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Sample records for twenty-eight male wistar

  1. Twenty-eight-day repeated inhalation toxicity study of nano-sized lanthanum oxide in male sprague-dawley rats.

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    Shin, Seo-Ho; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Kim, Yong-Soon; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-04-01

    Although the use of lanthanum has increased in field of high-tech industry worldwide, potential adverse effects to human health and to the environment are largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of nano-sized lanthanum oxide (La2 O3 ) following repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were exposed nose-only to nano-sized La2 O3 for 28 days (5 days/week) at doses of 0, 0.5, 2.5, and 10 mg/m(3) . In the experimental period, we evaluated treatment-related changes including clinical signs, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology findings. We also analyzed lanthanum distribution in the major organs and in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF), and oxidative stress in lung tissues. Lanthanum level was highest in lung tissues and showed a dose-dependent relation. Alveolar proteinosis was observed in all treatment groups and was accompanied by an increase in lung weight; moreover, lung inflammation was observed in the 2.5 mg/m(3) and higher dose groups and was accompanied by an increase in white blood cells. In the BALF, total cell counts including macrophages and neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased significantly in all treatment groups. Furthermore, these changes tended to deteriorate in the 10 mg/m(3) group at the end of the recovery period. In the present experimental conditions, we found that the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of nano-sized La2 O3 was 0.5 mg/m(3) in male rats, and the target organ was the lung. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1226-1240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Familial Sarcoidosis: An Analysis of Twenty-Eight Cases

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    Dildar Duman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease, exact cause of disease is unknown but it is assumed that genetic predisposition and ethnic factors play a role in etiology. Studies related with familial sarcoidosis is limited and only case reports about familial sarcoidosis is available from our country. We aimed to evaluate the prevelance of familial sarcoidosis and clinical findings of cases with familial sarcoidosis. Methods: We retrospectively documented file records of 678 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis and followed up in outpatient clinic of sarcoidosis from January 1996 to February 2016. 28 familial sarcoidosis cases in 14 families were enrolled into the study. Their demographic findings, family relationship, symptoms, laboratory and pulmonary function test results, radiological apperances, diagnostic methods, treatments were recorded. Results: Twenty-eight sarcoidosis patients out of 678 reported as familial cases, giving a prevelance of familial sarcoidosis as 4%. There were 8 sarcoidosis sib, 4 sarcoidosis mother-child, 1 sarcoidosis father-child and 1 sarcoidosis cousin relationship. Female/male ratio was 1.8, mean age of the study population was 43, most freguent symptoms were cough and dyspnea, stage 2 was mostly seen according to chest X-ray, most common CT appearance was mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinoscopy was the most freguent diagnostic method. Conclusion: This study is important to lead interrogation of family in patients with suspected sarcoidosis and future studies investigating familial aggregation in sarcoidosis.

  3. [Twenty-eight days repeated dose toxicity test of N-(fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide in rats].

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    Matsushima, Y; Tsuda, M; Naito, K; Saitoh, M; Isama, K; Ikarashi, Y; Kawasaki, Y; Momma, J; Kitajima, S; Kaniwa, M

    1995-01-01

    N-(Fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide (Fluor-folpet) has been widely used as an anti-mold and anti-bacterial agent. In this study, 28 days repeated-dose oral toxicity study of fluor-folpet was carried out in Slc:Wistar rats. An oral toxicity study for fluor-folpet, the twenty-eight days test, repeated-dose, oral administration, was performed as follows: Five week-old rats, male and female, 10 rats, each/group, were treated with intragastric administration of fluor-folpet with a dose of 0 (1% Sodium CMC, control), 20, 80 and 320 mg/kg, body weight. Recovery test, for 14 days after the last treatment, was examined for the control and the 320 mg/kg groups. The 320 mg/kg groups, both males and females, showed significantly reduced their body-weight gain compared with the control group. In the 320 mg/kg group, five out of 20 male rats and four out of 20 female rats died from dyspnea during the treatment period. In the female rats in the 320 mg/kg group, serum ChE level was decreased to 50% of control level and gamma-GT was increased in a dose-dependent manner, but these serum levels recovered after 14 days non-treatment period. No histopathological change, relating to the treatment, in liver was observed. Increased weight of the kidney and vacuolation in renal tubules were found in both sexes of 320 mg/kg group. Hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of the stomach epithelium were observed at the dose more than 80 mg/kg in male, and more than 20 mg/kg in female. A supplemental study, repeated-dose, oral administration in rats carried out to examine the dyspnea revealed that severe acute toxic damages in epithelium of nasal cavity and meatus nasopharyngeus were induced by intragastric administration of fluor-folpet. Fluor-folpet is shown to be cytotoxic. In conclusion, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for fluor-folpet was not found under the experimental conditions employed in this repeated-dose toxicity study.

  4. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

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    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

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    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  5. Results of miconazole therapy in twenty-eight patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis).

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    Negroni, R; Rubinstein, P; Herrmann, A; Gimenez, A

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of treatment with miconazole, orally and intravenously, in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Twenty-eight male patients aged from 34 to 66 years and exhibiting various clinical forms of the disease were studied. Twenty-five came from endemic areas in north east Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, Corrientes and northern Santa Fe) and the remaining three from Paraguay. Twenty patients were engaged in agricultural work or at woodmills. single or multiple lesions were observed in 24 cases. Thirteen were suffering from infection of the larynx and in two of them a tracheotomy was necessary. Twenty-three showed pulmonary lesions on X-rays. Twelve had ganglionic lesions, eight had cutaneous lesions and one patient had osteoarthritis of the knee. One patient had hepatomegaly which was unrelated to chronic alcoholism. Fourteen patients had received previous treatments such as sulphonamides and amphotericin B (7 cases); sulphonamides (3), sulphonamides and the combination sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (3), and one patient had received all three medications. All patients had relapsed before starting miconazole therapy. Diagnosis was established by the presence of P. brasiliensis in all cases, recovered either from cutaneous or mucosal biopsy samples or from the sputum. Complement fixation tests were positive in all patients at the onset of the treatment and the immunodiffusion reactions showed precipitation bands in 27/28 patients. Skin tests with P. brasiliensis antigens proved to be positive in 18 cases and negative in 10. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was markedly accelerated in 22 patients (greater than 20 mm in the first hour).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p24-a Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:122643

  6. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

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    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  7. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

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    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

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    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  9. Serum pharmacokinetics and coagulation aberration induced by sodium dehydroacetate in male and female Wistar rats

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    Zhang, Yumei; Ying, Donglai; Liu, Hao; Yu, Zengrong; Han, Lingling; Xie, Jiayu; Xie, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Sodium dehydroacetate (Na-DHA) is used as a preservative in food, animal feeds and cosmetics. Severe haemorrhage in organs and prolongation of coagulation factors in Sprague–Dawley rats has been reported upon oral administration of Na-DHA. We investigated alterations in coagulation parameters and serum pharmacokinetics upon Na-DHA administration. Wistar rats were administered Na-DHA (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.). Weight gain, food consumption, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), serum levels of Vitamin k (Vk)1, and serum levels of Na-DHA were measured, and histopathology undertaken. Significant reductions in body weight, food consumption and serum levels of Vk1, as well as prolonged PT and APTT, were observed. Females were significantly different from males in terms of serum Na-DHA concentration. Congestion in hepatic sinusoids, renal tubules and spleen, as well as haemorrhage in lung alveoli, gastric mucosa, intestinal mucosa and cardiac muscle cells, were observed by histopathological analyses. Correlation of serum Na-DHA via PT and APTT, as well as serum Vk1 via PT and APTT, in females was better than that in males. Female rats are more sensitive than males to Na-DHA. Hence, Na-DHA can induce coagulation aberration in Wistar rats, with higher sensitivity seen in females than males. PMID:28387309

  10. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

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    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty aci...... isomers in the inner position and oleic acid in the other positions of the glycerol molecule. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages. From days 8-16 energy, nitrogen (N) and carbon...

  11. Ranitidine treatment inducing methemoglobinemia in male Wistar rats Metemoglobinemia induzida pela ranitidina em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Roberto Malfará; Ana Maria de Souza; Regina Helena Costa Queiroz

    2005-01-01

    Drug idiosyncrasy is an adverse event of unknown etiology that occurs in a small fraction of people taking a drug. The histamine-2 (H2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine causes idiosyncratic reactions in patients. To investigate the hypothesis that ranitidine could induce hematological toxic effects, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (ip) to two of six groups of 200-220 g male Wistar rats (n=6). Group I received as single dose of saline solution (NaCl, 200 µL) Group II received 2...

  12. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of carbofuran in male Wistar rats.

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    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Owumi, Solomon E; Akinseye, Victor; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2014-03-01

    Carbofuran based pesticides have gained wide usage in Nigeria recently. Consequently, animals and human populations are exposed to them in the environment. Information on in vivo toxicity of carbofuran in experimental models is scanty. The present study therefore examined the hepatotoxicity and clastogenic effects of carbofuran in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to carbofuran (p.o) at 0-5mg/kg bw for 5weeks. Carbofuran induced significant (prats. It therefore may constitute an environmental health risks in individuals so exposed.

  13. Twenty-eight week toxicity study of perlite powder in mice.

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    Sakai, T; Nagao, S

    1985-05-01

    Groups of 21 male and 21 female mice were given diets containing 20%, 10%, 1% or 0% (control) perlite for 28 weeks. Appearance, behavior, mortality, and food consumption of mice of treated groups were not affected during the experimental period. Males of the 20% and 10% groups did experience slightly reduced growth rate. No significant drug-related changes were found in urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, and organ weight. No differences were found between control and treated groups in autopsy and histopathological findings. Therefore, the maximum no-effect level is considered to be 1% in the diet which developed no toxic changes in any items examined in mice treated orally with perlite for 28 weeks.

  14. Coffee and caffeine protect against liver injury induced by thioacetamide in male Wistar rats.

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    Furtado, Kelly S; Prado, Monize G; Aguiar E Silva, Marco A; Dias, Marcos C; Rivelli, Diogo P; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-11-01

    Coffee intake has been inversely related to the incidence of liver diseases, although there are controversies on whether these beneficial effects on human health are because of caffeine or other specific components in this popular beverage. Thus, this study evaluated the protective effects of coffee or caffeine intake on liver injury induced by repeated thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into five groups: one untreated group (G1) and four groups (G2-G5) treated with the hepatotoxicant TAA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) twice a week for 8 weeks. Concomitantly, rats received tap water (G1 and G2), conventional coffee (G3), decaffeinated coffee (G4) or 0.1% caffeine (G5). After 8 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and blood and liver samples were collected. Conventional and decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) S-phase indexes (p coffee reduced cleaved caspase-3 indexes (p coffee and 0.1% caffeine intake presented better beneficial effects than decaffeinated coffee against liver injury induced by TAA in male Wistar rats. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  15. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

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    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  16. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

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    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  17. Effects of methotrexate on serum testosterone level in sleep deprived male Wistar rats.

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    Akindele, O O; Kunle-Alabi, O T; Oghenetega, B O; Adeyemi, D H; Raji, Y

    2015-06-01

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to decrease testosterone levels but the mechanism remains unclear. Studies have shown that sleep deprivation increases interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine and that increased IL-1β levels cause reductions in Leydig cell production of testosterone. This study was therefore designed to determine the effects of methotrexate, an IL-1β blocker on serum testosterone levels in sleep deprived male Wistar rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 5); group I (Control) received the vehicle (1% tween 80 solution); group II (methotrexate) received 0.5 mg/kg body weight methotrexate; group III (SD) was sleep deprived and received the vehicle; group IV (SD+Methotrexate) was sleep deprived and received 0.5 mg/kg body weight methotrexate. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform technique for 14 days. Treatments were administered twice weekly by oral gavage for 14 days. Blood was collected on day 14 and serum was obtained for analyses of testosterone, LH and FSH levels. IL-1β level and histology of the testis were also determined. Data were expressed as Mean ± SEM and analysed using ANOVA. p sleep deprived rats is not dependent on increased level of IL-1β.

  18. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemical...... exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer.......Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals......, Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 μg/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre...

  19. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats

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    A S Alabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The animals used for the study were grouped into three: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Results: Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Conclusion: Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  20. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuntha G; Prasanna Raju Y; Harini Chowdary V; Vandana KR; Arun Rasheed; Prasad KVSRG

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the aphrodisiac potentials of ethanol extract of Argemone mexicana L. (A. mexicana) of Papaveraceae family in sexually sluggish male Wistar rats. Methods:The sexually inactive male rats were divided into two groups of 8 rats each. The test group animals were treated with ethanol extract of A. mexicana (EEAM) at 1 g/kg daily oral dose for 28 days. Other group animals were treated with sildenafil citrate at an oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The latencies of mount, intromission, ejaculation;post ejaculatory pause and frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation were measured on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Serum testosterone levels were estimated using ELISA. Results: The EEAM was nonlethal even at dose of 4.0 g/kg. The oral dosing of EEAM has significantly enhanced the orientation of males towards female by increase in ano-genital investigatory behavior, frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation (P< 0.01). The latencies of mount, intromission and ejaculation were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The EEAM has produced marked variation in sexual behavior characteristics and was able to elevate the serum testosterone levels (P<0.01) on par to that of sildenafil citrate. Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  1. Ground Reaction Forces Generated by Twenty-eight Hatha Yoga Postures.

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    Wilcox, Sylvia J; Hager, Ron; Lockhart, Barbara; Seeley, Matthew K

    Adherents claim many benefits from the practice of yoga, including promotion of bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. However, no known studies have investigated whether yoga enhances bone mineral density. Furthermore, none have estimated reaction forces applied by yoga practitioners. The purpose of this study was to collect ground reaction force (GRF) data on a variety of hatha yoga postures that would commonly be practiced in fitness centers or private studios. Twelve female and eight male volunteers performed a sequence of 28 hatha yoga postures while GRF data were collected with an AMTI strain-gauge force platform. The sequence was repeated six times by each study subject. Four dependent variables were studied: peak vertical GRF, mean vertical GRF, peak resultant GRF, and mean resultant GRF. Univariate analysis was used to identify mean values and standard deviations for the dependent variables. Peak vertical and resultant values of each posture were similar for all subjects, and standard deviations were small. Similarly, mean vertical and resultant values were similar for all subjects. This 28 posture yoga sequence produced low impact GRF applied to upper and lower extremities. Further research is warranted to determine whether these forces are sufficient to promote osteogenesis or maintain current bone health in yoga practitioners.

  2. Insight into Sam Francis' painting techniques through the analytical study of twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992

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    Defeyt, Catherine; Mazurek, Joy; Zebala, Aneta; Burchett-Lere, Debra

    2016-11-01

    The present paper proposes an overview of the painting materials experimented with over the years by Sam Francis, leading figure of the post-World War II American painting, through the analytical study of an extended number of paint samples supplied by the Sam Francis Foundation. In total, 279 samples taken from twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992, were analyzed by Raman, FTIR and Py-GC/MS techniques. The obtained results revealed the Francis' preference in terms of pigments, i.e., phthalocyanine blues and greens, and outlined unconventional combination of binder media.

  3. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

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    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-03-06

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PUNICA GRANATUM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED TESTICULAR TOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Divya Bhargavan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the potential role of Punica granatum ethanolic extract (PGEE in Cyclophosphamide (CP induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Healthy male Wistar rats were allotted to 4 groups (N=6, each Group I: Control, Group II: CP 15mg/kg twice a week, Group III: PGEE 100mg/kg, Group IV: CP and PGEE for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, organ weight, body weight, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, SOD, catalase, GSH, ACP & testosterone level in the testis were evaluated. Results: The CP treated rats showed toxicity evidenced by decreased organ and body weight, decreased sperm quality and testosterone level also increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants SOD, GSH indicating oxidative stress. In contrast PGEE co-treatment with CP resulted in significant restoration of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These results indicate that PGEE attenuates CP induced testicular toxicity through its ROS scavenging activity.

  5. Toxicity evaluation of earthworm powder (Eudrillus euginae) in wistar male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaganathan Anitha; Indira A. Jayraaj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute toxicity effects of earthworm powder (EWP) obtained from Eudrillus euginae on wistar male rats. Methods: The animals are treated orally with EWP at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg bodyweight daily for 12 days. Results: There was no significant mortality and changes in body weight noticed at all the doses tested. No gross significant changes observed in the hematological indices (HB, RBC and WBC), Hepatic, serum markers (AST, ALT, ALP, and protein) and renal indices (Urea, Uric acid and Creatinine). The EWP did not show any significant effects in the clinical signs, behavioral changes and examined toxicological endpoints in experimental animals. The histopathological studies provide supports to the safety data of above parameter of EWP dosing. Conclusions: Thus, it can be inferred from the present study that EWP (Eudrillus euginae) is devoid of toxic effects in rats and suggested to utilize the EWP as novel medicine.

  6. The Effects of a Moderate Exercise Program on Knee Osteoarthritis in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fallah Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Osteoarthritis (OA or degenerative joint disease is the commonest form of arthritis and can lead to joint pain, decrease in joint’s range of motion, loss of function, and ultimately disability. Exercise is considered as one of the non-pharmacological treatments of OA. But the effects of exercise on knee joint cartilage remain ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a four-week moderate treadmill exercise on rats’ knee osteoarthritis.   Materials and Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (173 ± 1 g, 8 weeks old were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6: Intact control, monosodium iodoacetate (MIA only (OA, and training. The osteoarthritis model was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA. Subjects followed a moderate-intensity exercise program for 28 days. Rats were killed after 28 days and histological assessment was done on their knee joints. One-way ANOVA (P

  7. Effects of perinatal ethinyl estradiol exposure in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation and lacta......Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation...

  8. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  9. Protective effect of pomegranate flower extract against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Ferdos; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Noori-Diziche, Ali; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Mansouri, Azam; Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Shirdavani, Soheila; Ashrafi, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gentamicin (GM) as an antibiotic is used in clinic. However, its administration is limited by side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Herbal extracts could be used in therapeutic approaches. Objectives: The present study was planned to investigate whether pomegranate flower extract (PFE) could ameliorate GM-induced renal toxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 respectively received PFE 25 and 50 mg/kg fo...

  10. Anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker (Asphodelaceae) stem at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight was investigated for anabolic and androgenic effects in male Wistar rats. Sixty male rats were grouped into four (A-D) consisting of 15 each. Group A (control) was orally treated with 0.5 mL of distilled water for 14 days while groups B, C and D were treated like the control except they received 0.5 mL containing 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. All the doses of the extract increased (P 0.05) with the controls for glycogen and cholesterol. The testicular and serum testosterone concentration were increased except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the tissue and serum hormone did not manifest until after the first and seven daily doses respectively. Testicular acid phosphatase activity, serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone concentrations also increased at all the doses except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the enzyme and the hormone did not manifest until after seven days. The increases were most pronounced in the 50 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The results indicate anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male rat testes with the 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the highest anabolizing and androgenic activities. These activities further support the folkloric use of the plant most especially at 50 mg/kg body weight in the management of male sexual dysfunction in South Africa.

  11. Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l. in male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Shyam S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete

  12. Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l. in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Agrawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of

  13. Implication of caffeine consumption and recovery on the reproductive functions of adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, Shakiru A; Ogunwole, Eunice; Raji, Yinusa

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of caffeine consumption and recovery on reproductive functions and fertility of Wistar rats. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A (control) received distilled water (vehicle), while groups B, C, and D were treated orally with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW), 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days. Groups E, F, and G were treated orally with 10 mg/kg BW, 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days and then allowed to recover for another 30 days. Caffeine caused a decrease in body weight, while recovery groups showed appreciable increase in body weight during recovery. Relative weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and epididymis decreased dose dependently during treatment but increased during recovery. The liver and kidney weight increased during treatment but reduced during recovery. Sperm count was significantly decreased in both treated and recovery groups. Initial decrease in sperm viability and volume was appreciably reversed during recovery period. Serum level of testosterone increased at high doses, while serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) showed significant decrease. Histological sections of testis in treated groups showed mild congestion of the interstitial blood vessel and subcapsular congestion. However, there was no subcapsular congestion in the recovery groups. All rats in both treated and recovery groups had 100% fertilization success from fertility study. Suggestively, caffeine treatment for 4 weeks could impair body, reproductive organs weight, sperm characteristics, LH/FSH level, and also testicular cyto-architecture. Effects appeared, however, reversible after caffeine withdrawal.

  14. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa; Latifat Olubukola Orekoya; Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachtaindica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results: The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions: Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  15. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  16. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi; Omotayo; Tom; Ashafal; Latifat; Olubukola; Orekoya; Musa; Toyin; Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the loxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica(A-indica)at 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats.Methods:Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five(A-F.)of ten animals each.Animals in Group A(control)were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50,100,200 and 300mg/kg body weight.Results:The extract did not significantly(P>0.05)alter the levels of albumin,total protein,red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell,platelets,serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly(P<0.05).In contrast,the final body weights,absolute weights of the liver,kidney,lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios,serum globulins,total and conjugated bilirubin,serum cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly.The spleen-body weight ratio,alkaline phosphatase,alanine and aspartate transaminases,sodium,potassium,calcium,feed and water intake were altered at specific doses.Conclusions:Overall,the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals.Therefore,the ethanolic extract of A.indica stem bark at the doses of 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  17. SUBCHRONIC MANCOZEB TREATEMENT INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY VIA OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE WISTAR RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, E; Aiche, M A; Chouabbia, A; Boulakoud, M S

    2014-01-01

    Mancozeb is a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is widely used in agriculture to control a broad variety of fungal infections of both vegetables and ornamental plants. The present study has been carried out to investigate the possible effect of mancozeb on animal the oxidative stress and some of the biochemical markers in male Wistar rats. In this experiment, adult male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were treated per os for 4 weeks with two different doses of 800 and 1200 mg/kg per day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in all treated groups compared to control ones. It has been observed a significant increase in the fresh weight of liver in individuals of both doses. Moreover, mancozeb exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in group treated with 1200 and 800 mg/kg/day. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity underwent a significant (p < 0.05) increase in both groups. The obtained observations clearly reveal hepatotoxic effects of mancozeb in rats and constitute, therefore, an environmental health risks to living organisms.

  18. Visit ALEPH experiment on the LEP collider by twenty-eight young scientists chosen to represent their respective countries

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    Following an international meeting of secondary school pupils on the theme of "Future Scientists: Women and Men" in Paris on 23 and 24 April. The aim of this meeting, which was organised by UNESCO, was to encourage young people, and girls in particular, to choose scientific studies and careers. Twenty-eight young scientists chosen to represent their respective countries visited the CERN site this week following an international meeting of secondary school pupils on the theme of "Future Scientists: Women and Men" in Paris on 23 and 24 April. The aim of this meeting, which was organised by UNESCO, was to encourage young people, and girls in particular, to choose scientific studies and careers.

  19. Acute social defeat does not alter cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding in male Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek K D; Meerlo, Peter; Ettrup, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    of stress on this receptor subtype. In this study, we therefore assessed acute and long-term changes in 5HT2A R binding after social defeat stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to social defeat by placing them in the home cage of an aggressive, dominant Long Evans rat. Acute social defeat...

  20. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  1. Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibiyeye Yetunde Rukayat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B. The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.

  2. Biochemical Effects Of Aluminum On Some Selected Serum Enzymes Of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueche

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals are widely found in our environment and humans are exposed to them via water contaminated air food and soil. Aluminum AL belongs to this group of toxic metals. Its neurological effects are well documented but effects on acid and alkaline phosphatases are poorly studied and this the essence of this study. Toxicity of aluminum was investigated based on the elevation of acid and alkali phosphatases in serum of male Wistar albino rats after days 7 and 14 of aluminum 0.38 3.8 and 38mgkg body weight administration respectively. The results showed significant increase p0.05 in serum acid phosphatase in the test animals given 38kgkg after days 14 while serum alkali phosphatase increased significantly p 0.05 in the test animals given 3.8 and 38 mgkg after days 7 and 14 when compared to the control animals. However lower dose 0.38mgkg showed increase in both serum acid and alkali phosphatases respectively but were statistically non-significant p0.05 at 7 and 14 as compared to control animals.

  3. Modulatory Effect of Erythrina vareigata on Experimental Hyperlipidaemia in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mangathayaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina vareigata is a medium sized quick growing tree found distributed in deciduous forests throughout India. Its leaves are eaten as a pot herb and different parts of the plant have folkloric reputation as an anti inflammatory in India, China and South east Asia. Bark, wood, root and flowers are richly represented by isoflavones, pterocarpans and biphenyls. Current investigations were aimed at evaluating the hypolipidaemic activity of this popular hypolipidaemic siddha drug. Its nutritive value was estimated by standard reported methods. Ethyl acetate extract of the dried leaves were analyzed for total phenol content by Folin Ciocalteau and Titanium tetrachloride method. Its in vitro anti oxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, NO and trichloroacetic acid based reducing power method. Male wistar rats were subjected to high fat diet induced (HFD hyperlipidaemia concurrent with extract administration for 60 days. While normal control group received standard pellet diet, Positive control group was on HFD only. At the end of experimentation, blood was collected for serum estimation of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic index. The extract had a high total phenol content, beneficially altered lipid parameters and reduced body weight of experimental animals. The leaves are rich in protein, minerals, vitamins and low in carbohydrate and fat. Anti oxidant activity of the polyphenols present in the extract might be mediating the observed hypoplipidaemia. This study validated the traditional medicine claims of its anti obesity effect as well as folkloric tutelage of consumption of leaves as a green vegetable.

  4. Ursolic acid attenuates oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma induction by diethylnitrosamine in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Renganathan; Priya, D Kalpana Deepa; Gunassekaran, G R; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary cancer of the liver in Asian countries. For more than a decade natural dietary agents including fruits, vegetables and spices have drawn a great deal of attention in the prevention of diseases, preferably cancer. Ursolic acid is a natural triterpenoid widely found in food, medicinal herbs, apple peel and other products it has been extensively studied for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursolic acid in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Antioxidant status was assessed by alterations in level of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. Damage to plasma membranes was assessed by levels of membrane and tissue ATPases. Liver tissue was homogenized and utilized for estimation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and glycoproteins. Anticoagulated blood was utilized for erythrocyte membrane isolation. Oral administration of UA 20 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 weeks decreased the levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls at a significance of p< 0.05. Activities of membrane and tissue ATPases returned to normal after UA administration. Levels of glycoproteins were also restored after treatment. Histopathological observations were recorded. The findings from the above study suggest the effectiveness of UA in reducing the oxidative stress mediated changes in liver of rats. Since UA has been found to be a potent antioxidant, it can be suggested as an excellent chemopreventive agent in overcoming diseases like cancer which are mediated by free radicals.

  5. Chronic effect of antidopaminergic drugs or estrogen on male Wistar rat lactotrophs and somatotrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of antidopaminergic agents on the somatotrophs in the presence of hyperprolactinemia. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: a control group and five groups chronically treated (60 days with haloperidol, fluphenazine, sulpiride, metoclopramide or estrogen. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs were identified by immunohistochemistry and the data are reported as percent of total anterior pituitary cells counted. The drugs significantly increased the percentage of lactotrophs: control (mean ± SD 21.3 ± 4.4, haloperidol 27.8 ± 2.2, fluphenazine 34.5 ± 3.6, sulpiride 32.7 ± 3.5, metoclopramide 33.4 ± 5.5 and estrogen 42.4 ± 2.8. A significant reduction in somatotrophs was observed in animals treated with haloperidol (23.1 ± 3.0, fluphenazine (22.1 ± 1.1 and metoclopramide (24.2 ± 3.0 compared to control (27.3 ± 3.8, whereas no difference was observed in the groups treated with sulpiride (25.0 ± 2.2 and estrogen (27.1 ± 2.8. In the groups in which a reduction occurred, this may have simply been due to dilution, secondary to lactotroph hyperplasia. In view of the duplication of the percentage of prolactin-secreting cells, when estrogen was applied, the absence of a reduction in the percent of somatotrophs suggests a replication effect on this cell population. These data provide additional information about the direct or indirect effect of drugs which, in addition to interfering with the dopaminergic system, may act on other pituitary cells as well as on the lactotrophs.

  6. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

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    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  7. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G(1)-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  9. Fructose-Drinking Water Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Ultrastructural Alteration of Hepatocyte Mitochondria in Male Wistar Rat

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    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the complications of the metabolic syndrome. It encompasses a wide range of disease spectrum from simple steatosis to liver cirrhosis. Structural alteration of hepatic mitochondria might be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Aims. In the present study, we used a newly established model of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male Wistar rats in order to investigate the ultrastructural changes in hepatic mitochondria that occur with fructose consumption and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis. Methods. The concentration of fructose-drinking water (FDW used in this study was 20%. Six male Wistar rats were supplemented with FDW 20% for eight weeks. Body composition and metabolic parameters were measured before and after 8 weeks of FDW 20%. Histomorphology of the liver was evaluated and ultrastructural changes of mitochondria were assessed with transmission electron micrograph. Results. After 8 weeks of fructose consumption, the animals developed several features of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, fructose consumption led to the development of macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, such as increase in mitochondrial size, disruption of the cristae, and reduction of matrix density. Conclusion. We conclude that in male Wistar rat 8-week consumption of FDW 20% leads to NAFLD likely via mitochondrial structural alteration.

  10. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

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    Glynis Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post

  11. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

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    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

    2015-08-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.

  12. Ranitidine treatment inducing methemoglobinemia in male Wistar rats Metemoglobinemia induzida pela ranitidina em ratos

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    Wilson Roberto Malfará

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug idiosyncrasy is an adverse event of unknown etiology that occurs in a small fraction of people taking a drug. The histamine-2 (H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine causes idiosyncratic reactions in patients. To investigate the hypothesis that ranitidine could induce hematological toxic effects, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (ip to two of six groups of 200-220 g male Wistar rats (n=6. Group I received as single dose of saline solution (NaCl, 200 µL Group II received 200 µL of NaCl, ip, at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, Group III (controls of the vehicle received as single dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 200µL, ip, Group IV (controls of the vehicle received 200 µL of DMSO, ip, at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, Group V received a single dose of 100 mg/kg of ranitidine in 200 µL of DMSO ip, Group VI received 50 mg/kg of ranitidine, in 200 µL of DMSO, ip, at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Erythrograms, leucograms were measured; percent methemoglobin content of the blood was analyzed spectophotometrically. Methemoglobinemia increased to a significant extent following ranitidine treatment, in both study groups. White blood cell and neutrophil counts showed a discrete reduction following either regime of treatment. A marginal mobilization of the neutrophil pool probably occured. Following the multiple dose regime, leukocyte counts increased, but their distribution maintenance profile remained the same. The administration of ranitidine to rats induces methemoglobinemia in the administered doses, suggesting that from a certain concentration and dosage scheme the substance can be methemeglobinemia inductor.A idiossincrasia a fármacos é um evento adverso de origem desconhecida, que acontece em poucas pessoas. É conhecido que a ranitidina, um antagonista de receptores H2, causa reações idiossincrásicas. Para investigar uma possível indução da ranitidina em relação a hemotoxicidade, o fármaco foi administrado intraperitonealmente (i.p. em dois de seis

  13. Características ultra-estruturais do nó sinoatrial de rato Wistar Superstructural features of the wistar strain male rats' sinoatrial node (SAN

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    Carlos Alberto Mandarim de Lacerda

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available As características ultra-estruturais do nó sinoatrial (NSA de 5 ratos machos da variedade Wistar, com 3 meses de idade, foram estudadas por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. Fragmento pequeno, contendo a região do NSA e área adjacente do átrio direito do coração, foi retirado e fixado em glutaraldeído 2,5% e processado de acordo com técnica convencional para MET. A morfologia do nó sinoatrial de ratos é semelhante a de outros mamíferos. O NSA é uma estrutura anatômica independente do miocárdio atrial, constituído por células típicas (miócitos nodais, células de transição e, principalmente, células nodais imersos em matriz extracelular, na qual predominam fibras colágenas, fibroblastos e nervosThe superstructural features of five Wistar strain male rats' sinoatrial node (SAN at 3-mo-old were studied through transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Small fragments with the regions containing the SAN were cut off, fixed in glutaraldehyde 2.5% and processed according to the conventional technique for TEM. The morphology of the sinoatrial node of the rats is similar as found in other mammals. The SAN is an independent anatomic structure of the atrial myocardial, constituted of typical cells (nodal myocytes, transition cells and nodal cells principally immersed in the extra cellular matrix where collagen fibers, fibroblasts and nerve predominate

  14. Morphometric analysis of the phrenic nerve in male and female Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR

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    A.R. Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventilatory differences between rat strains and genders have been described but the morphology of the phrenic nerve has not been investigated in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats. A descriptive and morphometric study of the phrenic nerves of male (N = 8 and female (N = 9 SHR, and male (N = 5 and female (N = 6 WKY is presented. After arterial pressure and heart rate recordings, the phrenic nerves of 20-week-old animals were prepared for epoxy resin embedding and light microscopy. Morphometric analysis performed with the aid of computer software that took into consideration the fascicle area and diameter, as well as myelinated fiber profile and Schwann cell nucleus number per area. Phrenic nerves were generally larger in males than in females on both strains but larger in WKY compared to SHR for both genders. Myelinated fiber numbers (male SHR = 228 ± 13; female SHR = 258 ± 4; male WKY = 382 ± 23; female WKY = 442 ± 11 for proximal right segments and density (N/mm²; male SHR = 7048 ± 537; female SHR = 10355 ± 359; male WKY = 9457 ± 1437; female WKY = 14351 ± 1448 for proximal right segments were significantly larger in females of both groups and remarkably larger in WKY than SHR for both genders. Strain and gender differences in phrenic nerve myelinated fiber number are described for the first time in this experimental model of hypertension, indicating the need for thorough functional studies of this nerve in male and female SHR.

  15. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  16. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

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    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Las ratas Wistar son una de las cepas más populares y utilizadas cotidianamente para la investigación en el laboratorio sirviendo como una importante herramienta de investigación, por lo que, exige el control estricto de variables como la edad, el sexo y el peso corporal, y de esta forma poder extrapolar los resultados al modelo humano. Objetivo: Desarrollar curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar en función de la edad cronológica y la maduración somática desde una perspectiva no-invasiva. Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 731 ratas machos Wistar de forma transversal. Se evaluó la edad, peso corporal y la superficie corporal. Se utilizó el método LMS para construir curvas de percentil en función del peso y la maduración somática. Resultados: Las curvas de crecimiento físico propuestas sirven para realizar el seguimiento del crecimiento físico y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional de ratas machos de cepa Wistar. Los puntos de corte prepuestos son: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 y P97. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los científicos de diversas áreas puedan usar tales referencias, con el objetivo de extrapolar las fases del crecimiento somático de la rata de laboratorio al modelo humano y es una alternativa no-invasiva para valorar el crecimiento y el estado nutricional.

  17. Hepatoprotective, Antihyperlipidemic, and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Diabetic-induced Damage in Male Wistar Rats

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    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I.; Aboua, Yapo G.; Chegou, Novel N.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of individuals with diabetes is increasing daily, and diabetes is presently estimated to affect about 422 million adults worldwide. Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are not without severe side effects, accessibility, and affordability. This study elucidates the potential effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves extract to manage and treat diabetes induced in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12/group): NC – nondiabetic rats (positive control), MO – nondiabetic-treated rats, DM – diabetic rats (negative control), DM + MO – diabetic-treated rats. Hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameters as well as antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed. Levels of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol were evaluated. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 42 days showed a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme markers and normalized lipid profile parameters in the serum compared to normal control group. Treatment also increased the level of antioxidant capacity and alleviated inflammatory biomarkers of the liver. Histology sections of the liver tissue showed protective effect of MO in treated rats. Conclusions: MO showed hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects against streptozotocin-induced hepatotoxicity. Histological section demonstrated specific alterations in the liver of the diabetic and nondiabetic male Wistar rats while MO treatment revealed improvement in liver alterations. Abbreviations Used: IL 1: Interleukin 1, IL 6: Interleukin 16, MCP-1: Monocyte chemotactic protein, TNF-α: Tumor Necrotic factor alpha, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, MO: Moringa oleifera, STZ: Streptozotocin, SRC: Standard rat chow, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance

  18. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats.

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    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of free radical formation due to mobile phone exposure and effect on fertility pattern in 70-day-old male Wistar rats (sham exposed and exposed). Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 35 days to mobile phone frequency. The specific absorption rate was estimated to be 0.9 W/kg. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa.

  19. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

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    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×10(6)), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  20. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

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    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C

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    Mohammed M. Sulaiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg; group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg; group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50, while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 15 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed by jugular venesection after light chloroform anesthesia, and sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone concentrations. Pituitary gland and the testicular tissues of each rat were quickly dissected, removed and assayed for the levels of glycogen and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity. The right caudal epididymis was evaluated for spermatozoa concentrations. The results showed that decrease in concentrations of spermatozoa, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, testicular glycogen, and inhibition of pituitary gland and testicular AChE activities caused by CPF were ameliorated by vitamin C. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 23-30

  2. Impairments in testicular function indices in male wistar rats: a possible mechanism for infertility induction by Xylopia aethiopica fruit extract

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    Ologhaguo Macstephen Adienbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accumulating evidence about alterations in male fertility necessitates the need to screen more medicinal plants for their effect on male reproductive functions. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica on testicular functions in males using wistar rats as models. Methods: Forty eight adult male rats, randomly divided into four groups of 12 each, were used for the study. Group 1 (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 (test groups. Daily oral doses of 0.5, 2.0 and 10.0 mg/kg b.w. of hydro-methanol extract were given to the test groups for 30 days followed by 30 days withdrawal. From each group, 6 animals were sacrificed on days 31 and 61 of the study and samples collected: Testes and epididymis were each weighed; blood was assayed for serum testosterone; testes processed for tissue biochemical studies. Results: Results show significant (P <0.05 reductions in the weight of reproductive organs, serum testosterone; testicular glycogen, cholesterol, protein and malondialdehyde; while testicular superoxide dismutaase increased. Conclusions: It was concluded that Xylopia aethiopica impairs testicular functions in rats and therefore fertility in males. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 71-75

  3. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on age-related hepatocyte changes in old male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2004-10-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs, such as the liver, and this process might be due to damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis shows a reduction with age, and this fact could be associated with some age-related changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Two and twenty two month-old male and female Wistar rats were used. Old rats were treated with human recombinant GH for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated from the liver and cultured, and different parameters were measured in cells and medium. Plasma IGF-1 was also measured. Aging significantly decreased plasma IGF-1 in males. In females, plasma IGF-1 was also reduced, but not significantly. GH treatment restored plasma IGF-1 levels to values similar to young males. Aging was associated with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate (cGMP), as well as a reduction in adenosyl triphosphate (ATP) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. GH administration partially prevented all these changes in males. In females, some of the parameters were significantly improved by GH (ATP, CO, cGMP), while others showed a tendency to improvement, although differences did not reach significance. In conclusion, GH administration could exert beneficial effects against age-related changes in hepatocytes, mainly in males.

  4. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

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    Asuntha G

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of ammonium perfluorobutyrate in rats: Twenty-eight-day and ninety-day oral gavage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential 28-day and 90-day oral toxicity studies were performed in male and female rats with ammonium perfluorobutyrate (NH4+PFBA) at doses up to 150 and 30 mg/kg/d, respectively. Ammonium perfluorooctanoate was used as a comparator at a dose of 30 mg/kg/d in the 28-d study. Fe...

  6. Influence of melatonin therapy and orchiectomy on T cell subsets in male Wistar rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Fabricia H; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Caetano, Leony C; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Luana N; Dos Santos, Carla D; Alonso Toldo, Míriam P; do Prado, José C

    2009-10-01

    Gonadal steroids exert an important influence on the host immune response during infection. Changes resulting from the absence or replacement of gonadal hormones may represent a distinct evolution of a particular parasite. Taking into account the greater susceptibility of males to parasites, the magnitude of the immune response seems to depend on the interaction of many hormones that will act synergistically with other immune cells. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of the luck of male sex hormones due to orchiectomy, and the influence of oral administration of melatonin on the immune response of male Wistar rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. The percentage of CD3(+) CD4(+) and CD3(+) CD8(+) lymphocyte T cell subsets were evaluated using flow cytometry and the measurement of IL-2 and IL-12. For all parameters examined, a synergistic action of melatonin and orchiectomy on the host's immune response was observed, promoting an effective response against the parasite during the acute phase of infection. These results offer insight into other possibilities for possibly controlling T. cruzi proliferation through melatonin therapy and also the stimulatory effects on host's immune response triggered by the absence of male gonadal steroids during the acute phase of infection.

  7. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

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    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  8. Standardised extract of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) increases aphrodisiac potential besides being safe in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Singhal, S; Kumar, N; Rao, C M; Sumalatha, S; Dave, J; Dave, R; Nandakumar, K

    2016-12-01

    The standardised extract of root of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) was evaluated for its aphrodisiac potential and safety profile on reproductive system. Wistar albino rats were trained to provide sexual experience under a dim red light (10 W) in a glass tank. Male and female rats were placed periodically in the glass tank in a particular order, that is male followed by introduction of the receptive female. Dosing of extract was carried out for 54 days at 125 and 250 mg kg(-1) p.o to male rats. On 14th and 28th days, the animals were observed from the cage side for sexual behaviours. Safed musli at both dose levels enhanced sexual vigour and libido which might be useful for treatment of sexual dysfunction in male till 28th day. Safety profile was assessed after 54 days of drug treatment, where both doses showed an increase in sperm count and increase in sperm motility. Thus, it can be stated that both doses possessed the spermatogenic potential, which would be highly beneficial in treating oligospermia or low sperm count. After 54 days of study, there was increase in sperm abnormality (%) at both doses, but not more than 10%, which indicated that this formulation will not induce infertility.

  9. Curcumin alters motor coordination but not total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of adolescent male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman; Taufik Nur Yahya; Christiana Tri Nuryana; Rina Susilowati

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS:The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups,namely ethanol,ethanol-curcumin,and control groups.The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and curcumin extract given per oral; the control group received saline injection and oral water.The treatment was carried out daily for one month,after which the motor coordination performance of the rats was examined using revolving drum apparatus at test days 1,8,and 15.The rats were finally sacrificed and the cerebellum of the rats was further processed for stereological analysis.The estimate of the total number of Purkinje cells was calculated using physical fractionator method.RESULTS:The ethanol-curcumin group performed better than both ethanol and control groups in the motor coordination ability at day 8 of testing (P< 0.01).No Purkinje cell loss was observed as a result of one month intraperitoneal injection of ethanol.CONCLUSION:Curcumin may exert beneficial effects on the motor coordination of adolescent rats exposed to ethanol via undetermined hormetic mechanisms.

  10. Pharmacological validation of the free-exploratory paradigm in male Wistar rats: A proposed test of trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Souza, Thiago Henrique; Goes, Tiago Costa; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2015-08-01

    The free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety for both mice and rats. However, its pharmacological validation has only been carried out for the mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to pharmacologically validate FEP for Wistar rats, by testing the effects of clinically established anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs, in four different experiments. In all experiments, male Wistar rats were first tested in FEP to be categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low). Then, only medium trait anxiety rats were selected to be tested again in FEP, two weeks later, after being pharmacologically treated, according to each experiment as follows: Experiment I: 0.5mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) or vehicle; Experiment II: 20mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or vehicle; Experiment III: 5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX5) or vehicle: and Experiment IV: 0.5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX0.5) or vehicle. As a group, the results showed that PTZ and FLX5 increased levels of trait anxiety and reduced locomotor activity, whereas DZP and FLX0.5 decreased levels of trait anxiety, without impairing locomotor activity. These results demonstrate that FEP for rats is able to predict clinical anxiolytic and anxiogenic activities of different drugs, including fluoxetine, which is believed to present a dual effect on anxiety. Therefore, this paradigm can be proposed as an effective method for testing potential trait anxiety-reducing drugs, in rats.

  11. Twenty-eight Cases of Neuritis of Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of Thigh Treated by Acupuncture and Point-Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖明扬

    2001-01-01

    @@Neuritis of lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh, also called meralgia paresthetica, is a commonly encountered disease in clinical practice. The author has treated 28 cases of meralgia paresthetica since 1996 by acupuncture plus point-injection with satisfactory results. A report follows. Clinical Data Among the 28 cases, 13 were male and 15 female. Their age ranged from 24 to 72 years, most of the patients being 35 to 50 years; the duration of illness varied from one month to ten years and 6 cases were affected on left side, 8 cases on right side and 14 cases on both sides.

  12. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

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    R Vahdani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative control group received 1% ethylene glycol in water during the study. The low dose and high dose preventive groups received 750 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of Allium Jesdianum with 1% ethylene glycol every day. The 24-hour urine samples of rats were collected on days 1, 15 and 30 of the study. Then, under anesthesia, blood samples were taken directly from the heart. All rats were then killed and pathology of kidneys was checked for crystals of calcium oxalates in renal tubules. Data analysis was done by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA. Results: The number of calcium oxalate crystals in the negative control group (18.7 ±26.1, the low dose preventive group (5.3±8.2 and high dose preventive group (80.6±82.8 in comparison to the healthy control group were increased and this difference in the high dose preventive group and healthy control group was significant (p <0.05 . Urinary oxalate in the 30th day was more in both preventive groups and negative control group in comparison to healthy control group and this diference was statistically significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that Allium Jesdianum doesn't have a preventive effect on the formation of renal stones, and it also increases calcium oxalate crystals in kidney of male wistar rats that need more studies.

  13. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  14. Administration of IκB-kinase inhibitor PS1145 enhances apoptosis in DMBA-induced tumor in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmani, R S; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Sahoo, Aditya P; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Saxena, Shikha; Kumar, Rajiv; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), a key anti-apoptotic factor, plays a critical role in tumor cell growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB is normally suppressed in the cytoplasm due to its association with a natural inhibitor molecule IκB. Phosphorylation of the IκB at Ser 32 and Ser 36 by the IκB kinase complex (IKK) marks the degradation of the molecule by 26S proteasome. As NF-κB is constitutively activated in most of the tumor cells, inhibition of the activities of IKK may significantly sensitize the tumor cells to apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IκB kinase-specific blocker PS1145 on DMBA-induced skin tumor of male Wistar rats. We examined the apoptotic effect of PS1145 on DMBA-induced tumor by various histopathological and molecular techniques. Our results demonstrate the significant expression of major pro-apoptotic genes like caspases 2, 3, 8, 9, and p53 in PS1145-treated tumor bearing group at mRNA levels as well as significant (P tumor progression, mitotic, AgNOR, and PCNA indices were significantly reduced in PS1145 treatment groups as compared to PBS control on day 28 of post-treatment. Furthermore, significant increase in TUNEL positive nuclei and observation of peculiar apoptotic nuclei in transmission electron microscopy were seen in PS1145 treatment group. We conclude that intravenous application of PS1145 promotes direct apoptosis in DMBA-induced skin tumor in male Wistar rats by blocking NF-κB and VEGF activities.

  15. Effects of propoxur on male fertility in wistar rat exposed neonatally

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    Augustave Kenfack

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propoxur is a carbamate pesticide widely used in crop and foodstuff protection. They are known to cause a wide variety of symptoms in animals. Methods: Twenty four young male rats were exposed to 0.00, 1.73, 2.60 and 5.20 mg/kg body weight through oral intubation for 90 days. Results: The testis weight increased significantly (P 0.05 but the percentage of sperm motility decreased significantly (P 0.05 change was observed between the control and treated males for the litter size, viability rate and sex-ratio. Conclusions: Despite the impairment of seminal epithelia and sperm characteristics, male rats orally exposed to the studied doses of propoxur maintained their fertility at the 90th day of treatment. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 898-902

  16. Persistence of the reproductive toxicity of chlorpiryphos-ethyl in male Wistar rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Augustave Kenfack; Tah Patience Nain; Pierre Kamtchouing; Joseph Tchoumbou; Narcisse Bertin Vemo; Ferdinand Ngoula; Paul Dsir Womeni Dzeufiet; Omer Bb Ngouateu; Judith Kegne Chombong; Guylne Marie Zambou Zeukeng; Isabelle Leinyuy Nyuysemo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of chlorpiryphos-ethyl (CE) on male fertility. Methods:Rats were gavaged daily from 30 to 120 days old with four doses of CE (10.50;5.25;3.50 and 0.00 mg/kg) and thereafter followed up for 90 additional days. Following this period of observation, each male rat was submitted to a fertility test with two virgin females. Male were then sacrificed and organs collected while females were followed up till delivery. Results:The weights of the testis and epididymis were lower (P<0.05) in rats treated with 10.50 mg/kg CE dose compared to controls. A decrease in the number of sperm per cauda epididymis was recorded in rat given the highest dose of CE with respect to the control value. The sperm motility was lower (P<0.05) in all CE-treated groups compared to the controls. Severe histological abnormalities were observed in testes of treated rats. The males exposed to the highest dose of CE did not produce any offspring. Conclusion:The effects of CE on reproductive system were persistent 90 days after the end of exposure.

  17. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

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    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  18. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide.

  19. Safety Evaluation of Aqueous Extract of Garcinia Kola Seeds in Male Wistar Rats

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    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garcinia kola seed is consumed indiscriminately in Nigeria without recourse to its potential toxicity. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds on selected tissues of male rats. Methods: Thirty male rats (215.00 ± 18.58 g were assigned into four groups: A, B, C and D which received 0.5 ml of distilled water, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively, once daily for 7 days. Biochemical indices of organ damage and toxicity were determined using standard methods. Results: The extract significantly (P0.05 altered. Conclusion: The treatment related alterations in the present study indicates that the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight caused functional toxicity to the organs of the animals and thus not safe as an oral remedy.

  20. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (P<0.05) the MF whereas the ML was decreased by all the doses of the extract. MF and ML were not altered during the second observatory period whereas the 50 mg/kg body weight increased these parameters during the third observatory period. Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically untrue. This study has refuted the claim that one of the rationales for consuming the seeds

  1. Investigation of Peripheral Effects of Citrus Limon Essential Oil on Somatic Pain in Male Wistar Rats: Role of Histaminergic System

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    Ali Mojtahedin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: One of the plants used in traditional medicine is lemon which has analgesic effect. However, little research has been performed on the analgesic effect of lemon and mechanisms of action with an emphasis on neurotransmitters systems. Therefore, the present study set to investigate the peripheral effects of lemon essential oil on somatic pain using formalin test with an emphasis on histaminergic system in male Wistar rats. Materiala & Methods: Sixty male rats weighing approximately 200-250g and aged 14-16 wk were divided into 10 groups: sham (Salin + Formalin 1% intraplantar, three treatment groups with lemon essential oil (EO (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, three treatment groups with Chlorpheniramine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, 1 treatment group with Histamine (10 mg/kg, 1 pretreatment group with Chlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg + EO (50mg/kg, and 1 pretreatment group with Histamine (10 mg/kg + EO (50 mg/kg. Formalin test was used to assess somatic pain. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA. Results:  Intraperitoneal injection of lemon essential oil reduced the pain response induced by formalin in both phases (P<0.05. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine and lemon essential oil enhanced the analgesic response in both phases (P<0.05. Conclusion: Lemon essential oil had analgesic effects, probably caused by the histaminergic system.

  2. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

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    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  3. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L. on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Kooti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, volume (5, issue (2, year 2015, an article entitled “Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats” was published and the papers like this should be appreciated. However, the paper has some drawbacks which if not resolve, could be misleading for researchers who tend to use it or do research in its direction. So, with all due respect to the research team, we decided to evaluate the paper ambiguities in order to improve the quality of future articles.

  4. Endosulfan induced cell death in Sertoli-germ cells of male Wistar rat follows intrinsic mode of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Divya; Narayan, R; Saxena, D K; Chowdhuri, D Kar

    2014-01-01

    Health of germ cells may affect production of quality gametes either due to endogenous or exogenous factors. Pesticides are among the exogenous factors that can enter the organisms through various routes of exposure and also can affect the reproductive system of an organism. Endosulfan is an organochlorine cyclodiene pesticide used widely for controlling agricultural pests. It has been shown to induce reproductive dysfunctions such as sperm abnormalities, reduced intracellular spermatid count in exposed organisms. Germ cells being the progenitor cells for male gametes and Sertoli cells as their nourishing cells, we examined whether endosulfan induces cell death in Sertoli-germ cells of male rats. Sertoli-germ cells, isolated from 28 d old male Wistar rats, were exposed to endosulfan (2.0, 20.0 and 40.0 μg mL(-1)) for 24-72 h. Cytotoxicity, endosulfan concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative stress parameters were measured in these cells in the absence or presence of endosulfan for the above mentioned exposure periods and subsequently, cell death endpoints were measured. We detected endosulfan in the exposed cells and demonstrated increased cell death in exposed Sertoli-germ cells as evidenced by a significant increase in annexin-V staining, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, caspase-9 and -3 activities and BAD and PARP cleavage activities and DNA ladder formation along with non-significant increase in autophagic cell death. The study suggests that endosulfan can cause cell death in exposed Sertoli-germ cells due to higher oxidative damage with the activation of intrinsic cell death pathway which may eventually affect the production of quality gametes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone administration on body composition and vascular function and structure in old male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carmen; Cruzado, Mar; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Gil-Loyzaga, Pablo; Lahera, Vicente; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2005-01-01

    The process of ageing affects negatively both cardiovascular system and body composition. On the other hand, the hormones of the somatotrophic axis, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), whose production is reduced by age, are involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH on body composition, vascular function and structure in old male rats. Old (20 months) and adult (4 months) male Wistar rats were used. One group of old animals was treated with GH for 4 weeks. Periepididimary fat weight, Specific Gravity Index (SGI), dose responses to Acetylcholine (ACh), Isoproterenol (Iso), Phenylephrine (Phe) and ACh in the presence of NG-nitro-L: -arginine metylester (L-NAME; ACh + L-NAME), as well as vascular morphology in aortic rings, were studied. Old rats showed increased fat weight and decreased SGI as compared to adult animals. GH increased SGI and tended to reduce fat weight. Old rats showed an impairment in the vasodilator response to ACh and Iso; GH significantly improved the vasodilatation induced by Iso, whereas the response to ACh was not significantly enhanced by GH treatment. There were no significant differences between adult and old rats in the contractile response to Phe, and GH did not show any effect. Contraction induced by ACh + L-NAME was higher in old rats as compared to adults, and treatment with GH significantly reduced this response. Aortic media area was increased in old rats, and GH administration reduced this parameter. In conclusion, GH shows beneficial effects on body composition, as well as on vascular function and morphology in old male rats.

  6. Malathion-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats: biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flehi-Slim, Imen; Chargui, Issam; Boughattas, Sonia; El Mabrouk, Aymen; Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Neffati, Fadwa; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Haouas, Zohra; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2015-11-01

    The increasing use of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment constitutes an ecotoxicological hazard especially for humans and non-target animals. Hereby, we analyzed the toxic effects of malathion on the histological structure of liver and biochemical parameters in male rats. Three groups received daily different amounts of malathion: 1/1000, 1/100, and 1/10 LD50 for 30 days. The weights of treated rat's liver have increased. Analyzed tissues showed centrilobular and sinusoidal congestion, hepatocyte hypertrophy, cellular vacuolization, anucleated hepatocytes, depletion of organelles affecting the majority of cells, and presence of necrotic foci into the hepatic parenchyma. Histological sections of the liver showed important hepatocyte glycogen storage. We conclude that malathion stimulates the filing of glycogen in a dose-dependent manner. Biochemical parameters showed that alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels increased in the treated groups when the level of total protein decreased in intoxicated groups.

  7. Effect of atorvastatin on orthodontic tooth movement in male wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein MirHashemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups.The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p0.05.According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

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    Arash Omidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24 were randomly assigned into four groups including: I healthy, receiving normal saline; II Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg; III pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg; IV pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg. Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats.

  9. Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty Eight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is also true that each culture affects their writers' language and style differently in works ... Thus it calls for a cautious and positive use of words .... Memory is also fragrance from withered flowers. Memory is also the music from broken guitars.

  10. Efficacy of vitamin C and ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum in promoting fertility in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Ashamu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigates the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum (EES, vitamin C (VC, and EES + VC in promoting fertility and finding a possible link between their profertility effects and their antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats [Body weight (BW 186.56 ± 0.465 g] were randomly analyzed into four groups of ten rats each: Control, EES G (EES only, VC G (vitamin C only, and EES + VC G (EES in conjunction with vitamin C. Control was given 5 ml/kg BW/day of normal saline orally; EES G was administered 0.3 g/kg BW/day of EES; VC G was administered 15 mg/kg BW/ day of VC; while EES + VC G was administered both 0.3 g/kg BW/day of EES and 15 mg/kg BW/day of VC. All treatments were for 10 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent-sample T test was used to analyze the obtained results. Results: The results obtained showed that EES, VC, and more importantly EES + VC are capable of significantly increasing BW gain, seminal parameters, testosterone level, and body antioxidant activities. Conclusions: These findings lead to the conclusion that EES + VC as well as ESS and VC promote fertility due to both their testosterone-increasing effects and their antioxidant effects.

  11. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

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    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  12. Gastric ulcer healing effect of wild honey and its combination with Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val.) Rhizome on male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I Ketut Adnyana; Joseph I.Sigit; Larasati A.Kusumawardani

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder in human at any ages.In this research,the antiulcer activity of wild honey produced by Apis dorsata,alone or in combination with Turmeric Rhizome,was evaluated in healing acute gastric ulcer.Male Wistar albino rats (150-250 g) were induced ulcers with aspirin at 405 mg/kg BW and ethanol.Antiulcer evaluation was done based on the gastric acidity,numbers and diameter of ulcers,ulcer index,healing ratio,histological examinations,and body weight.The results showed that the groups given honey alone,turmeric alone,and combination of turmeric-honey displayed significant ulcer healing compared to the control group.Ulcers in the group administered with combination of turmeric-wild honey was different significantly from the turmeric alone and wild honey alone groups with increased body weight in that group.The result showed that wild honey (2125 mg/kg BW) had the greatest activity in healing ulcers among other groups.The combination of turmeric-wild honey had a good activity in healing ulcers and increased the body weight of the group.

  13. Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats

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    Mongi Saoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p. daily methanol at a dose of 2.37 g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage.

  14. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

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    Stephan P Frankenfeld

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1 body weight once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX, and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and total superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  15. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

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    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  16. Effects of silver nanoparticle on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes of heart tissue in male wistar rats

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    Noushin Naghsh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The silver nanoparticles are important in many applications of nanoparticles on human health . The toxicity of silver nanoparticles are not well documented yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes in heart tissue.   Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 adult male wistar rats of 220±20gr were divided in to five groups including control and four experimental groups. The latter groups were injected intraperitoneally spherical nano silver particles of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm respectively for five consecutive days. Then three, eight and twelve days after the last injection, blood samples were collected and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was assayed . Also, tissue samples from the heart muscle were prepared and studied after staining with Hematoxiline-Eosine. Data of LDH activity was analyzed by One way- ANOVA- test and P-value of ≤ 0.05 were considered as significant.   Results : The result showed that different concentrations of silver nanoparticles have no significant effect on the lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.192 . T he histological study of the tissue after exposure to 400 ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles showed the start of primary apoptosis in heart tissue.   Conclusion: The LDH activity was not changed significantly after exposure to different concentration of silver nanoparticles, which shows the safety of these particles on LDH activity.

  17. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ANTIOXIDANT MINERALS AND VITAMINS IN WISTAR MALE RATS EXPOSED TO METHIONINE CONTAINING ACETAMINOPHEN FORMULATION

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    Adeniyi Francis A. A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of toxic and subtoxic doses of acetaminophen on antioxidant vitamins and minerals in male Wistar rats. Five groups served as the test groups and received different doses of the acetaminophenmethionine formulation in ratio 9:1. The sixth group served as the control and received only the vehicle: physiologic saline. At the end of 24 hours of exposure, blood was obtained from each rat through retro-orbital bleeding, the levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. Results showed that at 100 mg/kg BW level of exposure, niacin, vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium were significantly increased (p0.05 compared with controls. At both 350 and 1000 mgkg BW levels of exposure, all these antioxidant indices were significantly decreased (p0.05 at 350 mgkg BW (body weight level of exposure compared with the control group. The animals in 3000 mgkg BW and 5000 mgkg groups suffered 40% and 100% mortality respectively by the end of the 24th hour. This study therefore showed that acetaminophenmethionine formulation in the ratio of 9:1 may cause alteration of vital elements and biomolecules not only at toxic levels but also at tolerable level of 100 mgkg BW.

  18. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

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    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  19. Promotion of liver and kidney carcinogenesis by ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) in male Wistar rats.

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    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Doi, Yuko; Imai, Norio; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Tamano, Seiko; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2015-10-01

    Tumor-promoting effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) were investigated in a 2-stage carcinogenesis bioassay with regard to hepatic and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Male 6-week-old Wistar rats were given drinking water containing N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nitrosamine (EHEN), as an initiator, at a dose of 500 ppm for 2 weeks. Starting one week thereafter, the animals were administered ETBE at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg/day by gavage for 19 weeks from week 4 to 22. Necropsy of all rats was performed at week 23, and livers and kidneys were examined histopathologically. Incidences of hepatocellular adenomas, and those of combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were significantly elevated in rats given 1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE, but not 100‒500 mg/kg/day ETBE, and there was a significant increase in the average numbers of lesions. No significant differences in incidences and average numbers of renal tubule neoplasms were found in rats administered 100‒1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE. However, the average numbers of atypical tubule hyperplasias, considered to be preneoplastic lesions, were significantly increased in rats given ETBE at 1,000 mg/kg/day, but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses. Thus, these results imply that ETBE has hepatic and renal tumor-promoting activities that affect EHEN-induced carcinogenesis in male rats, and the no-observed-effect level is 500 mg/kg/day under the present experimental conditions.

  20. Comparison of Morphometric Aspects of Light and Electron Microscopy of the Hypoglossal Nerve between Young and Aged Male Wistar Rats

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    Mohsen Pourghasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Age-related changes occur in many different systems of the body. Many elderlypeople show dysphagia and dysphonia. This research was conducted to evaluatequantitatively the morphometrical changes of the hypoglossal nerve resulting from theaging process in young and aged rats.Materials and Methods: Through an experimental study ten male wistar rats (4 months: 5rats, 24 months: 5 rats were selected randomly from a colony of wistars in the UWC. Aftera fixation process and preparation of samples of the cervical portion of the hypoglossalnerve of these rats, light and electron microscopic imaging were performed. These imageswere evaluated according to the numbers and size of myelinated nerve fibers, nucleoli ofSchwann cells, myelin sheath thickness, axon diameter, and g ratio. All data were analyzedby Mann-Whitney, a non-parametric statistical test.Results: In light microscope, numbers of myelinated nerve fibers, the mean entire nerveperimeters, the mean entire nerve areas and the mean entire nerve diameters in youngand aged rats’ were not significantly different between the two groups.In electron microscope, numbers of myelinated axons, numbers of Schwann cell nucleoliand the mean g ratios of myelinated axon to Schwann cell in young and aged rats werenot significantly different. The myelinated fiber diameters, the myelin sheath thicknesses,myelinated axon diameters and the mean g ratio of axon diameter to myelinated fiberdiameter in young and aged fibers were significantly differentConclusion: The mean g ratio of myelinated nerve fibers of peripheral nerves stabilizes atthe level of 0.6 after maturation and persists without major change during adulthood. Thisratio of axon diameter to fiber diameter (0.6 is optimum for normal conduction velocity ofneural impulses. Our study indicated that the g ratio of myelinated nerve fiber of the hypoglossalnerve decreased prominently in aged rats and can be a cause of impairment innerve function in

  1. The Effect of Two Different Modes of Exercise Swimming and Vitamin C Supplementation on Anemia Indices in Male Wistar Rat

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    Fatemeh Lashkari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been shown that long term swimming exercise leads to anemia. Therefore the aim of the present study was the effect of vitamin C supplement and maximal and submaximal swimming exercise on anemia in without iron deficiency rats.Methods: For this purpose, 60 male wistar rats (6-8 week age and 170 -190 g weight were divided into 6 groups: 1: Control rats (Con, n=10 2: Vitamin C supplementation (Con+C, n=10 3: Submaximal swimming (S, n=10 4: Submaximal swimming + Vitamin C (S+C, n=10 5: Maximal swimming (M, n=10 and 6: Maximal swimming and Vitamin C (M+C, n=10. Swimming training lasted for 10 weeks (5 day per week for 60 min day−1. Rats in the vitamin C-treated groups drank water containing 0.1% Vitamin C. Submaximal and maximal exercise training carried out for 1and 3 hours per session. 5 cc blood sample was take from vena cava vein for the determine serum levels of anemia indices (serum iron, Ferritin, TIBC،Hct, Hb, reticulocytes, RBC, MCV، MCH، MCHC.Results: Statistical analysis showed that the serum iron, ferritin, TIBC and MCV were not significantly different between groups. Reticulocytes in Con+C and S+C groups decreased significantly. Also, RBC and Hct decreased significantly in S and S+C groups, but Hb increased in S group in compared with the other groups. In this regard, MCH and MCHC significantly increased in S and S+C groups.Conclusion: 10 week submaximal swimming exercise increased Hb, MCH and MCHC but have no effect on serum iron, Ferritin and TIBC in without iron deficiency rats. On the other hand, high intensity swimming training had no effect on anemia indices. 0.1 % Vitamin C supplement and swimming training despite an insignificant increased in ferritin has not effected on iron status in without iron deficiency rats.

  2. Assessing reproductive toxicity and antioxidant enzymes on beta asarone induced male Wistar albino rats: In vivo and computational analysis.

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    Benny, Blossom; George Priya Doss, C; Thirumal Kumar, D; Asha Devi, S

    2017-03-15

    Beta asarone is the major constituent of oil obtained from Acorus calamus, the Indian traditional medicine plant. Several studies have shown that beta asarone causes liver and cardiac damages but the reproductive toxicity is not well understood. The present study was initiated to investigate whether beta asarone has the potential to cause reproductive toxicity by inducing oxidative stress in the testis of male Wistar albino rats. For this study, the animals were divided into six groups: Group I was treated with saline (normal saline), Group II with DMSO (vehicle control) and Group III with cisplatin (10mg/kgb.wt.). Group IV, V and VI animals were administrated at three dose levels of beta asarone 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kgb.wt. The treatment was carried out for 14days and animals were sacrificed on 29(th) day and processed for sperm analysis, hormone assay, histopathological, and antioxidant enzymatic assays. We also used molecular docking studies to predict the binding nature of beta asarone with luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR). Beta asarone administered at a dose of 50mg/kgb.wt. was responsible for inducing certain noticeable degenerative changes in histopathological analysis of the tissue. This was supported by altered sperm morphology and hormonal variations when compared to the control groups. Antioxidant enzyme levels were also found to be decreased. This was further validated by molecular docking studies. The present study provides evidence that beta asarone administered at a dose of 50mg/kg b.wt. is capable enough in bringing about moderate amount of degenerative changes in rat testis and altered antioxidant status. Therefore provides a suitable evidence to prove that beta asarone causes reproductive toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

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    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  4. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

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    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saquib, Quaiser [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Attia, Sabry M. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Siddiqui, Maqsood A. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt); Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Giesy, John P. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 5B3 (Canada); Zoology Department and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 (United States); Musarrat, Javed, E-mail: musarratj1@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, AMU, Aligarh (India)

    2012-02-15

    Male Wistar rats exposed to a systemic organophosphorus insecticide, phorate [O,O-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorothioate] at varying oral doses of 0.046, 0.092 or 0.184 mg phorate/kg bw for 14 days, exhibited substantial oxidative stress, cellular DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-related p53, caspase 3 and 9 genes. The histopathological changes including the pyknotic nuclei, inflammatory leukocyte infiltrations, renal necrosis, and cardiac myofiber degeneration were observed in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of catalase and glutathione revealed significantly lesser activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tissues of phorate exposed rats. Furthermore, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in bone marrow cells confirmed phorate-induced oxidative stress. Significant DNA damage was measured through comet assay in terms of the Olive tail moment in bone marrow cells of treated animals as compared to control. Cell cycle analysis also demonstrated the G{sub 2}/M arrest and appearance of a distinctive SubG{sub 1} peak, which signified induction of apoptosis. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and caspase 3 and 9 genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, elucidated the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to cellular stress. Overall, the results suggest that phorate induces genetic alterations and cellular toxicity, which can adversely affect the normal cellular functioning in rats. -- Highlights: ► This is the first report on molecular toxicity of phorate in an in vivo test system. ► Phorate induces biochemical and histological changes in liver, kidney and heart. ► Rats treated with phorate exhibited DNA damage in bone marrow cells. ► Phorate induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and alters mitochondrial fluorescence. ► Phorate induces transcriptional changes and enhanced

  6. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a time-dependent effect of the diet composition on energy homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chow ad libitum (chow group) or a choice diet with saturated fat, a 30% sugar solution, chow and tap water. The choice diet was provided either with all components ad libitum (AL), with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and a 30% sugar solution, but with access to saturated fat only during the light period (LF), or with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and saturated fat, but access to a 30% sugar solution only during the light period (LS). Caloric intake and body weight gain were monitored during 31 days. Energy expenditure was measured in the third week in calorimetric cages. All rats on a choice diet showed hyperphagia and gained more body weight compared to the chow group. Within the choice diet groups, rats on the LS diet were most food efficient (i.e. gained most body weight per ingested calorie) and showed a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) with an anti-phasic pattern, whereas no differences in locomotor activity or heat production were found. Collectively these data indicate that the timing of the diet composition affects food efficiency, most likely due to a shifted oxidation pattern, which can predispose for obesity. Further studies are underway to assess putative mechanisms involved in this dysregulation.

  7. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  8. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar; Kavindra Kumar Kesari; Jitendra Behari

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing with the growing demand for electronic items that are operational at various frequencies. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to radiation emitted by electromagnetic fields. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old). METHODS: The experiments were divided in...

  9. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

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    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  10. Effect of chromium picolinate and melatonin either in single or in a combination in high carbohydrate diet-fed male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddigarla, Zephy; Ahmad, Jamal; Parwez, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to know the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and melatonin (Mel) each alone and in a combination on high carbohydrate diet-fed (HCD-fed) male Wistar rats that exhibit insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. Wistar rats have been categorized into five groups. Each group consisted of six male Wistar rats, control rats (group I), HCD (group II), HCD + CrPic (group III), HCD + Mel (group IV), and HCD + CrPic + Mel (group V). Insignificant differences were observed in serum levels of superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, and zinc in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II rats respectively. Significant differences were observed in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II in homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), and in the levels of blood glucose (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), triacylglycerols (<0.05, <0.001, <0.001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), malondialdehyde (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), catalase (P <0.05, <0.05, <0.05), glutathione (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.05), Mel (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), and copper (P < 0.05, <0.05, < 0.001). In view of these results, HCD-fed male Wistar rats that are destined to attain IR and T2DM through diet can be prevented by giving CrPic and Mel administration in alone or in a combination.

  11. Effects of diet-induced obesity on protein expression in insulin signaling pathways of skeletal muscle in male Wistar rats

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    Fatani S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sameer Fatani,1 Abdul-Razak Abubakari,2 Imose Itua,2 Christopher Wong,3 Cecil Thomas,3 Ebrahim K Naderali21Obesity Biology Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, 2Department of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, 3Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UKBackground: The prevalence of diet-induced obesity is increasing globally, and posing significant health problems for millions of people worldwide. Diet-induced obesity is a major contributor to the global pandemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reduced ability of muscle tissue to regulate glucose homeostasis plays a major role in the development and prognosis of type 2 diabetes. In this study, an animal model of diet-induced obesity was used to elucidate changes in skeletal muscle insulin signaling in obesity-induced diabetes.Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomized and assigned to either a control group or to a test group. Controls were fed a standard laboratory pellet diet (chow-fed, while the test group had free access to a highly palatable diet (diet-fed. After 8 weeks, the diet-fed animals were subdivided into three subgroups and their diets were altered as follows: diet-to-chow, diet-fed with addition of fenofibrate given by oral gavage for a further 7 weeks, or diet-fed with vehicle given by oral gavage for a further 7 weeks, respectively.Results: Untreated diet-fed animals had a significantly higher body weight and metabolic profile than the control chow-fed animals. Intramuscular triacylglyceride levels in the untreated obese animals were significantly higher than those in the control chow-fed group. Expression of protein kinase C beta, phosphatidylinositol 3, Shc, insulin receptor substrate 1, ERK1/2, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase was significantly increased by dietary obesity, while that of insulin receptor beta, insulin receptor substrate 1, and protein kinase B (Akt were not affected by obesity

  12. Acetyl-l-carnitine and oxfenicine on cardiac pumping mechanics in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats.

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    Chih-Hsien Wang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the treatment of patients with diabetes, one objective is an improvement of cardiac metabolism to alleviate the left ventricular (LV function. For this study, we compared the effects of acetyl-l-carnitine (one of the carnitine derivatives and of oxfenicine (a carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor on cardiac pumping mechanics in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats, with a particular focus on the pressure-flow-volume relationship. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by a single tail vein injection of 55 mg kg(-1 streptozotocin. The diabetic animals were treated on a daily basis with either acetyl-L-carnitine (1 g L(-1 in drinking water or oxfenicine (150 mg kg(-1 by oral gavage for 8 wk. They were also compared with untreated age-matched diabetic controls. LV pressure and ascending aortic flow signals were recorded to calculate the maximal systolic elastance (E max and the theoretical maximum flow (Q max. Physically, E max reflects the contractility of the myocardium as an intact heart, whereas Q max has an inverse relationship with the LV internal resistance. RESULTS: When comparing the diabetic rats with their age-matched controls, the cardiodynamic condition was characterized by a decline in E max associated with the unaltered Q max. Acetyl-l-carnitine (but not oxfenicine had reduced cardiac levels of malondialdehyde in these insulin-deficient animals. However, treating with acetyl-l-carnitine or oxfenicine resulted in an increase in E max, which suggests that these 2 drugs may protect the contractile status from deteriorating in the diabetic heart. By contrast, Q max showed a significant fall after administration of oxfenicine, but not with acetyl-L-carnitine. The decrease in Q max corresponded to an increase in total vascular resistance when treated with oxfenicine. CONCLUSIONS: Acetyl-l-carnitine, but not oxfencine, optimizes the integrative nature of cardiac pumping mechanics by preventing the diabetes

  13. Effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats

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    S. J. Bunglavan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The experimental research was conducted at Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. 63 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 equal groups on the basis of their mean body weight (BW (124.3±3.1 g BW following completely randomized design. Experimental feeding was similar in all the groups except for the source and level of selenium (Se in the diet. While Group 1 (control was fed a basal diet with no Se supplementation, in Groups 2 and 3, 150 ppb Se was supplemented either as sodium selenite or Se nanoparticles, respectively. In Groups 4, 5, 6 and 7, Se was supplemented as its nanoparticles at 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% levels respectively i.e. at 75 ppb, 37.5 ppb, 18.75 ppb and 9.375 ppb levels respectively. In Groups 8 and 9, 300 ppb Se was supplemented either as Se nanoparticles or sodium selenite, respectively. Experimental feeding was conducted for a period of 91 days. At the end of the experimental trial, blood samples were collected to analyze the blood serum biochemical profile (serum glucose, serum total protein (TP, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin: globulin ratio [A:G ratio], serum total cholesterol and humoral immunity. Results: The levels of serum glucose, serum TP and serum albumin were comparable (p>0.05 among the nine groups of male Wistar rats. The mean serum total cholesterol was significantly (p<0.001 lowered in all the Se supplemented Wistar rats compared to the control group. The mean serum globulin level was significantly (p<0.05 higher and A:G ratio was significantly (p<0.05 lowered in Group 3 (supplemented with 150 ppb selenium nanoparticles followed by Groups 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 as compared to the control group. The mean serum antibody titer was significantly (p<0.001 higher

  14. Preliminary assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis toxicity on male Wistar rats' organs and reproductive system Avaliação preliminar da toxicidade de Rosmarinus officinalis no sistema reprodutor e em órgãos de ratos Wistar

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae is a shrub used in the treatment of hepatic, intestinal, renal and respiratory affections. Its toxicity was assessed in female rats and an anti-implantation effect was reported after treatment with this plant. This work analyzes the effect of the short-term administration of R. officinalis extract on vital organs, on the organs of the reproductive system and sperm production of mature male Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 1 mL of R. officinalis aqueous extract at a dose level of 291.2 mg and 582.4 mg/kg of body weight for five days. Body and organs weights, sperm production and food consumption were evaluated. The results showed that the lower dose administration of R. officinalis extract did not significantly alter body and organs weight nor did it interfere with gamete production. However, animals treated with the higher dose showed significant weight increase of the seminal vesicle but no significant alteration of the other variables. Food intake was not affected by the treatments.Alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae é uma planta utilizada no tratamento de afecções hepática, intestinal, renal e respiratória. Sua toxicidade foi investigada em ratas e seu efeito antiimplantação foi relatado em estudos prévios. Este trabalho analisa o efeito da administração aguda do extrato de R. officinalis em órgãos vitais, em órgãos do sistema reprodutor e na produção de espermatozóides de ratos Wistar adultos. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com 1 mL do extrato aquoso de R. officinalis na dose de 291,2 mg e 582,4 mg/kg de peso corporal por cinco dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozóides e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Os resultados mostraram que a administração da dose menor do extrato de R. officinalis não alterou significativamente o peso corporal e de órgãos e nem interferiu com a produção de gametas. Entretanto, os animais

  15. Effects of stress and corticosterone in two post-training periods, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats.

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    Jeimmy Marcela Cerón

    2015-04-01

    final product of HPA axis activity. These hormones act on specialized receptors located within all body cells; upon activation by ligand binding, these receptors interact with specific regions of DNA, thereby regulating gene expression (Tsigos & Chrousos, 2002. The lipidic nature of glucocorticoids allows them to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, which may influence cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of stress (movement restriction or the stress hormone corticosterone (intraperitoneal injection of corticosterone, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats in two different post-training time windows (immediately or 3 hours after training involved in memory consolidation. Rats were trained in a spatial memory task in the Barnes maze and a memory retention test was performed twenty-four hours after training. The results showed that both stress and corticosterone were able to enhance memory consolidation when they were administered immediately after training. However, when the same treatments were administered three hours after training, there was not a significant change in the performance during the test carried out after twenty-four hours. These results suggest, on the one hand, that memory consolidation process can be improved using treatments that modulate cellular gene expression programs, as stress and corticosterone, when they are applied during the first window of memory consolidation. Additionally, although the second period of memory consolidation is also related to a particular gene expression and protein synthesis program, the treatments used in the present study were not able to modulate memory consolidation when administered during this period. As the molecular events involved in the second window of memory consolidation may be different from those involved in the first one, it is possible that the molecular changes generated by stress and corticosterone do not interact with them in a way

  16. The Effects of Passive Smoking on Laryngeal and Tracheal Mucosa in Male Wistar Rats During Growth: An Experimental Study.

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    Zaquia Leão, Henrique; Galleano Zettler, Claudio; Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Lammers, Marcelo; Rigon da Luz Soster, Paula; Bastos de Mello, Fernanda; Reghelin Goulart, Guilherme; de Campos, Deivis; Pereira Jotz, Geraldo

    2017-01-01

    Cigarettes contain toxic and carcinogenic substances. In this context, cigarette smoking, and similar activities, are associated with numerous pathologies, being considered a risk factor in up to 10% of the total number of deaths in adults. Recent evidence suggests that the exposure of children to smoking in the early days of their development causes many diseases. Using light microscopy, this study aims to analyze the possible histopathological effects of an experimental model of chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke (passive smoking) on the laryngeal and tracheal mucosa of young Wistar rats. A total of 24 young Wistar rats were studied for a period of 120 days. The animals were divided into two groups: passive smoking (n = 16) and control (n = 8). The level of exposure to cigarette smoke was evaluated from the urinary cotinine level. Although no cancerous lesions were identified, histopathological analysis in the laryngeal and tracheal mucosa of all the animals in the experimental group showed that the proportion of moderate and focal inflammation was higher in animals exposed to chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke (P = 0.041). Histopathologic analysis revealed moderate and focal inflammatory lesions in the region of the infraglottic mucosa in exposed animals, although without dysplastic or neoplastic lesions in the laryngeal and tracheal mucosa. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Association of Malnutrition and Chronic Stress Models Does Not Present Overlay Effects in Male Wistar Rats

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    Camila Gracyelle de Carvalho Lemes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress and protein-energy malnutrition (PEM are both social problems resulting in physiological and behavioral alterations. In this present study an associative effects of PEM and chronic stress were evaluated through in Wistar rats. Four groups were established: standard diet– 19% of protein (Std; Std + stress; PEM–6% of protein and PEM + stress. In these groups were assessed physical, nutritional, hematological, histological parameters and anxiety-like behavior. There were a reduction of food intake, body mass and relative weight of the heart and thymus in the PEM group. The liver of the PEM animals presented a degenerative condition with steatosis and Kupffer cell hypertrophy and, additionally, a significant decrease in hematocrit percentages, in the number of red blood cells and in the concentration of hemoglobin and total protein. In those animals under stress and Std diet, there was observed an increase of the relative adrenal weights, an acute condition of leukocytosis with a predominance of neutrophils and an increase in the anxiety-like behavior. There was no overlapping/interaction among the anthropometric, biochemical, hematological and histological effects using PEM and stress in Wistar rats. The effects observed under experimental condition were those related to either PEM or stress, independently.

  18. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

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    Aida Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  19. High multivitamin intake by Wistar rats during pregnancy results in increased food intake and components of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring.

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    Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Aziz, Alfred; Das, Paul J; Taha, Ameer Y; Okubo, Nobuhiko; Reza-Lopez, Sandra; Giacca, Adria; Anderson, G Harvey

    2008-08-01

    The effect of high multivitamin intake during pregnancy on the metabolic phenotype of rat offspring was investigated. Pregnant Wistar rats (n=10 per group) were fed the AIN-93G diet with the recommended vitamin (RV) content or a 10-fold increase [high vitamin (HV) content]. In experiment 1, male and female offspring were followed for 12 wk after weaning; in experiment 2, only males were followed for 28 wk. Body weight (BW) was measured weekly. Every 4 wk, after an overnight fast, food intake over 1 h was measured 30 min after a gavage of glucose or water. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed every 3-5 wk. Postweaning fasting glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and systolic blood pressure were measured. No difference in BW at birth or litter size was observed. Food intake was greater in males born to HV dams (PBlood glucose response was 46% higher at 23 wk after weaning (Pblood pressure was 16% higher at 28 wk after weaning (Phigh multivitamin intake during pregnancy programmed the male offspring for the development of the components of metabolic syndrome in adulthood, possibly by its effects on central mechanisms of food intake control.

  20. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

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    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  1. Health Status of Male Adult Wistar Rats from Two Experimental Animal Houses of UFMG: Leukocyte Counts, Feces and Lung Histological Exams

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    Andrade Bruno Horta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare health status of male adult Wistar rats from two Experimental Animal Houses of UFMG with literature data of SPF (free from specific pathogens and conventional rats. The animals were divided into two groups: Group I (n=10, rats from the experimental animal houses of FAFICH and Group II (n=10 from ICB and following aspects were studied: a evident clinical signs (behavior modification, hair loss (alopecia, b leukocyte counts, c feces exam and d histological study of the lungs. The rats did not show clinical signs. However, when compared with SPF and conventional rats, both the groups showed a significant increase (p<0,05 of leukocyte count. On feces exam we detected some parasites and on lung histological exam we observed fungus (Group I and bacteria (Group II. These results showed that the health status of the rats was not satisfactory and required improvements in the conditions of the animal houses.

  2. Intra-lateral septal infusions of folic acid alone or combined with various antidepressant drugs produce antidepressant-like actions in male Wistar rats forced to swim.

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    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia; Olivera-López, Jorge I; Jaramillo, M Teresa

    2012-01-10

    Intra-cerebral administrations of folic acid produce antidepressant-like effects; either alone or combined with several antidepressant drugs. However, the specific limbic structures implied in the antidepressant-like actions of folic acid are un-known. Thus, intra-lateral septal infusions of folic acid (5.0 nmol, Pimmobility by increasing swimming behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) of male Wistar rats. Conversely, desipramine (10.0 mg/kg, Pimmobility by increasing climbing behavior. Subthreshold doses of folic acid (2.5 nmol/intra-LSN) combined with subthreshold doses of folic acid (25.0 mg/kg, p.o., Pimmobility in the FST. These antidepressant-like actions, probably, were due to modifications of the serotonergic system since swimming behavior was increased and these effects were canceled by ketanserin.

  3. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

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    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  4. Left ventricular pressure-volume relationships during normal growth and development in the adult rat--studies in 8- and 50-week-old male Wistar rats.

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    Bal, M P; de Vries, W B; van der Leij, F R; van Oosterhout, M F M; Baan, J; van der Wall, E E; van Bel, F; Steendijk, P

    2005-11-01

    Left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume relations provide relatively load-independent indexes of systolic and diastolic LV function, but few data are available on pressure-volume relations during growth and development in the normal adult heart. Furthermore, to quantify intrinsic ventricular function the indexes should be normalized for heart weight. However, in many studies the indexes are reported in absolute terms, or body weight-correction is used as a surrogate for heart weight-correction. We determined pressure-volume relations in young (8-week-old, n = 13) and middle-aged (50-week-old, n = 19) male Wistar rats in relation to their heart and body weights. The animals were anaesthetized and a 2F pressure-conductance catheter was introduced into the LV to measure pressure-volume relations. Heart and body weights were significantly higher in the 50-week-old rats, whereas the heart-to-body weight ratio was significantly lower (2.74 +/- 0.32 vs. 4.41 +/- 0.37 mg g(-1), P pressure-volume relation (E(ES)), the dP/dt(MAX) vs. end-diastolic volume relation (S-dP), and the preload recruitable stroke work relation (PRSW), normalized for heart weight, was slightly decreased in the 50-week-old rats (S-dP: -6%, P pressure-volume indexes showed improved systolic function and significantly depressed diastolic function. Intrinsic systolic function slightly decreases from the juvenile to the middle-aged period in normal male Wistar rats. Furthermore, correction of pressure-volume indexes for body weight is not an adequate surrogate for heart weight-correction in these animals.

  5. Hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Flacourtia montana J. Grah leaf extract in male Wistar rats

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    Chinchu Joshy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flacourtia montana and its related species have been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases. The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of F. montana methanolic extract. The hepatoprotective effect of F. montana was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Administration of paracetamol (2 g/kg showed a significant biochemical and histological deterioration in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt. p.o significantly (P ⩽ 0.001 reduced the elevated levels of serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (AST, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and reversed the hepatic damage in the liver which evidenced the hepatoprotective activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of F. montana was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg showed a significant (P ⩽ 0.001 reduction in rat paw edema with 76.39% and 80.32%, respectively induced by carrageenan against the reference anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (10 mg/kg (83.10%. Oral administration of F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg also significantly (P ⩽ 0.001 reduced the granuloma mass formation in cotton pellet granuloma method. The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging were increased at increasing doses of F. montana. The results of the present study demonstrate that the methanolic extract of F. montana possess hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  6. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

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    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  7. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field

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    Sanjay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing with the growing demand for electronic items that are operational at various frequencies. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to radiation emitted by electromagnetic fields. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old. METHODS: The experiments were divided into five groups: microwave sham, microwave exposure (2.45 GHz, pulsed electromagnetic field sham, pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz exposure, and microwave/pulsed electromagnetic field exposure. The animals were exposed for 2 hours/day for 60 days. After exposure, the animals were sacrificed, their sperm was used for creatine and caspase assays, and their serum was used for melatonin and testosterone assays. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase and significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups. This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents. CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress.

  8. Evaluation of the changes on hemostatic parameters induced by valdecoxib in male Wistar rats Avaliação dos efeitos do valdecoxibe sobre os parâmetros hemostáticos de ratos Wistar

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    Marcio Fronza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 selective inhibitor, valdecoxib, on blood coagulation parameters were evaluated, along with aspirin in male Wistar rats. Groups of animals were administered a daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg rat of valdecoxib, 100 mg/kg rat of aspirin and the vehicle alone during 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of administration period and the plasma concentrations of valdecoxib were determined by RP-HPLC giving mean values of 101.1, 113.5, 164.0 and 184.6 ng/mL, respectively. The same plasma samples were used for the analysis of hematological parameters and the results compared to the controls. Valdecoxib induced significant activated partial thromboplastin time reduction (18% after 2 weeks and prothrombin time reduction (12.2% after 3 weeks (PAvaliaram-se os efeitos do valdecoxibe, um inibidor seletivo da cicloxigenase-2 (COX-2, sobre os parâ­metros sangüíneos da coagulação em ratos Wistar utilizando-se paralelamente a aspirina. Os animais foram divididos em grupos e submetidos à administração oral diária de 10 mg/kg animal para o valdecoxib, 100 mg/kg animal para a aspirina e veículo para o grupo controle, durante quatro semanas. A coleta do sangue foi efetuada após uma, duas, três e quatro semanas, e as concentrações plasmáticas do valdecoxibe determinadas por cromatografia líquida, obtendo-se valores médios de 101,1 - 113,5 - 164 e 184,6 ng/ml, respectivamente. As amostras de plasma foram também usadas para as análises hematológicas e os resultados comparados aos dos controles. O valde­coxibe apresentou redução significativa no TTPA (18% após duas semanas, e redução do TP (12,2% após três semanas (P<0.05. Os efeitos observados na contagem de pla­quetas e nos níveis plasmáticos de fibrinogênio não foram significativos. As atividades anti-fator Xa e anti-fator IIa apresentaram redução, porém os resultados foram significativos somente para o anti

  9. Dose–response assessment of nephrotoxicity from a twenty-eight-day combined-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in F344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo, E-mail: goncalo.gamboa@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Jacob, Cristina C.; Von Tungeln, Linda S. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Hasbrouck, Nicholas R. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, Laurel, MD 20708 (United States); Olson, Greg R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Hattan, David G. [Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Reimschuessel, Renate [Center for Veterinary Medicine, Laurel, MD 20708 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The adulteration of pet food with melamine and derivatives, including cyanuric acid, has been implicated in the kidney failure and death of cats and dogs in the USA and other countries. In a previous 7-day dietary study in F344 rats, we established a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for a co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid of 8.6 mg/kg bw/day of each compound, and a benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 8.4–10.9 mg/kg bw/day of each compound. To ascertain the role played by the duration of exposure, we treated F344 rats for 28 days. Groups of male and female rats were fed diet containing 0 (control), 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, or 360 ppm of both melamine and cyanuric acid. The lowest dose that produced histopathological alterations in the kidney was 120 ppm, versus 229 ppm in the 7-day study. Wet-mount analysis of kidney sections demonstrated the formation of melamine cyanurate spherulites in one male and two female rats at the 60 ppm dose and in one female rat at the 30 ppm dose, establishing a NOAEL of 2.1 mg/kg bw/day for males and < 2.6 mg/kg bw/day for females, and BMDL values as low as 1.6 mg/kg bw/day for both sexes. These data demonstrate that the length of exposure is an important component in the threshold of toxicity from a co-exposure to these compounds and suggest that the current risk assessments based on exposures to melamine alone may not reflect sufficiently the risk of a co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid. -- Highlights: ► A 28-day dietary co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid was conducted in F344 rats. ► The NOAELs were 2.1 mg/kg bw/day for males and < 2.6 mg/kg bw/day for females. ► BMDL values as low as 1.6 mg/kg bw/day for both sexes were determined. ► The length of exposure plays an important role in the threshold of toxicity. ► Current assessments may underestimate the risk of melamine and cyanuric acid.

  10. Transient inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex affects both anxiety and decision-making in male Wistar rats

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    Leonie ede Visser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In both humans and rats high levels of anxiety impair decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in male subjects. Expression of the immediate early gene c-fos as marker of neural activity in rat studies indicated a role of the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic and infralimbic region; mPFC in mediating the relationship between anxiety and decision-making. To delineate this relationship further and assess the underlying neurobiology in more detail, we inactivated in the present study the mPFC in male rats using a mixture of the GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen. Rats were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM to measure effects on anxiety and to the rodent version of the IGT (r-IGT. Inactivation led to increased levels of anxiety on the EPM, while not affecting general activity. The effect in the r-IGT (trials 61-120 was dependent on levels of performance prior to inactivation (trial 41-60: inactivation of the mPFC hampered task-performance in rats, which already showed a preference for the advantageous option, but not in rats which were still choosing in a random manner. These data suggest that the mPFC becomes more strongly involved as rats have learned task-contingencies, i.e. choose for the best long-term option. Furthermore they suggest, along with the data of our earlier study, that both anxiety and decision-making in rats are mediated through a neural circuitry including at least the mPFC. The data are discussed in relation to recent data of rodent studies on the neural circuitry underlying decision-making.

  11. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

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    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  12. Concerted gene expression of hippocampal steroid receptors during spatial learning in male Wistar rats: a correlation analysis

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    Gert eLubec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner. Other cognition modulating steroid receptors like estrogen receptors should be correlated to glucocorticoid receptors in a quadratic manner, which describes a parabola and thus a U-shaped connection. Therefore, we performed a correlational meta-analyis of data of a previous study (Meyer and Korz, 2013a of steroid receptor gene expressions during spatial learning, which provides a sufficient data basis in order to perform such correlational connections. In that study male rats of different ages were trained in a spatial holeboard or remained untrained and the hippocampal gene expression of different steroid receptors as well as serum corticosterone levels were measured. Expressions of mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid (GR receptors were positively and linearly correlated with blood serum corticosterone levels in spatially trained but not in untrained animals. Training induced a cubic (best fit relationship between mRNA levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα and androgen receptor (AR with MR mRNA. GR gene expression was linearly correlated with MR expression under both conditions. ERα m RNA levels were negatively and linearily and MR and GR gene expressions were cubicely correlated with reference memory errors (RME. Due to only three age classes correlations with age could not be performed. The findings support the U-shape theory of steroid receptor

  13. Neurobehavioral toxicity of a repeated exposure (14 days to the airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorene in adult Wistar male rats.

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    Julie Peiffer

    Full Text Available Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and may contribute to the neurobehavioral alterations induced by the environmental exposure of humans to PAHs. Since no data are available on fluorene neurotoxicity, this study was conducted in adult rats to assess the behavioral toxicity of repeated fluorene inhalation exposure. Male rats (n = 18/group were exposed nose-only to 1.5 or 150 ppb of fluorene 6 hours/day for 14 consecutive days, whereas the control animals were exposed to non-contaminated air. At the end of the exposure, animals were tested for activity and anxiety in an open-field and in an elevated-plus maze, for short-term memory in a Y-maze, and for spatial learning in an eight-arm maze. The results showed that the locomotor activity and the learning performances of the animals were unaffected by fluorene. In parallel, the fluorene-exposed rats showed a lower level of anxiety than controls in the open-field, but not in the elevated-plus maze, which is probably due to a possible difference in the aversive feature of the two mazes. In the same animals, increasing blood and brain levels of fluorene monohydroxylated metabolites (especially the 2-OH fluorene were detected at both concentrations (1.5 and 150 ppb, demonstrating the exposure of the animals to the pollutant and showing the ability of this compound to be metabolized and to reach the cerebral compartment. The present study highlights the possibility for a 14-day fluorene exposure to induce some specific anxiety-related behavioral disturbances, and argues in favor of the susceptibility of the adult brain when exposed to volatile fluorene.

  14. Effects of ethanolic extract of pine needles (Pinus eldarica Medw. on reserpine-induced depression-like behavior in male Wistar rats

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    Samira Bolandghamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Pinus eldarica Medw needles was assessed using forced swimming test (FST in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six Groups and treated as follows: first group was received only reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p., second group was received reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p. and imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p., three experimental groups received reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p. and three doses of pine needle extract (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. respectively and the final group (control group received only vehicle (5% DMSO, i.p.. Results: Acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of P. eldarica Medw needles at a dosage of 300 mg/kg reduced reserpine-induced increase in immobility time in the FST, demonstrating an antidepressant effect in the FST. Additionally, extract treatment did not modify the ambulation and rearing evaluated in open field test, indicating that antidepressant effect found in the forced swimming test was not based on the stimulation of locomotor activity. Conclusion: These results indicate that ethanolic extract of Pinus eldarica needles possesses an antidepressant activity.

  15. Attenuation of lead-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver, kidney and blood of male Wistar rats by Moringa oleifera seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Daughtry, Lucius K; Jones, Angelica C; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Rajanna, Bettaiya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tree belonging to Moringaceae family and its leaves and seeds are reported to have ameliorative effects against metal toxicity. In the present investigation, M. oleifera seed powder was tested against lead-induced oxidative stress and compared against meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment. Male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control (2000 ppm of sodium acetate for 2 weeks), exposed (2000 ppm of lead acetate for 2 weeks), Moringa treated (500 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure), and DMSA treated (90 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure). After exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed and the brain was separated into cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem; liver, kidney, and blood were also collected. The data indicated a significant (poleifera restored all the parameters back to control, tissue-specifically, and also showed improvement in restoration better than DMSA treatment, indicating reduction of the negative effects of lead-induced oxidative stress.

  16. The morphological and developmental changes of the anterior commissure of male Wistar rats submitted to protein malnutrition in the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacagnella, Patrícia Aparecida Pereira; Parpinelli, Patrícia Maria Santos D'Andrea; Lachat, João-José

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this project was to study the effects of protein malnutrition in the anterior commissure of male albino Wistar rats, submitted to diets with different levels of protein to evaluate the possible morphological and developmental changes of the myelinated nervous fibers and glial cells of this important neural structure during the postnatal period until 120 days of age. In this study the animals (dams and pups) were divided into three groups: the control group which received a commercial diet from the laboratory (22% protein); the nourished group which received a diet of 16% of protein (casein); and the malnourished group which received a diet of 6% of protein (casein). Rat pups were fed by lactating females during the lactation period. After weaning the pups received the same diet until 120 days of age. The results obtained showed that the malnourished animals presented less body and brain growth and important morphological changes in the anterior commissure such as the retard in the myelination, damaged myelinic nervous fibers, and the increase of the interstitial space characterizing edema and vacuolization. The current study shows that the effects of protein malnutrition in the anterior commissure cause a bigger alteration in the posterior limb of the referred commissure, indicating that it is more vulnerable to malnutrition and more susceptible to damages of the anterior limb.

  17. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

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    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  18. Effect of different types of stress on adrenal gland parameters and adrenal hormones in the blood serum of male Wistar rats

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    Adžić M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex and medulla in mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different stress types: acute, chronic, and combined, i.e., chronic followed by acute stress. These parameters were correlated with adrenal activity as judged from serum levels of corticosterone and catecholamine, respectively, as well as with serum levels of ACTH and glucose. Under all three conditions, we observed bilaterally asymmetric and stress-type-independent hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as adrenal cortices and medullas. Under acute and combined stress, adrenal hypertrophy was followed by increase of adrenal hormones in the blood serum. However, under chronic stress, both cortical and medullar activities as judged from low or unaltered levels of the respective hormones and glucose were compromised and disconnected from the input signal of ACTH. Since all of the studied adrenal activities could be restored by subsequent acute stress, it is concluded that chronic isolation can be viewed as partly maladaptive stress with characteristics resembling stress resistance rather than the stress exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

  19. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications.

  20. Ginger extract mitigates ethanol-induced changes of alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain isoforms gene expression and oxidative stress in the heart of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Zerehpoosh, Mitra; Ansari, Mohammad Hasan Khadem; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Rasmi, Yousef

    2017-09-01

    The association between ethanol consumption and heart abnormalities, such as chamber dilation, myocyte damage, ventricular hypertrophy, and hypertension is well known. However, underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms gene expression transition and oxidative stress in rats' heart. It was also planned to find out whether ginger extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rats' heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals as follows: Control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After six weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in the β-MHC gene expression, 8- OHdG amount, and NADPH oxidase level. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the ratio of α-MHC/β-MHC gene expression to the amount of paraoxonase enzyme in the ethanol group compared to the control group was found. The consumption of Ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated the changes in MHC isoforms gene expression and reduced the elevated amount of 8-OHdG and NADPH oxidase. Moreover, compared to the consumption of ethanol alone, it increased the paraoxonase level significantly. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may in part be associated with MHC isoforms changes mediated by oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (pcoal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar reactive hyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats.

  2. Safety and efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica extract (Sitoprin, CR002) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica bark extract (Sitoprin, CR002) was investigated on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats. BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of TP (3.0 mg/kg) over a period of 15 days (interim sacrifice group) and for an additional 21 days (terminal sacrifice group). We evaluated the dose-dependent efficacy (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day) of CR002 and a control group against BPH, and compared with a reference standard Prunus africana extract (CR001). Extensive clinical examinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of treatment period to determine the onset, duration and severity of clinical signs. Clinical pathology, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology were performed on days 15 and 35, prior to necropsy. Animals were fasted overnight prior to blood collection. Prostate glands and tissues were examined. On day 36, histopathology of ventral prostrate of control rats demonstrates single layer of columnar mucin secreting epithelial cells along with a lumen occupied with eosinophilic secretion. In contrast, CR002 and CR001 groups (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) exhibited no hyperplasia and proliferation of epithelial cells. Prostate histopathology of these treated groups was comparable with control rats. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prostrate was reduced to single-layered cell indicating the efficacy of CR002 and CR001. Overall, results demonstrate that CR002 exhibits therapeutic efficacy/activity in TP-induced BPH in rats, which is comparable to CR001.

  3. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

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    Victor Eshu Okpashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg. Catalase activity showed significant increase P0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  4. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  5. Effects of fluoxetine on the amygdala and the hippocampus after administration of a single prolonged stress to male Wistar rates: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Xiao, Bing; Wen, Lili; Shi, Yuxiu

    2015-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed -1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabolite changes in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. SPS increased the N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline moieties (Cho)/Cr ratios in the bilateral amygdala on day 4, decreased the NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus on day 1, and increased both ratios in the right hippocampus on day 14. But no significant change was found in the thalamus. Fluoxetine treatment corrected the SPS increases in the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr levels in the amygdala on day 4 and in the hippocampus on day 14, but it failed to normalise SPS-associated decreases in NAA/Cr levels in the left hippocampus on day 1. These results suggested that metabolic abnormalities in the amygdala and the hippocampus were involved in SPS, and different effects of fluoxetine in correcting SPS-induced neurometabolite changes among the three areas. These findings have implications for fluoxetine treatment in PTSD.

  6. Ro 04-6790-induced cognitive enhancement: no effect in trace conditioning and novel object recognition procedures in adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thur, K E; Nelson, A J D; Cassaday, H J

    2014-12-01

    The evidence for cognitively enhancing effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonists such as Ro 04-6790 is inconsistent and seems to depend on the behavioral test variant in use. Trace conditioning holds promise as a behavioral assay for hippocampus-dependent working memory function. Accordingly, Experiment 1 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on associating a noise conditioned stimulus paired with foot shock (unconditioned stimulus) at a 3 or 30s trace interval in adult male Wistar rats. Contextual conditioning was measured as suppression to the contextual cues provided by the experimental chambers and as suppression to a temporally extended light background stimulus which provided an experimental context. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.) on recognition memory as tested by the exploration of novel relative to familiar objects in an open arena. In Experiment 1, Ro 04-6790 (5 and 10mg/kg) was without effect on trace and contextual conditioning. In Experiment 2, there was no indication of the expected improvement under Ro 04-6790 at the same doses previously found to enhance recognition memory as measured in tests of novel object exploration. Thus, there was no evidence that treatment with the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 acted as a cognitive enhancer in either trace conditioning or object recognition procedures. We cannot exclude the possibility that the experimental procedures used in the present study would have been sensitive to the cognitive enhancing effects of Ro 04-6790 in a different dose range, behavioral test variant, or in a different strain of rat. Nonetheless the drug treatment was not ineffective in that object exploration was reduced under 10mg/kg Ro 04-6790.

  7. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  8. Effects of Endurance Training on A12 Acetyl Cholinesterase Activity in Fast and Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscles of Male Wistar Rats

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    Ali Gorzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endurance training improves the activity of G4 type acetylcholine esterase (AchE in muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of endurance training (ET on activity of A12 type of AchE in Flexor Hallucis Longus (FHL and Soleus (SOL muscles of rats. Materials and Methods: 16 male wistar rats (age: 10 weeks and weight: 172.17±10.080 gr, were randomly divided in 2 groups (control; N=8 and ET; N=8. Training group carried out 8 weeks (5 session/week of endurance training on animal treadmill with speed of 10 m/min for 30 min at the first week which was gradually increased to 30 m/min for 60 min (70-80% of VO2max at the last week. Forty eight hours after last session of training, FHL and Sol muscles of animals were moved out under sterilized situation by cutting on posterio-lateral side of hind limb. For separating AchE subunits, homogenization and electrophoresis (0.06 non-denaturaing polyacrilamide methods were used. AchE activity was measured by Elisa kit.Results: The activity of this protein significantly (p=0.017 increased in SOL muscle of ET group by 119%, but did not changed in FHL. In both groups (ET and Con, FHL muscle had significantly (ET: p=0.028 and Con p=0.01 higher basic levels of AchE activity compared to SOL muscle. This significant increase in AchE of SOL might be indicative of responsiveness of AchE of this muscle following endurance training for improving acetylcholine (Ach cycle in neuromuscular junction.Conclusion: Endurance training might increase the A12 type AchE activity to improve the Ach cycle as part of the adaptation of neuromuscular junction to increased level of physical activity.

  9. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  10. Assessment of the Anti-Hyperglycaemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Diabetes-Induced Nephrotoxic Male Wistar Rats.

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    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I; Aboua, Yapo G; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2017-03-23

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant has been reported to possess antioxidant and medicinal properties that may be helpful in the treatment and management of diabetes and its associated complications. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and treated with methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg b.wt) for six weeks. Forty-eight (48) adult male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Moringa oleifera treated control rats (NC + MO), diabetic rats (DM) and Moringa oleifera treated diabetic rats (DM + MO). Estimation of antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa oleifera extract was performed and serum biochemical markers were evaluated. Antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in the kidney. Results showed high antioxidant capacities of MO extract and improved serum biochemical markers, whilst lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were reduced in non-diabetic and diabetic rats after MO treatment when compared to normal control. Subsequent administration of MO led to an increased concentration of serum albumin, globulin and total protein with a decrease in the level of MDA, and improvements in CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)TNF-α and (interleukin-6)IL-6. MO contains potent phytochemical constituents that offer protective action against diabetic-induced renal damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and could therefore play a role in reducing diabetic complications, particularly in developing countries such as in

  11. Modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 hepatic enzymes after oral administration of Chios mastic gum to male Wistar rats.

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    Katsanou, Efrosini S; Kyriakopoulou, Katerina; Emmanouil, Christina; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Chios mastic gum (CMG), a resin derived from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, is known since ancient times for its pharmacological activities. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes are among the most involved in the biotransformation of chemicals and the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Previous studies referring to the modulation of these enzymes by CMG have revealed findings of unclear biological and toxicological significance. For this purpose, the modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes in the liver of male Wistar rats following oral administration of CMG extract (CMGE), at the levels of mRNA and CYP1A1 enzyme activity, was compared to respective enzyme modulation following oral administration of a well-known bioactive natural product, caffeine, as control compound known to involve hepatic enzymes in its metabolism. mRNA levels of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and their relative quantification was calculated. CYP1A1 enzyme induction was measured through the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). The results indicated that administration of CMGE at the recommended pharmaceutical dose does not induce significant transcriptional modulation of Cyp1a1/2 and subsequent enzyme activity induction of CYP1A1 while effects of the same order of magnitude were observed in the same test system following the administration of caffeine at the mean daily consumed levels. The outcome of this study further confirms the lack of any toxicological or biological significance of the specific findings on liver following the administration of CMGE.

  12. Modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 hepatic enzymes after oral administration of Chios mastic gum to male Wistar rats.

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    Efrosini S Katsanou

    Full Text Available Chios mastic gum (CMG, a resin derived from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, is known since ancient times for its pharmacological activities. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes are among the most involved in the biotransformation of chemicals and the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens. Previous studies referring to the modulation of these enzymes by CMG have revealed findings of unclear biological and toxicological significance. For this purpose, the modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes in the liver of male Wistar rats following oral administration of CMG extract (CMGE, at the levels of mRNA and CYP1A1 enzyme activity, was compared to respective enzyme modulation following oral administration of a well-known bioactive natural product, caffeine, as control compound known to involve hepatic enzymes in its metabolism. mRNA levels of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and their relative quantification was calculated. CYP1A1 enzyme induction was measured through the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD. The results indicated that administration of CMGE at the recommended pharmaceutical dose does not induce significant transcriptional modulation of Cyp1a1/2 and subsequent enzyme activity induction of CYP1A1 while effects of the same order of magnitude were observed in the same test system following the administration of caffeine at the mean daily consumed levels. The outcome of this study further confirms the lack of any toxicological or biological significance of the specific findings on liver following the administration of CMGE.

  13. When I am Twenty-eight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方朝晖

    2006-01-01

    In fifteen years, I think I’ll be a big fish(大人物). I think I’ll live in New York. I love the city very much, for it is a beautiful city. I think I’ll have a villa and a personal computer, and I’ll have a robot. It can do everything, for example, do the dishes, sweep the floor and so on. I’ll go to Canada on vacation. That’s also a beautiful country. I will have many pets. I don’t have any pets at pre- sent, because my father doesn’t like them at all. At weekends, I’ll wear beautiful clothes. I think my drea...

  14. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA: AMADA (MANGO - GINGER WITH CONVENTIONAL NSAID ASPIRIN IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Shanmukananda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma

  15. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

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    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption.

  16. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

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    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  17. Effects of perinatal simultaneous exposure to tributyltin (TBT) and p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) on male offspring of Wistar rats.

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    Makita, Yuji; Omura, Minoru; Ogata, Rika

    2004-03-12

    p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene; DDE] and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitous in the environment and in Japan were shown to bioaccumulate in marine products. Thus these chemicals serve as a source of contaminant in the mammalian food chain. Fetuses and neonates through maternal ingestion may be exposed to DDE and TBT. Therefore, the effects of concurrent exposure to DDE and TBT were investigated in male Wistar rat offspring of dams ingesting these two contaminants. In this study, TBT suppressed the growth and delayed eye opening. However, both growth retardation and delayed eye opening produced by TBT failed to occur in the presence of DDE. Unexpectedly, the prostate weight of male rat offspring was significantly reduced with the administration of TBT but restored in the presence of DDE. These results indicate that TBT and DDE affected the development of male rat offspring following maternal exposure, and simultaneous administration of DDE prevented some of the observed effects of TBT, especially of an antagonistic nature, through a mechanism, still to be determined.

  18. The impact of high intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT and flaxseed oil on ICAM-1 gene expression in heart tissue in male Wistar rats

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    Y Khademi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease may be due to inflammation and systemic inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. ICAM-1 is one of the important factors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is an inflammatory effect of physical activity and plant protection products on the response it is not well known. Methods  Thirty Wistar rats were selected as sample. Rats were randomly divided into six groups of five, including control, exercise, extracts dose of 10 mg / kg, extract dose 30 mg / kg, a dose of extract practice mg / kg 10, and extracts Practice dose of 30 mg / kg, respectively. Training groups, five sessions per week for 10 weeks, intense interval training involves running on a treadmill with an intensity of 90 to 95 percent of VO2max for rodents, at specified hours during the day. After the rats were sacrificed and the heart tissue, and to measure gene expression of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 were used. Result Data analysis showed that the expression of ICAM-1 has been reduced in training supplement groups The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule receptor (ITG has decreased in the exercise and supplement group. Conclusion: The results of this study show that both exercise and extract significant effect on gene expression of ICAM-1. And decreased expression of ICAM-1 was also flax oil ICAM-1 gene expression was also reduced. The findings of this study showed that the combination of training and flax oil reduces the expression of ICAM-1 compared to the control group. So it is likely that this method can be used as a way to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  19. Concurrent maternal and pup postnatal tobacco smoke exposure in Wistar rats changes food preference and dopaminergic reward system parameters in the adult male offspring.

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    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-08-20

    Children from pregnant smokers are more susceptible to become obese adults and to become drug or food addicts. Drugs and food activate the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing a sense of pleasure that induces further consumption. Here, we studied the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure during lactation with feeding, behavior and brain dopaminergic reward system parameters at adulthood. Nursing Wistar rats and their pups were divided into two groups: tobacco smoke-exposed (S: 4times/day, from the 3rd to the 21th day of lactation), and ambient air-exposed (C). On PN175, both offspring groups were subdivided for a food challenge: S and C that received standard chow (SC) or that chose between high-fat (HFD) and high-sucrose diets (HSDs). Food intake was recorded after 30min and 12h. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze and open field on PN178-179; they were euthanized for dopaminergic analysis on PN180. SSD (self-selected diet) animals presented a higher food intake compared to SC ones. S-SSD animals ate more than C-SSD ones at 30min and 12h. Both groups preferred the HFD. However, S-SSD animals consumed relatively more HFD than C-SSD at 30min. No behavioral differences were observed between groups. S animals presented lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the ventral tegmental area, lower TH, dopaminergic receptor 2, higher dopaminergic receptor 1 contents in the nucleus accumbens and lower OBRb in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Tobacco-smoke exposure during lactation increases preference for fat in the adult progeny possibly due to alterations in the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity

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    Ayoka Oladele Abiodun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf (AEAVL in Wistar rats with CP-induced reproductive toxicity was determined. Forty rats were used for this study such that graded doses of the extract were administered following CP-induced reproductive toxicity and comparisons were made against control, toxic and standard (vitamin E groups at p < 0.05. The synthetic drugs (CP, 65 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; Vitamin E, 100 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days as well as the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days were administered to the rats at 0.2 mL/100 g. CP induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by significantly lowered levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, perturbation of sperm characterization, deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by decreased levels of GSH as well as elevation of TBARS activity. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic lesions with scanty and hypertrophied parenchymal cells in the pituitary while the testis showed ballooned seminiferous tubules with loosed connective tissues and vacuolation of testicular interstitium. These conditions were significantly reversed (p < 0.05 following administration of the graded doses of the extract. It was, therefore, concluded that AEAVL could potentially be a therapeutic choice in patients with CP-induced neuro-endocrine dysfunction and reproductive toxicity.

  1. Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the histological abnormalities of the kidney and testes of the male Wistar rats.

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    Obianime, A W; Roberts, I I

    2009-12-01

    The effect of different doses of cadmium [CD] on some biochemical, hormonal and histopathological parameters of the liver, kidney and testes of the Wistar rate were investigated. Cadmium in the dose range 0-40 mg/kg while causing a time-and dose-dependent decrease of the basal serum levels of alkaline phosphatase [ALP] also caused a dose-dependent increase in the serum concentration of the acid and prostatic acid phosphatases. The value of the ALP changed from 148.7+/-1.0 IU/L in the control to 53.7+/-0.098 at 40 mg/kg of cadmium. While the ACP and ACPT changed from 32.6+/-0.72 and 7 Units in the control to 54 and 17 units respectively at 40 mg/kg of CD. Furthermore cadmium also caused positively correlated dose-and time-dependent destruction of the histology of the liver, kidney and testes. These were characterized by vascular congestion, vacuolation, destruction of the seminal epithelial layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, oedema of the seminal epithelia layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, oedema of the seminiferous tubules and reduction of spermatogenesis. CD also caused granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm, enlargement of sinusoids with kupffer cells, haemorrhage and apoptosis of cells. Finally pre-treatment with vitamin C [0.0015/kg], vitamin E [1.51/g] and selenium [0.25 mg] which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the liver, kidney and testes. These results may be explained by the oxidational/antioxidational properties of these xenobiotics and their mechanisms of actions.

  2. The effects of the intraamygdalar melatonin injections on the anxiety like behavior and the spatial memory performance in male Wistar rats.

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    Karakaş, Alper; Coşkun, Hamit; Kaya, Aliye; Kücük, Ayşegül; Gündüz, Bülent

    2011-09-12

    In the present study, the effects of intraamygdalar administrations of melatonin (1 and 100μg/kg), saline and diazepam on the anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory performance in pinealectomized and sham-pinealectomized Wistar rats were investigated. The animals were tested by open field and elevated plus maze tests for anxiety-like behavior, and Morris water maze test for spatial memory. In open field, (a) diazepam was more effective in reducing the anxiety, (b) control subjects were more mobile than pinealectomized subjects and (c) 100μg/kg melatonin administrations reduced the velocity of the animals. In elevated plus maze, (a) 100μg/kg melatonin administrations increased the distance totally travelled and (b) enhanced the time spent in open arms, however, after the pinealectomy, 1μg/kg melatonin administrations decreased it and (c) control animals were less mobile than pinealectomized ones. In Morris water maze, (a) diazepam group travelled more distance than the others in control condition whereas, in pinealectomy condition high dose of melatonin and saline groups travelled more distance than the others, (b) in pinealectomy condition subjects who received 100μg/kg melatonin also travelled more distance than those who received 1μg/kg melatonin and diazepam, (c) the subjects who received 1μg/kg spent less time than those who received other treatments, and (d) in control condition subjects who received 100μg/kg melatonin were slower than those who received the other treatments. In conclusion, melatonin administration to amygdala decreased the anxiety; however, spatial memory performance of the rats was impaired by the pinealectomy and melatonin administrations.

  3. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Prangos Ferulacea on Blood Factors of Kidney and Liver Functions in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

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    Tahereh zare

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease recognized by a reduction in insulin secretion due to the malfunction of β cells in the pancreas or an increase in the cell's resistance to insulin. Prangos Ferulacea has been known as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory herb in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Prangos Ferulacea on the blood factors of kidney and liver functions in diabetes induced by streptozotocin in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, six groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of six were administered with intra peritoneal injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Group I was fed a normal diet. Group II and III of the animals received 300 and 500 mg/kg/day Prangos Ferulacea extract. Group IV received distilled water (diabetic control, and the animals of groups V and VI were treated with Prangos Ferulacea extract 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for three weeks. Blood glucose, ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, albumin, urea and BUN were measured in all the animals. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software via the one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the Prangos Ferulacea extract resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, ALT, AST and creatinine but no significant decrease in ALP, albumin, urea, and BUN levels. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that hydroalcoholic extracts of Prangos Ferulacea had antidiabetic effects and consequently might alleviate the liver and kidney damage caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

  4. Maternal high fat feeding does not have long-lasting effects on body composition and bone health in female and male Wistar rat offspring at young adulthood.

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    Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; LeBlanc, Paul J; Peters, Sandra J; Roy, Brian D; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-12-06

    High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF) feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON) or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only) than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  5. Hematological and clinical chemistry changes induced by subchronic dosing of a novel phosphorothionate (RPR-V) in Wistar male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K J

    2006-01-01

    A novel phosphorothionate [2-butenoic acid-3-(diethoxy phosphinothioyl)-ethyl ester; RPR-V] synthesized at Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (Hyderabad, India) was studied using subchronic doses of 0.033 (low), 0.066 (medium), and 0.099 (high) mg kg(- 1) in male and female rats daily for 90 days. Continuous treatment with RPR-V caused significant (p RPR-V caused significant elevation in serum clinical chemistry parameters calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, and chloride contents, whereas protein and glucose levels were depressed in both male and female treated rats after 45 and 90 days of treatment. These alterations were significant when compared with two-way ANOVA showing that these changes were dose- and time-dependent. The effects of low dose were generally not statistically significant, whereas medium and high doses caused significant effects. The changes in male rats were not significant when compared with female rats showing no sexual dimorphism by this compound. Recovery was observed after 28 days post-treatment (withdrawal study), indicating that the compound entered into the system was eliminated from the body, and the blood parameters were improved. Hematological and clinical chemistry parameters can be detected rapidly and hence can be used for prediction and diagnosis of pesticide toxicity. Alterations in these parameters show toxic stress in the treated animals especially on blood and blood-forming organs.

  6. Estudo comparativo dos efeitos do extrato de Ginkgo biloba L. e Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer na reprodução de ratos machos e fêmeas Wistar Comparative study of effects of Ginkgo biloba L. and Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer extract on the reproduction of Wistar male and female rats

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    L.B. Kuntze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng são plantas utilizadas na medicina tradicional. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a histologia gonadal de ratos machos e fêmeas Wistar submetidos aos tratamentos com o extrato de G. biloba (120 mg kg-1 ou P. ginseng (200 mg kg-1, e avaliar os parâmetros reprodutivos e fetais das ratas tratadas com as plantas. O grupo controle recebeu solução fisiológica 0,9%. Os tratamentos foram efetuados por via oral através de gavage, duas vezes ao dia, durante quinze dias consecutivos. Após este período, machos (n=18 e fêmeas (n=18 foram sacrificados e as gônadas coletadas, pesadas e processadas para avaliação microscópica. Outras fêmeas (n=18 foram acasaladas com machos não tratados para avaliação da fertilidade e produtos da gestação. Os resultados indicaram que o peso dos órgãos reprodutivos masculino e feminino não foi afetado pelos tratamentos. A estrutura gonadal dos machos e fêmeas mostrou o mesmo padrão histológico nos três grupos experimentais. O tratamento materno pré-gestacional com os extratos não promoveu alterações no desempenho reprodutivo das matrizes e nos parâmetros fetais. Concluiu-se que o extrato de P. ginseng ou G. biloba não causou toxicidade reprodutiva em ratos machos e fêmeas.Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng are plants used in the traditional medicine. The aim of study was to analyse the gonadal histology of the Wistar male and female rats submitted to the treatments with extract of G. biloba (120 mg kg-1 or P. ginseng (200 mg kg-1, and to evaluate the reproductive and fetal parameters of female rats treated with the plants. The control group received physiological solution 0.9%. The treatments were administered by oral gavage, twice/day, during fifteen consecutive days. After this period, male (n=18 and female rats (n=18 were sacrificed and the gonads collected, weighed and processed for microscopic evaluation. Another females (n=18 were matted with not treated males for

  7. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

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    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C, group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL. At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the thyroids were dissected out and their absolute and relative weights determined. Thereafter, the thyroid tissues were prepared for routine histological examination. The results of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05 in the weights of the thyroid and thyroid follicles. There was also disorganization and desquamation of follicular cells. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake during pregnancy and/or lactation could be injurious to the thyroid glands of the offspring.

  8. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel D'Agostini; Bueno, Audrin Loss Scopel; Gallon, Carin Weirich; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Kaiser, Samuel; Pavei, Cabral; Ortega, George González; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the plasma lipid profile, glucose levels and fat deposits in male rats treated with aqueous extract of gross yerba mate, commercial yerba mate or water. Yerba mate treatment did not change body weight gain and lipid profile. The consumption of gross yerba mate significantly increased blood glucose (6.6 mmol/L) as compared to the water (4.8 mmol/L) and commercial group (5.2 mmol/L) and decreased epididymal and intra-abdominal deposits (10.1mg/g and 23.7 mg/g of weight) as compared to the water (15.4 mg/g and 36.9 mg/g of weight) and commercial group (12.5mg/g and 28 mg/g of weight). The results suggest that gross yerba mate reduces fat more efficiently but produces a greater increase in blood glucose when compared to commercial yerba mate and water groups.

  9. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Leslie C., E-mail: shark009@umn.edu [Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Radin, M. Judith, E-mail: radin.1@osu.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, 1925 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heller, Lois, E-mail: lheller@d.umn.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School—Duluth, 1035 University Drive, Duluth, MN 55812-3031 (United States); Rogers, Lynette K., E-mail: Lynette.Rogers@nationwidechildrens.org [Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, 700 Childrens Drive, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Tobias, Anthony [Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Matise, Ilze, E-mail: imatise.vh@gmail.com [Veterinary Population Medicine Department, University of Minnesota, 1365 Gortner Ave, St Paul, MN (United States); Wang, Qi, E-mail: wangx890@umn.edu [Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI), University of Minnesota, 717 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Apple, Fred S., E-mail: apple004@umn.edu [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hennepin County Medical Center and University of Minnesota, 701 Park Ave S, Minneapolis, MN USA (United States); McCune, Sylvia A., E-mail: sylvia.mccune@skybeam.com [Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 354 UCB, Clare Small 114, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: • Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. • Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. • Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids

  10. Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) root extract prevents impairment in characteristics and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of streptozotocin-induced adult male diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-08-08

    We hypothesized that C. borivilianum root, known to improve male reproductive performance, prevents impairment in characteristics, morphology and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of diabetics. We therefore investigated the effect of aqueous root extract of C. borivilianum on these parameters in diabetic rat model. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) were administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and sperm were collected. Sperm count and percentages of forward motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) tail-coiled and abnormal sperm were evaluated. Sperm lipid peroxidation product (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), activity levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx), epididymal sperm density, serum fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c levels were measured. The expression of sperm caspase-3 was assessed. Meanwhile, in-vitro free radical scavenging activity of C. borivilianum root extract was determined and the root extract was analyzed for the presence of bioactive compounds by FTIR spectroscopy. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract prevents the decrease in sperm count, percentages of forward motility, viability, HOS and the increase in abnormal sperm percentage and caspase-3 level in diabetic rats. Sperm LPO, H2O2 and NO levels, FBG and HbA1c were lower while TAC, SOD, CAT, GPx and epididymal sperm density were higher in diabetic rats receiving C. borivilianum root extract treatment. C. borivilianum root exhibited strong in-vitro free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the phenolic compound. C. borivilianum root extract prevents impairment in sperm characteristics and morphology via preventing elevation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and free radicals levels of

  11. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, O A; Odesanmi, O E; Oladele, F C

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  12. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Oseni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  13. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Asystasia gangetica on the blood pressure and heart rate in male spontaneously hypertensive Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabo, Pierre; Raji, Ismaila A

    2013-10-26

    Asystasia gangentica (A. gangetica) belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It is used to treat hypertension, rheumatism, asthma, diabetes mellitus, and as an anthelmintic in South Africa, India, Cameroun, Nigeria, and Kenya respectively. It has also been reported to inhibit the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in-vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the in-vivo effect of aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of A. gangetica on the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in anaesthetized male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); and to elucidate possible mechanism(s) by which it acts. The ALE of A. gangetica (10-400 mg/kg), angiotensin I human acetate salt hydrate (ANG I, 3.1-100 μg/kg) and angiotensin II human (ANG II, 3.1-50 μg/kg) were administered intravenously. The BP and HR were measured via a pressure transducer connecting the femoral artery to a Powerlab and a computer for recording. A. gangetica significantly (p<0.05), and dose-dependently reduced the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP. The significant (p<0.05) reductions in HR were not dose-dependent. Both ANG I and ANG II increased the BP dose-dependently. Co-infusion of A. gangetica (200 mg/kg) with either ANG I or ANG II significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the hypertensive effect of both ANG I and ANG II respectively, and was associated with reductions in HR. A. gangetica ALE reduced BP and HR in the SHR. The reduction in BP may be a result of actions of the ALE on the ACE, the ANG II receptors and the heart rate.

  14. Correlation of histopathology, urinary biomarkers, and gene expression responses following hexachloro-1:3-butadiene-induced acute nephrotoxicity in male Hanover Wistar rats: a 28-day time course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, David P; Turton, John A; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Swain, Aubrey J; McClure, Fiona J; Smyth, Rosemary; Pereira, Ines B; Munday, Michael R; York, Malcolm J

    2013-07-01

    Hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (HCBD) causes segment-specific injury to the proximal renal tubule. A time course study of traditional and more recently proposed urinary biomarkers was performed in male Hanover Wistar rats receiving a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 45 mg/kg HCBD. Animals were killed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, and 28 postdosing and the temporal response of renal biomarkers was characterized using kidney histopathology, urinary and serum biochemistry, and gene expression. Histopathologic evidence of tubular degeneration was seen from day 1 until day 3 postdosing and correlated with increased urinary levels of α-glutathione S-transferase (α-GST), albumin, glucose, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and increased gene expression of KIM-1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1, and heme oxygenase (decycling) 1. Histopathologic evidence of tubular regeneration was seen from day 2 postdosing and correlated with raised levels of urinary KIM-1 and osteopontin and increased gene expression of KIM-1 and annexin A7. Traditional renal biomarkers generally demonstrated low sensitivity. It is concluded that in rat proximal tubular injury, measurement of a range of renal biomarkers, in conjunction with gene expression analysis, provides an understanding of the extent of degenerative changes induced in the kidney and the process of regeneration.

  15. Sertraline and its iodine product: Experimental and theoretical vibrational studies. Potential in vitro anti-thyroid activity of sertraline and iodine product toxicity with respect to male Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Graciela E.; Ferraresi Curotto, Verónica; Laino, Carlos H.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo; Williams, Patricia A. M.; Ferrer, Evelina G.

    2013-03-01

    Mayor depression, obsessive-compulsive panic, social anxiety disorders are common diseases that are usually treated with sertraline hydrochloride which is the active ingredient of the well known drugs as Zoloft and Lustral. In this work, we presented a more complete vibrational characterization of the solid phase FT-IR spectra of Sertraline hydrochloride and its sertraline-iodine product in which the conformational space of the molecules was investigated performing molecular dynamic simulations within an NVT ensemble. Geometrical, electronic and vibrational properties were calculated with the density functional theory. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes of both molecules. In addition, for the first time we present the evaluation of anti-thyroid activity of sertraline hydrochloride by using the Lang's method. Also, with the aim to evaluate the antidepressant effect of its iodine product we demonstrated for this compound the toxic effect towards the male Wistar rats.

  16. Effects of chronic exercise on the endocannabinoid system in Wistar rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelin, François-Xavier; Aucouturier, Julien; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Mazzarella, Enrico; Aveta, Teresa; Leriche, Melissa; Dupont, Erwan; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Montel, Valérie; Bastide, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Heyman, Elsa

    2016-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated during obesity in tissues involved in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. We examined the effect of chronic exercise on the tissue levels of endocannabinoids (eCBs) and on the expression of genes coding for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively) in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues and in the soleus and extensor digitorim longus (EDL) muscles, in rats fed with standard or high-fat diet. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were placed on high-fat diet or standard diet (HFD and Ctl groups, respectively) during 12 weeks whereafter half of each group was submitted to an exercise training period of 12 weeks (HFD + training and Ctl + training). Tissue levels of eCBs were measured by LC-MS while expressions of genes coding for CB1 and CB2 receptors were investigated by qPCR. High-fat diet induced an increase in anandamide (AEA) levels in soleus and EDL (p < 0.02). In soleus of the HFD group, these changes were accompanied by elevated Cnr1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels (p < 0.05). In EDL, exercise training allowed to reduce significantly this diet-induced AEA increase (p < 0.005). 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels were decreased and increased by high-fat diet in SAT and EDL, respectively (p < 0.04), but not affected by exercise training. Unlike the HFD + training group, 2-AG levels in soleus were also decreased in the HFD group compared to Ctl (p < 0.04). The levels of eCBs and Cnr1 expression are altered in a tissue-specific manner following a high-fat diet, and chronic exercise reverses some of these alterations.

  17. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  18. A Study on Mars's Stay at Twenty-eight Lunar Mansions, Four-planet Conjunctions and Five-planet Conjunctions during Past Dynasties of China%中国历代荧惑守列宿与四星聚、五星聚考查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    2012-01-01

    利用授时历法和现代天文计算方法,对中国历代天文志记录的荧惑(火星)守列宿、四星聚、五星聚进行分析研究,结果表明:65条荧惑守列宿,正误率分别为49%和51%.如果把荧惑留、留守、在某宿等运动形态也考虑为守的范围,共有95条,其正误率分别为56%和44%.12条四星聚正误率各占一半,即50%.11条五星聚正误率分别为82%和18%(其中含五星并见).并对错误记录的原因做了初步探讨.%There are a lot of records about planets' motions during past dynasties of China in Tian Wen Zhi. The Mars's stay at twenty-eight lunar mansions, four-planet conjunctions and five-planet conjunctions are studied in this paper with the calculational methods of modern astronomy and Shou-shi Calendar. The results show that there are a lot of mistakes in these records. The proportion of mistakes is 51% in 65 records of Mars's stay at twenty-eight lunar mansions, 50% in 12 records of four-planet conjunctions, and 18% in 11 records of five-planet conjunctions. The main causes of mistakes are also discussed in this paper and they are as follows: (1) There is no unified format of date for the Mars' stay at twenty-eight lunar mansions; (2) There is no unified format of the time duration for the Mars' stay at twenty-eight mansions; (3) There are mistakes in the recorded patterns of Mars' motions; (4) There are also mistakes in the records of four-planet conjunctions and five-planet conjunctions; (5) Mistakes were made in editing and publishing.

  19. Effect of melatonin supplementation on food and water intake in streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats Efecto de la suplementación oral con melatonina sobre la ingestión de agua y alimento en ratas Wistar macho con diabetes experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Montano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of orally supplemented melatonin (MT at 1 mg/kg bw for 4 weeks on feeding behavior of non-diabetic and diabetic male Wistar rats has been studied by computerized meal pattern analysis. Exogenous MT has a satiating effect in non-diabetic rats, but not in diabetic animals. The changes in feeding behavior induced by MT in non-diabetic animals are related to changes in meal frequency, size and duration leading to lower total food intake during the scotophase. MT administration to diabetic rats resulted in lower drinking time and higher faecal output, without further behavioral effects. We conclude that the notorious metabolic changes ocurring in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat can overcome most of the underlying effects of MT supplementation. The possible MT usage for therapeutical purposes could benefit from the lack of behavioral alterations in diabetic animals.Varias líneas de evidencia señalan a la melatonina (MT como un importante factor en el complejo entramado de la regulación de la ingestión de alimento. Puesto que la secreción de MT aumenta en la rata con diabetes tipo I, y dada la importancia de MT en el tracto gastrointestinal, es interesante comprobar los efectos de MT sobre el alterado comportamiento ingestivo de estos animales. Se ha estudiado el efecto de la suplementación oral de MT (1 mg por kg de peso corporal y día en la escotofase sobre el comportamiento ingestivo de ratas Wistar macho diabéticas y no diabéticas durante cuatro semanas mediante análisis de pautas de ingestión asistido por ordenador. La administración de MT exógena indujo un efecto de saciación en ratas no diabéticas, pero no en animales diabéticos. Los cambios en comportamiento ingestivo inducidos por MT en animales no diabéticos están relacionados con cambios en frecuencia, tamaño y duración de las comidas, con el resultado de una disminución de la ingestión total de alimento durante la escotofase. La administración de MT en

  20. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment Triagem toxocológica do extrato de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, no sistema reprodutor, produção espermática e nível de testosterona em machos de ratos Wistar após tratamento crônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.As plantas medicinais podem apresentar na sua constituição compostos capazes de causar efeitos adversos no organismo. Cumarina e flavonoides são substâncias encontradas em muitas espécies vegetais, cuja interferência na fertilidade de ratas e cadelas, respectivamente, foi evidenciada em estudos prévios. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco é uma planta usada no tratamento de doenças respiratórias e em suas folhas foi detectada a presença de cumarina e flavonoides. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico, preparado com partes aéreas de guaco, no sistema reprodutor de ratos submetidos a tratamento crônico. Ratos Wistar (trinta dias de idade foram tratados com extrato hidroalcoólico de guaco na dose de 3,3 g/kg de peso corporal durante noventa dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozoides, a concentração de testosterona plasmática e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa

  1. No mutations found in exons of TP53, H-RAS and K-RAS genes in liver of male Wistar rats submitted to a medium-term chemical carcinogenesis assay Ausência de mutações em éxons dos genes TP53, H-RAS e K-RAS em fígado de ratos wistar submetidos a ensaio de carcinogênese química de média duração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick da Cruz Castelli

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The standard protocol to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of chemicals is the long-term bioassay in rodents, not performed in developing countries due to its high cost and complex operational procedures. Our laboratory has established an alternative medium-term bioassay in Wistar rats, also called DMBDD assay, based on the paradigm initiation/promotion of chemical carcinogenesis. This method was accepted by the Brazilian Environment Agency (IBAMA as an official source of evidence of carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in exons 5 to 8 of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and exons 1 and 2 of oncogenes K-RAS and H-RAS in neoplastic and preneoplastic hepatic lesions observed in DMBDD assay. The characterization of these alterations may contribute to the recognition of patterns of damage in critical genes, as well as to suggest mechanisms of action of the compounds tested in the protocol. Sixty male Wistar rats were separated into 3 groups: the first was treated with no chemicals; the second received five initiating agents and the third received initiation followed by phenobarbital. Liver DNA samples (obtained from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues after histological analysis were evaluated by the non-isotopic PCR-SSCP technique. No changes in any analyzed exons were detected by the PCR-SSCP banding pattern in all experimental groups. This result suggests that liver mutations in exons 5 to 8 of TP53 and exons 1 and 2 of H-RAS and K-RAS are not among the early molecular alterations occurring in the hepatic carcinogenesis process induced by the DMBDD protocol in male Wistar rats.O teste padrão para identificar o potencial cancerígeno de compostos químicos é o estudo de longa duração em roedores, não realizado no Brasil. Nosso laboratório estabeleceu um teste alternativo de média duração (ensaio DMBDD, baseado no paradigma iniciação-promoção da carcinogênese química, adotado pelo Instituto

  2. Efeito da Gymnema sylvestre na elevação da lipidemia após administração de gordura de origem animal em ratos wistar - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1602 The influence of Gymnema sylvestre on the elevation of blood levels of lipids after administration of animal fat in male wistar rats - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1602

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Batista

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho investigamos a influência da Gymnema sylvestre (Gs na elevação da lipidemia após administração de gordura de origem animal em ratos machos Wistar (230g - 250g. Os animais, em jejum por 22 horas, foram divididos em 5 grupos que receberam via intragástrica às 8h os seguintes tratamentos: 1 2mL de gordura suína Batavo®/kg de peso corpóreo (GSB; 2 GSB + 500mg/kg de peso corpóreo de Gs (Gs 500mg; 3 GSB + 1g/kg de peso corpóreo de Gs (Gs 1g; 4 Gs 500mg; 5 Gs 1g. Os animais foram sacrificados 30min após a administração destas substâncias. Não observamos diferenças significativas na concentração sérica de lipídeos totais, triglicerídeos e colesterol total nos ratos que receberam GSB na ausência ou presença de Gs 500mg ou Gs 1g. Portanto, nossos resultados sugerem que a Gs não afeta a absorção intestinal de lipídeosThe aim of the present experiment was to investigate the influence of Gymnema sylvestre (Gs on the elevation of blood levels of lipids after administration of animal fat in male Wistar rats (230–250g. The animals, which were fasted for 22h, were separated in five groups that received (8:00 a.m intragastric administration of: 1 2ml of pork fat Batavo® /kg of body weight (PFB; 2 PFB+500mg/kg of Gs body weight (Gs 500mg; 3 PFB + 1g/kg of Gs body weight (Gs 1 g; 4 Gs 500mg; 5 Gs 1g. The animals were sacrificed 30min after the administration of these substances. No significant differences were verified in the serum concentration of total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol in the animals, which received PBF in the presence or absence of Gs 500mg or Gs 1g. Therefore, the results showed that Gs could not affect the intestinal absorption of lipids

  3. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for autistic features induced in a rodent model ... Methods: Twenty-eight young male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), ...

  4. Effects of a single high dose of Chlorpyrifos in long-term feeding, ethanol consumption and ethanol preference in male Wistar rats with a previous history of continued ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Francisca; Sanchez-Amate, Maria Del Carmen; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2014-06-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate compound that is slowly delivered in the organism after subcutaneous injection, keeping acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity mildly inhibited for weeks. We have previously reported reduced voluntary ethanol drinking 8 weeks post-CPF administration in Wistar rats when AChE activity was almost completely recovered. Additionally, the OPs disrupt the functioning of certain neurochemical systems and modify the formation and/or degradation of some neuropeptides with a known role in regulating voluntary consumption of alcohol. Moreover, chronic ethanol intake significantly alters the regional expression of some of these neurochemical systems. Thus, the present study explored whether a previous history with ethanol consumption modify the disturbance in the voluntary ethanol consumption induced by CPF administration. For this aim, we measured ethanol consumption in increasing concentrations (8%, 15% and 20% w/v) from 4 days to 8 weeks following a single dose of CPF. Two experiments were carried out; experiment 1 was conducted in ethanol-naïve rats and experiment 2, in animals with a previous history of ethanol drinking before CPF administration. Additionally, food and body weight measures were collected. We report here a significant increase in ethanol consumption and preference at high ethanol concentrations (15% and 20%) in CPF-treated animals with a previous history of ethanol consumption (experiment 1) and a long-lasting increase in food intake both in ethanol-exposed (experiment 1) and ethanol-naïve CPF-treated rats (experiment 2). Present data are discussed under the interesting idea that CPF targets neurobiological pathways critically involved with ethanol consumption. Additionally, we conclude that CPF effects on voluntary ethanol consumption are ethanol-experience dependent.

  5. in wistar rats (Rattus Novergicus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traction in fresh wounds inflicted on wistar rats was car- ried out. Method: Twenty .... be pertinent in addition to its effect on specific fibroblast cell lines like myofibroblast. ... nism of wound contraction: first that the contractile force is located in the ...

  6. [Pathologic changes of spontaneous tumors in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y N; Zhang, S C; Zhang, H M

    2017-04-08

    Objective: To investigate the spontaneous neoplastic lesions and their incidences in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar rats, and to accumulate background data for carcinogenicity studies. Methods: One hundred and eighty SD rats and 240 Wistar rats (4-week old) , half in each sex, were used in this study. The rats were housed routinely under specific pathogen-free environment and euthanized after 104 weeks. Histopathological examination was undertaken for all animals including deaths and scheduled euthanasia. The types and incidences of spontaneous tumors were gathered statistically. Results: Total 411 rats (176 SD rats and 235 Wistar rats) were examined in this study. The total tumor incidence of the 411 rats was 57.7%(237/411). The total tumor incidence in SD rats was 55.7%(98/176), benign tumor incidence was 48.9%(86/176) and malignant tumor incidence was 15.9%(28/176). The total tumor incidence in Wistar rats was 59.1%(139/235), benign tumor incidence was 51.5%(121/235) and malignant tumor incidence was 14.5%(34/235). The main benign tumors were pituitary adenoma (23.3% in SD rats, 12.3% in Wistar rats), breast fibroadenoma (21.3% in SD rats, 12.9% in Wistar rats) and breast adenoma (16.9% in SD rats, 9.5% in Wistar rats) in females; testis Leydig cell tumor (0 in SD rats, 14.3% in Wistar rats) in males. The main malignant tumors were breast carcinoma (10.1% in SD rats, 3.4% in Wistar rats) and uterine leiomyosarcoma (0 in SD rats, 2.6% in Wistar rats) in females; squamous cell carcinoma of skin (2.3% in SD rats, 0.9% in Wistar rats); subcutaneous fibrosarcoma (1.1% in SD rats, 2.1% in Wistar rats); brain malignant glioma (1.1% in SD rats, 1.7% in Wistar rats). Conclusions: In the study, a high incidence of spontaneous tumors is reported in both SD and Wistar rats housed for 2 years. The incidence of benign tumors is higher than that of malignant rumors. The benign tumors mainly are pituitary adenoma, breast fibroadenoma and breast adenoma in females, and testis

  7. In vivo study on the effects of microcystin extracts on the expression profiles of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) in liver, kidney and testis of male Wistar rats injected i.v. with toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a potent liver tumor promoter, possessing potent tumor-promoting activity and weak initiating activity. Proto-oncogenes are known to be involved in the tumor-promoting mechanisms of microcystin-LR. However, few data are available on the effects of MCs on proto-oncogenes in the whole animal. To investigate the effects of MCs on the expression profile of the proto-oncogenes in different organs, male Wistar rats were injected intravenously with microcystin extracts at a dose of 86.7 mug MC-LR eq/kg bw (MC-LR eq, MC-LR equivalents). mRNA levels of three proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc in liver, kidney and testis were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR at several time points post-injection. Significant induction of these genes at transcriptional level was observed in the three organs. In addition, the increase of mRNA expression of all three genes was much higher in liver than in kidney and testis. Meanwhile, the protein levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were investigated by western blotting. Both proteins were induced in the three organs. However, elevations of protein levels were much lower than those of mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc might be one possible mechanism for the tumor-promoting activity and initiating activity of microcystins.

  8. Muscle dysfunction in male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A K; Katiyar, B C; Misra, S; Thacker, A K; Singh, N K

    1986-05-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive male patients with primary and secondary hypogonadism (14 each) were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically for muscle dysfunction. Although generalised muscle weakness was initially reported by only 9 patients, on direct questioning, it was recorded in 19. Objective weakness was found in 13 patients and it involved both the proximal and distal limb muscles. Quantitative electromyography showed evidence of myopathy in the proximal muscle in 25 patients, i.e., reduced MUP duration and amplitude with increased polyphasia in the deltoid and the gluteus maximus. There were no denervation potentials. None of the patients showed clinical neuropathy or NCV abnormalities. Thus, the profile of muscle involvement in hypogonadism closely simulates limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and other endocrine myopathies. The incidence of muscle involvement was higher in secondary hypogonadism. Diminished androgens in primary hypogonadism and diminished growth hormone in the secondary hypogonadism are probably responsible for the myopathy.

  9. Periodontal disease induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Storrer, Carmen Mueller; Aun, Juliana Cleaver; Pustiglioni, Francisco E.; Romito,Giuseppe Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that it is necessary to place ligatures around molars to study periodontal destruction in rats. The present research aims to examine a periodontal disease model in which specific pathogen-free Wistar rats are orally exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum. Periodontitis was induced by specific infection with P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. The control animals were not infec...

  10. Evaluating Oxidative Stress Factors Induced by Chlorpyrifos Poisoning in Plasma of Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi, M.; A Zare’i Mahmoudabadi; M Fasihi Ramandi; A Kazemi; J Rasouli Vani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide that has been used abundantly over the globe during the past 40 years. Chemical pesticides may induce oxidative stress via generating free radicals and altering antioxidant levels of the free radical scavenging enzyme activity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress in the plasma samples of Wistar rat. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were selected r...

  11. Spermatozoa morphology and characteristics of male wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of sperm cell motility was significantly lowered in animals ... in the animals administered with the fruit extract in comparison with animals in the ... The potential of the plant as an anti-fertility drug in man can be carefully explored.

  12. Pengaruh ekstrak melon terhadap kadar HbCO pada tikus Wistar jantan yang dipapar asap rokok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyun Erlina Susanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is something that is usual for most Indonesian society, especially adult males. According to Riskesdas, smoking behavior of the population trends to increase. A previous study suggested that exposure to cigarette smoke produce CO bond to hemoglobin. Melon (Cucumis melo contains antioxidants that prevent tissue damage. Objective: Analyze differences in levels HbCO Wistar male rats in treated and untreated extracts of melon. Method: The research was a laboratory experiment with the post test control group design and complete random design. The subjects were 25 male Wistar rats aged 3 months. Subjects were divided into 5 groups and each group received treatment for 28 days. Data of level HbCO was collected and analyzed by Anova One Way test at 95% confidence level. Results: The results showed a difference between the average levels of HbCO male Wistar rats (p value=0,000 treated and untreated extracts of melon. Conclusion: Melon extracts effect on decreasing the levels of HbCO due to exposure to cigarette smoke. There were differences in levels of male Wistar rats HbCO on treated and untreated extracts of melon and be given at a dose of 250 IU/day.

  13. The acute effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) on testes of prepubertal Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lam, Henrik Rye;

    2001-01-01

    A single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the testis toxic metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. was given to 28-day-old male Wistar rats and the testis toxic effects were investigated 3, 6. and 12 h after exposure. Detachment and sloughing of germ cell...

  14. Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sadariya

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

  15. Some Adverse Effects of Used Engine Oil (Common Waste Pollutant On Reproduction of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Olalekan Akintunde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Used oil is contaminated not only with heavy metals but also with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are insignificant in the unused oil. In our study we determined possible reproductive effects of used engine oil on male rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were used for the study. The rats had average weight of 181.5 ± 10 g, animal feeds and portable water was provided ad-libitum. The rats were assigned to 4 groups (n = 7 including control. The treated groups orally received 0.1 ml/rat, 0.2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/rat of the used engine oil every other day for 28 days using oral canulla. The spermatozoa were collected from epididymis for sperm analysis and testes were removed and preserved in Bouin’s fluid for routine histological analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was progressive weight increase among the control group of rats that received distilled water. Meanwhile, rats that received 0.4 ml/rat of the used engine oil showed significant (P 0.05 weight reduction. The spermatozoa number was decreased with significance (P 0.05. The percentage of head deformity been 41.43 ± 2.61 and 42.00 ± 3.74 at 0.2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/rat respectively, also significant increase of middle piece deformity was observed only at 0.1 ml/rat (45.71 ± 2.02 while tail deformity significantly decreased (15.71 ± 2.02, 20.00 ± 4.36 and 20.00 ± 4.47 when compared with the control (30.00 ± 1.29. The testicular seminiferous tubules were slightly degenerated with absence of Lumen. The germinal cell layer consisting of necrosis of spermatogonia and interstitial (Leydig cells with affected Sertoli cells at different maturation stages. CONCLUSION: Hence, it can be said that there is a negative relation between used engine oil and male reproductive parameters. And it can be concluded that used engine oil should be  prevented from leaking, spilling or improperly discarded as through medium it may enter storm water runoff and

  16. Training alters cardiac neuron sizes in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RR de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The action of the parasympathetic nerves on the heart is made through a group of neurons located on the surface of the atria. This study evaluated the effect of a chronic training protocol on the number and sizes of the cardiac neurons of Wistar rats. Whole mount preparations of the atria of 12-month old male sedentary and trained rats (40 weeks of running on a treadmill 3 times a week, 16 m/min were assessed for number and size (maximal cellular profile area of the cardiac neurons. The cardiac neurons were ascertained by using the NADH-diaphorase technique that stains the cell bodies of the neurons in dark blue. The number of cardiac neurons in the trained rats (P>0.05 did not change significantly. In the sedentary group there were small, medium sized and large neurons. However there was a notable increase in the percentage of small neurons in the rats submitted to the training compared to the sedentary group (P<0.05. Previous studies have shown that electrophysiologically, the small neurons are more easily excitable than the large neurons. It is possible that the results of the present work reflect an adaptation mechanism of the cardiac neurons presumably with the objective of increasing the excitability of the neurons for the vagal action and resulting facilitation of the sinusal bradycardia observed at rest and in the exercise. We concluded that the training affects significantly the size of the cardiac neurons in Wistar rats.

  17. Effects of trace acrylamide intake in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Ojiri, Yuko; Fujioka, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Frying oil in use of cooking may contain acrylamide formed from frying foodstuffs. We have reported that administration of a diet containing 7% practically used frying oil for 12 weeks damaged liver and kidneys severely in Wistar rats. Then, male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control group) or frying oil heated with Asn + glucose for 20 h at 180 degrees C under a nitrogen flow in order to form acrylamide under the least thermal deterioration (experimental group). The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oil were observed. But the experimental rats had significantly low insulin and triacylglycerol levels. The liver and kidneys from the experimental rats had damages, but the degree of the histological changes looked lighter than that of the rats fed practically used frying oil described above. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also not much increased. Thus, it was suggested that continuous intake of trace acrylamide induced characteristically low serum insulin level and that the effects of the used frying oil on the liver and kidneys were hardly attributable to acrylamide possibly contained therein.

  18. Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Solé

    Full Text Available Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm, during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and sterility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal diet. The animals from the group receiving normal diet, were divided into other 3: the first received severe, the second mild Zn deficient diet and the third normal diet. During the study we observed that animals submitted to a Zn deficient diet (acute or chronic had tendency to lower weight gain, lower weight of the offspring, lower serum levels of Zn in maternal and newborn (pool blood. A significant reduction in the number of alive newborns was observed in the group of animals submitted to severe Zn deficiency. These data reinforces that Zn is a very important trace element overall during pregnancy.

  19. TWENTY EIGHT YEARS OF ICP VEGETATION: AN OVERVIEW OF ITS ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Harmens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we look back at the activities and achievements in the 28 years of the International Cooperative Programme on the Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation. The ICP Vegetation is a subsidiary body of the Working Group on Effects of the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LTRAP, established in 1979. An important role of the ICP Vegetation is to provide evidence for air pollution impacts on vegetation in support of policy development and review of the LRTAP Convention and its Protocols. The activities and participation in the ICP Vegetation have grown over the years. The main activities include:Collate evidence of ozone impacts on vegetation, assess spatial patterns and temporal trends across Europe;Develop dose-response relationships, establish critical levels for vegetation and provide European risk maps of ozone impacts;Reviewing the literature on ozone impacts on vegetation and produce thematic scientific reports and policy-relevant brochures;Determine spatial patterns and temporal trends of heavy metals, nitrogen and persistent organic pollutants concentrations in mosses as a biomonitoring tool of atmospheric deposition of these compounds.

  20. A twenty-eight channel coil array for improved optic nerve imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robb Phillip

    The purpose of this work was to design and construct a radio-frequency coil optimized for imaging the Optic Nerve (ON) on a Siemens 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The specific goals were to optimize signal sensitivity from the orbit to the optic chiasm and improve SNR over designs currently in use. The constructed coil features two fiberglass formers that can slide over each other to accommodate any arbitrary head size, while maintaining close coupling near the eyes and around the head in general. This design eliminates the air void regions that occur between the coil elements and the forehead when smaller heads are imaged in one-piece, nonadjustable coil formers. The 28 coil elements were placed using a soccer-ball pattern layout to maximize head coverage. rSNR profiles from phantom imaging studies show that the ON coil provides approximately 55% greater rSNR at the region of the optic chiasm and approximately 400% near the orbits compared to the 12-channel commercial coil. The improved rSNR in the optic nerve region allows performance of high resolution DTI, which provides a qualitative measurement for evaluating optic neuritis. Images from volunteer and patient studies with the ON coil reveal plaques that correspond well with the patient disease history of chronic bilateral optic neuritis. Correspondence of image findings with patient disease histories demonstrates that optic neuritis can be visualized and detected in patients using 3T MRI with advanced imaging coils, providing improved patient care.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Eight COUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; SHANG Xiukui; PAN Xingfang

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cough, a main symptom of the lung problems, may result either from invasion of the exogenous factors induced dysfunction of the lungqi in dispersion or from disorders of the lung itself or from dysfunction of other zang-fu organs affecting the lung.

  3. DYNASTY-Leading Wine Brand for Twenty-Eight Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sino-French Joint Venture Dynasty Winery Co.,Ltd.,since the establishment in 1980,has had a history of steady development of 28 years.In the past 28 years,Dynasty Winery continues the market expansion,and increasing the market share,and strengthening the influence of the brand and the company.Till now,"Dynasty Wine",has become popular among the consumors.

  4. Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Souza R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

  5. Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia, and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks, it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P, um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a

  6. Produtividade de ratos Wistar em diferentes sistemas de acasalamento Productivity of Wistar rats in different mating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Gomes de Moura Mattaraia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e uniformidade da produção de ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus em três sistemas de acasalamento: monogâmico permanente, com um casal mantido permanentemente em cada gaiola; poligâmico permanente, com duas matrizes e um macho, mantidos permanentemente em cada gaiola; e poligâmico temporário, em que o macho foi mantido na gaiola com duas matrizes até a certificação de cada cópula e, em seguida, foi retirado, retornando após o desmame das ninhadas. Para isso, 69 fêmeas de 90 dias de idade (matrizes foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos três grupos. As avaliações compreenderam cinco ciclos reprodutivos por matriz. Foram obtidas ninhadas mais pesadas a desmama no sistema poligâmico temporário. Além disso, não houve mortalidade de matrizes neste sistema, o que é um indicador importante de bem estar animal. No sistema monogâmico permanente, o intervalo de tempo necessário para produzir um filhote desmamado por matriz foi menor que nos sistemas poligâmicos. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, que este sistema requer o dobro do número de gaiolas e de machos reprodutores que os poligâmicos. Portanto, o sistema poligâmico temporário pode ser recomendado nas colônias de expansão e produção de ratos Wistar, com a ressalva de que necessita de mão de obra qualificada para identificação de cópula nas matrizes e manejo de rotação dos machos.The objective was to evaluate the productivity and production uniformity of Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus submitted to three mating systems: permanent monogamous, with a couple permanently maintained in each cage, permanent polygamous, with two females and one male permanently maintained in each cage, and temporary polygamous in which a male was maintained in a cage with two females until each mating was verified and was removed afterwards, returning after both litters were weaned. For that, 69 90-days-old females were randomly assigned to three

  7. Pengaruh Kurang Tidur terhadap Berat Badan pada Tikus Wistar Jantan

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    Deby Nelsya Eka Putri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPengurangan durasi tidur menurunkan kadar leptin dan meningkatkan kadar ghrelin sehingga merangsang nafsu makan dan meningkatkan kemungkinan terjadinya obesitas pada manusia. Pada tikus akan menyebabkan peningkatan asupan makanan tetapi terjadi penurunan berat badan yang disebabkan karena aktivitas yang tinggi pada tikus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh kurang tidur 24 jam, 48 jam dan 72 jam terhadap berat badan pada tikus Wistar jantan. Jenis penelitian adalah true experimental research dengan rancangan randomized post control group terhadap 14 ekor tikus Wistar yang dibagi atas kelompok kontrol, kelompok perlakuan 24 jam, 48 jam dan 72 jam. Tikus dikondisikan mengalami paradoxycal sleep deprivation dengan metode modified multiple platform. Asupan makanan diberikan ad libitum dan berat badan diukur setelah pengurangan durasi tidur selama 24 jam, 48 jam, dan 72 jam.Analisis data menggunakan uji Saphiro-Wilk Test dan One-Way ANOVA. Rerata berat badan setelah pengurangan durasi tidur 24 jam adalah 193,6±17,9 gram; setelah 48 jam 179,6±17,3 gram; dan setelah 72 jam 176,7±15,9 gram dibandingkan dengan kontrol 219.6±11,3 gram. Pengurangan durasi tidur 48 jam dan 72 jam dibandingkan dengan kontrol bermakna (p<0,05. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa terjadi penurunan berat badan pada pengurangan durasi tidur selama 48 jam dan 72 jam.Kata kunci: kurang tidur, berat badan, tikus wistarAbstractSleep deprivation lowers level of leptin and increases level of ghrelin which stimulates appetite and increases the likelihood of obesity in humans. In mice will increases food intake, but decreases the body weight due to high activity in mice. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of sleep deprivation 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours on body weight in male Wistar rats. This type of research was a true experimental design research with post randomized control group on 14 Wistar rats were divided into control group, treatment group

  8. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21...

  9. Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats

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    R. Arunkumar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that chronic use of atorvastatin 2 and 4 mg may lead to fasting hyperglycemia and it could be prevented by co-administration of 200 IU of vitamin D, in male Wistar albino rats. Randomized control studies in humans are further required to recommend routine use of vitamin D in patients receiving atorvastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 359-364

  10. Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats differ in the affective and locomotor effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhut, Anthony S; Zentner, Isaac J; Mardekian, Stacey K; Tanenbaum, Jason B

    2008-01-28

    Anhedonia is a characteristic of clinical depression and has been associated with dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, a system also involved in mediating nicotine reward. To further examine the relationship between anhedonia, clinical depression and nicotine reward, the present experiment determined if Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of clinical depression, differed from Wistar rats in nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP). Strain differences in nicotine-induced changes in locomotor activity also were determined simultaneously. To determine if strain differences were specific to reward-based learning, nicotine or lithium chloride (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) experiments were conducted. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) during a multi-trial, biased CPP training procedure or received vehicle, nicotine (0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) or lithium chloride (LiCl; 0.0375, 0.075 or 0.15 M) during a multi-trial CTA training procedure. Whereas both nicotine doses (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) initially induced hypoactivity, only the moderate nicotine dose (0.4 mg/kg) induced hyperactivity with repeated administration and produced a CPP in Wistar rats. Both nicotine doses failed to alter locomotor activity or produce a CPP in WKY rats. WKY rats also acquired a LiCl CTA more slowly and less robustly compared to Wistar rats. In contrast, nicotine dose-dependently produced a CTA in both strains and WKY rats were more sensitive to the avoidance effects of nicotine compared to Wistar rats. Collectively, these results suggest that WKY rats show deficits in nicotine reward and specific aversive drug stimuli compared to Wistar rats.

  11. Efek Pemberian Vitamin C terhadap Gambaran Histopatologi Hati Tikus Wistar yang Terpapar Timbal Asetat

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    Arifuddin .

    2016-01-01

    Medicine, Andalas University. The study performed on 28 male Wistar rats, 3 months old, body weight 200 g.             It was found that 50 mg/ kgBW/day of lead exposure for 4 weeks increased Manja Roenigk’s grading of wistar rat’s liver. Administration of vitamin C 50 mg/kgBW/day and 75 mg/kgBB/day to rat which exposed to lead acetate showed decrease in score of Manja Roenigk on wistar rat’s liver. Based on paired sample t test was not significant difference score of Manja Roenigk between unexposed and exposed lead acetate (p = 0.501. Based on one way Anova test was found  a significant effect of vitamin C to histopathology of wistar rat’s liver (p = 0.000. Statistically administration of both dose vitamin C did not give significant difference (p = 0.379.The conclusion of this study show  there is the effect of protection from administration of vitamin C to microscopic Wistar rat liver which exposed to lead acetateKeywords: lead acetate, histopathology of liver, vitamin C, plumbum acetate, Manja Roenigk

  12. Orienterend semi-chronisch onderzoek naar de invloed van gekookte koffie op het cholesterol metabolisme van de Wistar rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen GB; Speijers GJA; van Loenen HA; Verschuren WMM; van Soolingen J

    1991-01-01

    The effects of brewed coffee on the cholesterol metabolism of the Wistar rat were investigated. Male rats were housed for 12 weeks in three groups of 8 animals and were giving drinking water or drinking water containing diluted brewed coffee. Dosis brewed coffee were such that the total intake of

  13. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  14. Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats

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    Rupesh Shirodkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats.

  15. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyreva, A M

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10-12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose-15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats.

  16. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

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    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1 e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2. Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas, as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar.

  17. Activation of autophagy improves neuron injury after the restoration of spontaneous circulation from ventricular fibrillation in wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of activation of autophagy on cerebral injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR)in Wistar rats.Methods At first 36healthy adult male Wistar rats were induced to suffer ventricular fibrillation(VF)by an external transthoracic alternating electricity current shock for 7 minutes and then received CPR.Before VF(0)and at 1 h,2 h,4 h,8 h and 12 hours after the restoration of spontaneous circulation(ROSC)from VF,cerebral cortex were harvested to

  18. Efek Pemberian Niasin terhadap Glukosa Darah pada Tikus Wistar dengan Obesitas

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    Robby Hermawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Niacin has many controversies about its effect to the management of the blood glucose. The objective of the research was to know the effect of niacin to the blood glucose in obese wistar rats. This research was an experimental laboratory study with a parallel design using randomization. Male Wistar rats were used in this research. All rats were induced to be obesed with high-fat feeding for 10 weeks. Rats that fulfill the criteria were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was given the placebo. The second group was given the niacin. The niacin and the placebo were given for the next 20 days. The niacin dose was 0.135 mg/g body weight/day. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were taken on the 21st day. The results showed that there were not any significant differences in FBG and OGTT between control and treated group. The FBG of the niacin group was 4.0 mg/dL (95% CI -0.342–8.4 lower than the control group, with p=0.068. The OGTT result of the niacin group was 0.8 mg/dL (95% CI -5.6 –7.1 higher than the control group, with p=0.800. This study concludes that taking niacin does not cause differences in FBG and OGTT results in the male Wistar rats with diet induced obesity.

  19. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  20. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

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    Muhammad Aslam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  1. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacostas-Quintanilla, Helena; Ortiz-Ortega, Víctor Manuel; López-Rubalcava, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB) and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W) and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT) and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala). Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased anxiety

  2. SERUM VITAMIN LEVELS IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS ADMINISTERED WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF PARACETAMOL AND PARACETAMOL/METHIONINE – AN ACUTE STUDY

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    Iyanda Ayobola Abolape

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has been identified to play a role in the metabolism of paracetamol in the CD 1 mouse, resulting in differences in renal presentations of male and female mice. Moreover, alterations have been observed in the serum levels of vitamins in male Wistar rats administered with paracetamol/methionine. The aim of this study is to determine if the sex of an animal plays a role in serum vitamin presentation in the Wistar strain after paracetamol/methionine administration. This will be achieved by comparing observation made from this study with an earlier one on male Wistar rats. Moreover, comparison of presentations at the 4th & 16th hours will be carried out, so as to establish how earlier in the course of exposure to paracetamol/methionine vitamin alteration takes place. Female Wistar Rats consisting of eight rats per group were administered with different doses of paracetamol & paracetamol/methionine (5:1 ranging from 350-5000 mg/kg. Results indicate that significant alterations (p<0.05 in the levels of all the vitamins commenced as early as the 4th hour in both paracetamol & paracetamol/methionine administered groups. Moreover, significant alterations in the female rats parallel those of male rats obtained from an earlier study. Evidence from this study when compared with an earlier one indicates that sex probable plays no role on the impact of paracetamol on serum vitamins in Wistar rats.

  3. Leptin Induces an Inflammatory Phenotype in Lean Wistar Rats

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    Monique Allman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study addressed the hypothesis that leptin promotes leukocyte trafficking into adipose tissue. Accordingly, male Wistar rats were treated with saline or recombinant rat leptin (1 mg/kg via the tail vein. Leukocyte trafficking in mesenteric venules was quantified by intravital microscopy. Treatment with leptin resulted in a 3- and 5-fold increases in rolling and firm adhesion, respectively. Compared to vehicle controls, leptin enhanced mRNA levels of IL-6 (8-fold and MCP-1 (5-fold in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT. Similar increases in these markers were observed in mesenteric venules and in liver. Finally, the direct effect of leptin was assessed in C3A hepatocytes treated with leptin for 24 hours (7.8 ng/mL–125 ng/mL. Consistent with observations in vivo, production of ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6 by hepatocytes was increased significantly. These findings support the hypothesis that leptin directly initiates inflammation in the local environment of mesenteric adipose tissue as well as systemically.

  4. Atrophic cardiac remodeling induced by taurine deficiency in Wistar rats.

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    Mariele Castilho Pansani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C or taurine-deficient (T (-. Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals' water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (- group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart. RESULTS: Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (- rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics.

  5. Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats

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    D.T. Furuya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

  6. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  7. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Issy

    Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  8. Deltamethrin and Permethrin in the liver and heart of Wistar rats submitted to oral subchronic exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Mônica A. T; Rodrigues,Marili V. N; Áreas, Miguel A; Reyes,Felix G. R.

    2011-01-01

    For 28 days male Wistar rats were submitted to oral exposure with 1/10 of the LD50 value of permethrin (PMT) or deltamethrin (DMT). The aim of this study was to determine the residues of PMT and DMT in the liver and heart of the rats at the end of the exposure period, as well as to evaluate the effect of ingesting pectin and cellulose via the diet. The analytes were extracted with acetonitrile and the extracts were cleaned up by solid phase extraction with florisil before GC-ECD (gas chromato...

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Ocimum Sanctum on Meloxicam Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaprabhu, R.; Bhandarkar, A. G.; Jangir, Babu Lal; Rahangadale, S. P.; Kurkure, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    An ameliorating effect of Ocimum sanctum on the toxic effect of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was studied by evaluating haemato-biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, gross and histopathological changes in various organs of Wistar rats. A total of thirty-six male rats were divided in six experimental groups each comprising of six rats and numbered from G1 to G6. Meloxicam toxicity was induced by oral feeding of meloxicam at 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4 mg/kg body weight in G2 ...

  10. 3-Hydroxybutyrate coinfused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, X.; Sanchis, D.; Gómez, G.; Casanovas, J.M.; Artigas Pérez, Francesc; Fernández López, José Antonio; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  11. 3-Hydroxybutyrate co-infused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Xavier; Sanchís, Daniel; Gómez, Gloria; Casanovas, Josep M.; Artigas, Francesc; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  12. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors improve prepulse inhibition responses of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issy, A C; Lazzarini, M; Szawka, R E; Carolino, R O G; Anselmo-Franci, J A; Del Bel, E A

    2011-03-01

    Cognitive and attentional deficits in schizophrenia include impairment of the sensorimotor filter as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI). In this way, the study of animals that naturally present low PPI responses could be a useful approach for screening new antipsychotic drugs. Several pieces of evidence suggest that dopamine and nitric oxide (NO) can modulate PPI but their role in those animals is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dopamine and NO in Wistar rats with naturally low PPI response. Male Wistar rats with low PPI responses received an i.p. injection of the antipsychotics haloperidol (0.1, 0.3 or 1mg/kg) or clozapine (0.5, 1.5 or 5mg/kg), the anxiolytic diazepam (1 or 3mg/kg) or the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, N(G)- nitro-l-arginine (l-NOARG; 40mg/kg, acutely or sub-chronically) or 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI; 3, 10 or 30mg/kg). All animals were submitted to the PPI test 1h after injection. Striatal and cortical dopamine, DOPAC, and noradrenaline levels of rats with low PPI responses were compared to rats with normal PPI responses. We found increased levels of catecholamines on the striatum and prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats with low PPI. In these animals, both antipsychotics, typical and atypical, and NOS inhibitors significantly increased PPI. Taken together, our findings suggest that the low PPI phenotype may be driven by an overactive catecholamine system. Additionally, our results corroborate the hypothesis of dopamine and NO interaction on PPI modulation and suggest that Wistar rats with low PPI may represent an interesting non-pharmacological model to evaluate new potential antipsychotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  14. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  15. Myofibroblasts and colonic anastomosis healing in Wistar rats

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    Vasiliadou Kalliopi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myofibroblasts play a central role in wound healing throughout the body. The process of wound healing in the colon was evaluated with emphasis on the role of myofibroblasts. Methods One hundred male Wistar rats weighing 274 ± 9.1 g (mean age: 3.5 months were used. A left colonic segment was transected and the colon was re-anastomosed. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group experimental animals (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 3, while the second group rats (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of colonic anastomosis was studied in terms of anastomotic bursting pressure, as well as myofibroblastic reaction and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, adhesion formation, inflammatory reaction and neovascularization. Results The mean anastomotic bursting pressure increased from 20.6 ± 3.5 mmHg on the 3rd postoperative day to 148.8 ± 9.6 Hg on the 7th postoperative day. Adhesion formation was increased on the 7th day, as compared to the 3rd day. In addition, the myofibroblastic reaction was more profound on the 7th postoperative day in comparison with the 3rd postoperative day. The staining intensity for α-SMA was progressive from the 3rd to the 7th postoperative day. On the 7th day the α-SMA staining in the myofibroblats reached the level of muscular layer cells. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the pivotal role of myofibroblasts in the process of colonic anastomosis healing. The findings provide an explanation for the reduction in the incidence of wound dehiscence after the 7th postoperative day.

  16. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  17. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

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    Y. Damodar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics.

  18. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  19. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  20. Ultrastructural study of the lateral ventricle choroid plexus in experimental hydrocephalus in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Pretti da Cunha Tirapelli; Luiza da Silva Lopes; João José Lachat; Benedicto Oscar Colli; Luís Fernando Tirapelli

    2007-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is one of the most frequent and complex neurological diseases characterized by the abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, due to an altered CSF dynamics. To detect possible ultrastructural alterations of the lateral ventricles choroid plexus (responsible for the CSF production), rats seven days after birth were submitted to an intracisternal injection of 20% kaolim (hydrated aluminum silicate) for the hydrocephalus induction. Twenty-eight o...

  1. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  2. Absence of mutagenic effect of Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract on adult wistar rats in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an assessment of the dominant lethality of Mikania glomerata in male Wistar rats. Adult male received 1 mL of M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose level of 3.3 g/kg body weight for 52 days and were mated with untreated females for seven weeks (group 1 or one week prior to the beginning of treatment and on the week following the end of treatment (group 2. The parameters analyzed were: number of implanted embryos, resorptions and corpora lutea; mating, gestation, preimplantation loss, implantation and resorption indexes (group 1; number of offspring and weaning animals (group 2. The administration of M. glomerata did not show any impairment of fertility and no significant difference in the parameters analyzed, suggesting an absence of mutagenic effect on Wistar rats.Mikania glomerata é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular, cujas folhas possuem flavonóides e cumarina. Essas substâncias, segundo a literatura, interferem na fertilidade de cães e ratas, respectivamente. O presente trabalho faz um estudo do teste do letal dominante com M. glomerata em ratos Wistar. Animals adultos foram tratados com 1 mL de extrato hidroalcoólico de M. glomerata na dose de 3.3 g/kg de peso corporal durante 52 dias. Os animais foram acasalados com fêmeas não tratadas por sete semanas (grupo 1 ou uma semana antes do início do tratamento e na semana seguinte ao término do mesmo (grupo 2. As variáveis analisadas foram: números de embriões implantados, reabsorções e corpos lúteos, índices de acasalamento, gestação, perda pré-implantação, implantação e reabsorção (grupo 1; número de filhotes nascidos e de animais desmamados (grupo 2. A administração de M. glomerata não interferiu com a fertilidade dos animais e não foram observadas alterações significativas das variáveis analisadas, o que sugere a ausência de efeito mutagênico em ratos Wistar por parte dessa planta.

  3. Twenty-eight-year review of childhood renal diseases from renal biopsy data: A single centre in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengjie; Xiao, Zizheng; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Mo, Ying; Sun, Liangzhong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Xiaoyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of biopsy-proven childhood renal diseases and to compare the trends and changes during two different time intervals between 1984 and 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in China. We retrospectively analyzed kidney biopsy data from children with renal diseases and compared the data during two time intervals, namely 1984-1997 and 1998-2011. A total of 1313 children were enrolled in the present study. There were 921 children with primary glomerular disease (PGD) and 312 children with secondary glomerular disease (SGD), accounting for 70.1% and 23.8% of participants, respectively. The major clinical manifestation of PGD was nephrotic syndrome (NS), which accounted for 31.2% of cases, while the main aetiology of SGD was lupus nephritis (40.7%). The main biopsy patterns of PGD were IgA nephritis (27.6%), minimal change disease (24.0%), and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (16.9%). PGD was the major class of disease in both time intervals, but the ratio of PGD decreased over time, while the ratio of SGD and other glomerular diseases increased. PGD was also the major class of disease in each age group; however, the incidence of PGD decreased with increasing age. The incidence patterns of paediatric renal diseases changed over the 28-year period of this study. Our results show that different renal diseases characterize different age intervals. Furthermore, there are several associations between clinical presentation and biopsy features in childhood renal disease. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  4. Twenty-eight day Holter monitoring is poorly tolerated and insensitive for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation detection in cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, H T; Spence, S; Kalman, J M; Davis, S M

    2014-05-01

    This pilot study in a prospective cohort of 20 cryptogenic stroke patients showed that a significant proportion has paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undetected by 24-h Holter monitoring. However, longer monitoring with 28-day Holter was poorly tolerated and still insufficiently sensitive for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation detection. Further studies are urgently needed to elucidate the optimal timing, method and duration of cardiac rhythm monitoring following ischaemic stroke.

  5. Twenty-eight divergent polysaccharide loci specifying within and amongst strain capsule diversity in three strains of Bacteroides fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, S.; Blakely, G.W.; Houston, S.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of the complete genome sequence of Bacteroides fragilis 638R originally isolated in the USA, was made with two previously sequenced strains isolated in the UK (NCTC 9343) and Japan (YCH46). The presence of 10 loci containing genes associated with polysaccharide biosynthesis, each...

  6. Twenty-eight divergent polysaccharide loci specifying within and amongst strain capsule diversity in three strains of Bacteroides fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, S.; Blakely, G.W.; Houston, S.

    2010-01-01

    including a putative Wzx flippase and Wzy polymerase, was confirmed in all three strains, despite a lack of cross-reactivity between NCTC 9343 and 638R surface polysaccharide-specific antibodies by immunolabelling and microscopy. Genomic comparisons revealed an exceptional level of polysaccharide...... restriction and modification systems that act to prevent acquisition of foreign DNA. The level of amongst strain diversity in polysaccharide biosynthesis loci is unprecedented....

  7. Subacute toxicopathological studies of methotrexate in Wistar rats

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    N. N. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A toxico-pathological study was undertaken to assess the effects of Methotrexate administration in Wistar rats by performing the hematology, serum biochemical analysis and associated histopathological changes in visceral organs. Materials and Methods: Rats in 4 treatment groups with 6 male and 6 female rats each were administered methotrexate (Group II to IV at the dose rate of 0.062, 0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg body weight respectively and distilled water (Group I as vehicle control for 28 days. Hematological parameters viz., total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, MCV, MCH and MCHC, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count and serum biochemical parameters viz., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin (Calculated were estimated after 28 days. Necropsy examination was performed in all sacrificed animals and gross lesions were recorded. Tissue samples (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, testes and heart were collected in 10% formalin solution for histo-pathological examination. Results: The dose dependent reduction in body weight, feed consumption, RBCs count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total leucocyte count, neutrophil count, total protein and albumin was observed in animals of group II, III and IV along with significant increase in lymphocyte count, AST, ALT, AKP, creatinine and BUN in animals of methotrexate treated group IV followed by group III. No significant change in monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in any treatment groups. All the rats exposed to methotrexate at three different dose levels revealed dose dependent pathological changes characterized by degeneration, necrosis, congestion, haemorrhage and vascular changes. The main target organs affected were liver, kidney, lungs and testes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that sub-acute exposure to methotrexate

  8. A program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on maximal oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Carol Góis; Levada, Adriana Cristina; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; De-Castro, Célia Barbosa; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Moderate physical training is often associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in athletes and the general population. In animals, studies are designed to investigate basic physiology that could be invasive and uncomfortable for humans. The standardization of an exercise training protocol for rats based on maximal consumption of oxygen (VO(2)max) is needed. This study validated a program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max determined once a week. A 10-stage treadmill running test was developed to measure VO(2)max through an indirect, open circuit calorimeter. Thirty male Wistar rats (210-226 g) were randomly assigned to either a nontrained group or a trained group. The animals were evaluated weekly to follow their VO(2)max during 8 weeks of moderate training and to adjust the intensity of the protocol of training. The soleus muscle was removed for determination of citrate synthase activity. Trained animals maintained their values of VO(2)max during a moderate running training and showed a significant less body weight gain. An increase of 42% in citrate synthase activity of the soleus muscle from trained rats was found after the training program. Our study presents a protocol of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max. Peripheral adaptations such as the values of citrate synthase activity also responded to the moderate training program imposed as observed for VO(2)max. Other studies can use our protocol of moderate training to study the physiologic adaptations underlying this specific intensity of training. It will provide support for study with humans.

  9. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

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    A Hadinia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of ten animals and orally received 10 mg/kg of the extract of nucleus, cutin and fruit of Pistacia khynjuk respectively, every day for two weeks. The control group received only placebo. Immuno-reactivity was induced using BCG vaccine (IP with Freund‘s complete adjuvant (CFA. The titer of IgG and IgM were measured after the treatment using ELISA method. Moreover, the cervical lymph nodes and spleen of animals were excised and the volume and density of the primary and secondary follicle was evaluated by steriology. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS using one-way ANOVA. Results: The differences in the mean level of IgG and IgM between the treated and the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Also, the mean volume of the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of the first three groups in comparison with the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the Pistacia khynjuk did not have any direct effect on the activity of humoral immune system and the increasing of antibody level among Wistar rats.

  10. Methylphenidate reduces impulsive behaviour in juvenile Wistar rats, but not in adult Wistar, SHR and WKY rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizot, Jean-Charles; Chenault, Nicolas; Houzé, Bérengère; Herpin, Alexandre; David, Sabrina; Pothion, Stéphanie; Trovero, Fabrice

    2007-08-01

    Impulsivity is a core symptom of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is a strain commonly used as an animal model of ADHD. However, there is no clear evidence that psychostimulants, which are used for treatment of ADHD, reduce impulsivity in SHR. Because ADHD mainly affects children, it may be relevant to study psychostimulants on juvenile animals. Using tolerance to delay of reward as index of impulsivity, the effects of methylphenidate were assessed in adult SHR, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar rats and in juvenile Wistar rats. Animals were trained in a T-maze to choose between a small-but-immediate and a large-but-delayed reward. Adult SHR, WKY and Wistar rats were compared for their ability to tolerate a 15-s delay. The effect of methylphenidate on the tolerance to a 30-s delay was studied in adult rats of the three strains and in juvenile (4.5 to 6.5-week-old) Wistar rats. In adult rats, the waiting ability was lower in SHR than in control strains. Waiting ability was improved by methylphenidate (3 and 5 mg/kg) in juveniles, but not by methylphenidate (3 mg/kg) in adults. These data support the idea that SHR are more impulsive than control strains. However, at the dose studied, methylphenidate fails to improve tolerance to delay in adult rats whatever the strain used. The reduction of impulsivity induced by methylphenidate in juvenile Wistar rats indicates that juvenile animals may be suitable for testing the therapeutic potential of drugs intended to the treatment of ADHD in children.

  11. ANALISIS SGPT-SGOT EKSTRAK ETANOL DAGING BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L. PADA TIKUS JANTAN PUTIH GALUR WISTAR

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    Dwi Ari Nugrahani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicine in Indonesia which is the cultural heritage and has become an integral part of the life of the nation Indonesia, want to be employed in the formal health care system. As the circulation of drugs in general terms, traditional medicine should fulfill the requirements of quality, safe, and efficacious. This study aims to analyze the levels of SGPT, SGOT of suspension of the ethanol extract of bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia L. by orally. The study was conducted using a white male Wistar rats amounted to 36 animals, divided into 6 groups. Each group consisted of 6 male white rats. Group I (control were given 0.5% CMC solution of 2.5 ml/200 g BW. Group II was given a suspension dosage doses of bitter melon fruit extract ethanol 0.5 g/kg, then consecutive group III with the test preparation doses of 1 g/kg, the test preparation group IV were given a dose of 2 g/kg, group V was given dosage test dose of 4 g/kg, and group VI were given the highest dose of the test preparation 8 g/kg. The results of acute toxicity tests on white male Wistar rats showed that administration of ethanol extract of peroral dosage suspension pare (Momordica charantia L. single dose on white male Wistar rats from the dose of 0.5 g/kg until a dose of 8 g/kg did not significantly influence the value of SGPT, SGOT.

  12. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm.

  13. The Effects of Subacute Exposure of Peracetic Acid on Hematological Indices in Wistar Rats

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    Abbas Ali Keshtkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine the effects of subacute exposure of Peracetic acid on Hematological indices in Wistar rats. In this study 18 male Wistar rats divided to two experimental and one control groups. PAA with 99% purity purchased. Then 0.2 and 2 mL of PAA dissolved in 100 mL drinking water. Animals in Treatment Group 1 and 2 received 0.2% PAA daily for 4 weeks and 2% PAA daily for 4 weeks, respectively. After the animals had been sacrificed hematological parameters examined. Experimental results concerning this study were evaluated using SPSS v.11.5 and expressed as Mean SD p<0.05 was considered significant. Mean SD of WBC of groups 1 (2.45 0.77 and 2 (3.63 0.23 decreased significantly as compared with control group (5.3 0.57. RBC in control and 1, 2 groups were 8.34 0.39, 7.48 0.11 and 7.61 0.46, respectively. Also HCT and PLT decreased significantly in groups 1 and 2 as compared with control group. This study showed that oral consumption of Peracetic acid with concentration 0.2, 2% for 4 weeks can cause decrease hematological parameter in animal model.

  14. Responding by exclusion in Wistar rats in a simultaneous visual discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe de Souza, Matheus; Schmidt, Andréia

    2014-11-01

    Responding by exclusion is to select a correct alternative by rejecting other potential alternatives. Studies describe this ability in some mammals and birds. However, this type of performance has not been reported in rodents. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of responding by exclusion in Wistar rats after a baseline of simple simultaneous visual discrimination. Six male Wistar learned nose-poking tunnels displaying visual stimuli (projected geometric shapes) in an operant chamber. After establishing the simultaneous discrimination baseline, three probe sessions were conducted. In each session, there was a novelty-control probe (a new stimulus was presented together with a stimulus trained as the S(+)) and an exclusion probe (a second new stimulus was presented simultaneously with a stimulus trained as the S(-)). Only one rat responded to the new stimulus in one of the three novelty probe trials. Four rats responded to the three new stimuli and one responded to the new stimulus in two of the three exclusion probes. One subject responded to the S(-) in all the exclusion probes. Five of the six subjects were therefore able to choose the new stimulus, rejecting stimuli trained as the S(-). This is the first experimental evidence for performance by exclusion in rats.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension Resulting from Fructose Enriched Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Julie Dupas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased sugar consumption, especially fructose, is strongly related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate long term effects of fructose supplementation on Wistar rats. Three-week-old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n=14 and fructose fed (FF; n=18, with a fructose enriched drink (20–25% w/v fructose in water for 21 weeks. Systolic blood pressure, fasting glycemia, and bodyweight were regularly measured. Glucose tolerance was evaluated three times using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin levels were measured concomitantly and insulin resistance markers were evaluated (HOMA 2-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia (ISI-gly. Lipids profile was evaluated on plasma. This fructose supplementation resulted in the early induction of hypertension without renal failure (stable theoretical creatinine clearance and in the progressive development of fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (higher HOMA 2-IR, lower ISI-gly without modification of glucose tolerance. FF rats presented dyslipidemia (higher plasma triglycerides and early sign of liver malfunction (higher liver weight. Although abdominal fat weight was increased in FF rats, no significant overweight was found. In Wistar rats, 21 weeks of fructose supplementation induced a metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia but not T2D.

  16. Effective analgesic doses of tramadol or tapentadol induce brain, lung and heart toxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana; Barbosa, Joana; Leal, Sandra; Afonso, Luís Pedro; Lobo, João; Moreira, Roxana; Queirós, Odília; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-06-15

    Tramadol and tapentadol are extensively prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Although these drugs are very effective in pain treatment, the number of intoxications and deaths due to both opioids is increasing, and the underlying toxic mechanisms are not fully understood. The present work aimed to study the potential biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by acute effective (analgesic) doses of tramadol and tapentadol, in Wistar rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into different groups: a control, administered with normal saline solution, and tramadol- or tapentadol-treated groups (10, 25 or 50mg/kg - typical effective analgesic dose, intermediate and maximum recommended doses, respectively). 24h after intraperitoneal administration, biochemical and oxidative stress analyses were performed in blood, and specimens from brain, lung and heart were taken for histopathological and oxidative stress studies. Both drugs caused an increase in the AST/ALT ratio, in LDH, CK and CK-MB activities in serum samples, and an increase in lactate levels in serum and brain samples. Oxidative damage, namely protein oxidation, was found in heart and lung tissues. In histological analyses, tramadol and tapentadol were found to cause alterations in cell morphology, inflammatory cell infiltrates and cell death in all tissues under study, although tapentadol caused more damage than tramadol. Our results confirmed the risks of tramadol exposure, and demonstrated the higher risk of tapentadol, especially at high doses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Null effect of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Haryu, Todd M; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Chronic dietary restriction inhibits carcinogenesis in several sites in laboratory animals. To determine the effects of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis, prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate (50 mg/day; 21 days); testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg/day; 3 days); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU; 30 mg/kg; single dose]; and testosterone (subcutaneous implants of 2 pellets containing 40 mg each). Dietary restriction (0% [ad libitum control], 15%, or 30%) was initiated 2 wk post-MNU, and continued until study termination at 12 mo. Dietary restriction induced a rapid suppression of body weight gain but conferred no protection against prostate carcinogenesis. 74% of carcinogen-treated ad libitum controls developed accessory sex gland cancers, versus cancer incidences of 64% and 72% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%, respectively. Similarly, 44% of dietary controls developed cancers limited to the dorsolateral/prostate, versus incidences of 45% and 53% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that prostate carcinogenesis can be prevented by reducing caloric intake. Reducing mean body weight by up to 25% through chronic dietary restriction has no effect on the induction of prostate cancers in the Wistar-Unilever rat model.

  18. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Bunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats’ acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning.

  19. Baroreflex sensitivity differs among same strain Wistar rats from the same laboratory

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    Celso Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies evidenced that a portion of normotensive Sprague–Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, however, it was no yet investigated in Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300-400g were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Baroreflex was calculated as the derivative of the variation of heart rate in function of the mean arterial pressure variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP tested with a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg and with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8μg/kg in the right femoral venous approach through an inserted cannula. We divided the rats into four groups: i high bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -2 tested with phenylephrine; ii low bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -2 tested with phenylephrine; iii high tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside; and iv low tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside. Approximately 71% of the rats presented a decrease in bradycardic reflex while around half showed an increase in tachycardic reflex. No significant changes in basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate, tachycardic and bradycardic peak and heart rate range were observed. There was a significant change in baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory.

  20. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  1. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on GH secretion and lipid metabolism in Wistar trained rats

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    E. Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oral Arginine Supplementation (OAS and exercise are able to modify the secretion of the Growth Hormone (GH that stimulates the lipid metabolism. The aim of the study was to verify the effect of the OAS, the aerobic exercise and the combination of the OAS with the aerobic exercise on the GH secretion and lipid metabolism in rats. The sample was composted for 40 male wistar rats, divided in four groups: Sedentary control (SC, sedentary arginine (SA, trained control (TC and trained arginine (TA. The AS and AT received the oral supplementation in alternated days and the groups CT and AT realized swimming exercise for 1hour/day with overload equivalent to 5% of body mass five days per week during 4 weeks. The concentrations of GH were significantly difference between the sedentary groups (SC and AS and (TC and AT and the lipid metabolism did not change throughout all groups. In conclusions, aerobic physical training did not modify the lipid metabolism and diminishes the values of GH concentration and the OAS did not modify the concentration of GH in Wistar rats.

  2. PUNARNAVA MANDUR: TOXICITY STUDY OF CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN WISTAR RATS

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    P. S. Jamadagni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Punarnava Mandur is an iron containing classical Ayurvedic formulation which was studied for repeated dose oral toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. Total 48 Wistar rats (24 male and 24 female were selected based on the body weight and were randomly distributed into four groups followed by administration of Punarnava Mandur at the dose of 0, 90, 450, 900 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, Weekly Feed and Water consumption, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Differential leukocyte Count, Reticulocyte count and Organ weights were recorded and analyzed statistically. At termination, rats were sacrificed, examined for gross pathological changes, organs were collected, weighed and processed for histopathological evaluation. There was no effect on body weights and feed consumption, no abnormal findings in the histopathological evaluation of high dose group animals but there was significant increase in weight of liver in females of high dose group as compared to control. Hence, the dose level 450 mg/kg of Punarnava Mandur was found as NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level. However, the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level could not be established. It was suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses so as to establish target organ of toxicity.

  3. Khaya senegalensis inhibits piroxicam mediated gastro-toxicity in wistar rats

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    Fatima Nnawodu Ishaq

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of piroxicam co-administration with ethanolic stem-bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on biomarkers of oxidative stress and gastro-toxicity in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy male and female Albino Wistar rats (190-220 g were grouped into six (n = 5 with designated treatments including: Normal saline, piroxicam (20 mg/kg, extract (200 and 400 mg/kg alone and both doses of the extract co-administered with piroxicam. The drugs were administered orally to all the rats for fourteen consecutive days and on the fifteenth day, they were euthanized with chloroform inhalation. Blood samples and the stomachs were isolated for evaluation of the oxidative stress biomarkers and gastro integrity, respectively. Results: The results of the study revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers didn’t differ significantly between the groups receiving the extract alone, the extract in combination or piroxicam alone. Gross and histological observations of the stomach showed gastric mucosal changes and mild atrophic lesions in the piroxicam group only. Conclusion: This study illustrates the interaction of Khaya senegalensis and piroxicam results in the gastro-protective beneficial effects. The extract’s outcome on various prostaglandin levels and synthesis is being considered towards possible elucidation regarding the exact mechanism of cytoprotection.  

  4. Development of Wistar rat model of insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ai; Ning Wang; Mei Yang; Zhi-Min Du; Yong-Chun Zhang; Bao-Feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simplified and reliable animal model of insulin resistance with low cost in Wistar rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were treated with a high fat emulsion by ig for 10 d. Changes of the diets, drinking and body weight were monitored every day and insulin resistance was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemicclamp techniques and short insulin tolerance test using capillary blood glucose. Morphologic changes of liver, fat, skeletal muscles, and pancreatic islets were assessed under light microscope. mRNA expressions of GLUT2 and α-glucosidase in small intestine epithelium, GLUT4 in skeletal muscles and Kir6.2 in beta cell of islets were determined by in situ hybridization.RESULTS: KITT was smaller in treated animals (4.5±0.9)than in untreated control Wistar rats (6.8±1.5), and so was glucose injection rate. Both adipocyte hypertrophy and large pancreatic islets were seen in high fat fed rats,but no changes of skeletal muscles and livers wereobserved. mRNA levels of GLUT2, α-glucosidase in small intestinal epithelium and Kir6.2 mRNA in beta cells of islets increased, whereas that of GLUT4 in skeletal muscles decreased in high fat fed group compared with normal control group.CONCLUSION: An insulin resistance animal model in Wistar rats is established by ig special fat emulsion.

  5. The protective activity of noscapine on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in male Wistar rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Ali Mard, Seyyed; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Nobakht, Malihe; Mahmoudian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Bradykinin is a part of the kinin-kallikrein system which is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury via B1 and B2 receptors. Noscapine is a non-competitive antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Noscapine has been reported to to be able to protect some organs against ischemia-reperfusion injury but its effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) in rats is unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of noscapine on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rats were randomly assigned to four groups; sham, RIR control, pre-and post-treatment with noscapine. To induce RIR injury, 20 days after right nephrectomy, animals underwent a midline laparotomy and the renal artery was clamped for 40 min to induce ischemia, and the clamp was then removed to allow reperfusion for 48 hr. Animals received noscapine or vehicle 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, animals were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Blood samples were collected to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The kidneys were also removed for histopathlogical and western-blot analysis. Results: Noscapine treatment 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion protects the renal tissue structure as compared with the control. The expression levels of the studied inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MCP-1in pretreated-, and treated-noscapine groups decreased as compared with the control group. The levels of BUN and creatinine in pre-, and post-treated noscapine groups were significantly lower than in control animals. Conclusion: Noscapine protects renal tissue structure and function against RIR through down-regulation of the inflammatory mediators. PMID:24904716

  6. Induction of Epoxide Hydrolase, Glucuronosyl Transferase, and Sulfotransferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Male Wistar Albino Rats

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    Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin. The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT, N-acetyltransferase (NAT, glucuronosyl transferase (UDP, and epoxide hydrolase (EH following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake, 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose, and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose, and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention.

  7. Pathological and immunological effects of respirable coal fly ash in male Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormans, J.A.M.A.; Steerenberg, P.A.; Arts, J.H.E.; Bree, L. van; Klerk, A. de; Verlaan, A.P.J.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Beekhof, P.; Soolingen, D. van; Loveren, H. van

    1999-01-01

    In this study the effects of inhalatory exposure to coal fly ash on lung pathology and the immune system in rats were examined. Rats were exposed to 0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/m3 coal fly ash (6 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk, or to 0 and 100 mg/m3 for 1 wk, and for 1 wk followed by a recovery in clean air of

  8. Oxidative DNA damage in male wistar rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellejus, A.; Dalgaard, Majken; Loft, S.

    2002-01-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters are used in the plastic industry and widely distributed in the environment, Previously, it has been shown that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) produces testicular atrophy and liver enlargement in rodents, and the mechanisms behind this could involve reactive oxygen species (RO...

  9. The protective activity of noscapine on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in male Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrangiz Khanmoradi; Seyyed Ali Mard; Nahid Aboutaleb; Malihe Nobakht; Masoud Mahmoudian

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Bradykinin is a part of the kinin-kallikrein system which is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury via B1 and B2 receptors. Noscapine is a non-competitive antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Noscapine has been reported to to be able to protect some organs against ischemia-reperfusion injury but its effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) in rats is unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of noscapine on renal ischemia-reperfusion inj...

  10. Male reproductive effects of octylphenol and estradiol in Fischer and Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken; Vinggaard, Anne

    2003-01-01

    4-tert-Octylphenol is a non-ionic surfactant used as a detergent, emulsifier and wetting agent. It is generally accepted that it acts as a weak estrogenic substance when evaluated in in vitro and in vivo short-term screening assays. The sensitivity of animal species (mouse versus rat), strain...

  11. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  12. Antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithavathi, Vilapakkam Ranganathan; Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen; Kumar, Ramesh; Selvakumari, Jemmi

    2011-01-10

    The present study aims to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic male Wistar rats. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 40mg/kg. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant (Pacid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly (Pgallic acid (10 and 20mg/kg) daily for a period of 21days showed significant (Pgallic acid in diabetic rats. In vitro study also revealed the potent antioxidant effect of gallic acid. Thus, the study shows the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The effect exerted by 20mg/kg body weight of gallic acid was more effective than 10mg/kg body weight of gallic acid.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma in bone repair of irradiated tibiae of Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumieiro, Emne Hammoud; Abrahao, Marcio; Jahn, Ricardo Schmitutz, E-mail: gumieiro@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Otorhinolaringology and Head and Neck Surgery; Segretto, Helena [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Oncology; Alves, Maria Tereza de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Patology; Nannmark, Ulf [The Sahlgrenska Academy of Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Clinical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology; Granstroem, Goesta [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; Dib, Luciano Lauria [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Dentistry. Dept. of Stomatology

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)

  14. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J. (St. Radbond Academic Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands); Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  15. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  16. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with ... or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Being born with a fertility ...

  17. Disposition and kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A in female Wistar Han rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA is the brominated flame retardant with the largest production volume worldwide. NTP 2-year bioassays found TBBPA dose-dependent increases in uterine tumors in female Wistar Han rats; evidence of reproductive tissues carcinogenicity was equivocal in male rats. To explain this apparent sex-dependence, the disposition and toxicokinetic profile of TBBPA were investigated using female Wistar Han rats, as no data were available for female rats. In these studies, the primary route of elimination following [14C]-TBBPA administration (25, 250 or 1000 mg/kg was in feces; recoveries in 72 h were 95.7 ± 3.5%, 94.3 ± 3.6% and 98.8 ± 2.2%, respectively (urine: 0.2–2%; tissues: <0.1. TBBPA was conjugated to mono-glucuronide and -sulfate metabolites and eliminated in the bile. Plasma toxicokinetic parameters for a 250 mg/kg dose were estimated based on free TBBPA, as determined by UV/radiometric-HPLC analyses. Oral dosing by gavage (250 mg/kg resulted in a rapid absorption of compound into the systemic circulation with an observed Cmax at 1.5 h post-dose followed by a prolonged terminal phase. TBBPA concentrations in plasma decreased rapidly after an IV dose (25 mg/kg followed by a long elimination phase. These results indicate low systemic bioavailability (F < 0.05, similar to previous reports using male rats. Elimination pathways appeared to become saturated leading to delayed excretion after a single oral administration of the highest dose (1000 mg/kg; no such saturation or delay was detected at lower doses. Chronic high exposures to TBBPA may result in competition for metabolism with endogenous substrates in extrahepatic tissues (e.g., SULT1E1 estrogen sulfation resulting in endocrine disruption.

  18. Lipidemic effects of common edible oils and risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, Olulola Olutoyin; Ojora, Kehinde Adeyemi; Quadri, Oluwafemi Majeed; Ajani, Rotimi Sunday

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic state potentiates atherosclerosis and the type of edible oil consumed by the individual may affect this further. This study aimed to determine if the common edible oils in Nigeria have any effects on the lipid profiles and arteries of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of normal control, diabetic control, animals on diet enriched with refined, bleached deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO), animals on diet enriched with soya oil, and animals on diet enriched with olive oil. At the end of 8 weeks, the lipid profiles of the animals were determined before sacrificing them. Their aortas were subsequently harvested for histological examination. The olive oil fed group had the highest level of total cholesterol (TC), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), lowest HDL-C, and highest artherogenic index (AI). Diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had a lower non-HDL-C, higher HDL-C, and lower AI than diabetic animals fed on olive oil or soya oil. However, the diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had the highest triglyceride level. When the aortas were examined histologically, there were no atherosclerotic lesions in all the control and experimental groups except those fed on 10% soya oil enriched diet that had type II atherosclerotic lesions according to American Heart Association (AHA). The result of our study showed that RBD-PO appears to offer a better lipid profile in the diabetic animals compared with olive oil and soya oil. Soya oil appears to cause the development of atherosclerosis in diabetic state.

  19. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  20. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm(2)). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  1. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS ON GAMMA- IRRADIATED NIGELLA SATIVA EXTRACT INDUCED BLOOD AND IMMUNE CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS

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    Osama Moseilhy Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted to test the effect of Nigella Sativa (NS, 5 mg kg-1 of body weight, or γ-irradiated Nigella Sativa (GRNS on the changes of blood component profiles, liver, kidney functions and immune cytokines secretion in male Wistar rats. Moreover, the possible protection by propolis (200 mg kg-1 B. W. on the changes induced by NS and GRNS was examined. Results revealed that both NS and GRNS administration for two weeks induced changes in blood, GPT, GOT and urea levels and co-administration with propolis significantly ameliorated such changes. Also, liver histology showed numerous vacuolar degeneration and fatty changes in γ-irradiated groups which disappeared in presence of propolis. Kidney histology of NS administered rats showed less lymphocytic infiltration, while GRNS groups showed desquamation in the cytoplasm of the renal tubules, hemorrhage in the renal corpuscle and lymphocytic infiltration which disappeared when propolis given together with GRNS. Finally propolis induced protective effect on the changes induced in TNF-α and IL-10 secretion by either NS or GRNS in Wistar rats. In conclusion, the findings of present study clarified the protective effect of propolis on changes induced by γ-irradiated NS on blood, liver, kidney and cytokines changes in Wistar rats.

  2. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy.

  3. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding quinocetone fed to Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Dai, Meng-Hong; Huang, Ling-Li; Chen, Dong-Mei; Tao, Yan-Fei; Peng, Da-Peng; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of quinocetone, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats were fed different diets containing 0, 50, 300 and 1800 mg/kg quinocetone or 300 mg/kg olaquindox. Groups of 15 males and 30 females (F(0)) were fed through a 10-week prebreed period as well as during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 12 males and 24 females of F(1) generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for F(2) generation. Selected F(1) weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights in F(0) and F(1) rats, fetal body weight on day 21 after birth and number of viable fetuses in F(0) and F(1) generation significantly decreased. In teratogenicity study, groups of 12 males and 24 females were fed with the same diets through a 12-week prebreed period and matting periods. Pregnant rats were subjected to cesarean section on GD 20 for teratogenic examination. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights and feed efficiency, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses significantly decreased. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of quinocetone for rats was estimated to be 300 mg/kg diet.

  4. Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

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    Nilson Rodnei Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade variando entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar.OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 and 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord

  5. Efeitos da semicarbazida no esqueleto de ratos Wistar em crescimento

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    A. Ramos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of semicarbazide hydrochloride on skeletal tissues were evaluated using Wistar rats. In the animals submitted to the administration of semicarbazide, radiological examination showed bone and articular alterations with growth plates enlargement. Histological exams showed irregular patterns and proliferation of chondrocytes and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Immunohistochemical exams showed PCNA positive reaction in pre- and hypertrofic chondrocytes. These results confirm that semicarbazide induces important changes in skeletal tissues and that has potential utility in experimental osteolathryrism

  6. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Symptoms Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood. Signs and symptoms depend on when the condition ... enough testosterone during fetal development, the result may be impaired ...

  7. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Niara da Silva Medeiros; Roberta Koslowsky Marder; Mariane Farias Wohlenberg; Cláudia Funchal; Caroline Dani

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in choc...

  8. Anticonvulsant Effects of Combined Treatment with Citicoline and Valproate on the Model of Acute Generalized Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V

    2016-02-01

    We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents.

  9. ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION AMONG MALAYSIAN ENGINEERING GRADUATES: MALE VERSUS FEMALE

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    Lutfiah Natrah Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering graduates are facing greater challenge to enter the limited job market in Malaysia and equipping graduates with entrepreneurial skills has been promoted as a potential solution to this issue. However, gender factor has been implicated in some studies to confound success of entrepreneurship courses.  The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis of no difference between genders on entrepreneurial intention; a factor deemed to be important to entrepreneurship success. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was selected as the framework for understanding this phenomenon.  Three hundred and twenty eight final year engineering students from one public technical university in Malaysia were selected for the study. The Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ was used to gather data on entrepreneurial intention among participants.  Using a t-test to analyse data on differences, no statistical difference in entrepreneurial intention is found between males and females, while slight difference is found in the components of TPB (attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. The study suggests that gender may not be a factor that needs to be dealt with in the implementation of entrepreneurship programmes among engineering students.

  10. Hematologic and immunological indicators are altered by chronic intake of flaxseed in Wistar rats Indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos alterados por el consumo crónico de linaza en ratas Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work sought to evaluate the effects of chronic intake of flaxseed upon hematologic parameters and immunological findings on body development of Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were used after gestation. They were randomly assigned into two groups during lactation period: Control group (CG, fed with casein based diet, made up of 17% protein and flaxseed group (FG, fed with casein based diet with the addition of 25% flaxseed. At weaning, 12 male pups of each group continued to receive the experimental diets of their mothers (with only 10% of protein until adult age, when they were killed at 250 days of life aiming at blood collection. At 250 days old FG presented significant reduction in body mass (p Este trabajo pretendía evaluar el efecto de la ingestión crónica de linaza sobre parámetros hematológicos y hallazgos inmunológicos del desarrollo corporal de ratas Wistar. Se emplearon ratas hembra Wistar tras la gestación. Se las distribuyó al azar en dos grupos durante el período de lactancia: grupo control (GC, alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína, con un 17% de proteína y el grupo linaza (GF, alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína con la adición de un 25% de linaza. En el destete, 12 ratas macho continuaron recibiendo las dietas experimentales consumidas por sus madres (con sólo el 10% de proteína hasta la edad adulta, en que fueron sacrificados a los 250 días de vida para la recogida de las muestras. A los 250 días de edad, el GF presentaba una reducción significativa de la masa corporal (p < 0,000 y mayores concentraciones de hemoglobina (p = 0,019 y albúmina (p = 0,030 que el GC. Se observó un menor porcentaje de linfocitos segmentados (p = 0,016 en las ratas del GF y un mayor porcentaje de leucocitos segmentados (p = 0,023 en comparación con el GC. El consumo crónico de linaza alteró los indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos en las ratas Wistar adultas. La suplementación con linaza parece ser

  11. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Mohd Nazri Abu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC, and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO. After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%, adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L, total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L, blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L, resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL, and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet.

  12. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  13. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10μl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-α level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel.

  14. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

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    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  15. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings.

  16. In vivo investigation of the neuroprotective property of Convolvulus pluricaulis in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in Wistar rats

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    Syed Waseem Bihaqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis aqueous extract (AE against scopolamine (1 mg/kg body weight (bwt-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out on male Wistar rats (age matched, weight 250 ± 20 g. The present study investigated cognitive-enhancing property of AE using Elevated plus maze (EPM (transfer latency [TL] and Morris water maze (MWM. Besides evaluating the effect of extract on neurochemical enzymes, in vivo antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities were also screened. All the measured parameters were compared with rivastigmine tartrate (1 mg/kg bwt which was taken as standard. Results : Pretreatment of rats with AE (150 mg/kg bwt significantly reduced scopolamine-induced increase in the TL in EPM, whereas in MWM, administration of extract improved the impairment of spatial memory induced by scopolamine. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE was significantly inhibited by extract within the cortex and hippocampus. Reduced activities or contents of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione within the cortex and hippocampus induced by scopolamine were elevated by the extract. Taken together, it could be postulated that extract may exert its potent-enhancing activity through both anti-AChE and antioxidant action. Conclusion : AE possesses neuroprotective potential, thus validating its use in alleviating toxic effects of scopolamine.

  17. Subchronic toxicity (90 days of StemEnhance™ in Wistar rats

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    Levent Dirikolu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Levent Dirikolu1, Thushara Chakkath1, Susan Ball-Kell2, Christy Elamma2, David J Schaeffer11Department of Comparative Biosciences, 2Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USAAbstract: This study evaluated the subchronic toxicity of StemEnhance™, an extract of the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae that is used as a health supplement. Groups of 12 rats of each sex were given either 5% glycerin in water (control or 200 mg/kg of StemEnhance prepared in 5% glycerin in water for 90 days by oral gavage. The administration of StemEnhance had no effect on behavior, food and water intake, growth, or survival. Values at the end of dosing and observation periods did not reveal differences between treated and control groups for hematology and clinical chemistry. There were no significant differences in the gross and histopathology of the reproductive organs in either males or females. Sperm motility parameters were similar for control and treated males. Our results show that StemEnhance at doses ~7 times the maximum label-recommended daily dose did not produce adverse effects in Wistar rats after subchronic treatment.Keywords: algal toxicology, blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

  18. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

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    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  19. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  20. The strain of an accompanying conspecific affects the efficacy of social buffering in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kayo; Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    Social buffering is a phenomenon in which stress in an animal is ameliorated when the subject is accompanied by a conspecific animal(s) during exposure to distressing stimuli. We previously reported that in male Wistar rats, the presence of another Wistar rat mitigates conditioned fear responses to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Subsequent analyses revealed several characteristics of this social buffering of conditioned fear responses. However, information regarding the specificity of accompanying conspecifics is still limited. In the present study, we assessed whether rats of other strains could induce social buffering in Wistar rats. When a fear-conditioned Wistar subject was re-exposed to the CS alone, we observed increased freezing and decreased investigation and walking, as well as elevated corticosterone levels. The presence of a Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, or Long-Evans rat blocked these responses, suggesting that social buffering was induced by these strains of rats. In contrast, a Fischer 344 rat did not induce social buffering in the Wistar subject. We further found that an inbred Lewis rat induced social buffering whereas a Brown Norway rat, a strain that has been established independently from Wistar rats, did not. These results suggest that the difference in origin, rather than the inbred or outbred status of the associate rat, seemed to account for the lack of social buffering induced by the F344 rats. Based on these findings, we conclude that strains of an accompanying conspecific can affect the efficacy of social buffering in rats.

  1. Effect of melatonin administration on parameters related to oxidative damage in hepatocytes isolated from old Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-05-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs and tissues, such as the liver, and this process might be due to oxidative damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. Melatonin is a secretory product with well-known antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Twenty-two-month old male Wistar rats were treated with oral melatonin for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated and cultured, and different parameters were measured in both cells and medium. Aging induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate, as well as a reduction in adenosine triphosphate content and phosphatidylcholine synthesis when compared to young animals. Melatonin administration significantly ameliorated all these age-related changes in males. Melatonin administration seems to exert beneficial effects against age-induced changes in hepatocytes.

  2. QUALITY OF LIFE IN MALE AND FEMALE VITILIGO PATIENTS

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    Sharath Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a common, acquired discoloration of the skin, characterized by w ell - circumscribed ivory or chalky white macules which are flush to the skin surface 1 . It affects atleast 0.5 - 1% of the total population 2 . It is commonly distributed in the peri - orificial areas, trunk, extensor surface of extremities, flexor wrists and axil lae. It results from a cellular autoimmune phenomenon that causes destruction of melanocytes. AIMS: To compare the quality of life between vitiligo patients and healthy individuals and to compare the quality of life between males and females vitiligo patie nts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative study of Twenty eight patients with vitiligo attending the Out Patient Department of Skin and STD department at KIMS Hospital, Bangalore was done between April and May 2013. RESULTS: A total of 13 male patients, 15 female patients and 15 male controls and 15 female controls, all within the age group of 16 - 50 years were taken and their DLQI scores were tabulated and analysed as follows: The mean and standard deviation of scores for all patients is 5.14±4.44, and that for controls is 0. This shows higher impairment in quality of life for patients as compared to controls and the results are statistically significant (Z value=2.08 and p value<0.05. CONCLUSION: 1. Quality of life was impaired in vitiligo patients. 2. Amo ng the patients, females had poorer quality of life. 3. Quality of life was more impaired in younger patients. 4. Impairment of quality of life was higher in unmarried patients than among married patients

  3. Minyak ikan Lemuru (Sardinella longicep menurunkan apoptosis osteoblas pada tulang alveolaris tikus wistar (Fish oil of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep reduced the osteoblast apoptosis in wistar rat alveolar bone

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    Didin Erma Indahyani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is caused by periodontopatogen bacteria resulting the alveolar bone damage. The decrease of osteoblasts and the increased of osteoclasts can cause bone destruction. The decrease of osteoblasts, due to a disturbance of differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Inflammatory mediators are prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6 also tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α stimulates osteoblast apoptosis through gene expression, signaling molecules and receptor-forming osteoblasts. Fish oil of Lemuru, which is widely encountered in Indonesian coast, containing n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs are quite high. Consumption of fish oil shown to reduce the expression of PGE2, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep fish oil on osteoblast apoptosis of rat alveolar bone induced periodontal infection. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats, male, age 5 days, divided into 3 groups: group I rats induced with normal saline, group II rats induced by LPS, and group III rats induced with lemuru fish oil and LPS. Each group was divided into 2 sub-groups that would be sacrified at 13 days and 21 days of age. Fish oil was given at a dose 1ml/300-350 grams. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced with the purpose to cause periodontal infection in the maxillary buccal fold molar region with dose 5μl LPS/PBS 0.03 ml. After decapitation and decalcification, the maxilla was cut in 5μm thickness. Apoptosis was analyzed on DNA and detected by TUNEL reaction (transferase-mediated digoxigenin-deoxy-UTP nick end labeling. Results: The results showed that apoptosis of osteoblast cells was significantly smaller in rats induced by Lemuru fish oil. Conclusion: The study showed that Lemuru fish oil reduced the osteoblast apoptosis of rats alveolar bone induced periodontal infection by LPS.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal akibat bakteri peridontopatogen, menyebabkan

  4. Kerusakan Hati Akibat Keracunan Alkohol Berulang pada Tikus Wistar (LIVER DAMAGE DUE TO ALCOHOL INTOXICATION REPEAT IN WISTAR RATS

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    Ni Made Suaniti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study was to determine the liver damage from alcohol intoxication in Wistar rats.The design used in this study was a randomized true experimental post test only control group design. Thestudy used 15 rats divided into 3 treatment groups each of which consists of 5 rats. The first group wasgiven distill water. The second group was given 5% alcohol, and the third group was given 20% alcohol. Ratswere treated with alcohol daily for six weeks. Biochemical markers were detected the levels of aldehydedehydrogenase (ALDH in serum and histological changes in liver tissue. ALDH is a biochemical markerof a sensitive and specific ethanol after chronic alcohol administration. Blood sample was collected at 6and 24 hours after the last peroral administration of repeated alcohol treatment, and serum levels ofALDH was tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results showed that the levels ofALDH in the blood of alcohol treated Wistar rats significantly higher as compared to those of control rats.ALDH levels increased by 83.11% after administration of 5% alcohol and 112.05% after administration of20% taken after 6 hours of alcohol for 6 weeks. On samples taken after 24 hours, ALDH levels by 95.11%after administration of 5% alcohol and 86.79% after administration of 20% alcohol. Oral treatment with20% alcohol chronically was led to changes in the microscopic structure (necrosis of liver tissue in Wistarrats. Liver tissue damage occured due to repeated use of alcohol is accompanied by increasing serum levelsof ALDH in Wistar rats.

  5. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  7. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuki, E-mail: yukey@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tomizawa, Motohiro [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, Himiko [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Okamura, Ai [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ohtani, Katsumi [National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kanagawa 214-8585 (Japan); Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kamijima, Michihiro, E-mail: kamijima@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  8. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  9. Effect of Alstonia Scholaris bark extract on testicular function of Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R·S·Gupta; RakhiSharma

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the antifertility effect of Alstonia scholaris bark extract in male rats.Methods:In male Wistar rats Alstonia scholaris bark extract was given by oral route at a dose of 200mg/day for60days,The fertility and testicular function were assessed by mating tests,sperm motility,sperm concentration,biochemical indices and testicular cell population dynamics.Results:Oral feeding with the extract at a dose of 200mg/day for the period of 60days did not cause body weight loss,while the weights of testes,epididymides,seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were significantly reduced.The production of step-19 spermatids was reduced by 79.6%in treated rats.The popu-lation of preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes were decrased by61.9%and60.1%,respectively.Spematogo-nia and Sertoli cell population were also affected.The seminiferous tubule and Leydig cell nuclear area were reduced significantly(P<0.01)when compared to the controls..Reduced sperm count and motility yesulted in a total supprs-sion of fertility.A significant fall in the protein and sialic acid content of the testes,epididymides,seminal vesicle and ventral prostate as well as glycogen content of testes were also noticed.The fructose content in the seminal vesicle was lowered whereas the testicular cholesterol was elevated as compared with the controls.The following com-pounds were obtained from the extract with chromatographic separation over Si-gel column;α-amyrin,β-amyrin,lupiol acetate,venenative,rhazine and yohimbine,Conclusion:At the dose level employed,Alstonia scholaris bark extract has a significant antifertility effect in male rast;the primary site of action may be post meiotic germ cells(Step19spermatids).

  10. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  11. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  12. PEMBERIAN VIRGIN COCONUT OIL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN JUMLAH DAN MOTILITAS SPERMATOZOA: STUDI PADA TIKUS WISTAR DENGAN DIET TINGGI LEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarita Jasda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObesity is one of several causes of infertility in men, this accurs because off changes lifestyle, accurring in the diet. Consuming foods high in cholesterol and fatty foods can trigger obesity. High-fat diet can increase the production of free radicals that have a negative impact on the quality and amount of sperm motility. Virgin Coconut Oil contains lauric acid and polyphenols, which can capture free radicals. Objective of this study was to prove that Virgin Coconut Oil administration might increase the number and motility of spermatozoa in Wistar rats with high-fat diet (HFD. The study using Randomized Posttest Only Control Group Design. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 2 months and weighing 150-200 grams were divided into 5 groups: negative control (normal diet, positive control (HFD, first treatment group (HFD with VCO 1 ml/day, second treatment group (HFD with VCO 1.2 ml /day, and third treatment group (HFD with VCO 2 ml/day. The mean number of sperm in three treatment groups increase compared to the positive control group (375 million/ml, P1 (566.67 million/ml, P2 (510 million/ml and P3 (500 million/ml, however statistically was went significant (p = 0.1. The mean percentage of sperm motility in the 3 treatment groups increase compared to the positive control group, P1 (43.33%, p2 (36% and P3 (32.50%. however, statistically was not sinificant (p = 0.2. Virgin Coconut Oil cannot increase the number and motility of spermatozoa in male Wistar rats with hig-fat diet (p > 0.05.Keywords: high fat diet, virgin coconut oil, sperm number, sperm motilityABSTRAKSalah satu penyebab infertilitas pada pria adalah obesitas, ini terjadi karena adanya perubahan gaya hidup, terjadi pada pola makan. Mengonsumsi makanan berkolesterol tinggi dan berlemak dapat mencetuskan terjadinya obesitas. Diet tinggi lemak dapat meningkatkan produksi radikal bebas yang dapat berdampak buruk pada kualitas jumlah dan motilitas spermatozoa. Virgin coconut oil (VCO

  13. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on glycaemic profile & their localization in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats

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    Shobhit Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in irradiated diabetic rat model has transiently shown to decrease blood glucose level. This study examines the effect of high dose and multiple injections of MSCs on glycemic profile, their localization and regeneration of islet in diabetic Wistar rat. Methods: The study was carried out in male Wistar rats categorized into three groups (n=6, in each group: Group 1 as control, group 2 streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg induced diabetic group and group 3 experimental group; 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU labelled allogenic MSCs were injected in the non-irradiated diabetic rat of the experimental group through tail vein. The blood glucose profile was subsequently monitored at regular intervals. Rats were sacrificed on day 45 and pancreas was examined for localization of BrdU labelled stem cells by immunofluorescence and islet-neogenesis by immunohistochemistry . Results: There was a significant reduction in blood glucose level after administration of MSCs in the experimental group (P<0.001. The presence of BrdU labelled MSCs in islet suggested their localization in the pancreas. Co-expression of anti-BrdU and anti-insulin antibody indicated trans-differentiation / fusion into insulin producing cells evidenced by significant increase in total number of islet (P=0.004 and insulin positive cells ( P<0.0001 in experimental group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the MSCs administration in non-irradiated diabetic Wistar rat reduced hyperglycaemia and was accompanied by increased islet-neogengesis, possibly through trans- differentiation/fusion.

  14. Effect of 15% Alcohol Dependence on Alveolar Bone Loss and TNF-α Secretion in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Rocha, José Mariano da; Gaio, Eduardo José; Cavagni, Juliano; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 15% alcohol dependence on ligature-induced alveolar bone loss and TNF-α secretion in Wistar rats. Thirty-three male Wistar rats aged 45-60 days (mean weight=253 g) were randomly allocated test or control groups. Test group (n=18) received 15% alcohol as liquid intake and control group (n=15) received water during the experimental period. TNF-α was analyzed by ELISA assay in 11 animals per group. After 14 days of alcohol/water intake, alcohol dependency was assessed and silk ligatures were placed around the left second upper molars. Ligature presence and body weight were checked weekly. After 40 days, animals were sacrificed and the maxillae were defleshed for morphometric analysis using standardized images. All animals in the test group displayed signs of alcohol dependency at day 14. No statistically significant differences in final body weight (334.83±21.38 vs. 322.48±30.65 g, p=0.20) were observed between groups. In relation to alveolar bone loss, no statistically significant difference was observed among test and control groups both for ligated teeth (0.76±0.06 vs. 0.74±0.10 mm, p=0.60) and unligated teeth (0.41±0.16 vs. 0.35±0.05 mm, p=0.22). The TNF-α secretion also did not display statistically significant differences between test and control groups (10.78±1.84 vs. 12.13±2.11 pg/mL, p=0.12). It may be concluded that 15% alcohol dependency was not capable to alter alveolar bone loss and TNF-α secretion in Wistar rats.

  15. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth on excision wound by green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles leads to accelerated wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-07-01

    An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

  16. DNA damage in Wistar Kyoto rats exercised during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Mikaela da Silva; Gelaleti, Rafael Bottaro; Bento, Giovana Fernanda; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Peraçoli, José Carlos

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate DNA damage levels in pregnant rats undergoing a treadmill exercise program. Wistar Kyoto rats were allocated into two groups (n= 5 animals/group): non-exercise and exercise. The pregnant rats were underwent an exercise protocol on a treadmill throughout pregnancy. Exercise intensity was set at 50% of maximal capacity during maximal exercise testing performed before mating. Body weight, blood pressure and glucose levels, and triglyceride concentration were measured during pregnancy. At day 10 post-natal, the animals were euthanized and maternal blood samples were collected for DNA damage. Blood pressure and glucose levels and biochemical measurements showed no significant differences. Increased DNA damage levels were found in exercise group compared to those of non-exercise group (pprotocol used in the study might have been exhaustive leading to maternal increased DNA damage levels, demonstrating the relevance of an adequate protocol of physical exercise.

  17. Splenotoxic effect of radiographic developer effluent on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2016-05-01

    Results: Normal spleen histology was observed in the control group. In contrast, tissue degeneration and necrosis; lymphocytic infiltration as well as reduction of splenic follicles were observed in some of the test groups (IIA, IIB and IIIA. Interestingly, the toxic effects of the developer effluent on group IIIB administered with higher dose for a longer period of 28 days were not as severe as observed in the other test groups. Conclusions: The present study which indicated adverse effects of exposures to sub-lethal doses of developer effluent on Wistar rats' spleen tissues suggests the need for proper management and disposal of radiographic effluents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1625-1631

  18. Proteomics analysis of cerebral cortex in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng ZHAO; Jingrong WEN; Shu WANG; Xuemin SHI

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the protein expression pattern of the cerebral cortex in Wistar rats using the proteomics approach, proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie brilliant blue and digested with trypsin. Then, we analyzed the peptide section using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and identified the protein by indexing special database (SwissProt) according to the finger printing of the peptide quality. Eighty-four protein spots were identified, includ-ing metabolic enzymes, skeleton proteins, heat shock pro-teins, antioxidant proteins, signaling proteins, proteasome related proteins, neuron and glial specific proteins and serum associated proteins. The result of this study enriches the database of the proteome in the cerebral cortex of rats and lays a foundation for further research of neurological disorders in rat models.

  19. Model applied to wistar rats for analysis of atrial alteration radioinduced: role of the TGFBeta1 cytokine on the lesions development; Modelo em ratos Wistar para analise de alteracoes atriais radioinduzidas: papel da citocina TGFBeta1 no desenvolvimento das lesoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane Fernandes da; Andrade, Cherley Borba V. de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia Rosa do; Silva, Claudia Marcello da; Ribeiro, Andreia Fortes; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: vivifis@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes

    2009-07-01

    This paper develops a radiobiological model on Wistar rats for evaluation of atrium radioinduced alterations. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetised, immobilized and irradiated with 500, 1000 and 1500 cGy irradiated doses in the cardiac volume, pre-define through tomography. The animals were sacrificed after 15 days irradiation. The atriums were collected, fixed in formaldehyde and soaked into paraffin. A part of samples were dyed with hematoxyline-eosin (HE) and another submitted to immunohistochemistry for visualization of the cytokine TGFbeta1 expression. The observation of samples with HE indicated lesions om blood vessels and discrete inflamed infiltrated on some samples. The immunohistochemistry shown an intense expression of the TGFbeta1 cytokine, mainly on the only intine of the blood vessels. The data indicate that the atria develop alterations compatible to inflammatory answer as reaction to the damage caused by the tissue irradiation, and this answer is responsible by the production of TGFbeta1 cytokine, considered a cytokine pro-fibrotic on various models of cardiac disease. The lesions at atrium level can reflect on the correct functioning of the system generator of cardiac impulse, and can induce arrythmias and to prejudice the production of natriuretic peptides, molecules involved on the cardiac homeostasis

  20. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  1. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  2. Male Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Esenyel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 % of hip fractures and 20 % of vertebral fractures occur in men. In the present study, we examined 19 men who did not have major risk factors that might affect bone mass. Parathormone(PTH, osteocalcin (marker of bone formation, OC and deoxypyridinoline (marker of bone resorption, DPD were measured. The bone mineral density (BMD measurements in 16 men were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA from lumbar spine (L2-4, and left hip. Bone density at each site was categorized as osteoporosis or osteopenia according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. In 19 patients with a mean age of 69 years, PTH levels were in the normal range except one patient. OC levels were elevated in %42.1 and DPD levels were elevated in 74 % of patients. L2-4 T score was osteoporotic (25% in 4 patients and osteopenic (25% in 4 patients. Femur Ward’s T score was osteoporotic (37.5% in 7 patients and osteopenic (37.5% in 7 patients. Osteoporosis is a significant problem in older men. Increased awareness for the risk factors of male osteoporosis is an important issue. Early diagnosis and treatment would help to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.

  3. Chemoprevention by celecoxib in reflux-induced gastric adenocarcinoma in Wistar rats that underwent gastrojejunostomy Quimioprevenção pelo celecoxibe no adenocarcinoma gástrico induzido por refluxo em ratos Wistar submetidos à gastrojejunostomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate chemoprevention by celecoxib in cases of reflux-induced gastric adenocarcinoma, in Wistar rats that underwent gastrojejunostomy. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats of average age three months underwent surgery and were distributed into three groups: group 1, exploratory laparotomy; group 2, gastrojejunostomy; and group 3, gastrojejunostomy and daily celecoxib administration. After 53 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Changes in the mucosa of the gastric body of group 1 and in the gastrojejunal anastomosis of groups 2 and 3, observed in histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations, were compared. All statistical analyses were performed using Epi-Info®, version 3.4.3. RESULTS: Comparison between groups 2 and 3 relative to the presence of adenocarcinoma showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0023. Analysis of the association between groups 2 and 3 relative to COX-2 expression also showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0018. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib had an inhibiting effect on gastric carcinogenesis induced by enterogastric reflux in an animal model.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a quimioprevenção pelo celecoxibe no adenocarcinoma gástrico induzido por refluxo, em ratos Wistar, submetidos a gastrojejunostomia. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos machos Wistar, com média de idade de três meses foram operados e distribuídos em 03 grupos: Grupo 1 - Os animais foram submetidos a laparotomia exploradora. Grupo 2 - Os animais foram submetidos a gastrojejunostomia. Grupo 3 - Os animais foram submetidos a gastrojejunostomia e tomaram celecoxib, diariamente. Após um período de 53 semanas, os animais foram sacrificados. As alterações da mucosa do corpo gástrico dos animais do grupo 1 e da anastomose gastrojejunal dos animais dos grupos 2 e 3 foram analisadas no exame histopatológico e imuno-histoquímica e foram comparadas. Todas as análises estatísticas foram realizadas pelo programa Epi Info®, versão 3

  4. Protective effect of light emitting diode phototherapy on fluorescent light induced retinal damage in Wistar strain albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed Basha, A; Mathangi, D C; Shyamala, R; Ramesh Rao, K

    2014-09-01

    Artificial light at night alters retinal physiology. Several studies have shown that light emitting diode phototherapy protects the retina from the damaging effects of acute light exposure. The aim of this study has been to elucidate the protective effects of 670 nm LED light on retinal damage induced by chronic fluorescent light in Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: group 1 were control (CL), group 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to fluorescent light (FL), LED preexposure+fluorescent light exposure (LL) and only LED light exposure (OL) respectively. All animals were maintained in their specific exposure regime for 30 days. Fluorescent light of 1800 lx was exposed between 8 pm to 8 am. Rats were exposed to therapeutic LED light of 670 nm of 9 J/cm2 at 25 mW/cm2 for 6 min duration. Histopathological changes in the retina were studied. Animals of the FL group showed a significant reduction in the outer nuclear layer thickness and cell count in addition to the total thickness of the retina. LL group which were exposed to 670 nm LED prior to exposure to fluorescent light showed a significant decrease in the degree of damage. 670 nm LED light preexposure is protective to retinal cells against fluorescent light-induced damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Opposite lipemic response of Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice to dietary glucose or fructose supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C R; Albuquerque, E M V; Faria, E C; Oliveira, H C F; Castilho, L N

    2007-03-01

    The metabolic effects of carbohydrate supplementation in mice have not been extensively studied. In rats, glucose- and fructose-rich diets induce hypertriacylglycerolemia. In the present study, we compared the metabolic responses to two monosaccharide supplementations in two murine models. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 80) and C57BL/6 mice (N = 60), after 3 weeks on a standardized diet, were submitted to dietary supplementation by gavage with glucose (G) or fructose (F) solutions (500 g/L), 8 g/kg body weight for 21 days. Glycemia was significantly higher in rats after fructose treatment (F: 7.9 vs 9.3 mM) and in mice (G: 6.5 vs 10 and F: 6.6 vs 8.9 mM) after both carbohydrate treatments. Triacylglycerolemia increased significantly 1.5 times in rats after G or F supplementation. Total cholesterol did not change with G treatment in rats, but did decrease after F supplementation (1.5 vs 1.4 mM, P vs 1.4 and F: 1.9 vs 1.4 mM, P vs 2.5 mM, P glucose and fructose supplementation regarding serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, and insulin levels after monosaccharide treatment. Thus, while Wistar rats developed features of plurimetabolic syndrome, C57BL/6 mice presented changes in serum biochemical profile considered to be healthier for the cardiovascular system.

  6. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  7. Influence of low intensity laser therapy (AsGa) on the cicatrization process of mechanic tendon injury in wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J. G. M.; Oliveira Filho, G. R.; Lima, M. T. B. R. M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Silva, J. G.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the low level Laser therapy (AsGa) in the experimental tendon injury. Low level Laser therapy has been used in several studies to observe the regenerative quality and tecidual cicatrization. Forty Wistar rats (male) were divided into 4 groups: control group (C-group); injury group (L-group); treated group with Laser therapy 3 J/cm2 (3J-group); and treated group with Laser therapy 6 J/cm2 (6J-group). Groups L, 3J, and 6J were submitted to a mechanic Achilles tendon injury with a Kocher Forceps for 10 s. The animals were sacrificed after ten days of treatment. Histopathological evaluation using hematoxylin-eosin and Picro-Sirius staining showed a decreased ( p < 0.05) of collagen in L-group (353.12 ± 9.85 μm2/field) compared to C-group (215.13 ± 22.63 μm2/field). Animals treated with Laser showed a significant increase in collagen fibers despite the applied dosage (3J-group: 375.89 ± 26.99 μm2/field; 6J group: 400.34 ± 62.92 μm2/field; p < 0.05). These data suggest that low-level Laser therapy was efficient for the treatment of mechanics Achilles tendon injury in Wistar rats.

  8. Enhanced memory in Wistar rats by virgin coconut oil is associated with increased antioxidative, cholinergic activities and reduced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nur Syafiqah; Lim, Siong Meng; Mani, Vasudevan; Abdul Majeed, Abu Bakar; Ramasamy, Kalavathy

    2017-12-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-stress properties. Capitalizing on these therapeutic effects, this study investigated for the first time the potential of VCO on memory improvement in vivo. Thirty male Wistar rats (7-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five groups (n = six per group). Treatment groups were administered with 1, 5 and 10 g/kg VCO for 31 days by oral gavages. The cognitive function of treated-rats were assessed using the Morris Water Maze Test. Brains were removed, homogenized and subjected to biochemical analyses of acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx)], lipid peroxidase [malondialdehyde (MDA)] as well as nitric oxide (NO). α-Tocopherol (αT; 150 mg/kg) was also included for comparison purposes. VCO-fed Wistar rats exhibited significant (p  33%) and NO (≥ 34%). Overall, memory improvement by VCO was comparable to αT. VCO has the potential to be used as a memory enhancer, the effect of which was mediated, at least in part, through enhanced cholinergic activity, increased antioxidants level and reduced oxidative stress.

  9. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  10. Effect of Apitherapy Formulations against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats after Three Weeks of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Vasile Andritoiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body is exposed nowadays to increasing attacks by toxic compounds in polluted air, industrially processed foods, alcohol and drug consumption that increase liver toxicity, leading to more and more severe cases of hepatic disorders. The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the apitherapy diet in Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, by analyzing the biochemical determinations (enzymatic, lipid and protein profiles, coagulation parameters, minerals, blood count parameters, bilirubin levels and histopathological changes at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas. The experiment was carried out on six groups of male Wistar rats. Hepatic lesions were induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (dissolved in paraffin oil, 10% solution. Two mL per 100 g were administered, every 2 days, for 2 weeks. Hepatoprotection was achieved with two apitherapy diet formulations containing honey, pollen, propolis, Apilarnil, with/without royal jelly. Biochemical results reveal that the two apitherapy diet formulations have a positive effect on improving the enzymatic, lipid, and protein profiles, coagulation, mineral and blood count parameters and bilirubin levels. The histopathological results demonstrate the benefits of the two apitherapy diet formulations on reducing toxicity at the level of liver, spleen and pancreas in laboratory animals.

  11. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

  12. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  13. Effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, R.I. [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Coradini, J.G.; Silva, L.I.; Bertolini, G.R.F. [Laboratório do Estudo das Lesões e Recursos Fisioterapêuticos, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Brancalhão, R.M.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.C. [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint.

  14. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  15. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  16. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each sex...... were formed from 40, 29, 30 and 44 litters, respectively. After weaning, the highest dose (500 mg BHT/kg/day) was lowered to 250 mg/kg/day for the F1 rats. The numbers of litters of ten or more pups at birth decreased with increasing BHT dose. At weaning, treated F1 rats had lower body weights than...... the controls, the extent of the reduction being dose related; the effect, which persisted throughout the study, was most pronounced in the males. The survival of BHT-treated F1 rats of both sexes was significantly better than that of the controls. No significant changes attributable to BHT treatment were found...

  17. Mild ingestion of used frying oil damages hepatic and renal cells in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Ojiri, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control) or used frying oil recovered from Japanese food manufacturing companies (recovered oil) for 12 weeks and subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to recovered oil were observed. There was a tendency toward higher consumption of the diet in the experimental group as compared to the control group. In the serum of the experimental group, no difference was detected in the levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. But many dark-red patches, necrosis, and bleeding were found in the livers of 75% of the experimental rats; these rats had extremely high aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Average AST and ALT values of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the controls. The renal cells were also obviously damaged. These results raise the concern that frying oil contained in ready-made foods, snacks, etc., if deteriorated to an extent equal to or greater than that of the recovered oil, may be able to change human serum AST/ALT levels and damage the liver and kidneys.

  18. Absence of histological changes after the administration of a continuous intrathecal clonidine in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-López, Uriah; Aldrete, J Antonio; Covarrubias-Gómez, Alfredo; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio E; López-Muñoz, Francisco J

    2009-01-01

    The administration of epidural and spinal clonidine has demonstrated an antinociceptive effect in animals and humans. For that reason, its spinal administration has been proposed as an adjuvant in chronic pain management. However, there is limited information about its possible neurotoxic effect after its continuous neuraxial administration. Twelve male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. Using an osmotic mini-pump a continuous infusion of intrathecal clonidine, (21.4 micrograms/day, Group A) or saline solution (Group B), was administered for 14 consecutive days. For evaluating the neurological damage a neuropathological analysis of the spinal cord was performed by light microscopy. Neurohistopathologic examination of the spinal cord specimens failed to show evidence of neurotoxic damage in either group. These findings showed that continuous intrathecal administration of clonidine did not produce evidence of histological neurotoxicity; therefore it is possible that continuous administration of intrathecal clonidine might be a safe option for treatment of chronic intractable pain; however, further investigations are necessary for evaluating diverse doses and periods of time, and to define its possible behavioral effects.

  19. [Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: a 52-week dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Inoue, Tohru; Kanno, Jun

    2004-02-01

    A 52-week study of oral-repeated-dose toxicity for the extraction powder of Gymnema sylvestre (GS), Indian-native genus, Metaplexis japonica, was conducted in both genders of Wistar rats. The rats were administered a graded dose of GS at 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00% of basal powder diet, along with a group fed solely with the basal powder diet without GS, for 52 weeks. General conditions were recorded daily. Body weights and food consumptions were recorded weekly up to 12 weeks, and thereafter at longer intervals. At 26 weeks, for an intermediate examination, and 52 weeks, for the final examination, animals were subjected to hematology, serum chemistry, and pathological examination. None of the animals died in the period up to 52 weeks. No exposure-related changes in body-weight, in the food consumption, in the hematological examinations, or in the serum biochemical examinations were recognized. No histopathological alterations were seen. Thus, it was concluded that there was no toxic effect in rats treated with GS at up to 1.00% in the diet for 52 weeks. The no-observable-effect level from this study is 1.00% GS, i.e., 504 mg/kg/day for male and 563 mg/kg/day for female as mean daily intake, for 52 weeks.

  20. Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: reproductive toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was administered by gavage to groups of 25 male and 25 female young Wistar rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day for one generation (F0). The study followed the treated F0 generation through mating, gestation, lactation, and weaning of the F1 generation. F1 animals were mated and followed to gestation day (GD) 15-17 at which time F2 implants were evaluated. There were no indications from the various clinical and gross pathological examinations that the oral administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer to the F0-parental rats produced any signs of general, reproductive, or developmental toxicity in the F0 or F1 animals or F2 implants. Based on the lack of any dose-related or biologically relevant effects on fertility, reproduction, development, and overall health of rats gavaged with PEG-PVA grafted copolymer and their progeny, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  1. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. [The Manifestation of the Anxiety during Fear Conditioning in Wistar Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the correlation between anxiety and conditioned fear, the behavior of the same male Wistar rats was compared in three anxiety tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze) and in Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning paradigm using correlation, factor and variance analyses. The correlation between anxiety/bravery and locomotion indexes in different tests was not revealed. Positive correlations between grooming, urinations and defecations, rearing in three tests were revealed. These data suggest that animals reacted to various tests differently, resulting, apparently in the emergence of different anxiety levels, specific for each test. Vegetative reactions, inclination to exploration and substituting behavior were more stable characteristics of rats. Anxiety behavior in elevated plus-maze correlated to freezing response to context after fear conditioning, while high-anxiety rats had higher level of freezing to context than low-anxiety rats. The higher freezing response to sound after fear conditioning was found in rats with middle locomotor activity in open field. Conditioned fear to the context and to the sound was associated with different forms of rat anxiety during different tests.

  3. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC. Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae extract in Wistar rats

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    Odilon A. Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo" on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg-1 of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg-1 dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  4. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Odilon A; Sanches, Júlio C M; Silva, Icaro E F; Silva, Márcio L A; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Felix, Mireille A P; Santos, Raquel A; Cecchi, Andréa O

    2012-04-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo") on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg(-1) dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  5. Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar

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    SAGAR DAWADA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  7. Synergetic effects of oral administration of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea on immune response in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; khayat-Nuri, Hadi; Abadi, Narges; Ghavami, Siavash; Golabi, Mostafa; Shanebandi, Dariush

    2011-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea (EP), separately and together on the immune response of the rat as a laboratory model. In this experiment, 40 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into four groups (n=10). These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg), EP (500 mg/kg), levamisole (2 mg/kg) and EP (500 mg/kg) with levamisole (2 mg/kg) as oral gavages every day for a period of 4 weeks, respectively. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week), haematocrit (HCT), differential and total white blood cell (WBC) counts, phagocyte activity (number), total protein, albumin and globulins levels of samples were obtained. The results of the study showed that the gamma globulin level, WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with normal saline group during the study. According to the results, each of the mentioned agents had a stimulant effect on the immune system separately and together on rats. In the group that received EP and levamisole simultaneously, these effects were synergistically increased. These compounds, by increasing the mentioned factors, will probably affect the immune system. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cafeteria diet intake for fourteen weeks can cause obesity and insulin resistance in Wistar rats

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    Danilo Antônio Corrêa Pinto Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a strong predictor of some kinds of diseases. High intake of high-fat foods contributes significantly to the growth of the obese population globally. The aim of this study was to verify if consumption of a cafeteria diet for fourteen weeks could increase white fat mass, body weight and skeletal muscle mass and promote insulin resistance in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty animals were divided into two groups: control and obese. Both were fed standard chow and water ad libitum. Additionally, a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, bologna sausage, sandwich cookies and soft drink was given to the obese group. RESULTS: The obese group was significantly heavier (p<0.0001 than controls from the second week until the end of the cafeteria-diet intervention. Absolute and relative fat mass, liver weight and Lee Index increased significantly (p<0.05 in the obese group. Furthermore, the obese group had lower (p<0.05 insulin sensitivity than the control group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fourteen weeks of cafeteria diet promoted a progressive increase of fat mass and insulin resistance. Therefore, this is a great and inexpensive diet-induced insulin resistance model.

  9. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  10. Amelioration of ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats by diallylsulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2016-03-01

    Garlic contains diallylsulfide (DAS) and other structurally related compounds that are widely believed to be active agents in preventing cancer. This study shows the effect of DAS (a phenolic antioxidant used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products) on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 125-150 g were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg kg(-1) body weight, intraperitoneally) after 1 week of treatment with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) DAS in corn oil respectively administered through the gavage. Fe-NTA administration led to 2.5-fold increase in the values of both alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively, and 3.2-fold increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, microsomal lipid peroxidation to approximately 2.0-fold compared to saline-treated control. The activities of glutathione (GSH) and other antioxidant enzymes decreased to a range of 2.2-2.5-fold. These changes were reversed significantly (p induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats.

  11. Carvacrol attenuates N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver injury in experimental Wistar rats

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    Balan Rajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol is a main constituent in the essential oils of countless aromatic plants including Origanum Vulgare and Thymus vulgari, which has been assessed for substantial pharmacological properties. In recent years, notable research has been embarked on to establish the biological actions of Carvacrol for its promising use in clinical applications. The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Carvacrol against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN induced hepatic injury in male Wistar albino rats. DEN is an egregious toxin, present in numerous environmental factors, which enhances chemical driven liver damage by inducing oxidative stress and cellular injury. Administration of DEN (200 mg/kg bodyweight, I.P to rats results in elevated marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue. Carvacrol (15 mg/kg body weight suppressed the elevation of marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue and augmented the antioxidants levels. The hoisted activities of Phase I enzymes and inferior activities of Phase II enzymes were observed in DEN-administered animals, whereas Carvacrol treated animals showed improved near normal activity. Histological observations also support the protective role of Carvacrol against DEN induced liver damage. Final outcome from our findings intimate that Carvacrol might be beneficial in attenuating toxin induced liver damage.

  12. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of hepatotoxicity induced by triptolide in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaying; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Ji, Jinzi; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yun; Tai, Ting; Chen, Mi; Sun, Lixin; Li, Xia; Zhang, Luyong

    2013-08-01

    Triptolide (TP), a major component of TWHF, is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis and leprosy. However, its clinical use is limited by hepatotoxicity. To further elucidate the underlying mechanism of its hepatotoxic effects, hepatic gene expression profiles were analyzed. TP (1000 and 300 μg/kg) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 14 days. Current study indicated that female rats were more sensitive to TP-induced hepatotoxicity than males. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 3329 differentially expressed genes in liver of female rats. Analyses of these genes identified over-represented functions associated with insulin signaling pathway, glucose metabolism, cell cycle, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which were consistent with the results of significant increase of Caspase-3 activity and reduction of serum glucose, GSH/GSSG ratio, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities, liver glycogen. In addition, it was observed for the first time that glucocorticoids and IGF1 might get involved in TP-induced hepatotoxicity. These data suggest that TP treatment could alter the hepatic redox status, reduce serum glucose and induce hepatocyte apoptosis, consistent with the differential expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathway, glucose metabolism pathway and cell stress pathway, all of which might contribute to the overall TP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Soghra; Shahi, Mehran; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or with thymoquinone (TQ) (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg IP) for 11 days. Two protocols were used in this study, A: in this one TQ and ACR were used simultaneously, B: Administration of TQ was started 1 week before ACR treatment and continued during exposure to ACR. At the end of the treatment, behavioral index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrificed and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in cerebral cortex. Results: Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with TQ significantly decreased abnormalities. Level of MDA was elevated in cerebral cortex after exposure to ACR while TQ treatment significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced lipid peroxidation. Results clearly showed that there is no significant difference between two protocols of administration of TQ. Conclusion: It suggests the neuroprotective effect of TQ in this model in part, may be because of due the antioxidant activity of this natural compound. PMID:25859305

  14. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  15. [Male contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  16. Two-generation reproduction and teratology studies of feeding aditoprim in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Tan, Ziqiang; Cheng, Guyue; Awais, Ihsan; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-12-01

    Aditoprim, a new bacteriostatic agent that belongs to diaminopyrimidines, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, good antibacterial activity and excellent pharmacokinetics. To evaluate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of aditoprim, different concentrations of aditoprim were administered to Wistar rats by feeding diets containing 0, 20, 100 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively. Each group consisting of 18 males and 25 females (F0 ) was treated with different concentrations of aditoprim through a 13-week period before mating and during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 20 males and 25 females of the F1 generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for the F2 generation. Selected F1 weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At 1000 mg kg(-1) dose group, body weights in F0 and F1 rats, fetal body weight on day 21 (0, 4 and 21) after birth and number of viable fetuses in the F0 and F1 generation significantly decreased. Teratogenicity study was performed in combination with the F1 generation of a two-generation reproduction study. F1 parents of the reproduction study were mated after weaning of the F2a pups. Pregnant female rats were subjected to cesarean section on gestational day 20 for teratogenic examination. At 1000 mg kg(-1) group, body weights, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses were significantly decreased. No obvious external, skeletal or visceral malformations in fetuses were noted in any groups in the teratogenic test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for reproduction/development toxicity of aditoprim was 100 mg kg(-1) diet (about 7.89-9.25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) ).

  17. Safety evaluation studies on Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L. seeds in Wistar rats

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    P K Datta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.  leaves and seeds are used in India as  food supplement and also in traditional medicine. We have assessed the safety of Garden cress (GC seeds by conducting acute and subchronic toxicity studies in adult Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity study, 0.5 –5.0 g/kg body weight of the GC seed powder was administered through diet to rats and obvious symptoms of toxicity and mortality were monitored for 72 h . Acute doses of GC seed powder did not induce any symptoms of toxicity or mortality of  rats. In subchronic toxicity study, 1.0 – 10.0% of the GC powder was administered to rats through diet for 14 weeks. Dietary feeding of GC seed powder did not produce any mortality, no significant changes in food intake, gain in body weight, relative weight of  organs, hematological parameters, macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organs, were observed between  experimental and control groups.  Clinical enzymes viz., LDH, SGPT were within normal levels, however, the serum ALP and SGOT were significantly increased in male rats receiving 5.0 and 10 % of GC seeds. The results showed that acute and subchronic feeding of GC seed for 14 weeks did not produce any toxic effects in male and female rats and thus can be considered non-toxic and safe.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are very popular and extensively used in the developing countries. Garden cress seeds and leaves are used in food preparations.  GC seeds are given to pregnant and lactating women as natural food supplement to increase milk secretion.  GC seeds are used in herbal based medicinal preparations. The data on the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants are essential to assess its safety to humans, particularly for its use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. PENGARUH KONSUMSI GEL DAN LARUTAN RUMPUT LAUT (Eucheuma cottonii TERHADAP HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR [The Consumption Effect of Gel and Solution Types of Eucheuma cottonii Seaweeds on Hypercholesterolemic of Blood Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption effect of gel and solution of Eucheuma cottonii seaweed on blood lipid level were studied on hypercholesterolemic male wistar rat. The rat were made hypercholesterolemic by a ration that contained high lipid and cholesterol, and then they were given standard ration orally and 10, 15, and 20% (w/w feed of gel and solution seaweed parenterally. The results show that the standard ration could not reduce hypercholesterolemic to normal level while gel and solution of the seaweed could. The gel type of the seaweed has higher capacity decrease of cholesterol and triglyceride blood level. The consumption of seaweed gel 20% and 15% could reduce cholesterol to normal level in 9 and 15 days, respectively, while the solution type 20% needed 18 days. The seaweed gel 10%, solution 15% and 10% could reduce blood cholesterol level, but they could not reach to normal level in 18 days.

  19. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  20. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN KEFIR BENING TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH PADA TIKUS WISTAR HIPERGLIKEMIA YANG DIINDUKSI STREPTOZOTOCIN (STZ

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    Judiono Judiono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Hyperglycemia in diabetes caused by excessive free-radicals, which in turn increases reactive oxygen species, reduced immune function and antioxidant, the beta cell damage. Objective: To validate the effects of plain kefir probiotic on blood glucose level in streptozotocin (STZ induced hyperglycemia Wistar rats. Methods: The experiment using randomized pretest-posttest control group design was carried-out on 48 male hyperglycemia Wistar rats induced by 40 mg/kg body-weight of STZ. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: (1 negative control fed ad libitum standard diet, (2 positive control induced by STZ, (3 insulin treated 0.76 UI/200 g body weight, and (4 plain kefir 3.6 cc per day. Kefir is prepared by the use of pasteurized skim milk fermented by kefir commercial inoculums. Blood glucose was measured with Super Glucocard II meter (Arkray, Kyoto, Japan. Results Kefir supplementation 3.6 cc per day had significantly effect on blood glucose reduction after… days. Results showed that blood glucose levels before and after the treatment in each group as follows: in negative control group, before and after the treatment were 92.7 ± 6.6 mgdL and 89.4 ± 5.3 mgdL, respectively; in positive control group, before and after treatment were 263.9 ± 61.7 mgdL and 290.9 ± 99.8 mgdL; in insulin group, before and after the treatment were 286.9 ± 73.2 mgdL and 168.3 ± 53.3 mgdL; and in kefir group, before and after the treatment were 234.0 ± 61.1 mgdL and 147.8 ± 52.6 mgdL. Conclusion: Kefir supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in vivo. Isolation and identification of probiotic involved on biomolecular and to find out the role of specific probiotic originated from kefir in diabetes mellitus are very challenging to be implemented in clinical application. [Penel Gizi Makan 2009, 32(2: 129-136] Key words: probiotic, kefir, diabetes mellitus, hyperglicemia, streptozotocin

  1. Effect of Calea serrata Less. n-hexane extract on acetylcholinesterase of larvae ticks and brain Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Vera Lucia Sardá; Vanzella, Cláudia; Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Santos, Jaqueline Campiol Dos; Martins, João Ricardo Souza; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2012-10-26

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses, is a target for pesticides and its inhibition by organophosphates leads to paralysis and death of arthropods. It has been demonstrated that the n-hexane extract of Calea serrata had acaricidal activity against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The aim of the present study was to understand the mechanism of the acaricidal action of C. serrata n-hexane extract are specifically to investigate the in vitro anticholinesterase activity on larvae of R. microplus and in brain structures of male Wistar rats. The n-hexane extract significantly inhibited in vitro acetylcholinesterase activity in R. microplus larvae and rat brain structures. The results confirm that inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a possible mechanism of action of hexane extract at C. serrata.

  2. Preventive effect of phytic acid on lysosomal hydrolases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, E; Rajasekapandiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on lysosomal enzymes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats subcutaneously injected with ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for two days showed a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes (glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly in serum and the heart of ISO-induced rats, but the activities of glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were decreased significantly in the lysosomal fraction of the heart. Pretreatment with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg) daily for a period of 56 d positively altered activities of lysosomal hydrolases in ISO-induced rats. Thus, phytic acid possesses a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  3. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once.......05) in the total number of ACF and number of small and medium ACF was observed. The values of large and extra-large foci reflected the same effect of diets on ACF. The results indicate that tumors in the group fed the diet high in refined carbohydrates were more prominent and occurred with a higher incidence....... However, the difference is based on few tumors and is not statistically significant. Our results do not show that the number of ACF and crypt multiplicity are conclusively predictive for tumor outcome with the present protocol, which did not include parameters to differentiate between ACF at the cellular...

  4. Mandibular branch of the facial nerve in wistar rats: new experimental model to assess facial nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

  5. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

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    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  6. Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids

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    Sandra Maria Barbalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de

  7. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain.

  8. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  9. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  10. Short-term isolation increases social interactions of male rats: A parametric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of social interactions were higher in pairs of short-term individually housed male Wistar rats as compared to group-housed animals. This was most pronounced when an individually housed rat and a group-housed conspecific were tested together in the morning under red light conditions. Then

  11. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats;Avaliacao de alteracoes morfologicas da pele apos lesao radioinduzida em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de

    2010-07-01

    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm{sup 2} field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire

  12. Pengaruh Pemberian Kopi Instan Oral Terhadap Kadar Asam Urat pada Tikus Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzan Arisyi Koto

    2014-09-01

    medical condition. One of the effects of coffee that still a controversy is the effect of the reduction in uric acid levels because the polyphenol in coffee could be expected to inhibit xanthine oxidase to lower uric acid level. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of coffee on uric acid levels Wistar strain of rats (Rattus novergicus. This was a experimental study with posttest only control group design. Samples were 24 male white rats strain Wistar divided into 4 groups: control, treatment 1, treatment 2, and treatment 3. Control was not treat with coffee, treatment 1 were given low dose of coffee equivalent to 3 cups (0,39 mg/3 ml, treatment 2 were given moderate dose of coffee equivalent to 6 cups (0,78 mg/ 3ml, treatment 3 were given high dose of coffee equivalent to 10 cups (1,3 mg/ 3ml for 4 weeks (28 days. Serum uric acid levels measured with sphectrophotometer The result showed the mean of uric acid levels control (2,26+0,16 mg/dl, treatment 1 (2,24+0,89 mg/dl, treatment 2 (1,00+0,33 mg/dl, treatment 3 (1,96+0,43 mg/dl. One way Anova dan Post hoc tests analysis showed significant differences of uric acid levels only between control and treatment 2 group and between treatment 1 group and treatment 2 group (p<0,05. The conclusion of this study is reduction of uric acid levels after coffee consumption and the significant differences in uric acid levels between control/treatment 1 group with treatment 2 group.Keywords: coffee, polyphenol, uric acid levels

  13. Effect of one session endurance exhausting exercise on some coagulation markers of mature and immature wistar rats

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    Shadmehr MirdarHarijani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thrombosis is lower in children and prepubertal period than adults. But its incidence increases in adolescence.The aim of this study was comparing the effect of one session of endurance exhaustive exercise in different times on some of coagulation systems markers in pre and after maturation wistar rats. Material and Methods: 27mature male wistar rats with 241±5 grams mean weight and 27 immature male rats with 97±5 grams mean weight which were 14 and 5 weeks old, respectively, after two weeks getting accustomed to the new environment and treadmill, were divided into one control and two exercising groups. Then, sampling was performed immediately and after 24 hours after exercise. Exhausting endurance exercise program involved increasing the speed of treadmill until getting exhausted. Fibrinogen, APTT, and PT were measured with the Clause and coagulation methods. The analysis was performed by using independent t-test, one-way variance analysis and tukey test. Significance level was assigned for all statistical analysis (p≤0.050. Results: Results in immature and mature rats groups indicated that amounts of fibrinogen has had significant reduction immediately after exercise (p=0.004, p=0.047, and 24 hours after exercise were significantly increased only in mature rats (p=0.000. Also, APTT in all groups decreased immediately and 24 hours after exercise but it was significant just 24 hours after exercise. Conclusion: Due to the increased fibrinogen and decreased APTT at 24 hours after exhaustive endurance exercise in mature and immature rats, it seems that performing such activities in children and inactive adults must be accompanied with special considerations.

  14. Tissue expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 in hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter rats showing proteinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Thilo, Florian; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats.......We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats....

  15. Environmental and dam effects on cannibalism in Wistar rat litters

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    Graziela Tarôco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The factors related to cannibalistic behavior of dams in a Wistar rat colony are identified and analyzed. The maternal genetic effects were tested as a random effect by the method of generalized linear models. The season at parturition, the dam´s age at parturition and the density of the room at parturition were tested as fixed effects, whereas the litter size at birth was tested as a co-variable. The genetic effect of the dam was significant for the number of cannibalized pups. Although the season at parturition, the dam´s age and room density on the day of parturition were not individually significant (p > 0.05, most of the interactions between the variation sources were significant (p < 0.05. Cannibalism occurred mostly in dams aged over 241 days, with parturition during spring. So that occurrences of cannibalism could be avoided, dams with the smallest number of cannibalized pups should be selected, coupled to dams younger than 241 days, breeding during spring. The above strategies may reduce the number of couples in the vivarium and increase their production efficiency.

  16. Maternal and developmental toxicity of ayahuasca in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Moreira, Camila Queiroz; de Sá, Lilian Rose Marques; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant beverage initially used by shamans throughout the Amazon region during traditional religious cult. In recent years, ayahuasca has also been used in ceremonies of a number of modern syncretic religious groups, including pregnant women. However, no documented study has been performed to evaluate the risk of developmental toxicity of ayahuasca. In the present work, maternal and developmental toxicity was evaluated in Wistar rats. Ayahuasca was administered to pregnant rats in three different doses [the equivalent typical dose (TD) administered to humans, five-fold TD and 10-fold TD] during the gestational period (6-20 days). Dams treated with the highest ayahuasca dose showed maternal toxicity with decrease of weight gain and food intake. Visceral fetal findings were observed in all treatment groups. Skeletal findings were observed in the intermediate- and high-dose groups. The fetuses deriving from the highest dose group also presented a decrease in body weight. From these results, it is possible to conclude that there is a risk of maternal and developmental toxicity following ayahuasca exposure and that the level of toxicity appears to be dose-dependent.

  17. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

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    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  18. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  19. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  20. The Effects of Topical Application of Thyroid Hormone (Liothyronine, T3 on Skin Wounds in Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ali Kaykhaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Efficient treatment of skin ulcers, a leading cause of substantial number of morbidities among diabetic patients, is a subject of matter. Objectives Since current therapies are partially effective and/or expensive and topical liothyronine (T3 was shown to get faster wound healing in mice, the present study was designed to assess its effectiveness in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 male wistar rats with mean weight of 242 g were randomly assigned into control (group C (n = 10 and diabetic (n = 20 groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: diabetic T3 group (group A which was treated with 150 ng/day topical T3 and diabetic placebo group (group B received vehicle. Full thickness wound on dorsum was created in each rat (1 cm2. Photographs were taken at baseline, fourth and tenth day to analyze changes in surface areas of wounds. Results Results obtained from the present study showed that baseline surface areas of wounds were similar in all groups. Conversely, wound contraction was significantly better in T3 group in fourth and tenth days compared to placebo group, (P = 0.001, P < 0.00001. Moreover, wound healing was impaired in diabetic placebo group compared to other groups (all P < 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that topical T3 administration is an effective measure for treatment of ulcers in diabetic male rats.

  1. Response of serum minerals (calcium, phosphate, and magnesium) and endocrine glands (calcitonin cells and parathyroid gland) of Wistar rat after chlorpyrifos administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sarojni; Suzuki, Nobuo; Srivastav, Ajai Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Wistar rats (male) were daily administered chlorpyrifos at a dose of 5 mg/kg b wt. and 10 mg/kg b wt. and sacrificed on 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week. In chlorpyrifos exposed rats hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia were recorded. At later intervals an increased levels of serum calcium and phosphate were observed. The parathyroid glands and calcitonin cells exhibited increased activity which is evident by increased nuclear volume of these cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gisou Mohaddes; Saeideh Hasani Azami; Shirin Babri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week), Diabetic (12 weeks), Loganin, Diabetic (1 week) + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks) + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Loganin (40 mg/kg, po) was administrate...

  3. Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat

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    Fatemeh Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

  4. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

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    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  5. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats--A Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ock Kim, Young; Agastian, Paul; Baru, Rajasekhar; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-28

    Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups--control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP--were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD's PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%), immunity (14%), neurological related (12%) and transporter proteins (2%), whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were oxidative stress (9%), immunity (6%), neurological (14%) and transporter proteins (9%). It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  6. Absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rat mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt; Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Barna, János; Dobolyi, Árpád

    2017-02-15

    Absence epileptic activity was analyzed during pregnancy, the postpartum period and after weaning to establish alterations of seizures throughout the reproductive cycle. Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats were used in the study as a model of absence epilepsy and because their seizures do not interfere with rearing offspring. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was gradually elevated from the 19th pregnancy day to delivery. Meanwhile, the characteristics of individual SWDs did not change suggesting that SWD generation remained the same. In the postpartum and postweaning periods, the number of SWDs was not increased in the absence of pups. However, returning the pups to mothers resulted in a markedly elevated number of SWDs for 1h. If pups were taken away after 30min, the number of SWDs dropped immediately suggesting that the presence of pups increased the SWD number. The time mothers spent with the litter and in kyphosis suckling posture were in correlation with their SWD number further suggesting the importance of interaction with pups in SWD induction. Suckling elevates prolactin levels but surprisingly, its intracerebroventricular injection markedly reduced SWD number in suckled WAG/Rij mothers suggesting that the SWD-inducing effect of suckling is not mediated by prolactin. Rather, the elevated prolactin level may provide some protection against pro-epileptic effects of suckling. In conclusion, we first identified periods within the reproductive cycle with increased absence epileptic activity, implying that more attention should be devoted to epileptic activity changes in mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wound healing activity of Abroma augusta in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanbhag T; Dattachaudhuri A; Shenoy S; Bairy KL

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing profile of alcoholic extract of Abroma au-gusta and its effect on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in Wistar rats.Methods:An alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta was prepared.Three models were used -incision,excision and dead space wound models. Four groups of animals were used for each model.They were administered 2% gum acacia (orally),alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta (orally),dexamethasone (intramuscularly)and combination of Abroma augusta (o-rally)with dexamethasone (intramuscularly)respectively.The parameters studied included breaking strength of incision wound,period of epithelization and wound contraction rate in the excision wound,breaking strength,dry weight and hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in dead space wound.Results:The breaking strength of incision wound of Abroma augusta treated group was significantly increased (P <0.001) while that of dexamethasone treated animals was significantly decreased (P <0.001)as compared to control. Coadministration of dexamethasone and Abroma augusta significantly reversed the dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in incision wound model (P <0.001).Animals treated with both dexamethasone and Abroma augusta also showed significant (P <0.004)increase in the breaking strength of granulation tissue in the dead space wound and a significant (P <0.011)reduction in the period of epithelization in the excision wound as compared to rats treated with dexamethasone alone.The rate of wound contraction was not significantly altered in any of the groups.Conclusion:The alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta was found to reverse dexametha-sone suppressed wound healing.

  8. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats—A Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups—control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg of APAP—were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD’s PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%, immunity (14%, neurological related (12% and transporter proteins (2%, whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were  oxidative stress (9%, immunity (6%, neurological (14% and transporter proteins (9%. It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  9. Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral and histopathological damages in Wistar rats exposed to ACR. Reduction of oxidative stress can be considered as an important mechanism of neuroprotective effects of crocin against ACR-induced toxicity.

  10. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA somatic mutations in OXYS and Wistar strain rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotskaya, U N; Rogozin, I B; Vasyunina, E A; Kolosova, N G; Malyarchuk, B A; Nevinsky, G A; Sinitsyna, O I

    2009-04-01

    Rats of the OXYS strain are sensitive to oxidative stress and serve as a biological model of premature aging. We have compared spectra of somatic mutations in a control region of mtDNA from the liver of the OXYS rat strain and of Wistar rats as a control. The majority of nucleotide substitutions in the mutation spectra were represented by transitions: 94 and 97% in the OXYS and Wistar rats, respectively. It was shown that 40% of somatic mutations in the control region of mtDNA from Wistar rats were significantly consistent with the model of dislocation mutagenesis. No statistical support for this model was found for mutations in the control region of mtDNA from OXYS rats. The mutation frequency in the ETAS section was higher in the OXYS strain rats than in Wistar rats. These results suggest different mechanisms of mutagenesis in the two rat strains under study.

  11. [Comparative analysis of imipramine intake reactions in catatonic and wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekhina, T A; Palchikova, N A; Igonina, T N; Kuznetsova, N V

    2015-03-01

    Chronic imipramine intake (7.5 mg/kg) leads to the stable decrease of excitable reactions to sound stimulant in Wistar rats and induced phase behavioral response in catatonic GC rats. Increased noradrenaline level in frontal cortex and striatum in Wistar animals was shown, whereas it didn't reveal noradrenaline level differences in any brain structures in GC rats. The higher blood corticosterone concentration was decreased under antidepressant reaction in GC rats. Differences between intact GC animals were found out: reduced triglyceride level, lesser body weight, and greater weight index of adrenals in comparison with Wistar rats. Various mechanisms of imipramine action in two rat strains were shown: influence on adrenergic brain system, taking part in the control of exiting behavior in Wistar rats and reaction in adrenals in GC rats.

  12. oleifera seed extract on copper sulphate induced injury in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    oleifera seed also known as Moringa seed on copper sulphate induced injury in Wistar rats. ... ministered aqueous extract of Moringa seed (200mg/kg body weight) and copper sulphate ... Human Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,. 2002).

  13. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Kramer, K.; Arndt, Saskia; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary: This study in laboratory rodents shows a sex specific effect of breeder to research facility transfer on several physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pressure. We recommend at least 8 days of acclimatization time after transfer in male rats and at least two weeks in

  14. [[Technology Surgical Intervention in Ulcerative Colitis Modeling Descending Part of the Colon in Rats Line "Wistar"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A D; Petuhova, S A; Chashkova, Ye Y U; Gol'dberg, O A; Shedoeva, L R

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune inflammatory condition of the colon with an unknown aetiology, leading to disability and reduced quality of life of patients. UC primarily affects young adults. In most cases, inflammatory bowel disease (iBD) debuts at reproductive age. The incidence of UC and severe clinical course has increased overall across the world. The study of the mechanisms of pathogenesis and aetiology of this disease contributes to the development of new effective methods of treatment. The aim of our study was to develop technology of the surgery directed to induction of reversible ischemic damage, the erosive-ulceration of gut mucosae (descending colon) at rats of the WISTAR line. Experimental research was done using male rats (n=40), their age was more than 6 months, weight of body is 280 - 350 grams. The animals were separated into 3 groups: 1 - (n=14) Sholimov's operative method, 2 group (n=16) - model using special technology, 3 group (n=10) - Coopr's H. S. induction ulcerative colitis. Observation was been done during 10 days. We offered special surgical technique: parietal ligation on every vasa recta of colon descendens of rats the length 3 cm along colon, on the apex vesicae and then vasa recta are cut. Then during 7 days 1% solution of dextran sulfate sodium (DSN) was given for experimental animals after postoperative period. By the histolog- ical biopsy of colon mucosa the results were estimated. we have created erosive-ulceration of gut mucosae (descending colon) of rat with productive inflam- mation, vasculitis and plasmatic impregnation of the vessel walls and intimal thickening. Our model of ulcerative colitis can be used for the development and testing of new methods for the study and treatment of this pathology.

  15. Nephroprotective effects of Colpomenia sinuosa (Derbes & Solier against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney injury in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekameera Ramarajan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the protective effect of seaweed Colpomenia sinuosa against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction of rat kidney. Methods: Seven to eight weeks old male Wistar rats (150-220g were exposed to CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg injection then treated with seaweed Colpomenia sinuosa (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.3% CMC solution. Blood was collected at the 5th day of experimental period to estimate the Total count (TC, Hemoglobin (HB, Total protein (TP, Glucose, Albumin, Cholesterol, TGL and Urea. Results: The results shows significantly decreased (P<0.01 level of TC, the cholesterol and urea levels shows significantly increased (P<0.05 in CCl4 treated groups when compared to control groups. These levels were found to be normalized by oral feeding of C. sinuosa. Then the rats were sacrificed and kidneys taken for enzyme analyses and histological examination. In the CCl4 treated group significantly increased activities in TBARS, SOD, CAT, GPX, GSH (P<0.05 when compared to control group. These increased activities were found to near normal in the CCl 4 + C. sinuosa treated group and Seaweed C. sinuosa treated alone group did not change any enzyme activity. Exposure to CCl4 resulted hydrobhic changes in epithelium and Hypercellulartity of glomerulus was seen in the CCl 4 + drug treated group. Conclusions: These results suggest that the nephroprotective effect of C. sinuosa can be attributed to its enhancing effects on antioxidant defense system and lead to prevent the damage by exposure of CCl4 toxicity.

  16. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gláucia Ferreira; de Almeida, Crislaine das Graças; Espeschit, Ana Cristina Rocha; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Ribeiro, Sonia Machado Rocha; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2013-10-11

    Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets.

  17. Pamidronate for the treatment of osteoporosis secondary to chronic cholestatic liver disease in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, F.A. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mattar, R. [1Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Facincani, I. [Departamento de Pediatria e Neonatologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramalho, L.N.Z. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Jorgetti, V. [Departamento de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Paula, F.J.A. de [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-14

    Osteoporosis is a major complication of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD). We evaluated the efficacy of using disodium pamidronate (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for the prevention (Pr) or treatment (Tr) of cholestasis-induced osteoporosis in male Wistar rats: sham-operated (Sham = 12); bile duct-ligated (Bi = 15); bile duct-ligated animals previously treated with pamidronate before and 1 month after surgery (Pr = 9); bile duct-ligated animals treated with pamidronate 1 month after surgery (Tr = 9). Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and GH receptor was determined in the proximal growth plate cartilage of the left tibia. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in the right tibia and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis. Bone material volume over tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly affected by CCLD (Sham = 18.1 ± 3.2 vs Bi = 10.6 ± 2.2%) and pamidronate successfully increased bone volume. However, pamidronate administered in a preventive regimen presented no additional benefit on bone volume compared to secondary treatment (BV/TV: Pr = 39.4 ± 12.0; Tr = 41.2 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the force on the momentum of fracture was significantly reduced in Pr rats (Sham = 116.6 ± 23.0; Bi = 94.6 ± 33.8; Pr = 82.9 ± 22.8; Tr = 92.5 ± 29.5 N; P < 0.05, Sham vs Pr). Thus, CCLD had a significant impact on bone histomorphometric parameters and pamidronate was highly effective in increasing bone mass in CCLD; however, preventive therapy with pamidronate has no advantage regarding bone fragility.

  18. Effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Kunz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint.

  19. Effects of leflunomide on inflamation and fibrosis in bleomycine induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Servet; Guzel, Aygul; Duran, Latif; Tutuncu, Serife; Guzel, Ahmet; Gunaydın, Mithat; Salis, Osman; Okuyucu, Ali; Selcuk, Mustafa Yasin

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a rare and progressive lung disease with a high mortality rate. The treatment regimens still fail to recover the disease. Leflunomide (LEF) is an immunomodulatory agent with antiproliferative activity that is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the potential therapeutic efficacy of LEF in bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis. A total of 21 male, adult wistar albino rats were used. The animals were divided into three groups as control, BLM and BLM plus LEF groups (n=7). In BLM group, mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of BLM (2.5 U/kg). Control group received the same volume of saline instead of BLM. In LEF group, in addition to BLM, LEF (10 mg/kg, daily) was administrated by oral gavage. The effect of LEF on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was studied by measurements of serum clara cell protein-16 (CC-16), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels and lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB by immunhistochemical examinations. LEF significantly increased the level of CC-16 and decreased the level of AOPP (P=0.042 and P=0.003 respectively). Lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB significantly decreased in LEF group compared to BLM group by immunhistochemical examinations (P<0.001). LEF reduces oxidative stress factors, alveolar inflammation and attenuates lung injury and fibrosis.

  20. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  1. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  2. Gene expression profiling reveals potential key pathways involved in pyrazinamide-mediated hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Su, Yijing; Chen, Mi; Li, Fu; Liu, Li; Sun, Lixin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Luyong

    2013-08-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important sterilizing prodrug that shortens the duration of tuberculosis therapy. However, hepatotoxicity has been reported during clinical trials investigating PZA. To determine the hepatotoxic effects of PZA in vivo and to further investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, we profiled the gene expression patterns of PZA-treated rat livers by microarray analysis. Wistar rats of both sexes were orally administered PZA at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 28 days. Body weight, absolute and relative liver weight, biochemical analysis, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates and changes in global transcriptomic expression were evaluated to study the hepatotoxic effects of PZA. Our results confirm the dose-dependent and sex-related hepatotoxicity of PZA. Female rats were more sensitive to PZA-induced hepatotoxicity than males. Furthermore, changes in the activity of major antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione and malondialdehyde), indicating the development of oxidative stress, were more significant in the PZA-treated group. PZA-induced gene expression changes were related to pathways involved in drug metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the regulation of selected genes involved in PZA-hepatotoxicity (Ephx1, Cyp2b1, Gstm1, Gstp1, Fabp7, Acaa1, Cpt-1b, Cyp8b1, Hmox1 and Ntrk1). We observed for the first time that these genes have effects on PZA-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, drug metabolism and PPAR signaling pathways may play an important role in PZA hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these findings will be useful for future PZA hepatotoxicity studies.

  3. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  4. Chemprevention of Colorecta Cancer Induced By Dimethylhydrazine in Wistar Rats by Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XudongJia; ChiHan

    2001-01-01

    Objective:The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive effects of green tea and tea pigmetns on 1,2-dimthylhydrazine(DMH)-induced rat colorectal carcinogenesis.Methods:A total of 168 male weaned Wistar rats were randomly divided into four goups Rats in the positive group were given s.c.injection of DMH,once a week for ten weeks Rats in tea-treated groups,in addition to the same DMH treatment as in the positive group,received 2% green volume of saline as DMH in the positive group Animals were necropsied at the end of week 16 and week 32 after the first DMH treatemtn.Results:Aberrant crytp foci(ACF) were formed in animals in DMH-treated groups at the end of week 16,Compared to the DMH group,green tea and tea pigments groups had less ACF(P<0.01),At the end of week 32,all rats in DMH group developed intestinal tumors.The average number of intestinal tumors and the mean tumor volume were reduced in tea treated groups(P<0.01).The results also showed that DMH increased labeling index(LI) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) of intestinal mucosa and the expression of ras-p21.However,in the tea treated groups,PCNA-LI and ras-p21 expression were significantly reduced as compared with the positive control group(P<0.01),Futhermore,green tea and tea pigments inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 protein and induced the expression of Bax protien(P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion.Tea Drinking inhibited ACF and intestinal tumors formation in rats,which showed that tea had a significant chemopreventive effects on DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats,Such effects may be due to suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in the intesinal cyrpts.

  5. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboma, Yibala .I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26 adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6 and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal injection of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sacrifice was carried out on 24hrs, 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. Tissues collected were prepared for histology using heamatoxylin and eosin staining techniques while serum lipid profile, glucose level, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde (MDA and liver enzymes were analyze using Selectra and micro Elisa. RESULT: High doses (500mg/kg and prolonged exposure to the extract resulted in spectrum effects. Prolonged and increase concentration of extract administration causes increase in body weight and is statistically significant at P<0.05, t=35 and df=8, decrease in lipid profile, creatine kinase (CK-MB, malondialdehyde (MDA, liver enzymes and glucose at both higher and lower doses of 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively. Photomicrograph with magnification of x400, show normal histology of the heart and liver. CONCLUSION: Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera show a potential anti-hyperglycemia and antilipidemic properties with no notable hepatotoxicity and cardiac injury. This study supports the popular sayings about the tradomedicinal use of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  6. Ultrastructure of the myotendinous junction of the medial pterygoid muscle of adult and aged Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciena, Adriano Polican; Luques, Isabela Ugo; Dias, Fernando José; Yokomizo de Almeida, Sonia Regina; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2010-12-01

    The myotendon junction (MTJ) is a specialised area into the muscle fibers where the sarcoplasmic membranes connect to the collagen fibers bundles. There are few data about plasticity of the MTJ in aging processes. The aim of this study is to analyse the ultrastructure characteristics of MTJ of medial pterygoid muscle of adult and aged rats. Employing the transmission electron microscopy method, twenty male rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into two groups: A (n=10) with 12 months of age; B (n=10) 24 months of age. The animals were anaesthetised with overdose the urethane (3g/kg, i.p.) and sacrified during the perfusion with modified Karnovsky solution. The specimens were post-fixed in a 1% osmium tetroxide solution, dehydrated in ascending concentration of ethanol and embedded in Spurr resin. The thin sections, of 90 nm thick, were counterstained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solution, and examined in a Jeol 1010 transmission electron microscope. The fine structure of the MTJ of group A revealed the defined interdigitations and disposed in several levels of deep formations containing the collagen fibers. In the group B, such structures did not observed, detecting the projections irregular in shape, and large of extra matrix with in aspect of remodelling. In conclusion it was possible to identify the plasticity of MTJ in the group B which presented several morphological alterations comparing to the adult animals. These data of group B suggested the occurrence of aging processes in the MTJ in rats. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification

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    I. Chahoud

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21 and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters of untreated rats. Relationships between body weight and degree of ossification were examined in a subset of 1484 historical control fetuses (154 litters which were subsequently cleared and stained with alizarin red S. Fetal weight was independent of horn size, uterine horn side (left or right or intrauterine position. Males were heavier than females and fetal weight decreased with increasing litter size. Evaluation of the skeleton showed that ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus was extensively complete and independent of fetal weight on pregnancy day 21. In contrast, the extent of ossification of fore- and hindlimb phalanges and of cervical and sacrococcygeal vertebrae was dependent on fetal body weight. The strongest correlation between body weight and degree of ossification was found for hindlimb, medial and proximal phalanges. Our data therefore suggest that, in full-term rat fetuses (day 21, reduced ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus results from a localized impairment of bone calcification (i.e., a malformation or variation rather than from general growth retardation and that ossification of hindlimb (medial and proximal phalanges is a good indicator of treatment-induced fetal growth retardation.

  8. Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, Ankit S.; Raval, Sunant K; Suprita Sinha; Varia, Tapan N.; Mashiyava, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Pancreatic cancer was developed in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of azaserine (cancer inducer) for 21 days at the concentration of 5 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were given to rats of different groups as per protocol. Results: The results data revealed that o...

  9. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  10. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males.

  11. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

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    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  12. Effect of chronic melatonin administration on several physiological parameters from old Wistar rats and SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Jesus A F; Kireev, Roman; Forman, Katherine; Cuesta, Sara; Tresguerres, Ana F; Vara, Elena

    2012-12-01

    The effect of melatonin administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes, central nervous system, immune system, and skin are reviewed. Twenty-two-month-old Wistar rats and SAMP8 (senescence prone) mice of 10 months of age were used as experimental models. Wistar rats were analyzed untreated or after the chronic administration of melatonin at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the various parameters were investigated. Results were compared with those of 2-month-old controls. In hepatocytes, aging induced a significant increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis when compared to young animals. Melatonin administration significantly ameliorated all these age-related changes. The impairment of the cardiovascular system with aging appears to contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of the aged subjects. The process was investigated in SAMP8 mice of 10 months of age. Melatonin was provided for 30 days at two different dosages (1 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day), also in the drinking water. After treatment, the expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1 and 10, NFκBp50 and NFκBp52), apoptosis markers (BAD, BAX, and Bcl2), and parameters related to oxidative stress (heme oxygenases 1 and 2, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases) were determined in the heart. Inflammation as well as oxidative stress and apoptosis markers were increased in old SAMP8 males, as compared to young controls. After treatment with melatonin, these age-altered parameters were partially reversed. The results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation increase with aging and that chronic treatment with melatonin is able to reduce these parameters. In the skin, a reduction of epidermal thickness together with a marked increase of the hypodermis with great fat accumulation was observed in old rats, together with an increase in caspase 3, 8 of nucleosomes and LPO and

  13. Identification of Site of Morphine Action in Pregnant Wistar Rat Placenta Tissue: A C14-Morphine Study

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    Leila Dehghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In previous studies it has been emphasized that the site of morphine action may be either in the embryo or the placenta. In the present study, we attempt to identify the site of morphine action on the fetal section of Wistar rat placenta by using C14-morphine.Materials and Methods: In this study (experimental, female Wistar rats (weights: 170-200 g were mated with male rats and their coupling times recorded. Experimental groups received daily doses of 0.05 mg/ml of C14-morphine in their drinking water. On the 9th and14th embryonic days, the pregnant rats were anesthetized and the placenta and uterus surgically removed. Placentas were fixed in 10% formalin for two weeks, then processed, sectioned in 5 μm and 25 μm thicknesses, and fixed on glass slides for further evaluation. The 25 μm sections were delivered to black and white film for three days. Films were processed and evaluated with a digital inverse microscope for possible radiological impression. The 5 μm sections were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and evaluated by light microscope and MOTIC software.Results: Our results indicated that the site of action of C14-morphine was possibly located on the blood plexus of the fetal portion of the placenta. In addition, oral morphine consumption was shown to inhibit fetal and maternal placental development in the experimental groups.Conclusion: We conclude that morphine’s effectiveness on the reduction of embryo growth and development may be via its effects on the blood plexus of the fetal section of the placenta.

  14. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

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    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  16. Progressive Induction of Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of a Reality-Like Fructose Enriched Diet in Young Wistar Rats.

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    Julie Dupas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize short and medium-lasting effects of fructose supplementation on young Wistar rats. The diet was similar to actual human consumption.Three week old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 16, fructose fed (FF; n = 16 with a fructose enriched drink for 6 or 12 weeks. Bodyweight, fasting glycemia and systolic blood pressure were monitored. Glucose tolerance was evaluated using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulinemia was measured concomitantly and enable us to calculate insulin resistance markers (HOMA-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia: ISI-gly. Blood chemistry analyses were performed.After six weeks of fructose supplementation, rats were not overweight but presented increased fasting glycemia, reduced glucose tolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity compared to control group. Systolic blood pressure and heart weight were also increased without any change in renal function (theoretical creatinine clearance. After twelve weeks of fructose supplementation, FF rats had increased bodyweight and presented insulin resistance (higher HOMA-IR, lower ISI-gly. Rats also presented higher heart volume and lower ASAT/ALAT ratio (presumed liver lesion. Surprisingly, the Total Cholesterol/Triglycerides ratio was increased only after six weeks of fructose supplementation, predicting a higher LDL presence and thus a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This risk was no longer present after twelve weeks of a fructose enriched diet.On young Wistar rats, six weeks of fructose supplementation is sufficient to induce signs of metabolic syndrome. After twelve weeks of fructose enriched diet, rats are insulin resistant. This model enabled us to study longitudinally the early development of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P; Vitzel, K F; Monteiro, I C C R; Lima, T I; Queiroz, A N; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Hirabara, S M; Ceccatto, V M

    2016-10-24

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min) compared to the sedentary group (27th min). Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Acute Sodium Arsenite-Induced Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Wistar Rats: Protective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ageratum conyzoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke Eunice; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herbaceous plant used in folklore medicine for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of the ethanol leaf extract of A. conyzoides (EEAC) against hematological, serum biochemical and histological alterations induced by Sodium arsenite administration to Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats each. Group I received propylene glycol and Group II rats were given the (EEAC, 100 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 7 days. Group III were given a single oral dose of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 2.5 mg/kg b.w.). Animals in Group IV were pretreated with 100 mg/kg EEAC for 7 days followed by a single oral dose of sodium arsenite. Results: Arsenic exposure resulted in significant reductions (P produced significant reversal of the reduction in the erythrocytic indices (packed cell volume, red blood cell, and Hb) caused by sodium arseniteSodium arsenite-induced slight elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), correlating with the histopathological lesions observedAgeratum conyzoides produced only slight reductions in AST, ALT, and ALP compared to the sodium arsenite group, but significantly reduced the severity of histopathological lesions. Abbreviations Used: EEAC: Ethanol extract of Ageratum conyzoides; RBC: Red blood cell; WBC: White blood cell; Hb: Hemoglobin; ALT: Alanine transaminase; AST: Aspartate transaminase or Aspartate aminotransferase; ALP: Alkaline phosphatase; GGT: Gamma glutamyl transferase. PMID:27114688

  19. SELECTIVE EFFECTS OF DATURA STRAMONIUM ON THE GRANULAR PARALLEL FIBRES AND PURKINJE CELLS OF THE CEREBELLUM IN WISTAR RATS

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    Peter E. Ekanem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Datura stramonium (DS is a tropical ubiquitous shrub which is often used to increase intoxication in some beverages and is also freely used as a hallucinogen. It is a depressant of the central nervous system, yet commonly smoked in like manner tobacco. The present study investigated changes induced by intoxication with DS on the purkinje cells and parallel fibres of the cerebellum in Wistar rats to further elucidate the effects of this drug on cerebellar structure. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on both male and female Wistar rats (200-250 g. They were placed into three batches and four groups were derived from each batch, with eight animals per group. Ethanolic dried seed extract of DS was diluted in normal saline and administered intraperitoneally (I.P. at a dose of 750mg/kg and given to the treatment groups: once in batch 1, twice in batch 2, twelve hourly and thrice in batch 3, eight hourly per day respectively for 4 weeks, while the control groups received an equivalent of normal saline. The rats were euthanized and sections of the cerebellum were histologically processed in all groups. Silver impregnation stain for degenerating axons and neurons was used to elucidate the actions of DS on purkinje cells and the parallel fibres of the cerebellum. Results: The result of IP administration of DS extract (750 mg/kg given three times daily to the treated rats showed significant histological changes, which included atrophy of the parallel fibres but no significant changes in the purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Conclusions: Intoxication of DS seed as a result of excessive ingestion may have a selective degenerative effect on the parallel fibres of the granule cells of the cerebellum while the purkinje cells are spared; the implication being motor dysfunction.

  20. Evidences that maternal swimming exercise improves antioxidant defenses and induces mitochondrial biogenesis in the brain of young Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, T B; Longoni, A; Kudo, K Y; Stone, V; Rech, A; de Assis, A M; Scherer, E B S; da Cunha, M J; Wyse, A T S; Pettenuzzo, L F; Leipnitz, G; Matté, C

    2013-08-29

    Physical exercise during pregnancy has been considered beneficial to mother and child. Recent studies showed that maternal swimming improves memory in the offspring, increases hippocampal neurogenesis and levels of neurotrophic factors. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on redox status and mitochondrial parameters in brain structures from the offspring. Adult female Wistar rats were submitted to five swimming sessions (30 min/day) prior to mating with adult male Wistar rats, and then trained during the pregnancy (five sessions of 30-min swimming/week). The litter was sacrificed when 7 days old, when cerebellum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were dissected. We evaluated the production of reactive species and antioxidant status, measuring the activities of superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx), as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants. We also investigated a potential mitochondrial biogenesis regarding mitochondrion mass and membrane potential, through cytometric approaches. Our results showed that maternal swimming exercise promoted an increase in reactive species levels in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus, demonstrated by an increase in dichlorofluorescein oxidation. Mitochondrial superoxide was reduced in cerebellum and parietal cortex, while nitrite levels were increased in cerebellum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Antioxidant status was improved in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus. SOD activity was increased in parietal cortex, and was not altered in the remaining brain structures. CAT and GPx activities, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant potential, were increased in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus of rats whose mothers were exercised. Finally, we observed an increased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, suggesting mitochondriogenesis, in cerebellum and parietal cortex of pups subjected to

  1. Dissociable effects of ethanol consumption during the light and dark phase in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brendan M; Walker, Jennifer L; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2008-03-01

    In adolescence, high levels of drinking over short episodes (binge drinking) is commonly seen in a proportion of the population. Because adolescence is an important neurodevelopmental period, the effects of binge drinking on brain and behavior has become a significant health concern. However, robust animal models of binge drinking in rats are still being developed and therefore further efforts are needed to optimize paradigms for inducing maximal self-administration of alcohol. In the present experiment, 1-h limited-access self-administration sessions were instituted to model excessive drinking behavior in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. In addition to age, the involvement of sex and phase within the light/dark cycle (i.e., drinking in the light or dark) on sweetened 5% ethanol intake were also evaluated over 14 limited-access sessions using a between-groups design. The results of the experiment showed that over 14 limited-access sessions, sweetened ethanol intake (g/kg) was significantly higher for adolescents compared to adults. Females were also found to drink more sweetened ethanol as compared to males. Additionally, drinking in the light produced a robust increase in sweetened ethanol intake (g/kg) in adolescents, as compared to adults during the light phase and as compared to both adolescent and adult rats drinking in the dark. Furthermore, the increase in ethanol consumption observed in adolescents drinking during the light phase was dissociable from sweetened solution intake patterns. These results identify that age, sex, and time of day all significantly influence consumption of sweetened ethanol in Wistar rats. Knowledge of these parameters should be useful for future experiments attempting to evaluate the effects of self-administered ethanol exposure in adult and adolescent rats.

  2. The effects of sub-lethal doses of smokeless tobacco (snuff on certain hematological and hemostatic parameters in Wistar rats

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    Stephen Maduka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of orogastrically-administered tobacco on some hematological and hemostatic parameters of Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty young male Wistar rats with weights between 170-220 g were used for the study. The oral LD50 for the tobacco snuff concentration was determined as 10 mg per 200 g rat body weight. The control group A was given 1 ml of distilled water, while the experimental groups (B, C, D were administered with tobacco snuff concentrations of 4 mg, 6 mg, and 8mg per 200 g body weight, respectively, through an oral route with the aid of orogastric tube for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected to estimate hematocrit; red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, and platelet counts; bleeding time and blood clotting time. Results: When compared with the control group, our data indicated significantly higher total WBC in groups C and D (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively; lower RBC in group D (P<0.05; lower platelet counts in all the experimental groups (P<0.001; and higher blood clotting time in groups C and D (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. However, no significant effects of snuff consumption were observed on the experimental groups with regard to hematocrit and bleeding time. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that chronic tobacco consumption at higher sub-lethal levels may put the body at some risk of adverse hematological and hemostatic conditions. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 225-230

  3. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

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    P. Abreu

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min compared to the sedentary group (27th min. Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Renoprotective effect of Caralluma fimbriata against high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats

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    Sudhakara Gujjala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE against high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (C, control treated with CFE (C + CFE, high-fat diet fed (HFD, high-fat diet fed treated with CFE (HFD + CFE, and high-fat diet fed treated with metformin (HFD + metformin. CFE was orally administered (200 mg/kg body weight to Groups C + CFE and HFD + CFE rats for 90 days. Renal functional markers such as, urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels in plasma were quantified during the experimental period. At the end of the experimental period, activities of transaminases and oxidative stress markers, i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes were assayed in renal tissue. Coadministration of CFE along with HF-diet in Group HFD + CFE prevented the rise in the levels of plasma urea, uric acid, and creatinine, and elevated activities of renal transaminases with decreased protein content of Group HFD (p < 0.05. Establishment of oxidative stress in Group HFD, as evident from elevated lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels with depleted levels of GSH, and decreased activities of GSH dependent and independent antioxidant enzymes, was prevented in Groups HFD + CFE and HFD + metformin rats. Further, there were no deviations in the studied parameters but there was improved antioxidant status of Group C + CFE from Group C which revealed the nontoxic nature of CFE even under chronic treatment. Thus, CFE treatment effectively alleviated the HF-diet induced renal damage. Hence, this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of HF-diet induced renal damage.

  5. Lung mass in a 28-year-old male: a case report of a rare tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Robert M; Korniluk, M; Swidzinska, E; Dzieciol, J; Czaban, J; Panek, B; Chyczewska, E

    2010-11-01

    A twenty eight-year-old male presented with a two week history of dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, chest pain, and fever 38-39°C. He also complained of loss of appetite, general weakness and left leg pain for two months preceding admission. He was referred with suspicion of lung tumor to our institution. Chest X-ray showed almost total atelectasis of the right lung with compensatory overinflation of the contralateral lung. Using computed tomography (CT), a lesion of diameter of 19.3 x 14.1 x 19.1 cm in the right lung, pleuritis, Th3 osteolysis, and compensatory overinflation of the left lung was seen. Bronchoscopy revealed a total obstruction of the right main bronchus due to submucosal infiltration and compression of the right main bronchus with negative histology of bronchial biopsy specimens. Transthoracic fine needle aspiration revealed celullae suspectae probabiliter neoplasmaticae suggesting tumor fusocellularis. USG of the abdomen revealed liver with numerous heterogeneous, solid areas hypo- and hyperechogenic, some of them with features of liquid or the disintegration up to diameter of 74 mm. Subsequent fine needle aspirations of the thorax and liver revealed fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma and carcinoma adenoides of the lung. Patient underwent chemotherapy with 5-FU/DDP/VCR with no response. This report presents a case of a rare lung metastasis from FL-HCC.

  6. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy versus animal-based (whey protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30 with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9, and soy (n = 9 or whey (n = 10 supplementation and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%, with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation.

  7. Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mohammd Reza; Harati, Mehdi; Shahraki, Ahamd Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

  8. Prevention of High Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Male Wistar Rats by Aqueous Extract of Tamarindus Indica Seed

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    Ahamd Reza Shahraki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01 when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01 compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01 while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

  9. Corticosterone and decision-making in male Wistar rats : the effect of corticosterone application in the infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, Susanne; Koukou, Magdalini; Baars, Annemarie; Hesseling, Peter; van t Klooster, J.; Joëls, Marian; van den Bos, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones, released after stress, are known to influence neuronal activity and produce a wide range of effects upon the brain. They affect cognitive tasks including decision-making. Recently it was shown that systemic injections of corticosterone (CORT) disrupt reward-based decision-ma

  10. Potential of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum to reduce radiation induced hepatic damage in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwozo, S O; Okameme, P E; Oyinloye, B E

    2012-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum on radiation-induced hepatic damage was evaluated. Rats were treated with a single dose of 600 rads (6 Gy) y-radiation to induce hepatic damage. Aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum (200 and 400 mg/kg b. wt) were administered orally to rats for two weeks prior to radiation and four weeks after radiation. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined for their antioxidant capacity. The activities of serum markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the histological changes were examined to evaluate potential ameliorative effects. Results from this study confirmed that exposure of animals to radiation led to induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced the level of GSH as well as CAT and GPx activities while simultaneously a significant elevation in the activities of serum ALT and AST was observed. Administration of varying doses of P.G. and A.L. before and after irradiation inhibited the elevated levels of LPO, restored the GSH level and enhanced CAT and GPx activities as well as significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum ALT and AST activities. This findings demonstrated that aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum might mitigate the liver gamma-radiation-induced damage probably by increasing antioxidant activities.

  11. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a ti

  12. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  13. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a

  14. Effects of diet-induced obesity on protein expression in insulin signaling pathways of skeletal muscle in male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatani S; Abubakari A-R; Itua I; Wong C; Thomas C; Naderali EK

    2012-01-01

    Sameer Fatani,1 Abdul-Razak Abubakari,2 Imose Itua,2 Christopher Wong,3 Cecil Thomas,3 Ebrahim K Naderali21Obesity Biology Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, 2Department of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, 3Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UKBackground: The prevalence of diet-induced obesity is increasing globally, and posing significant health problems for millions of people worldwide. Diet-induced obesity is a major ...

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of the multidrug herbomineral formulation in male Wistar rats against rheumatoid arthritis

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    Snehal S Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunological and inflammatory mechanisms, which may play a role in a number of disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Ancient ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest or prevent these disorders. Objective: Rheuma off gold (RG is a herbomineral formulation recommended by ayurvedic medical practitioners for treatment of RA. This study was carried out to lend scientific evidence to the efficacy claim for RG in the management of RA in folklore medicine. Materials and Methods: Arthritis was induced by complete Freund′s adjuvant. Treatment with formulation 100 mg/kg and dexamethasone 2 mg/kg was given to rats intragastrically once a day from day 1 to day 21 and after which estimation of physical, biochemical, and hematological parameters were carried out. Results: Treatment of formulation to adjuvant induced arthritic animal showed statistically significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in physical parameters like arthritic index, paw edema, paw thickness as well as reduction of inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein, serum rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The treatment also produced statistically significant ( P < 0.05 increase in hemoglobin percent and improvement in splenomegaly and thymus index. In the histopathological examination, ameliorative effect of formulation was observed in hyperplasia of synovium, pannus formation, and destruction of the joint space. Conclusion: The results obtained in experiments indicated that the formulation significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced arthritis which was comparable to dexamethasone and had preferable anti-inflammatory effect without significant side effect. Thus, the formulation may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of chronic inflammation and arthritis.

  16. The combined fixed-dose antituberculous drugs alter some reproductive functions with oxidative stress involvement in wistar rats

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    O. Awodele, B.Pharm M.Sc MPH PhD D.Sc FPCPharm FASI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive toxicity of combined fixed-dose first-line antituberculosis (CFDAT regimen was assessed in rats. Thirty-two (32 Wistar rats weighing 168.1 ± 8.0 g were divided into four groups of eight rats per group. Two groups of male and female rats were administered oral distilled water (1.6 ml and CFDAT drugs containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol (RIPE, 92.5 mg/m2 per body surface area respectively for forty-five days. Serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing and testosterone were reduced significantly (p  0.05 levels in the treated females. In addition, RIPE reduced (p < 0.05 total proteins levels and increased (p < 0.05, 53% catalase levels in male but not female animals. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione levels as well as lipid peroxidation were unaltered in all rats respectively. Histopathological studies revealed congested peritesticular vessels and no changes in the ovary when compared with control. Overall, our results demonstrate reproductive toxicity potentials of RIPE in the rat, thus, suggesting that these reproductive parameters be monitored during antituberculous chemotherapy.

  17. The effects of gallic acid on pain and memory following transient global ischemia/reperfusion in Wistar rats

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    Yaghoob Farbood

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is generally agreed that most of the phenomena observed during brain ischemia and reperfusion can be explained by the damage to membrane structure. Oxidative stress is resulted in an imbalance between high consumption of oxygen and low levels of endogenous antioxidants. It is known that gallic acid (GA is a strong antioxidant. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of GA on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced brain injury in rats.  Materials and Methods: Wistar adult male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into six groups as sham operated (Sh, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R received normal saline (I+Veh, I/R groups treated with gallic acid (I+GA, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, orally, respectively, or with 100 mg /kg phenytoin (I+Phen. The global cerebral I/R injury was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA for 20 min, followed by 5 days reperfusion in adult male rats. Results: It was found that administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 5 days before and 5 days after I/R induction reversed gait performance, sensorimotor disorders (p

  18. Elemental concentration analysis in the brain of young and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria G.T. do [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nutrition Inst.; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Civil Engineering Dept.; Martinez, Ana M.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Histology and Embryology

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that aging is associated with neurobehavioral deficits. The aging process of human brain is characterized by progressive neuronal loss. Furthermore, certain brain areas are more vulnerable to neuronal degeneration than others, reflecting an altered resistance to stress of the tissue itself and/or the lack of adequate immunological defense mechanisms in these regions. About the elemental levels in the brain, it is known that the excess ou deficiency of some elements are toxic for human healthy, being also related to several neurodegenerative diseases. In this way, the main goal of this work was to determine the elemental concentration in the hippocampus of young and old male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). These measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. About the results, we could observe that Al, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br levels were higher in the hippocampus of the old female rats than the young ones. On the other hand, only Cu levels were higher in the hippocampus of the old male rats than the young ones. Therefore, the aging of the hippocampus of the female rats can be characterized by an accumulate for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br. The excess in these elements levels are also associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer' disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. (author)

  19. Solanum muricatum Aiton Juice as A Hepatoprotective Agent in Wistar Rats Induced With Carbon Tetrachloride

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    Justine Sim Wei Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver participates in various metabolic processes in human body. Exposures to toxins such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 results in hepatocyte destruction and release the cell contents. Enzymes such as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT were used as a parameter to diagnose liver damage. Pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton contains antioxidants that protect liver from hepatoxicity. The aim of this experiment is to determine the effect of pepino in protecting the hepatocyte from hepatotoxic effect of CCl4. Methods: A total of 16 Wistar rats used as the subject were divided into Control and Therapeutic Group. The Control group was induced with CCl4 but was not given pepino juice. Meanwhile, the Therapeutic Group was given pepino juice for 10 days. For induction of hepatotoxicity, CCl4 10% was given at a dosage of 2.0 ml/kg intra-peritoneal. Each Wistar rat in Therapeutic Group was given 1.0 ml of 300 g/ml pepino juice via oral feeding. Spectrophotometer with adjusted wavelength of 340 nm was used to measure SGPT level of the Wistar rats and statistical T-test was used to analyze the data. Results: Wistar rats in Therapeutic group showed a larger decrease (6898.9 IU/L–79.1 IU/L in SGPT level compared to the Control group (6469.8 IU/L–418.5 IU/L. The SGPT level of the Wistar rat in Therapeutic group reached normal baseline (50 IU/L–150 IU/L. The significance of the experiment was supported by the T-test, P-value <0.05 Discussion: Pepino juice had antioxidants that protect the hepatocyte of Wistar rats from free radicals. The synergistic action of antioxidants and hepatocyte regeneration of Wistar rats in Therapeutic group caused a decrease in SGPT level. Therefore, the experiment concluded that pepino juice at the dosage of 300 g/ml has hepatoprotective effect.

  20. Twenty-eight Cases of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Gangrene Treated with the Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Injection of Ahylsantinfarctase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡

    2002-01-01

    @@ Since 1995, the Chinese herbal medicine for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation combined with injection of ahylsantinfarctase into the femoral artery has been used in 28 cases of diabetes complicated with gangrene and ulcer of the foot, with quite good therapeutic effects as reported in the following.

  1. Tissue injuries of wistar rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Sonchus oleraceus L.

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    Franciele Carla Prichoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant species is emerging as an important alternative in the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the extract of Sonchus oleraceus 10% was employed in the repair of skin lesions. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were subjected to a punch injury and divided into three groups: a negative control, receiving no treatment, a positive control, treated with Dersani, and the experimental group treated with the extract. The injury was assessed macroscopically and microscopically. Morphometric data was collected at the 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative day, and the experimental group showed greater changes in shrinkage of the lesion compared to control groups. On the 3rd postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed less necrotic tissue, lower slough and more granulation tissue in relation to the positive control group. On the 7th and 10th postoperative day, the injury in the experimental group showed lower slough compared to the positive control group. Microscopic analysis of lesions on the 5th postoperative day revealed increased fibroplasia in the experimental group compared to control groups, while on the 14th postoperative day less neovascularization was evident in the experimental group and increased formation of hair follicles in the negative control group. The extract of S. oleraceus provided tissue repair in accordance with normal physiological patterns thus confirming empirical evidence for its use.O emprego de espécies vegetais vem surgindo como alternativa no tratamento de lesões. Dessa forma, foi utilizado o extrato hidroalcoólico de Sonchus oleraceus a 10% na reparação de lesões cutâneas. Trinta e seis ratos machos Wistar, foram submetidos a uma lesão com "punch" e distribuídos em três grupos: controle negativo, não recebeu tratamento; controle positivo, tratado com Dersani; e o experimental, tratado com extrato. A lesão foi avaliada macroscopicamente e microscopicamente. Os dados morfométricos mostraram que

  2. Pengaruh Pemberian Diet Tinggi Minyak Sawit terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid Darah Tikus Wistar

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    Maressya Silvia Eszy

    2014-09-01

    tissues of the body. This study was aimed to assess the effect of a high palm oil diet on malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in rat’s blood. This research was an experimental study which applies post test only control group design. Sample amounted to ten male wistar rats with 180-260 gram weight were divided into two research groups those are control group rats which were administrated standard diet ad libitum and treatment group rats which were administrated addition of palm oil to standar diet ad libitum. After one month treatment, malondialdehyde concentrations were observed. The result of this study revealed significant defference (p<0.05 between MDA concentration in treatment group rats (2.494±0.504 nmol/ml and control group rats (3.152±0.237 nmol/ml. From the result of this research may be concluded that high palm oil diet decreased MDA concentration of rat’s blood.Keywords: palm oil, SFA, MUFA, antioxidant, ROS, MDA

  3. Gambaran Histologi Regenerasi Hati Pasca Penghentian Pajanan Monosodium Glutamat pada Tikus Wistar

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    Heryanto Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Monosodium glutamat (MSG merupakan bahan penyedap masakan yang sering digunakan, namun konsumsi MSG berlebihan dapat merusak hati. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahuipengaruh pajanan MSG terhadap gambaran histologis hati tikus jantan galur wistar dankemampuan regenerasinya. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimental post-test only.Tikus dibagi menjadi 9 kelompok, yang terdiri atas 3 kelompok perlakuan dalam 3 periode yang berbeda (28, 42, dan 56 hari. Kelompok kontrol positif 1, 2, dan 3 diberikan akuades selama 28 hari, 42 hari, 56 hari; kelompok kontrol negatif 1, 2, dan 3 diberikan MSG 5 mg/gBB/hari selama 28hari, 42 hari, 56 hari; kelompok perlakuan regenerasi 1, 2, 3 diberikan MSG 5 mg/gBB/hari selama28 hari kemudian dihentikan selama 0 hari, 14 hari, 28 hari. Variabel yang diukur adalah derajatkerusakan jaringan hati. Pada analisis one way ANOVA terdapat perbedaan signifikan (p<0,05.Uji post hoc LSD menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok kontrol positif dengankelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05 dan tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok kontrolpositif dengan perlakuan regenerasi 14 hari (p>0,05 dan perlakuan regenerasi 28 hari (p>0,05.Disimpulkan pajanan MSG mengakibatkan kerusakan hati dan terjadi regenerasi hati setelah 14hari penghentian pajanan MSG. Kata kunci: monosodium glutamat, regenerasi, kerusakan hati Histological Study of Liver Regeneration after Cessation ofMonosodium Glutamat on Rats Abstract Monosodium glutamat (MSG is flavor enhancer that has been used in various food products. Excessive consumption of MSG have been reported to damage liver. The purpose of this experimentis to determine effect of MSG on male wistar rats’s liver histology and it’s regeneration capability.This is an experimental research with post-test only goup design. Rats were divided into 9 goups,consisted of 3 treatment goups with 3 different period

  4. Histomorphometric analysis of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria V. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Low-level laser therapy is recommended for the treatment of tendinopathies despite the contradictory results related to the ideal dose of energy, wavelength and time of application. This study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy and eccentric exercise on tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups (L= laser; E= eccentric exercise; LE = laser and eccentric exercise; and R= rest. Laser therapy (904nm/3J/cm2 and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 15o incline treadmill; 12m/min; 50min/day was started 24h after induction of unilateral tendinopathy and remained for 20 days. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion induction, three rats from each group were euthanized and the tendons were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. There was no difference among groups or among times for the characteristics hemorrhage (p=0.4154, fibrinous adhesion formation (p=0.0712, and organization of collagen fibers (p=0.2583 and of the connective tissue (p=0.1046. For these groups, regardless of the time, eccentric exercise led to epitenon thickening (p=0.0204, which was lower in the group treated with laser therapy. Histological analysis revealed differences (p=0.0032 in the number of inflammatory cells over time. They were more numerous in the group that only exercised. This result was confirmed by morphometric analysis, which showed a significant interaction (groups x time for this characteristic. Eccentric exercise increased (p=0.0014 the inflammatory infiltrate over time (3 and 21 days. However, association with laser therapy reduced inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, the combination of the treatments increased angiogenesis in morphometric (p=0.0000 and histological (p=0.0006 analyses compared with the other groups, while the isolated application of low-level laser reduced this characteristic over time. Animals maintained at rest presented the

  5. Ekspresi COX-2 setelah pemberian ekstrak etanolik kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana Linn pada tikus wistar (COX-2 expression after mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana Linn etanolic extract administration in wistar rats

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    Rendra Chriestedy Prasetya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme for prostaglandins (PGs synthesis from arachidonic acid. Cyclooxygenase have been characterized and named as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is responsible for constitutive PGs production under physiological condition and maintains normal function. On the other hand, while COX-2 expression is inducible by cytokines and endotoxin. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by anaerobic bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. The periodontitis occurrence is followed by increased of COX-2 expression. Mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana Linn contains gamma mangostin which inhibits the synthesis of PGE2 through inhibition of COX-2 expression. Purpose: This research was aimed to study COX-2 expression in experimental-induced periodontitis in wistar rats after mangosteen rind etanolic extract administration. Methods: Forty eight male wistar rats were induced periodontitis by putting silk ligature subgingivally around the cervical of the anterior lower teeth for 7 days. After the ligation was taken out, the rats were divided into 4 groups, and treated orally with mangosteen rind extract 60 mg/kg BB, 30 mg/kg BB, ibuprofen and saline respectively. The rats were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 7th day after the treatment. The rats’ anterior lower jaws were processed for paraffin embedded tissue, cut serially and stained with immunohistochemistry. COX-2 expression were observed and counted under the microscope (400x. The data were analyzed using kruskall wallis test. Results: Kruskal wallis test showed a significant difference COX-2 expression among group indicating that mangosteen rind etanolic extract affected COX-2 expression. Conclusion: Mangosteen rind etanolic extract reduced COX-2 expression in periodontitis rats.Latar belakang: Siklooksigenase adalah enzim yang mensintesis prostaglandin (PG dari asam arakhidonat. Siklooksigenase dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu COX-1 dan COX-2. COX-1 bertanggung jawab pada

  6. Lung apoptosis after intra-pulmonary instillation of Benzo(apyrene in Wistar rats Apoptose pulmonar após instilação intrapulmonar de Benzo(apireno em ratos Wistar

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    Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of pulmonary instillation of Benzo[a]pyrene in lung apoptosis of Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 40 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 80mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 16 and 18 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been processed by TUNEL method and submitted to the histomorphometric analysis to quantify the apoptotic cell number. RESULTS: After 16 weeks, mean of apoptotic cells number in control group (19,3±3,2 was greater than 40mg/Kg group (11,8±1,9; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da instilação intrapulmonar de Benzo[a]pireno na apoptose pulmonar de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar machos foram submetidos à instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 40 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 80mg/kg, submetidos a eutanásia 16 e 18 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram processadas pelo método TUNEL e submetidas à análise histomorfométrica para quantificação do número de células apoptóticas. RESULTADOS: Após 16 semanas, a média do número de células apoptóticas do grupo controle (19,3±3,2 mostrou-se maior que o grupo 40mg/Kg (11,8±1,9; p<0,01 e 80mh/Kg (7,0±1,4; p<0,01. Diferença significante foi também observada entre os grupos 40mg/Kg e 80mg/Kg (p<0,05. Após 18 semanas, a média do número de células apoptóticas do grupo controle (18,0±2,2 mostrou-se maior que o grupo 40mg/Kg (8,8±1,7; p<0,01 e 80mh/Kg (5,5±1,3; p<0,01. Não foi observada diferença significante entre os grupos 40 e 80mg/Kg (ns. CONCLUSÃO: A instila

  7. A suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado reduziu a gordura corporal em ratos Wistar Conjugated linoleic acid suplementation decreased the body fat in Wistar rats

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    Adriana Prais Botelho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O ácido linoléico conjugado, um conjunto de isômeros geométricos e de posição do ácido linoléico, vem sendo muito estudado devido ao seu efeito sobre a composição corporal, promovendo redução da massa gorda. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado sobre a composição corporal de ratos Wistar saudáveis em crescimento. Um total de 40 ratos, divididos em quatro grupos, foram suplementados diariamente durante três semanas com AdvantEdge® ácido linoléico conjugado (EAS TM nas concentrações 1,0%, 2,0% e 4,0% sobre o consumo diário de dieta, constituindo, respectivamente, os grupos AE1, AE2 e AE4, e com ácido linoléico na concentração de 2% sobre o consumo diário de dieta, constituindo o grupo-controle. Os animais foram suplementados por meio de entubação orogástrica. Para a avaliação da composição corporal centesimal foi removido o conteúdo intestinal para obtenção da carcaça vazia. Em seguida, a carcaça foi congelada em nitrogênio líquido, fatiada, liofilizada, moída e armazenada a -25°C, até o momento das determinações de umidade, cinzas, proteína bruta e gordura. O grupo AE1 apresentou maior consumo de dieta e ganho de peso, mas não diferiu quanto à eficiência alimentar dos demais grupos (pConjugated linoleic acid, a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, has been greatly investigated due to its effect on body composition, mainly the reduction of body fat. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the body composition of healthy, growing Wistar rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and supplemented daily for 3 weeks with AdvantEdge® conjugated linoleic acid (EAS TM at concentrations of 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% of the daily feed intake, corresponding to groups AE1, AE2 and AE4, and with linoleic acid at 2.0% (control corresponding to group C. The

  8. Influence of different dietary zinc levels on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone level and zinc status in male Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H Y; Sun, M H; Yang, G Q; Jia, C L; Zhang, M; Zhu, Y J; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of zinc (Zn) on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone and Zn profile in male Cashmere goats. Twenty-eight male Liaoning Cashmere goats, 3 years old and body weight at 56.2 ± 2.45 kg, were assigned to four groups. The animals were fed a basal diet containing of 45.9 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM) basis and supplemented with 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg Zn (reagent grade ZnSO₄ ·7H₂ O) per kg DM for 90 days. There was no significant effect on growth and diameter of cashmere fibre for Zn supplemented in diets. However, the length and growth rate of wool were improved (p goats fed on the diet supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with those fed on basal diet. Plasma Zn concentrations increased (p 0.05). The activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase was increased (p 0.05). In conclusion, Zn content (45.9 mg Zn/kg DM) in control diet was insufficient for optimal wool growth performance, and we recommended the level of dietary Zn for such goats is 86 mg/kg DM during the breeding season and cashmere fibre growing period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. The 9LLUC/Wistar rat glioma model is not suitable for immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Yang; Jingxiang Zhao; Guihong Zhou; Yunfang Wang; Lusi Li; Hongfeng Yuan; Xue Nan; Lidong Guan; Xuetao Pei

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a well-characterized animal brain tumor model will play an important role in identifying treatments for human brain tumors. Wistar rats bearing 9L glioma cells can develop solid, well-circumcised tumors, and may be a useful animal model for the evaluation of various therapeutic approaches for gliosarcomas. In this study, the 9L/Wistar rat glioma model was produced by intracerebral implantation of 9LLUC glioma cells syngenic to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Bioluminescence imaging showed that tumors progressively grew from day 7 to day 21 in 9LLUC/F344 rats, and tumor regression was found in some 9LLUC/Wistar rats. Hematoxylin-eosin staining verified that intracranial tumors were gliomas. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that no CD4- and CD8-positive cells were found in the syngeneic 9LLUC/F344 model. However, many infiltrating CD4- and CD8-positive cells were observed within the tumors of the 9LLUC/Wistar model. Our data suggests that compared with 9L/F344 rats, 9L glioma Wistar rats may not be suitable for evaluating brain glioma immunotherapies, even though the model induced an immune response and exhibited tumor regression.

  10. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR Strain.

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    Érica Maria Granjeiro

    Full Text Available We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs. The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy.Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE measurements, and body temperature (Tb measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals.No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05. However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01 and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01. In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals.Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy.

  11. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  12. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  13. Altered male physiologic function after surgery for prostate cancer: couple perspective

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    Matvey Tsivian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Both the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa and the physiologic outcomes of surgical treatment impact the male’s psychological sphere. However, current research advocates a refocusing of outcomes directed to the PCa “couple”. Herein we acquire insight into perspective and concordance regarding male physiological function from the standpoint of a couple recovering from PCa surgery. Materials and methods: Couples whereby the male partner had undergone primary surgical treatment for PCa were mailed a Retrospective Sexual Survey (RSS packet consisting of male and female partner questionnaires. RSS questions surveyed physiological changes in libido, foreplay, erection and arousal, orgasm and ejaculation in addition to perceived psychological impact. Patients’ and partners’ scores were evaluated to determine the concordance of both individual items as well as domain sums. Results: Twenty-eight couples completed the questionnaires. Only about 40% of men and women were happy with their levels of sexual interest with 82% concordance. Urine loss during orgasm was reported by 43% of men; the majority of participants were bothered by it. Ejaculation changes were observed by 96% of men (concordance 96% with most reporting anejaculation. A change in orgasm experience was noted by 86% of men (and 36% of their female partners, p < 0.0001. Despite the change, the majority of men and women reported being satisfied with their ability to climax. Conclusion: Our results indicate that patients and their female partners may interpret differently the same physiological outcomes of PCa surgery. This information could be useful to better counsel the PCa couple and help patients and partners adjust after surgery.

  14. Pengaruh Lama Pemberian Diet Tinggi Kolesterol terhadap Kadar LDL dan TGF-Β Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar

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    Biomechy Oktomalioputri

    2016-01-01

    to observe the effect of duration of giving  high-cholesterol diet on Low Density Lipoprotein and Transforming Growth Factor β levels white rats (Rattus novergicus Wistar strain. This study uses  post-test only control group design, carried out on male rats Rattus novergicus 3-4 months, weight 200-250 grams. The study sample consisted of 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, group A, group B and group C. Except  the control group, the group of rats given a high-cholesterol diet in the form of goat fat 10%, 5% quail eggs for 10 days to group A, group B for 20 days and 30 days for group C. At the end of the experiment blood was taken and examined LDL and TGF-β levels. Results were analyzed using bivariate. The analysis is oneway Anova test. The results of research known to have effect of duration on giving high-cholesterol diet to increase serum LDL levels of rats with p = 0.01 (p<0.05. This is the same case with TGF-β, which there was effect of duration on giving high-diet cholesterol diet to decrease serum TGF-β levels of rats where p = 0.04 (p>0.05. This study concludes that there are effect of duration on giving high-cholesterol diet to levels of LDL and TGF-β white rats Rattus novergicus Wistar strain.Keywords:  high-cholesterol diet, LDL, TGF β

  15. Antioxidants inhibition of high plasma androgenic markers in the pathogenesis of ethylene glycol (EG)-induced nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood; Hedayati, Mehdi; Khalagi, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    The association between serum gonadal steroids and urolithiasis in males received only limited attention. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is induced by administration of ethylene glycol in drinking water. It appears that the administration of natural antioxidants has been used to protect against nephrolithiasis in human and experimental animals. The purpose is to study the potential role of antioxidants as inhibitors of high plasma androgenic markers or hyperandrogenicity in the pathogenesis of ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were studied in 4-week period. Group 1 (control) was fed a standard commercial diet. Group 2 received the same diet with 0.5 % of ethylene glycol. Group 3 received EG plus the diet and water added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice as the dietary source of citrate. Group 4 and Group 5 were treated similar to Group 2 and Group 3 with 0.75 % of ethylene glycol. For antioxidant supplementation, the standard diet enriched with 4,000.0 μg vitamin E and 1,500.0 IU vitamin A for each rat per day added to the diet once a week, and provided daily with 5.0 mg vitamin C, 400.0 μg vitamin B6, 20.0 μg selenium, 12.0 mg zinc, and 2.0 mg boron for each rat per day in their drinking water. After treatment period, collection of blood was performed and kidneys were removed and used for histopathological examination. The results based on various assays, measuring size of crystal deposition, and histological examinations showed that high concentration of androgens acts as promoter for the formation of renal calculi due to ethylene glycol consumption and the inhibitory role of antioxidant complex in the formation of renal calculi disease. Data revealed that the size and the mean number of crystal deposits determined in EG 0.75 % treated groups (G4) were significantly higher than the EG-treated groups, added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice (G5). The mean concentration of androgens in Group 4 increased after

  16. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  17. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  18. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

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    Tripatara Pinpat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK, and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups, ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg, HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg, or HNK (1,590 mg/kg for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial

  19. Livolin Forte Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Kidney Injury in Wistar Rats

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    Akomolafe Rufus O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kidney, which is an integral part of the drug excretion system, was reported as one of the targets of cadmium toxicity. Early events of cadmium toxicity in the cell include a decrease in cell membrane fluidity, breakdown of its integrity, and impairment of its repair mechanisms. Phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E have a marked fluidizing effect on cellular membranes. We hypothesized that Livolin forte (LIV could attenuate kidney damage induced by cadmium in rats. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each: group I (control group received 0.3 ml/kg/day of propylene glycol for six weeks; group II was given 5 mg/kg/day of cadmium (Cd i.p for 5 consecutive days; group III rats were treated in a similar way as group II but were allowed a recovery period of 4 weeks; group IV was treated with LIV (5.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 4 weeks after inducing renal injury with Cd similarly to group II; and group V was allowed a recovery period of 2 weeks after a 4-week LIV treatment (5.2 mg/kg/day following Cd administration. A significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS were observed in groups II and III compared to the control rats. Significant reductions in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were also recorded. The urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in groups II and III were significantly lower than the control group. Th is finding was accompanied by a significant decrease in creatinine and urea clearance. Post-treatment with LIV caused significant decreases in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS. Significant increases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity of groups IV and V were observed compared to group II. A significant increase in urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid and significant decreases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were observed in groups IV and V compared to group II. Photomicrographs of the rat kidneys

  20. The Effects of Crude Methanol Seed Extract of Brassica juncea on Haematological Parameters in Wistar Rats

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    S.A. Ufelle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea, (B. juncea also known as Indian Oriental or Brown Mustard is widely used as a medicinal crop, oil seed, condiment and vegetable and much hematological effects have not been recorded on B. juncea. Thirty (30 male wistar rats aged 2-3 months, weighing 100-200 g were obtained and housed at the Animal House of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus for this study. The rats were divided into five (5 groups of six (6 rats per group, labeled A to E and were acclimatized for two (2 weeks and were fed with commercially available rat feed. They had access to water and feed ad libitum. Groups A to D were orally administered with graded doses of the crude seed extract (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively daily for 30 days while group E which served as control received no extract. Blood samples (2.0 mL were collected from each rat through the retro orbital plexus of the median canthus into K3- EDTA containers for analysis using standard operative procedures. The results obtained, revealed that the mean Hemoglobin (Hb values of groups C and D (C = 12.6±0.57 and D = 11.1±1.4 g/dL were significantly decreased (p<0.05 when compared with control (E = 14.2±0.74 g/dL. The mean Hematocrit (PCV values of groups C and D (C = 0.38±0.02, and D = 0.34±0.04 L/L were also significantly decreased (p<0.05 compared with control (E = 0.43±0.02 L/L. The mean Total WBC values of all the treated groups were significantly increased (A = 6.45±0.3, B = 6.23±0.83, C = 6.0±0.34, and D = 6.05±0.41 x 109/L when compared with control E = 4.28±0.17×109/L (p<0.05. The mean platelet values were significantly decreased in all the treated groups (A = 30.00±4.1, B = 30.00±5.8, C = 46.25±7.5 and D = 33.75±2.5 x 109/L when compared with control E = 86.25±4.8×109/L. This study revealed that crude methanol seed extract of Brassica juncea affects some hematological parameters when orally administered at different concentrations.

  1. Validation of HOMA-IR in a model of insulin-resistance induced by a high-fat diet in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Luciana C; Elkfury, Jessica L; Jornada, Manoela N; Foletto, Kelly C; Bertoluci, Marcello C

    2016-04-01

    Objective The present study aimed to validate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in relation to the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in a model of insulin-resistance in Wistar rats induced by a 19-week high-fat diet. Materials and methods A total of 30 male Wistar rats weighing 200-300 g were allocated into a high-fat diet group (HFD) (55% fat-enriched chow, ad lib, n = 15) and a standard-diet group (CD) standard chow, ad lib, n = 15), for 19 weeks. ITT was determined at baseline and in the 19th week. HOMA-IR was determined between the 18-19th week in three different days and the mean was considered for analysis. Area under the curve (AUC-ITT) of the blood glucose excursion along 120 minutes after intra-peritoneal insulin injection was determined and correlated with the corresponding fasting values for HOMA-IR. Results AUC-ITT and HOMA-IR were significantly greater after 19th week in HFD compared to CD (p < 0.001 for both). AUC-OGTT was also higher in HFD rats (p = 0.003). HOMA-IR was strongly correlated (Pearson's) with AUC-ITT r = 0.637; p < 0.0001. ROC curves of HOMA-IR and AUC-ITT showed similar sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion HOMA-IR is a valid measure to determine insulin-resistance in Wistar rats. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(2):138-42.