modifications are described.

  12. In-Space Recycler Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Rob; Werkheiser, NIKI; Kim, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a 3D printer was installed and used successfully on the International Space Station (ISS), creating the first additively manufactured part in space. While additive manufacturing is a game changing technology for exploration missions, the process still requires raw feedstock material to fabricate parts. Without a recycling capability, a large supply of feedstock would need to be stored onboard, which negates the logistical benefits of these capabilities. Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI), received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award to design and build the first In-space Recycler for demonstration aboard the ISS in 2017. To fully test this technology in microgravity, parts will be 3D printed, recycled into reusable filament, and then reprinted into new parts. Recycling scrap into printer filament is quite challenging in that a recycler must be able to handle a large variety of possible scrap configurations and densities. New challenges include: dealing with inevitable contamination of the scrap material, minimizing damage to the molecular structure of the plastic during reprocessing, managing a larger volume of hot liquid plastic, and exercising greater control over the cooling/resolidification of the material. TUI has developed an architecture that addresses these challenges by combining standard, proven technologies with novel, patented processes developed through this effort. Results show that the filament diameter achieved is more consistent than commercial filament, with only minimal degradation of material properties over recycling steps. In May 2016, TUI completed fabrication of a flight prototype, which will ultimately progress to the demonstration unit for the ISS as a testbed for future exploration missions. This capability will provide significant cost savings by reducing the launch mass and volume required for printer feedstock as well as reduce waste that must be stored or disposed.

  13. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  14. Environmental decision making for recycling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    1997-01-01

    A general method for finding new recycling alternatives in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed wire board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where...... the scrap constitutes the least enviromental problem and where resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed wire board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios....

  15. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  16. Hydrogen recycling in graphite at higher fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D.; Bergsåker, H.; Hedqvist, A.

    Understanding hydrogen recycling is essential for particle control in fusion devices with a graphite wall. At Extrap T2 three different models have been used. A zero-dimensional (0D) recycling model reproduces the density behavior in plasma discharges as well as in helium glow discharge. A more sophisticated one-dimensional (1D) model is used along with a simple mixing model to explain the results in isotopic exchange experiments. Due to high fluxes some changes in the models were needed. In the paper, the three models are discussed and the results are compared with experimental data.

  17. The value of recycling on water conservation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D.

    2013-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, ceiling tiles, compost, and plastic. It will be discussed the use of water in the process of manufacturing these materials and the amount of water that is used. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL it will be discussed the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2010 to the first two quarters of 2013 and how much water this material has saved.

  18. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  19. Incinerate, recycle, or wash and reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to minimize the environmental impact of using a product such as paper? Three debating teams were formed within a university class. One team advocated increased recycling of paper. Another team pointed to evidence showing reduced environmental impact and lower net CO2 emissions if the paper is incinerated rather than recycled. A third team advocated the replacement of paper by items such as porcelain plates and video screens, cutting costs and reducing waste by multiple reuse.

  20. The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-31

    The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. 2015 Subpoena and Information Request from EPA to Mercury Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA issued formal requests for information to five companies believed to be the primary recyclers/retorters and distributors of mercury in the United States to gain a better understanding of the mercury recycling marketplace.

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  3. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  4. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  5. Comparative Study on Mechanical Properties between Pure and Recycled Polypropylenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne L. Juwono

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP is one type of thermoplastics that is widely used in our daily activities. A combination of the high demand and the easiness of recycling process, the recycled PP has been generally applied. In this study, the structure and the mechanical properties of the as-received PPs, recycled PPs, and commercial recycled PPs were compared, especially for cloth hanger application. DSC test results showed that recycling process did not cause a significant change to the material's melting point, which stayed in a range of 160-163 oC. Meanwhile, FTIR test results showed that the commercial recycled PPs contained of Polyethylene (PE, which was not found in the as-received and the recycled PPs. Tensile and hardness tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the as-received and recycled PPs. In contrast, tensile test results of the commercial recycled PPs showed that the tensile strength, Young modulus and strain-at-break were lower than those of the as-received PPs by 22.1%, 8.1% and 65.7% respectively. The hardness test results of the commercial recycled PPs showed that the recycling process had a little effect on the material's hardness. These facts were supported by SEM observation on the surface that the contour of the commercial recycled PPs was relatively flatter and had smaller grain size than those of the as-received PPs. This indicated that the commercial recycled PPs were more brittle compared to the recycled PPs. To conclude, the recycled PPs have similar properties to the as-received PPs so that recycled PPs are suitable to be applied as cloth hanger application.

  6. Sustainable sourcing of strategic raw materials by integrating recycled materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rogetzer, Patricia; Silbermayr, Lena; Jammernegg, Werner

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a manufacturer's sustainable sourcing strategy that includes recycled materials. To produce a short life-cycle electronic good, strategic raw materials can be bought from virgin material suppliers in advance of the season and via emergency shipments, as well as from a recycler. Hence, we take into account virgin and recycled materials from different sources simultaneously. Recycling makes it possible to integrate raw materials out of steadily increa...

  7. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bunched Beam Cooling in the Fermilab Recycler

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, David V; Burov, Alexey; Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic cooling with bunched beam in a linear bucket has been obtained and implemented operationally in the fermilab recycler. In this implementation the particle bunch length is much greater than the cooling system wavelengths. The simultaneous longitudinal bunching enables cooling to much smaller longitudinal emittances than the coasting beam or barrier bucket system. Characteristics and limitations of bunched beam stochastic cooling are discussed.

  9. The A-B-C of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    A general framework for interpreting behaviour as co-determined by attitudes and structural conditions, developed by Guagnano, Stern, and Dietz for the field of environmental psychology but with general applicability, is used to identify determinants of consumers' recycling behaviour, more...

  10. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-01-01

    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  11. The ideomotor recycling theory for language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badets, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    For language acquisition and processing, the ideomotor theory predicts that the comprehension and the production of language are functionally based on their expected perceptual effects (i.e., linguistic events). This anticipative mechanism is central for action-perception behaviors in human and nonhuman animals, but a recent ideomotor recycling theory has emphasized a language account throughout an evolutionary perspective.

  12. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materia...

  13. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

  14. They're plastic, but they recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpain, Shelley

    2006-12-07

    Dendritic spines form and grow during hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In this issue of Neuron, a new study by Park et al. uses both serial reconstruction electron microscopy and time-lapse imaging to show that plasma membrane for such spine expansion is trafficked from recycling endosomes that reside locally at the spines themselves.

  15. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure.

  16. Ceramic foams for Al-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luyten, J.; Vandermeulen, W.; Schutter, F. de [VITO, Materials Technology, Mol (Belgium); Simensen, C. [Sintef, Materials Technology, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys Aluminium, Lichtervelde (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The recycling of Al scrap requires an efficient purification step. In this investigation a filter technique is used to remove intermetallic compounds containing Fe, Mn and Si out of the molten Al. The paper describes the synthesis of the filters, the construction of the filter installation, and the results of the different filter tests. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of pla

  18. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  19. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  20. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  1. New concepts for shaftless recycle reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.; Berty, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Berty Reaction Engineers, Ltd. (BREL) is developing two new laboratory recycle reactors, the ROTOBERTY and the TURBOBERTY. These new reactors are basically improved versions of the original Berty reactor. To understand why the reactors have the features that they do, it is first necessary to briefly review laboratory reactors in general and specifically the original Berty reactor.

  2. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby;

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme...

  3. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  4. Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, I.; Mazilu, C.; Deju, R.

    2016-11-01

    Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates.

  5. Analyzing effective municipal solid waste recycling programs: the case of county-level MSW recycling performance in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen; Berry, Frances S

    2013-09-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling performance, both nationally and in Florida, USA, has shown little improvement during the past decade. This research examines variations in the MSW recycling program performance in Florida counties in an attempt to identify effective recycling programs. After reviewing trends in the MSW management literature, we conducted an empirical analysis using cross-sectional multiple regression analysis. The findings suggest that the convenience-based hypothesis was supported by showing that curbside recycling had a positive effect on MSW recycling performance. Financial (cost-saving) incentive-based hypotheses were partially supported meaning that individual level incentives can influence recycling performance. Citizen environmental concern was found to positively affect the amount of county recycling, while education and political affiliation yielded no significant results. In conclusion, this article discusses the implications of the findings for both academic research and practice of MSW recycling programs.

  6. Phonon Recycling for Ultrasensitive Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    Initially proposed (Day et al. 2003; Zmuidzinas 2012) in 1999 by our Caltech/JPL group, and thanks to strong support from NASA, the superconducting (microwave) kinetic inductance detector (MKID or KID) technology continues to develop rapidly as it transitions into applications. The development effort worldwide is intensifying and NASA's continued support of KID development is essential in order to keep pace. Here we propose to investigate and demonstrate a new, low-TRL concept, which we call phonon recycling, that promises to open broad new avenues in KID design and performance. Briefly, phonon recycling allows the detector designer to tailor the responsivity and sensitivity of a KID to match the needs of the application by using geometry to restrict the rate at which recombination phonons are allowed to escape from the detector. In particular, phonon recycling should allow very low noise-equivalent power (NEP) to be achieved without requiring very low operating tem- peratures. Phonon recycling is analogous to the use of micromachined suspension legs to control the flow of heat in a bolometer, as measured by the thermal conductivity G. However, phonon recycling exploits the non-thermal distribution of recombination phonons as well as their very slow decay in crystals at low temperatures. These properties translate to geometrical and mechanical requirements for a phonon-recycled KID that are considerably more relaxed than for a bolometer operating at the same temperature and NEP. Our ultimate goal is to develop detector arrays suitable for a far-infrared (FIR) space mission, which will impose strict requirements on the array sensitivity, yield, uniformity, multiplexing density, etc. Through previous NASA support under the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, we have successfully demonstrated the MAKO submillimeter camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and have become familiar with these practical issues. If our demonstration of phonon recycling

  7. A tale of five cities: Using recycling frameworks to analyse inclusive recycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Simpson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    'Recycling' is a source of much confusion, particularly when comparing solid waste systems in high-income countries with those in low- and middle-income countries. Few analysts can explain why the performance and structure of recycling appears to be so different in rich countries from poor ones, nor why well-meaning efforts to implement recycling so often fail. The analysis of policy drivers, and the Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) framework, come close to an explanation.This article builds on these earlier works, focusing in on five cities profiled in the 2010 UN-Habitat publication (Scheinberg A, Wilson DC and Rodic L (2010) Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities. UN-Habitat's Third Global Report on the State of Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities. Newcastle-on-Tyne, UK: Earthscan Publications). Data from these cities and others provides the basis for developing a new tool to analyse inclusive recycling performance. The points of departure are the institutional and economic relationships between the service chain, the public obligation to remove waste, pollution, and other forms of disvalue, and the value chain, a system of private enterprises trading valuable materials and providing markets for recyclables. The methodological innovation is to use flows of materials and money as indicators of institutional relationships, and is an extension of process flow diagramming.The authors are using the term 'recycling framework analysis' to describe this new form of institutional analysis. The diagrams increase our understanding of the factors that contribute to high-performance inclusive recycling. By focusing on institutional relationships, the article seeks to improve analysis, planning, and ultimately, outcomes, of recycling interventions.

  8. PET Recycling Behavior of consumers in Lahore, Pakistan, Available knowledge and general attitudes, Impact on recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, van der, R.W.; , Usman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lahore, Pakistan is one of the most populated and hottest regions of the world. Due to long summers beverages consumption is generally high leading to an increase in consumption of beverage PET bottles. There is a huge amount of municipal waste which is not being recycled and as a result it ends up in land refills. Through a survey I have tried to figure out that how different factors like income level, educational level, recycling facility, knowledge and incentives influence recycli...

  9. Porosity of the recycled concrete with substitution of recycled concrete aggregate. An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental analysis of samples of recycled concrete (RC) with replacement of natural aggregate (NA) by recycled aggregate originating from concrete (RCA). The results of the tests of mechanical properties of RC were used for comparison with tests of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), in which the distribution of the theoretical pore radius, critical pore ratio, the surface area of the concrete, threshold ratio and average pore radius were studied at ages of 7...

  10. Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, Guillermina; Clough, Roger L. E-mail: rlcloug@sandia.gov; Czvikovszky, Tibor; Guven, Olgun; Le Moel, Alain; Liu Weiwei; Singh, Ajit; Yang Jingtian; Zaharescu, Traian

    2002-04-01

    Management of solid waste is an important problem, which is becoming progressively worse as a byproduct of continuing economic growth and development. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint, and which are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge due to complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of polymeric materials thus remains a worldwide challenge as we enter the new century. Due to the ability of ionizing radiation to alter the structure and properties of bulk polymeric materials, and the fact that it is applicable to essentially all polymer types, irradiation holds promise for impacting the polymer waste problem. The three main possibilities for use of radiation in this application are: (1) enhancing the mechanical properties and performance of recovered materials or material blends, principally through crosslinking, or through surface modification of different phases being combined; (2) treatment causing or enhancing the decomposition of polymers, particularly through chain scission, leading to recovery of either low molecular weight mixtures, or powders, for use as chemical feedstocks or additives; (3) production of advanced polymeric materials designed for environmental compatibility. This paper provides an overview of the polymer recycling problem, describes the major technological obstacles to the implementation of recycling technologies, and outlines some of the approaches being taken. A review of radiation-based recycling research is then provided, followed by a discussion of future directions where irradiation may be relevant to the problems currently inhibiting the widespread recycling of polymeric materials.

  11. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

  12. End-of-life vehicle recycling based on disassembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; QIN Ye; CHEN Ming; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    The end-of-life vehicle recycling was studied based on the disassembly. The end-of-life recycling and the disassembly were reviewed and discussed. A disassembly experiment of an end-of-life engine was carried out, which strictly recorded the process of dismantling. Based on the results, a model of the end-of-life recycling was presented. In this model, the end-of-life parts were classified by three ways which included to recycle directly, to recycleafter remanufacturing and to discard. By using this model, the dismantling efficiency and the recycling rate can be improved. Also, it obtains a good result after used in a dismantling factory.

  13. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Pandikumar; V Gopalakrishnan; P Mohanakrishnan

    2009-05-01

    In a thermal neutron reactor, multiple recycle of U–Pu fuel is not possible due to degradation of fissile content of Pu in just one recycle. In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving near constant input inventory of Pu and near stable Pu isotopic composition after a few recycles of the same fuel of the prototype fast breeder reactor under construction at Kalpakkam. After about five recycles, the cycle-to-cycle variation in the above parameters is below 1%.

  14. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-08-17

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shear friction capacity of recycled concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiras, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the behavior of recycled concrete in response to the phenomenon of shear transfer. To perform it, a conventional control concrete and a concrete with 50% recycled coarse aggregate were designed. An additional goal was to shed light on how this behavior is modified with a pozzolanic addition, silica fume. Therefore, two types of concrete were designed, a conventional and a recycled concrete, both made with 8% of silica fume. In conclusion, a reduction of shear friction capacity was observed in recycled concretes, considerably higher in the case of the specimen without reinforcement. The addition of silica fume improved the behavior of recycled concretes. The results obtained were compared with the formulations of the different authors. In all cases, these were found to be conservative. However, the safety margins offered by recycled concretes are lower than those obtained with conventional concretes.

    En esta investigación se estudió el comportamiento de los hormigones reciclados frente al fenómeno de transmisión de cortante. Para ello se diseñó un hormigón convencional de control y un hormigón con el 50% del árido grueso reciclado. Adicionalmente, para determinar cómo este comportamiento se ve modificado con la incorporación de una adición puzolánica (humo de sílice, se procedió al diseño de un hormigón convencional y su correspondiente reciclado con un 8% de humo de sílice. Los resultados indicaron una disminución de la capacidad frente a este fenómeno en los hormigones reciclados, más acusada en ausencia de armadura pasante. La adición de humo de sílice mejora el comportamiento de este material. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos se compararon con formulaciones teóricas de diversos autores, concluyéndose que éstas son, en todos los casos, conservadoras, aunque reducen el margen de seguridad en los hormigones reciclados.

  16. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  17. Sustaining the environment through recycling: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, T; Lee, Jason Wai Chow; Lim, Shuwen

    2012-07-15

    This paper examines the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 university students from the perspective of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings indicate that environmental awareness was significantly related to attitude towards recycling, whilst attitude and social norms had significant impact on recycling behaviour. However, convenience and cost of recycling were not significant reasons for recycling. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour. It also confirms the appropriateness of the TPB in examining studies of this nature. Further suggestions for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  19. Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  20. Experimental study on fracture properties of Waste fiber recycled concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jing Hai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of the replacement ratio of recycled aggregate and the volume of waste fiber on the fracture performance of concrete, the three-point bending test is carried out on the waste fiber recycled concrete precast beams. Calculate the waste recycled fiber concrete fracture parameters according to the double-K fracture model. The results show that the fracture indexes of recycled fiber are related to the recycled aggregate replacement ratio and the volume content of waste fiber. The larger the replacement rate of recycled aggregate is, the smaller the fracture indexes of the specimens are. The volume content of waste fiber is 0.12%, which has the most significant effect on the fracture performance. The study shows that waste fiber can improve the fracture properties of recycled aggregate concrete.

  1. Recycling Pulsars: spins, masses and ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, T M; Langer, N

    2012-01-01

    Although the first millisecond pulsars (MSPs) were discovered 30 years ago we still do not understand all details of their formation process. Here, we present new results from Tauris, Langer & Kramer (2012) on the recycling scenario leading to radio MSPs with helium or carbon-oxygen white dwarf companions via evolution of low- and intermediate mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs, IMXBs). We discuss the location of the spin-up line in the (P,Pdot)-diagram and estimate the amount of accreted mass needed to obtain a given spin period and compare with observations. Finally, we constrain the true ages of observed recycled pulsars via calculated isochrones in the (P,Pdot)-diagram.

  2. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  3. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  4. Regulation of Plasma Membrane Recycling by CFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Neil A.; Jilling, Tamas; Berta, Gabor; Sorscher, Eric J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    1992-04-01

    The gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. Although the protein product of the CFTR gene has been proposed to function as a chloride ion channel, certain aspects of its function remain unclear. The role of CFTR in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of plasma membrane recycling was examined. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate is known to regulate endocytosis and exocytosis in chloride-secreting epithelial cells that express CFTR. However, mutant epithelial cells derived from a patient with cystic fibrosis exhibited no cAMP-dependent regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis until they were transfected with complementary DNA encoding wild-type CFTR. Thus, CFTR is critical for cAMP-dependent regulation of membrane recycling in epithelial tissues, and this function of CFTR could explain in part the pleiotropic nature of cystic fibrosis.

  5. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production.

  6. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  7. Claus recycle with double combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bishtawi, Ribhi; Haimour, No' man [University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2004-12-15

    A new modification is developed on conventional Claus process to increase the overall sulfur recovery as well as to decrease the costs. The modification combines both oxygen enrichment and recycling. The process is simulated and studied for various N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios with and without using SURE double combustion technique. The predictions show that using pure oxygen in combustion, condensing water vapor in a condenser following the first sulfur condenser and recycling the effluent gas to combine it with fresh acid gas feed leads to large savings in the production cost and to a clean environment. However, it leads to a high adiabatic flame temperature which exceeds the maximum allowable temperature of the furnace material of construction as well as its refractory. To avoid these effects, it is necessary to use SURE double combustion technique. The oxygen flow rate to the first combustion stage should not exceed 78% O{sub 2}.

  8. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  9. Recycle of silicate waste into mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2011-04-15

    Template synthesis of porous carbon materials usually requires selective removal of template silica from the carbon/silica composites. It not only involves waste of valuable chemicals, but also poses significant environmental concerns including high waste treatment cost. Recycling of silicates released from such nanocasting methods is successfully performed for the first time to regenerate valuable mesoporous MCM and SBA type silica materials, which will not only help in saving valuable chemicals, but also in decreasing chemical waste, contributing in improvement of our environmental standards. This approach can thus improve cost effectiveness for the mass production of nanostructured carbon and others utilizing silica directed nanocasting method by recycling otherwise silicate waste into highly desirable valuable mesoporous silica.

  10. Resource recovery and recycling in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, J.W.

    It was the importance of the economic issues relevant to resource recovery and re-use that prompted OECD to become involved in this general area, and the author proposes in this talk to describe the principal features of the three main approaches to waste management from an economic perspective. These approaches are reduction of waste generation (i.e. birth control) resource recovery and materials recycling or re-use (reincarnation). Most of OECD's work in this area to date has been on the third of these approaches with particular emphasis on the economics of recycling, so somewhat more attention will be devoted to it. Then some conclusions will be drawn concerning possible policy actions to encourage a rational approach to management of this resource.

  11. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made......, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including...

  12. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  13. Kicker pulsers for recycler NOVA upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Chris C

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the Recycler injection kicker system required a faster rise time pulser. This system required a field rise and fall time of < 57 ns and a field flattop of 1.6 {\\mu}s. This paper describes the variety of improvements made over the years that have resulted in this latest thyratron pulser. The effects of the trigger, the reservoir and the load impedance on delay and rise time will be discussed.

  14. Technologies for greywater recycling in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Anu Talvikki

    2001-01-01

    The potential of four pilot-scale wastewater treatment processes for in-building greywater recycling has been assessed. The evaluation of three membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and a biological aerated filter (BAF) was principally with reference to the non-potable water reuse quality standards. In the steady-state trials the feedwater quality was changed from synthetic greywater to blackwater (primary sewage influent) simulating the variability of domestic wastewater. The submerged MBR met bot...

  15. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work.

  16. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  17. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Shankar [Menon Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden); Brun-Yaba, Christine [Inst. de Radioprotection et Securite Nucleaire (France); Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Bjerler, Jan [Studsvik Stensand, Nykoeping (Sweden); Williams, Alexander [Dept. of Energy (United States). Office of Environmental Management

    2002-12-01

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  18. Recycling troubleshooting experience with fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirov, Yuval

    1993-12-01

    Increasing complexity of systems requires improved support capabilities. Automation controls the support costs while meeting the growing demands at the same time. Proteus is a firm-wide proactive problem management system with automated advisory capabilities. Proteus non-obtrusively accumulates troubleshooting expertise and quickly recycles it by combining case-based reasoning with text retrieval and fuzzy logic pattern matching. It has linear on-line and sub-quadratic preprocessing computational time complexities.

  19. Clathrin-independent internalization and recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Qiang; Huntsman, Christopher; Ma, Dzwokai

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The functionality of receptor and channel proteins depends directly upon their expression level on the plasma membrane. Therefore, the ability to selectively adjust the surface level of a particular receptor or channel protein is pivotal to many cellular signalling events. The internalization and recycling pathway plays a major role in the regulation of protein surface level, and thus has been a focus of research for many years. Although several endocytic pathways have been identifie...

  20. PLA recycling by hydrolysis at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina, Annesini Maria; Rosaria, Augelletti; Sara, Frattari; Fausto, Gironi

    2016-05-01

    In this work the process of PLA hydrolysis at high temperature was studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of chemical recycling of this polymer bio-based. In particular, the possibility to obtain the monomer of lactic acid from PLA degradation was investigated. The results of some preliminary tests, performed in a laboratory batch reactor at high temperature, are presented: the experimental results show that the complete degradation of PLA can be obtained in relatively low reaction times.

  1. Microwave Study of Recycled ABS Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A; M; Hasna

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a review of the research unde rt aken in order to determine the suitability of utilizing microwave technology in the production of Recycled ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene resin for mouldin gs. The experimental investigation determined the suitability of the existing re cycled ABS material, the mould material used with respect to performance and lon gevity, potential commercial plant and equipment, end mould compression. Introduction Frequency Characterization of ABS The first ...

  2. Alternative Approaches to Recycling Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, William H.

    2007-04-01

    Nuclear power exists, and as the demand for non-fossil electricity generation increases, many more nuclear plants are being planned and built. The result is growing inventories of spent nuclear fuel containing plutonium that -- in principle, at least -- can be used to make nuclear explosives. There are countries and organizations that are believed to want nuclear weapons, posing a knotty proliferation problem that calls for realistic control of nuclear materials. Phasing out nuclear power and sequestering all dangerous materials in guarded storage or in geological formations would not be a realistic approach. Plutonium from commercial spent fuel is very hard to make into a weapon. However, a rogue nation could operate a power plant so as to produce plutonium with weapons-quality isotopics, and then chemically purify it. IAEA safeguards are designed to discourage this, but the only enforcement is referral to the United Nations General Assembly. The traditional reprocessing method, PUREX, produces plutonium that has the chemical purity needed for weapons. However, there are alternative approaches that produce only highly radioactive blends of fissionable materials and fission products. Recycle offers a market for spent nuclear fuel, promoting more rigorous accounting of these materials. Unlike PUREX, the new technologies permit the recycle and consumption of essentially all of the high-hazard transuranics, and will reduce the required isolation time for the waste to less than 500 years. Facilities for recovering recyclable materials from LWR spent fuel will be large and expensive. Only a very few such plants will be needed, leading to appropriate concentration of safeguards measures. Plants for recycling the spent fuel from fast burner reactors can be collocated with the power plants and share the safeguards.

  3. MEPDG & HIP, CIR and FDR Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Holtz, David; Prather, Michael; Egler-Kellems, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    INDOT has accomplished in the last year or is executing soon hot in-place, cold in-place, and full-depth recycling pavement treatments on its highways. As part of these projects, MEPDG pavement analysis-design inputs and other factors are required to be established so that the department has an understanding of the performance of these treatments. These treatments can then be compared against other treatments for cost-effectiveness, performance, etc. Obtaining these numbers was problematic. T...

  4. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation on the waste management, have determined the diversification and increasing the number and the capacity of recovery and disposal of waste in Romania. We found the most textile waste in Romania was deposited in deposits onto or into land, in the proportion of 18.51%. This proportion is under the EU average of 34.03%, but is much higher than in other European country. Also, has been an increase in the number of incinerators, in the last years. With all of this, the interest in textile waste management in Romania is far from being to the level of European, where are associations who dealing with the collection and recycling of textiles and is achieved a selective collection of textile waste in the points especially designed for this thing. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the EUROSTAT database and INSSE database analysis and by Internet.

  5. Environmentally sound technologies for recycling secondary lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Raychaudhuri, A.; Frias, C.

    Advances in hydrometallurgy are providing increasingly simple means for controlling the entire lead chain from concentrate to recycled lead. Used in parallel with pyrometallurgy, these processes allow furnace temperatures to be reduced to the minimum, which is essential for casting or alloying. Fumes and atmospheric pollution are minimized, furnace slags are digested, and most residues (other than purification cements) are non-toxic and convertible into marketable products. These new processes provide the cleanest and healthiest practicable means for recycling lead from batteries. By substituting melting for smelting, the heat requirement and cycle time per charge are reduced by more than half. A new hydrometallurgical plant could be installed alongside an existing pyrometallurgical plant without interference, doubling its potential capacity when operational (and more, if electrowinning is used). Over 99.5% of the lead originally present is recovered in tests of a combined PLACID-pyro plant. The average purity of electrowon PLACID lead is 99.995%. Results from the PLINT process should be similar. The purity of the lead chain can thereby be sustained through recycling. Perfect solid/paste separation is not mandatory, and PLINT-type plant units can be of any size. Such processes constitute a good basis for development of clean processes, which are suitable for use in Asian societies.

  6. Recycling of irradiated high-density polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, J.; Manas, M.; Mizera, A.; Bednarik, M.; Stanek, M.; Danek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a well-recognized modification of improving basic material characteristics. This research paper deals with the utilization of electron beam irradiated HDPE (HDPEx) after the end of its lifetime. Powder of recycled HDPEx (irradiation dose 165 kGy) was used as a filler into powder of virgin low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in concentrations ranging from 10% to 60%. The effect of the filler on processability and mechanical behavior of the resulting mixtures was investigated. The results indicate that the processability, as well as mechanical behavior, highly depends on the amount of the filler. Melt flow index dropped from 13.7 to 0.8 g/10 min comparing the lowest and the highest concentration; however, the higher shear rate the lower difference between each concentration. Toughness and hardness, on the other hand, grew with increasing addition of the recycled HDPEx. Elastic modulus increased from 254 to 450 MPa and material hardness increased from 53 to 59 ShD. These results indicate resolving the problem of further recycling of irradiated polymer materials while taking advantage of the improved mechanical properties.

  7. Trends on recycling of metallic resources and physical chemistry of recycle processes. Kinzoku shigen no recycling no doko to recycle process no butsuri kagaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T. (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-08-20

    Taking up smelting processes incorporated in the currently used recycling systems that handle Fe, Al and Cu scraps which are much recycled as metallic resources, considerations were given on the physical chemistry of the processes. In considering wastes and scraps as resources, it is necessary to recognize that the object metals are high in grades, but unstable quantitatively and they contain many kinds of elements (impurity elements) to be treated. As a method to remove copper from solid Fe scraps, the separation method utilizing the melting point difference is simple as a process, and is worth discussing for a practical use. However, a method to remove copper from alloyed iron melt and steel melt is difficult thermodynamically. Enumerating and discussing the problems in refining Al and Cu scraps revealed that there are a number of points insoluble by the currently available refining technologies, and concluded that superior refining processes must be developed, and the recycling problems must be considered including as far as the recovery systems. 66 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Compression Molding of Composite of Recycled HDPE and Recycled Tire Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.; Chen, Zhengyu; Li, Yanze; Peng, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Plastic and rubber recycling is an effective means of reducing solid waste to the environment and preserving natural resources. A project aimed at developing a new composite material from recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and recycled rubber is currently being conducted at Eastern Illinois University. The recycled plastic pellets with recycled rubber particles are extruded into some HDPE/rubber composite strands. The strand can be further cut into pellets that can be used to fabricate other material forms or products. This experiment was inspired by the above-mentioned research activity. In order to measure Durometer hardness of the extruded composite, a specimen with relatively large dimensions was needed. Thus, compression molding was used to form a cylindrical specimen of 1 in. diameter and 1 in. thickness. The initial poor quality of the molded specimen prompted a need to optimize the processing parameters such as temperature, holding time, and pressure. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to obtain optimum combination of the parameters.

  9. Encouraging Vietnamese Household Recycling Behavior: Insights and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Ninh Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to provide new insights into various determinants affecting household recycling. By focusing on Vietnam, this research also extends knowledge about sustainable behavior in emerging markets, which are the major culprits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses were developed as a result of the critical review of relevant studies in the fields of marketing, psychology, and economics, and then tested using a quantitative survey data. Structured questionnaires were administered to Vietnamese respondents which yielded 486 usable responses. Multivariate statistics reveal that all the determinants influenced their recycling behavior except for moral norms. Attitude towards the importance of recycling exerted the strongest influence, followed by subjective norms and warm glow respectively. On the other hand, attitude towards the inconvenience of recycling significantly reduced recycling behavior. The research findings have important implications for strategies aimed at promoting recycling behavior. Communication and education programs should emphasize how household recycling contributes to environmental protection, as well as stress intrinsic rewards when recycling. Public media campaigns should feature opinion leaders and attractive communicators, who can effectively apply social pressure to perform recycling behavior. Organizations should also make every effort to make recycling more convenient.

  10. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  11. Influence of RFID tags on recyclability of plastic packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, César; Ferreira, Beatriz; Hortal, Mercedes; Pancorbo, María Ángeles; López, José Manuel; Navas, Francisco Javier

    2011-06-01

    The use of Radio Frequency IDentification Technology (RFID) in the packaging sector is an important logistical improvement regarding the advantages offered by this technology in comparison with barcodes. Nevertheless, the presence of these devices in plastic packaging, and consequently in plastic waste, can cause several problems in the recycling plants due to the materials included in these devices. In this study, the mentioned recycling constraints have been experimentally identified in a pilot scale recycling study consisting in three recycling tests with an increasing presence of RFID tags. Differences in each test were evaluated. Furthermore, the quality of the recycled material of each test was studied through the injection and testing of tests probes. The results of the pilot scale recycling tests did not show a decrease in the quality of the recycled plastic due to the presence of RFID tags. Nevertheless, several operational problems during the recycling process were observed such as the obstruction of the screens, which lessened the process yield and created process interruptions, as well as the loss of extruded plastic during the process. These recycling constraints cannot be directly extrapolated to the industrial plants due to the different working scales. Nevertheless, technological solutions are proposed in order to avoid these recycling constraints if they appear.

  12. Economy Analysis of a Recycle Model of End-of-Life Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ye; WANG Xiang; CHEN Ming; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate recycle economy of end-of-life vehicles quantitatively,an economy model based on a recycle model of end-of-life vehicles and recycle cost analysis. With a practical example of recycling engines of endof-life vehicles ,the validity of the recycle economy model and good recycle economy of the end-of-life vehicle engine tors to raise the recycle economy of the end-of-life vehicle.

  13. Valorizing recycled paper sludge by a bioethanol production process with cellulase recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Daniel; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of cellulase recycling in the scope of bioethanol production from recycled paper sludge (RPS), an inexpensive byproduct with around 39% of carbohydrates, is analyzed. RPS was easily converted and fermented by enzymes and cells, respectively. Final enzyme partition between solid and liquid phases was investigated, the solid-bound enzymes being efficiently recovered by alkaline washing. RPS hydrolysis and fermentation was conducted over four rounds, recycling the cellulases present in both fractions. A great overall enzyme stability was observed: 71, 64 and 100% of the initial Cel7A, Cel7B and β-glucosidase activities, respectively, were recovered. Even with only 30% of fresh enzymes added on the subsequent rounds, solid conversions of 92, 83 and 71% were achieved for the round 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This strategy enabled an enzyme saving around 53-60%, while can equally contribute to a 40% reduction in RPS disposal costs.

  14. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  15. 17. Meeting municipal waste Magdeburg. Residual waste - recycling - resource; 17. Tagung Siedlungsabfallwirtschaft Magdeburg. Restabfall - Recycling - Ressource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Hartwig (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    Within the 17th meeting Waste Management at Residential Areas from 12th o 13th September, 2012 in Magdeburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Opening Session - Waste management in Saxony-Anhalt (O. Aeikens); (2) World with future - the eco-social perspective (F.J. Radermacher); (3) Global commodity markets - rare earths and their recycling (I. Fahimi); (4) The further development of nearhousehold capture of recyclable materials (J. Seitel); (5) On the future of the disposal management (J. Balg); (6) Options for action for the future of the municipal waste management (A. Gosten); (7) Current models of the capture of recyclable materials in Germany (M. Kerkhoff); (8) The recycling bin as a pilot test in Hanover (R. Middendorf); (9) Position of BellandVision on the implementation of a unified recycling bin (J. Soelling); (10) What will change with the new Recycle Economy Law according to the material flows and waste treatment capacities? (H. Alwast); (11) Waste management plan Saxony-Anhalt - Current developments (S. Hagel); (12) Wastes from the thermal waste treatment - Risk potential and disposal (G.-R. Behr); (13) Landfill Mining - Contribution of the waste management to the securing of resources (K. Fricke); (14) Logistic process design and system design in the transport of wastes in developing countries using Serbia as an example (Z. Jovanovic); (15) Example of good practices in the subsequent use of landfills - Solar park Cracauer Anger (M. Harnack); (16) Ecoloop - energy efficient gasification in the limestone moving-bed (R. Moeller); (17) Utilization of waste and biomass as a resource? Only by means of an intelligent logistics. (S. Trojahn); (18) Renewable energy resources - Experiences of a network provider (J. Kempmann).

  16. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  17. Effect of Aqueous Phase Recycling in Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmer, Maika; Madsen, René Bjerregaard; Houlberg, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    The effect of recycling the aqueous phase in a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction process was investigated in terms of product yield distribution, carbon balance, and composition of all main fractions. Using a custom-built continuous reactor system, a long-term experiment was conducted at 350...... degrees C and 250 bar with a feedstock of dried distiller's grains with solubles. In two consecutive recycle experiments, the aqueous phase of the preceding experiment was used as dispersion medium for the feedstock preparation. In these recycle-experiments a significant increase in biocrude yields...... was observed with a maximum increase in the first recycle experiment. However, the recycling of the aqueous phase also resulted in lower heating values and higher water contents in the oil fraction. Based on these findings, recycling the aqueous phase is a trade-off between improved yields and reduced burn...

  18. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  19. Additional water use influencing strength and fluidity of recycled concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学兵; 方志; 邓寿昌; 成珂; 覃银辉

    2008-01-01

    Through adding different additional water use,the compressive strength,splitting tensile strength and fluidity of recycled concrete of three aggregate combination forms were studied by experiment respectively.The experimental results show that with the increase of adding additional water use,the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete decrease,but that of recycled fine aggregate concrete and recycled all aggregate concrete increase firstly then decrease.When additional water use is added more 15% or 20% than that of basic ordinary concrete,the recycled coarse aggregate concrete and fine one can get pretty good fluidity.When it is added more 30%,the recycled all aggregate concrete has fluidity that is just satisfied.

  20. Comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules. It is possible to recycle even very old products by modern standard processes in a value-conserving manner. About 90% of the materials recovered from solar panels can be recycled into useful products. Carbon emission and energy cost are low in manufacturing recycled SPV. Modules can be manufactured with recycled materials and reinstalled in systems as a full quality product with today’s technology good for another 25–30 years. Analysis of all the models of PV module is done with the help of MATLAB. This helps in comparison and proves the effectiveness of the recycled PV module based systems.

  1. Evaluation of solid waste recycling in Khazra Industrial estate, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that the total amount and the variety of waste generated, and the availability of waste-recycling units in the park hinder the establishment of any recycling and processing units in the Khazra Industrial Park as they are not economically efficient. Therefore if the park development plans get going and by using economic initiatives, the foundation of processing and recycling units in this industrial park is recommended and will have economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Household and Municipal Recycling?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gunter

    2007-01-01

    Do economists reach a conclusion on household and municipal recycling? I explore the policy judgments of published economists on recycling and find that there is no broad consensus. The mainstream recycling literature is dominated by a guided-market approach; taxes and subsidies are advocated to correct for market failures. There are two less popular but still significant approaches: a minimal government laissez faire approach and a command and control regulatory approach. Laissez faire econo...

  3. What do we know about metal recycling rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T.E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J.-P.; Buchert, M.; Hageluken, C.; Reck, B.K.; Sibley, S.F.; Sonnemann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The recycling of metals is widely viewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy, but little information is available on the degree to which recycling is actually taking place. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge of recycling rates for 60 metals. We propose various recycling metrics, discuss relevant aspects of recycling processes, and present current estimates on global end-of-life recycling rates (EOL-RR; i.e., the percentage of a metal in discards that is actually recycled), recycled content (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSRs; i.e., the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow). Because of increases in metal use over time and long metal in-use lifetimes, many RC values are low and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Because of relatively low efficiencies in the collection and processing of most discarded products, inherent limitations in recycling processes, and the fact that primary material is often relatively abundant and low-cost (which thereby keeps down the price of scrap), many EOL-RRs are very low: Only for 18 metals (silver, aluminum, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, niobium, nickel, lead, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the EOL-RR above 50% at present. Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is the RC above 50%, although 16 metals are in the 25% to 50% range. Thirteen metals have an OSR greater than 50%. These estimates may be used in considerations of whether recycling efficiencies can be improved; which metric could best encourage improved effectiveness in recycling; and an improved understanding of the dependence of recycling on economics, technology, and other factors. ?? 2011 by Yale University.

  4. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Daniell, William E.; Lo Van Tung; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J; Nguyen Bich Diep; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Nguyen Duy Bao

    2015-01-01

    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs...

  5. Social awareness programmes in waste management and recycling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available , for assistance with literature review • CSIR for funding of the 2010 recycling behaviour survey © CSIR 2013 www.csir.co.za Slide 24 E-mail: soelofse@csir.co.za www.csir.co.za Thank You ... www.csir.co.zaSlide 2 Implementing the waste hierarchy © CSIR 2013 www.csir.co.zaSlide 3 Home & Business Waste for disposal Recyclables & garden waste Recycling truck Garbage truck Private vehicle Energy Utility Composting...

  6. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  7. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Don; A. G. Mirgorodskaya; O. K. Bedritskaya

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted toba...

  8. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  9. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...... different recycling processes, mechanical, burn off, pyrolysis and glycolysis are selected are compared based on the properties of the glass fiber recovered. The intention is to use the same characterization methodology....

  10. Application of recycled aggregates in concrete -- Experiences from the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietersen, H. S.; Fraay, A. L. A.; Hendriks, C. F.

    1998-12-31

    Experiences with the use of recycled aggregates obtained from demolition waste are described. The practice is particularly well developed in the Netherlands due the lack of landfill space available. The emphasis is on recycled aggregates in concrete, as opposed to recycled aggregates in road construction. Mix design, strength, durability, (chloride ingress and freeze-thaw resistance), environmental performance, product standardization, quality control, and quality certification are some of the topics covered.

  11. Design and analysis of cold-recycled mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, Michael Eric

    The purpose of this research was to utilize state of the art technology to develop a design and analysis method for cold-recycled mixtures. There is no current universally accepted design method for cold recycling of asphalt pavements. The objective of this research was to devise a simplified method of determining the optimum asphalt content using the maximum allowable amount of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in the cold-recycled mix based on material properties. The maximum allowable RAP content of the recycled mix in this study was determined to be 75%. This study introduces adaptations of SUPERPAVEsp{TM} technology for binder characterization and develops a binder blending chart for use in cold-recycled mix design. The binder blending chart is valuable in determination of maximum allowable RAP content of the recycled mix, the acceptable ranges of recycling agent residue in the binder blend, and in selection of the most desirable recycling agent for the RAP being recycled. The study also recommends mix and curing procedures for the production of test specimens and the incorporation of mechanical tests (resilient modulus and indirect tensile strength) and pavement prediction models in the determination of the optimum recycled mix. As a means of supporting the results of the mixture testing methodology, SUPERPAVEsp{TM} volumetric and intermediate mix testing are utilized for comparison of results, though the SUPERPAVEsp{TM} mix tests are not components of the recommended design methodology. The procedure which results from this research provides a more reliable means of cold-recycled mix design and analysis by the incorporation of better analysis tools for material characterization, especially in selection and proportioning of the most appropriate recycling agent for a particular project.

  12. Influence of landfill structures on stabilization of fully recycled leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to treat the leachate from two simulating columns by recycling to the columns themselves without being discharged into the enviroment. The columns were employed to simulate anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills separately. The influence of landfill structure on stabilization of fully recycled leachate was studied. The results show that semi-aerobic landfill structure accelerates the stabilization of leachate recycled. The full recycle of leachate in semi-aerobic landfill is a very feasible and effective technology for leachate treatment with low cost and energy saving especially in arid and rare rainfall regions. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of landfill can be greatly minimized.

  13. Consumer recycling: An ethical decision-making process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Although recycling is often experienced as a moral dilemma, studies that systematically approach this issue from an ethical perspective are scarce. Moreover, previous studies have explored recycling by mainly using single ethical constructs, such as moral norms, values or obligations, rarely...... approaching it as an ethical decision-making process. Our study takes a more holistic approach and integrates the recycling literature with business ethics theory in order to develop a conceptual model of ethical decision making involved in recycling. The model is based on Jones' issue-contingent model...

  14. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that have been deployed by some of the recycling facilities abroad. The design and development of a cost effective prototype automated system for sorting plastic recyclables is proposed and discussed.

  15. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB. The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%–75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  16. Energetic conditions of effective recycling of composite castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jackowski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The most reasonable way of recycling the metal composite materials consists in separation of the components. In case of the composites with saturated reinforcement it is the only recycling method. The process of separation of the components always undergoes in the presence of an additional liquid phase called a recycling medium. In a three-phase system including the material of composite reinforcement – liquid composite matrix – liquid recycling medium, an important role for the recycling process is played by the changes in energy values at the interfacial surfaces. Proper choice of the recycling medium enables simultaneous process of transition of the reinforcing phase particles into the environment (the suspension composites or also simultaneous outflow of the metal matrix from the reinforcement capillaries (the composites with saturated reinforcement. Moreover, a very important role in recycling of composite materials with saturated reinforcement is played by geometry of the reinforcement material capillaries. Energetic conditions render impossible simultaneous outflow of the matrix from the capillaries of varying and irregular geometry. It means that a choice of proper recycling medium is necessary condition for the recycling process, although not always a sufficient one.

  17. Battery recycling machine; Maquina recicladora de pilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera Gonzalez, R.M; Esquivel Montes, C.E; Perez Razo, E; Sanchez Guerrero, O.A. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ixtapaluca, Ixtapaluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    Batteries pollute the environment and therefore require special treatment or confine recycling in appropriate places, Mexico only has places for confining the batteries and send them to other countries for recycling. The purpose of this project is to reduce the contamination of soil and create a culture for the recycling of batteries. The prototype performs the separation of metals and chemical residues, so that later they can be processed separately. The machine is divided into two parts, mechanics and electronics, the mechanical part was designed to disarm it for easy maintenance, another advantage in the field of electronics and security is to control the machine from a computer at a distance significantly reducing accidents. To automate the machine will use a PLC clock for easy programming. [Spanish] Las pilas contaminan el medio ambiente y por ello requieren un tratamiento especial de reciclaje o confinarlos en lugares adecuados, Mexico solo cuenta con lugares para confinar las pilas y mandarlas a otros paises para su reciclaje. El proposito de este proyecto es reducir la contaminacion del suelo y crear una cultura para el reciclaje de pilas. El prototipo realiza la separacion de metales y residuos quimicos, para que mas adelante se puedan procesar por separado. La maquina se divide en dos partes; la mecanica y la electronica, la parte mecanica fue disenada para desarmarse esto para su facil mantenimiento, otra de las ventajas en el campo de electronica y seguridad es poder controlar el prototipo desde una computadora, a una distancia considerable reduciendo asi los accidentes. Para automatizar la maquina se utilizo un reloj PLC por su facil programacion.

  18. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate tank materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to undertand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here. The composition of the Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) RCT material is largely a low base solution of 0.2M NaNO2 and 0.1M NaNO3 with a small amount of formate present. Insoluble solids comprise only 0.05 wt.% of the slurry. The solids appear to be largely sludge-like solids based on elemental composition and SEM-EDS analysis. The sample contains an elevated concentration of I-129 (38x) and substantial 59% fraction of Tc-99, as compared to the incoming SB8 Tank 40 feed material. The Hg concentration is 5x, when compared to Fe, of that expected based on sludge carryover. The total U and Pu concentrations are reduced significantly, 0.536 wt.% TS and 2.42E-03 wt.% TS, respectively, with the fissile components, U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241, an order of magnitude lower in concentration than those in the SB8 Tank 40 DWPF feed material. This report will be revised to include the foaming study requested in the TTR and outlined in the TTQAP when that work is concluded.

  19. Methadone Recycling Sustains Drug Reservoir in Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Oscar A; Fudin, Jeffrey; Daly, Annemarie; Schiesser, William E; Boston, Raymond C

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesize that there is a tissue store of methadone content in humans that is not directly accessible, but is quantifiable. Further, we hypothesize the mechanism by which methadone content is sustained in tissue stores involves methadone uptake, storage, and release from tissue depots in the body (recycling). Accordingly, we hypothesize that such tissue stores, in part, determine plasma methadone levels. We studied a random sample of six opioid-naïve healthy subjects. We performed a clinical trial simulation in silico using pharmacokinetic modeling. We found a large tissue store of methadone content whose size was much larger than methadone's size in plasma in response to a single oral dose of methadone 10 mg. The tissue store measured 13-17 mg. This finding could only be explained by the contemporaneous storage of methadone in tissue with dose recycling. We found that methadone recycles 2-5 times through an inaccessible extravascular compartment (IAC), from an accessible plasma-containing compartment (AC), before exiting irreversibly. We estimate the rate of accumulation (or storage) of methadone in tissue was 0.029-7.29 mg/h. We predict 39 ± 13% to 83 ± 6% of methadone's tissue stores "spillover" into the circulation. Our results indicate that there exists a large quantifiable tissue store of methadone in humans. Our results support the notion that methadone in humans undergoes tissue uptake, storage, release into the circulation, reuptake from the circulation, and re-release into the circulation, and that spillover of methadone from tissue stores, in part, maintain plasma methadone levels in humans.

  20. Recycling of petroleum-contaminated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R; Ba-Omar, M; Pillay, A E; Roos, G; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The environmental impact of using petroleum-contaminated sand (PCS) as a substitute in asphalt paving mixtures was examined. An appreciable component of PCS is oily sludge, which is found as the dregs in oil storage tanks and is also produced as a result of oil spills on clean sand. The current method for the disposal of oily sludge is land farming. However, this method has not been successful as an oil content of tests and environmental studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled sludge. These included physical and chemical characterization of the sludge itself, and an assessment of the mechanical properties of materials containing 0%, 5%, 22% and 50% oily sludge. The blended mixtures were subjected to special tests, such as Marshall testing and the determination of stability and flow properties. The experimental results indicated that mixtures containing up to 22% oily sludge could meet the necessary criteria for a specific asphalt concrete wearing course or bituminous base course. To maximize the assay from the recycled material, the environmental assessment was restricted to the 50% oily sludge mixture. Leachates associated with this particular mixture were assayed for total organic residue and certain hazardous metal contaminants. The results revealed that the organics were negligible, and the concentrations of the metals were not significant. Thus, no adverse environmental impact should be anticipated from the use of the recycled product. Our research showed that the disposal of oily sludge in asphalt paving mixtures could possibly yield considerable savings per tonne of asphalt concrete, and concurrently minimize any direct impact on the environment.

  1. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from a synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.

  2. Recycling cobalt from spent lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-dong XIA; Xiao-qian XIE; Yao-wu SHI; Yong-ping LEI; Fu GUO

    2008-01-01

    Spent lithium ion battery is a useful resource of cobalt. In this paper, cobalt was recovered by a chemical process based upon the analysis of the structure and com-position of the lithium ion battery. X-ray diffraction results show that cobalt oxalate and cobaltous sulfate have been obtained in two different processes. Compared with the cobaltous oxalate process, the cobaltous sulfate process was characterized by less chemical substance input and a cobalt recovery rate of as much as 88%. A combination of these two processes in the recycling industry may win in the aspects of compact process and high recovery rate.

  3. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via EBCHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-11-01

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  4. Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G; Edwards, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs.

  5. Role of nutrient recycling in upwelling ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T E

    1979-01-01

    The regeneration of nitrogen is an important process that increases the efficiency of the upwelling ecosystem by enlarging their spatial scales. Ammonium regeneration was considered to contribute 42 to 72 percent of phytoplankton nitrogen requirements in the northwest Africa, Peru, and Baja California upwelling systems. Zooplankton are responsible for the largest portion of regenerated nitrogen; however, fish and benthic sediments may be nearly as large. Comparisons of the importance of ammonium regeneration in upwelling areas with coastal and open ocean regions indicate that the percentage contributions are similar. Future nutrient regeneration studies are needed to assess the recycling of benthic sediments, microzooplankton, gelatinous zooplankton, demersal fish, bacterioplankton, and mollusks.

  6. Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

  7. Recycling bin concepts for hotels on Zanzibar Island : - Efficient and sustainable recycling for one of Zanrec Plastics Ltd. customer groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gobena, Elina; Lundén, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a developed recycling bin concept for Zanrec Plastics Ltd. (Zanrec Plastics in this report), a Swedish company that is about to implement a solid waste recycling system on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania. Zanrec Plastics will negotiate waste management with the hotels, that produce a large part of the recyclable garbage on the island, and the project aim is to develop a concept that will help Zanrec Plastics in these negotiations. Zanrec Plastics requirements on the concepts re...

  8. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: nowack@empa.ch

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Recycling is one of the likely end-of-life fates of nanoproducts. • We assessed the material flows of four nanomaterials in the Swiss recycling system. • After recycling, most nanomaterials will flow to landfills or incineration plants. • Recycled construction waste, plastics and textiles may contain nanomaterials. - Abstract: The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO{sub 2}, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs.

  9. Grindability, Grading and Wettability of Recycled Plaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志新; 彭家惠; 赵海鑫; 邱星星; 赵敏

    2016-01-01

    The changes of grindability, grading and wettability of recycled plaster(R-P)and the mechanisms of these changes were studied by using vickers hardness, particle size distribution(PSD), scanning electron micro-scope(SEM) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry to reveal that R-P was obviously different from plaster of Paris(POP). At the same milling time, R-P had the characteristics of high specific surface area, fine particle diame-ter and uneven size distribution compared with POP, so R-P possessed both good grindability and poor grading. The water absorption, dissolution rate and mass loss in dry-wet cycle of the hardened recycled gypsum(hardened RG) increased, while the water saturated strength and dry-wet cycle strength decreased significantly compared with the hardened virgin gypsum(hardened VG). Therefore, poor wettability could be seen in R-P. The analyses indi-cated that the changes of grindability and grading could be attributed to the reduction in hardness and the increase in the porosity of hardened RG and that the poor wettability of R-P was caused by the increase of large pores and the changes of microstructure of hardened RG.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Mieke; Van den Heede, Philip; Van Driessche, Isabel; De Belie, Nele

    2014-08-21

    Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth's raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C) principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.

  11. Recycling of Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A technique for recycling spent nickel-cadmium batteries, which makes separation of cadmium and nickel possible, is developed by laboratory-scale experiments. NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution was used in this leaching technique. Since neutralization and/or solvent extraction were not required in the separation procedure of nickel and cadmium, the closed systemization of the process becomes possible. Experimental results show that, (1) if the NH3 concentration of leaching solution is sufficiently high and the ratio of H2CO3 to NH3 is properly adjusted, both Ni(OH)2 and Cd(OH)2 react with NH3 and quickly dissolve into leaching solution, and (2) Ni(OH)2 can be converted into insoluble NiO by calcination at 500€癈, and CdO from Cd(OH)2 by calcination maintains good solubility in NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution. As a conclusion, the recycling technique characterized by two step leaching can be developed based on such changes in dissolution behavior by calcination. Meanwhile, the yields of 99.8% for nickel and 97.6% for cadmium are obtained, and the purities of recovered nickel and cadmium are 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively.

  12. Subduction and volatile recycling in Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. D.; Ita, J. J.; Staudigel, H.

    1994-01-01

    The subduction of water and other volatiles into the mantle from oceanic sediments and altered oceanic crust is the major source of volatile recycling in the mantle. Until now, the geotherms that have been used to estimate the amount of volatiles that are recycled at subduction zones have been produced using the hypothesis that the slab is rigid and undergoes no internal deformation. On the other hand, most fluid dynamical mantle flow calculations assume that the slab has no greater strength than the surrounding mantle. Both of these views are inconsistent with laboratory work on the deformation of mantle minerals at high pressures. We consider the effects of the strength of the slab using two-dimensional calculations of a slab-like thermal downwelling with an endothermic phase change. Because the rheology and composition of subducting slabs are uncertain, we consider a range of Clapeyron slopes which bound current laboratory estimates of the spinel to perovskite plus magnesiowustite phase transition and simple temperature-dependent rheologies based on an Arrhenius law diffusion mechanism. In uniform viscosity convection models, subducted material piles up above the phase change until the pile becomes gravitationally unstable and sinks into the lower mantle (the avalanche). Strong slabs moderate the 'catastrophic' effects of the instabilities seen in many constant-viscosity convection calculations; however, even in the strongest slabs we consider, there is some retardation of the slab descent due to the presence of the phase change.

  13. Study of Fast Instability in Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Chicago U.; Adamson, Philip [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab; Yang, Ming-Jen [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    One of the factors which may limit the intensity in the Fermilab Recycler is a fast transverse instability. It develops within a hundred turns and, in certain conditions, may lead to a beam loss. Various peculiar features of the instability: its occurrence only above a certain intensity threshold, and only in horizontal plane, as well as the rate of the instability, suggest that its cause is electron cloud. We studied the phenomena by observing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam. We found that beam motion can be stabilized by a clearing bunch, which confirms the electron cloud nature of the instability. The findings suggest electron cloud trapping in Recycler combined function mag-nets. Bunch-by-bunch measurements of betatron tune show a tune shift towards the end of the bunch train and allow the estimation of the density of electron cloud and the rate of its build-up. The experimental results are in agreement with numerical simulations of electron cloud build-up and its interaction with the beam.

  14. Biodegradation and Recycling of Urban Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gautam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rapid urbanization and population growth are largely responsible for very high increasing rate of solid waste in the urban areas, its proper management and recycling is major problems of Municipal Corporation. The proposed study attempted to proper management, physicochemical analysis of Urban Solid Waste (USW and its conversion to enriched compost by ecofriendly process. Approach: For this study, we used turned windrows method for composting of USW, microbial inoculums added uniformly and temperature, pH, moisture maintained throughout the composting process. The chemical composition of compost obtained at the end of the composting process compare to the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standards. Results: A study in Jabalpur had shown the 47% of Urban Solid Waste (USW were degradable and 53% non-degradable. The initial compositions of urban waste were indicates an organic carbon status of 38% with the C: N ratio of 950. The additives used in solid urban waste composting such as cow dung and green manure recorded organic carbon content of 25.60 and 34.60 and C:N ratio of 30.11 and 11.23. Conclusion: The results of the study clearly indicate that the recycling of solid urban waste can transform garbage or municipal solid waste to enriched composts. This is practical significance if adopted by urban farmers as a result of soil health and in turn the productivity of soil can be maintained for further agriculture.

  15. Clathrin-independent internalization and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qiang; Huntsman, Christopher; Ma, Dzwokai

    2008-01-01

    The functionality of receptor and channel proteins depends directly upon their expression level on the plasma membrane. Therefore, the ability to selectively adjust the surface level of a particular receptor or channel protein is pivotal to many cellular signaling events. The internalization and recycling pathway plays a major role in the regulation of protein surface level, and thus has been a focus of research for many years. Although several endocytic pathways have been identified, most of our knowledge has come from the clathrin-dependent pathway, while the other pathways remain much less well defined. Considering that clathrin-independent internalization may account for as much as 50% of the total endocytic activity in the cell, the lack of such knowledge constitutes a major gap in our efforts to understand how different internalization pathways are utilized and coordinated. Recent studies have provided valuable insights into this area, yet many more questions still remain. In this review, we will give a panoramic introduction to the current knowledge of various internalization and recycling pathways, with an emphasis on the latest findings that have broadened our view of the clathrin-independent pathways. We will also dedicate one section to the emerging studies of the clathrin-independent internalization pathways in neuronal cells.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke De Schepper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth’s raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.

  17. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  18. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  19. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally...

  20. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental..., Plastic, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Recycling, Shredder residue. ] Dated: November 29, 2012. Louise P... certain food contact and medical applications, these recycled plastics are not expected to make large...

  1. Recycling of post-consumer waste in South Africa: Prospects for growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available to recycle a fair amount of recyclables on a regular basis (Strydom, 2012). This conference poster explains the recycling of post-consumer waste in South Africa: Prospects for growth....

  2. Optimal operation of rapid pressure swing adsorption with slop recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Gotink, R.W.M.; Bosch, H.

    1998-01-01

    Rapid pressure swing adsorption (RPSA) is a cyclic process operating, basically, in three phases: a pressurization, a delay, and a depressurization phase. A new, modified operation is suggested by the addition of either a raffinate recycle phase or an extract recycle phase, during which raffinate re

  3. Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal de-coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvithyld, A.; Meskers, C.E.M.; Gaal, S.; Reuter, M.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to re

  4. Predictors of Behavior Factors of High School Students against Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict high school students' recycling behaviors. The study was designed as survey model. The study's sample consists of 203 students at a high school in Ankara. A recycling behavior scale developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The scale has 3 dimensions: recycling…

  5. Recycling In The U.S. Pallet Industry: 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Hansen; Robert Bush; John Punches; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    This report provides the details of a study which investigated pallet recycling activity in the United States pallet industry (Standard Industrial Classification 2448) during 1993. The study was conducted by the Center for Forest Products Marketing at Virginia Tech and replicates a similar study that investigated pallet recycling during 1992. The report provides the...

  6. Recycling In The U.S. Pallet Industry: 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Vijay S. Reddy; Matthew S Bumgardner; James L. Chamberlain; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a study that investigated recovery and recycling of pallets by U.S. manufacturers listed under the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 2448. In Spring 1996, data were collected using a mail survey of 1,687 pallet companies across the United States. Using these data we estimated the volume and type of recycling being done by...

  7. Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  8. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  9. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

  10. Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  11. Regulation and government programs from a Canadian recyclers perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, L.G. [Canadian Association of Recycling Industries, Almonte, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The environmental benefits of recycling were described. Recycling was defined as taking products at the end of their useful lives and then sorting and processing them to produce a secondary source of materials that can be used in the production of new goods. Recycling results in energy savings, creates jobs and reduces the demand for larger or more landfills. The author discussed many pros and cons regarding recycling in the following areas of concern: (1) the dumping of hazardous wastes by developed nations on developing nations, (2) the charging of disposal fees for waste, (3) taxing products made from recycled materials, (4) the use of air bags in automobiles, (5) the release of CFC from refrigerators, (6) blue box recycling programs, and (7) waste management at industrial parks. The actual response by various governments to these issues were also described. It was emphasized that often laws and regulations designed to control waste management when applied to recycling do not actually produce environmental improvements. Finally, new approaches with environmental solutions to some of the dilemmas associated with recycling were presented. 1 tab.

  12. A reciclagem de PVC no Brasil Recycling of PVC Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Magda Piva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa discute as possibilidades práticas da reciclagem de PVC. Na reciclagem de polímeros, a do PVC representa uma importante parcela. PVC é um polímero que é usado em uma ampla faixa de produtos: filmes, fios, cabos, em compostos para uma variedade de formas. A reciclagem é uma técnica vantajosa, capaz de reproduzir as propriedades do polímero original, no polímero reciclado e isto em condições razoavelmente econômicas. A tecnologia brasileira, em relação a produtos reciclados, apresenta algumas diferenças da reciclagem tradicional. Métodos alternativos de reciclagens são necessários se os processos não desvalorizam os resultados finais.This research discuss the practical possibilities of recycling PVC. PVC, plays an important part in the recycleability of polymers; PVC is a polymer which is used in a very wide range of products -films, wire, cabes, in compounds for a variety of forms. Recycling is only worthwile, one is able to reproduce the original polymer properties in the polymer being recycled, and this under reasonable economics conditions. The brasilian technology that produces recycled products is a little different from the tradicional recycling. Therefore alternative methods to recycle are needed if recycling is not to devalue the end results.

  13. Recycling tires? Reversible crosslinking of poly(butadiene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovatti, Eliane; Lacerda, Talita M; Carvalho, Antonio J F; Gandini, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires.

  14. Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

    In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.

  15. Multimodal network design for sustainable household plastic recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Groot, J.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This research studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. This research aims to quantify the impact of multimodality on the network, to provide decision

  16. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  17. Economic potential of recycling business in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Majeed, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    The state of household waste recycling in Lahore city, Pakistan with a population of 7.2 million was analyzed. Data on solid waste recycling were gathered from residents of low-, middle- and high-income groups, as well as from scavengers and junkshops. The recycling activities in Lahore exert a significant impact on resource conservation, creation of jobs, provision of economic opportunity and reduction in the magnitude of waste disposal problems. A cost analysis is presented to show the income that can be generated through a well-planned recycling program. It is shown that 21.2% of all recyclable waste in Lahore is recycled, and it generates an amount of Rs. 271 million (US dollars 4.5 million) per year through the informal sector. However, if the recycling practice is owned by the formal sector, it can save an amount of Rs. 65 million by reducing the collection cost. If recycling is adopted as an industry, it can generate revenues of Rs. 530 million (US dollars 8.8 million) per year and can also save enormous amount of energy, as well as the natural resources.

  18. Multimodal network design for sustainable household plastic recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Groot, J.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This research studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. This research aims to quantify the impact of multimodality on the network, to provide decision sup

  19. Study on Consumer Opposition to Exporting Recyclable Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kunishige; Zhou, Weisheng

    Trans-boundary trade from Japan to China of recyclable wastes such as waste copper has increased rapidly, because of resource demands through economic growth. These wastes are recycled at high rates thanks to the Chinese manual recycling process by a lot of low wage migrant workers from rural districts. China benefits by supplying jobs to many migrant workers and getting cheap resources. Although, Japanese consumers may have some opposition to exporting end-of-pipe home appliance wastes to foreign countries. From the results of the path-analysis from the questionnaire to Japanese consumers, it became clear that their reluctance came from anxiety about illegal dumping, the labor environment at the import country and the destruction of the ecosystem. Through conjoint analysis, willingness to pay the recycling fee decreases - 1,625 yen (equal to 34% of the current recycling fee of 4,630 yen) when choosing global recycling as opposed to domestic recycling, hypothesizing that consumers would rather recycle domestically instead of globally.

  20. Study Concerning Characterization of Some Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robu Ion

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. In countries like the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, USA, Japan, France recycled concrete aggregates obtained from demolition are valorized up to 90%, mainly for road construction and less in the manufacture of new concrete.

  1. Effective Technology for Recycling Metal. Proceedings of Two Special Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Secondary Material Industries, Inc., New York, NY.

    The National Association of Secondary Material Industries (NASMI) and the Bureau of Mines have cooperated to sponsor two technically-oriented workshops related to the role of metals recycling and air pollution control technology. The proceedings of these workshops, "Effective Technology and Research for Scrap Metal Recycling" and "Air Pollution…

  2. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  3. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

  4. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  5. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Demin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part examines the theoretical possibility of recycling dust of arc steel furnaces. The different modes of dust disposal depending on the task of recycling are discussed: recycling at minimal cost; recycling with a maximum extraction of iron; recycling with maximum extraction of zinc. The results of laboratory studies providing information on the technical feasibility of recycling dust formed at the Belarusian metallurgic plant are provided.

  6. Logistics Mode and Network Planning for Recycle of Crop Straw Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lingyun; Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    To realize the straw biomass industrialized development, it should speed up building crop straw resource recycle logistics network, increasing straw recycle efficiency, and reducing straw utilization cost. On the basis of studying straw recycle process, this paper presents innovative concept and property of straw recycle logistics network, analyses design thinking of straw recycle logistics network, and works out straw recycle logistics mode and network topological structure. Finally, it come...

  7. The importance of recycling in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the greenhouse gas implications of material recovery and recycling is presented for a variety of materials, i.e. steel, aluminium, glass, plastics, wood, paper and cardboard, aggregates and wood. The benefits of recycling in terms of greenhouse gas reductions are quantified and set...... in perspective to other measures. It is shown that the present aluminium recycling alone in a country like Denmark saves greenhouse gas emission equivalent to heating of over half a million family houses. Assumptions and system boundaries are often discussed in the quantification of the benefits of recycling...... recycling. It is argued that biomass should be considered a constrained resource in a long term perspective, and that the marginal for the use of biomass is either a fossil resource or an arable land resource. In both cases, use of biomass draws on a marginal with high greenhouse gas implications...

  8. Recycling : An essential enterprise for resource conservation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvvada, G.V.K.; Sridhar, R.; Lakshmanan, V.I. [Process Research ORTECH, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The demand for both ferrous and non-ferrous metals is expected to increase despite the fact that ore reserves contain lower grade ore and are highly complex. The situation increases the pressure to adopt conservation measures such as recycling and reducing waste generation. This paper examined the recycling of essential metals such as copper, aluminum, iron and steel, as well as associated issues. It included a section on the importance of innovation in the recycling industry if it is to remain viable from an economic and environmental perspective. To better illustrate their discussion, the authors provided examples of several case studies that are either completed or underway at Process Research ORTECH Inc. The case studies dealt with the recycling of zinc from steel mill dust (EAF dusts), recycling of fly ash (innovative TORBED{sup TM} reactor), and the recovery of water from textile effluents (reverse osmosis, and mechanical vapor recompression evaporators). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    to preserve enzymatic activity. Best results for enzyme recycling at 25% DM was 59% and 41% of original enzyme load for a Celluclast:Novozyme188 mixture and a modern cellulase preparation, respectively. However, issues with stability of enzymes and their strong adsorption to residual solids still pose......Different versions of two commercial cellulases were tested for their recyclability of enzymatic activity at high dry matter processes (12% or 25% DM). Recyclability was assessed by measuring remaining enzyme activity in fermentation broth and the ability of enzymes to hydrolyse fresh, pretreated...... wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50. °C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50. °C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature...

  10. Safeguards and nonproliferation aspects of a dry fuel recycling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory undertook an independent assessment of the proliferation potentials and safeguardability of a dry fuel recycling technology, whereby spent pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuels are used to fuel canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. Objectives of this study included (1) the evaluation of presently available technologies that may be useful to safeguard technology options for dry fuel recycling (2) and identification of near-term and long-term research needs to develop process-specific safeguards requirements. The primary conclusion of this assessment is that like all other fuel cycle alternatives proposed in the past, the dry fuel recycle entails prolfferation risks and that there are no absolute technical fixes to eliminate such risks. This study further concludes that the proliferation risks of dry fuel recycling options are relatively minimal and presently known safeguards systems and technologies can be modified and/or adapted to meet the requirements of safeguarding such fuel recycle facilities.

  11. Use of Recycled Aggregate and Fly Ash in Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myle N. James

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recycled materials aggregate from the demolished concrete structures and fly ash from burning coal shows the possible application as structural and non structural components in concrete structures. This research aims to evaluate the feasibility of using concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate and fly ash in concrete pavement. Approach: Two water cement ratio (0.45 and 0.55 the compressive strength, modulus of electricity and flexural strength for concrete with recycled aggregate and fly ash with 0, 25% replacing cement in mass were considered. Results: The material properties of recycled aggregate concrete with fly ash indicate comparable results with that of concrete with natural aggregate and without fly ash. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recycled materials could be used in concrete pavement and it will promote the sustainability of concrete.

  12. Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2011-01-01

    This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

  13. Improvement of Bearing Capacity in Recycled Aggregates Suitable for Use as Unbound Road Sub-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates are specified as types of aggregates with lower densities, higher water absorption capacities, and lower mechanical strength than natural aggregates. In this paper, the mechanical behaviour and microstructural properties of natural aggregates, recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates were compared. Different specimens of unbound recycled mixtures demonstrated increased resistance properties. The formation of new cement hydrated particles was observed, and pozzolanic reactions were discovered by electronon microscopy in these novel materials. The properties of recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates suggest that these recycled materials can be used in unbound road layers to improve their mechanical behaviour in the long term.

  14. Development potential of e-waste recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) recycling industries in China have been through several phases from spontaneous informal family workshops to qualified enterprises with treatment fund. This study attempts to analyse the development potential of the e-waste recycling industry in China from the perspective of both time and scale potential. An estimation and forecast of e-waste quantities in China shows that, the total e-waste amount reached approximately 5.5 million tonnes in 2013, with 83% of air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions sand computers. The total quantity is expected to reach ca. 11.7 million tonnes in 2020 and 20 million tonnes in 2040, which indicates a large increase potential. Moreover, the demand for recycling processing facilities, the optimal service radius of e-waste recycling enterprises and estimation of the profitability potential of the e-waste recycling industry were analysed. Results show that, based on the e-waste collection demand, e-waste recycling enterprises therefore have a huge development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, with 144 and 167 e-waste recycling facilities needed, respectively, by 2020 and 2040. In the case that e-waste recycling enterprises set up their own collection points to reduce the collection cost, the optimal collection service radius is estimated to be in the range of 173 km to 239 km. With an e-waste treatment fund subsidy, the e-waste recycling industry has a small economic profit, for example ca. US$2.5/unit for television. The annual profit for the e-waste recycling industry overall was about 90 million dollars in 2013.

  15. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  16. Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) for direct food contact applications: challenge test of an inline recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2002-05-01

    Of all the plastics used for packaging, due to its low diffusivity and chemical inertness, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the favoured candidate plastics for closed-loop recycling for new packaging applications. In the work reported here, a PET-recycling process was investigated with respect to its cleaning efficiency and compliance of the PET recyclate with food law. The key technology of the investigated PET-recycling process to remove contaminants consists of a predecontamination-extruder combination. At the end of the recycling process, there is either a pelletizing system or downstream equipment to produce preforms or flat sheets. Therefore, the process has two process options, an inline production of PET preforms and a batch option producing PET pellets. In the case of possible misuse of PET bottles by the consumer, the inline process produces higher concentrations in the bottle wall of the recyclate containing preforms. Owing to the dilution of the PET output material by large amounts of uncontaminated PET, the batch option is the less critical process in terms of consumer protection. Regarding an appropriate testing procedure for the evaluation of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process, both process options have their own specific requirements with respect to the design of a challenge test. A novel challenge test approach to the inline mode of a recycling process is presented here.

  17. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: acute and chronic common and uncommon medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24 h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Knowledge of these and other 24 h patterns of human pathophysiology informs research of their underlying circadian and other endogenous mechanisms, external temporal triggers, and more effective patient care entailing clinical chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies.

  18. Twenty-four hour predictions of the solar wind speed peaks by the probability distribution function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy-Virat, C. D.; Ridley, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Abrupt transitions from slow to fast solar wind represent a concern for the space weather forecasting community. They may cause geomagnetic storms that can eventually affect systems in orbit and on the ground. Therefore, the probability distribution function (PDF) model was improved to predict enhancements in the solar wind speed. New probability distribution functions allow for the prediction of the peak amplitude and the time to the peak while providing an interval of uncertainty on the prediction. It was found that 60% of the positive predictions were correct, while 91% of the negative predictions were correct, and 20% to 33% of the peaks in the speed were found by the model. This represents a considerable improvement upon the first version of the PDF model. A direct comparison with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model shows that the PDF model is quite similar, except that it leads to fewer false positive predictions and misses fewer events, especially when the peak reaches very high speeds.

  19. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: cardiac, vascular, and respiratory diseases, conditions, and syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    Various medical conditions, disorders, and syndromes exhibit predictable-in-time diurnal and 24 h patterning in the signs, symptoms, and grave nonfatal and fatal events, e.g., respiratory ones of viral and allergic rhinorrhea, reversible (asthma) and non-reversible (bronchitis and emphysema) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, high altitude pulmonary edema, and decompression sickness; cardiac ones of atrial premature beats and tachycardia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 3rd degree atrial-ventricular block, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, symptomatic and non-symptomatic angina pectoris, Prinzmetal vasospastic variant angina, acute (non-fatal and fatal) incidents of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac arrest, in-bed sudden death syndrome of type-1 diabetes, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and heart failure; vascular and circulatory system ones of hypertension, acute orthostatic postprandial, micturition, and defecation hypotension/syncope, intermittent claudication, venous insufficiency, standing occupation leg edema, arterial and venous branch occlusion of the eye, menopausal hot flash, sickle cell syndrome, abdominal, aortic, and thoracic dissections, pulmonary thromboembolism, and deep venous thrombosis, and cerebrovascular transient ischemic attack and hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Knowledge of these temporal patterns not only helps guide patient care but research of their underlying endogenous mechanisms, i.e., circadian and others, and external triggers plus informs the development and application of effective chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies.

  20. The Twenty-four Hour Workday: Proceedings of a Symposium on Variations in Work-Sleep Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Md. Tray.: 1971, _j 393-395. .ndlauer,P., Carpentier,J., & Cazamian,P. (Eds.). Ergonomie du travail de nuit et des horaires alternants. Education...and between subjects and suggest that Gaillard’s conclusion may not -be true. 743 REM 0) 2 {3 i4 40[ REM E 0L ɘ U 730-Delta Hour !Igure :2. Comuter

  1. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: A study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%, hyperoxaluria (61.4%, hypocitraturia (57.2%, hyperuricouria (19.7%, hypomagnesuria (59.3% and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%. Hyperoxaluria (61.4% was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  2. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: a study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N S; Sadiq, S M; Kamaliah, M D; Norakmal, A W; Gohar, M N

    2013-05-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD) of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%), hyperoxaluria (61.4%), hypocitraturia (57.2%), hyperuricouria (19.7%), hypomagnesuria (59.3%) and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%). Hyperoxaluria (61.4%) was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive non-human primates of twenty-four zoological gardens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zhao, Bo; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Wang, Tao; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-01

    Captive primates are susceptible to gastrointestinal (GIT) parasitic infections, which are often zoonotic and can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Fecal samples were examined by the means of direct smear, fecal flotation, fecal sedimentation, and fecal cultures. Of 26.51% (317/1196) of the captive primates were diagnosed gastrointestinal parasitic infections. Trichuris spp. were the most predominant in the primates, while Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in Old World monkeys (P primates and the safety of animal keepers and visitors.

  4. Prevalence of type 1 brugada electrocardiographic pattern evaluated by twelve-lead twenty-four-hour holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, Natascia; Giustetto, Carla; Gribaudo, Elena; Richiardi, Elena; Barbonaglia, Lorella; Scrocco, Chiara; Zema, Domenica; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Patients with drug-induced type 1 Brugada electrocardiograms (BrECGs) are considered to have good prognosis. Spontaneous type 1 is, instead, considered a risk factor; however, it is probably underestimated because of the BrECG fluctuations. The aim of this study was to analyze, in a large population of patients with Br, the real prevalence of type 1 BrECG using 12-lead 24-hour Holter monitoring (12L-Holter) and its correlation with the time of the day. We recorded 303 12L-Holter in 251 patients. Seventy-five (30%) patients exhibited spontaneous type 1 BrECG at 12-lead ECG (group 1) and 176 (70%) had only drug-induced type 1 (group 2). Type 1 BrECG was defined as "persistent" (>85% of the recording), "intermittent" (Holter, 57% intermittent type 1%, and 31% never had type 1; in group 2, none had persistent type 1, 20% had intermittent type 1%, and 80% never showed type 1. To evaluate the circadian fluctuations of BrECG, 4 periods in the day were considered. Type 1 BrECG was more frequent between 12-noon and 6 p.m. (52%, p Holter than with conventional follow-up with periodic ECGs and this has important implications in the risk stratification. 12L-Holter recording might avoid 20% of the pharmacological challenges with sodium channel blockers, which are not without risks, and should thus be considered as the first screening test, particularly in children or in presence of borderline diagnostic basal ECG.

  5. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density (structure) over time, but it was landscape variation in functional variables that declined substantially. Stand structure and function have not converged across the burned landscape, but our evidence suggests function will converge sooner than structure.

  6. Evaluation of Parents’ Knowledges and Experiences about Infant Feeding in Children between Six-Twenty Four Months

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Kaya; Özgül Yiğit; Meltem Erol; Özlem Bostan Gayret

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Complementary feeding is important in early childhood. Therefore, raising awareness of families about complementary feeding is of importance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the parents’ knowledge and experience of infant feeding. Methods: This study was made in the pediatric outpatient clinic at Bağcılar Training and Research Hospital between 25.09.2012 and 25.11.2012. A questionnaire including questions regarding infant feeding was administered to 417 parents (250 mothers, 167 f...

  7. A Seroprevalence Survey of Maedi-Visna Among Twenty-Four Ovine Floks from Twelve Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke-shan; HE Ji-jun; LIU Yong-jie; SHANG You-jun; LIU Xiang-tao

    2013-01-01

    Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is an ovine lentivirus that is widespread in many countries worldwide. Both clinical and subclinical MVV infections cause substantial economic losses. MVV infection in live sheep is usually diagnosed serologically, with antibody-positive sheep being regarded as infected. There have been few reports of maedi-visna in China, with no detailed epidemic analysis of MVV infection in ovine herds. In order to investigate the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of maedi-visna among ovine lfocks in China, a total of 672 serum samples were collected from different ovine lfocks in 12 regions (provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities) of China in 2011, and serum antibody levels were determined using a commercial ELISA Kit. This study represents the ifrst investigation of the seroepidemiology of maedi-visna in China, indicating a circulation of MMV among sheep.

  8. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, Chung-hong; Ip, Patrick

    2014-07-30

    Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child's online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries' prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered.

  9. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: A study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    N S Hussein; S M Sadiq; M D Kamaliah; A W NorAkmal; M N Gohar

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospi...

  10. Twenty-four hours or 10 days? A prospective randomised controlled trial in children comparing head bandages following pinnaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S; Narayanan, V; Laing, J H E

    2006-01-01

    The perceived benefits of bandaging for 10 days following pinnaplasty have been questioned by previous studies. The problems arising from these dressings are many [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bartley J. How long should ears be bandaged after otoplasty? J Laryngol Otol 1998;112:531-2. Wong MC, Sylaidis P. Head dressings for pinnaplasty: a tradition not supported by evidence. Br J Plast Surg 2001;54:81-2], including their slippage [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bradbury ET, Hewison J, Timmons MJ. Psychological and social outcome of prominent ear correction in children. Br J Plast Surg 1992;45:97-100. Jeffery SLA. Complications following correction of prominent ears: an audit review of 122 cases. Br J Plast Surg 1999;52:588-90]. Eighty children were recruited into a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the use of a head bandage for only 24 h with a standard practise of a 10-day head bandage. A preoperative measurement of the lateral ear projection (LEP) was made. The outcome measures recorded during the two planned postoperative visits at 10 days (visit 1) and 2 months (visit 2) were: patient satisfaction score, LEP, complications and any unscheduled hospital visits associated with the surgery. There was no significant difference in LEP and patient satisfaction between the two groups at both the scheduled postoperative visits. Differences between the groups in the number of unscheduled visits (p=0.21) did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that it is safe and effective to use head bandage for only 24 h following surgical correction of prominent ears. This study shows no benefit from the application of a formal head bandage for any longer than 1 day.

  11. Twenty-Four-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Predicts Inappropriate Left Ventricular Mass Index in Patients with Primary Aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Primary aldosteronism (PA is associated with inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in relation to a given gender and body size. There is no ideal parameter to predict the presence of LVH or inappropriate LVH in patients with PA. We investigate the performance of 24-hour urinary aldosterone level, plasma renin activity and aldosterone-to-renin ratio on this task. Methods. We performed echocardiography in 106 patients with PA and 31 subjects with essential hypertension (EH in a tertiary teaching hospital. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone level were measured. Results. Only 24-hour urinary aldosterone was correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI and excess LVMI among these parameters. The multivariate analysis revealed the urinary aldosterone level as an independent predictor for LVMI and excess LVMI. Analyzing the ability of urinary aldosterone, plasma aldosterone concentration, and plasma aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify the presence of LVH (ROC AUC = 0.701, 0.568, 0.656, resp. and the presence of inappropriate LV mass index (defined as measured LVMI in predicting LVMI ratio >135% (ROC area under curve = 0.61, 0.43, 0.493, resp. revealed the better performance of 24-hour urinary aldosterone. Conclusions. In conclusion, 24-hour urinary aldosterone level performed better to predict the presence of LVH and inappropriate LVMI in patients with PA.

  12. Group of Twenty Four Countries and Three Tiers: An International Comparative Study on China’s Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Hao; Li; Min

    2015-01-01

    It is of great signif icance to conduct an international comparative study on China’s and other countries’ urbanization by taking the concept of "scale" as a crucial study point. This paper puts forward that countries with an area over two million km2 or a GDP over 650 billion dollars are comparable with China. Accordingly, there are 24 such countries in the world leading the global socio-economic development. For consisting of almost all types of countries, they can be considered as basic references for international comparative studies on China’s urbanization. Based on the relationship between urbanization and economic levels, the 24 countries can be divided into three tiers. The fi rst tier countries are mainly developed countries at high urbanization and economic levels; the second tier countries are later starters yet urbanized at a rapid speed, thus have fallen into the "middle-income trap" because of an imbalanced urbanization and economic development; the third tier countries including China and India are still in the starting phase of urbanization, and the key to their future development is a steady economic growth and a balanced urbanization and economic development.

  13. Twenty-four-hour profiles of metabolic and stress hormones in sheep selected for a calm or nervous temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietema, S E; Blackberry, M A; Maloney, S K; Martin, G B; Hawken, P A R; Blache, D

    2015-10-01

    Even in the absence of stressors, temperament is associated with changes in the concentration of stress-responsive hormones and, possibly because of such changes, temperament can affect metabolism. We tested whether, in sheep bred for temperament for 14 generations, "nervous" females have greater concentrations of stress-responsive hormones in the absence of stressors than "calm" females, and whether these differences are associated with changes in the concentrations of metabolic hormones. In resting "calm" (n = 8) and "nervous" (n = 8) sheep, concentrations of cortisol, prolactin, leptin, and insulin were measured in blood plasma sampled via jugular catheter every 20 min for 24 h. The animals were individually penned, habituated to their housing and human handling over 7 wk, and fed before sampling began. Diurnal variation was evident for all hormones, but a 24-h cortisol pattern was detected in only 7 individuals. There was no effect of temperament on any aspect of concentrations of cortisol or prolactin, but "calm" animals had greater concentrations of insulin in the early afternoon than "nervous" animals (14.5 ± 1.1 vs 10.0 ± 1.6 μU/mL; P = 0.038), and a similar tendency was seen for leptin (P = 0.092). We conclude that selection for temperament affects the concentration of metabolic hormones in the absence of stressors, but this effect is independent of stress-responsive hormones.

  14. Twenty-four hours hypothermia has temporary efficacy in reducing brain infarction and inflammation in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Buga, Ana Maria; Balseanu, Adrian Tudor

    2016-01-01

    inflammation and infarct size. However, after 1 week, the infarct size became even larger than in controls and after 2 weeks there was no beneficial effect on regenerative processes such as neurogenesis. Behaviorally, hypothermia also had a limited beneficial effect. Finally, after hydrogen sulfide...

  15. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E

    2010-01-01

    ,5,12,16]tetraazacyclotricosine-5,13-diium dibromide (UCL 1684; inhibitor of SK3) or 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34; inhibitor of IK1). In LF arteries, endothelium-dependent relaxation was markedly reduced, due to a reduction in the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) response. In HF...

  16. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child’s online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries’ prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. Results This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Conclusions Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered. PMID:25079144

  17. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    decisions in waste planning thus require a holistic and systematic assessment of environmental impacts of different waste management options. Such assessment requires reliable information on the physical and chemical waste properties to model the flows of waste materials and substances throughout the entire...... the selection of appropriate acid digestion method for future waste characterization studies and the comparison of data across existing studies. A consistent dataset for 73 physico-chemical parameters in 49 residual and 24 source-segregated Danish household waste fractions was obtained and is now available...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions...

  18. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  19. HI Recycling Formation of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, P A; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Brinks, Elias

    2000-01-01

    Galactic collisions trigger a number of phenomena, such as transportation inward of gas from distances of up to kiloparsecs from the center of a galaxy to the nuclear region, fuelling a central starburst or nuclear activity. The inverse process, the ejection of material into the intergalactic medium by tidal forces, is another important aspect and can be studied especially well through detailed HI observations of interacting systems which have shown that a large fraction of the gaseous component of colliding galaxies can be expelled. Part of this tidal debris might fall back, be dispersed throughout the intergalactic medium or recondense to form a new generation of galaxies: the so-called tidal dwarf galaxies. The latter are nearby examples of galaxies in formation. The properties of these recycled objects are reviewed here and different ways to identify them are reviewed.

  20. Energy transmission using recyclable quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    It is known that faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of energy could be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic classical mechanics. Here we show that FTL transmission of energy could also be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In our transmission protocol a two-spin Heisenberg model is considered and the energy is transmitted by two successive local unitary operations on the initially entangled spins. Our protocol does not mean that FTL transmission can be achieved in reality when the theory of relativity is considered, but it shows that quantum entanglement can be used in a recyclable way in energy transmission.

  1. CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S.C. Chuang

    2004-02-01

    Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO2 to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The year two research focus catalyst screening and IR studies. Key research results show Pd/TiO2 exhibits the highest activity for hydrocarbon synthesis from photocatalytic reactions. The in situ IR could successfully monitor the adsorbate hydrocarbon species on Cu/TiO2. Year III research will focus on developing a better understanding of the key factors which control the catalyst activity.

  2. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  3. Recycling technologies and market opportunities: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.; Petrakis, L. [eds.

    1993-09-20

    These proceedings are the result of our collective effort to meet that challenge. They reflect the dedication and commitment of many people in government, academia, the private sector and national laboratories to finding practical solutions to one of the most pressing problems of our time -- how to deal effectively with the growing waste s that is the product of our affluent industrial society. The Conference was successful in providing a clear picture of the scope of the problem and of the great potential that recycling holds for enhancing economic development while at the same time, having a significant positive impact on the waste management problem. That success was due in large measure to the enthusiastic response of our panelists to our invitation to participate and share their expertise with us.

  4. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  5. Recycling Strategy and Recyclability Assessment Model Based on the Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Now, a rapidly growing concern for the environmental protection and resource utilization has stimulated many new activities in the in dustrialized world for coping with urgent environmental problems created by the steadily increasing consumption of industrial products. Increasingly stringent r egulations and widely expressed public concern for the environment highlight the importance of disposing solid waste generated from industrial and consumable pr oducts. How to efficiently recycle and tackle this p...

  6. Energy Return on Investment - Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W; Simon, A J; Fratoni, M; Smith, C; Schwab, P; Murray, P

    2012-06-06

    This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.

  7. Refrigerant recycling apparatus, method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J.P.; Gordon, R.F.

    1993-07-13

    A refrigerant recycling apparatus for recovery and purification of refrigerant is described comprising: (a) an input conduit system for connecting a refrigerant source to the refrigerant recycling apparatus; (b) a first disposable filter capable of removing moisture and particulates from the refrigerant, said disposable filter being located such that the filter is easily accessible for service; (c) a primary heat exchanger configured so as to provide heat to the refrigerant thereby causing the refrigerant to be vaporized; (d) a secondary heat exchanger for further heating of the refrigerant to further assist in vaporization of the refrigerant; (e) an expansion valve located prior in line to said primary and secondary heat exchangers for controlling the flow of the refrigerant and reducing the pressure of the refrigerant, thereby allowing the refrigerant to expand to a predominantly gaseous state; (f) a separator for removing oil from the refrigerant; (g) a compressor pump having a vacuum producing inlet and a pressure producing outlet, the pump being a hermetically sealed, lubricated-for-life positive displacement pump; (h) a condenser for cooling the refrigerant; (i) a second disposable filter for removing moisture, acids, and other particulates from the refrigerant passing there through, said disposable filter being located in an area easily accessible for servicing; (j) an interconnecting conduit system for interconnecting the input conduit system, the first and second disposable filters, the heat exchangers, the compressor pump, the condenser, the expansion valve, and the refrigerant source; (k) a moisture indicator located after the second disposable filter, for measuring the degree of moisture present within the refrigerant after the refrigerant has flowed through the second disposable filter.

  8. Survey on the FRP waste recycling system; FRP haikibutsu recycle system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Using the area around the Ariake Sea in Kyushu as a model case, the FRP (fiber reinforced plastics) waste recycling system which can be established in Japan has been investigated in cooperation with local government bodies and fishery organizations. As a result, some proposals are provided. The recovery of waste boats utilizing existing sales outlets for fishing boats will facilitate efficient transport, efficient removal of vessel fixtures, and information management and user guidance via existing sales routes. This should make it possible to systematically secure and dispose a certain volume of scrapped FRP boats, and thus generate savings in the disposal costs. In the Phase 1, the main focus will be on establishing the recovery system for scrapped FRP boats to promote reuse and prevent improper disposal. In the Phase 2, the economics will be improved by expanding the recovery system to include other FRP waste products. In the Phase 3, the number of recyclable items will be increased, and thus the recycling system will be completed. 3 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. User-Assisted Store Recycling for Dynamic Task Graph Schedulers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Mehmet Can [Quantcast Corporation, San Francisco, CA; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Agrawal, Gagan [The Ohio State University, Neil Avenue Columbus, OH; Ren, Bin [The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA

    2016-12-28

    The emergence of the multi-core era has led to increased interest in designing effective yet practical parallel programming models. Models based on task graphs that operate on single-assignment data are attractive in several ways: they can support dynamic applications and precisely represent the available concurrency. However, they also require nuanced algorithms for scheduling and memory management for efficient execution. In this paper, we consider memory-efficient dynamic scheduling of task graphs. Specifically, we present a novel approach for dynamically recycling the memory locations assigned to data items as they are produced by tasks. We develop algorithms to identify memory-efficient store recycling functions by systematically evaluating the validity of a set of (user-provided or automatically generated) alternatives. Because recycling function can be input data-dependent, we have also developed support for continued correct execution of a task graph in the presence of a potentially incorrect store recycling function. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our approach to automatic store recycling incurs little to no overheads, achieves memory usage comparable to the best manually derived solutions, often produces recycling functions valid across problem sizes and input parameters, and efficiently recovers from an incorrect choice of store recycling functions.

  10. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  11. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  12. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  13. Biological risk factors in informal recyclers of Medellin city, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana L. Ballesteros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The informal recyclers constitute a vulnerable population to problems of health by their constant exhibition to biological, chemical, physical and social risks, without protection. Objective: this work identify the biological risk facts to which the informal recyclers of the Bazaar of the Bridges of Medellin city. Methods: it was performed a Cross-sectional study. The sample was no probabilistic with 88 recyclers and the analysis unit was the informal recycler. It was applied a survey, a guide of observation of the activity of the recycler and were studied variables of person, place, time, type of biological risk facts, frequency of exhibition, felt morbidity and measures of protection. The analysis was statistical descriptive. Results: it was identified biological risk facts related to the contact with material in decomposition (96.6%, contaminated material (96.6%, animals (62.5% and arthropoda (79.5%. The se The se--curity measures to protect them from biological risk facts are used in less than 52% of recyclers; in addition, only 13.6% of the population were vaccinated, which increases the probability of becoming ill in this population. Conclusions: that the informal recyclers are exposed to different biological risk facts with little prevention, causing that population be vulnerable for the acquisition of infectious diseases.

  14. Ribosome recycling: An essential process of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Michael C; Kaji, Hideko; Kaji, Akira

    2007-01-01

    A preponderance of textbooks outlines cellular protein synthesis (translation) in three basic steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. However, researchers in the field of translation accept that a vital fourth step exists; this fourth step is called ribosome recycling. Ribosome recycling occurs after the nascent polypeptide has been released during the termination step. Despite the release of the polypeptide, ribosomes remain bound to the mRNA and tRNA. It is only during the fourth step of translation that ribosomes are ultimately released from the mRNA, split into subunits, and are free to bind new mRNA, thus the term "ribosome recycling." This step is essential to the viability of cells. In bacteria, it is catalyzed by two proteins, elongation factor G and ribosome recycling factor, a near perfect structural mimic of tRNA. Eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts possess ribosome recycling factor and elongation factor G homologues, but the nature of ribosome recycling in eukaryotic cytoplasm is still under investigation. In this review, the discovery of ribosome recycling and the basic mechanisms involved are discussed so that textbook writers and teachers can include this vital step, which is just as important as the three conventional steps, in sections dealing with protein synthesis.

  15. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  16. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Daniell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results.

  17. Natural selection for costly nutrient recycling in simulated microbial metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard A; Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-11-07

    Recycling of essential nutrients occurs at scales from microbial communities to global biogeochemical cycles, often in association with ecological interactions in which two or more species utilise each others' metabolic by-products. However, recycling loops may be unstable; sequences of reactions leading to net recycling may be parasitised by side-reactions causing nutrient loss, while some reactions in any closed recycling loop are likely to be costly to participants. Here we examine the stability of nutrient recycling loops in an individual-based ecosystem model based on microbial functional types that differ in their metabolism. A supplied nutrient is utilised by a "source" functional type, generating a secondary nutrient that is subsequently used by two other types-a "mutualist" that regenerates the initial nutrient at a growth rate cost, and a "parasite" that produces a refractory waste product but does not incur any additional cost. The three functional types are distributed across a metacommunity in which separate patches are linked by a stochastic diffusive migration process. Regions of high mutualist abundance feature high levels of nutrient recycling and increased local population density leading to greater export of individuals, allowing the source-mutualist recycling loop to spread across the system. Individual-level selection favouring parasites is balanced by patch-level selection for high productivity, indirectly favouring mutualists due to the synergistic productivity benefits of the recycling loop they support. This suggests that multi-level selection may promote nutrient cycling and thereby help to explain the apparent ubiquity and stability of nutrient recycling in nature.

  18. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Johnson, William; Bukhari, Zia; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Candidate Contaminant list (CCL) as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL) and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and its protozoa symbionts in recycled water with the aim of developing a risk management strategy. The review considered the intricate ecological relationships between Legionella and protozoa, methods for detecting both symbionts, and the efficacy of various disinfectants. PMID:26140674

  19. Nonlinear dynamics and control of a recycle fixed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. Primarily to describe the dynamic behaviour that can be observed in a fixed bed reactor with recycle of unconverted reactant. Secondly to describe the possibilities of model reduction in order to facilitate control design. Reactant recycle has been shown...... to introduce periodic solution to the fixed bed reactor, a phenomenon which is not seen for the system without the recycle, at least not within the Peclet number range investigated in the present work. The possibility of model reduction by the methods of modal decomposition, and by characteristics...

  20. Hydroponic Crop Production using Recycled Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jay L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The coupling of plant growth and waste recycling systems is an important step toward the development of bioregenerative life support systems. This research examined the effectiveness of two alternative methods for recycling nutrients from the inedible fraction (residue) of candidate crops in a bioregenerative system as follows: (1) extraction in water, or leaching, and (2) combustion at 550 C, with subsequent reconstitution of the ash in acid. The effectiveness of the different methods was evaluated by (1) comparing the percent recovery of nutrients, and (2) measuring short- and long-term plant growth in hydroponic solutions, based on recycled nutrients.