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Sample records for twenty purebred boars

  1. Maximizing Crossbred Performance through Purebred Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Pieter

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebreds for crossbred performance (CP). As dominance is the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly including dominance in the GS model may be beneficial for selection of purebreds for CP, when estimating allelic effects from pure line data. Th...

  2. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...

  3. Wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic and Japan possess intact mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Ingrid-Maria; OkumuRA, N; Uenishi, H

    2015-01-01

    The two-nucleotide deletion recently detected in the mannose-binding lectin 2 gene in purebred and crossbred domestic pigs was not found among 68 wild boars representing 4 populations from Europe and Asia. This suggests that the deletion is a result of breeding and/or genetic drift/bottle necks....

  4. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

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    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  5. Boar Semen Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G. J.; Macpherson, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    A successful method for low temperature preservation of bull semen was modified for use with boar semen. Observations were made on the effects of varying cooling rate, equilibration time, freezing rate, glycerol concentration, method of glycerol addition, packaging containers, extender pH and tonicity. Observations indicate that boar semen should be cooled and frozen at a slower rate than bull semen. Within the ranges or methods examined, the other factors had little effect on recovery of motility after freezing. PMID:4226548

  6. Effects of commercial selenium products on glutathione peroxidase activity and semen quality in stud boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine how dietary supplementation of inorganic and organic selenium affects selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood and sperm of sexually mature stud boars. Twenty-four boars of the Large White, Landrace, Pietrain, and Duroc breeds of opt...

  7. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  8. A comparison of mycotoxin adsorbents and their effects on some selected parameters of boar semen

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    Zdeněk Tvrdoň

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of two mycotoxin adsorbents with different mechanisms of action were followed in 180 purebred and terminal combination boars reared in artificial insemination stations. The following parameters of boar sperm quality were investigated: volume in millilitres, concentration and motility, and numbers of pathological spermatozoa. When processing the boar semen, the dilution ration and numbers of AI doses were recorded. Compared were two preparations: in case of Preparation 1 the number of evaluated ejaculates was 1,037 while in case of Preparation 2 altogether 1,109 ejaculates were evaluated. Boars receiving diets with Preparation 1 produced more voluminous ejaculates (by 4.1 ml and their concentration of spermatozoa was also higher (by 39 thous./ml; P ≤ 0.001. Dilution parameters were better as well and numbers produced of AI doses were also higher. In case of Preparation 2 the motility of spermatozoa was a higher while the numbers of sperms were lower. The obtained results demonstrated that a suitable adsorbent can show a positive effect on both quantitative and qualitative parameters of boar sperm.

  9. Ovarian follicular dynamics in purebred and crossbred Boran cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... purebred Boran cattle, adapted to Ethiopian conditions for centuries and ... fertility than crossbreds, would exhibit a different pattern of ovarian ..... Influence of dietary supplementation and partial suckling on body weight and ...

  10. Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus observed in Swiss Duroc boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahofer, Alexander; Wiedemar, Natalie; Gurtner, Corinne; Drögemüller, Cord; Nathues, Heiko

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in humans and animals, which is caused by the lack of production, malfunction or dysfunction of the distal nephron to the antidiuretic effect of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Diagnosis requires a thorough medical history, clinical examination and further laboratory confirmation. This case report describes the appearance of DI in five Duroc boars in Switzerland. Two purebred intact Duroc boars at the age of 8 months and 1.5 years, respectively, with a history of polyuric and polydipsic symptoms had been referred to the Swine Clinic in Berne. Based on the case history, the results of clinical examination and the analysis of blood and urine, a tentative diagnosis of DI was concluded. Finally, the diagnosis was confirmed by findings from a modified water deprivation test, macroscopic examinations and histopathology. Following the diagnosis, three genes known to be involved in inherited DI in humans were analyzed in order to explore a possible genetic background of the affected boars. The etiology of DI in pigs is supposed to be the same as in humans, although this disease has never been described in pigs before. Thus, although occurring only on rare occasions, DI should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pigs with polyuria and polydipsia. It seems that a modified water deprivation test may be a helpful tool for confirming a diagnosis in pigs. Since hereditary forms of DI have been described in humans, the occurrence of DI in pigs should be considered in breeding programs although we were not able to identify a disease associated mutation.

  11. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbauer, A. M.; Belanger, J. M.; Bellumori, T.; Bannasch, D. L.; Famula, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic po...

  12. Meat and nutritional quality comparison of purebred and crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chai, Jie; Luo, Zonggang; He, Hang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Xueqin; Zhou, Qinfei

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreeding is an effective method of improving the efficiency and profit of production in commercial pig operations. To understand the effect of crossbreeding on meat and nutrient quality, a combination including three purebred (Duroc, D; Landrace, L; Yorkshire, Y) and two crossbred pig lines (Landrace × Yorkshire, LY; Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire), DLY) frequently used internationally were studied. The results showed that meat from the LY and DLY crosses had lower values for lightness L24h∗, shear force and epinephrine and higher values for drip loss, C18:1, insulin, glucagon and monounsaturated fatty acids than D, L and Y pigs. Moreover, LY had higher values for post mortem pH and lower values for a* and b* than the purebreds. In contrast, DLY had lower values for pH and higher values for a* and b* than the purebreds. Meat quality-related gene analysis showed that the CAST, IGF2 and MC4R gene expression levels in the LY and DLY pigs were significantly higher than those in the D, L and Y pigs. These results indicate that crossbreeding can alter the meat quality, nutritive value, energy metabolism and gene expression of pigs. Future research should focus on microRNA expression and DNA methylation that regulate gene expression and thus affect the meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  14. Genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Madsen, Per; Nielsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    relationship matrices for the two breeds; (2) marker-based partial relationship matrices are constructed; (3) marker-based partial relationship matrices are adjusted to be compatible to pedigree-based partial relationship matrices and (4) combined partial relationship matrices are constructed using information...... from both pedigree and marker genotypes. The extension of the Wei van der Werf model can be implemented using software that allows inverse covariance matrices in sparse format as input. A method for genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performances was developed for a two...

  15. Identification of environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Theunissen, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Bijma, P.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands. Data contained 380 records on 88 purebred Arabian racehorses of varying age and sex. Data were collected from March 2005 through June 2006 during 52 races of varying

  16. Influence of Boar and Semen Parameters on Motility and Acrosome Integrity in Liquid Boar Semen Stored for Five Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ninety ejaculates from a total of 76 AI boars were extended in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS). Boar identity, breed, weight of the ejaculate and sperm concentration were registered. Motility and acrosome integrity were assessed after storage at 16–18°C for 6, 30, 54, 78, and 102 h. Storage time had a significant influence on both motility (p boar (p boar (p boars and weight of the ejaculate did not influence the dependent variables. PMID:12071116

  17. A serological survey on classical swine fever (CSF), Aujeszky's disease (AD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infections in French wild boars from 1991 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albina, E; Mesplède, A; Chenut, G; Le Potier, M F; Bourbao, G; Le Gal, S; Leforban, Y

    2000-11-15

    In early 1992, a CSF epizootic was clinically recognised in a wild boar population of approximately 1300 animals within an area of 250km(2) located in the east of France. In order to check the CSF situation in wild boars outside this area, a serological survey was carried out in the rest of France, for 8 consecutive years (1991-1998). This paper reports on the results obtained during this survey which included wild boars shot during the hunting period but also boars reared within fences. Around 1000-2700 sera a year were tested for the presence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and also to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Out of 12025 sera tested over the whole period, 80 wild boars were found positive for CSF antibodies. Sixty of them were collected on wild boars shot during the years 1992-1994 in the epizootic area located in east of France and 10 were collected in Corsica during the years 1994-1996. The last four positive samples were single reactors coming from areas or farms, which were thereafter confirmed to be serologically negative. These results together with the fact that no disease has been reported so far illustrate that the French wild boar population is probably not concerned by CSF infection (excepted in the east of France where the disease has now become enzootic). Two hundred and forty nine sera were initially detected as CSF positive but confirmed secondarily as positive for border disease (BD) antibodies. This finding shows that wild boars are also susceptible to infection by ruminant pestiviruses. Four hundred and twenty three wild boars have been found positive for ADV antibodies. In addition, from 1993 to 1995, 909 samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Thirty three of them were positive. The results on AD and PRRS antibody detection show that wild boars may constitute a reservoir for various infectious diseases of pigs.

  18. Metabolic alterations during training of Purebred Arabian Breed equines

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    César Andrey Galindo Orozco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was made to 12 purebred Arabian breed equines, two adult males and ten adult females, ranging from four to eleven years old. The animals were divided in two groups, with six equines each, thus making the GI and GII groups alike. They performed 3 weekly sessions of 45 minutes. On the first 45 days, the average speed was 13.9km/h and on the following 45 days, 15.7km/h. Each two weeks, an additional session was conducted, being this one in the GI with the same speed and duration as the others; in the GII, it was with a 4-hour duration, prevailing the walk gait. The animals performed three tests on a treadmill: before (non-trained and after 45 days (1st phase and 90 days (2nd phase of training. The glucose values increased during the Test and later returned to the basal values six hours after the end of the exercise for both groups, presenting statistical difference between these, reaching higher values in the T maximum peak (T3 and at the end of the warm down (T4. Concerning to the plasmatic insulin values, these diminished drastically in the T3 of the ET in the G1 and G2 during the progressive advance of the physical effort test for both training groups, presenting statistical difference for each group and between groups. Finally, the cortisol levels were higher in the T3 of Test.

  19. Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Katy M; Adams, Vicki J

    2010-02-01

    To describe the frequency of caesarean sections in a large sample of pedigree dogs in the UK. Data on the numbers of litters born in the previous 10 years were available from a cross-sectional study of dogs belonging to breed club members (2004 Kennel Club/BSAVA Scientific Committee Purebred Dog Health Survey). In this survey 151 breeds were represented with data for households that had reported on at least 10 litters (range 10-14,15): this represented 13,141 bitches which had whelped 22,005 litters. The frequency of caesarean sections was estimated as the percentage of litters that were reported to be born by caesarean section (caesarean rates) and are reported by breed. The dogs were categorised into brachycephalic, mesocephalic and dolicocephalic breeds. The 10 breeds with the highest caesarean rates were the Boston terrier, bulldog, French bulldog, mastiff, Scottish terrier, miniature bull terrier, German wirehaired pointer, Clumber spaniel, Pekingese and Dandie Dinmont terrier. In the Boston terrier, bulldog and French bulldog, the rate was > 80%. These data provide evidence for the need to monitor caesarean rates in certain breeds of dog.

  20. Liquid storage of miniature boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Uchida, Masaki; Niki, Rikio; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    The effects of liquid storage at 15 degrees C on the fertilizing ability of miniature pig semen were investigated. Characterization of ejaculated semen from 3 miniature boars was carried out. Semen volume and pH were similar among these boars. In one of the boars, sperm motility was slightly low, and sperm concentration and total number of sperm were significantly lower than in the others (P semen was substituted with various extenders (Kiev, Androhep, BTS and Modena) by centrifugation and semen was stored for 7 days at 15 degrees C. Sperm motility was estimated daily at 37 degrees C. For complete substitution of seminal plasma, Modena was significantly more efficient than the other extenders (P Semen from each of the 3 miniature boars that had been stored for 5 to 7 days at 15 degrees C in Modena was used for artificial insemination of 15 miniature sows. The farrowing rates were 100, 100 and 60%, and litter sizes were 6.4 +/- 1.5, 5.8 +/- 0.8 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 for each boar semen, respectively. The boar that sired the smallest farrowing rate was the same one that showed lower seminal quality with respect to sperm motility, sperm concentration and total number of sperm. These results suggest that miniature boar semen can be stored for at least 5 days at 15 degrees C by the substitution of seminal plasma with Modena extender.

  1. Ulceroglandular Tularemia Following Contact with a Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passiouk, Nikola; Heininger, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    We report on a 13-year-old patient who developed ulceroglandular tularemia after having assisted in slaughtering a hunted boar. He presented with a digital skin ulcer and enlarged lymph nodes. Clinically suspected tularemia was proven by real-time polymerase chain reaction performed on a skin ulcer biopsy and swab and by positive serology. This is the first reported case of tularemia after contact with a boar.

  2. Population parameters to compare dog breeds : differences between five Dutch purebred populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, A.L.J.; Beek, van der S.; Ubbink, G.J.; Knol, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Differences in five purebred dog populations born in 1994 in the Netherlands were evaluated using different parameters. Numerically, the Golden Retriever was the largest breed (840 litters of 234 sires) and the Kooiker Dog (101 litters of 41 sires) the smallest. The litter per sire ratio was largest

  3. Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for a non-stinging wasp to be used as a biosensor in the pig industry, we trained wasps to 3 individual chemicals associated with boar taint. Training consisted of presenting the odors to hungry wasps while they were feeding on sugar. This associates the chemical with a fo...

  4. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil

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    Daniela Souza Rajão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

  5. The Influence of Materialism on Purebred Dogs' Welfare Among Two Different Generations in Colombia (South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Cortés, Gonzalo

    2018-03-27

    Some consumers in Colombia show a clear preference for purebred dogs. At the same time, there are many abandoned dogs on the streets and in shelters in this country. Previous research has revealed that appearances of the breeds influence the caregivers' (owners') choice. A choice based on appearances has been connected with materialism in the psychology and consumer behavior literature. Buying purebred dogs based on materialistic standards could affect the welfare of these nonhuman animals. With the use of quantitative research and the methodology of structural equation modeling, this research demonstrated that more materialistic consumers in Colombia have purebred dogs who, in the owners' opinions, show more behavioral problems. Furthermore, the results showed that materialism influenced the owners' intentions to abandon their companion animals when they perceived these problems. Finally, this research examined the moderating effect of generational segmentation regarding these relationships. It was observed that the intention to abandon the dogs was greater among members of Generation X than among members of Generation Y.

  6. Characterization of proteins from boar prostate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2002), s. 283-290 ISSN 8755-8920. [International Congress of Reproductive Immunology /8./. Opatija, 02.07.2001-06.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/00/0205; GA ČR GP303/02/P069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar prostate * beta-microseminoprotein * serotransferrin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.413, year: 2002

  7. Acrosin inhibitor detecting along the boar epididymis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Cozlová, Nina; Dorosh, Andriy; Šulc, Miroslav; Guyonet, B.; Jonáková, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, Jan 2016 (2016), s. 733-739 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA14-05547S Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Acrosin inhibitor * Boar epididymis * Spermatozoa Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.671, year: 2016

  8. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  9. Effects of supplemental seminal plasma on cryopreserved boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To analyse the effects of supplemental autologous seminal plasma on boar semen quality before freezing and after thawing, thirty ejaculates were collected from six Pietrain boars. The main factors of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments were Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), seminal plasma before freezing, and ...

  10. Spermometer: electrical characterization of single boar sperm motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Geijs, Daan J.; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study single sperm boar motility using electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic system. Design: Comparison of the optical data and electrical impedance data. Setting: Research laboratory at a university. Animal(s): Boar semen sample were used. Intervention(s): A microfluidic

  11. Crossreactivity of boar sperm monoclonal antibodies with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monoclonal antibodies against the head (H mabs) and tail (Tmabs) of boar spermatozoa were produced. Spermatozoa from boar, stallion, bull, human, ram, goat and rabbit were independently incubated with the monoclonal antibodies and later stained by immunofluorescence method. There were positive reactions of the ...

  12. How does supplementary feeding affect endoparasite infection in wild boar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oja, Ragne; Velstrom, Kaisa; Moks, Epp

    2017-01-01

    was associated with both wild boar and feeding site density, whereas the presence of Eimeria sp. oocysts in faecal samples was only associated with wild boar density. Helminth eggs were found more often from the soil of active and abandoned feeding sites than from control areas. This could reflect parasitic...

  13. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

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    Veronika Czerwinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  14. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high...... necessitate essential improvements in standardization and measurement precision....

  15. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high...

  16. Cryopreservation of boar semen by egg yolk-based extenders containing lactose or fructose is better than sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2012-03-01

    The present study determined the effect of different types of sugars (lactose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol) used in egg yolk-based extender on the post-thawed boar semen quality. Twenty-two ejaculates from 6 fertility-proven Yorkshire boars were cryopreserved by liquid nitrogen vapor method. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and intact functional plasma membrane were determined at 0, 2 and 4 hr after thawing. It was found that the lactose-based extender resulted in a higher percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, viability, intact acrosome and functional plasma membrane than sorbitol-based extender (Pextender yielded a higher post-thawed sperm motility and viability than sorbitol-based extender (Pboar semen.

  17. Boars for breeding: A study of methods of evaluation used at testing stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsi Ettala

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenotype testing of highly selected boars was studied. Two groups, each of 30 boars, were tested centrally at stations for growth rate and ultrasonically measured fat thickness. According to test points, made up of a combination of these two traits, the 5 best boars, 5 average boars and the 5 poorest boars where selected for progeny evaluation. In all 26 boars and 441 progeny were tested. The progeny evaluation showed that ultrasonic measurement of the fat thickness of the boars gave a very reliable estimate of the meatiness of their progeny. Those boars, as a group, giving the poorest carcass quality could be distinguished with statistical reliability from the other groups. The correlations between sires and progeny were significant for both daily gain (period 20—88 kg and feed efficiency. The importance of rate of growth and feed efficiency has been neglected in selection for breeding as the test points used for the selection of boars depended almost entirely on fat thickness. More than 30 % of both boars and progeny boars suffered from some form of difficulty in walking. 13 % of the boars were eliminated because of leg faults. Leg faults in progeny were mainly inherited or caused through injury. A phenotype evaluation of progeny boars accounts much more effectively for the variation in their carcass value than does a full barrow sib evaluation alone. For best results, a progeny boar phenotype evaluation should be combined with a full barrow sib evaluation.

  18. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force's current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hülsmeyer, Velia-Isabel; Fischer, Andrea; Mandigers, Paul J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Canine idiopathic epilepsy is a common neurological disease affecting both purebred and crossbred dogs. Various breed-specific cohort, epidemiological and genetic studies have been conducted to date, which all improved our knowledge and general understanding of canine idiopathic epilepsy, and in ...

  19. The influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Correlation analyses indicated that PLW and D × P boars ... parameters in industrial piggeries located in a temperate climate. ..... domestication pigs lost their diurnal rhythm of melatonin secretion or it just weakened (Tast et al.

  20. Helminth parasites of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Farsad-Hamdi, S

    1992-04-01

    Fifty-seven wild boars (Sus scrofa) from protected regions of Iran were examined for helminths. Sixteen species of helminths were collected; there were ten nematodes, one acanthocephalan, two trematodes and three larval cestodes. New host and distribution records were established for all helminths except of Taenia solium cysticerci. Wild boar shared nine of these helminths with domestic pigs, six with ruminants and three with human beings in Iran. Metastrongylus pudendotectus and M. salmi are reported for the first time from Iran.

  1. Liquid Storage of Boar Semen Using Commercial Extenders

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu BOGDAN; Mihai CENARIU; Mihai BORZAN; Simona CIUPE; Lehel SZABO; Emoke PALL

    2018-01-01

    The research was focused on the modern evaluation of boar semen parameters, using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA), before and after liquid storage at 15ºC. Semen was collected from 15 sexually mature boars by manual stimulation. Macroscopical and microscopical evaluation of semen was performed, followed by a detailed CASA analysis of all ejaculates. Subsequently, semen was diluted using 4 different extenders (Semtest, Androstar, MIII and Cronos) and stored at 15ºC for 24 hours. Next, ...

  2. The cryoprotective effect of trehalose supplementation on boar spermatozoa quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Li, Gang; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Bu, Shu-hai; Yang, Hai; Wang, Li-Qiang

    2009-05-01

    In order to improve boar sperm quality during frozen-thawed process, the influence of the presence of trehalose on success of cryopreservation of boar sperm were investigated. We evaluated freeze-thawing tolerance of boar spermatozoa in a base cooling extender with the addition of different trehalose concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200mmol/l), and tried to determine the optimum concentration of trehalose. We chose sperm motility, acrosome integrity, membrane integrity and cryocapacitation as parameters to evaluate cryopreservation capacity of boar spermatozoa. We obtained the best results for 100mmol/l trehalose-supplemented extenders, with values of 49.89% for motility, 66.52% for acrosome integrity and 44.61% for membrane integrity, while freeze-thawing tolerance was diminished significantly for 200mmol/l of trehalose. Before and after capacitation, the CTC score for semen diluted by extender containing 100mmol/l trehalose was 3.68% and 43.82%, respectively. In conclusion, trehalose could confer a greater cryoprotective capacity to boar spermatozoa. Trehalose-supplementation with 100mmol/l concentration in basic extender could significantly improve sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity parameters, and reduce boar spermatozoa cryocapacitation during the cryopreservation process.

  3. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  4. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Cahyadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait locus (QTL is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC. F1 samples (n = 595 were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3 for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001 and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003. Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007 and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027 were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds.

  5. Waste Cooking Oil Conversion To Biodeisel Catalized By Egg Shell Of Purebred Chiken With Ethanol As A Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellna Tehubijuluw

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel from the waste cooking oil was carried out using the catalyst from egg shell of purebred chiken with ethanol as a solvent. Synthesis of biodiesel was prepared in two steps, esterification and transesterification. Esterification was conducted in mol ratio of ethanol and waste cooking oil of  9:1 with H2SO4 as a catalyst. Mol ratio of ethanol and used cooking oil in the transesterification of  12:1 with the CaO catalyst of shell eggs. CaO catalyst was yielded by calcinations egg shell of purebred chicken on 1000 for two hours. Calcination product was characterized with XRD to determine of CaO. Result of biodiesel was characterized based on FTIR, H-NMR, dan ASTM (American Standard Testing of Materials. Theoretically,yielded of biodiesel was 58% and experiment was 36.779%.

  6. Meat quality characteristics of DurocxYorkshire, DurocxYorkshirexwild boar and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, pH value, fatty acids profile, cholesterol content, color and sensory analysis of pork meat from Duroc x Yorkshire (D x Y, Duroc x Yorkshire x wild boar (D x Y x WB crossbreeds and wild boars (WB was investigated. Samples for all tests were taken from m. longissimus dorsi. Chemical composition and pH value were tested by ISO methods. Fatty acid and cholesterol determination was performed by gas chromatography technique with external standard method. Color was determined instrumentally using the thristimulus colourimeter. The overall sensoric quality (appearance, texture and smell of samples of raw meat was evaluated. In evaluation of results the scoring system was used. In chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash and pH values statistically significant difference was noted (p<0,05 between each of the examined groups. Also, among all the examined groups statistically significant difference (p<0,05 was found for fatty acids and cholesterol content. Measurment of the color of meat from all three groups showed that the L*, a * b *, Chroma and Hue angle were also statistically significantly different (p<0,01.

  7. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roelandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238 in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT, using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15. Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15 to high (>1/125 SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15. This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.

  8. Investigations on the contamination of Saxonian wild boars with radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, T.; Abraham, A.; Preusse, W.; Pianski, J.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Lange, S.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl fallout some parts of the free state of Saxony were contaminated with radioactive caesium. Based on published maps of the soil contamination and on additional investigations some regions of elevated contamination could be localized. Parallel to soil investigations a game monitoring to wild boars and roe deer was performed. For both types of game typical seasonal variations of contamination were found. In Saxony only the contamination of wild boars is important. In the south of the Vogtland a region was found, where in all seasons the recommended high value of 600 Bq/kg was exceeded in game. In this region the investigation on radiocaesium is now obligatory for wild boars. The hunter can combine this analysis with the analysis on trichina. After three years measurements the region for obligatory analysis was adapted and expanded to neighbouring counties.

  9. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  10. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Groppetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001 and litter size (p < 0.05 increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001. Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001, and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001. These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.

  11. Trends in popularity of some morphological traits of purebred dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kendy T; McGreevy, Paul D; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Dhand, Navneet K

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of dogs can provide information about their predisposition to some disorders. For example, larger breeds are predisposed to hip dysplasia and many neoplastic diseases. Therefore, longitudinal trends in popularity of dog morphology can reveal potential disease pervasiveness in the future. There have been reports on the popularity of particular breeds and behavioural traits but trends in the morphological traits of preferred breeds have not been studied. This study investigated trends in the height, dog size and head shape (cephalic index) of Australian purebred dogs. One hundred eighty-one breeds derived from Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC) registration statistics from 1986 to 2013 were analysed. Weighted regression analyses were conducted to examine trends in the traits by using them as outcome variables, with year as the explanatory variable and numbers of registered dogs as weights. Linear regression investigated dog height and cephalic index (skull width/skull length), and multinomial logistic regression studied dog size. The total number of ANKC registration had decreased gradually from 95,792 in 1986 to 66,902 in 2013. Both weighted minimal height (p = 0.014) and weighted maximal height (p popular over time. Mean cephalic index has increased, which indicates that Australians have gradually favoured breeds with shorter and wider heads (brachycephalic). These significant trends indicate that the dog morphological traits reported here may potentially influence how people select companion dogs in Australia and provide valuable predictive information on the pervasiveness of diseases in dogs.

  12. Freedom from equine infectious anaemia virus infection in Spanish Purebred horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fatima; Fores, Paloma; Ireland, Joanne; Moreno, Miguel A.; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction No cases of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) have been reported in Spain since 1983. Factors that could increase the risk of reintroducing equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) into Spain include the recent occurrence of the disease in Europe and the absence of compulsory serological testing before importation into Spain. Aims and objectives Given the importance of the Spanish Purebred (SP) horse breeding industry in Spain, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide evidence of freedom from EIAV in SP stud farms in Central Spain. Materials and methods Serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercially available EIAV ELISA with a published sensitivity of 100 per cent. Results All 555 samples were negative for antibody to EIAV, providing evidence of a true EIAV seroprevalence between 0 per cent and 0.53 per cent (95% CIs of the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA technique used Q10 were 100 per cent and 99.3 per cent, respectively) among the SP breeding population in Central Spain. Conclusions These findings should serve to increase confidence when exporting SP horses to other countries. PMID:26392894

  13. Evaluation of the phospholamban gene in purebred large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabej, Polona; Leegwater, Peter A; Stokhof, Arnold A; Domanjko-Petric, Aleksandra; van Oost, Bernard A

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the phospholamban gene in purebred large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). 6 dogs with DCM, including 2 Doberman Pinschers, 2 Newfoundlands, and 2 Great Danes. All dogs had clinical signs of congestive heart failure, and a diagnosis of DCM was made on the basis of echocardiographic findings. Blood samples were collected from each dog, and genomic DNA was isolated by a salt extraction method. Specific oligonucleotides were designed to amplify the promoter, exon 1, the 5'-part of exon 2 including the complete coding region, and part of intron 1 of the canine phospholamban gene via polymerase chain reaction procedures. These regions were screened for mutations in DNA obtained from the 6 dogs with DCM. No mutations were identified in the promoter, 5' untranslated region, part of intron 1, part of the 3' untranslated region, and the complete coding region of the phospholamban gene in dogs with DCM. Results indicate that mutations in the phospholamban gene are not a frequent cause of DCM in Doberman Pinschers, Newfoundlands, and Great Danes.

  14. Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Ribeiro, Bruno R; Hayward, Matt Warrington; Paglia, Adriano; Passamani, Marcelo; Loyola, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological invasion. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate is analogous to the native range. Niche unfilling is expected as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, which has profound management implications if we are to prevent their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic losses. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and

  15. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  16. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  17. Seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity to equine arteritis virus in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, R

    2016-09-01

    Equine viral arteritis (EVA), a disease caused by infection with the equine arteritis virus (EAV), is present in many European countries. In Spain, the last confirmed outbreak was reported in 1992 and there is a paucity of seroprevalence studies. The disease has a major impact on the equine breeding industry, which is mainly represented by Spanish Purebred (SP) horses in Spain. To estimate the seroprevalence of EAV in the breeding SP horse population in central Spain and identify potential horse and studfarm level factors associated with seropositivity to EAV. Cross-sectional study. Individual serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 35 studfarms, were tested using a commercially available EAV antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test for samples with positive and equivocal results. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EAV were collected via a questionnaire and examined using random effects logistic regression for analysis of clustered data. Equine arteritis virus seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was estimated to be 16.8% (95% confidence interval 5.2-28.5%). Increasing numbers of breeding mares on the studfarm and increasing percentage of mares with reproductive problems during the last 12 months were identified as being positively associated with EAV seropositivity. Mares vaccinated against Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) and/or -4 (EHV-4) were also positively associated with EAV seropositivity. These findings are of importance to ensure appropriate biosecurity measures for studfarms are carried out and may help facilitate the development of an EVA surveillance programme in the SP breeding horse population. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Head (H) And Tail (T) Monoclonal Antibodies of Boar Spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen collected from three boars were pooled and the sperm cells separated from the semen, washed, sonicated and mixed with equal volume of Freund's adjuvant. The mixture of sperm with complete Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize five mice of the BALB/C strain intraperitoneally on Day O. The sonicated sperm ...

  19. The effects of three extenders on refrigerated boar semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sofiateixeira

    2015-03-19

    Mar 19, 2015 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2015, 45 (No. .... influence of various extenders on boar sperm survival (Vyt et al., 2004), especially quality (Huo ..... Boe-Hansen, G.B., Ersboll, A.K., Greve, T. & Christensen, P., 2005.

  20. Frequency and distribution of 152 genetic disease variants in over 100,000 mixed breed and purebred dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Donner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic epidemiology of disorders in the dog population has implications for both veterinary medicine and sustainable breeding. Limited data on frequencies of genetic disease variants across breeds exists, and the disease heritage of mixed breed dogs remains poorly explored to date. Advances in genetic screening technologies now enable comprehensive investigations of the canine disease heritage, and generate health-related big data that can be turned into action. We pursued population screening of genetic variants implicated in Mendelian disorders in the largest canine study sample examined to date by examining over 83,000 mixed breed and 18,000 purebred dogs representing 330 breeds for 152 known variants using a custom-designed beadchip microarray. We further announce the creation of MyBreedData (www.mybreeddata.com, an online updated inherited disorder prevalence resource with its foundation in the generated data. We identified the most prevalent, and rare, disease susceptibility variants across the general dog population while providing the first extensive snapshot of the mixed breed disease heritage. Approximately two in five dogs carried at least one copy of a tested disease variant. Most disease variants are shared by both mixed breeds and purebreds, while breed- or line-specificity of others is strongly suggested. Mixed breed dogs were more likely to carry a common recessive disease, whereas purebreds were more likely to be genetically affected with one, providing DNA-based evidence for hybrid vigor. We discovered genetic presence of 22 disease variants in at least one additional breed in which they were previously undescribed. Some mutations likely manifest similarly independently of breed background; however, we emphasize the need for follow up investigations in each case and provide a suggested validation protocol for broader consideration. In conclusion, our study provides unique insight into genetic epidemiology of

  1. Genetic Parameters for Reproduction Traits of Prolificacy and Conventional Purebred Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Vidović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was performed on four farms were included in 1567 a highly fertile females Landrace and Yorkshire, and 24 boars of Danish origin, or 5294 consecutive parities, and in period 2009 - 2011 year. Studies of evaluations genetic parameters conventional breeds Landrace and Yorkshire were included in 2987 female mating with 46 male or 11 674 litters in the same period. Evaluated genetic parameters for litter size traits show the same tendency as the legality of the pure breed sows that produce 11-14 piglets weaned less per sow per year. Environmental factors, HYS, food technology and management showed no significant effect on the traits. Heritability and repeatability of live and still born piglets, litter size and the fifth days after birth and the number of piglets weaned in category of low hereditary traits whose values vary within the limits of 0.08 to 0.11 for the heritability and from 0.14 to 0.18 for the repeatability. There was tendency to lower values of genetic parameters in the conventional compared to highly fertile cows, which is considered the effect of selection on gene frequency for the observed properties.

  2. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I.H.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding selection against the boar taint compounds, androstenone and skatole, due to potential unfavorable genetic correlations with important male fertility traits (i.e., selection of boars with low levels of these boar taint compounds might also reduce male fertility......). Hence, the objective of this investigation was to study the genetic association between direct measures of male fertility and the boar taint compounds in Danish Landrace pigs. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars......, and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models...

  3. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  4. The effect of breeding facility and sexual stimulation on plasma cortisol in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, D G; Barnett, J L; Hemsworth, P H; Jongman, E

    1995-12-01

    Nine boars were used to evaluate effects of breeding facility design and sexual activity on plasma cortisol concentrations . In one breeding facility (conventional), boars were housed individually in small pens, and female pigs were mated in those boar pens. In another breeding facility (Detection-Mating Area [DMA] system), boars were housed individually in stalls, and female pigs were mated in a specific mating pen adjacent to the front of stalls where boars were housed. After 51 d of housing treatment, a catheter was surgically implanted in the cephalic vein for collection of blood samples. Daytime profiles (hourly collections from 0900 to 1700) of cortisol did not differ among boars in the two treatment groups. Cortisol was greater (P cortisol in boars, but breeding facility did not affect the ACTH-induced changes in cortisol concentrations. There was a treatment x time interaction (P cortisol after sexual stimulation, and the magnitude and duration of increase in cortisol were greater (P Cortisol was greater (P cortisol concentration in boars seems to be a normal biological response to sexual activity. However, magnitude and duration of the increase in cortisol may be influenced by breeding facility design and mating procedure. There is no evidence, based on physiological data, that housing boars in stalls in the DMA system has any adverse effects on their welfare.

  5. How much does it cost to look like a pig in a wild boar group?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batocchio, Daniele; Iacolina, Laura; Canu, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild species is known to widely occur and it is reported to be oneof the major causes of the current biodiversity crisis. Despite this, poor attention has been deserved tothe behavioural ecology of hybrids, in particular in relation to their social behaviour. We...... carried out acamera trap study to assess whether phenotypically anomalous colouration in wild boar, i.e. potentiallyintrogressed with domestic pigs, affected the hierarchical structure of wild boar social groups. Chromat-ically anomalous wild boars (CAWs) were detected in 32 out of 531 wild boar videos...

  6. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  7. Expression and localization of acrosin inhibitor in boar reproductive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davidová, Nina; Jonáková, Věra; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 338, č. 2 (2009), s. 303-311 ISSN 0302-766X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/1285; GA MŠk 1M06011; GA ČR GD523/08/H064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Acrosin inhibitor * Reproductive tract * Spermatozoa * Boar Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2009

  8. Preliminary characterization of multiple hyaluronidase forms in boar reproductive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cibulková, Eva; Maňásková, Pavla; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2007), s. 1047-1054 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0895; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : hyaluronidase * boar sperm * seminal plasma * epididymis * seminal vesicle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007

  9. Comparative study on five different commercial extenders for boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyt, P; Maes, D; Dejonckheere, E; Castryck, F; Van Soom, A

    2004-02-01

    Increasing interest in a longer preservation of diluted boar sperm raises questions in the field concerning the choice of the extender. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longevity of boar sperm extended in currently used commercial semen extenders. Three long-term extenders and two short-term extenders were compared for different semen quality parameters that can be assessed under routine laboratory conditions. Sperm morphology, motility, pH and bacteriological contamination were investigated during a 7-day period. The number of dead spermatozoa did not differ significantly among the extenders (p > 0.05). Sperm motility was not only related with storage period but most of all with pH, especially in long-term extenders. Differences between the different extenders were prominent (p extender showed good motility during the whole test period. In all cases, the pH of the extended semen increased by 0.3-0.5 in the first days of storage and was significantly correlated with a decrease in motility. Bacteriological quality had no significant influence on motility or pH of the semen. In conclusion, we can state that in both short-term extenders and in only one long-term extender, sperm longevity, as evaluated by the parameters used in this study, was sufficient during the preservation period. To preserve the quality of diluted boar semen during long-term storage, the choice of the long-term extender is important. In addition, the monitoring of the pH of extended boar semen in our study emphasizes the importance of the buffering capacity of semen extenders.

  10. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  11. Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-06-01

    The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Identification of Wild Boar-Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Erika; Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-04-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar-habitat.

  13. First isolation of Trichinella britovi from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schynts, F; Giessen, Joke van der; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de

    2006-01-01

    Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella

  14. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... 1.15 kg, 70 boars) and greater birth weight (GBW) (mean: 1.59 kg, 70 boars). Testes volume .... The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the MIXED procedure. The model for all ..... Frontiers. 3,. 62-67.

  15. Recent Advances in Boar Sperm Cryopreservation: State of the Art and Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M

    2015-07-01

    While sperm cryopreservation is the best technology to store boar semen for long-term periods, only 1% of all artificial inseminations (AI) conducted worldwide are made using frozen-thawed boar sperm. With the emergence of long-term extenders for liquid storage, the use of cryopreserved sperm in routine AI is less required. However, banks of boar semen contain cryopreserved sperm and planning inseminations in AI centres may benefit from the use of frozen-thawed semen. Therefore, there is an interest in the use of this technology to preserve boar sperm. In this regard, although the first attempts to cryopreserve boar semen date back to the seventies and this technology is still considered as optimal, some relevant improvements have been made in the last decade. After giving a general picture about boar sperm cryodamage, the present review seeks to shed light on these recent cryopreservation advances. These contributions regard to protein markers for predicting ejaculate freezability, sperm selection prior to start cryopreservation procedures, additives to freezing and thawing extenders, relevance of the AI-technique and insemination-to-ovulation interval. In conclusion, most of these progresses have allowed counteracting better boar sperm cryodamage and are thus considered as forward steps for this storage method. It is also worth noting that, despite being lower than fresh/extended semen, reproductive performance outcomes following AI with frozen-thawed boar sperm are currently acceptable. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen

  17. Linear model analysis of the influencing factors of boar longevity in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Jia-Lian; Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuan-Fei; Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the boar herd life month (BHLM) in Southern China. A total of 1630 records of culling boars from nine artificial insemination centers were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. A logistic regression model and two linear models were used to analyze the effects of breed, housing type, age at herd entry, and seed stock herd on boar removal reason and BHLM, respectively. Boar breed and the age at herd entry had significant effects on the removal reasons (P linear models (with or without removal reason including) showed boars raised individually in stalls exhibited shorter BHLM than those raised in pens (P introduction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Boar taint is an unpleasant odour and flavour of the meat from some uncastrated male pigs primarily caused by elevated levels of androstenone and skatole in adipose tissue. Androstenone is produced in the same biochemical pathway as testosterone and estrogens, which represents...... of this study was to detect SNPs in boar taint candidate genes and to perform association studies for both single SNPs and haplotypes with levels of boar taint compounds and phenotypes related to reproduction. RESULTS: An association study involving 275 SNPs in 121 genes and compounds related to boar taint...... and reproduction were carried out in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars. Phenotypes investigated were levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in adipose tissue, levels of androstenone, testosterone, estrone sulphate and 17beta-estradiol in plasma, and length of bulbo urethralis gland. The SNPs were genotyped...

  19. Post-thaw sperm characteristics following long-term storage of boar semen in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzeżek, J; Kordan, W

    2014-06-30

    This study investigated the effect of long-term liquid nitrogen storage of semen from individual boars on post-thaw sperm characteristics. Ejaculates, collected from five Polish large white (PLW) and five Polish landrace (PLR) boars, were frozen using a standard cryopreservation protocol. Post-thaw analysis was performed within a week (Period 1) and 42-48 months (Period 2) of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw sperm assessments included total motility, mitochondrial function (JC-1/PI assay), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI assay), osmotic resistance test (ORT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) status and DNA fragmentation, analysed by the neutral Comet assay. Individual boar variability within breed and cryostorage periods had significant effects on the analysed parameters of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen (Period 2) induced a marked reduction in post-thaw sperm motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity in most of the boars. Post-thaw semen of eight boars exhibited a marked decrease in osmotic resistance of the sperm acrosomal membrane, whereas a significant increase in the sperm cryo-susceptibility to induced LPO and DNA fragmentation was observed only in three boars after long-term semen storage. Additionally, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of PLR boars exhibited significantly lower osmotic resistance of the acrosomal membrane than PLW boars following prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen. The results of this study provide evidence of ageing processes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa following prolonged cryostorage. It seems that, even though cryopreservation allows long-term semen storage in liquid nitrogen, spermatozoa from individual boars are more susceptible to cryo-induced damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of Blood Metabolites Changes of Purebred Ghezel and Crossbred Arkhar Merinos × Ghezel Ewes during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ahmadzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction As pregnancy progresses, nutrient requirements of fetus and thereby ewe increases and some changes in the levels of blood metabolites including glucose, cholesterol and total protein may occur. During gestation, maternal tissues contribute to supplying energy that required for fetus resulting in changes of ewe blood metabolites; however other factors such as breed, age, feeding type of ewes during gestation and season may influence them. The study of blood metabolic changes in different phases of reproductive cycle can be helpful in detecting abnormal situations of ewes and preventing of metabolic disorders such as pregnancy toxemia and fatty liver syndrome. There is little information about the effect of different genotypes on blood metabolites and the occurrence of metabolic disorders in late pregnancy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine changes in blood metabolites of purebred Ghezel and ArkharMerino× Ghezel crossbred ewes during late pregnancy and effect of crossbreeding of Iranian purebred sheep with Merino sheep on metabolite level changes in these two groups of sheep and study of susceptibility to metabolic disease in late pregnancy. Materials and Methods In the present study, fifty five pregnant Ghezel ewes (36 singles and 15 twins and 34 pregnant crossbred ewes (20 singles and 14 twins were used. Estrus synchronization of all ewes was done using CIDR. CIDR were removed 14 days later and all ewes were injected PMSG intramuscularly and then mated with rams. All of the ewes were grazing in the pasture during pregnancy, but in the last two months of pregnancy, feeding of ewes was manually. Blood samples were collected by vacuum tubes during four hours after feeding from the jugular vein of ewes on 15 days prior to mating period and on days 90, 120 and 140 of the pregnancy. Blood samples were centrifuged with 4000 rpm for 12 minutes to extract blood serum and then sera were frozen in -20oC until further

  1. Twenty years of JHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, Daniele; Bonora, Loriano

    2017-01-01

    On July 1st of twenty years ago we launched the first issue of JHEP. It was a real challenge to try the adventure of a scientific journal thought and managed by scientists, independent of private or institutional publishers. The idea was that physicists who were performing the work, writing the papers, and refereeing those of their peers, could also edit them in an electronic format. Thus, at a limited cost which could be handled by academic or scientific institutions, giving open access to the published information, and avoiding the heavy burden at that time placed on our libraries. In order to avoid the failure that - as we well remember was predicted to us by publishing companies and institutions, we needed the active support of the scientific community. A support in collaborating to the scrutiny of papers and scientific policies but, mainly, in sending to us their good papers. We contacted in that sense several of our most active and renowned colleagues, restricting of course to our high energy physics field. We received many enthusiastic responses as can be specifically seen from the papers that appear in the first issues of the journal, as well as the respected names listed in the advisory and in the editorial boards featuring in the opening page of the first issue of JHEP attached to this letter. We were optimists, but perhaps not as much as to foresee the success of the journal, which, in his first 20 years, turned out to be one of the most (if not the most) prestigious one in our field. Success for which --- as first project chairman and executive editor - we must essentially thank the scientific community who supported JHEP by considering it ''their journal'', as was our intention from the start. In this occasion we would like to recall the important contribution of Marco Fabbrichesi who designed the software on which the journal is based, and the technical personnel who implemented it and made it work. It is our pleasure to mention

  2. Deep-freezing of boar semen in plastic film 'cochettes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-03-01

    The motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from nine boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine in plastic bags, 'cochettes', and in 'maxi-straws', in total doses of 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa/5 ml with glycerol (3%) used as cryoprotectant, were assessed after thawing. A computer-based cell motion analyser was used to evaluate sperm motility, while the integrity of the plasmalemma was assessed with fluorescent supravital dyes (C-FDA/PI). The fertilizing capacity of the semen frozen in the two containers was investigated by inseminating (AI) gilts. Pregnancy was monitored by Doppler-ultrasound, and the numbers of corpora lutea and viable embryos counted at slaughter, between days 30 and 38 after AI. The cochettes sustained the overall procedure of freezing/thawing (FT), with 30 min post-thaw (PT) sperm motility being significantly higher than for straws, 46.9 vs. 39.5%. The only significant difference in motility patterns detected when comparing the packages was a higher sperm velocity (VCL) in cochettes at 30 min PT. However, percentages of FT-spermatozoa with intact membranes, detected with the supravital probes, were higher in maxi-straws than in cochettes, 46.8 vs. 43.0% (P straws and those frozen in cochettes. The results indicate that although the deep-freezing of AI-doses of boar semen in large plastic bags is feasible, problems such as their inconvenient size for storage and inconsistent thawing must be solved before this type of container can be used for the commercial cryopreservation of boar semen.

  3. Mannan-binding proteins from boar seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková-Slavíčková, Petra; Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2004), s. 167-182 ISSN 0165-0378. [Congress of the European Society for Reproductive & Developmental Immunology /4./. Rhodes, 04.06.2003-06.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MŠk VS96141; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * mannan-binding proteins * oviductal epithelium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2004

  4. First isolation and characterization of Brucella microti from wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dán, Ádám; Drees, Kevin; Foster, Jeffrey T; Bányai, Krisztián; Marton, Szilvia; Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-07-11

    Brucella microti was first isolated from common vole (Microtus arvalis) in the Czech Republic in Central Europe in 2007. As B. microti is the only Brucella species known to live in soil, its distribution, ecology, zoonotic potential, and genomic organization is of particular interest. The present paper is the first to report the isolation of B. microti from a wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is also the first isolation of this bacterial species in Hungary. The B. microti isolate was cultured, after enrichment in Brucella-selective broth, from the submandibular lymph node of a female wild boar that was taken by hunters in Hungary near the Austrian border in September 2014. Histological and immunohistological examinations of the lymph node sections with B. abortus-, B. suis- and B. canis-specific sera gave negative results. The isolate did not require CO2 for growth, was oxidase, catalase, and urease positive, H2S negative, grew well in the presence of 20 μg/ml basic fuchsin and thionin, and had brownish pigmentation after three days of incubation. It gave strong positive agglutination with anti-A and anti-M but had a negative reaction with anti-R monospecific sera. The API 20 NE test identified it as Ochrobactrum anthropi with 99.9% identity, and it showed B. microti-specific banding pattern in the Bruce- and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR systems. Whole genome re-sequencing identified 30 SNPs in orthologous loci when compared to the B. microti reference genome available in GenBank, and the MLVA analysis yielded a unique profile. Given that the female wild boar did not develop any clinical disease, we hypothesize that this host species only harboured the bacterium, serving as a possible reservoir capable of maintaining and spreading this pathogen. The infectious source could have been either a rodent, a carcass that had been eaten or infection occurred via the boar rooting in soil. The low number of discovered SNPs suggests an unexpectedly high level of genetic homogeneity

  5. Wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa seminiferous tubules morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this data was to analyze morphology and function of the seminiferous tubule in adult wild boars. Testes removed by unilateral castration of five animals were used. The testicular parenchyma was composed by 82.1±2.2% of seminiferous tubule and 17.9±2.2% of intertubular tissue. The tubular diameter was 249.2±33.0 µm and the seminiferous tubule lenght per gram of testis was 19.3±4.9m. The spermatogonial mitoses efficiency coefficient, meiotic index and spermatogenesis efficiency were 10.34, 2.71 and 30.5 respectively. Each Sertoli cell supported about 13 germinatives cells. The hystometric parameters studied were very similar to those related for domestic boars, however, the wild boars intrinsic efficiency of spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells indexes were smaller than in domestic boars.Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa estudar as características morfométricas e funcionais dos túbulos seminíferos de javalis adultos. Utilizaram-se testículos de cinco animais submetidos a orquiectomia unilateral. O parênquima testicular foi composto por 82,1 ± 2,2% de túbulos seminíferos e 17,9 ± 2,2% de tecido intertubular. O diâmetro tubular foi de 249,2 ± 33,0µm e o comprimento dos túbulos seminíferos por grama de testículo foi de 19,3 ± 4,9m. O coeficiente de eficiência das mitoses espermatogônias, o rendimento meiótico e o rendimento geral da espermatogênese foram, respectivamente, 10,34, 2,71 e 30,50. Cada célula de Sértoli suportou cerca de 13 células germinativas. Conclui-se que os parâmetros histométricos estudados nesta pesquisa foram muito semelhantes aos valores relatados para suínos domésticos, entretanto, o rendimento intrínseco da espermatogênese e os índices de células de Sértoli de javalis foram relativamente baixos quando comparados com aqueles animais.

  6. Bacteriological and genetic assessment of game meat from Japanese wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Yuka; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Shinagawa, Morikazu

    2003-01-15

    Bacterial tests were used to assess bacterial contamination of game meat from Japanese wild boars. The bacterial contamination of wild boar meat was less than that of domestic pork, as determined by aerobic plate counts (APC) and coliform counts. None of the meat examined in this study was contaminated by Salmonella or E. coli O-157. To detect adulteration by domestic pig meat or European wild boar meat, 46 samples of game meat sold as Japanese wild boar were examined genetically. A total of 17 samples showed genetic haplotypes of European and Asian domestic pigs in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and 16 samples showed nuclear glucosephosphate isomerase-processed pseudogene (GPIP) genotypes of European domestic pigs. The European GPIP genotypes of these samples were confirmed by PCR-RFLP analysis. These results indicate that some game meat sold as Japanese wild boar is adulterated by cross-breeding between pigs and wild boars or by contamination with meat from domestic pigs or European wild boars.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA control region variability in wild boars from west Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đan Mihajla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of most abundant game species in hunting areas of Balkan region. The large fraction of pre-glacial genetic diversity in wild boar populations from the Balkans was addressed due to high proportion of unique mtDNA haplotypes found in Greece, indicating Balkan as main refugial area for wild boars. The aim of the present study is to characterize mitochondrial DNA control region variability in wild boars from different areas in the West Balkan region, in order to evaluate level of genetic variability, to detect unique haplotypes and to infer possible structuring. The total number of 163 individuals from different sampling localities were included in the study. A fragment of the mtDNA control region was amplified and sequenced by standard procedures. Population genetic analyses were performed using several computer packages: BioEdit, ARLEQUIN 3.5.1.2., Network 4.6.0.0 and MEGA5. Eleven different haplotypes were identified and haplotype diversity was 0.676, nucleotide diversity 0.0026, and the average number of nucleotide differences (k 1.169. The mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated the expansion of the all populations. It is shown that high level of genetic diversity is present in the wild boars from the West Balkan region and we have managed to detect regional unique haplotypes in high frequency. Genetic diversity differences have been found in regional wild boar groups, clustering them in two main clusters, but further speculations on the reasons for the observed clustering are prevented due to restricted informativness of the single locus marker. Obtained knowledge of genetic variation in the wild boar may be relevant for improving knowledge of the phylogeny and phylogeography of the wild boars, but as well as for hunting societies and responsible authorities for the effective control of wild boar populations.

  8. First report of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Li; Zou, Yang; Gao, Yun-Hang; Nie, Lan-Bi; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Du, Rui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2018-06-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae affects the global pig industry with significant economic losses. It is yet to know whether wild boars in China were infected with M. hyopneumoniae. The present study was conducted to examine the seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors of M. hyopneumoniae infection in farmed wild boars in China. A total of 882 serum samples were collected from farmed wild boars in Jilin City, Siping City and Baishan City in Jilin Province, northeastern China from April 2015 to February 2016, and were examined by the double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy-eight out of 882 (8.8%) serum samples were M. hyopneumoniae-seropositive. Among region groups, wild boars from Jilin city (11.7%, 33/281) had the highest seropositivity, followed by Siping city (11%, 29/263) and Baishan city (4.7%, 16/338), and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0031). The M. hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in the female wild boars (9.0%, 75/831) was higher than that in the male wild boars (5.9%, 3/51) (P = 0.4429). The results of this investigation showed that farmed wild boars were susceptible to M. hyopneumoniae. Logistic regression analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between the geographical area and M. hyopneumoniae infection, which may be related to the regional environment. This is the first report of M. hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China, which provided baseline information for further studies and control of M. hyopneumoniae infection in wild boars in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Social genetic effects for growth in pigs differ between boars and gilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne M.; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2018-01-01

    between boars and gilts and that accounting for these differences will improve the predictive ability of a social genetic effects model (SGM). Our data consisted of ADG from 30 to 94 kg for 32,212 uncastrated males (boars) and 48,252 gilts that were raised in sex-specific pens. Data were analyzed using......Average daily gain (ADG) in pigs is affected by the so-called social (or indirect) genetic effects (SGE). However, SGE may differ between sexes because boars grow faster than gilts and their social behaviours differ. We hypothesized that direct genetic effects (DGE) and SGE for ADG in pigs differ...

  10. Evaluation of amides and centrifugation temperature in boar semen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, I; Calderam, K; Maschio, E F; Madeira, E M; da Rosa Ulguim, R; Corcini, C D; Bongalhardo, D C; Corrêa, E K; Lucia, T; Deschamps, J C; Corrêa, M N

    2008-03-15

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of amides as cryoprotectants and two centrifugation temperatures (15 or 24 degrees C) in boar semen cryopreservation protocols. Semen was diluted in BTS, cooled centrifuged, added to cooling extenders, followed by the addition of various cryoprotectants. In experiment 1, mean (+/-S.E.M.) sperm motility for 5% dimethylformamide (DMF; 50.6+/-1.9%) and 5% dimethylacetamide (DMA; 53.8+/-1.7%) were superior (P0.05). In experiment 2, we tested MF, DMF, and DMA at 3, 5, and 7%. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were higher for 5% DMA (53.8+/-1.7 and 50.9+/-1.9%) and 5% DMF (50.6+/-1.9 and 47.9+/-2.1%), in comparison with 7% DMF and all MF concentrations (P0.05). In conclusion, boar semen was successfully cryopreserved by replacement of glycerol with amides (especially 5% DMA) and centrifugation at 15 degrees C, with benefits for post-thaw sperm motility and membrane integrity.

  11. Liquid Storage of Boar Semen Using Commercial Extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu BOGDAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was focused on the modern evaluation of boar semen parameters, using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA, before and after liquid storage at 15ºC. Semen was collected from 15 sexually mature boars by manual stimulation. Macroscopical and microscopical evaluation of semen was performed, followed by a detailed CASA analysis of all ejaculates. Subsequently, semen was diluted using 4 different extenders (Semtest, Androstar, MIII and Cronos and stored at 15ºC for 24 hours. Next, evaluation of progressive motility, total motility and viability was performed, using the same CASA system. All experiments were performed in triplicates and results were statistically analyzed. The average progressive motility after 24 hours was as follows: 69.56 ± 6.38 for MIII, 65.92% ± 2.63 for Semtest, 67.07% ± 5.58 for Androstar Plus and 68.93% ± 3.40 for Cronos. The viability results after 24 hours were: 86.34% ± 1.38 for Semtest extender, 93.55% ± 3.38% for Androstrar Plus, 89.19% ± 3.42 for MIII and 91.35% ± 2.37 for Cronos. The findings of this study suggest that the use of commercial extenders for short-term storage of swine semen is important in order to increase sperm longevity with minimal sperm function deterioration.

  12. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  13. Efforts In Conserving Purebred Bali Cattle As Draught And Beef Type In Bali Island, Indonesia. (UPAYA PELESTARIAN SAPI BALI SEBAGAI TABUNGAN DAN TIPE PEDAGING DI PULAU BALI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Kasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle (Bos javanicus d’Alton is a part of the complex evolution of all cattle over a longtime in Indonesia. Little is known of the origin of bali cattle in Southeast Asia.  The geographicaldistribution of Bos (Bibos types of cattle suggests that the centre of domestication was Indo-China and Malaysia, then spreading to Bali. Due to such several unique characters of bali cattle, someefforts have been conducting with main purpose to conserve purebred, draught as well as meat typecattle on Bali in particular and Indonesia in general. Method has been employed in this study areliterature explore, visiting, interview with questionnaire sheet. Set of efforts have been conductingin order to conserve purebred bali cattle by the government. For examples, establishment of balicattle Breeding centre of Pulukan village, establishment of bali cattle Breeding centre of Sobanganvillage, establishment of bali cattle Conservation centre of Nusa Penida Island,  essense of UdayanaUniversity, Bali and role of Department of Animal Husbandry. It could be concluded thatgovernment as a whole have played an important role in conserving the purebred bali cattle asdraught and meat type cattle at certain suitable places in Bali to fulfill local and national daily meatrequirement by establishing good collaboration with related government agency as well as farmers.

  14. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Takao; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhi Hong; Habe, Shigehisa; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2017-08-18

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs' experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken.

  15. Validation of the polysemen admixture on viability and acrosomal morphology of boar spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuewu IP

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Semen were collected using artificial vagina (AV, from 5 large white boars aged 2-2.5 years twice a week for 16 weeks in each of the two seasons, early rainy (ER and late rainy (LR seasons, to determine the effects of multiple semen pool admixture on the viability and acrosomal morphology. The semen qualities studied were sperm motility, live sperm and sperm concentration, while the acrosomal parameters includes normal apical ridge (NAR, damaged apical ridge (DAR, missing apical ridge (MAR and loose apical ridge (LAC. There were no significant (P>0.05 seasonal effects. Three-boar semen admixture gave the highest percentage NAR, motility, live sperm concentration and least DAR and LAC, although these were not significantly (P>0.05 different from the 2-boar semen admixture. The result of this study suggests that 3-boar semen admixture is most suitable for use in artificial insemination program.

  16. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum,Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  17. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Diego Silva; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  18. The association between disease and profitability in individual finishing boars at a test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; Houe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Endemic diseases in finisher herds are considered to be costly for the pig producer. We investigated the effect of diseases on the profit margin using data from a Danish boar test station (n = 5777) collected from July 2002 to December 2004. Boars reaching a target slaughter weight of at least 80...... kg were included in the study. Oral and parenteral treatments were used as indicator of disease in the finishing period and, pathological lesions were used as indicator of disease at slaughter. Profit margin was calculated individually for each boar as the difference between the total revenue......: profit margin. The results showed that treatment in the finishing period had a negative effect on the profit margin. According to the least square means estimates, boars that were treated parenterally had a reduction in the profit margin of 2.24 €. This corresponded to a reduction in the profit margin...

  19. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  20. Fat tissue is not a reservoir for radiocesium in wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Knecht, Christian; Sipos, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Meat of wild boars is not only known for high 137 Cs activity concentrations but also for the remarkable constancy of these levels. Even decades after the Chernobyl accident, the 137 Cs levels in wild boar meat in Central Europe have not declined but even partly increased. In the present study, we investigated an unusual hypothesis for this very unusual phenomenon: may the boars' fat tissue act as a reservoir for radiocesium? We investigated fat and muscle tissues of four wild boars in Western Germany and found that the 137 Cs concentrations in fat were in the range of 10-30% of the respective activities in muscle tissue. Hence, the hypothesis was refuted.

  1. Fat tissue is not a reservoir for radiocesium in wild boars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Knecht, Christian; Sipos, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Meat of wild boars is not only known for high "1"3"7Cs activity concentrations but also for the remarkable constancy of these levels. Even decades after the Chernobyl accident, the "1"3"7Cs levels in wild boar meat in Central Europe have not declined but even partly increased. In the present study, we investigated an unusual hypothesis for this very unusual phenomenon: may the boars' fat tissue act as a reservoir for radiocesium? We investigated fat and muscle tissues of four wild boars in Western Germany and found that the "1"3"7Cs concentrations in fat were in the range of 10-30% of the respective activities in muscle tissue. Hence, the hypothesis was refuted. (author)

  2. Boar taint - the effects of selected candidate genes associated with androstenone and skatole levels - a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zadinová, K.; Stupka, R.; Stratil, Antonín; Čítek, J.; Vehovský, K.; Urbanová, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2016), s. 107-128 ISSN 0860-4037 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : boar teint * and rostenone * skatole Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.725, year: 2016

  3. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dziekońska Anna; Kinder Marek; Fraser Leyland; Strzeżek Jerzy; Kordan Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  4. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziekońska Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  5. Sperm quality and oxidative status as affected by homogenization of liquid-stored boar semen diluted in short- and long-term extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegat, Mariana B; Mellagi, Ana Paula G; Bortolin, Rafael C; Menezes, Tila A; Vargas, Amanda R; Bernardi, Mari Lourdes; Wentz, Ivo; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Bortolozzo, Fernando P

    2017-04-01

    Homogenization of diluted boar semen during storage has for a long time been regarded as beneficial. Recent studies indicated an adverse effect of homogenization on sperm quality for yet unknown reasons. This study aimed to verify the effect of homogenization on sperm parameters and to elucidate the impact of oxidative stress. Twenty-one normospermic ejaculates (21 boars) were diluted with Androstar ® Plus (AND) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS). Semen doses were submitted to no-homogenization (NoHom) or twice-a-day manual homogenization (2xHom) during storage at 17°C for 168h. NoHom and 2xHom were similar (P>0.05) for both short- and long-term extenders with respect to motility and kinematics parameters (CASA system), membrane viability (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species, sulfhydryl content, and total radical-trapping antioxidant potential. 2xHom reduced sperm motility and motion kinematics (VCL, VSL, VAP, BCF, and ALH) following the thermoresistance test and presented with a slight increase in pH along the storage (P=0.05) as compared to NoHom. Furthermore, 2xHom semen doses presented with a constant SOD and GSH-Px activity during storage whereas enzymatic activity increased for NoHom at the end of the storage. These findings confirm that homogenization of semen doses is detrimental to sperm quality. Moreover, it is shown that the effect of homogenization is unlikely to be primarily related to oxidative stress. Homogenization is not recommended for storage of liquid boar semen for up to 168h in both short- and long-term extenders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 137Cs in the meat of wild boars: a comparison of the impacts of Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Saey, Paul R J

    The impact of Chernobyl on the 137 Cs activities found in wild boars in Europe, even in remote locations from the NPP, has been much greater than the impact of Fukushima on boars in Japan. Although there is great variability within the 137 Cs concentrations throughout the wild boar populations, some boars in southern Germany in recent years exhibit higher activity concentrations (up to 10,000 Bq/kg and higher) than the highest 137 Cs levels found in boars in the governmental food monitoring campaign (7900 Bq/kg) in Fukushima prefecture in Japan. The levels of radiocesium in boar appear to be more persistent than would be indicated by the constantly decreasing 137 Cs inventory observed in the soil which points to a food source that is highly retentive to 137 Cs contamination or to other radioecological anomalies that are not yet fully understood.

  7. Hormonal and behavioral correlates of emotional states in sexually trained boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Malven, P V; Singleton, W L; Weesner, G D

    1999-12-01

    Physiological and behavioral traits of sexually mature boars were compared between episodes of copulation and sexual frustration in order to determine reliable indicators of the differences in emotional states. Ten boars, approximately 6 mo of age, were trained to mount a stationary artificial sow (ArtSow) and to ejaculate when digital pressure was applied to the extended penis. This method of semen collection is the typical procedure of the industry. All 10 boars used in this study were fully trained to this procedure before the onset of the study. Each boar was subjected to trials in which one of the following two treatments was applied. In the control (CTRL) treatment, boars were treated the same as during their training (i.e., allowed to complete ejaculation). In the frustration (FRUS) treatment, boars were allowed to mount the ArtSow, but because no manual pressure was applied to the extended penis, ejaculation never occurred. Blood was collected via indwelling catheters before onset of the trial, during exposure to the ArtSow, and after returning to their home pen. Concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, and beta-endorphin were quantified. Behavior of the boars was recorded during exposure to the ArtSow and for 30 min after return to their home pen. Relative to preexposure levels, serum cortisol increased (Pcortisol did not allow us to distinguish between the excitement of copulation and the negative affect associated with sexual frustration, whereas increases in serum beta-endorphin and motor activity seemed to be indicators of the negative emotional state of sexual frustration in trained boars.

  8. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák; Károly Bodnár; Edit Mikóné Jónás; János Gundel; András Jávor

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was t...

  9. Foraging traces as an indicator to monitor wild boar impact on ground nesting birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Roda , Fabrice; Roda , Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The successful management of large herbivores requires the monitoring of a set of indicators of ecological change describing animal performance, relative animal abundance, and ungulate impact on habitat. Wild boar populations increases have been spectacular in many countries including France. Wild boars can have a substantial environmental impact on many ecosystem components including birds, but indicators to monitor such impact are currently lacking. In this paper, we examined the usefulness...

  10. Seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, J R

    2016-04-16

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. Given the scarcity of serological EHV-1/EHV-4 data in Spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of EHV-1/EHV-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with EHV-1/EHV-4 in the breeding Spanish Purebred (SP) horse population in central Spain. Serum samples from 334 SP unvaccinated horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 30 stud farms, were tested using a commercially available EHV-1/EHV-4 antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EHV-1/EHV-4 were collected via a questionnaire and examined using logistic regression analysis. EHV-1/EHV-4 seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain, standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was 53.9 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 44.0 per cent to 63.8 per cent). Increasing age, southern location of the stud farm, temperate climate during the summer, and a smaller surface area used for breeding activities in the farm were associated with increased odds for EHV-1/EHV-4 seropositivity, whereas EHV-1/EHV-4 vaccination of other resident horses and separation of breeding mares from youngsters were protective factors. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  12. Wild Boar Impact to the Natural Regeneration of Oak and Acorn Importance in its Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Zeman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of wild boar on the natural regeneration of oak and importance of acorns in the wild boar diet were surveyed. The data were collected near Moravian Krumlov (Czech Republic in three types of oak stands differing in the canopy density: fully-stocked stand (1, open-canopy stand (2 and the forest stand in a conversion to the coppice forest (3. Within each stand 150 m long lines were set out. Seed traps to collect acorn harvest and control plots were installed on these lines. The plots were inspected at weekly intervals. After the end of acorn fall the average amount of fallen acorns was evaluated. The quantity of metabolizable energy in acorns was assessed and daily survival dose of energy for average weight of wild boar was counted. In spring 2014 the number of seedlings was counted at the same plots. Production of acorns per hectare and basic energy needs for one individual wild boar per day were evaluated for each chosen stand type. The found seedling density amounted to 29,600, 32,000 and 14,000 ind./ha in the first, second and third stand under study, respectively. Wild boar is a major consumer of acorns. In the studied area the production of acorns sufficiently supplied the local wild boar population during winter. Necessary amount of acorns remained for the natural regeneration.

  13. Dose rates of antimicrobial substances in boar semen preservation-time to establish new protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Grobbel, M; Riesenbeck, A; Brüning, S; Schaefer, J; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2017-06-01

    To achieve a standardized number of spermatozoa in the final AI dose, varying amounts of extender fluid with a fixed concentration of antimicrobial substances are currently added to boar ejaculates. This practice ignores the different degrees of dilution of the antimicrobials in the end product. In calculating the final concentration of gentamicin in AI doses from 27,538 processed boar ejaculates, we demonstrated varying gentamicin concentrations in the resultant extended boar semen samples. The median concentration was 220.37 mg/L. In 25 of the samples (0.09%), the gentamicin concentration fell below 5 mg/L, which is close to or below the epidemiological cut-off value for many bacteria. We calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration of gentamicin for bacteria isolated from raw and extended ejaculates. Five of the isolates from extended ejaculates exceeded the maximum test concentration of 512 mg/L. As a result, we are presenting an alternative method of boar semen preservation whereby a particular combination of gentamicin concentrate and antibiotic-free extender is incorporated that standardizes the antibiotic concentration in the diluted semen. The addition of standardized antibiotic concentrations did not negatively affect sperm quality when compared to the use of ready-to-use extenders. In conclusion, an end volume-based and standardized addition of gentamicin to boar ejaculates can be a helpful alternative to prevent insufficient dosage of antibiotics in liquid preserved boar semen without affecting semen quality. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Jori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV. In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%–31.6% of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%–56.7% of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%–91.9% of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Wild boar mapping using population-density statistics: From polygons to high resolution raster maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Khomenko, Sergei; Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The wild boar is an important crop raider as well as a reservoir and agent of spread of swine diseases. Due to increasing densities and expanding ranges worldwide, the related economic losses in livestock and agricultural sectors are significant and on the rise. Its management and control would strongly benefit from accurate and detailed spatial information on species distribution and abundance, which are often available only for small areas. Data are commonly available at aggregated administrative units with little or no information about the distribution of the species within the unit. In this paper, a four-step geostatistical downscaling approach is presented and used to disaggregate wild boar population density statistics from administrative units of different shape and size (polygons) to 5 km resolution raster maps by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. 1) First a stratification method was used to define homogeneous bioclimatic regions for the analysis; 2) Under a geostatistical framework, the wild boar densities at administrative units, i.e. subnational areas, were decomposed into trend and residual components for each bioclimatic region. Quantitative relationships between wild boar data and environmental variables were estimated through multiple regression and used to derive trend components at 5 km spatial resolution. Next, the residual components (i.e., the differences between the trend components and the original wild boar data at administrative units) were downscaled at 5 km resolution using area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components obtained at 5 km resolution were finally added to generate fine scale wild boar estimates for each bioclimatic region. 3) These maps were then mosaicked to produce a final output map of predicted wild boar densities across most of Eurasia. 4) Model accuracy was assessed at each different step using input as well as independent data. We discuss advantages and limits of the method and its

  17. Genetic parameters for androstenone, skatole, indole, and human nose scores as measures of boar taint and their relationship with finishing traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Napel, ten J.; Knol, E.F.; Mathur, P.K.; Crump, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate measures of boar (Sus scrofa) taint as potential selection criteria to reduce boar taint so that castration of piglets will become unnecessary. Therefore, genetic parameters of boar taint measures and their genetic correlations with finishing traits were

  18. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: I. Presentation of the programme and measurement of boar taint compounds with different analytical procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneau, M.; Kempster, A.J.; Claus, R.; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Diestre, A.; Tornberg, E.; Walstra, P.; Chevillon, P.; Weiler, U.; Cook, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    An international study, involving 11 participants in 7 European countries, was conducted to provide scientific evidence for an objective measurement of boar taint in entire male pigs and its possible variation between countries. The specific objectives were to determine the respective contributions

  19. Rediscovering Myths in the Renaissance: The Calydonian Boar and the Reception of Procopius’ Gothic War in Benevento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Miletti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benevento’s taking the Calydonian Boar as its emblem in the fifteenth century is crucial evidence for the Renaissance response to the text of Procopius, sole testimony to Diomedes’ gift of the boar's tusks to the city.

  20. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Žele, Diana; Fernandes Barry, Aline; Honing-Hakze, van der Renate; Vengušt, Gorazd; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by

  1. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  2. Effect of Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin C and E on Boar Ejaculate Quality at Heat Stress

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    Pavel Horký

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiment was to test effect of selected antioxidants (selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E to reduce the impact of heat stress at boars. In the experiment, boars of Duroc breed were tested. The first control group (n = 10 was not supplemented with antioxidants. The second experimental group (n = 10 was supplemented with antioxidants in the following quantities of 0.5 mg of selenium (seleno-methionine, 100 mg of zinc (zinc-methionine, 70 mg of vitamin E (alpha‑tocopherol and 350 mg of vitamin C (ascorbic acid per kilogram of their feed. The experiment was carried out for 120 days and took place in summer (June to September. During the experiment, average and maximum daily temperatures, where boars were stabled, were monitored. Average daily temperature ranged from 12 to 28 °C. Maximum temperature during the day was from 13 to 32 °C. The evaluation of the semen quality has revealed increased number of abnormal spermatozoa in the control group of boars by 39 % (P < 0.05. There were observed no significant changes at other monitored parameters (ejaculate volume, total count of produced sperm, motility and sperm concentration. The results show that the addition of selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E may reduce the effect of heat stress to some extent at breeding boars.

  3. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134 Cs and 137 Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134 Cs and 137 Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident

  4. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  6. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different feeding systems on the ingredients of wild boar meat, and the accidental analogy with the ingredients of pork. There was no difference in protein content. The value of miristic acid (C14:0 in the samples of extensively and intensively fed group was more favourable than that of pork. Pork contains more MUFA (palmitoleic acid – C16:1. The semi-intensively fed wild boar’s meat and pork contained linoleic acid (C18:3 n3 almost on the same level. The greatest difference was detected in the level of arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6. The samples from all wild boar groups contained more of this fatty acid than it was published about domestic pigs. Out of the microelements, the iodine and zinc had higher value in wild boar meat than in pork.

  7. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  8. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection....

  9. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits...

  10. Evaluation of glucose as a cryoprotectant for boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De los Reyes, M; Saenz, L; Lapierre, L; Crosby, J; Barros, C

    2002-10-19

    Fertility parameters of boar spermatozoa were evaluated in vitro, after freeze-thawing the semen in three different extenders containing permeable and non-permeable cryoprotectants: A (111.0 mM Tris, 31.4 mM citric acid, 185.0 mM glucose, 20 per cent egg yolk, 3 per cent glycerol and 100 iu/ml penicillin G); B (200 mM Tris; 70.8 mM citric acid, 55.5 mM glucose, 20 per cent egg yolk, three per cent glycerol and 100 iu/ml penicillin G); C (200 mM Tris, 70.8 mM citric acid, 55.5 mM fructose, 20 per cent egg yolk, 3 per cent glycerol and 100 iu/ml penicillin G). The freeze-thawing techniques were the same for each extender. Eight ejaculates from four boars were obtained; the sperm-rich fraction of each ejaculate was extended in each of the three media at a final concentration of 400 x 106 sperm/ml, loaded into 0.5 ml straws and frozen at a rate of 30 degrees C/minute to -196 degrees C. The straws were thawed at 60 degrees C for eight seconds. Sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and in vitro sperm penetration through the zona pellucida of gilt oocytes matured in vitro were evaluated. The motility of unfrozen spermatozoa was 93.1 per cent compared with 60.7 per cent, 48.2 per cent and 35 per cent for sperm frozen in extenders A, B and C respectively; these values were all significantly different (Pextender A, but there were significant decreases in sperm motility after 30 minutes of incubation in B and C. The percentage acrosomal integrities were 97.2 per cent for the control and 45.5 per cent, 30.3 per cent and 16.8 per cent for the frozen-thawed spermatozoa in extenders A, B and C respectively. The results of the in vitro penetration assay were 80.7 per cent when using control spermatozoa, and 42.2 per cent, 18.4 per cent and 3.3 per cent when using frozen-thawed spermatozoa in extenders A, B and C respectively

  11. HORMONAL PROFILE AND NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN BOAR UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Grabovskyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to determination of hormonal profile and nonspecific resistance in boars blood before slaughter after using of biologically active substances — animal origin antistressors andimmunostimulators. The purpose of research — determination of changes of insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol content in boars blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances of spleen extract. Object and research methods. The spleen extract has been additionally entered to the boars feed at 5 days before slaughter as an antistressors and immunostimulators in pre-slaughter period. The experiment was conducted on 15 boars with standard diet. Three groups of boars six months of age (5 boars each were formed for research. The pig’s spleen extract was obtained with ultrasound application (Iresearch group were using as a biologically active substances to the feed boars in pre-slaughter period. The extracts were applied to dry feed by aerosol method (70 % alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per kg body weight. The boars of II research group in the same way received to the feed of 70 % ethanol solution in the same volume. The boars of control group received only dry feed economy. Theboars slaughter was held on day 13 hours a.m. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0. Results and discussion. The ACTH and cortisol level in the boars’ blood plasma of experimental and control groups significantly increased after transportation (before the slaughter compared with the indexes before transportation to meat plant. The ACTH concentration in the boars’ blood plasma of І experimental group, which was added to the basic diet spleen extract, was 10 % lower than in the control group boars compared with indicators before and after transportation

  12. Investigations on the contamination of Saxonian wild boars with radiocaesium; Untersuchungen zur Radiocaesiumbelastung von saechsischem Schwarzwild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, T.; Abraham, A.; Preusse, W.; Pianski, J.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Lange, S. [Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Radebeul (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl fallout some parts of the free state of Saxony were contaminated with radioactive caesium. Based on published maps of the soil contamination and on additional investigations some regions of elevated contamination could be localized. Parallel to soil investigations a game monitoring to wild boars and roe deer was performed. For both types of game typical seasonal variations of contamination were found. In Saxony only the contamination of wild boars is important. In the south of the Vogtland a region was found, where in all seasons the recommended high value of 600 Bq/kg was exceeded in game. In this region the investigation on radiocaesium is now obligatory for wild boars. The hunter can combine this analysis with the analysis on trichina. After three years measurements the region for obligatory analysis was adapted and expanded to neighbouring counties.

  13. Hepatozoon apri n. sp. (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) from the Japanese wild boar Sus scrofa leucomystax (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mizuki; Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tobiume, Miki; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Matsuo, Kayoko; Moribe, Junji; Ike, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Hepatozoon apri n. sp. is described from Japanese wild boars Sus scrofa leucomystax in Japan. The gamonts in the peripheral blood leukocytes were 11.6 ± 1.4 × 6.7 ± 1.3 μm in size. The meronts in the muscle tissues were 35.0-47.5 μm in length and 26.5-30 μm in width. A high rate (53.0%) of infection was found by nested PCR using muscle specimens from 181 wild boars captured in Tokushima, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that H. apri n. sp. detected in wild boars is closely related to Hepatozoon spp. isolated from carnivores. This is the first description of a species belonging to the genus Hepatozoon detected in ungulates.

  14. Influence of new irrigated croplands on wild boar (Sus scrofa road kills in NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colino–Rabanal, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, wild boar populations have increased both in number and distribution. This rise is partly related to the increase in cropland devoted to maize (Zea mays cultivation, as wild boar find food and refuge in these areas. This population expansion has led to an increase in the number of wild boar vehicle collisions (WBVCs. The goal of the present study was to evaluate a set of spatio–temporal factors that influence WBVCs related to maize crops on the Northern Spanish Plateau (the region of Castile and Leon. We compared the maize pattern with the factors related to total WBVC numbers. We observed that whereas the total occurrence of WBVCs usually increased with forest cover and speed and traffic volumes, maize areas were one of the main explanatory variables in plateau models. To avoid collisions in these areas in future, a number of mitigation measures are outlined.

  15. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PRESENCE OF TRICHINELLA BRITOVI IN WILD BOAR IN THE MARCHE REGION REGULARLY SLAUGHTERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Di Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a nematode belonging to the genus Trichinella. Numerous mammal species as well as birds and crocodiles can harbour the parasite worldwide, but the wild cycle is mainly maintained by wild carnivores. Human represents only a possible host and the parasite is exclusively transmitted through consumption of undercooked or raw meat. In Italy, pork, wild boar meat and horse meat are the main sources for human infection. This article describe a presence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar in the Marche region regularly slaughtered. These case confirms the occurrence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar and the important role of slaughterhouse in epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic diseases.

  17. INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN BIOACTIVE PREPARATIONS ON THE DURATION OF BOAR SEMEN PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. HAREA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiences were held on the boar sperm. There were studied the bioactive substances with the role of antioxidizer made at the Institute of Genetic of Science Academy of Republic of Moldova. The bioactive substances (GL-2 were used as a structure dilution GHTS what is used for boars sperm dilution with the concentration of 0,1 – 1%. The experimental researches showed that the studied substances were not toxic for sperm used in the structure of GHTS dilution with the concentration of 0,1-1 whit gave the possibility to increase the period of boar sperm stoking till 168 hours, keeping the sperms mobility at the level of standard of artificial insemination.

  18. Evidence for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae in a wild boar (Sus scrofa population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival swabs from 44 free-living wild boars culled during a demographic control programme applied in a Regional Park located in the Northern Italy were examined by 16S rRNA encoding gene nested PCR. In total, 22 (50% wild boars were PCR positive. Sequencing of the amplicons identified Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia pecorum in 12 and 5 samples, respectively. For one sample found PCR positive, the nucleotide sequence could not be determined. Four conjunctival samples showed ≥ 92% sequence similarities to 16S rRNA sequences from Chlamydia-like organisms, as did large intestine, uterus, and vaginal swabs from the same four animals. Amoeba DNA was found in one Chlamydia-like organism positive conjunctival swab. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of members of the Parachlamydiaceae family in wild boars, confirming a large animal host range for Chlamydia-like organisms.

  19. Effect and mode of action of the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on carcass traits in purebred Texel lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, J M; Lambe, N R; Matika, O; Johnson, P L; Wolf, B T; Haresign, W; Bishop, S C; Bünger, L

    2014-07-01

    TM-QTL is a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on ovine chromosome 18 (OAR18) known to affect loin muscling in Texel sheep. Previous work suggested that its mode of inheritance is consistent with paternal polar overdominance, but this has yet to be formally demonstrated. This study used purebred Texel sheep segregating for TM-QTL to confirm its presence in the chromosomal region in which it was first reported and to determine its pattern of inheritance. To do so, this study used the first available data from a Texel flock, which included homozygote TM-QTL carriers (TM/TM; n=34) in addition to homozygote non-carriers (+/+; n=40 and, heterozygote TM-QTL-carriers inheriting TM-QTL from their sire (TM/+; n=53) or their dam (+/TM; n=17). Phenotypes included a wide range of loin muscling, carcass composition and tissue distribution traits. The presence of a QTL affecting ultrasound muscle depth on OAR18 was confirmed with a paternal QTL effect ranging from +0.54 to +2.82 mm UMD (s.e. 0.37 to 0.57 mm) across the sires segregating for TM-QTL. Loin muscle width, depth and area, loin muscle volume and dissected M. longissimus lumborum weight were significantly greater for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (+2.9% to +7.9%; Pcarcass weight; TM/TM animals were significantly (Panimals (+11.9% and +11.7%, respectively), with TM/+ intermediate. Weights of the leg, saddle and shoulder region (corrected for carcass weight) were similar in the genotypic groups. There was a tendency for lambs inheriting TM-QTL from their sire to be less fat with slightly more muscle than non-carriers. For example, carcass muscle weight measured by live animal CT-scanning was 2.8% higher in TM/TM than +/+ lambs (Pcarcass muscle weight measured by carcass CT-scanning was 1.36% higher in TM/+ than +/+ lambs (Pcarcass cuts was significantly lower for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (-11.2%; Pcarcass traits were found. Optimal commercial use of TM-QTL within the sheep industry would require some consideration, due to the apparently

  20. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  1. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

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    Marieke Opsteegh

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673 or the "Veluwe" (n = 241. A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685 and accompanying sensitivity (90.6% and specificity (93.6%. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%. The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I and seronegatives as either susceptible (S or resistant (R. A model with a recovery rate (SIS was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI. This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii.

  3. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  4. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in the Basque Country, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrausi-Subiza, Maialen; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alvarez, Vega; Ibabe, Jose Carlos; Barral, Marta

    2016-01-20

    Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northern Spain. The blood of wild boars (n = 505) was sampled between 2001 and 2012. Seroprevalence was determined in 490 serum samples with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-two of the animals were also examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils with real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the tonsils were analysed twice, directly and after cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1 % mannitol and 0.15 % bile salts. Antibodies directed against Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were detected in 52.5 % of the animals. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 33.3 % of the wild boars and Y. pseudotuberculosis in 25 %. Significant differences were observed according to the sampling year, and the highest prevalence was during winter and spring. The highest antibody levels and Y. enterocolitica prevalence were observed in mountainous areas at altitudes higher than 600 m, with very cold winters, and with the highest annual rainfall for each dominant climate. Areas with low and medium livestock populations were associated with the highest seroprevalence of Yersinia spp. in wild boars, whereas areas with high ovine populations had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica. This study shows that Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are highly prevalent among wild boars in the Basque country, with Y. enterocolitica most prevalent. The risk of infection among wild boars is influenced by the season and the area in which they live.

  5. Detection of atypical porcine pestivirus in semen from commercial boar studs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, I R H; Arruda, P H; Visek, C A; Victoria, J G; Patterson, A R; Krull, A C; Schwartz, K J; de Oliveira, L G; Arruda, B L

    2018-04-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has recently been identified as a cause of congenital tremor (CT) in pigs and has been detected in semen and preputial swabs from boars that were known to be clinically affected with CT. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to 1) detect the presence of APPV in semen, preputial fluids and preputial swabs from adult boars by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and 2) genetically characterize a subset of positive samples to better understand the ecology of APPV in commercial boar studs and the potential risk of transmission of APPV via semen. A total of 597 samples of semen, preputial fluid and preputial swabs each representing a different boar were obtained from four commercial boar studs located in three different states in the United States. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in 90 samples (15.08%; 90/597), with the greatest per cent positive from preputial swabs (23.81%; 5/21) followed by preputial fluid (22.81%; 26/114) and semen (12.91%; 59/457). The mean cycle quantification (Cq) between sample types was similar while eleven semen samples had Cq values lower than 27.0 corresponding to approximately 2 × 10 6  copies/ml. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the Npro gene, different viral strains can be on the same farm at the same and different times. This is the first report of detection of APPV in semen from commercial boar studs. Studies investigating the role of semen in the transmission of APPV and production of CT are needed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataruch, F.; Klansek, E.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1996-01-01

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  7. 137Cs monitoring in the meat of wild boar population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Beňová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the elapsed time and the nature of the Chernobyl accident, the only artificial radionuclide present in the soil is 137Cs, with a physical half-life conversion of 30.17 years. The 137Cs is quickly integrated into a biological cycle, similar to potassium. Generally, radionuclides are characterized by their mobility in soil. Contamination of materials and food by radionuclides represent a serious problem and has a negative impact on human health. The threat of international terrorism and the inability to forestall the impact of natural disasters on nuclear energetic (Fukushima accident, are also reasons for continuous monitoring of food safety. According screening measurement performed in European countries, high radioactivity levels were reported in the wild boars muscles from Sumava (Czech Republic. Seasonal fluctuation of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples was observed in the forests on the southern Rhineland. Monitoring of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples in the hunting grounds in Slovakia was initiated based on the reports on exceeding limits of the content of radiocaesium in the meat of wild boar from the surrounding countries. The aim of this study was to determine the 137Cs post Chernobyl contamination of wild boars population in different hunting districts of Slovakia during 2013 - 2014. A total of 60 thigh muscle samples from wild boars of different age categories (4 months - 2 years were evaluated. 137Cs activity was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra. Despite the fact Slovakia is closer to Chernobyl as Czech Republic and Germany, the 137Cs activity measured was very low and far below the permitted limit. The highest radiocaesium activity level measured in muscle was 37.2 Bq.kg-1 ±4.7%. Wild boar originated from Zlate Moravce district. The measurement results show, that 137Cs contamination levels of game in Slovakia are low. Radiocaesium activity in examined samples was very low and

  8. Stem-spermatogonial survival and incidence of reciprocal translocations in the γ-irradiated boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Martin, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the effects of γ-radiation on stem-cell survival and incidence of reciprocal translocations, boar testes were irradiated with 100, 200, or 400 rad. Stem-cell survival was markedly affected by 100 rad (51% of control) and reduced to 34% of control by 400 rad. Production of differentiating spermatogonia renewal was incomplete at 12 weeks. Incidence of translocations peaked at 200 rad and the number occurring at 100 and 400 rad was similar. Kinetics of porcine spermatogonial renewal differs considerably from those of the rodent and, relative to the rodent, this may account for the boar's higher sensitivity to stem-cell killing and lower sensitivity to translocation

  9. Strategic use of anti-GnRH vaccine allowing selection of breeding boars without adverse effects on reproductive or production performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Claudio; Ollila, Anna; Andersson, Magnus; Heinonen, Mari; Voutila, Liisa; Serenius, Timo; Peltoniemi, Olli

    2016-02-01

    Boar stations raise only entire male pigs for selection as reproductive boars, but the majority of them will fail the selection process, ending at slaughter with a high risk of boar tainted meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Improvac given to 16-week old boars had a negative effect on their subsequent sperm numbers and motility in 16 artificial insemination boars. We also aimed to generate more knowledge on incidence of boar taint at slaughter among Finnish pigs, compare production performances as average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass and meat quality (lean meat percentage, back fat, pH, color, androstenone, and skatole) of immunocastrated boars (n = 248) with those of entire boars (n = 268). Moreover, we aimed also to explore whether a fat biopsy taken at 16 weeks of age could already reveal the presence of boar taint compounds and be predictive of boar taint development at slaughter age. We found that 32% of entire boars (Figen Landrace, Figen Large White, and their crossbreed) slaughtered at an age of 25 weeks presented levels of androstenone and/or skatole above the threshold for boar taint in their meat. These boars (control) had higher androstenone and skatole levels in the back fat samples at slaughter (0.77 ± 0.55 and 0.09 ± 0.06 μg/g, respectively, mean ± standard deviation) than those in the immuno group (0.20 ± 0.25 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg/g, respectively, P artificial insemination. We found no difference in the levels of testosterone, anti-GnRH antibodies titers, testicle morphology, and sperm numbers and motility between the boars vaccinated once, at 16 weeks of age, with anti-GnRH vaccine and the control boars (no vaccination). There were no differences in average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, and back fat between the immunocastrated boars and entire boars. Meat from immunocastrated boars had a higher pH and better color than meat from entire boars (P meat quality

  10. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Yaghoobi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  11. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRRS VIRUS IN SEMEN OF BOARS IN PIG FARMS OF YUCATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremi Jordan-Craviotto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of and to determine the risk factors associated with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, American strain in semen of boars in pig herds of Yucatan, Mexico. Ninety two boars from 26 herds were ejaculated once. Semen samples were processed by the RT-nPCR test using the ORF7 primer to detect the PRRS virus. The true prevalence estimated was 10.1% (95% CI = 4.1-16.1%. Significance of risk factors was determined by Fisher-exact test. The odds of detecting genetic material of the PRRSV was greater (OR = 9.2 in semen of boars used under natural mating than those used in artificial insemination. In herds where boar’s acclimatization was not practiced the odds of a positive boar was 4.3. Another risk factor (P < 0.05 was the origin of the animals. In conclusion, the prevalence of the PRRSV in boar semen was smaller to the notified in the literature and determinate in blood serum. Management practices, such as the use of the artificial insemination and acclimatization of the boar, could be useful in reducing the prevalence of the PRRS virus in the pig farms.

  12. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Wild boars, Sus scrofa , are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin's solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli , 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki , 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  13. Preliminary study on the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV antibodies in pigs and wild boars in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although HEV infection in pigs does not pose a major economic risk to pork production, the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans is an important aspect of public health. HEV genotype 3 infections were reported in developed countries in individuals who had consumed raw meat or meat products from deer, wild boars, or pigs. The aim of the study was the analysis of the occurrence of HEV-specific antibodies among wild boars and domestic pigs in Poland. Material and Methods: A total of 290 samples from wild boars and 143 samples from pigs were tested. The antibodies were tested by ELISA. Results: The presence of anti-HEV IgG was demonstrated in 44.1% of pigs and 31.0% of wild boars. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 1.4% of samples from pigs and in 2.1% of samples from wild boars at borderline level. The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the positive results for anti-HEV IgG between the groups of pigs and wild boars (P = 0.0263. Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the occurrence of HEV in swine and wild boars should be performed in the future.

  14. Secrets of Success in a Landscape of Fear: Urban Wild Boar Adjust Risk Perception and Tolerate Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stillfried

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas with a high level of human disturbance, wildlife has to adjust its behavior to deal with the so called “landscape of fear.” This can be studied in risk perception during movement in relation to specific habitat types, whereby individuals trade-off between foraging and disturbance. Due to its high behavioral plasticity and increasing occurrence in urban environments, wild boar (Sus scrofa is an excellent model organism to study adjustment to urbanization. With the help of GPS tracking, space use of 11 wild boar from Berlin's metropolitan region was analyzed: we aimed at understanding how animals adjust space use to deal with the landscape of fear in urban areas compared to rural areas. We compared use vs. availability with help of generalized linear mixed models. First, we studied landscape types selected by rural vs. urban wild boar, second, we analyzed distances of wild boar locations to each of the landscape types. Finally, we mapped the resulting habitat selection probability to predict hotspots of human-wildlife conflicts. A higher tolerance to disturbance in urban wild boar was shown by a one third shorter flight distance and by an increased re-use of areas close to the trap. Urban wild boar had a strong preference for natural landscapes such as swamp areas, green areas and deciduous forests, and areas with high primary productivity, as indicated by high NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index values. The areas selected by urban wild boar were often located closely to roads and houses. The spatial distribution maps show that a large area of Berlin would be suitable for urban wild boar but not their rural conspecifics, with the most likely reason being a different perception of anthropogenic disturbance. Wild boar therefore showed considerable behavioral plasticity suitable to adjust to human-dominated environments in a potentially evolutionarily adaptive manner.

  15. Cryopreservation of boar semen in mini- and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; de Braganca, M M; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1990-10-01

    Split ejaculates from four boars were frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini- (0.25 ml) and maxi- (5 ml) plastic straws with an extender at either acidic (6.3) or alkaline (7.4) pH. Glycerol (3%) was used as cryoprotectant. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermocouples placed in the straws. Post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were evaluated; the latter using phase contrast microscopy, eosin-nigrosin stain and electron microscopy. Post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws than in maxi-straws. For the mini-straws, the motility was better when semen was exposed to an acidic environment during freezing, but this beneficial effect of the low extracellular pH was not evident when maxi-straws were thawed. The motility of the spermatozoa diminished significantly during the thermoresistance test (0 h and 2 h time) at 37 degrees C in a similar way for both straws and extracellular pH's. The freezing procedure, no matter the extracellular pH, did not cause major acrosomal damages, but significantly more normal apical ridges were present in the mini-straws than in the maxi-straws. This in vitro evaluation indicated that the freezing method employed was better for mini- than for maxi-straws since the freezing of the 5 ml volumes was not homogeneous, due to the large section area between the surface and the core of the straw.

  16. Effects of semen preservation on boar spermatozoa head membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, M M; Canvin, A T; Bailey, J L

    1989-08-01

    Head plasma membranes were isolated from the sperm-rich fraction of boar semen and from sperm-rich semen that had been subjected to three commercial preservation processes: Extended for fresh insemination (extended), prepared for freezing but not frozen (cooled), and stored frozen for 3-5 weeks (frozen-thawed). Fluorescence polarization was used to determine fluidity of the membranes of all samples for 160 min at 25 degrees C and also for membranes from the sperm-rich and extended semen during cooling and reheating (25 to 5 to 40 degrees C, 0.4 degrees C/min). Head plasma membranes from extended semen were initially more fluid than from other sources (P less than 0.05). Fluidity of head membranes from all sources decreased at 25 degrees C, but the rate of decrease was significantly lower for membranes from cooled and lower again for membranes from frozen-thawed semen. Cooling to 5 degrees C reduced the rate of fluidity change for plasma membranes from the sperm-rich fraction, while heating over 30 degrees C caused a significantly greater decrease. The presence of Ca++ (10 mM) lowered the fluidity of the head plasma membranes from sperm-rich and extended semen over time at 25 degrees C but did not affect the membranes from the cooled or frozen-thawed semen. The change in head plasma membrane fluidity at 25 degrees C may reflect the dynamic nature of spermatozoa membranes prior to fertilization. Extenders, preservation processes and temperature changes have a strong influence on head plasma membrane fluidity and therefore the molecular organization of this membrane.

  17. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  18. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  19. Expression quantitative trait loci reveals genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias Brygger; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste of meat from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs due to skatole and androstenone accumulation in adipose tissue. Castration is an effective strategy to avoid BT but is currently under debate due to animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...

  20. Worldwide Phylogeography of Wild Boar Reveals Multiple Centers of Pig Domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Greger; Dobney, Keith; Albarella, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 686 wild and domestic pig specimens place the origin of wild boar in island Southeast Asia (ISEA), where they dispersed across Eurasia. Previous morphological and genetic evidence suggested pig domestication took place in a limited number of locations (pri...

  1. Hepatozoon apri n. sp. (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae from the Japanese wild boar Sus scrofa leucomystax (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Yamamoto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon apri n. sp. is described from Japanese wild boars Sus scrofa leucomystax in Japan. The gamonts in the peripheral blood leukocytes were 11.6 ± 1.4 × 6.7 ± 1.3 μm in size. The meronts in the muscle tissues were 35.0–47.5 μm in length and 26.5–30 μm in width. A high rate (53.0% of infection was found by nested PCR using muscle specimens from 181 wild boars captured in Tokushima, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that H. apri n. sp. detected in wild boars is closely related to Hepatozoon spp. isolated from carnivores. This is the first description of a species belonging to the genus Hepatozoon detected in ungulates. Keywords: Sus scrofa leucomystax, Hepatozoonosis, Wild boar, Hepatozoon apri n. sp., 18S rRNA gene, Japan

  2. Isolation of total ribonucleic acid from fresh and frozen-thawed boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RNA) from raw fresh semen and frozen-thawed boar semen, using a protocol comprising the conventional TRIzol assay and a membrane-based technique, the PureLink RNA mini kit. Bioanalyzer profile revealed that the sperm RNA size ...

  3. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Scandura, Massimo; J. Goedbloed, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly manag...

  4. Quality Control of Boar Sperm Processing : Implications from European AI Centres and Two Spermatology Reference Laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riesenbeck, A; Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Henning, H; Waberski, D

    In recent years, increased automatization has resulted in a higher efficiency of boar semen processing in AI laboratories. Sophisticated laboratory management and efficient quality control programmes are needed for current tendencies in major pork-producing countries to reduce the sperm number per

  5. Facilitative and competitive interactions between sympatric cattle, red deer and wild boar in Dutch woodland pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Lammertsma, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Use of cattle-grazed and ungrazed woodland pastures by red deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 and wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated monthly by measuring dung-deposition rates. Cattle Bos taurus grazed pastures year-round, with peak intensities during the growing season

  6. Pattern of protein retention in growing boars of different breeds, and estimation of maximum protein retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A H; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Protein and energy metabolism in boars of different breeds, 10 each of Hampshire, Duroc and Danish Landrace was measured in balance and respiration experiments by means of indirect calorimetry in an open-air circulation system. Measurements were performed in four periods (Period I-IV) covering th...

  7. Evaluation of different soil parameters and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] grassland damage

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    Žiga Laznik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the correlations between different soil parameters [presence of grubs, earthworms, pH, content of P2O5, K2O and organic matter (OM in soil] and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] damage to grasslands. The soil samples and damage assessments were performed at six locations in the Kočevje region, which is a densely wooded part of South East Slovenia. A significant positive correlation was discovered between the extent of damage due to wild boar rooting in grasslands and the number of grubs (r=0.73, the weight of grubs (r=0.69 and the content of P2O5 (r=0.87 in the soil. The quantity and weight of grubs in soil were significantly influenced by soil pH, the content of CaCl2 (r=0.71/0.72, P2O5 (r=0.90/0.91, and OM (r=0.74/0.77; while the quantity and weight of earthworms in soil were influenced by the content of K2O (r=0.81/-0.84. A moderate yet insignificant correlation (r=0.48/0.56 was discovered between the number and weight of earthworms in soil and the extent of grassland damage. Grubs represent a more important source of protein for wild boars than earthworms; consequently, reducing the quantity of grubs in soil could minimise the extent of damage caused by boars.

  8. Activity of Cs-137 in red deer and wild boar in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missik, J [Agricultural Univ. Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology; Puskeiler, L; Miklas, P [Inst. of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology

    1996-12-31

    Results of monitoring the activity of radiocesium in game animals from various parts of Slovakia are presented. Samples of game flesh were collected by veterinary officials during hunting seasons 1988-1994. More than 80 % of samples came from following districts of Slovakia: Ziar nad Hronom, Prievidza, Martin, Rimavska Sobota, Senica, Banska Bystrica, Roznava, Poprad and Spisska Nova Ves. All measurements were carried out using gamma spectrometric system equipped with 4 high purity germanium detectors. Presented results were obtained using statistical evaluation for left-censored log-normal distribution of data sets. Overall activities of Cs-137 found in red deer and wild boards in Slovakia are considerably lower, than activities reported in game animals from some parts of Northern Moravia, Southern Bohemia and Austria. While the mean activities in red deer show a decreasing tendency, mean activities of wild boar are low, but with higher occurrence of extreme values, and hence, higher variance. The observed difference could be explained by the feeding habits of wild boar: grubbing in the ground for worms, larvae, roots, etc. can lead to presence of up to 20 % of contaminated soil in their stomach. At the same time wild boars often graze farmlands, where the activity of the Cs-137 in the top soil layer is reduced by ploughing and radiocesium on clay particles. Fraction of farmlands in the home range of the wild boars and the time of shooting could contribute to observed variations in radiocesium activity. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifer, I; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D

    2010-01-01

    to study virus spread and evolutionary history in German wild boar. For the first time, the results of our study clearly argue for the possibility of a long-term persistence of genotype 2.3 CSFV strains in affected regions at an almost undetectable level, even after long-term oral vaccination campaigns...

  10. Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (Pextender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (Pextender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of reduced glutathione on acrosin activity in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Efrén; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Rivera Del Álamo, Maria M; Peña, Alejandro; Yeste, Marc

    2017-02-01

    In pigs, acrosin activity in extended semen is correlated with reproductive performance and has recently been identified as a freezability marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is known to decrease sperm cryodamage and increase the reproductive performance of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. However, the effects of GSH on the acrosin activity of good and poor freezability ejaculates (GFE and PFE, respectively) is yet to be examined. The present study investigated how supplementing cryopreservation media with GSH affected acrosin activity in GFE and PFE, as well as the relationship between acrosin activity and reproductive performance in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. In addition, we examined whether the increase in fertility rates and litter sizes observed after the addition of 2mM GSH to cryopreservation extenders was related to acrosin activity. Supplementing freezing media with 2mM GSH partially counteracted the cryopreservation-related decrease in acrosin activity in GFE but not PFE. Acrosin activity was found to be significantly correlated with in vivo reproductive performance of frozen-thawed boar semen. In conclusion, the effects of adding GSH to freezing extenders on the acrosin activity of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa rely on the intrinsic freezability of the ejaculate. Furthermore, the maintenance of proper acrosin activity could contribute to the increase in reproductive performance mediated by GSH.

  12. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Liu, Hong; Li, Qing-Wang

    2015-08-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides (SMPs) were extracted from S. miltiorrhiza in this study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SMP on the motility of boar sperm, including the antioxidant effect of SMP on boar sperm and the effect of SMP on the in vivo fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Fifty ejaculates from 5 Swagger boars were collected and diluted with an extender, which contained 3% glycerol (v/v) with five concentrations of SMP (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL). The semen was frozen in 0.25mL straws at 1.0×10(9) cells/mL. Sixty gilts were inseminated using fresh semen, frozen semen with 0.4mg/mL of SMP and frozen semen without SMP. The results indicate that the addition of SMP to the extender results in a higher percentage of motile sperm post-thaw (Pextender (Pboar sperm from peroxidative damage and increase sperm motility and litter size during the process of freezing-thawing. The optimal concentration of SMP for the frozen extenders in this study was determined to be 0.4mg/mL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Use of indoor boars as models for understanding seasonal infertility: Preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential impacts of external temperature and relative humidity (RH) variations on semen production of boars maintained in thermo-regulated barns (indoor housing). Data were collected from a local commercial hog operation. Temperature and relative humidity (R...

  14. Immunoglobulin changes in boars exposed to administration of levamisole and exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Nina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of levamisole (LEV on immunoglobulin concentration in the serum of boars exposed to 3-day stress induced by exogenous ACTH. Boars were assigned to 4 groups (n=7. The first group received LEV for 3 days (2.5 mg/kg BW, the second group received ACTH (10 μg/kg BW for 3 days and the third group received LEV for 3 consecutive days and ACTH for the following 3 days (2.5 mg/kg BW; ACTH 10 μg/kg BW. The control group received saline solution during the 6 days. Concentrations of cortisol, total protein, globulin, albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM were determined during treatments and on the 16th day post-administration. Cortisol concentration was increased in both ACTH treated groups during all three days of administration and the day after the last ACTH treatment (p<0.05. ACTH increased total protein levels during the stress period and over the next 16 days (p<0.05. However, in the LEV+ACTH group total protein levels were elevated only on day 1 and 2 of ACTH injection (p<0.05 and after the end of treatment on day 11 and 22 (p<0.05. LEV stimulated the increase of protein concentrations compared to control values after LEV treatment, on days 5, 14, 18 and 22 (p<0.05. Serum albumins were not affected by LEV or ACTH treatment. Globulin concentrations were increased throughout and on the 16th day after administration of ACTH in the ACTH and LEV+ACTH groups (p<0.05. Globulin concentrations did not differ between LEV and control groups of boars. ACTH treatment elevated serum IgG concentration during the stress period (p<0.05 and over the next 16 days (p<0.05. However, in the LEV+ACTH group of boars, IgG levels were elevated on days 1 and 3 after ACTH injection (p<0.05 and days 1 and 5 in the post-treatment period (p<0.05. LEV had no impact on IgG levels compared to the control boars. However, increased IgA concentrations in boars treated with LEV were determined on day 2 (p<0.05 and day 11 (p

  15. In search of epigenetic marks in testes and sperm cells of differentially fed boars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Bruggmann

    Full Text Available In search of transmittable epigenetic marks we investigated gene expression in testes and sperm cells of differentially fed F0 boars from a three generation pig feeding experiment that showed phenotypic differences in the F2 generation. RNA samples from 8 testes of boars that received either a diet enriched in methylating micronutrients or a control diet were analyzed by microarray analysis. We found moderate differential expression between testes of differentially fed boars with a high FDR of 0.82 indicating that most of the differentially expressed genes were false positives. Nevertheless, we performed a pathway analysis and found disparate pathway maps of development_A2B receptor: action via G-protein alpha s, cell adhesion_Tight junctions and cell adhesion_Endothelial cell contacts by junctional mechanisms which show inconclusive relation to epigenetic inheritance. Four RNA samples from sperm cells of these differentially fed boars were analyzed by RNA-Seq methodology. We found no differential gene expression in sperm cells of the two groups (adjusted P-value>0.05. Nevertheless, we also explored gene expression in sperm by a pathway analysis showing that genes were enriched for the pathway maps of bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis (CF airways, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis p.3 and cell cycle_Initiation of mitosis. Again, these pathway maps are miscellaneous without an obvious relationship to epigenetic inheritance. It is concluded that the methylating micronutrients moderately if at all affects RNA expression in testes of differentially fed boars. Furthermore, gene expression in sperm cells is not significantly affected by extensive supplementation of methylating micronutrients and thus RNA molecules could not be established as the epigenetic mark in this feeding experiment.

  16. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Risco

    Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures

  17. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates from Wild Boars Hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Seinige, Diana; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-07-01

    Yersiniosis is strongly associated with the consumption of pork contaminated with enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is harbored by domestic pigs without showing clinical signs of disease. In contrast to data on Y. enterocolitica isolated from conventionally reared swine, investigations into the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica in wild boars in Germany are rare. The objectives of the study were to get knowledge about these bacteria and their occurrence in wild boars hunted in northern Germany by isolation of the bacteria from the tonsils, identification of the bioserotypes, determination of selected virulence factors, macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility. Altogether, tonsils from 17.1% of 111 tested wild boars were positive for Y. enterocolitica by culture methods. All but two isolates belonged to biotype (BT) 1A, with the majority of isolates bearing a ystB nucleotide sequence which was revealed to have 85% identity to internal regions of Y. enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin type B genes. The remaining Y. enterocolitica isolates were identified to be BT 1B and did not carry the virulence plasmid. However, two BT 1A isolates carried the ail gene. Macrorestriction analysis and results from MLST showed a high degree of genetic diversity of the isolates, although the region where the samples were taken was restricted to Lower Saxony, Germany, and wild boars were shot during one hunting season. In conclusion, most Y. enterocolitica isolates from wild boars investigated in this study belonged to biotype 1A. Enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9, usually harbored by commercially raised pigs in Europe, could not be identified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Autonomic nervous system activity in purebred Arabian horses evaluated according to the low frequency and high frequency spectrum versus racing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Janczarek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional excitability influences horses’ performance in sports and races. The aim of the study was to analyse whether the balance of the autonomic system which can occur when sympathetic system activity is at various levels might impact the horses’ racing performance. The study was carried out on 67 purebred Arabian horses trained for racing. The following indices were analysed: low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF, and the ratio of spectrum power at low frequencies to high frequencies (LF/HF. The autonomic nervous system activity was measured × 3 during the training season, at three-month intervals. Each examination included a 30-min measurement at rest and after a training session. The racing performance indices in these horses were also analysed. Better racing results were found in horses with enhanced LF/HF. The worst racing results were determined in horses with low LF.

  20. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

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    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  1. Effect of Polish and foreign purebred Arabian stallions on conformation traits of their progeny participating in shows in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Czarnecki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations confirm correctness of the statement that the best recommendation for a stallion is his progeny. The aim of this study was indicating purebred Arabian stallions passing on to their progeny best conformation traits, assessed in Polish shows, in the past decade, taking into consideration their origin. The analysis included national and foreign stallions used in Polish breeding of purebred Arabian horses, which are fathers of at least 5 heads of progeny. The authors own research proved that progeny of foreign stallions statistically differed significantly from the progeny sired by Polish stallions within all conformation traits tested in shows. In the studied period, the highest final score (91.37 points and note for the trait type (19.11 points was characteristic of the progeny of QR Marc. The best head was passed on by stallions: QR Marc (19.06 points and WH Justice (18.78 points, born in the United States and owned by the European breeders. In the Top Ten of producers passing on a refined head to their progeny, there was only one Polish stallion bred in the Horse Stud Michalw, Ekstern (18.29 points. Progeny with the most correct body structure was sired by foreign stallions, Eden C (18.13 points and QR Marc (18.13 points, and by the Polish stallion, Zlocien (17.95 points. The highest score for the trait legs was obtained by the progeny of the Qatar stallion Gazal Al Shaqab (16.30 points. However, the title of the father of the best movers got an Israeli stallion, Laheeb (18.91 points.

  2. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  3. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

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    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  4. Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3-infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Dremsek, Paul; Lange, Elke; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-11-26

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR viral RNA was detected in serum, faeces and in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The antibody response evolved after fourteen days post inoculation. Histopathological findings included mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis which was more prominent in wild boar than in miniature pigs. By immunohistochemical methods, viral antigens were detected mainly in Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, partially associated with hepatic lesions, but also in spleen and lymph nodes. While clinical symptoms were subtle and gross pathology was inconspicuous, increased liver enzyme levels in serum indicated hepatocellular injury. As the faecal-oral route is supposed to be the most likely transmission route, we included four contact animals to prove horizontal transmission. Interestingly, HEVgt3-infection was also detected in wild boar and miniature pigs kept in contact to intravenously inoculated wild boar. Given the high virus loads and long duration of viral shedding, wild boar has to be considered as an important HEV reservoir and transmission host in Europe.

  5. Molecular tracing of classical swine fever viruses isolated from wild boars and pigs in France from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Le Dimna, Mireille; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Pol, Françoise

    2013-10-25

    There were three outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) in north-eastern France between 2002 and 2011. The first two occurred in April 2002 in the Moselle department, in a wild boar and pig herd, respectively, while the third occurred in April 2003, in the Bas-Rhin department, in a wild boar. A survey was subsequently implemented in wild boar and domestic pig populations, during which 43 CSF viruses (CSFVs) were genetically characterized to provide information on virus sources, trace virus evolution and help in the monitoring of effective control measures. Phylogenetic analyses, based on fragments of the 5'NTR, E2 and NS5B genes, showed that all French CSFVs could be assigned to genotype 2, subgenotype 2.3. CSFVs isolated in Moselle were classified in the "Rostock" lineage, a strain first described in 2001 in wild boar populations in the Eifel region of north-western Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany, and in Luxemburg. In contrast, the CSFVs isolated in Bas-Rhin were homologous to strains from the "Uelzen" lineage, a strain previously isolated from wild boars in south-eastern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, as well as in Vosges du Nord, France, during a previous outbreak that had occurred in wild boars between 1992 and 2001. The outbreak in Moselle domestic pigs was quickly resolved as it concerned only one herd. The infection in wild boars from Moselle was extinguished after a few months whereas wild boars from Bas-Rhin remained infected until 2007. Molecular tracing showed that the Bas-Rhin index virus strain evolved slightly during the period but that no strain from a novel lineage was introduced until this outbreak ended after application of a vaccination scheme for six years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. First isolation of Haemophilus parasuis and other NAD-dependent Pasteurellaceae of swine from European wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, A; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Mentaberre, G; Casas-Diaz, E; Lavin, S; Marco, I; Aragon, V

    2007-11-15

    Haemophilus parasuis is a colonizer of the upper respiratory tract of pigs and the etiological agent of Glässer's disease, which is characterized by a fibrinous polyserositis, meningitis and arthritis. Glässer's disease has never been reported in wild boar (Sus scrofa), although antibodies against H. parasuis have been detected. The goal of this study was to confirm the presence of this bacterium in wild boar by bacterial isolation and to compare the strains to H. parasuis from domesticated pigs. Therefore, nasal swabs from 42 hunted wild boars were processed for bacterial isolation and subsequent H. parasuis identification by specific PCR, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Two different strains of H. parasuis from two wild boars were isolated. These strains belonged to serotype 2 and were included by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MLST analysis in a cluster with other H. parasuis strains of nasal origin from domestic pigs. During this study, Actinobacillus minor and Actinobacillus indolicus, which are NAD-dependent Pasteurellaceae closely related to H. parasuis, were also isolated. Our results indicate similarities in the respiratory microbiota of wild boars and domestic pigs, and although H. parasuis was isolated from wild boars, more studies are needed to determine if this could be a source of H. parasuis infection for domestic pigs.

  7. Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry for high-throughput screening in food analysis: The case of boar taint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Kaat; Stead, Sara; Jandova, Renata; Poucke, Christof Van; Claereboudt, Jan; Bussche, Julie Vanden; Saeger, Sarah De; Takats, Zoltan; Wauters, Jella; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-07-01

    Boar taint is a contemporary off-odor present in meat of uncastrated male pigs. As European Member States intend to abandon surgical castration of pigs by 2018, this off-odor has gained a lot of research interest. In this study, rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) was explored for the rapid detection of boar taint in neck fat. Untargeted screening of samples (n=150) enabled discrimination between sow, tainted and untainted boars. The obtained OPLS-DA models showed excellent classification accuracy, i.e. 99% and 100% for sow and boar samples or solely boar samples, respectively. Furthermore, the obtained models demonstrated excellent validation characteristics (R 2 (Y)=0.872-0.969; Q 2 (Y)=0.756-0.917), which were confirmed by CV-ANOVA (phighly accurate and high-throughput (<10s) classification of tainted and untainted boar samples was achieved, rendering REIMS a promising technique for predictive modelling in food safety and quality applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potentially zoonotic helminths in wild boars (Sus scrofa hunted in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amerigo Papini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the risk of human toxoplasmosis via meat consumption from wild boars by estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals hunted in central Italy. Using a modified agglutination test, 213 sera from wild boars were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Diaphragm samples (n=65 from seropositive and seronegative animals were tested by nested-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. Toxoplasma DNA from diaphragms was genotyped by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers. Moreover, the aim of the study was also to identify helminth infections of wild boars in the selected area and to evaluate their hazard for humans. Examination of sera revealed a seroprevalence of 12.2%. Only one T. gondii strain could be genotyped from a seropositive animal and PCR-RFLP revealed that it belonged to type II. Analysis of 50 samples of faeces and 32 small intestines revealed that 78% and 15.6% of the samples harboured parasites, respectively, with the occurrence of parasites potentially dangerous for humans. These latter included Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Trichuris suis, and Metastrongylus spp. A significant association was found between coprological positivity and male sex. These results indicate that T. gondii infection may be present in wild boar tissues and consumption of undercooked or raw wild boar meat may expose humans to risk of toxoplasmosis in the study area. Furthermore, the study highlights that wild boars are hosts of helminths of veterinary and medical importance transmissible to pigs and humans.

  9. Preliminary studies on environmental pollutants in chamois and wild boar from Eastern Piedmont, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ceriani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic chlorinated compounds classified as POPs whereas only the penta e tetra-brominated polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs are so defined by the Stockolm Convention (Stockholm Convention, 2005 in order to elimitate or restrict the use of POPs. Organophosphorus insecticides (OCPs represent important environmental and food contamination sources, widely used in agriculture. Among polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pirene is classified by IARC in Group 1, as cancerogen  and Benzo[a]fluoranthene as a Group 2B, as possible cancerogen (IARC, 2012; IARC, 2010.  EFSA (European Food Safety Authority has released a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of brominated flame retardants in food (EFSA, 2011 and in 2014 European commission has asked Member States to monitor the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs in food over the next two years (EC, 2014. Due to their heir n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow, they accumulate in fat tissue, bioconcentrate and biomagnify in the animals at the higher trophic levels, possibly causing, through chronic exposure, endocrine disruption and cancer (Wania et al., 1995; Vallack et al., 1998. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of OCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and PAHs in chamois and wild boar from Eastern Piedmont, Italy. A total of 20 chamois and 20 wild boar muscle samples were collected during the hunting season 2017, from Verbania Cusio Ossola (VCO (Fig 1. The chemical analysis for the detection of OCPs, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs   was performed by GC-MS/MS on muscle samples purified and extracted using a QuEChERS technique, validated according to SANTE 2017 (SANTE/11183/2017. These preliminary results show the ubiquitary presence of the studied contaminants. PCBs have been found more in chamois (45% than in wild boar (35%. No PBDEs were detected in wild boar but in chamois

  10. Boar variability in sperm cryo-tolerance after cooling of semen in different long-term extenders at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, K; Fraser, L

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated individual boar variability in the quality of pre-freeze (PF) and post-thaw (PT) semen cooled in different long-term (LT) extenders and for different holding times (HT). Sperm rich fractions were diluted with Androhep ® Plus (AHP), Androstar ® Plus (ASP), Safecell ® Plus (SCP) and TRIXcell ® Plus (TCP) extenders, stored for 2h at 17°C (HT 1) and additionally for 24h at 10°C (HT 2) and the samples were subsequently evaluated and frozen. Besides the analysis of CASA sperm variables, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome integrity, and viability (YO-PRO-1 - /PI - ) of sperm were assessed in the PF and PT semen. Results indicated that boar, extender and HT group affected the sperm quality characteristics. There were great variations in PMOT and the sperm motion patterns of the PF semen among the boars. Differences in the HT groups of the PF semen, with respect to the sperm membrane integrity, were less marked among the boars. Consistent variations in TMOT and PMOT in the PT semen were observed among the boars, being greater in the HT 2 group. Most of the CASA-analyzed sperm motion patterns were greater in the HT 2 group of the PT semen. Furthermore, sperm MMP, PMI and viability were greater in the HT 2 group of the PT semen in most of the boars, while consistent differences were observed among the boars for sperm NAR acrosome integrity in either HT group. The significant effect of the cryopreservation process on the sperm membrane proteome was evident from the number of protein bands, detected in the electrophoretic profiles of sperm of the HT 1 and HT 2 groups. The electrophoretic profiles of the PF and PT semen among boars with poor and good semen freezability, however, differed with respect to the abundance and types of sperm membrane-associated proteins. The overall results of this study provided evidence that there are differences among boars in response to the

  11. Metabolic incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into boar spermatozoa lipids and de novo formation of diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svetlichnyy, V.; Müller, P.; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in the maturation, viability and function of sperm cells. In this study, we examined the neutral and polar lipid composition of boar spermatozoa by thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry. Main representatives of the neutral lipid classes were diacylglycerols...... containing saturated (myristoyl, palmitoyl and stearoyl) fatty acyl residues. Glycerophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphatidylethanolamine with alk(en)yl ether residues in the sn-1 position and unsaturated long chained fatty acyl residues in sn-2 position were identified as the most prominent polar lipids....... The only glycoglycerolipid was sulfogalactosylglycerolipid carrying 16:0-alkyl- and 16:0-acyl chains. Using stable isotope-labelling, the metabolic incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids was analysed. Boar spermatozoa incorporated hexadecenoic (16:1), octadecenoic (18:1), octadecadienoic (18...

  12. Superoxide Dismutase: A Predicting Factor for Boar Semen Characteristics for Short-Term Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec Svete, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in seminal plasma were evaluated on the basis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as predictors for distinguishing satisfactory from unsatisfactory boar semen samples after storage. SOD on day 0 correlated significantly with progressive motility (r = −0.686; P Semen samples that, after 3 days of storage, fulfilled all criteria for semen characteristics (viability > 85%, motility > 70%, progressive motility > 25%, and normal morphology > 50%) had significantly lower SOD levels on the day 0 than those with at least one criterion not fulfilled (P semen will suit the requirements for satisfactory semen characteristics after storage, while semen with SOD levels higher than 1.05 U/mL will not fulfill with 100% accuracy at least one semen characteristic after storage. These results support the proposal that SOD in fresh boar semen can be used as a predictor of semen quality after storage. PMID:24729963

  13. The boar pheromone 16-androstenone: radioimmunoassay in adipose tissue following semi-micro saponification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, G.; Schubert, K.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the determination of 5α-16-androsten-3-one in porcine adipose tissue is described. The tissue samples are subjected to alcaline saponification in small tubes, without previous extraction. 2 variants were developed, with or without reflux condensation. This purification step is followed by RIA treatment of the neutral extract. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 0.05 and 0.03 μg/g, respectively, and was thus just sufficient for the detection of androstenone in adipose tissue of sows and castrated boars (0.02-0.06 μg/g). A mean value of 2.03 μg (0.13-8.2 μg/g) of androstenone was found per gram of adipose tissue of 64 boars aged between 8 and 9 months. (author)

  14. Fatty acid composition and its association with chemical and sensory analysis of boar taint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoye; Trautmann, Johanna; Wigger, Ruth; Zhou, Guanghong; Mörlein, Daniel

    2017-09-15

    A certain level of disagreement between the chemical analysis of androstenone and skatole and the human perception of boar taint has been found in many studies. Here we analyze whether the fatty acid composition can explain such inconsistency between sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of boar taint compounds. Therefore, back fat samples (n=143) were selected according to their sensory evaluation by a 10-person sensory panel, and the chemical analysis (stable isotope dilution analysis with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of androstenone and skatole. Subsequently a quantification of fatty acids using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was conducted. The correlation analyses revealed that several fatty acids are significantly correlated with androstenone, skatole, and the sensory rating. However, multivariate analyses (principal component analysis) revealed no explanation of the fatty acid composition with respect to the (dis-)agreement between sensory and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Method agreement between measuring of boar sperm concentration using Makler chamber and photometer

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkun Janko; Kosec M.; Zakošek Maja; Zrimšek Petra

    2007-01-01

    Determination of boar sperm concentration using a photometer is used routinely by many artificial insemination (AI) laboratories. The agreement between determining sperm concentration using Makler chamber and a photometer has been assessed. Method agreement was evaluated on the basis of scatter plots with Deming regression line, absolute bias plots with limits of agreement, and relative bias plots. Coefficients of variance for the Makler chamber and a photometer were calculated as 6.575+3.461...

  17. A maximum entropy model for predicting wild boar distribution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bosch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar (Sus scrofa populations in many areas of the Palearctic including the Iberian Peninsula have grown continuously over the last century. This increase has led to numerous different types of conflicts due to the damage these mammals can cause to agriculture, the problems they create in the conservation of natural areas, and the threat they pose to animal health. In the context of both wildlife management and the design of health programs for disease control, it is essential to know how wild boar are distributed on a large spatial scale. Given that the quantifying of the distribution of wild species using census techniques is virtually impossible in the case of large-scale studies, modeling techniques have thus to be used instead to estimate animals’ distributions, densities, and abundances. In this study, the potential distribution of wild boar in Spain was predicted by integrating data of presence and environmental variables into a MaxEnt approach. We built and tested models using 100 bootstrapped replicates. For each replicate or simulation, presence data was divided into two subsets that were used for model fitting (60% of the data and cross-validation (40% of the data. The final model was found to be accurate with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC value of 0.79. Six explanatory variables for predicting wild boar distribution were identified on the basis of the percentage of their contribution to the model. The model exhibited a high degree of predictive accuracy, which has been confirmed by its agreement with satellite images and field surveys.

  18. Wild boar movement ecology across scales: Insights from a population expanding into agroecosystems of Southern Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Morelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Over the time, ungulates have seen their populations continuously changing under the e ect of direct, i.e. hunting pressure, and indirect, i.e. land-use changes, human activities. Under control until recently, ungulates have progressively adapted to these modi cations and are now able to cope with human-shaped environments, consequently their number and range have greatly and worryingly increased. More particularly, among ungulates species, the wild boar Sus scrofa raises...

  19. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  20. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.; Forejtek, P.; Rajský, D.; Ravaszová, P.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 3-4 (2013), s. 504-508 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 022/2010/Z; Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 11/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Cryptosporidium suis * Eurasian wild boar * PCR * SSU Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  1. Effect of storage conditions on the biogenic amine content in wild boar meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of game meat depends on many factors during and after hunting. Freshness of meat is connected with the concentration of biogenic amines which is related to meat spoilage. The aim of this study was to assess changes in concentration of biogenic amines in raw meat of wild boar (n = 20, mean age 1–2 years during storage at different temperatures. Carcases of wild boars hunted in winter 2012 in hunting districts of south Moravia were stored unskinned during 21 days at various temperatures (0, 7 and 15 °C. Concentrations of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine and spermidine were determined in the shoulder and leg muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Good hygienic quality was maintained when wild boar carcasses were stored for a maximum of 14 days at 0 °C (content of biogenic amines in 3 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 21 of storage or a maximum of 7 days at 7 °C (content of biogenic amines in 4 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 14 of storage. The temperature of 15 °C should be considered as unsuitable storage temperature if good hygienic quality of game meat during storage is to be guaranteed (content of biogenic amines in 2 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg already on day 7 of storage. The study brings new information about the biogenic amine content and its changes in wild boar meat during the storage period of 21 days.

  2. Localization of porcine seminal plasma (PSP) proteins in the boar reproductive tract and spermatozoa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková, Pavla; Jonáková, Věra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2008), s. 40-48 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0895; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : porcine seminal plasma proteins * boar reproductive tract * spermatozoa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2008

  3. Adverse effects of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Juan Luis; Ausejo, Raquel; Dahmani, Yahya; Falceto, Maria V; Usan, Adan; Malo, Clara; Perez-Martinez, Francisco C

    2013-10-01

    Semen samples collected in 2012 from 1785 boars belonging to five different breeds were recruited from the quality control laboratory of Magapor SL, Spain. These samples came from 43 boar studs and resulted from diluting the ejaculates in commercial semen extenders. Evaluation of the semen sample characteristics (color, smell, pH, osmolality, concentration, motility of sperm cells, agglutination, acrosome integrity, short hypoosmotic swelling test, and abnormal forms) revealed that they met the international standards. The samples were also tested for the presence of aerobic bacterial contamination. In the present study, 14.73% (n = 263) of the semen samples were contaminated above 3 × 10(2) colony-forming units/mL with at least one type of bacteria. The Enterobacteriaceae family was by far the major contaminant, being present in 40.68% of the contaminated samples (n = 107). Bacterial strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from boar semen samples were in order of incidence (percentage of the contaminated samples): Serratia marcescens (12.55%), Klebsiella oxytoca (11.79%), Providencia stuartii (9.12%), Morganella morganii (3.80%), Proteus mirabilis (1.90%), and Escherichia coli (1.52%). We have seen that the presence in semen samples of S. marcescens, K. oxytoca, M. morganii, or P. mirabilis, but not P. stuartii or E. coli, was negatively associated with sperm motility (P semen samples infected with M. morganii compared with uninfected ones. Moreover, P. mirabilis was negatively associated with the presence of abnormal forms. Thus, on the basis of the pathological effects that some of these strains may have on boar sperm quality, bacterial contamination should always be examined in semen samples prepared for artificial insemination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing sugar type supplementation for cryopreservation of boar semen in egg yolk based extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Gonzalez, N; Cano, R; de Blas, I; Espinosa, E

    2010-08-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to lower fertility when compared to fresh semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of different sugars (lactose, trehalose and glucose) on boar spermatozoa cryopreserved in an egg yolk based extender. Ejaculates were collected from a boar previously selected and semen samples were processed using the straw freezing procedure. In experiment 1, subsamples of semen were frozen in three different extenders: recommended lactose egg yolk extender (LEY); trehalose egg yolk extender (TEY) and glucose egg yolk extender (GEY). Sperm quality was assessed for motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic swelling test response upon collection, after freezing and thawing and then every hour for 3h. Results showed that total motility at 1 and 3h, progressive motility at 3h, positive hypoosmotic response at 2 and 3h and acrosome integrity at all times were significantly improved when trehalose was added to the extender. In experiment 2, sugar influence was also demonstrated in vitro fertilization. A total of 1691 oocytes were in vitro matured and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm at 2000:1 sperm:oocyte ratio and coincubated for 6h. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in NCSU-23 medium to assess fertilization parameters and embryo development. Both penetration and monospermy rates were significantly higher for trehalose frozen semen. A significant increase was observed in efficiency and blastocyst formation rates from TEY to the other groups. Our results demonstrated that trehalose extender enhances spermatozoa viability and its in vitro fertilization parameters in boar ejaculates with good sperm freezability. Further studies are necessary to assess the impact of sugars on the entire population. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Survivability of boar sperm stored under room temperature in extenders containing some natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Machebe,; Ugwu,Simeon; Akandi,Alafuro

    2015-01-01

    Alafuro Akandi,1 Simeon Ogochukwu Ugwu,1 Ndubuisi Samuel Machebe,1,2 1Department of Animal Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; 2Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, College of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Background: Semen extenders are used to create multiple insemination doses from a single ejaculate and contain buffers and nutrients suitable for storage of spermatozoa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survivability of boar sperm stored under room temp...

  7. Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid peroxidation following freezing-thawing of boar semen

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, L.; Strzeżek, J.; Wasilewska, K.; Pareek, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage following freezing-thawing of boar semen in different extenders. The comet assay was used to measure the extent of sperm DNA damage in a cryoprotectant-free extender or in cryoprotectant-based extenders after single and repeated freezing and thawing. As well as an analysis of sperm motion characteristics, mitochondrial function, membrane integrity, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed simulta...

  8. Testing an egg yolk supplemented diet on boars to aid in sperm adaptation at 5°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Isabel; Miller-Lux, Yvonne; Osborne, Betty; Bonet, Sergi; Althouse, Gary C

    2015-01-01

    In many species, extended semen can be stored at low temperatures to slow bacterial growth. However, boar semen performs poorly at temperatures below 15 °C and this poses unique challenges, as it is not easy to maintain a constant 15-19 °C during shipment. Some extenders have been formulated with egg yolk for storage at 5 °C but the addition of egg yolk is not applicable in the majority of commercial operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if boar dietary supplementation with powdered egg yolk imparts any protective effects on sperm quality when stored at 15 °C and 5 °C for up to 11 days in a conventional extender. Ten boars were fed a commercial diet with the addition of 0.11 Kg of powdered egg yolk for 10 weeks. Ejaculates collected on weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 were processed for storage at both 15 °C and 5 °C and compared with ejaculates from boars fed a standard diet. Throughout an 11-day storage period, sperm quality was assessed including several motility and morphologic parameters and select plasma membrane properties (fluidity, integrity, and triacylglycerol content). Linear regression models were used to describe effects of treatment, storage day, week and temperature on all sperm parameters. Overall, there were minimal beneficial effects of egg yolk treatment on sperm quality parameters. Sperm from egg yolk supplemented boars did have a slower decline in viability and plasma membrane fluidity than that observed in the control sperm when stored at 5 °C (p boars compared to controls at week 10 (p boars.

  9. The effect of Curcuma longa extracted (curcumin) on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of curcumin needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Semen samples (n = 9) were collected from nine Duroc boars which having proven fertility were used for routine artificial insemination. Semen samples were collected and divided into six groups (groups A-F) according to various concentrations of curcumin in freezing extender (i.e. 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mmol/L, respectively). The semen was frozen by traditional liquid nitrogen vapor method and stored at -196°C in the liquid nitrogen tank. After storage, frozen semen samples were thawed at 50°C for 12 s and evaluated for progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity. The present results indicated that the addition of curcumin at 0.25 (group C) or 0.50 mmol/L curcumin (group D) yielded the higher percentage of progressive motility (33.3 and 36.1%, respectively) (P curcumin during cryopreservation at a concentration of 0.25 or 0.50 mmol/L is the optimal concentration of curcumin for improving the quality (i.e. increased progressive motility and acrosome integrity) of cryopreserved boar semen. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  12. Cationic synthetic peptides: assessment of their antimicrobial potency in liquid preserved boar semen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Speck

    Full Text Available Various semen extender formulas are in use to maintain sperm longevity and quality whilst acting against bacterial contamination in liquid sperm preservation. Aminoglycosides are commonly supplemented to aid in the control of bacteria. As bacterial resistance is increasing worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs received lively interest as alternatives to overcome multi-drug resistant bacteria. We investigated, whether synthetic cationic AMPs might be a suitable alternative for conventional antibiotics in liquid boar sperm preservation. The antibacterial activity of two cyclic AMPs (c-WWW, c-WFW and a helical magainin II amide analog (MK5E was studied in vitro against two Gram-positive and eleven Gram-negative bacteria. Isolates included ATCC reference strains, multi-resistant E. coli and bacteria cultured from boar semen. Using broth microdilution, minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for all AMPs. All AMPs revealed activity towards the majority of bacteria but not against Proteus spp. (all AMPs and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MK5E. We could also demonstrate that c-WWW and c-WFW were effective against bacterial growth in liquid preserved boar semen in situ, especially when combined with a small amount of gentamicin. Our results suggest that albeit not offering a complete alternative to traditional antibiotics, the use of AMPs offers a promising solution to decrease the use of conventional antibiotics and thereby limit the selection of multi-resistant strains.

  13. Selected Biometric Characteristics of Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa Ferus in North-East Romania

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    Alina Narcisa Postolache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study analyzed selected biometric characteristics from 117 wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus harvested during 2008 – 2014 in the Frasin and Marginea Forest hunting ground districts of Suceava County. Hunted boars were measured individually for head-body length (cm, height at withers (cm, length of metatarsus (cm, ear length (cm, tail length (cm and body weight (kg in accordance with their age-class and gender. These characteristics give information on the growth and development of wild boars and on the quality of their habitat. It was found that the average carcass weight was: piglets – 28.4 kg, yearling – 78.1 kg, subadults – 102.9 kg. The results show a faster body growth in females during their first year, while males make up for the weight difference in their 2nd and 3rd year. Statistical differences shown that males differentiate significantly to females by weight, body length, height at withers and length of metatarsus (P < 0.05 starting with their second year of life. The results regarding growth dynamic go along with the changes in boar’s social life, when the males are forced to leave and form smaller groups.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Domesticated Korean Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to sylvatic infection. Consequently, Koreans who ingest wild boar may be at risk of a tuberculosis infection. To reduce the risk of foodborne infection and maintain public health, continuous monitoring and control strategies are required.

  15. Cationic Synthetic Peptides: Assessment of Their Antimicrobial Potency in Liquid Preserved Boar Semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Stephanie; Courtiol, Alexandre; Junkes, Christof; Dathe, Margitta; Müller, Karin; Schulze, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Various semen extender formulas are in use to maintain sperm longevity and quality whilst acting against bacterial contamination in liquid sperm preservation. Aminoglycosides are commonly supplemented to aid in the control of bacteria. As bacterial resistance is increasing worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) received lively interest as alternatives to overcome multi-drug resistant bacteria. We investigated, whether synthetic cationic AMPs might be a suitable alternative for conventional antibiotics in liquid boar sperm preservation. The antibacterial activity of two cyclic AMPs (c-WWW, c-WFW) and a helical magainin II amide analog (MK5E) was studied in vitro against two Gram-positive and eleven Gram-negative bacteria. Isolates included ATCC reference strains, multi-resistant E. coli and bacteria cultured from boar semen. Using broth microdilution, minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for all AMPs. All AMPs revealed activity towards the majority of bacteria but not against Proteus spp. (all AMPs) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MK5E). We could also demonstrate that c-WWW and c-WFW were effective against bacterial growth in liquid preserved boar semen in situ, especially when combined with a small amount of gentamicin. Our results suggest that albeit not offering a complete alternative to traditional antibiotics, the use of AMPs offers a promising solution to decrease the use of conventional antibiotics and thereby limit the selection of multi-resistant strains. PMID:25148109

  16. Egg Yolk Protective Effect in Boar Spermatozoa Cooled at 5ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Vasile Rusu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many boar reproduction researches are directed to improve extenders and to increase cold shock protection of semen. Little research is focused on the influence of egg yolk combined with alternative cold shock protective media. Egg yolk could interfere with other compounds present in the extender composition. The influence of egg yolk addition was assessed in boar sperm cells, cooled at 5ºC, to elucidate its effect on motility and membrane integrity. Flow Cytometry and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA were used to determine the rate of sperm with intact plasma and acrosomal membrane, respectively the sperm cells motility. Statistical analyses (T-Test were performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00. Androhep Plus supplemented with 20% egg yolk (AhPlus+20%EY indicated a higher cold shock protection in progressive motility (93.9±2.64% and membrane integrity (79.78±4.14%, rather than the extender without egg yolk (p0.05. The combination egg yolk-AhPlus seems to be an alternative to standard extenders, conferring stability in boar sperm cells against cold shock.

  17. Sperm DNA fragmentation in boars is delayed or abolished by using sperm extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Llano, Begoña; Enciso, María; García-Casado, Pedro; Sala, Rubén; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    The semen quality of seven young adult boars was assessed for percentages of sperm motility, normal acrosomes, abnormal sperm, cells positive to sHOST (short Hipoosmotic Swelling Test), HPNA cells (sHOST Positive with Normal Acrosome cells) and the percentage of sperm heads, which exhibited DNA fragmentation using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCD). These parameters were analysed in sperm samples both undiluted and diluted using a commercial extender and stored at 15 degrees C for 21 days. Results showed that semen quality decreases faster in the undiluted semen samples from day 0 to day 7 compared to diluted semen samples that remained with a high quality up to day 11. The undiluted semen exhibited a low DNA fragmentation index (DFI) during the first days and then a significant increase from day 7 up to day 21. This increase in the DFI coincided with the lowest levels of the other semen quality parameters. On the contrary, the samples diluted in the commercial extender showed very low levels of DNA fragmentation in all boars during the preservation period. When the evolution of DNA fragmentation was analysed in the undiluted samples, differences were found among boars. These differences were not shown in the samples diluted in the extender where the basal DFI remained stable during the 21 days. The main conclusion of this study was that some sperm extenders delay or partially prevent sperm DNA fragmentation.

  18. Supplemental effect of varying L-cysteine concentrations on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeoket, Kampon; Chanapiwat, Panida; Tummaruk, Padet; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to lipid peroxidation of the sperm membrane and consequently a reduction in sperm motility and decreased fertility potential. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of L-cysteine needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Twelve boars provided semen of proven motility and morphology for this study. The semen was divided into four portions in which the lactose-egg yolk (LEY) extender used to resuspend the centrifuged sperm pellet was supplemented with various concentrations of L-cysteine to reach 0 mmol L−1 (group I, control), 5 mmol L−1 (group II), 10 mmol L−1 (group III) and 15 mmol L−1 (group IV). Semen suspensions were loaded in straws (0.5 mL) and placed in a controlled-rate freezer. After cryopreservation, frozen semen samples were thawed and investigated for progressive motility, viability using SYBR-14/EthD-1 staining and acrosome integrity using FITC-PNA/EthD-1 staining. There was a significantly higher (P extender for improving the quality of frozen–thawed boar semen. PMID:20601963

  19. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (Pboar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (Pextenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (Pboar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction of milk proteins and Binder of Sperm (BSP) proteins from boar, stallion and ram semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Geneviève; Lusignan, Marie-France; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian semen contains a family of closely related proteins known as Binder of SPerm (BSP proteins) that are added to sperm at ejaculation. BSP proteins extract lipids from the sperm membrane thereby extensively modifying its composition. These changes can ultimately be detrimental to sperm storage. We have demonstrated that bovine BSP proteins interact with major milk proteins and proposed that this interaction could be the basis of sperm protection by milk extenders. In the present study, we investigated if homologous BSP proteins present in boar, stallion and ram seminal plasma display a similar affinity for the milk proteins in order to assess whether the mechanism of sperm protection by milk for these species could be general. Skim milk was incubated with seminal plasma proteins (boar, stallion and ram), chromatographed on a Sepharose CL-4B column and protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. Boar, stallion and ram BSP proteins displayed affinity for a milk protein fraction (F1) mainly composed of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and κ-casein. They also had affinity for another milk protein fraction (F2) composed mostly of casein micelles. However, stallion BSP showed higher affinity for the fraction (F1). These results further extend our view that the association of BSP proteins with milk proteins could be a general feature of the mechanism of mammalian sperm protection by milk to prevent detrimental effect of prolonged exposure of sperm to seminal plasma.

  1. Trehalose in glycerol-free freezing extender enhances post-thaw survival of boar spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATHURUPANA, Rukmali; TAKAHASHI, Daisen; IOKI, Sumire; FUNAHASHI, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to lower fertility as compared with fresh samples when glycerol, a permeating cryoprotectant, is used. Trehalose is a non-permeable cryoprotectant and nonreducing disaccharide known to stabilize proteins and biologic membranes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cryosurvival and in vitro penetrability of boar spermatozoa when glycerol was replaced with trehalose in a freezing extender. Ejaculated Berkshire semen samples were diluted in egg yolk-based freezing extender containing glycerol (100 mM) or trehalose (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM) and cryopreserved using a straw freezing procedure. Thawed samples were analyzed for motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and acrosome integrity. In experiment 2, penetrability of spermatozoa cryopreserved with 100 mM glycerol or trehalose was examined. Replacement of cryoprotectant glycerol (100 mM) with trehalose had no effect on sperm viability, but replacing it with 100 mM trehalose improved motility, MMP and acrosome integrity significantly. Sperm motility and MMP were considerably higher in 100 mM trehalose, whereas the acrosome integrity was substantially higher in 100–250 mM trehalose. The in vitro penetration rate was also significantly higher in spermatozoa cryopreserved with trehalose (61.3%) than in those cryopreserved with glycerol (43.6%). In conclusion, 100 mM non-permeable trehalose can be used to replace glycerol, a permeating cryoprotectant, for maintenance of better post-thaw quality of boar spermatozoa. PMID:25754239

  2. Boar genotype as a factor shaping age-related changes in semen parameters and reproduction longevity simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Damian; Jankowska-Mąkosa, Anna; Duziński, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was a detailed analysis of the boar genotypes used in AI stations with an indication of their production capacity, including age and a precise analysis of their culling time and reason. The study included 334 boars: 81 Polish Large White (PLW), 108 Polish Landrace (PL), 49 Pietrain (P), 56 Duroc × Pietrain (D × P) and 40 Hampshire × Pietrain (H × P). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, number of motile spermatozoa, and number of insemination doses were analyzed. Quadratic regression was used to illustrate the selected sperm parameters at specific ages. Among all the studied boars the lowest motilities of spermatozoa were identified in white breeds PLW and PL, and the difference between motility extremes was 3.53% (P ≤ 0.01). The highest number of insemination doses were produced from D × P crossbreed boars: about 0.7 portions more compared to PL, 1.13 to PLW, 1.18 to H × P and 1.8 to P (all differences P ≤ 0.01). It has been shown in the case of ejaculate volume that for PLW and H × P boars the culling moment was far too early in terms of production capacity and differences were, respectively, 16.35 ml for PLW and 12.61 ml for H × P. Based on the developed regression equations, the earliest maximum number of motile sperm (73.82 × 10 9 ) was obtained by H × P crossbreed boars as early as at age 24 months. The highest values for this parameter were achieved, however, by other D × P crossbreed boars: 74.30 × 10 9  at the later age of 32 months. A consequence of the high number of motile sperm in young H × P boars was that the theoretical maximum value of the number of AI doses was produced as early as the 14th month (25.59 portions). Curves of similar shape were obtained for PL and D × P boars; the difference in maximal values was 0.54 portions in favor of crossbreeds, at a later age of 7 months. It was noted that for PLW and D × P boars the highest number

  3. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas; Otten, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrow...

  4. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination is effective in reducing disease and PCV2 shedding in semen of boars concurrently infected with PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the amount of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) shed in semen will be increased in boars experimentally coinfected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO) and if PCV2 vaccination of the boars prior to PCV2 exposure will result in reduced PCV2 viremia and...

  5. Characteristics of wild boar (Sus scrofa habituation to urban areas in the Collserola Natural Park (Barcelona and comparison with other locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel growth of urban areas and wild boar populations in recent years has increased the presence of this species around cities and in suburban areas, often leading to conflict with local people. In the Collserola Natural Park, situated within the metropolitan area of Barcelona, wild boar have become habituated to humans and urban settings because of direct feeding by local residents. Their attraction to these areas due to an abundance of anthropogenic food sources is especially strong during the warmer summer season when foraging conditions are poorer in their natural woodland habitat; the number of captures of habituated wild boar in peri–urban areas is significantly correlated with mean monthly temperatures. Habituated boar are primarily matriarchal groups, whereas adult and sub–adult (>1 year males are significantly less represented than in non–habituated boars. In Collserola, habituated sub–adult and adult females are significantly heavier than their non–habituated counterparts and these weight differences increase with age; in the > 3 year–old age class they may be 35% heavier. Conflicts generated by the presence of wild boar in peri–urban areas are complex, and the responses by authorities are similarly diverse and often exacerbated by ambivalent public attitudes, both towards wild boar presence and applied mitigation measures. By 2010, at least 44 cities in 15 countries had reported problems of some kind relating to the presence of wild boar or feral pigs.

  6. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Schmalhausen Inst. of Zoology; Goshchak, S. [RIA Pripyat, Chernobyl (Ukraine). Restoration Dept.; Jones, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Geography; Shcherbatchenko, A. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    1996-12-31

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995. 18 refs, 8 figs.

  7. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eRossi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is among the most detrimental diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Infected wild boar populations can play a crucial role in CSF epidemiology and controlling wild reservoirs is of utmost importance for preventing domestic outbreaks. Oral mass vaccination (OMV has been implemented to control CSF in wild boars and limit the spill over to domestic pigs. This retrospective overview of vaccination experiences illustrates the potential for that option. The C-strain live vaccine was confirmed to be highly efficacious and palatable baits were developed for oral delivery in free ranging wild boars. The first field trials were performed in Germany in the 1990’s and allowed deploying oral baits at a large scale. The delivery process was further improved during the 2000’s among different European countries. Optimal deployment has to be early regarding disease emergence and correctly designed regarding the landscape structure and the natural food sources that can compete with oral baits. OMV deployment is also highly dependent on a local veterinary support working closely with hunters, wildlife and forestry agencies. Vaccination has been the most efficient strategy for CSF control in free ranging wild boar when vaccination is wide spread and lasting for a sufficient period of time. Alternative disease control strategies such as intensified hunting or creating physical boundaries such as fences have been, in contrast, seldom satisfactory and reliable. However, monitoring outbreaks has been challenging during and after vaccination deployment since OMV results in a low probability to detect virus-positive animals and the live-vaccine currently available does not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. The development of a new marker vaccine and companion test is thus a promising option for better monitoring outbreaks during OMV deployment as well as help to better determine when to stop

  8. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacka Katarzyna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43 and androgen receptor (AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90. Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43

  9. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W.; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G.; Goshchak, S.; Jones, B.; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V.; Shcherbatchenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995

  10. Influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on puberty attainment of replacement gilts raised in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on age at first observed estrus of the replacement gilts raised in Thailand. In total, 766 gilts were measured for body weight and backfat thickness prior to insemination. Body weight was further calculated for growth rate. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by back pressure test with an existence of mature boars with high libido. The first date of boar exposure and that of first observed estrus were individually recorded. Due to growth rate, they were classified into three groups: high (>700 g/day), moderate (600-700 g/day), and low (<600 g/day). According to onset of boar contact, the gilts were grouped into two categories: early (<150 days) and late (≥150 days). The results revealed that the gilts expressed first observed estrus, averagely, at age 205.1 ± 34.1 days, had a growth rate of 615.5 ± 57.6 g/day, and first contact with boars at 160.7 ± 19.9 days of age. The gilts with low growth rate expressed first estrus later than those with moderate (208.6 ± 2.0 vs 198.0 ± 3.2 days, P = 0.033) and high growth rate (208.6 ± 2.0 vs 193.9 ± 6.7 days, P = 0.005) groups. Together with the influence of boar exposure, the gilts contacted boar earlier with high growth rate showed first estrus at age 180.3 ± 10.1 days, whereas those with later boar contact with low growth rate showed first estrus at age 197.9 ± 3.2 days. In summary, the replacement gilts should have high growth rate and contact boar early to attain puberty faster and possess decent subsequent reproductive performance.

  11. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  12. Twenty Practices of an Entrepreneurial University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Cameron, Shona P.B.

    2006-01-01

    studies twenty organisational practices against which a University's entrepreneurship can be measured. These twenty practices or factors in effect formed the basis for an entrepreneurship audit. During a series of interviews, the extent to which the universities are seen as entrepreneurial...

  13. The dependence of the growth rate and meat content of young boars on semen parameters and conception rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, D; Jankowska-Mąkosa, A; Duziński, K

    2017-05-01

    Boars have a decisive impact on the progress in pig production, however, there is no recent information about the optimal growth parameters during the rearing period for modern breed later used in artificial insemination (AI) stations. Therefore, the objective of the research was to conduct semen parameter and conception rate analyses on the basis of growth rate and meat content assessments made during the rearing of AI boars of different genotypes. The study was carried out between 2010 and 2014 and included 184 boars in five breed combinations: 46 Polish Large White, 50 Polish Landrace, 27 Pietrain, 36 Duroc×Pietrain and 25 Hampshire×Pietrain. Boars were qualified by daily gains and meat content assessment (between 170 and 210 days of life). A total number of 38 272 ejaculates were examined (semen volume (ml), spermatozoa concentration (×106 ml-1), total number of spermatozoa (×109) and number of insemination doses from one ejaculate (n)). The fertility was determined by the conception rate (%). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and conception rate (PMeat content affected semen volume, number of insemination doses and conception rate (Pmeat content helps AI stations to increase the efficiency and economic profitability, and the number of insemination doses to increase by up to 300 doses/boar within a year. The analyses of growth parameters may help increase the efficiency and economic viability of AI stations.

  14. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rienzo Julio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions.

  15. Feeding of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations of seasonal feed choice of a wild boar have been carried out during a 3-year period on the basis of the stomach content. Results of the investigations are given. A list of forage plants and forage animals is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is evaluated. Main plant assemblages of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident are analyzed for their significance in the diet of a wild boar. Special attention is paid to the role of underground forage (35% of average annual forage), and to consumption of Oenotera biennis roots comprising 26% of average annual forage. Recent state of the forage base and of the wild boar population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  16. Influence of chamber type integrated with computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system on the results of boar semen evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gączarzewicz, D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different types of chambers used in computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) on boar sperm concentration and motility parameters. CASA measurements were performed on 45 ejaculates by comparing three commonly used chambers: Leja chamber (LJ), Makler chamber (MK) and microscopic slide-coverslip (SL). Concentration results obtained with CASA were verified by manual counting on a Bürker hemocytometer (BH). No significant differences were found between the concentrations determined with BH vs. LJ and SL, whereas higher (p0.05). The results obtained show that CASA assessment of boar semen should account for the effect of counting chamber on the results of sperm motility and concentration, which confirms the need for further study on standardizing the automatic analysis of boar semen.

  17. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žele, Diana; Barry, Aline F; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W; Vengušt, Gorazd; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by serology, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by HEV RNA detection using a real-time PCR assay. Antibodies against HEV were detected in 30.2% (87/288) of animals tested, whereas HEV RNA was detected in only one sample. This is the first evidence of HEV presence in the wild boar population in Slovenia, and these results suggest that these animals are part of the HEV epidemiological cycle in the country.

  18. Epidemiological study of the intestinal helminths of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon) in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Bertani, M; Dell'Omodarme, M; Prati, M C

    2002-12-01

    Since 1995 the population of wild ungulates increased significantly in the "Parco provinciale dei Monti Livornesi" (Livorno, Tuscany, Central Italy). We studied the intestinal macroparasites of two hosts, the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and the mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon). In the case of wild boars we found a dominant parasite species, Globocephalus urosubulatus. For this parasite the frequency distribution of the number of parasites per host agrees with a negative binomial distribution. There is not a significant correlation between the age of the animals and the parasitosis. Furthermore the mean parasite burden of male and female wild boars does not differ significantly. In the case of mouflons we found a dominant parasite species Nematodirus filicollis with Trichuris ovis as codominant species.

  19. Characteristics of sperm motility in boar semen diluted in different extenders and stored for seven days at 18 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estienne, Mark J; Harper, Allen F; Day, Jennifer L

    2007-11-01

    Although numerous extenders exist for diluting boar semen, little research has been conducted comparing commercial extenders with regard to maintaining sperm motility during storage. The objective was to use a computer- assisted sperm analysis system to assess motility of boar spermatozoa diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution, Merck-III, Androhep-lite, Sperm Aid, MR-A, Modena, X-Cell, VSP, and Vital. Ejaculates from boars (n=10) were collected and sub-samples were diluted (35x10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in the different extenders and stored for seven days at 18 degrees. Extender by day interactions were detected (pextenders. For example, on day 7, the percentages of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa were highest (pextender utilized, but with the exception of Sperm Aid, all extenders maintained a high degree of sperm motility through 7 days of storage.

  20. Effect of production management on semen quality during long-term storage in different European boar studs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Kuster, C; Schäfer, J; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2018-03-01

    The processing of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that affect quality of boar semen doses. The production process during 1 day of semen processing in 26 European boar studs was monitored. In each boar stud, nine to 19 randomly selected ejaculates from 372 Pietrain boars were analyzed for sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and thermo-resistance (TRT). Each ejaculate was monitored for production time and temperature for each step in semen processing using the special programmed software SEQU (version 1.7, Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany). The dilution of ejaculates with a short-term extender was completed in one step in 10 AI centers (n = 135 ejaculates), in two steps in 11 AI centers (n = 158 ejaculates) and in three steps in five AI centers (n = 79 ejaculates). Results indicated there was a greater semen quality with one-step isothermal dilution compared with the multi-step dilution of AI semen doses (total motility TRT d7: 71.1 ± 19.2%, 64.6 ± 20.0%, 47.1 ± 27.1%; one-step compared with two-step compared with the three-step dilution; P < .05). There was a marked advantage when using the one-step isothermal dilution regarding time management, preservation suitability, stability and stress resistance. One-step dilution caused significant lower holding times of raw ejaculates and reduced the possible risk of making mistakes due to a lower number of processing steps. These results lead to refined recommendations for boar semen processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of natural betaine on estimates of semen quality in mature AI boars during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, F A; Stewart, K R; Schinckel, A P; Barnes, W; Boyd, R D; Wilcock, P; Woodliff, J

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P=0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P=0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P=0.009) and tail (P=0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P=0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryopreservation of boar semen. III: Ultrastructure of boar spermatozoa frozen ultra-rapidly at various stages of conventional freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; Ekwall, H; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1991-01-01

    Ejaculated boar spermatozoa subjected to a conventional freezing and thawing process, were ultra-rapidly fixed, freeze-substituted and examined by electron microscopy to monitor the presence of real or potential intracellular ice and the degree of cell protection attained with the different extenders used during the process. Numerous ice crystal marks representing the degree of hydration of the cells were located in the perinuclear space of those spermatozoa not in proper contact with the extender containing glycerol (i.e. prior to freezing). The spermatozoa which were in proper contact with the extenders presented a high degree of preservation of the acrosomes, plasma membranes as well as the nuclear envelopes. No ice marks were detected in acrosomes before thawing, indicating that the conventional assayed cryopreservation method provided a good protection against cryoinjury. The presence of acrosomal changes (internal vesiculization, hydration and swelling) in thawed samples however, raises serious questions about the thawing procedure employed.

  3. Cryopreservation of boar semen. II: Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau on boar semen frozen in mini- and maxi-straws and plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1991-01-01

    The post-thaw motility and the acrosome integrity of semen from 4 boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini (0.25 ml) and maxi (5 ml) plastic straws and in 10 x 5 cm Teflon FEP-plastic bags (0.12 mm thick, 5 ml), were compared. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermo-couples placed in the straws and the bags. Three freezing programmes were used, namely A: from +5 degrees C, at a rate of 3 degrees C/min, to -6 degrees C, held for 1 min at -6 degrees C, and followed by a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min to -100 degrees C; B: a similar curve except that there was no holding time at -6 degrees C and that the cooling rate was 30 degrees C/min, and C: from +5 degrees C to -100 degrees C, with a cooling rate of 35 degrees C/min, followed by storage in liquid N2. Despite the freezing curve assayed, both the mini-straws and the bags depicted much shorter freezing point plateaus as compared to the maxi-straws. Post-thaw sperm motility as well as the amount of normal apical ridges were equally significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws or in bags than in maxi-straws. Significant differences in these post-thawing parameters were obtained between the freezing curves used. The stepwise freezing procedure A appeared as the best alternative for boar semen, considering this in vitro evaluation.

  4. Use of boar spermatozoa for artificial insemination. III. Fecundity of boar spermatozoa stored in Beltsville liquid and Kiev extenders for three days at 18 C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L A; Aalbers, J G; Willems, C M; Rademaker, J H; Rexroad, C E

    1982-01-01

    A field trial was conducted on several hundred farms in The Netherlands to compare the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa stored for 1, 2, or 3 d at 18 C in either Kiev or Beltsville liquid extender (BL-1). Two storage volumes (25 and 100 ml) were used. Twelve Dutch Landrace boars, all in routine commercial artificial insemination service, provided the semen in twice-a-week collections. Over an 8-wk period in March and April, 1979, 2,849 sows and gilts were inseminated. Farrowing rates were higher (P less than .0001) with Kiev extender than with BL-1 extender (69.3 vs 60.5%) when semen was used over a 3 d period. The volume at which the semen was extended and stored had no effect on any parameter. Farrowing rate declined significantly when semen stored at 18 C for more than 2 d was used (74.5% vs 64.7% with semen stored for 1 and 3 in Kiev extender; 65.9% vs 52.7% with semen stored for 1 and 3 d in BL-1 extender). The farrowing rate, total number of pigs/litter and live pigs/litter were significantly higher for sows than for gilts inseminated with similar extended semen. On the basis of the results of this trial, Kiev extender appears to be more suitable as a diluent for liquid semen than does BL-1. AI with semen extended and stored for 3 d at 18 C can be expected to result in a lower farrowing rate than AI with semen stored for 1 or 2 d.

  5. Effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing methods on post-thaw boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung-Hsun; Wu, Ting-Wen; Cheng, Feng-Pang; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of glycerol (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%) and dimethylacetamide (DMA: 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on post-sperm quality characteristics following semen freezing in dry ice (D) or liquid nitrogen (N). Semen was collected from Duroc boars and was allocated to 32 treatment groups for cryopreservation. Analysis of post-thaw semen quality and fertility after artificial insemination (AI) was used to examine the combinatorial effects of different treatments. The best scores for post-thaw sperm motility, sperm viability, and sperm acrosomal integrity were observed in semen frozen in: (a) dry ice in the presence of 5% glycerol and no DMA (16D-treatment); (b) dry ice in the presence of 3% glycerol and no DMA (9D-treatment); and (c) liquid nitrogen in the presence of 3% glycerol and 1% DMA (10N-treatment), with no significant difference observed among these three treatments. The farrowing rates after AI with post-thawed semen after 9D- and 10N-treatments were 33% and 50%, respectively. To summarize, the results of the present study indicated that the freezing extender containing 3% glycerol in combination with the straw-freezing method using dry ice produced the best post-thaw quality parameters of boar semen. Combinations of glycerol and DMA did not enhance the cryosurvival of boar spermatozoa. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Boar semen bacterial contamination in Italy and antibiotic efficacy in a modified extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bresciani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to identify microbial flora in boar semen under field conditions in northern Italy, to investigate antibiotic resistance and sensitivity of isolated bacteria, and to evaluate elimination of bacteria after storage in two types of extenders added with different antibiotics (amikacin vs gentamicin. A total of 60 boars were collected in 13 pig farms. Bacteriological and mycological investigations were performed immediately on raw semen samples, then at 48 and 120 h of storage on semen diluted randomly in a new short-term modified extender (ME-S or in a commercial one (CRONOSTM. Bacterial contamination was found in 63% of raw semen samples and different bacterial species were isolated: E.coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus epidermidis and aureus, Proteus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli was the most isolated contaminant (53%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found only in one semen sample. The analysis of variance of factors affecting contamination levels was significant for the farm of origin (P<0.05 and not significant for the breed. Antibiotic resistance of these bacteria was assessed using different antibiotics. Significant differences (P<0.05 between observed and expected frequencies of bacterial isolates resistant or not to the antibiotics contained in the extenders were found. At 48 h of storage a reduction of aerobic contamination was found after ME-S dilution by 85.3% and after CRONOSTM by 63.8%. This paper proved the presence of pathogenic bacteria in semen. We thus believe it is highly advisable to perform periodic microbiological screening of boar semen in the swine industry to avoid the use of low sperm quality.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of coffee husk as floor covering on the behavior of boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Cristina Teles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the influence of coffee husks as floor covering on the aspects of animal welfare such as behavioral characteristics, body surface temperature, and salivary cortisol levels of stabled boars. Sixteen boars were housed in individual stalls; eight were maintained in a conventional system with a concrete floor and eight were maintained on a concrete floor lined with coffee husks. The experimental period was 60 days. All animals were filmed two days prior to the start of the experiment, on both the 7th and 60th days after exposure to coffee husks, and finally two days after the removal of the material. During this period, the number of times that the animals ate, drank, stood, sat, lay down, and dug was recorded. Furthermore, both body surface temperature and salivary cortisol levels were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. The use of coffee husks did not influence body surface temperature. Salivary cortisol levels increased during the experimental period only in the animals maintained on coffee husks. In the morning, the coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals sat and increased the number of times that they lay down. In the afternoon, the use of coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals stood, sat, or dug and increased the number of times that the animals lay down. Although coffee husks do not change the behavior of the animals in an expressive way, they should not be used as floor covering for boars.

  9. Distribution of 137Cs in Meat and Internal Organs of Wild Boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, D.; Marovic, G.; Skoko, B.; Vickovic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most common species of game on the territory of Croatia. Similarly to other game, it can accumulate fission products more effectively than domestic animals. Therefore, it is a good biondicator for radioactive contamination of ecosystems. The purpose of our research has been to investigate current radioactive contamination of wild boars by 137Cs and its distribution inside the animal body. Therefore, during the winter of 2009 and summer of 2010, we collected samples of meat, internal organs (heart, lungs, spleen, kidney and liver) and bones from 11 animals. All the animals were from the area of the research locality S umbar . The average activity concentration of 137Cs found in meat samples was (1.47 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , and in bones (0.12 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 . Activity concentration found in organs was (in ascending order): lungs (1.63 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , spleen (2.29 ± 0.04) Bqkg -1 , liver (2.54 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , heart (2.70 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , and kidney (3.18 ± 0.06) Bqkg -1 . We also calculated the values of the ratio of activity concentrations in internal organs and meat. Comparison of the obtained values with those for samples collected after the Chernobyl accident shows that the present ones are higher for liver and kidney, while those for heart are almost the same. Since vital organs of wild boars are more loaded than meat and bones, the impact of radioactive contamination on health of these animals should be more closely investigated. Also, these results imply that kidney is the most accumulating organ for 137Cs.(author)

  10. Response to capacitating stimuli indicates extender-related differences in boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Henning, H; Petrunkina, A M; Weitze, K F; Waberski, D

    2013-10-01

    Spermatozoa, especially those of the porcine species, are highly susceptible to in vitro chilling and ageing. Extenders are continuously developed to protect boar spermatozoa from chilling injury. New semen extenders and other modified preservation strategies require sensitive testing for essential sperm functions. The key process on the pathway of fertilization is capacitation. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the specific response to capacitating stimuli is sensitive enough to indicate different preservation capacities of extenders during hypothermic storage of boar spermatozoa. Semen was diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) and Androstar Plus and kept for 3 h at 22°C or stored at 17°C, 10°C, and 5°C. Semen was analyzed at 24 and 96 h of storage. Motility and membrane integrity remained at high levels, except for lower values when stored in BTS at 5°C. Washed subsamples were incubated in capacitating medium (Tyrode) and control medium and were assessed for intracellular calcium concentration and integrity of plasma membranes using a flow cytometer. On the basis of the loss of low-calcium live cells in a kinetic approach, the specific response to capacitation stimuli was determined. There was a higher loss of response in semen stored hypothermically in the standard extender BTS compared to Androstar Plus. Assessment of the extent of phospholipid disorder under capacitating and control conditions by use of merocyanine staining did not reveal any significant extender-related differences. A field insemination trial with 778 sows was performed to relate in vitro results to fertility. Fertility parameters did not differ in semen stored up to 48 h at 10°C in Androstar Plus compared to controls stored at 17°C in BTS. In conclusion, assessment of specific reactivity to capacitating stimuli appears to be a sensitive tool for detection of extender-dependent alterations in functionality of chilled boar spermatozoa.

  11. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schulze

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard, was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC, whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  12. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Martin; Junkes, Christof; Mueller, Peter; Speck, Stephanie; Ruediger, Karin; Dathe, Margitta; Mueller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW) and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E) on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard), was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW) sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC), whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  13. Assessing rates and patterns of hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Iacolina, Laura; Apollonio, Marco

    genetic marker systems and the potentiality of newly developed markers across a range of European wild boar populations. Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA alleles are by large shared between wild and domestic stocks, and the most reliable indicator of introgression is commonly considered the presence....... However, despite the availability of multiple molecular markers, with different inheritance systems and undergoing different selective pressures, the analysis on the extent and impact of introgressive hybridization in Europe remains challenging. Here we show the outcome of the application of different...

  14. SNP data in the detection of hybridization levels between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    , a better understanding of hybridization patterns in Europe might have important implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local breeds, as well as for the contingency of infectious diseases. Here we present the results for the analysis of 235 wild boars (WB; from 22 areas......, additionally, highlights the presence of several individuals, of both ancestries, with intermediate positions. This result was confirmed by Admixture analysis that detected the presence of hybrid individuals in both WB and local domestic pig breeds. The introgression level varies considerably among populations...

  15. Risk assessment of the presence of lead in hunted wild boar meat

    OpenAIRE

    National Committee for Food Safety

    2017-01-01

    Italian National Committee for Food Safety (CNSA) opinion No. 18 of 8 marzo 2017 on the Risk assessment of the presence of lead in hunted wild boar meat Wild game meat may have a higher content in lead than farmed animal meat, both due to the living and dietary habits of such animals and, especially, to the use of lead-based ammunition. The impact of wild game meat on the overall exposure of general consumers is negligible. However, the category of hunters eating meat of wild game sho...

  16. Impact of Storage and Purification on Mitochondrial Membrane Potential of Boar Spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Aristotelis G. Lymberopoulos; TAREK KHALIFA

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of semen purification and storage on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Gel-free whole ejaculates were collected from five proven fertile Large White boars aged two to three years. Aliquots of fresh semen were split, diluted in one step with commercial extenders and incubated at 37oC for 5-10 minutes. Semen was cooled to 18oC and packaged in 15-ml sterile propylene tubes. After 4-10 hours post-semen collection, stored semen was purified by co...

  17. Influence of dietary amino acid level on chemical body composition and performance of growing-finishing boars of two sire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Caroline; Berk, Andreas; Müller, Simone; Weber, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    There is only little information available concerning the chemical body composition of growing-finishing boars. For that reason, a total of 26 entire male pigs (boars) of two different Piétrain sire lines were fed with different levels of dietary essential amino acids (EAA) and the influence of this treatment on performance and chemical body composition was evaluated. In addition, an initial group of eight boars (n = 4 per sire line) was slaughtered at approximately 21 kg live weight (LW). The other 26 boars were fed three different diets containing 11.5, 13.2 and 14.9 g lysine/kg during the grower period and 9.0, 10.4, 11.7 g lysine/kg during the finisher period, respectively. Other EAA were added in relation to lysine (Lys: Met + Cys: Thr: Trp: Val = 1: 0.60: 0.65: 0.18: 0.75). At a LW of approximately 122 kg these 26 boars (six groups with three to seven animals each) were also slaughtered. The effects of EAA level and sire line on fattening and slaughter performance was recorded, and body and weight gain composition were analysed. There were no significant effects of EAA level on performance or on chemical body composition. Boars sired with Piétrain line 1 demonstrated increased lean meat content and protein body content (p < 0.05) as compared to Piétrain line 2-sired boars.

  18. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Goldbach, Stine G.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2008-01-01

    of CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild......Denmark has no free-range wild-boar population. However, Danish wildlife organizations have suggested that wild boar should be reintroduced into the wild to broaden national biodiversity. Danish pig farmers fear that this would lead to a higher risk of introduction of classical swine fever virus...

  19. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat juice of wild boar (Sus scrofa in several districts of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  20. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 184, 2/4 (2012), 122-125 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Mšk(CZ) 6007665806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Eurasian wild boar * SSU * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  1. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (Pproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  3. The anatomic surgical arterial segmentation of the kidney in wild boar (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Falcão Vale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty pairs of kidneys of wild boar (Sus scrofa were studied from adult males, with permission from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment (Process nº 02001.003237/05, aiming to characterize the vasculature and anatomic surgical segmentation. The arteries of these kidneys were injected with red pigment and subsequently submitted to acid corrosion in order to identify the renal arterial vascular pattern, particularly its divisions and distribution. The results reveal the sectorial branches of the renal arteries, two in number (cranial and caudal; the sectorial arteries provide the segmentary branches to the dorsal and ventral portions of the kidney; in the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 2-6 in the cranial sector and 3-7 in the caudal sector. In the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 3-7 and 2-7 in the same respective sectors; the vascular arterial symmetry (25% between the right and left kidney in the animals is evident. There are 3 arterial anatomic surgical segments on both kidneys. On the basis of the distribution of the sectorial and segmentary arteries, it is possible to accomplish setorectomy and segmentectomy on the kidneys of the wild boar, with functional aspects such as species preservation and animal experimental modeling.

  4. Effect of climate on the seminal characteristics of boars in a region of humid tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao Restrepo, Guillermo; Trujillo Aramburo, Luis Emilio; Buritica Henao, Maria Elizabet; Sierra Perez, Carlos Ignacio; Correa Londono, Guillermo; Gonzalez Boto, Oscar Domingo

    2004-01-01

    In a region of humid tropical forest, ten boars of from 12 to 24 months of age were selected to evaluate the effect of climatic variables measured on the day of semen collection and for each of preceding 45 days. On seminal characteristics, the variability of each characteristic was separated into an intra individual component and an interindividual component, using maximum likelihood estimators (PROC VARCOMP of SAS). In order to relate the seminal characteristics with the climatic variables, morphological abnormalities were grouped according to the affected spermatic region, into head. Midsection and main section abnormalities; the other characteristics were evaluated without any modification. Possible correlations between seminal characteristics and climatic variables were evaluated. In a total of 298 ejaculates collected weekly during a period of 30 weeks, except for total volume and morphological abnormalities. The seminal characteristics presented low or moderate intra and interindividual variation and were similar to those found in other latitudes, with a tendency to present greater seminal volumes and concentrations maximum temperature minimum temperature. Range among temperatures. Relative humidity and precipitation of the day of the semen collection and on each of the preceding 45 days had low effects on the seminal characteristics. It is possible that the boars in warm humid tropical areas develop a high level of adaptation that permits an adequate testicular thermoregulation that favors the spermatogenic function of the seminiferous tubules in a way that does not perceptibly affect production the seminal quality

  5. Consumers' perception and acceptance of boiled and fermented sausages from strongly boar tainted meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Gertheiss, Jan; Schnäckel, Wolfram; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Characteristic off-flavours may occur in uncastrated male pigs depending on the accumulation of androstenone and skatole. Feasible processing of strongly tainted carcasses is challenging but gains in importance due to the European ban on piglet castration in 2018. This paper investigates consumers' acceptability of two sausage types: (a) emulsion-type (BOILED) and (b) smoked raw-fermented (FERM). Liking (9 point scales) and flavour perception (check-all-that-apply with both, typical and negatively connoted sensory terms) were evaluated by 120 consumers (within-subject design). Proportion of tainted boar meat (0, 50, 100%) affected overall liking of BOILED, F (2, 238)=23.22, P<.001, but not of FERM sausages, F (2, 238)=0.89, P=.414. Consumers described the flavour of BOILED-100 as strong and sweaty. In conclusion, FERM products seem promising for processing of tainted carcasses whereas formulations must be optimized for BOILED in order to eliminate perceptible off-flavours. Boar taint rejection thresholds may be higher for processed than those suggested for unprocessed meat cuts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Disease Prevalence in Domestic Hybrids Among Free-Living Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, Daniel J; van Hooft, Pim; Lutz, Walburga; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; van Wieren, Sip E; Ydenberg, Ron C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-12-01

    Wildlife immune genes are subject to natural selection exerted by pathogens. In contrast, domestic immune genes are largely protected from pathogen selection by veterinary care. Introgression of domestic alleles into the wild could lead to increased disease susceptibility, but observations are scarce due to low introgression rates, low disease prevalence and reduced survival of domestic hybrids. Here we report the first observation of a deleterious effect of domestic introgression on disease prevalence in a free-living large mammal. A fraction of 462 randomly sampled free-living European wild boar (Sus scrofa) was genetically identified as recent wild boar-domestic pig hybrids based on 351 SNP data. Analysis of antibody prevalence against the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) showed an increased Mhyo prevalence in wild-domestic hybrids. We argue that the most likely mechanism explaining the observed association between domestic hybrid status and Mhyo antibody prevalence would be introgression of deleterious domestic alleles. We hypothesise that large-scale use of antibiotics in the swine breeding sector may have played a role in shaping the relatively deleterious properties of domestic swine immune genes and that domestic introgression may also lead to increased wildlife disease susceptibility in the case of other species.

  7. Tuberculosis in Southern Brazilian wild boars (Sus scrofa): First epidemiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, A L G; Loiko, M R; Bueno, T S; Moreira, J G; Coppola, M; Dalla Costa, E R; Schmid, K B; Rodrigues, R O; Cibulski, S P; Bertagnolli, A C; Mayer, F Q

    2018-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonosis caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis that affects domestic and wild animals. In Brazil, there are no epidemiological studies on tuberculosis in wild animal populations and their possible role in the disease maintenance in cattle herds; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of tuberculosis in wild boars in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Tissue samples of animals hunted under government consent were submitted to histopathology and M. bovis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as screening tests; the positive samples were subsequently submitted to bacterial isolation, the gold standard diagnosis. Eighty animals were evaluated, of which 27.9% and 31.3% showed histopathological changes and M. bovis genome presence, respectively. Moreover, 23.8% of the animals had at least one organ with isolates classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Three hunting points were risk factors for positive results on screening tests. This study shows the occurrence of tuberculosis in a wild boars' population, and raise the possibility of these animals to play a role as disease reservoirs in southern Brazil. These results may help to improve the Brazilian tuberculosis control programme, as well as elucidate the circulation of mycobacteria in this country. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaoka H.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Histological examination of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan showed an Onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable and young (thin cuticle. Six Onchocerca species are enzootic in that area: O. gutturosa and O. lienalis in cattle, O. suzukii in serows (Capricornis crispus, O. skrjabini and an Onchocerca sp. in Cervus nippon nippon, and O. dewittei japonica in wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax. Diagnostic charactets of female Onchocerca species, such as the cuticle and its ridges, change along the body length. Tables of the histologic morphology of the mid- and posterior body-regions of the local species are presented. In addition, it was observed that transverse ridges arose and thickened during the adult stage (examination of fourth stage and juvenile females of O. volvulus. The specimen described in this report, with its prominent and widely spaced ridges, was identified as O. d. japonica. Four of the 10 zoonotic cases of onchocerciasis reported worldwide were from Oita, three of them being caused by O. d. japonica, the prevalence of which in local wild boar was 22 of 24 (92 %.

  9. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Main Porcine Infectious Pathogens in Wild Boars in Some Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABORENKO, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing 107 serum samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa L., 1758 for thepresence of antibodies to six economically significant porcine infectious disease agents (porcinereproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV, swine influenza virus(SIV of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV, porcine transmissiblegastroenteritis virus (TGEV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are presented in the paper. Wild boarwere sampled in seven regions of Russia for diagnostic purposes. The obtained results showed thepresence of antibodies to ADV in 32.5% of samples (83/27, to PPV – in 62% of samples (92/57, toMycoplasma hyopneumoniae – in 52% of samples (98/51. All samples were seronegative to PRRSvirus (107/0, TGEV (91/0 and SIV of H1N1 (89/0 and H3N2 (58/0 subtypes. The researchesdemonstrated the extensive circulation of porcine parvovirus, Aujeszky’s disease virus andMycoplasma hyopneumoniae among Wild boar in some regions of Russia.

  10. Two outbreaks of classical swine fever in wild boar in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, F; Rossi, S; Mesplède, A; Kuntz-Simon, G; Le Potier, M-F

    2008-06-21

    In 2002 and 2003, two successive outbreaks of classical swine fever were declared in wild boar in northern France. The first was in Moselle, near the town of Thionville and the border with Luxembourg, and the second was in the northern Vosges area, near the German border. The outbreaks were investigated by serological and virological diagnosis of dead or shot animals. Hunting restrictions were applied to limit the spread of the outbreaks. The virus was detected eight times between April and July 2002 in the Thionville area, an area well delimited by natural or artificial barriers such as rivers or highways. Cooperation between the authorities concerned was good, and hunting restrictions were applied for one year. No virus was detected after July 2002 and the Thionville outbreak was officially considered over in March 2005. In the northern Vosges the situation was different, with no barriers to animal movements, continuous forest, difficulties in establishing hunting restrictions in this huge area, and the circulation of the virus in Germany close to the frontier. Virus of a different strain from that isolated in the Thionville outbreak was still being isolated in the northern Vosges in 2004, and owing to the failure of the hunting restrictions, the French health authorities decided to vaccinate wild boar.

  11. Corporal and testicular biometry in wild boar from birth to 12 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Velloso Ferreira Murta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this tudy was to evaluate corporal and testicular development in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa from birth to 12 months of age, evaluating body weight, biometric testicular parameters, and gonadosomatic index. Thirty-nine male wild boars from a commercial farm licensed by IBAMA were used in the study. The animals were weighed and assigned to 13 experimental groups. The testes were recovered through unilateral orchiectomy, weighed on an analytical balance and measured for length, width and thickness. Body weight and testicular measures increased with the age, up to 12 months, and were more accelerated in the first and ninth months. Initially the testicular growth pattern, between zero and nine months, followed the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.07 to 0.09%. Between 9 and 11 months, the testicular growth was superior to the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.09 to 0.16%. Finally, after 11 months of age, testicular and body growth had a similar behavior. In conclusion, body weight, testicular biometry, and gonadosomatic index development accelerated in the ninth month.

  12. Effects of different extenders on DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-hong; Li, Qing-wang; Jiang, Zhong-liang; Li, Wen-ye

    2008-12-01

    The sperm-rich fraction, collected from eight mature Yorkshire boars, was frozen in an extender containing 9% LDL (w/v), 100mM trehalose, or 20% yolk (v/v), respectively. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Other sperm quality characteristics such as motility, acrosome and membrane integrity were also monitored. The results showed that freezing-thawing caused an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation, and extender containing 9% LDL could significantly protect sperm DNA integrity (Pextender containing 100mM trehalose and 20% yolk (v/v). No significant difference in damaged DNA was detected between frozen and unfrozen semen samples for extender of 9% LDL and 100mM trehalose, but cryopreservation could increase the degree of DNA damage (Pboar sperm DNA damage and protecting DNA integrity. It can be suggested that evaluation of sperm DNA integrity, coupled with correlative and basic characteristics such as motility, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity, may aid in determining the quality of frozen boar semen.

  13. Addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins to the thawing extender: effects on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, C; Gómez-Fernández, J; Gómez-Izquierdo, E; Mocé, E; de Mercado, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect that the addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) to the thawing extender has on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Pooled semen (n = 5) from three boars was used for the experiments. The semen was cryopreserved with an egg-yolk-based extender, it was diluted after thawing in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) supplemented with different concentrations of CLC (0, 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/500 × 10(6) sperm), and these samples were incubated at 37°C for 150 min. The following parameters of sperm quality were evaluated 30 and 150 min after incubation: sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM; %), sperm with normal acrosomal ridge (NAR; %), total motile sperm (TMS; %), progressively motile sperm (PMS; %) and kinetic parameters. Both SIPM and NAR increased (p extender was supplemented with 12.5, 25 and 50 mg CLC/500 × 10(6) sperm. Nevertheless, motility decreased (p extenders with CLC improves sperm viability and reduces acrosome damage after freezing/thawing. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Impact of Storage and Purification on Mitochondrial Membrane Potential of Boar Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis G. Lymberopoulos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of semen purification and storage on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Gel-free whole ejaculates were collected from five proven fertile Large White boars aged two to three years. Aliquots of fresh semen were split, diluted in one step with commercial extenders and incubated at 37oC for 5-10 minutes. Semen was cooled to 18oC and packaged in 15-ml sterile propylene tubes. After 4-10 hours post-semen collection, stored semen was purified by colloidal centrifugation. After 48 hours post-semen collection, stored semen was incubated at 37oC and evaluated after 45 minutes for motility, velocity and sperm ΔΨm. Samples were stained with 2.99 μM JC-1 and 2.32 μM EH-1 and assessed by Fluorescence microscopy. After centrifugation a significant improvement of motility (P<0.035, and velocity (P<0.012 was noticed. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and high/low mitochondrial membrane potential was statistical higher after centrifugation and storage at 18°C for 48 hours. In conclusion, colloidal purification of boar semen can improve sperm quality and  mitochondrial membrane potential.

  15. Boar sperm storage capacity of BTS and Androhep Plus: viability, motility, capacitation, and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Charlotte; Beaulieu, Martin; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Guillemette, Christine; Bailey, Janice L

    2004-09-01

    Androhep Plus, a long-term extender (up to 7 days) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), a short-term extender (up to 3 days), are commonly used for liquid storage of porcine semen. To test the hypothesis that modifications in sperm viability, motility, chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence patterns, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation occur during semen storage in extenders, we compared these end points at different periods of storage in either Androhep Plus or BTS. Sperm from five boars were assessed daily over 12 days of storage (n = 5 ejaculates from different boars). Viability was not different (P extenders, except on Day 2, when Androhep Plus maintained better viability. Differences in the percentage of motile (total) sperm due to extender were evident on Days 2, 4, 5, and 6, when Androhep Plus was superior to BTS (P extender as early as Day 2; storage in Androhep Plus induced higher levels of pattern B sperm (P extenders; these may affect the fertilizing capacity of the semen.

  16. Effect of Gynostemma Pentaphyllum polysaccharide on boar spermatozoa quality following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Zhong-Liang

    2009-12-01

    Gynostemma Pentaphyllum Polysaccharide (GPP) was added at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/ml to the extenders used to freeze boar semen and its effects on the quality of frozen-thawed sperm were assessed. The sperm motility was significantly higher in the extenders containing 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml GPP, as compared to other groups (Pextender supplemented with 0.5 mg/ml GPP favored the highest intact membrane and intact acrosome percentages in comparison with other groups (Pextender supplemented with 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml GPP significantly improved SOD levels, compared to other groups (P>0.05). However, the extenders supplemented with GPP did not cause significant differences in levels of CAT and GSH-Px, compared to the control (P>0.05). In summary, GPP exhibited a dose-related response and the lower concentration produced greater protective effect. According to the standard semen quality parameters and antioxidant activities measured in this study, the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml GPP caused a beneficial cryoprotective effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar semen. It is proposed that an extender containing 0.5 mg/ml GPP could be used as cryoprotective medium of better efficiency.

  17. Dimethylformamide is not better than glycerol for cryopreservation of boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; Martínez, F; García, A; Jerez, R A

    2012-05-01

    To improve the boar sperm cryopreservation process, the influence of the sugar (lactose, trehalose) source and the cryoprotectant [glycerol, dimethylformamide (DMF)] on the success of freezing was investigated. Sperm samples were frozen in one of six extenders: lactose plus 3% glycerol (LG); lactose plus 1.5% glycerol and 1.5% DMF (LGD); lactose plus 3% DMF (LD); trehalose plus 3% glycerol (TG); trehalose plus 1.5% glycerol and 1.5% DMF (TGD); trehalose plus 3% DMF (TD). Effects on motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic test (HOST) were measured. The results showed that extender containing 3% glycerol retained the highest motility percentages. In regard to viability and acrosome integrity, all extenders yielded similar rates except for the decreasing values of TD. Endosmosis was diminished in TD and LD at 2 h (P = 0.0018), as compared with the others. The results of the study demonstrated that the use of DMF as a cryoprotectant adversely affected boar sperm quality after cryopreservation. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Regulation of Porcine Hepatic Cytochrome P450 — Implication for Boar Taint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Krøyer Rasmussen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP450 is the major family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of several xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Among substrates for CYP450 is the tryptophan metabolite skatole (3-methylindole, one of the major contributors to the off-odour associated with boar-tainted meat. The accumulation of skatole in pigs is highly dependent on the hepatic clearance by CYP450s. In recent years, the porcine CYP450 has attracted attention both in relation to meat quality and as a potential model for human CYP450. The molecular regulation of CYP450 mRNA expression is controlled by several nuclear receptors and transcription factors that are targets for numerous endogenously and exogenously produced agonists and antagonists. Moreover, CYP450 expression and activity are affected by factors such as age, gender and feeding. The regulation of porcine CYP450 has been suggested to have more similarities with human CYP450 than other animal models, including rodents. This article reviews the available data on porcine hepatic CYP450s and its implications for boar taint.

  19. Quality of wild boar meat and commercial pork Qualidade da carne de javali e de suíno comercial

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    Andréa Fernanda Marchiori

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently there is a growing interest in the production and marketing of wild boar meat, and to attend a differentiated consumer demand the quality attributes of this product should be well established. To characterize the quality of wild boar meat in comparison to commercial pork, post mortem changes in the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were determined by pH and temperature decline, and color (CIE L*a*b* measurements. Water holding capacity (WHC was determined by the compression method and the exudate loss (EL by the drip loss test. Decline in longissimus dorsi muscle pH of wild boar was gradual and in the pork it was faster and more extensive. Temperature differences were observed in some post mortem times, and the lowest values were found in wild boar carcasses. Wild boar meat presented lower values of L* (brightness and b* (yellow color intensity, and higher values of a* (red color intensity than pork. The WHC of the wild boar meat was similar to pork, but the EL in female wild boar meat was lower than in pork.Atualmente existe no Brasil um interesse crescente na criação e exploração comercial da carne de javali e para atender a uma demanda diferenciada é importante que os atributos qualitativos do produto sejam bem estabelecidos. Com o objetivo de caracterizar a carne de javali nos parâmetros de qualidade e compará-la com a carne suína comercial, as mudanças nos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus, no post mortem, foram acompanhadas com medidas de pH, temperatura e cor (CIE L*a*b*. A capacidade de retenção de água (CRA foi determinada pelo método de compressão e a perda de exsudato (PE pelo teste de "drip loss". A queda de pH na carne de javali ocorreu de forma gradual, enquanto que no Longissimus dorsi de suíno a diminuição foi mais rápida e mais extensa. Diferenças de temperatura foram verificadas em alguns tempos post mortem, sendo que os menores valores foram encontrados nos javalis. A carne

  20. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

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    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  1. Assessment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine pyrenean grasslands

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    Bueno, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar rooting is nowadays one of the main disturbances in Pyrenean alpine grasslands. Its consequences for the ecosystem are not perfectly understood yet despite alpine grasslands in the Pyrenees have an important economic role and a priority conservation interest. The ecosystem services of this habitat lay mainly on pastoral and ecological values that wild boar rooting seems to affect. In this study, we measured those ecological and pastoral values at different scales to improve our understanding of the reach of these disturbances in this sensitive ecosystem. At landscape and community scales we compare disturbed and undisturbed areas in pastoral, ecological and community maps of the study area by means of a geographic information system. At a local scale we compare ecological and pastoral values of different plant groups (based on species abundance, within and outside wild boar rootings. A preference for areas of high pastoral and intermediate ecological values was found for wild boar rooting at the landscape level. However at the community level, disturbances notably reduced pastoral and ecological values in all communities. At the local level, the ecological value of bulbs and the pastoral value of annual dicots increased within disturbances, suggesting that disturbances may favour functional group diversity. In sum, wild boar rooting affects Pyrenean alpine grasslands moderately, with higher affection to pastoral than ecological values at all levels, what should be considered for the management and preservation of these habitats since these disturbances are likely to increase.

    Las hozaduras de jabalí son una de las mayores perturbaciones actuales de los pastos supraforestales pirenaicos. Sus consecuencias para el ecosistema no están todavía perfectamente descritas, a pesar de ser uno de los hábitats de mayor interés de conservación y que juegan un importante papel en las economías locales. Los bienes y servicios que provee

  2. Distribution and numbers of the wild boar population in south eastern Poland

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    Fonseca, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By using both plot sampling and line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains and Bieszczady Foothills was estimated during February 2000. The total number of wild boar inhabiting the study area (140.4 thousands ha of forest was equal to 655 animals with an average population density of 4.66 wild boar per 1000 ha, ranging from 0.0 (Forest Districts of Cisna and Wetlina to 23.21 individuals/1000 ha (Krasiczyn Forest District. The low density of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains is caused by the high wolf prédation and overharvest rate. The recomendation is to stop wild boar hunting in Bieszczady Mountains during the next 4 hunting seasons, and to use the harvest rate equal to 30% of the population size in February.

    [fr]
    En février 2000, nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de sangliers sauvages dans les montagnes Bieszczady et les collines Bieszczady. Pour cela, un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne ainsi que des parcelles d'échantillonage ont été utilisées. Le nombre total de sangliers habitant dans la zone d'étude -140.400 ha de forêts- s'élevait à 655 animais; la densité moyenne de population était de 4,66 sangliers sauvages par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 0,0 (Districts Forestiers de Cisna et Wetlina et 23,21 individus par 1000 ha (District de Krasiczyn. La très basse densité de sangliers sauvages dans les Montagnes Bieszczady est sans doute la conséquence de la forte prédation par le loup et de la chasse importante. Les auteurs proposent d'arrêter la chasse dans les Montagnes Bieszczady durant les 4 saisons suivantes et de limiter le taux d'extraction à 30% du niveau de la population en février.
    [es]
    Durante febrero de 2000, en las montañas Bieszczady y sus estribaciones, se estimó la densidad poblacional y número de jabalíes por medio del índice de intercepción lineal de huellas en nieve

  3. Assessment of sperm viability, mitochondrial activity, capacitation and acrosome intactness in extended boar semen during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Li-Jun; Ma, Xing-Hong; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2002-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess sperm quality in extended boar semen during in vitro storage in order to determine which extender should be used and how long boar semen can be stored. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with equal volumes of Beltsville thaw solution (BTS), Androhep, KIEV or Zorlesco extenders and stored at 17 degrees C for up to 15 days. Sperm quality was evaluated by examining viability using SYBR-14/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining, mitochondrial activity using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) staining, acrosome intactness by Coomassie blue staining, and capacitation status by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining. There were over 50% viable spermatozoa in boar semen extended with Zorlesco and Androhep extenders on Day 13 of storage. The percentage of JC-1-stained spermatozoa was 53.8 +/- 2.1% for Zorlesco and 57.7 +/- 1.60% for Androhep extenders on Day 13 of storage. The percentage of acrosome-intact spermatozoa detected by Coomassie blue staining was higher than that in the SYBR-14PI-, Hoechst 33258-, and JC-1-stained samples in our study. The results from SYBR-14/PI, Hoechst 33258, JC-1, and Coomassie blue staining were highly correlated (r > or = 0.9461). There were less than 15% capacitated spermatozoa in the semen extended with BTS, Androhep and Zorlesco extenders during 9 days of storage. However, most viable boar spermatozoa became capacitated by Day 13 of storage. The rank order of four extenders for maintaining sperm viability and mitochondrial activity was as follows: Androhep, Zorlesco, BTS, KIEV.

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with an organic source of selenium on characteristics of semen quality and in vitro fertility in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, S M; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F; Crawford, R J; Knight, J W; Whitaker, B D

    2012-03-01

    Semen characteristics in boars fed organic or inorganic sources of Se were assessed in 3 experiments. Crossbred boars were randomly assigned at weaning to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: I) basal diets with no supplemental Se (control), II) basal diets with 0.3 mg/kg of supplemental Se from an organic source (Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY), and III) basal diets supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg of supplemental Se from sodium selenite (Premium Selenium 270, North American Nutrition Co. Inc., Lewisburg, OH). For Exp. 1, semen was collected from boars (n = 10/dietary treatment) on 5 consecutive days at 15 mo of age. Effects of treatment × day were detected for the proportions of progressively motile (P = 0.02) and rapidly moving (P = 0.03) spermatozoa, and measures of sperm velocity, including path velocity of the smoothed cell path (P = 0.05) and average velocity measured in a straight line from the beginning to the end of the track (P = 0.05). Negative effects of day of semen collection on sperm motility were least pronounced in boars fed Sel-Plex. Experiment 2 was conducted when boars were 17 mo of age, and semen was collected (n = 10 boars/dietary treatment), diluted in commercially available extenders, and stored at 18°C for 9 d. Effects of treatment × day were detected for percentages of motile (P = 0.01) and static (P = 0.01) spermatozoa, amplitude of lateral head displacement (P = 0.02), frequency with which the sperm track crossed the sperm path (P = 0.04), straightness (P = 0.01), and average size of all sperm heads (P = 0.03). In general, sperm cells from boars fed Sel-Plex were better able to maintain motility during liquid storage compared with boars fed sodium selenite. For Exp. 3, semen was collected from boars (n = 6/dietary treatment) at 23 mo of age, and spermatozoa were evaluated at d 1 and 8 after semen collection using in vitro fertilization procedures. There was a tendency for an effect (P = 0.11) of dietary treatment on fertilization rate

  5. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  6. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

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    Mainity Batista Linhares

    Full Text Available Enzootic pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1 to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2 to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3 to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3% but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  7. The Twenty Statement Test in Teacher Development

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    Ahmet Aypay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe teacher characteristics using Twenty Statements Test (TST. Study group includes a total of thirty-five individuals, including teachers, guidance and counselors and research assistants. The study used a qualitative approach on teacher identity. TST is one of the qualitative methods that were used to determine individual self-conceptualization. Study group were requested to write twenty statements that describe themselves responding to the question “Who I am?” in a free format. The findings indicated that teachers were overwhelmingly in group c (reflective. No differences were found in terms of gender and profession. Only few significant differences have been found based on marital status. The utility of TST in teacher training and development was discussed.

  8. The Twenty Statement Test in Teacher Development

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    Ahmet Aypay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe teacher characteristics using Twenty Statements Test (TST. Study group includes a total of thirty-five individuals, including teachers, guidance and counselors and research assistants. The study used a qualitative approach on teacher identity. TST is one of the qualitative methods that were used to determine individual self-conceptualization. Study group were requested to write twenty statements that describe themselves responding to the question “Who I am?” in a free format. The findings indicated that teachers were overwhelmingly in group c (reflective. No differences were found in terms of gender and profession. Only few significant differences have been found based on marital status. The utility of TST in teacher training and development was discussed

  9. Habitat use by wild boar Sus scrofa in Moncayo Nature Park, Spain

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    Rodrigues, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by wild boar Sus scrofaz was examined during a three-year period in Moncayo Nature Park, a protected mountain area in the Iberian mountain system, Spain. Tracking indirect signs of activity was used to collect data on the species occurrence, according to vegetation type, topography, hunting activity, and season. The data were analysed using binary logistic regression. Habitat used by wild boar differed according seasons, management practices, and vegetation. Main selected habitats were at medium elevations (1,101-1,600 m in areas dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex, beech (Fagus sylvatica and oak woods of Q. robur, Q. petraea and Q. pyrenaica. Non-hunting areas were selected over hunting areas. We found a seasonal variation in the habitat use of wild boar, with areas dominated by holm oak being used disproportionately in spring, and areas at medium elevations selected only during summer. The results also support the view that non-hunting areas provide a refuge for this species inside the protected area.Estudiamos el uso del hábitat por parte del jabalí Sus scrofa a lo largo de tres años en el Parque Natural del Moncayo, un área protegida de montaña en el Sistema Ibérico, España. Para ello rastreamos las huellas y señales de su actividad en función de la vegetación, topografía, actividad cinegética y estacionalidad. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando regresiones logísticas binarias. El hábitat usado por el jabalí difiere según las estaciones, gestión y vegetación. Los hábitat mayoritariamente seleccionados fueron las altitudes medias (1101-1600 m en áreas dominadas por la encina (Quercus ilex, haya (Fagus sylvatica y robles (Q. robur, Q. petraea y Q. pirenaica. Las zonas no cinegéticas fueron seleccionadas frente a las cinegéticas. Encontramos diferencias estacionales en el uso del hábitat, con un uso mayor al esperado de los encinares en primavera así como de altitudes medias durante el verano. Los

  10. Optimum Drug Combinations for the Sedation of Growing Boars Prior to Castration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Heidi S.; Blache, Dominique; Drynan, Eleanor; Tshewang, Pema; Blignaut, David J. C.; Musk, Gabrielle C.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs are notoriously challenging patients. They are difficult to handle so the use of predictable and safe sedation techniques is required for husbandry and surgical procedures. Various combinations of sedative and analgesic drugs have been previously investigated in this species, though the combination of midazolam and detomidine with either butorphanol or morphine has not been reported for sedation in pigs. The use of these combinations was investigated in the context of adequate sedation to allow castration of boars with the aid of local anaesthetic infiltration. The combination of midazolam, detomidine with butorphanol provided a more reliable sedation combination than that including morphine. It is proposed that this combination of drugs would be useful for sedation during painful husbandry procedures in pigs. Abstract Juvenile male pigs were sedated for castration. Eight five-month old boars were sedated twice (two weeks apart) with a combination of detomidine (0.1 mg/kg), midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) and either butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) (Group MDB, n = 8) or morphine (0.2 mg/kg) (Group MDM, n = 8) intramuscularly. The boars were positioned in lateral recumbency and lidocaine (200 mg total) was injected into the testicle and scrotal skin. Castration of a single testicle was performed on two occasions. Sedation and reaction (to positioning and surgery) scores, pulse rate, respiratory rate, haemoglobin oxygen saturation, body temperature, arterial blood gas parameters and the times to immobility and then recovery were recorded. Atipamezole was administered if spontaneous recovery was not evident within 60 min of sedative administration. Data were compared with either a paired-sample t-test or a Wilcoxon-Signed Rank Test. There was no difference in sedation score, body temperature, respiratory rate and haemoglobin oxygen saturation between MDB and MDM. Mild hypoxaemia was noted in both groups. There was less reaction to castration after MDB. The pulse rate

  11. Non-invasive genetics outperforms morphological methods in faecal dietary analysis, revealing wild boar as a considerable conservation concern for ground-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Ragne; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2017-01-01

    Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and other grouse species represent conservation concerns across Europe due to their negative abundance trends. In addition to habitat deterioration, predation is considered a major factor contributing to population declines. While the role of generalist predators on grouse predation is relatively well known, the impact of the omnivorous wild boar has remained elusive. We hypothesize that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, but has been neglected as a bird predator because traditional morphological methods underestimate the proportion of birds in wild boar diet. To distinguish between different mammalian predator species, as well as different grouse prey species, we developed a molecular method based on the analysis of mitochondrial DNA that allows accurate species identification. We collected 109 wild boar faeces at protected capercaillie leks and surrounding areas and analysed bird consumption using genetic methods and classical morphological examination. Genetic analysis revealed that the proportion of birds in wild boar faeces was significantly higher (17.3%; 4.5×) than indicated by morphological examination (3.8%). Moreover, the genetic method allowed considerably more precise taxonomic identification of consumed birds compared to morphological analysis. Our results demonstrate: (i) the value of using genetic approaches in faecal dietary analysis due to their higher sensitivity, and (ii) that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, deserving serious consideration in conservation planning for capercaillie and other grouse.

  12. Twenty years of diffraction at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.; Rockefeller U.

    2005-01-01

    Results on diffractive particle interactions from the Fermilab Tevatron (bar p)p collider are placed in perspective through a QCD inspired phenomenological approach, which exploits scaling and factorization properties observed in data. The results discussed are those obtained by the CDF Collaboration from a comprehensive set of single, double, and multigap soft and hard diffraction processes studied during the twenty year period since 1985, when the CDF diffractive program was proposed and the first Blois Workshop was held

  13. Safety regulation - twenty years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksashin, P.P.; Bukrinskij, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Main stages of development, successes, achievements and shortcomings of activity of supervision body after the Chernobyl NPP accident are analysed. The estimation of the realized variations of the functions of the state supervision department is carried out. Results of the twenty year period of improvement of the supervision body are summed up. The measures for increasing the efficiency of the supervision body operation are outlined [ru

  14. Viability and Risk Assessment in Species Restoration: Planning Reintroductions for the Wild Boar, a Potential Disease Reservoir

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    Néstor Fernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of large mammals is often considered a priority conservation action in highly industrialized countries in which many of these species have been depleted. However, species reintroduction after decades of absence may involve important risks for human activities and ecological communities, such as favoring the spread of diseases. An example of a potentially troublesome reintroduction is the wild boar, which may act as a reservoir of diseases, e.g., classical swine fever, and cause high economic losses, and has become a species of concern in several European countries for both ecological and recreational reasons. Failure to prevent the disease consequences of species restoration can negate its conservation benefits. Here we evaluated the probability of both successfully reintroducing wild boar into Denmark and limiting their contact with domestic pig farms to which they might spread disease. For this purpose, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based population model that incorporates information on boar habitat and demography information from Central European populations. We then compared model predictions with the spatial distribution of farms to achieve a spatial assessment of the contact risk. The most restrictive model scenario predicted that nearly 6% of Denmark provides habitat conditions that would allow wild boar to reproduce. The best habitats for reintroduction were aggregated in seven different areas throughout the country in which the extinction probability was < 5%. However, the expected population expansion was very limited in most of these areas. Both the number of suitable areas and the potential for population expansion greatly increased when we relaxed our habitat assumptions about boar forest requirements; this provided a more conservative scenario for a cautious risk analysis. We additionally found that part of the risk of contact with piggeries was associated with the magnitude of the expansion

  15. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were......Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella...

  16. Validation of the FACSCount AF system for determination of sperm concentration in boar semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.; Christensen, P.; Stryhn, H.

    2002-01-01

    microspheres ( beads). Satisfactory staining can be achieved within 2-3 min and the following flow cytometric analysis on the FACSCount AF System rapidly provides the user with a precise and accurate assessment of the sperm concentration. In this study, the FACSCount AF System and Sperm Counting Reagent ( BD...... Biosciences) was compared with microscopic counting using a Burker-Turk haemocytometer. In addition, sperm concentration was determined using the Corning 254 spectrophotometer which is used routinely by Danish artificial insemination stations for boars. The results show that the agreement between flow...... cytometry and microscopic counting is very high. The slope for the regression line was 1.12 (SE = 0.03) with an estimated intercept with the Y-axis of 22 x 10(6) sperm/ml (SE = 10 x 10(6) sperm/ml) and an estimated error of the model of 10 x 10(6) sperm/ml. For the spectrophotometer, the slope...

  17. Bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wild boar on the Mediterranean island, Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richomme, Céline; Boschiroli, María Laura; Hars, Jean; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted between domestic and wild animals, threatening wildlife populations and control programs for bTB in cattle. In Corsica, a French Mediterranean island where domestic and wild species have close interactions, bTB cases have been reported in cattle, pigs, and wild boar. Moreover, genotypes of M. bovis found in wild and domestic animals from the same area were identical. These data strongly suggest that wild and domestic animals are associated in an epidemiologic bTB-transmission cycle. More investigations are needed, not only to understand the role played by each species in order to implement appropriate control measures, but also to assess the risk of transmission to humans.

  18. Changes in exposed membrane proteins during in vitro capacitation of boar sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.

    1990-01-01

    Exposed plasma membrane proteins were labeled with 125 I before and after incubation of boar sperm under capacitating conditions. Labeled protein profiles were compared to the ability of the sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster ova. Quantitatively, the labeled sperm membrane proteins were primarily low Mr prior to capacitation. The majority of the labeled seminal plasma protein was also low Mr. After capacitation, two new proteins (64,000 Mr and 78,000 Mr) were labeled. Sperm did not exhibit these exposed membrane proteins when incubated under noncapacitating conditions. Appearance of these proteins was not correlated to the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm. Although the 64,000 Mr protein was not consistently observed, the relative labeling of the 78,000 Mr protein was highly correlated with the ability of sperm to fuse with zona-free hamster ova. The 78,000 Mr protein may be a sperm protein involved in fusion with the egg plasma membrane

  19. A NEW MODEL OF BOAR SEMEN EVALUATION AND THE IMPACT OF CRYOGENIC FACTOR ON SPERMATIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. RUSU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sperm evaluation is mostly used to predict fertility and freezability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of investigating the effects of the cryogenic agent on boar spermatozoa, by identifying a set of laboratory tests for a rapid and efficient evaluation of semen quality. Usual sperm analysis such as sperm concentration, motility and spermatozoa morphology are not able to show subtle abnormalities, which are having a basic role in the fertilizing ability. Moreover, it seems that other sperm characteristics, involved in the fertilizing ability, can interfere with the freezing-thawing processes, being not evaluated or maybe not known. Morphological (microscopic analysis of stained spermatozoa, functional (motility analysis and hypo-osmotic swelling test and chromatin integrity (Acridine Orange Test and Comet Assay analysis were performed aiming to show the differences in spermatozoon integrity and functionality, caused by the cryogenic factor.

  20. A NEW MODEL OF BOAR SEMEN EVALUATION AND THE IMPACT OF CRYOGENIC FACTOR ON SPERMATIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ZĂHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sperm evaluation is mostly used to predict fertility and freezability. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of investigating the effects of thecryogenic agent on boar spermatozoa, by identifying a set of laboratory tests for arapid and efficient evaluation of semen quality. Usual sperm analysis such as spermconcentration, motility and spermatozoa morphology are not able to show subtleabnormalities, which are having a basic role in the fertilizing ability. Moreover, itseems that other sperm characteristics, involved in the fertilizing ability, can interferewith the freezing-thawing processes, being not evaluated or maybe not known.Morphological (microscopic analysis of stained spermatozoa, functional (motilityanalysis and hypo-osmotic swelling test and chromatin integrity (Acridine OrangeTest and Comet Assay analysis were performed aiming to show the differences inspermatozoon integrity and functionality, caused by the cryogenic factor

  1. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

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    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  2. Regulatory properties of 6-phosphofructokinase and control of glycolysis in boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, G; Schmidt, H; Stypa, H; Feiden, S; Mahling, C; Wegener, G

    2007-01-01

    Glycolysis is crucial for sperm functions (motility and fertilization), but how this pathway is regulated in spermatozoa is not clear. This prompted to study the location and the regulatory properties of 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK, EC 2.7.1.11), the most important element for control of glycolytic flux. Unlike some other glycolytic enzymes, PFK showed no tight binding to sperm structures. It could readily be extracted from ejaculated boar spermatozoa by sonication and was then chromatographically purified. At physiological pH, the enzyme was allosterically inhibited by near-physiological concentrations of its co-substrate ATP, which induced co-operativity, i.e. reduced the affinity for the substrate fructose 6-phosphate. Inhibition by ATP was reinforced by citrate and H+. Above pH 8, PFK lost all its regulatory properties and showed maximum activity. However, in the physiological pH range, PFK activity was very sensitive to small changes in effectors. At near-physiological substrate concentrations, PFK activity requires activators (de-inhibitors) of which the combination of AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6P2) was most efficient as a result of synergistic effects. The kinetics of PFK suggest AMP, F2,6P2, H+, and citrate as allosteric effectors controlling PFK activity in boar spermatozoa. Using immunogold labeling, PFK was localized in the mid-piece and principal piece of the flagellum as well as in the acrosomal area at the top of the head and in the cytoplasmic droplets released from the mid-piece after ejaculation.

  3. Oxidoreductive capability of boar sperm mitochondria in fresh semen and during their preservation in BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaczarzewicz, Dariusz; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Udała, Jan; Błaszczyk, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Kram, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of dilution and liquid-preservation of boar sperm on oxidoreductive capability of their mitochondria. The semen was diluted with BTS extender produced from water purified by destillation or by reverse osmosis. The spermatozoa were stored over a four-day period at 16-18 degrees C. The function of sperm mitochondria was assessed using the screening cytochemical test for NADH-dependent oxidoreductases (diaphorase/NADH, related to flavoprotein). Morphological assessment of cytochemical reaction was carried out using a light microscope. The intensity of the reaction was evaluated by means of a computer image analysing system (Quantimet 600S), measuring the integrated optical density (IOD) and mean optical density (MOD) of the reaction product (formazans) occurring in the sperm midpieces. In the non-diluted semen, intensive cytochemical reaction throughout the length of the sperm midpiece was observed. Furthermore, spermatozoa with the intensive reaction displayed the high optical density values. After dilution the semen with two variants of experimental extender, and as the conservation time expired, the cytochemical reaction was less intensive. Moreover, the absence of formazan deposits in various parts of the sperm midpiece was also noted. These morphological features corresponded to low values of optical density. These findings suggest that the dilution of semen and the time of sperm preservation may be critical factors that handicap energy metabolism of sperm mitochondria. The type of water used in preparing BTS extender does not have any significant effect on the oxidoreductive capability of sperm boar mitochondria.

  4. The next twenty years - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The twentieth anniversary of an institution is an appropriate time to look back and to ask what has been achieved. It is also an appropriate time to look ahead and to ask what should be the mission for the future. How can the strengths of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) be best utilized, what new opportunities should be seized upon, and what challenges should the IAEA be prepared to meet in the next twenty years? Forward planning is a very necessary activity in today's world. There are so many demands on national or institutional resources that careful analysis of options is necessary to establish priorities and ultimately to provide for implementation. But such planning must be done carefully with full appreciation for the validity and sensitivity of the input assumptions and data. Furthermore, today's plan, while setting goals and directions, cannot be so inflexible that it cannot be responsive to ever-changing political, economic and technical constraints or opportunities. Thus in looking ahead, the plan must contain provisions for flexibility to provide for further modifications in the light of ever-changing knowledge, attitudes, and world conditions. The experience of the past five years in the energy field, and especially in nuclear energy, underscores this need. In looking ahead for the next twenty years, we are attempting to describe the International Atomic Energy Agency and its role through the twentieth century. In doing so, we are automatically laying the base for the Agency's work going into the twenty-first century. In short, we are trying to visualize a programme that can serve the coming generation and, in doing so, creating a base from which the needs of the succeeding generation can be met. This is a large order and the crystal ball is less than clear. (author)

  5. Twenty-five years of simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. The strategy of training by simulators was developed and pursued consistently and continuously in order to ensure sound training of nuclear power plant personnel. The present thirteen simulators cover a broad range of plants. A systematic training concept also helps to ensure a high level of competence and permanent qualification of plant personnel. The anniversary was marked by a festive event at which Erich K. Steiner read a paper on 'The Importance of Simulator Training', and Professor Dr. Adolf Birkhofer spoke about 'Nuclear Technology Education and Training'. (orig.)

  6. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  7. Efeito da inclusão de diferentes tipos de óleo na dieta de varrões sobre a qualidade do sêmen "in natura" Effect of the inclusion of different types of oil in the diet of boars on the quality of semen "in natura"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Luiz de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de varrões alimentados com rações suplementadas com diferentes tipos de óleos como fontes de ácidos graxos essenciais. Foram utilizados 24 suínos híbridos (AGPIC 337, machos inteiros, com peso inicial médio de 152,7 kg, em um delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (T1 = controle; T2 = 3% óleo de linhaça; T3 = 3% óleo comercial PUFA® e T4 = 3% de óleo de peixe e seis repetições, com um animal por unidade experimental. As rações foram isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas, formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja. As variáveis analisadas foram parâmetros seminais como motilidade, vigor, volume, concentração, número total de células e anomalias espermáticas, avaliadas entre a quarta e a décima primeira semana do início do fornecimento das rações aos animais. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para motilidade, concentração e anormalidades espermáticas totais (P>0,05, exceto para alteração de cauda (PThe experiment was conducted at Animal Science Department of University of Lavras-MG, with the objective to evaluate the quality of semem in natura of boars fed with rations supplemented with different sources of oils as sources of essential fat acids. Twenty four hybrid boars (AGPIC 337 were used, with initial average weight of 152,7 kg, assigned into a randomized complete blocks design, with four treatments (T1 = control; T2 = 3% linseed oil; T3 = 3% commercial oil PUFA® and T4 = 3% of fish oil and six repetitions, being each animal as a experimental unit. The diets were isoenergetics and isoproteics, formulated with corn and soybean meal. The analyzed variables were seminal parameters as mobility, vigor, volume, concentration, total number of cells and anomalies spermatic, valued between four and eleventh week of the

  8. [Reduction of 137caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, P; Reddemann, J; Schungel, P; Kienzle, E

    2014-01-01

    This replication study investigated whether the 137caesium (137Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 137Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean 137Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in 137Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories.

  9. Effect of different procedures of ejaculate collection, extenders and packages on DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2007-06-01

    Whole ejaculate or sperm-rich fraction, collected from four sexually mature boars, was frozen in an extender containing lactose-hen egg yolk with glycerol (lactose-HEY-G) or extender containing lactose, lyophilized lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk and glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G), and Orvus Es Paste, respectively. The sperm samples were also frozen in a standard boar semen extender (Kortowo-3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed using a modified neutral comet assay. Sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123) and acrosome integrity were monitored. Freezing-thawing caused a significant increase (Pextender type. Sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly lower (Pextender exhibited lower (Pboar semen.

  10. Desempenho e medidas biométricas de caprinos de diferentes grupos raciais Performance and body measurements of purebred and crossbred goat kids at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakilane Jacque Leal de Menezes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de cabritos de três grupos raciais. Foram considerados nas avaliações o peso, o ganho de peso, as medidas biométricas, a conversão alimentar e o custo de produção relativo à alimentação. Utilizaram-se 41 cabritos, machos e fêmeas, de três grupos raciais (A - Alpino; ½ BA - ½ Boer + ½ Alpino; e ¾ BA - ¾ Boer + ¼ Alpino, avaliados aos 60, 90 e 120 dias em sistema de confinamento. As médias foram comparadas por análise de variância utilizando-se o teste Tukey. O desempenho não diferiu entre os grupos raciais. O escore corporal foi maior nos animais ¾ BA, o que pode representar vantagem econômica ao produtor se esses animais forem comercializados vivos. Com o avanço da idade, houve aumento do comprimento corporal, da altura anterior, da altura posterior, do perímetro torácico, do perímetro da perna, da largura da garupa e da largura do peito. Os machos foram superiores às fêmeas quanto às medidas biométricas e quanto ao peso ao nascimento, aos 60 e aos 90 dias. Os machos Alpinos foram mais pesados aos 120 dias e apresentaram, ainda, maior ganho de peso no intervalo dos 30 aos 60 dias. O menor custo de produção relativo à alimentação por quilograma de cabrito produzido foi observado aos 90 dias de idade.The objective of this trial was to evaluate performance (weight and weight gain, body measurements, feed conversion, and production costs of purebred (Alpine and crossbred [½ Boer + ½ Alpine (½ BA and ¾ Boer + ¼ Alpine (¾ BA] goat kids at different ages (60, 90 and 120 days. Therefore, 41 kids in a feedlot system were used in this study. Data were submitted to analysis of variance using the Tukey test for comparison of means. No difference in performance was observed among the three different groups of animals (Alpine, ½ BA, and ¾ BA. Body condition score was greatest in ¾ BA kids, which may represent additional profit to producers if animals are sold alive. As expected

  11. Is there a relationship between the chromatin status and DNA fragmentation of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2007-07-15

    In this study a radioisotope method, which is based on the quantitative measurements of tritiated-labeled actinomycin D ((3)H-AMD) incorporation into the sperm nuclei ((3)H-AMD incorporation assay), was used to assess the chromatin status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. This study also tested the hypothesis that frozen-thawed spermatozoa with altered chromatin were susceptible to DNA fragmentation measured with the neutral comet assay (NCA). Boar semen was diluted in lactose-hen egg yolk-glycerol extender (L-HEY) or lactose ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein fractions-glycerol extender (L-LPFo), packaged into aluminum tubes or plastic straws and frozen in a controlled programmable freezer. In Experiment 1, the chromatin status and DNA fragmentation were measured in fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from the same ejaculates. There was a significant increase in sperm chromatin destabilization and DNA fragmentation in frozen-thawed semen as compared with fresh semen. The proportions of spermatozoa labeled with (3)H-AMD were concurrent with elevated levels of sperm DNA fragmentation in K-3 extender, without cryoprotective substances, compared with L-HEY or L-LPFo extender. Regression analysis revealed that the results of the (3)H-AMD incorporation assay and NCA for frozen-thawed spermatozoa were correlated. Boars differed significantly in terms of post-thaw sperm DNA damage. In Experiment 2, the susceptibility of sperm chromatin to decondensation was assessed using a low concentration of heparin. Treatment of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with heparin revealed enhanced (3)H-AMD binding, suggesting nuclear chromatin decondensation. The deterioration in post-thaw sperm viability, such as motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity, was concurrent with increased chromatin instability and DNA fragmentation. This is the first report to show that freezing-thawing procedure facilitated destabilization in the chromatin structure of boar spermatozoa, resulting in

  12. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  13. Outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infections associated with a wild boar hunted at a game farm in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzbauer, Stacy M; Agger, William A; Hall, Rebecca L; Johnson, Gary M; Schmitt, David; Garvey, Ann; Bishop, Henry S; Rivera, Hilda; de Almeida, Marcos E; Hill, Dolores; Stromberg, Bert E; Lynfield, Ruth; Smith, Kirk E

    2014-12-15

    Rates of trichinellosis have declined significantly in the United States due to improved pork production practices and public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork. In April 2011, the Minnesota Department of Health received a report of presumptive trichinellosis in a 50-year-old man with a history of wild boar consumption. A public health investigation was initiated. Medical record reviews and patient and family interviews were conducted. Trichinella species serology was performed on patient and family serum samples, and larval identification was attempted on clinical specimens and meat samples. The index patient harvested a wild boar from an Iowa game farm; he processed the meat after returning home and developed gastrointestinal symptoms 2 days later. Four days after his illness onset, all 5 family members consumed a roast from the boar. The index patient sought healthcare 4 times after illness onset before being definitively diagnosed with trichinellosis. Following initiation of albendazole therapy, the index patient developed atrial fibrillation. One additional family member who processed the raw meat was diagnosed with trichinellosis. Trichinella spiralis larvae were identified in wild boar meat samples. Trichinellosis has long been recognized as a potential hazard of consuming undercooked wild carnivore meat, and historically has been associated with consumption of pork from domestic swine, but may be unfamiliar to practicing clinicians in the United States. Education of hunters and the broader population on the potential for trichinellosis and the importance of proper handling and cooking meat from wild or free-range animals needs to be reinforced. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Questionnaire-Based Assessment of Wild Boar/Domestic Pig Interactions and Implications for Disease Risk Management in Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Jori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars and domestic pigs belong to the same species (Sus scrofa. When sympatric populations of wild boars, feral pigs, and domestic pigs share the same environment, interactions between domestic and wild suids (IDWS are suspected to facilitate the spread and maintenance of several pig pathogens which can impact on public health and pig production. However, information on the nature and factors facilitating those IDWS are rarely described in the literature. In order to understand the occurrence, nature, and the factors facilitating IDWS, a total of 85 semi-structured interviews were implemented face to face among 25 strict farmers, 20 strict hunters, and 40 hunting farmers in the main traditional pig-farming regions of Corsica, where IDWS are suspected to be common and widespread. Different forms of IDWS were described: those linked with sexual attraction of wild boars by domestic sows (including sexual interactions and fights between wild and domestic boars were most frequently reported (by 61 and 44% of the respondents, respectively in the autumn months and early winter. Foraging around common food or water was equally frequent (reported by 60% of the respondents but spread all along the year except in winter. Spatially, IDWS were more frequent in higher altitude pastures were pig herds remain unattended during summer and autumn months with limited human presence. Abandonment of carcasses and carcass offal in the forest were equally frequent and efficient form of IDWS reported by 70% of the respondents. Certain traditional practices already implemented by hunters and farmers had the potential to mitigate IDWS in the local context. This study provided quantitative evidence of the nature of different IDWS in the context of extensive commercial outdoor pig farming in Corsica and identified their spatial and temporal trends. The identification of those trends is useful to target suitable times and locations to develop further ecological

  15. Effect of addition of coconut water (Cocos nucifera) to the freezing media on post-thaw viability of boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini-Luzardo, María; Centurión-Castro, Fernando; Alfaro-Gamboa, Militza; Aké-López, Ricardo; Herrera-Camacho, José

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment were to evaluate the addition of coconut water in natura to the freezing media, compare the effect of deionized water vs filtered water of coconut over the post-thaw seminal characteristics, and evaluate the effect of the deionized water and in natura coconut water on the seminal characteristics of boar sperm at different post-thaw times. Thirty-four ejaculates were used divided in three aliquots which received one of the following treatments (T): T1, LEY (bidistilled water, lactose, and egg yolk) and LEYGO (LEY + glycerol and Orvus ET paste); T2, LEY(A) (coconut deionized water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(A); and T3, LEY(B) (in natura coconut water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(B). Samples of boar semen were frozen according to the Westendorf method, thawed at 38°C, and evaluated at three incubation times (0, 30, and 60 min). Seminal characteristics assessed were motility (Mot), acrosomal integrity (AInt), membrane integrity (MInt), and mitochondrial activity (MAct). T1 showed a higher percentage of viable sperm than T3 (Mot 36.5 vs 5.4 %, AInt 61.8 vs 41.2 %, MInt 50.4 vs 41.3 %, and MAct 56.9 vs 50.5 %). T2 kept a higher percentage of viable sperm at all incubation times. In natura coconut water showed a detrimental effect over the viability of the frozen-thawed boar semen. Deionized coconut water improved the boar semen viability post-thaw, outperforming results of in natura coconut water.

  16. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size.

  17. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, B.M.; Reesink, J.; Reesink, W.

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA) in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size. PMID:26623335

  18. Bacterial Contamination of Boar Semen and its Relationship to Sperm Quality Preserved in Commercial Extender Containing Gentamicin Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gączarzewicz, D; Udała, J; Piasecka, M; Błaszczyk, B; Stankiewicz, T

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree and type of bacterial contamination in boar semen (79 ejaculates from Large White and Landrace boars) and its consequences for sperm quality during storage (27 extended semen samples, 16°C for five days) under practical conditions of artificial insemination (AI). The results revealed the presence of aerobic bacteria in 99% of the ejaculates (from 80 to 370 ×106 colony-forming units/mL). Most of the ejaculates contained two or three bacterial contaminants, while the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas bacterial genera were most frequently isolated. Also detected were Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Proteus spp., Escherichia coli, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa. In general, the growth of certain bacterial types isolated prior to semen processing (Enterobacter spp., E. coli, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa) was not discovered on different days of storage, but fluctuations (with a tendency towards increases) were found in the frequencies of Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Staphylococcus spp. isolates up to the end of storage. Semen preserved for five days exhibited decreases in sperm motility and increases in the average number of total aerobic bacteria; this was associated with sperm agglutination, plasma membrane disruption, and acrosome damage. We inferred that, due to the different degrees and types of bacterial contaminants in the boar ejaculates, the inhibitory activity of some antimicrobial agents used in swine extenders (such as gentamicin sulfate) may be limited. Because such agents can contribute to the overgrowth of certain aerobic bacteria and a reduction in the quality of stored semen, procedures with high standards of hygiene and microbiological control should be used when processing boar semen.

  19. A Cartographic Tool for Managing African Swine Fever in Eurasia: Mapping Wild Boar Distribution Based on the Quality of Available Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; de la Torre, A

    2017-12-01

    The current African swine fever (ASF) epidemic in Eurasia represents a risk for the swine industry with devastating socio-economic and political consequences. Wild boar appears to be a key factor in maintaining the disease in endemic areas (mainly the Russian Federation) and spreading the disease across borders, including within the European Union. To help predict and interpret the dynamics of ASF infection, we developed a standardized distribution map based on global land cover vegetation (GLOBCOVER) that quantifies the quality of available habitats (QAH) for wild boar across Eurasia as an indirect index for quantifying numbers of wild boar. QAHs were estimated using a seven-level scale based on expert opinion and found to correlate closely with georeferenced presence of wild boar (n = 22 362): the highest wild boar densities (74.47%) were found in areas at the two highest QAH levels, while the lowest densities (5.66%) were found in areas at the lowest QAH levels. Mapping notifications from 2007 to 2016 onto the QAH map showed that in endemic areas, 60% of ASF notifications occurred in domestic pigs, mostly in agricultural landscapes (QAHs 1.75 and 1) containing low-biosecurity domestic pig farms. In the EU, in contrast, 95% of ASF notifications occurred in wild boar, within natural landscapes (QAH 2). These results suggest that the QAH map can be a useful epi-tool for defining risk scenarios and identifying potential travel corridors for ASF. This tool will help inform resource allocation decisions and improve prevention, control and surveillance of ASF and potentially of other diseases affecting swine and wild boar in Eurasia. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Decrease in glutathione content in boar sperm after cryopreservation. Effect of the addition of reduced glutathione to the freezing and thawing extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Joaquín; Sellés, Elena; Marco, Marco Antonio; Coy, Pilar; Matás, Carmen; Romar, Raquel; Ruiz, Salvador

    2004-08-01

    Although glutathione content in boar spermatozoa has been previously reported, the effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) on semen parameters and the fertilizing ability of boar spermatozoa after cryopreservation has never been evaluated. In this study, GSH content was determined in ejaculated boar spermatozoa before and after cryopreservation. Semen samples were centrifuged and GSH content in the resulting pellet monitored spectrophotometrically. The fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm was also tested in vitro by incubating sperm with in vitro matured oocytes obtained from gilts. GSH content in fresh semen was 3.84 +/- 0.21 nM GSH/10(8) sperm. Following semen cryopreservation, there was a 32% decrease in GSH content (P boars and after various preservation protocols (P = 0.0102 ). The effect of addition of GSH to the freezing and thawing extenders was also evaluated. Addition of 5 mM GSH to the freezing extender did not have a significant effect on standard semen parameters or sperm fertilizing ability after thawing. In contrast, when GSH was added to the thawing extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase in sperm fertilizing ability was observed, although no differences were observed in standard semen parameters. In summary, (i) there was a loss in GSH content after cryopreservation of boar semen; (ii) addition of GSH to the freezing extender did not result in any improvement in either standard semen parameters or sperm fertilizing ability; and (iii) addition of GSH to the thawing extender resulted in a significant increase in sperm fertilizing ability. Nevertheless, future studies must conclude if this is the case for all boars. Furthermore, since addition of GSH to the thawing extender did not result in an improvement in standard semen parameters, this suggests that during the thawing process, GSH prevents damage of a sperm property that is critical in the fertilization process but that is not measured in the routine semen analysis.

  1. Attitudes of Serbian food technology students towards surgical and immunocastration of boars and their sensitivity to androstenone and skatole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevic, I.; Đekić, I.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Aluwé, M.; Čandek-Potokar, M.; Bonneau, M.; Weiler, U.

    2017-09-01

    Various European Union pork chain actors and stakeholders agreed in 2010 on a road map to voluntarily abandon piglet castration by 1 January 2018. Because currently in Serbia, male piglets are surgically castrated and consumers are not used to the boar taint odour and flavour, the introduction of boar meat may modify the acceptability of pork. The objective of the study was to investigate the attitudes, awareness and opinions of future Serbian food technologist towards surgical castration of boars and its alternatives, and to test their sensitivity to androstenone and skatole. We found that they were concerned about the animal welfare issues and that they were willing to pay a little more for meat from animals treated with dignity. This was more so if they were females and less so if they had had a rural upbringing. They strongly believed that surgical castration is painful for the animals, but at the same time agreed that meat from castrated pigs is of better quality. Their ambiguous attitudes regarding efficacy and quality of alternatives to surgical castration clearly indicated the knowledge gap that must be filled by appropriate modifications of the curriculum. Students demonstrated average sensitivity to both androstenone and skatole. Females exhibited higher intensities of difference in both cases.

  2. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in european wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gortázar Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB remains a significant problem in some parts of Spain largely because of contacts between cattle and wildlife reservoirs in extensive grazing systems. European Wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the species involved in the transmission of the disease to other species. Fast and simple detection methods would be critical for assessing infection prevalence, study the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and monitoring the effects of TB control measures. Results An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in wild boar serum was developed and validated on 185 sera from TB positive and negative wild boar. Based on antigen inoculation of captive animals as well as tuberculosis compatible lesions, culture results and molecular analysis of hunted individuals, animals were allocated into two groups: tuberculosis positive group and tuberculosis negative group. After optimization of the positive to negative ratio using different combinations of serum dilutions and conjugate concentrations, the test yielded a sensitivity of 72.60% and a specificity of 96.43% for the best cut-off. Conclusion Although some negative group animals showed an ELISA positive reaction (

  3. Occurrence of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in the Wildlife: First Report of OXA-48 in Wild Boars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiri, Taous; Bakour, Sofiane; Lalaoui, Rym; Belkebla, Nadia; Allouache, Meriem; Rolain, Jean Marc; Touati, Abdelaziz

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates from wild boars and Barbary macaques in Algeria. Fecal samples were collected from wild boars (n = 168) and Barbary macaques (n = 212), in Bejaia, Algeria, between September 2014 and April 2016. The isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Carbapenem resistance determinants were studied using PCR and sequencing, while clonal relatedness was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR was used to investigate certain virulence genes. Three CPE isolates from three different samples (1.8%) recovered from wild boars were identified as Escherichia coli (two isolates) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (one isolate). These isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, tobramycin, ertapenem, and meropenem. The results of PCR and sequencing analysis showed that all three isolates produced the OXA-48 enzyme. The MLST showed that the two E. coli isolates were assigned to the same sequence type, ST635, and belonged to phylogroup A, whereas K. pneumoniae strain belonged to ST13. The K. pneumoniae strain was positive for multiple virulence factors, whereas no virulence determinants were found in E. coli isolates. This is the first report of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wild animals from Algeria and Africa.

  4. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  5. The improving effect of reduced glutathione on boar sperm cryotolerance is related with the intrinsic ejaculate freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Pinart, Elisabeth; Bonet, Sergi; Miró, Jordi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-04-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) improves boar sperm cryosurvival and fertilising ability when added to freezing extenders. Poor freezability ejaculates (PFE) are known to present lower resistance than good freezability ejaculates (GFE) to cryopreservation procedures. So far, no study has evaluated whether the ability of GSH to counteract the cryopreservation-induced injuries depends on ejaculate freezability (i.e. GFE vs. PFE). For this reason, thirty boar ejaculates were divided into three equal volume fractions and cryopreserved with or without GSH at a final concentration of either 2 or 5mM in freezing media. Before and after freeze-thawing, sperm quality was evaluated through analysis of viability, motility, integrity of outer acrosome membrane, ROS levels, integrity of nucleoprotein structure, and DNA fragmentation. Ejaculates were classified into two groups (GFE or PFE) according to their post-thaw sperm motility and viability assessments in negative control (GSH 0mM), after running cluster analyses. Values of each sperm parameter were then compared between treatments (GSH 0mM, GSH 2mM, GSH 5mM) and freezability groups (GFE, PFE). In the case of GFE, GSH significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance, without differences between 2 and 5mM. In contrast, PFE freezability was significantly increased when supplemented with 5mM GSH, but not when supplemented with 2mM GSH. In conclusion, PFE need a higher concentration of GSH than GFE to improve their cryotolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The characterization of twenty sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Pelak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of twenty human genomes to evaluate the prospects for identifying rare functional variants that contribute to a phenotype of interest. We sequenced at high coverage ten "case" genomes from individuals with severe hemophilia A and ten "control" genomes. We summarize the number of genetic variants emerging from a study of this magnitude, and provide a proof of concept for the identification of rare and highly-penetrant functional variants by confirming that the cause of hemophilia A is easily recognizable in this data set. We also show that the number of novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs discovered per genome seems to stabilize at about 144,000 new variants per genome, after the first 15 individuals have been sequenced. Finally, we find that, on average, each genome carries 165 homozygous protein-truncating or stop loss variants in genes representing a diverse set of pathways.

  7. Twenty five years of fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the last twenty five years in fundamental physics theory it is stated that there has been no revolution in this field. In the absence of gravitation, Lorentz invariance remains a requirement on fundamental laws. Einstein's theory of gravitation inspires increasing conviction on the astronomical scale. Quantum theory remains the framework for all serious effort in microphysics, and quantum electrodynamics remains the model of a fully articulated microphysical theory, completely successful in its domain. However,a number of ideas have appeared, of great theoretical interest and some phenomenological success, which may well contribute to the next decisive step. Recent work on the following topics is mentioned; gravitational radiation, singularites, black body radiation from black holes, gauge and hidden symmetry in quantum electrodynamics, the renormalization of electromagnetic and weak interaction theory, non-Abelian gauge theories, magnetic monopoles as the most striking example of solitons, and supersymmetry. (UK)

  8. The benefits of cooling boar semen in long-term extenders prior to cryopreservation on sperm quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, K; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Fraser, L; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Kordan, W

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term extenders on post-thaw sperm quality characteristics following different holding times (HT) of boar semen at 17 and 10°C. Sperm-rich fractions, collected from five boars, were diluted in Androhep(®) Plus (AHP), Androstar(®) Plus (ASP), Safecell(®) Plus and TRIXcell(®) Plus (TCP) extenders. The extended semen samples were held for 2 hr at 17°C (HT 1) and additionally for 24 hr at 10°C (HT 2), after they were evaluated and frozen. CASA sperm motility and motion patterns, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome integrity were assessed in the pre-freeze and frozen-thawed semen. The Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit was used to analyse the proportions of viable and plasma membrane apoptotic-like changes in spermatozoa. Results indicated that boar variability, extender and HT significantly affected the sperm quality characteristics, particularly after freezing-thawing. Differences in the pre-freeze semen were more marked in the sperm motion patterns between the HTs. Pre-freeze semen in HT 2 showed significantly higher VCL and VAP, whereas no marked effects were observed in the sperm membrane integrity and viability (YO-PRO-1(-) /PI(-) ) among the extenders. Post-thaw sperm TMOT and PMOT were significantly higher in the AHP and ASP extenders of HT 2 group, whereas VSL, VCL and VAP were markedly lower in the TCP extender. Furthermore, spermatozoa from the AHP- and ASP-extended semen of HT 2 group were characterized by higher MMP, PMI and NAR acrosome integrity following freezing-thawing. In most of the extenders, the incidence of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with apoptotic-like changes was greater in HT 1. The findings of this study indicate that holding of boar semen at 10°C for 24 hr in long-term preservation extenders modulates post-thaw sperm quality characteristics in an extender-dependent manner. These results will further contribute to the

  9. Wild inside: Urban wild boar select natural, not anthropogenic food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillfried, Milena; Gras, Pierre; Busch, Matthias; Börner, Konstantin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Ortmann, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Most wildlife species are urban avoiders, but some became urban utilizers and dwellers successfully living in cities. Often, they are assumed to be attracted into urban areas by easily accessible and highly energetic anthropogenic food sources. We macroscopically analysed stomachs of 247 wild boar (Sus scrofa, hereafter WB) from urban areas of Berlin and from the surrounding rural areas. From the stomach contents we determined as predictors of food quality modulus of fineness (MOF,), percentage of acid insoluble ash (AIA) and macronutrients such as amount of energy and percentage of protein, fat, fibre and starch. We run linear mixed models to test: (1) differences in the proportion of landscape variables, (2) differences of nutrients consumed in urban vs. rural WB and (3) the impact of landscape variables on gathered nutrients. We found only few cases of anthropogenic food in the qualitative macroscopic analysis. We categorized the WB into five stomach content categories but found no significant difference in the frequency of those categories between urban and rural WB. The amount of energy was higher in stomachs of urban WB than in rural WB. The analysis of landscape variables revealed that the energy of urban WB increased with increasing percentage of sealing, while an increased human density resulted in poor food quality for urban and rural WB. Although the percentage of protein decreased in areas with a high percentage of coniferous forests, the food quality increased. High percentage of grassland decreased the percentage of consumed fat and starch and increased the percentage of fibre, while a high percentage of agricultural areas increased the percentage of consumed starch. Anthropogenic food such as garbage might serve as fallback food when access to natural resources is limited. We infer that urban WB forage abundant, natural resources in urban areas. Urban WB might use anthropogenic resources (e.g. garbage) if those are easier to exploit and more abundant

  10. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  11. Effects of alpha-lipoic acids on sperm membrane integrity during liquid storage of boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Parlapan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have shown that sperm membrane from swine shows high sensitivity to cryopreservation process, causing a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, that cause lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The aim of the present study was to minimize the oxidative attack by adding different concentration of alpha-lipoic acid into the sperm liquid storage at 17ºC for 7 days. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS and supplemented with 5 levels of alpha-lipoic  acid (0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mmol/ml. The membrane integrity was evaluated at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 of liquid preservation, using flow cytometer FACSCanto II (BD Biociencias systems. The experiment indicate that supplementation of alpha-lipoic  acid to the semen liquid storage extender improve sperm membrane

  12. USE OF ALTERNATIVE EXTENDERS AND TEMPERATURES IN LONG TERM STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Raquel Santos Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate extenders is important for the success of an artificial insemination program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative extenders for swine semen at different temperatures (17 to 10 °C. The following extenders were used: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, powdered coconut water (ACP-103®, and skimmed milk powder (LPD. The 50 ejaculates were analyzed daily, in natura and after dilution, during the 5-day period of semen preservation  (D0 to D4, regarding spermatic vigor and motility. Acrosome integrity and sperm viability were evaluated on D0 and D4. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Students, Tukey and chi-square tests (p<0.05. The LPD extender at 10 °C presented higher motility and sperm vigor compared to BTS and ACP until D2, and to treatments stored at 17 °C. Acrosome vitality and integrity remained higher (p<0.001 with LPD at 10 °C on D0 and D4. LPD showed to be a good extender for the swine semen at lower temperature (10 °C. Furthermore, it provided better protection to sperm cells, by allowing greater integrity and vitality of the acrosome. Keywords: coconut water; conservation; skimmed milk; semen boar.

  13. Boar spermatozoa cryopreservation in low glycerol/trehalose enriched freezing media improves cellular integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Juárez-Mosqueda, María de Lourdes; Carvajal, Salvador Uribe; Ortega, María Elena Trujillo

    2009-06-01

    The use of glycerol for boar semen cryopreservation results in low fertility, possibly due to toxicity. This has led to recommend the use of solutions with less than 4% glycerol. Trehalose is a disaccharide known to stabilize proteins and biologic membranes during processes such as cryopreservation. Thus, it was decided to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of glycerol/trehalose mixtures. Effects on motility (M), viability (Vb) and acrosomal integrity (nA) were evaluated. Sperm samples were frozen in three different extenders: G4 contained 4% glycerol; T1 contained 1% glycerol plus 250 mM trehalose and T0.5 was constituted by 0.5% glycerol plus 250 mM trehalose. All extenders yielded similar post-freezing/thawing motility rates. Viability was diminished in T0.5 as compared to the others. In regard to acrosome integrity, it was twice as high (Pextender. Thus, T1 twice as many spermatozoa were alive, motile and intact, than in either T0.5 or G4, i.e. during freeze/thawing the use of T1 resulted in twice as many fertile cells as when using the other extenders. During our study, we noted that there were wide individual variations both in sperm viability and in motility.

  14. Survey of [i]Toxoplasma gondii [/i]antibodies in meat juice of wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i] in several districts of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The aims of the study were: 1 to detect antibodies against T[i]oxoplasma gondii[/i] from wild boar meat; 1 establish seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the wild boar population; 3 establish risk factors concerned in higher possible seroprevalence; 4 to estimate the usefulness of meat juice for detection of [i]T. gondii[/i] antibodies in wild boar. Material and methods. Diaphragm meat juice samples from 656 wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i] were collected during the hunting seasons between September 2008 – October 2010 from 9 districts of the Czech Republic. The samples were stratified per age category into 2 groups: piglets (n = 279 and yearlings together with adults (n = 377. The in-house ELISA test was used for the detection of antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]from the meat juice samples. Results. Antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]were detected by in-house ELISA in 260 of 656 wild boars (40% with 26% prevalence in piglets (72/279 and 50% prevalence in yearlings and adults (188/377. The district total seroprevalences ranged between 32% – 59%, with a significantly higher prevalence in the district of Havlíčkův Brod (59%. Statistically significant differences (p-value < 0.05 were found between 2 age categories, and between 9 districts, with a significant variability in the district of Havlíčkův Brod. Seroprevalence correlated positively with farm density, but without any statistical significance. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  15. Factors that Influence Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Red Deer and Wild Boar in an Epidemiological Risk Area for Tuberculosis of Game Species in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, S; Manteigas, A; Ribeiro, R; Otte, J; Fonseca, A Pina; Caetano, P; Abernethy, D; Boinas, F

    2017-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a worldwide zoonotic disease of domestic and wild animals. Eradication has proved elusive in those countries with intensive national programmes but with ongoing transmission between wildlife and cattle. In Portugal, a high-risk area for bTB was defined and specific measures implemented to assess and minimize the risk from wildlife. Data from the 2011 to 2014 hunting seasons for red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were analysed with bovine demographic and bTB information to assess factors that determined the occurrence and distribution of bTB in both species. The likelihood of bTB-like lesions in wild boar was positively associated with density of red deer, wild boar and cattle, while for red deer, only their density and age were significant factors. The likelihood of Mycobacterium bovis isolation in wild boar was associated with density of cattle and red deer and also with the anatomical location of lesions, while for red deer, none of the variables tested were statistically significant. Our results suggest that, in the study area, the role of red deer and wild boar may be different from the one previously suggested by other authors for the Iberian Peninsula, as red deer may be the driving force behind M. bovis transmission to wild boar. These findings may assist the official services and game managing bodies for the management of hunting zones, what could also impact the success of the bTB eradication programme. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders

    OpenAIRE

    F. Cremonesi; A. Meucci; A. Lange-Consiglio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19?C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using prop...

  17. Twenty-four hour care for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Rob; Edwards, Thomas Rhys; Chilvers, Rupatharshini; David, Chris; Elliott, Helen J

    2009-04-15

    Despite modern treatment approaches and a focus on community care, there remains a group of people who cannot easily be discharged from psychiatric hospital directly into the community. Twenty-four hour residential rehabilitation (a 'ward-in-a-house') is one model of care that has evolved in association with psychiatric hospital closure programmes. To determine the effects of 24 hour residential rehabilitation compared with standard treatment within a hospital setting. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (May 2002 and February 2004). We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that compared 24 hour residential rehabilitation with standard care for people with severe mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. Data were excluded where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. For binary outcomes we calculated the relative risk and its 95% confidence interval. We identified and included one study with 22 participants with important methodological shortcomings and limitations of reporting. The two-year controlled study evaluated "new long stay patients" in a hostel ward in the UK. One outcome 'unable to manage in the placement' provided usable data (n=22, RR 7.0 CI 0.4 to 121.4). The trial reported that hostel ward residents developed superior domestic skills, used more facilities in the community and were more likely to engage in constructive activities than those in hospital - although usable numerical data were not reported. These potential advantages were not purchased at a price. The limited economic data was not good but the cost of providing 24 hour care did not seem clearly different from the standard care provided by the hospital - and it may have been less. From the single, small and ill-reported, included study, the hostel ward type of facility appeared cheaper and positively effective. Currently, the value of this way of supporting people - which could be

  18. Use of refractometry as a new management tool in AI boar centers for quality assurance of extender preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to see if refractometry can be used as a new quality control tool for boar semen extenders. For this the refractive index and osmolality of BTS extender concentrations (EC) were recorded in 10%-steps from 50% to 150% and 200% of the correct amount. Twelve boar ejaculates were evaluated for semen quality. The refractive index for the correctly prepared extender was 4.6±0.0°Bx, corresponded to 316±16mOsmkg(-1), and correlated highly with osmolality (r=0.99; P<0.001). Total sperm motility with 100% EC differed significantly from ≤70% EC (P<0.001) and 200% EC (P<0.001) on day 1 (d1) and d4, respectively. The percentage of motile spermatozoa in a thermoresistance test on d2 showed a significant drop using ≤70% EC (P=0.047) and ≥140% EC (P=0.004). Secondary apical ridge defects were significantly higher using 50% EC (P<0.001) and ≥150% EC (P=0.032) compared to 100% EC, respectively. An increased number of coiled tails were observed using ≤60% EC (P<0.001). Percentages of spermatozoa with intact membranes on d2 resulted in a significant decrease using 50% EC (P<0.001) and ≥150% EC (P=0.005), respectively. The mean percentage of PI negative spermatozoa with active mitochondria on d2 showed a significant difference using ≤60% EC (P=0.016) and ≥140% EC (P<0.001) compared to 100% EC, respectively. Boar sperm quality is affected by inexact extender preparation. The refractive-index is an indicator of osmolality and may be used to verify semen extender preparation. The sensitivity is sufficient to detect deviations from correct extender preparation before negative effects on sperm quality occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Activity of 137-Cs in Meat of Wild Boars from the Regions of West Slavonia and Gorski Kotar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Kraljevic, P.

    2003-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a considerable deposition of 1 37C s contaminates Croatia. At that time, higher activities of 1 37C s were found in games and animals in pasture. Due to their way of living, games collect 1 37C s several times more in relation to domestic animals. Therefore, in this paper, fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident the activity of 1 37C s was measured in the muscles of wild boars from the regions of west Slavonia (Sirac and Lipik) and Gorski kotar area (Vrbovsko and Fuzine). Muscle samples from the west Slavonia were taken in November 2001, and they were collected from the region of Gorski kotar in the period from December 2001 to April 2002. The activity of 1 37C s was determined using direct gamma spectrometry with HPGe semiconductor detector system coupled to a Camberra 4096 MCA channel analyzer. The measuring time was 80 000s. Activity of 1 37C s was determined using photo-peak on 661.6 keV. Obtained results showed that the activity of 1 37C s in muscles of wild boars was not equal in all of investigated regions. It was not equal within the same region, too. Namely, the average activity of 1 37C s in the muscles of wild boars from Sirac was 12.1 Bq/kg thus being three times higher than the average activity of 1 37C s in the samples from Lipik (which was 4.2 Bq/kg). The activity of 1 37C s in muscles from Vrbovsko (43.8 Bq/kg) was almost seven times lower than the activity of 1 37C s in the samples from Fuzine (294.7 Bq/kg in average). Found differences in the activity of 1 37C s are probably caused by different way of food consumption during various periods of time. (author)

  20. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance of urban residents toward hornets and wild boars in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Hosaka

    Full Text Available Urban biodiversity conservation often aims to promote the quality of life for urban residents by providing ecosystem services as well as habitats for diverse wildlife. However, biodiversity inevitably brings some disadvantages, including problems and nuisances caused by wildlife. Although some studies have reported that enhancement of nature interaction among urban children promotes their affective attitude toward of favorable animals, its effect on tolerance toward problem-causing wildlife is unknown. In this study, we assessed the tolerance of 1,030 urban residents in Japan toward hornets and wild boar, and analyzed the effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance using a structural equation model. The model used sociodemographic factors and childhood nature experience as explanatory variables, affective attitude toward these animals as a mediator, and tolerance as a response variable. The public tolerance toward hornets and boars was low; over 60% of the respondents would request the removal of hornets and wild boar from nearby green spaces by government services, even when the animals had not caused any damage. Tolerance was lower in females and elderly respondents. Childhood experience with nature had a greater influence on tolerance than did sociodemographic factors in the scenario where animals have not caused any problems; however, its effect was only indirect via promoting positive affective attitude toward wildlife when the animals have caused problems. Our results suggest that increasing people's direct experience with nature is important to raise public tolerance, but its effect is limited to cases where wildlife does not cause any problems. To obtain wider support for conservation in urban areas, conservationists, working together with municipal officials, educators and the media, should provide relevant information on the ecological functions performed by problem-causing wildlife and strategies for avoiding the problems

  2. Effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance of urban residents toward hornets and wild boars in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koun; Numata, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Urban biodiversity conservation often aims to promote the quality of life for urban residents by providing ecosystem services as well as habitats for diverse wildlife. However, biodiversity inevitably brings some disadvantages, including problems and nuisances caused by wildlife. Although some studies have reported that enhancement of nature interaction among urban children promotes their affective attitude toward of favorable animals, its effect on tolerance toward problem-causing wildlife is unknown. In this study, we assessed the tolerance of 1,030 urban residents in Japan toward hornets and wild boar, and analyzed the effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance using a structural equation model. The model used sociodemographic factors and childhood nature experience as explanatory variables, affective attitude toward these animals as a mediator, and tolerance as a response variable. The public tolerance toward hornets and boars was low; over 60% of the respondents would request the removal of hornets and wild boar from nearby green spaces by government services, even when the animals had not caused any damage. Tolerance was lower in females and elderly respondents. Childhood experience with nature had a greater influence on tolerance than did sociodemographic factors in the scenario where animals have not caused any problems; however, its effect was only indirect via promoting positive affective attitude toward wildlife when the animals have caused problems. Our results suggest that increasing people’s direct experience with nature is important to raise public tolerance, but its effect is limited to cases where wildlife does not cause any problems. To obtain wider support for conservation in urban areas, conservationists, working together with municipal officials, educators and the media, should provide relevant information on the ecological functions performed by problem-causing wildlife and strategies for avoiding the problems that wildlife can

  3. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  4. A comparative study of boar semen extenders with different proposed preservation times and their effect on semen quality and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Anastasia Karageorgiou; Georgios Tsousis; Constantin M. Boscos; Eleni D. Tzika; Panagiotis D. Tassis; Ioannis A. Tsakmakidis

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the quality characteristics of boar semen diluted with three extenders of different proposed preservation times (short-term, medium-term and long-term). A part of extended semen was used for artificial insemination on the farm (30 sows/extender), while the remaining part was stored for three days (16–18 °C). Stored and used semen was also laboratory assessed at insemination time, on days 1 and 2 after the collection (day 0). The long-term extender was used for a sho...

  5. Transient from crystallization to fractal growth observed in both boar bile and SnI sub 2 vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Ji Zhong; Xie An Jian

    2003-01-01

    A visual transient of the growth mechanism from crystallization to fractal growth was observed clearly in a drop of boar bile. The growing crystals were replaced by treelike fractal structures during solidification of the sample. It is fascinating to compare the transient with the result observed in SnI sub 2 vapour. They were completely identical, and revealed that under certain conditions a linear growth could be transferred spontaneously into nonlinear growth. It may be possible to consider the transient as a 'bridge' between linear and nonlinear growth, and to develop a quantitative expression of transient dynamics.

  6. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  7. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  8. Heavy metals in wild boar (Sus scrofa and related lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaccaroni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are toxic elements naturally present in the environment which can be bioconcentrated by plants and animals and incorporated into food cycles. Thus the use of wildlife species as monitors is a useful tool to assess environmental pollution. Because of its ethological characteristics, wild boar is highly probable to be exposed to pollution, mainly by heavy metals. These pollutants, when present at high enough concentrations, can induce histological lesion in various tissues. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the levels of five metals (cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc in wild boar, Sus scrofa, originating from an Apennine area of Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy, and to evaluate any possible correlation with histological lesions eventually observed. Samples of several organs (liver, heart, kidney, diaphragm, abductor muscle, masseter, eye, testis, brain, lung and spleen were collected from hunted animals during winter 2001. Levels of metals were determined on freeze dried tissues employing microwave wet digestion. Toxicological analysis were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and data expressed on a dry weight basis. Histopatological analyses were performed on fixed samples of the same tissue. Highest mean values were found in kidney for cadmium and copper (7 ± 1 ppm and 30 ± 2.6 ppm respectively and in liver for copper (21.16 ± 3.28 ppm, lead (2139 ± 680.6 ppb, iron (415.92 ± 24.41 ppm and zinc (94.76 ± 6.11 ppm. In all other tissues, mean concentrations of each metal were at low levels, and were comparable one another. A statistical difference was found for iron (p<0.05, copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 in kidney, in testis (p<0.01 for zinc and in liver for copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 as function of age cohorts. When sex was considered, a statistical difference was found for iron in eye, for copper in heart and for cadmium in heart and kidney. Histopatological analysis allowed

  9. Preventive vaccination contributes to control classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S; Pol, F; Forot, B; Masse-Provin, N; Rigaux, S; Bronner, A; Le Potier, M-F

    2010-04-21

    Over the last 20 years, oral vaccination implementing a live attenuated vaccine has been experimented in Europe in order to control classical swine fever (CSF) in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa sp.). This has generally led to an enhanced seroprevalence and a decreased viroprevalence at the scale of the whole vaccinated populations, but no quantitative analysis has demonstrated the protective effect of preventive vaccination or intensive baiting. In the present paper we conducted a retrospective analysis at the scale of the municipality, taking into account the local dynamics and possible covariates of infection to test the effect of preventive vaccination and of the baiting effort. To be efficient, vaccination was expected to increase seroprevalence above the level considered as suitable for preventing disease invasion (40-60%) independently of infection, to protect free areas from disease invasion or contribute to control subsequent disease intensity and duration. We also hypothesized that a better baiting effort would be correlated with an improvement of immunisation and disease control. In uninfected municipalities, seroprevalence increased up to 40% after 1 year, i.e., three vaccination campaigns. We observed a significant protective effect of preventive vaccination, especially within municipalities that had been vaccinated at least 1 year before disease emergence and where virus detection did not last more than one quarter. On the other hand, we did not detect a significant effect of the baiting effort on local seroprevalence or disease dynamics, suggesting that the baiting system could be improved. We discuss these results regarding the improvement of management measures and further research perspective. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality and fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage in extender supplemented with different antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Magdalena; Trzcińska, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of antibiotics on quality parameters and fertilizing capacity of boar sperm during liquid preservation. In the first experiment, semen was diluted in an extender containing 200 μg/mL of gentamicin as a control and diluted in a modified extenders: Ext I (contained 200 μg/mL florfenicol), Ext II (contained 200 μg/mL polymyxin B), Ext III (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol) and Ext IV (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL polymyxin B). The semen was stored for ten days. Sperm quality was evaluated based on the motility (CASA; TM: total motility; PM: progressive motility), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/PI assay), mitochondrial activity (JC-1) and DNA integrity (TUNEL). The highest PM% (62.5 ± 9.6) was observed in Ext III at Day 6 of storage. The highest sperm viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential was noticed at the end of the storage period in Ext III. Long-term storage did not induce DNA fragmentation in the extenders analyzed. In the second experiment, semen diluted in the control extender and in the extender providing the highest quality spermatozoa on Day 10 (Ext III) was used for artificial insemination (AI) of synchronized gilts. Our studies showed that the highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (pregnant gilts: 97.0%, litter size: 11.4 ± 1.2) occurred with Ext III semen dilution. The combination of 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol in the extender maintained sperm motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity and enhanced the higher reproduction success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The initial fertilizing capacity of longerm-stored liquid boar semen following pre- and postovulatory insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waberski, D; Weitze, K F; Lietmann, C; Lübbert Zur Lage, W; Bortolozzo, F P; Willmen, T; Petzoldt, R

    1994-01-01

    In pigs, high variation is seen in the duration of estrus and in the time of ovulation. This is one of a wide range of factors not related to semen quality, which possibly influences the results of field insemination trials. Experiment 1 (n=81 gilts) was performed to determine the influence of the time of ovulation on the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen stored up to 118 h. The objective of Experiment 2 (n=102 gilts) was to study the fertilizing potential of semen stored up to 120 h in 2 different extenders, Androhep and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), by means of postovulatory AI. Inseminations were performed 0 to 4 h after ovulation in order to standardize the trial conditions. Fertilization rates based on Day-2 to Day-4 embryos, and the number of accessory spermatozoa per zona pellucida did not differ between semen stored for 0 to 48 and 48 to 87 h in gilts ovulating within 12 after insemination (Experiment 1). Gilts with an interval of 12 to 24 h between AI and ovulation had lower fertility results using semen stored for more than 48 h. A further decrease was observed when semen storage exceeded 87 h in those gilts ovulating later than 24 h after insemination. The time of ovulation has to be considered as being a major factor of variation in the fertility results of AI trials. In Experiment 2, fertilization rates and numbers of accessory spermatozoa decreased between semen stored for 0 to 24 and 24 to 48 h in BTS, and between semen stored for 0 to 24 and 48 to 72 h in Androhep. Significant differences in fertility between diluents were seen only when using semen stored for more than 96 h, with semen extended with Androhep giving the higher results. The results indicate that the decrease in fertilizing capacity due to in vitro aging of spermatozoa cannot be prevented even during the first days of storage.

  12. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  13. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic parameters for androstenone and skatole as indicators of boar taint and their relationship to production and litter size traits in Danish Landrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I. H.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odor, which affects the smell and taste of cooked pork, resulting mainly from the accumulation of skatole and androstenone in the back fat of intact males. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for skatole and androstenone and their genetic relationship...

  15. Effects of exposure of epididymal boar spermatozoa to seminal plasma on the binding of zona pellucida proteins during in vitro capacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, W.; Colenbrander, B.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether seminal plasma plays a role in the increase during in vitro capacitation of the number of boar spermatozoa with enhanced binding of zona pellucida proteins. Ejaculated spermatozoa and spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymides of

  16. Influence of human activities on the activity patterns of Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, van N.; Ohashi, H.; Koike, S.; Kaji, K.

    2015-01-01

    Human ageing and population decline in Japan are causing agricultural field abandonment and providing new habitats for Japanese sika deer and wild boar. These species have expanded their distribution and increased in abundance across Japan and are causing increased agricultural damage. Effective

  17. Serosurveillance of wild deer and wild boar after the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Dekker, A.; Dekkers, L.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Blood samples from 140 wild deer and 208 wild boar shot in the aftermath of the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001 were examined for antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. They were all negative

  18. The combinatorial effect of different Equex STM paste concentrations, cryoprotectants and the straw-freezing methods on the post-thaw boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T-W; Cheng, F-P; Chen, I-H; Yang, C-H; Tsai, M-Y; Chang, M-H; Wang, J-H; Wu, J-T

    2013-02-01

    This study was to evaluate the combinatorial effect (14 treatments, A-N) of different Equex STM paste concentrations, cryoprotectants and the straw-freezing method on the post-thaw boar semen quality. Two ejaculates were collected from each of nine boars (three boars from each of three breeds). Semen was diluted in extenders with different concentrations of Equex STM paste and different cryoprotectants [glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)] before cryopreserving via liquid nitrogen or dry ice. Motility, viability, percentage of spermatozoa with intense acrosomal staining and with normal morphology of post-thaw sperm were evaluated. The qualities of thawed semen were best preserved in treatment H (extender with 0.5% Equex STM paste and 5% glycerol and freezing by dry ice) and were worst in treatment B (extender with 0% Equex STM paste and 5% DMA and freezing by dry ice). Significant difference (p 0.05). Moreover, statistical analysis suggests that no significant difference was present in semen quality among breed or individual donors (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that Equex STM paste improved the cryosurvival efficiency of boar sperm, and the favourable straw-freezing method changes between glycerol and DMA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Supplementation of different concentrations of Orvus Es Paste (OEP) to ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein extender improves post-thaw boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Jasiewicz, E; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare post-thaw quality of boar semen following freezing in an ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein (LPFo) extender supplemented with 0%, 0.25% and 0.50% Orvus Es Paste (OEP). Sperm assessments included total motility (TMOT), mitochondrial function (MF), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and acrosome integrity (normal apical ridge, NAR). Considerable variations among boars and OEP treatments had a significant effect (P semen samples frozen in the absence of OEP. By contrast, lactose-LPFo-glycerol extender supplemented with either 0.25% OEP or 0.50% OEP markedly enhanced post-thaw sperm characteristics. In all boars, there were no marked differences in post-thaw sperm TMOT between the freezing extenders supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% OEP. However, a decline in the percentage of post-thaw motile spermatozoa was more pronounced in the extender supplemented with 0.50% OEP following a 120-min incubation period. Furthermore, the proportions of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with MF, PMI and NAR acrosomes varied significantly among the boars in the OEP-supplemented extenders. The findings of this study indicate that different OEP concentrations, in the presence of ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins, could have varying effects on post-thaw sperm survival.

  20. Evaluation of porcine beta defensins-1 and -2 as antimicrobial peptides for liquid-stored boar semen: Effects on bacterial growth and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Timonet, Adrià; Castillo-Martín, Miriam; Pereira, Barbara A; Pinart, Elisabeth; Bonet, Sergi; Yeste, Marc

    2018-04-15

    The present study evaluated whether two different antimicrobial peptides (AMP): porcine beta defensins-1 (PBD1) and -2 (PBD2) at three concentrations (1.5 μM, 3 μM and 5 μM) could be a suitable alternative to antibiotics in liquid-stored boar semen. Two separate experiments were conducted with liquid-stored boar semen preserved at 17 °C for 9-10 days. In the first one, we evaluated the impact of adding three concentrations of each AMP on the bacterial growth and sperm quality of boar semen stored for 10 days. In the second experiment, the ability of these AMPs to control bacterial growth was determined over a 9-day period, following artificial inoculation with Escherichia coli at 10 7 and 10 8  CFU mL -1 . In both experiments, sperm viability was assessed through flow cytometry, sperm motility was determined with Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and the inhibitory effect on microbial growth was evaluated by bacteria culture on Luria Bertani agar. PBD1 and PBD2 were found to significantly (P extenders for boar semen at a concentration of 3 μM, but do not completely control all bacterial growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Canu, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    polymorphisms at two linked genes (AMELY and UTY) in a network analysis. A differentiation between wild and domestic populations was observed (FST = 0.229), with commercial breeds sharing no Y haplotype with the sampled wild boar. Similarly, a certain degree of geographic differentiation was observed across...

  2. In vivo fertilizing capacity of deep frozen boar semen packaged in plastic bags and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; Hofmo, P O; Grevle, I S; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez

    1991-05-01

    Pooled ejaculates from six fertile boars were frozen under controlled conditions in Teflon FEP-film plastic bags (5 ml) and maxi-straws (2.5 ml) using 3% glycerol as cryoprotectant. The percentages of both post-thaw motility and normal apical ridges were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) for the bags (54.5 and 75%) than for the maxi-straws (40.1 and 59.4%) respectively. For evaluation of the in vivo fertilizing capacity of the frozen-thawed spermatozoa, 26 gilts were inseminated once 24 h after the first observation of standing reflex in their second oestrus, with 5 ml of semen (containing 5 billion spermatozoa) reconstituted in 80 ml of BTS from either bags or maxi-straws. Ova were recovered from the oviducts/uteri 2-4 days following insemination and examined for cleavage and sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP). Significantly higher rates (P less than 0.02) of fertilized ova were found in the bag-inseminated (75%) than in maxi-straw inseminated gilts (63%); and similarly their ova had significantly more spermatozoa in the ZP, irrespective of whether they were fertilized or nonfertilized. This study confirmed that the plastic bags are suitable and may be used for packaging single insemination doses of deep frozen boar semen for routine A.I. work.

  3. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez-González

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  4. Reduction of 137caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfeld, P.; Kienzle, E.

    2014-01-01

    This replication study investigated whether the 137 caesium ( 137 Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 137 Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean 137 Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in 137 Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p < 0.001). Multivariable mo dels that took potential confounders into account (age, weight, sex, hunting date, territory) estimated the effect to be -344 Bq/kg (p < 0.05). This replication study confirmed the finding of Kienzle et al. (12) who described a statistically significant reduction in 137 Cs contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories. [de

  5. EPINEPHRINE CONCENTRATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA L. SERUM AFTER REPEATED ELISA TESTED FREEZE-THAWING CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neška Vukšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples for determining of epinephrine concentration and biochemical parameters in the blood serum of wild boars were taken from 42 healthy wild boars, both sexes, during the hunting season. All animals in good condition, body weight 20 to 95 kg, were divided into two groups up to 50 kg (group A and up to 95 kg (Group B. Epinephrine concentration was determined by ELISA twice: one week after taking samples and a month after repeated freezing at -80°C. It was higher in relation to the reference value of domestic pigs and human (109.45 pg/ml in A and 119.54 pg/ml in B group. Repeated freezing and re-analysis after a month were resulted in lower concentrations of epinephrine (12% in young and 11.17% in adult animal, but without statistical significance (P>0.05. Biochemical analysis results’ show increased glucose and triglycerides concentrations compared to the reference values, while other indicators were observed within or slightly increased referring to the normal range. The correlation between glucose and epinephrine was not determined.

  6. Evolution and molecular epidemiology of classical swine fever virus during a multi-annual outbreak amongst European wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Katja V; Gabriel, Claudia; Dimna, Mireille Le; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie; Staubach, Christoph; Merboth, Matthias; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever is a viral disease of pigs that carries tremendous socio-economic impact. In outbreak situations, genetic typing is carried out for the purpose of molecular epidemiology in both domestic pigs and wild boar. These analyses are usually based on harmonized partial sequences. However, for high-resolution analyses towards the understanding of genetic variability and virus evolution, full-genome sequences are more appropriate. In this study, a unique set of representative virus strains was investigated that was collected during an outbreak in French free-ranging wild boar in the Vosges-du-Nord mountains between 2003 and 2007. Comparative sequence and evolutionary analyses of the nearly full-length sequences showed only slow evolution of classical swine fever virus strains over the years and no impact of vaccination on mutation rates. However, substitution rates varied amongst protein genes; furthermore, a spatial and temporal pattern could be observed whereby two separate clusters were formed that coincided with physical barriers.

  7. Effects of storage in different semen extenders on the pre-freezing and post-thawing quality of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekońska, A; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Lecewicz, M; Strzeżek, R; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Fraser, L; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Kordan, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage of semen in different commercial extenders on the pre-freezing and post-thawing quality of boar spermatozoa. Semen was diluted in BTS, Androhep (AH) and Gedil (GD), stored for 24 h at 17°C, and then frozen in accordance with the cryopreservation protocol. Analyses of the quality of spermatozoa included: motility, normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), measurements of ATP content and activity of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Prior to the freezing process, no significant effect of the extender on the sperm quality parameters was noted. After thawing the spermatozoa it was demonstrated that the type of extender used influenced PMI, MMP, ATP content and activity of GPx. In the AH extender the percentage of spermatozoa with PMI and ATP content in spermatozoa was significantly higher (Pextenders. In addition, semen stored in the AH was characterised by a statistically higher (Pboar spermatozoa stored for 24 hours in liquid state can be used. However, the type of extender used prior to freezing may have a significant effect on the post-thawing quality of the spermatozoa. The AH extender better secured the quality of thawed boar spermatozoa as compared with the BTS or GD.

  8. Egg yolk and glycerol requirements for freezing boar spermatozoa treated with methyl β-cyclodextrin or cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Eva; Tomás, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Martínez, Emilio A; Vázquez, Juan M; Mocé, Eva

    2014-04-24

    Egg yolk (EY) and glycerol are common constituents of extenders used for sperm cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that using cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) improves sperm cryosurvival in several species. However, standard freezing extenders might not be the most appropriate for CLC-treated sperm. This study evaluated the EY and glycerol requirements for freezing CLC-treated boar spermatozoa. Semen samples from 34 ejaculates coming from 4 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into three aliquots: one was used untreated (control), and the other two were treated with 1 mg of CLC or methyl-β-cyclodextrin/120 × 10(6) sperm for 15 min at 22 C prior to cryopreservation. Our results indicated that reducing the concentration of EY was detrimental for sperm viability after thawing (31.57 ± 2 vs. 19.89% ± 2 for 20 and 10% EY, respectively; P semen treated with CLC. On the other hand, it was observed that the traditional concentration of glycerol (3%) was not the appropriate for freezing CLC-treated sperm (61.10 ± 3 vs. 47.87% ± 3 viable sperm for control and CLC-treated sperm, respectively; P extenders for CLC-treated sperm. Nevertheless, additional studies will be needed to evaluate alternative cryoprotectants and to determine the effect of high glycerol concentrations on sperm functionality.

  9. Assessing in vivo fertilizing capacity of liquid-preserved boar semen according to the 'Hanover gilt model'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, F; Döhring, A; Le Thi, X; Weitze, K F; Waberski, D

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the ability of the Hanover gilt model to assess in vivo fertilizing capacity of preserved sperm and to consider whether any modifications to this model were needed. This model evaluates the fertilizing capacity of semen based on the fertilization rate, the rate of normal embryos and the accessory sperm count of 3-5-day embryos. Its distinguishing characteristics are the use of one-time insemination of sperm in reduced numbers, of spontaneously ovulating gilts and of ovulation detection through ultrasound examination of ovaries. Reduced sperm numbers allow for an accurate evaluation of the fertilizing potential of different semen treatments, thereby avoiding the compensatory effect of doses calibrated to maximize fertility. The model's usefulness was assessed in a trial run designed to compare the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen diluted into two different extenders. The diluent, the boar and the backflow, had no significant effect on any of the parameters studied. Gilts inseminated less than 24 h before ovulation had a significantly higher (p semen), while using relatively few gilts and little time.

  10. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (psemen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (psemen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (psemen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L(-1) of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L(-1) of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50 degrees C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity.

  12. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide protegrine 1 on sperm viability and bacterial load of boar seminal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, S; Briz, M; Yeste, M; Bonet, S; Bussalleu, E

    2017-10-01

    The presence of bacteria adversely affects boar sperm quality of seminal doses intended for artificial insemination. Currently, the most common measure to prevent bacteriospermia is the addition of antibiotics in semen extenders; however, mounting evidence shows that microbial resistance exists. A promising alternative to replace antibiotics are antimicrobial peptides. In this study, the effects of the antimicrobial peptide protegrine 1 (PG1) on the sperm viability and bacterial load of boar seminal doses were evaluated. Three different concentrations of PG1 (2.5, 25 and 100 μg/ml) were tested over a storing period of 10 days at 17°C. Sperm viability was analysed by fluorescence microscopy (SYBR14/propidium iodide), and bacterial load was assessed by plating 100 μl of each sample in Luria-Bertani medium and incubated at 37°C for 72 hr under aerobic conditions. Protegrine 1 was effective in controlling the bacterial load in all the assessed concentrations (p < .05), reaching the lowest values at the highest concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide. Nevertheless, sperm viability was significantly (p < .05) reduced by all tested concentrations of this peptide, the most cytotoxic effects being observed at the highest PG1 concentrations. Despite these results, the use of PG1 as an alternative to antibiotics cannot be totally discarded, as further studies using the truncated form of this peptide are needed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The use of comet assay to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Strzezek

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay, under neutral conditions, allows the assessment of DNA integrity influenced by sperm ageing, which is manifested in DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we attempted to use a modified neutral comet assay test (single-cell gel electrophoresis, to our knowledge for the first time, to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage for 96 h at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. In this comet assay protocol we used 2% beta-mercaptoethanol prior to the lysis procedure, to aid in removing nuclear proteins. Ejaculates from 3 boars (designated A, C and G were diluted with a standard semen extender, Kortowo-3 (K-3, which was supplemented with lipoprotein fractions extracted from hen egg yolk (LPFh or ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Irrespective of the extender type, the percentage of comet-detected spermatozoa with damaged DNA increased gradually during prolonged storage at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. Spermatozoa stored in K-3 extender exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage at both storage temperatures. Significant differences in DNA damage among the boars were more pronounced during storage in LPF-based extenders at 5 degrees C: spermatozoa of boars A and G were less susceptible to DNA damage. The percent of tail DNA in comets was lower in LPF-based extenders, and there were individual variations among the boars. We observed that changes in DNA integrity were dependent on the extender type and storage temperature. A higher level of DNA instability was observed in K-3 extended semen compared with K-3/LPFh or K-3/LPFo extended semen during storage at 5 degrees C. No significant difference in the level of DNA damage between K-3/LPFh and K-3/LPFo was observed. It seems that a long-term storage can affect genomic integrity of boar spermatozoa. The modified neutral comet assay can be used to detect low levels of DNA damage in boar spermatozoa during liquid preservation. Therefore, screening for sperm DNA damage may be used as an additional

  14. The use of comet assay to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2004-01-01

    The comet assay, under neutral conditions, allows the assessment of DNA integrity influenced by sperm ageing, which is manifested in DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we attempted to use a modified neutral comet assay test (single-cell gel electrophoresis), to our knowledge for the first time, to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage for 96 h at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. In this comet assay protocol we used 2% beta-mercaptoethanol prior to the lysis procedure, to aid in removing nuclear proteins. Ejaculates from 3 boars (designated A, C and G) were diluted with a standard semen extender, Kortowo-3 (K-3), which was supplemented with lipoprotein fractions extracted from hen egg yolk (LPFh) or ostrich egg yolk (LPFo). Irrespective of the extender type, the percentage of comet-detected spermatozoa with damaged DNA increased gradually during prolonged storage at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. Spermatozoa stored in K-3 extender exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage at both storage temperatures. Significant differences in DNA damage among the boars were more pronounced during storage in LPF-based extenders at 5 degrees C: spermatozoa of boars A and G were less susceptible to DNA damage. The percent of tail DNA in comets was lower in LPF-based extenders, and there were individual variations among the boars. We observed that changes in DNA integrity were dependent on the extender type and storage temperature. A higher level of DNA instability was observed in K-3 extended semen compared with K-3/LPFh or K-3/LPFo extended semen during storage at 5 degrees C. No significant difference in the level of DNA damage between K-3/LPFh and K-3/LPFo was observed. It seems that a long-term storage can affect genomic integrity of boar spermatozoa. The modified neutral comet assay can be used to detect low levels of DNA damage in boar spermatozoa during liquid preservation. Therefore, screening for sperm DNA damage may be used as an additional test of sperm

  15. Genomic analysis of influenza A virus from captive wild boars in Brazil reveals a human-like H1N2 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Natalha; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio E; Silveira, Simone; Mores, Marcos A Z; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R; Barcellos, David E S N

    2014-01-10

    Influenza is a viral disease that affects human and several animal species. In Brazil, H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza A viruses (IAV) circulate in domestic swine herds. Wild boars are also susceptible to IAV infection but in Brazil until this moment there are no reports of IAV infection in wild boars or in captive wild boars populations. Herein the occurrence of IAV in captive wild boars with the presence of lung consolidation lesions during slaughter was investigated. Lung samples were screened by RT-PCR for IAV detection. IAV positive samples were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRRT-PCR), virus isolation, genomic sequencing, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Eleven out of 60 lungs (18.3%) were positive for IAV by RT-PCR and seven out of the eleven were also positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 by qRRT-PCR. Chronic diffuse bronchopneumonia was observed in all samples and IHC analysis was negative for influenza A antigen. Full genes segments of H1N2 IAV were sequenced using Illumina's genome analyzer platform (MiSeq). The genomic analysis revealed that the HA and NA genes clustered with IAVs of the human lineage and the six internal genes were derived from the H1N1pdm09 IAV. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus infection in captive wild boars in Brazil and indicates the need to monitor IAV evolution in Suidae populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic effects of lead (Pb) on bone properties in red deer and wild boar: Relationship with vitamins A and D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Here we study the occurrence of abnormalities on bone tissue composition and turnover mechanisms through the Pb-mediated disruption of vitamins A and D in wild ungulates living in a lead (Pb)-polluted mining area. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the mining area had significantly higher liver and bone Pb levels than controls, which were associated with the depletion of liver retinyl esters and the corresponding increase of free retinol levels both in deer and boar from the mining area. Pb-exposed adult deer had lower carbonate content in bone mineral than controls, which was associated with the increased free retinol percentage. In wild boar, the degree of bone mineralization was also positively associated with higher burdens of retinyl esters. These results suggest that Pb-associated changes in bone composition and mineralization is likely influenced by the depletion of vitamin A in wildlife exposed to environmental Pb pollution. Highlights: ► We studied the effects of Pb pollution on bone and vitamins in wild ungulates from a mining area. ► Pb decreased the carbonate content in bone mineral in adult red deer. ► Pb increased the ratio of free retinol:retinyl esters in red deer and wild boar. ► Changes in vitamin A status were associated with changes in the carbonate content in bone mineral. ► Adverse effect of Pb on vitamin A status may be involved with toxic effects of Pb in bone tissue. -- The effect of Pb on vitamin A status could be involved in disturbances on bone biomeralization in red deer and wild boar living in Pb-polluted mining areas

  17. Rapid method for the simultaneous detection of boar taint compounds by means of solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Kaat; Wauters, Jella; Van Durme, Jim; Claus, Dirk; Vercammen, Joeri; De Saeger, Sarah; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-09-02

    Because of animal welfare issues, the voluntary ban on surgical castration of male piglets, starting January 2018 was announced in a European Treaty. One viable alternative is the fattening of entire male pigs. However, this can cause negative consumer reactions due to the occurrence of boar taint and possibly lead to severe economic losses in pig husbandry. In this study, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC-MS was used in the development and optimization of a candidate method for fast and accurate detection of the boar taint compounds. Remarkably fast extraction (45s) of the boar taint compounds from adipose tissue was achieved by singeing the fat with a soldering iron while released volatiles were extracted in-situ using HS-SPME. The obtained method showed good performance characteristics after validation according to CD 2002/657/EC and ISO/IEC 17025 guidelines. Moreover, cross-validation with an in-house UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap-MS method showed good agreement between an in-laboratory method and the new candidate method for the fast extraction and detection of skatole and androstenone, which emphasizes the accuracy of this new SPME-GC-MS method. Threshold detection of the boar taint compounds on a portable GC-MS could not be achieved. However, despite the lack of sensitivity obtained on the latter instrument, a very fast method with run-to-run time of 3.5min for the detection of the boar taint compounds was developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. First report of wild boar susceptibility to Porcine circovirus type 3: High prevalence in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Italy) in the absence of clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Drigo, Michele; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Menandro, Maria Luisa

    2018-05-18

    The genus Circovirus includes one of the most relevant infectious agents affecting domestic pigs, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The wild boar susceptibility to this pathogen has also been demonstrated although the actual epidemiological role of wild populations is still debated. In recent times, a new circovirus, Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3), has been discovered and reported in the presence of several clinical conditions. However, no information is currently available about PCV-3 circulation and prevalence in wild boar. To fill this gap, 187 wild boar serum samples were collected in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Northern Italy) and screened for PCV-3, demonstrating a high viral prevalence (approximately 30%). No gender differences were demonstrated while a lower infection prevalence was observed in animals younger than 12 months compared to older ones, differently from what described in commercial pigs. Almost all sampled animals were in good health conditions and no association was proven between PCV-3 status and clinical syndromes in wild animals. The genetic characterization of selected strains enlightened a relevant variability and the absence of closely related strains originating from domestic pigs. Therefore, the observed scenario is suggestive of multiple introductions from other wild or domestic swine populations followed by prolonged circulation and independent evolution. Worldwide, this study reports for the first time the high susceptibility of the wild boar to PCV-3 infection. The high prevalence and the absence of association with clinical signs support the marginal role of this virus in the wild boar population ecology. However, its epidemiological role as reservoir endangering commercial swine cannot be excluded and will require further investigations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  20. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2017-10-01

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  1. Strategic Leader Competencies for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Bradley A

    2007-01-01

    ...: interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, and technical skills. From these three primary strategic leadership skills, there is a list of twenty-one competencies that a strategic leader should posses...

  2. A statistical GIS-based analysis of Wild boar (Sus scrofa traffic collisions in a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available vThis study was aimed at analysing the most relevant environmental variables involved in vehicle–wild boar road collisions in a Mediterranean area, starting from a territorial information system implemented in a GIS environment. Landscape structure indices and local qualitative and quantitative variables were correlated to identify the most frequent predisposing factors of collisions. Statistical tests of the considered parameters indicated a higher frequency of collisions in the evening hours of late summer and autumn (P<0.05 compared with daytime and night-time, localized nearness to attraction points (feeding or resting sites; P<0.001 and closeness to no-hunting areas (P<0.001. In addition, local road parameters (shape of road, visibility at road sides, etc. considerably increased the risk of collisions.

  3. Distribution and biometry of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in the Como and Varese Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martinoli

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The following study contains and analyses data about the wild boar (Sus scrofa hunted in the Como and Varese provinces from October 1993 to January 1994. These populations have been formed from individuals which have been illegally introduced continuously since 1978 in the Varese province and since the mid 80s in the Como province. Some of them have also come from the neighbouring Switzerland. Biometric analyses were carried out on 189 specimens, and were divided into age and sex classes. We considered 8 measurements for some external morphological characteristics and 28 for the skull structure. For each specimen the age class was evaluated by tooth growth analysis. The possible presence of fetuses in every female was also checked. The data collected by the Veterinary Service (U.S.S.L. enabled us to identify the main diseases of the studied populations. Frequent cases of tuberculosis were observed.

  4. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy discloses differences in dehydration of frozen boar semen stored in large containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwall, H

    2009-02-01

    In general, freezing in flat plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bags (FlatPacks) at 50 degrees C/min gives better post-thaw viability, in terms of sperm motility and membrane integrity, than does freezing in plastic maxi-straws, probably owing to differences in cryobiology. To test the hypothesis that this better survival post-thaw relates to the degree of sperm dehydration during freezing, the present study investigated the structure of boar semen in a frozen state using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) to compare two different packages (FlatPacks and maxi-straws) for single artificial insemination (AI) doses, and three different freezing rates. The semen was split-sample frozen in maxi-straws or FlatPacks (both holding 5 ml) using 3% glycerol as cryoprotectant. Three freezing rates were applied from -5 degrees C to -100 degrees C, namely 2 degrees C/min, 50 degrees C/min and 1200 degrees C/min, the lattermost by plunging the samples into liquid nitrogen (LN(2)). The samples were thereafter fractured into LN(2) and larger areas of extra-cellular, unbound frozen water ('ice lakes') were measured to determine the degree of dehydration of the spermatozoa. These areas decreased in size with an increase in cooling rate, the differences in size being more dramatic for maxi-straws than for FlatPacks. Size of ice lakes was also influenced by location within package in relation to cooling rate, the central values being always smaller in maxi-straws than in Flatpacks (p < 0.05 at 2 degrees C/min and 50 degrees C/min) but not at 1200 degrees C/min, which suggested the FlatPack allows for more homogenous freezing of boar semen.

  5. Anti-oxidant supplementation improves boar sperm characteristics and fertility after cryopreservation: comparison between cysteine and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Gonzalez, N; Martínez, F; Cano, R; de Blas, I; Espinosa, E

    2010-08-01

    Anti-oxidants partially ameliorated the detrimental effects of reactive oxidative substances produced during cryopreservation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of anti-oxidant addition to the freezing extender on boar semen qualities and fertility capacity. Ejaculates were collected from a previously selected boar and semen samples were processed using the straw freezing procedure. In experiment 1, semen samples were cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations of cysteine (0, 5 and 10mM) to determinate a cysteine concentration capable of producing a protective effect during cryopreservation. Semen quality (total motility, progressive motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic swelling test) was evaluated after freezing and thawing and then every hour for 3h. In experiment 2, ejaculates were cryopreserved with lactose-egg yolk extender with or without the following anti-oxidants: cysteine, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and cysteine plus rosemary. Semen quality was evaluated. In the experiment 3, fertility capacity of semen frozen in anti-oxidant supplementation extenders was examined in vitro. A total of 2232 oocytes were in vitro matured and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm. In summary: (i) the effective concentration of cysteine in freezing extender was 10mM; (ii) the addition of exogenous rosemary or cysteine to the freezing extender positively affected post-thawed viability and acrosome integrity. Only rosemary supplementation improved total motility at 3h and progressive motility at any time; (iii) the inclusion of rosemary into the extender was effective in penetration and cleavage rate and also in the efficiency of the fertilization system. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of cryoprotectants glycerol and amides, combined with antioxidants on quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranaamnuay, K; Grossfeld, R; Struckmann, C; Rath, D

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether the cooling and freezing extenders containing a mixture of antioxidants (AOs) catalase, Na-pyruvate and mercaptoethanol and one of three types of cryoprotectants (CPs) would be able to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. The collected semen, only the sperm-rich fraction, was diluted 1:1 with Androhep plus™ extender, stored at 15°C for 2 h and centrifuged. The centrifuged sperm pellet was re-suspended in lactose-egg yolk extender and divided into four groups for mixing with freezing extenders containing different kinds of CPs at 5°C: (I) glycerol (GLY) as control; (II) GLY with AOs; (III) dimethyl formamide (DMF) with AOs and (IV) dimethyl acetamide (DMA) with AOs. Processed sperm were packaged in 0.25-mL straws and frozen using a controlled rate freezer. After thawing, the diluted thawed sperm were incubated at 38°C for 10 min and was assessed for motility by CASA, membrane/acrosome integrity by FITC-PNA/PI and DNA integrity (DFI) by SCSA. All sperm parameters evaluated, except DFI, were negatively affected (P0.05). There was no difference in DFI among the studied groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, based on the present results, addition of AOs to cooling and freezing extenders and/or replacement of GLY with DMF or DMA could not improve quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms related to meat traits in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle Polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às características da carne em bovinos Nelore puros e cruzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CAST/XmnI, a calpastatin gene polymorphism, and CAPN530, a calpain 1 large subunit gene polymorphism, in different beef genetic groups (Nelore and Nelore x Bos taurus, and to investigate associations between these polymorphisms and carcass and meat traits. Three hundred animals - comprising 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way cross and 15 Braunvieh three-way cross- were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and phenotyped for rib-eye area (REA, back-fat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The occurrence of the two alleles of the CAST/XmnI and CAPN530 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a B. indicus breed, which permitted association studies in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle, was first shown in the present work. No relationship was found between the CAST or CAPN1 SNPs and growth-related traits (REA or fat deposition (BT and IF, since calpastatin and µ-calpain are not physiologically involved with these traits. Moreover, the association results between genotypes and aged meat tenderness (assessed by SF and MFI showed that these markers are useless in assisted selection for purebred Nelore and their crosses with B. taurus.O presente trabalho objetivou estimar, em bovinos de corte de diferentes grupos genéticos (Nelore e Nelore x Bos taurus, as frequências alélicas e genotípicas dos polimorfismos CAST/XmnI, do gene da calpastatina, e CAPN530, do gene da calpaína, bem como avaliar a ocorrência de associações entre esses polimorfismos e características da carcaça e da carne produzida. Trezentos animais - 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Galega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 tricross Brangus e 15 tricross Braunvieh - foram genotipados por PCR-RFLP e fenotipados para área de olho de lombo (AOL, cobertura de gordura subcutânea (CGS, gordura

  8. Pneumonia enzoótica em javalis (Sus scrofa Enzootic pneumonia in wild boars (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene Ecco

    2009-06-01

    presented reduced growth rate, anorexia, lethargy, cough and dyspnea, especially after they were moved. High body temperature (40ºC in average was verified in some animals. Auscultation revealed moderate pulmonary crepitation and stertors. Pulmonary gross lesions were typical of lobular bronchopneumonia. Lung lesions were characterized by ventral-cranial consolidation in the majority of the cases. The color of affected pulmonary areas varied from diffuse dark red to mosaic pattern (dark red lobule intercalate by grayish lobule or diffusely grayish. The majority of the lungs had mucopurulent exsudate in the bronchial lumen that also drained from the parenchyma cut surface. Upon microscopy, the changes were characterized by purulent and histiocytic bronchopneumonia with necrotic foci. In some animals, there was BALT hyperplasia associated with perivascular and peribronchial plasma cells and lymphocytes infiltration in most of these cases. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Immunohistochemistry evaluation demonstrated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on the luminal surface of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, and the DNA of bacteria was detected by PCR. This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boars associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection.

  9. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H2O2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bovine serum albumin and skim-milk improve boar sperm motility by enhancing energy metabolism and protein modifications during liquid storage at 17 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jieli; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Lirui; Zhen, Linqing; Yang, Qiangzhen; Li, Peifei; Li, Xinhong

    2017-10-15

    Both bovine serum albumin (BSA) and skim-milk have been reported to improve sperm quality, primarily by enhancing sperm motility, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Androstar ® Plus extender containing different concentrations (0, 2, 4 g/l) of BSA and skim-milk. On days 0, 3, 5 and 7, the sperm motility parameters were determined using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), and the ATP concentrations, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated using commercial kits. The levels of protein phosphorylation, acylation and ubiquitination were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that supplementation with BSA and skim-milk provided higher sperm motility parameters, ATP levels, GAPDH activity and mitochondrial membrane potential than the control group (P levels of protein phosphorylation, acetylation and succinylation of the spermatozoa in the treated groups were dramatically higher than those in the control group (P level had a decreasing trend, the change in ubiquitination modification was not significantly different between the control group and treated groups. Moreover, the changes in protein modifications between the BSA treated group and skim-milk treated group were not distinctly dissimilar. Taken together, these results suggest that BSA and skim-milk had a positive role in the regulation of boar sperm motility by influencing sperm protein modifications changes as well as increasing the GAPDH activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular ATP content. This research provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying BSA and skim-milk protective effects on boar sperm in the male reproductive system and suggests the feasibility of using skim-milk instead of BSA as a boar semen extender supplement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of age on the fatty acids composition in wild boar (Sus scrofa hunted in the southwest region of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Gálik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the fatty acid profile of wild boar (Sus scrofa meat. The samples were obtained from the mountain Tríbeč (southwest part of the Slovak Republic. A total of 36 samples in 3 age categories of meat were analysed. The effect of age on the intramuscular (IMF fat content was analysed. The highest (P < 0.05 IMF content was found in the samples from the youngest animals (18.07%, the lowest (P < 0.05 in the sub-adult animals. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found in palmitic acid (C16:0. Significant decrease of heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 as an effect of age was analysed in the samples. Of the important fatty acids, the most abundant in all age categories of wild boar were oleic (C18:1 cis 9, palmitic (C16:0, and linolelaidic acid (C18:2 cis n6. Differences in the content of mentioned acids were significant (P < 0.05. In α-linolenic and γ-linoleic acids, non-significant (P > 0.05 differences were detected. Significant differences (P < 0.05 between age categories were found in cis-11-eicosenoic (C20:1 n9 and cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acids (C20:2 n6. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids, MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids, and SFA (saturated fatty acids concentrations. The highest PUFA content was typical for the samples from the oldest animals, MUFA from the sub-adults, and SFA from the youngest wild boar. More significant results were observed in the normalized data with the factor component scores. The wild boar fatty acid profile is significantly affected by age.

  12. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intake of Cs 137 in wild boars (Sus scrofa l.) daily ration on the territory of Palesski state radiation-ecological reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryabina, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Total radiation activity according to Cs 137 in daily ration of adult wild boar's species on the territory of Palesski state radiation-ecological reserve is 15,7 kBq in autumn, 26,8 kBq in winter. Taking soil consumption, together with food, into consideration it is 21,7 kBq in autumn and 32,8 kBq in winter. (authors)

  14. Long-term liquid storage and reproductive evaluation of an innovative boar semen extender (Formula12®) containing a non-reducing disaccharide and an enzymatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Carla; Bianchera, Annalisa; Bettini, Ruggero; Buschini, Annamaria; Marchi, Laura; Cabassi, Clotilde Silvia; Sabbioni, Alberto; Righi, Federico; Mazzoni, Claudio; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2017-05-01

    There are no reports of saccharolytic enzymes being used in the preparation of formulations for animal semen extenders. In the present study, the use of an innovative semen extender (Formula12 ® ) in the long-term liquid storage of boar semen at 17°C was evaluated. The formulation included use of a disaccharide (sucrose) as the energy source precursor coupled to an enzymatic agent (invertase). The innovative extender was evaluated and compared in vitro to a commercial extender (Vitasem LD ® ) for the following variables: Total Motility (TM), Forward Progressive Motility (FPM), sperm morphology, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and chromatin instability. Boar sperm diluted in Formula12 ® and stored for 12 days at 17°C maintained a commercially acceptable FPM (>70%). Using the results from the in vitro study, an AI field trial was performed. A total of 170 females were inseminated (135 with Formula12 ® and 35 with Vitasem LD ® ). The pregnancy rates were 97.8% compared with 91.4%, and the farrowing rates were 96.3% compared with 88.6% when Formula12 ® and Vitasem LD ® were used, respectively. The mean number of piglets born/sow were 14.92±0.46 compared with 13.83±0.70, and the number of piglets born alive/sow were 14.07±0.46 compared with 12.12±0.70 (Pextender allowed for meeting the metabolic requirements of boar sperm during storage at 17°C. It is suggested that there was a beneficial effect on fertilizing capacity of boar sperm in the female reproductive tract with use of these technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-25

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed.

  16. The European Distribution of Sus Scrofa. Model Outputs from the Project Described within the Poster – Where are All the Boars? An Attempt to Gain a Continental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Stewart Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar is a host of a number of arthropod-vectored diseases and its numbers are on the rise in mainland Europe. The species potentially impacts ecosystems, humans and farming practices and so its distribution is of interest to policy makers in a number of fields beyond that of the primarily epidemiological goal of this study. Three statistical model outputs describing the distribution and abundance of the species Sus scrofa (Wild boar are included in this data package. The extent of this dataset covers continental Europe. These data were presented as a poster [1] at the conference Genes, Ecosystems and Risk of Infection (GERI 2015. The first of the three models provide a European map presenting the probability of presence of Sus scrofa, which can be used to describe the likely geographical distribution of the species. The second and third models provide indices to help describe the likely abundance across the continent. The two indices include “the proportion of suitable habitat where presence is estimated” and a simple classification of boar abundance across Europe using quantiles of existing abundance data and proxies.

  17. Application of commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA for the detection of antibodies for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wild boar and red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Svjetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For detecting antibodies towards foot and mouth (FMD virus in sera collected from red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus and wild boars (Sus scrofa, three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used. Two ELISA kits (PrioCHECK FMDV NS and CHEKIT FMD-3ABC were used for the detection of antibodies towards non-structural proteins of FMD virus and one assay was based on the detection of antibodies for serotype O (PrioCHECK FMDV type O. All of the sera tested in our study were negative for antibodies against FMD virus. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of commercially available ELISA kits given for marketing authorization in Croatia in testing the prevalence of FMD antibodies in wild boar and red deer populations. Since the producers of ELISA kits used in our study did not declare wild animals as a target species, we hypothesised that the same kits could be used for serological diagnosis of FMD in red deer and wild boars. Our study confirmed that the kits used are acceptable for detecting antibodies in both species tested, however, the investigation highlighted the problem of validating the kits due to the absence of available positive sera originating from red deer, as well as other susceptible species, especially artiodactyls.

  18. The effect of extender, method of thawing, and duration of storage on in vitro fertility measures of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V; Ringwelski, J M; McNamara, K A; Aardsma, M; Bojko, M

    2015-08-01

    Frozen-thawed boar sperm (FTS) has reduced in vitro and in vivo life span compared to liquid semen. Experiments tested whether extenders, thawing procedures, and storage temperatures could extend the fertile life span of FTS. Experiment 1 tested the effect of six extenders on postthaw motility (MOT) and viability (VIA). Straws from boars (n = 6) were thawed, diluted into each extender, and evaluated at 20, 60, and 120 minutes. There was a trend (P = 0.08) for an extender-by-time interaction for MOT and effect of extender and time for MOT (P extender (P = 0.10) and time (P boar ejaculates (n = 15) were thawed at 50 °C for 10, 20, or 30 seconds or at 70 °C for 5, 10, or 20 seconds and evaluated at 5, 30, and 60 minutes. There was an effect of thawing treatment on MOT, VIA, and ACR (viable sperm with intact acrosomes, P extenders, thawing, and storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid storage of boar semen: Current and future perspectives on the use of cationic antimicrobial peptides to replace antibiotics in semen extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Dathe, M; Waberski, D; Müller, K

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are of great importance in boar semen extenders to ensure long shelf life of spermatozoa and to reduce transmission of pathogens into the female tract. However, the use of antibiotics carries a risk of developing resistant bacterial strains in artificial insemination laboratories and their spread via artificial insemination. Development of multiresistant bacteria is a major concern if mixtures of antibiotics are used in semen extenders. Minimal contamination prevention techniques and surveillance of critical hygiene control points proved to be efficient in reducing bacterial load and preventing development of antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, novel antimicrobial concepts are necessary for efficient bacterial control in extended boar semen with a minimum risk of evoking antibiotic resistance. Enhanced efforts have been made in recent years in the design and use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. The male genital tract harbors a series of endogenic substances with antimicrobial activity and additional functions relevant to the fertilization process. However, exogenic AMPs often exert dose- and time-dependent toxic effects on mammalian spermatozoa. Therefore, it is important that potential newly designed AMPs have only minor impacts on eukaryotic cells. Recently, synthetic magainin derivatives and cyclic hexapeptides were tested for their application in boar semen preservation. Bacterial selectivity, proteolytic stability, thermodynamic resistance, and potential synergistic interaction with conventional antibiotics propel predominantly cyclic hexapeptides into highly promising, leading candidates for further development in semen preservation. The time scale for the development of resistant pathogens cannot be predicted at this moment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of storage in short--and long-term commercial semen extenders on the motility, plasma membrane and chromatin integrity of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrogi, Marco; Ballester, Juan; Saravia, Fernando; Caballero, Ignacio; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Andersson, Magnus; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2006-10-01

    For artificial insemination (AI) in pigs, preservation of liquid boar semen at 16-20 degrees C is still common practice as sperm cryopreservation remains suboptimal in this species. To meet the different needs of the swine industry, several extenders have been developed to preserve semen in liquid form for short--and long-term storage. In the present study, three different commercial extenders devised for short-term (BTS+) or long-term preservation (MR-A and X-Cell), were used to test whether storage of semen from four mature, fertile boars at 17 degrees C for 96 h would affect sperm characteristics relevant for fertility, such as motility, membrane integrity and chromatin stability. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, and stainings with the acylated membrane dye SYBR-14/propidium iodide, and acridine orange in connection with flow cytometry were used to evaluate these variables. Percentages of total motile spermatozoa decreased slightly, but significantly, after 72-96 h. While membrane integrity values varied during the period of study, no significant changes in either membrane integrity or chromatin stability were, however, registered. This suggests a customary 96-day storage at 17 degrees C in these extenders was too short an interval to cause losses of integrity in nuclear DNA in the boar population studied.

  1. The twenty-eight lodges (xiu 宿)

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Daniel Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The twenty-eight lodges (xiu 宿). Named and numbered in the central circle, the twenty-eight lodges, represent uneven orange-segment-like divisions of the celestial sphere running from pole to pole through the ‘guide stars’ (juxing 距星) at/near the western extremity of the constellations after which they are named. In the inner circle are the modern identifications of those guide stars. In the outer circle are the equatorial lodge widths in contemporary use in du 度 / days, where the number of d...

  2. Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on the ultrastructure and ATP concentration of boar spermatozoa, and the efficacy of added sodium selenite in extended semen on sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Guzman, J; Mahan, D C; Whitmoyer, R

    2000-06-01

    Three experiments evaluated the effects of dietary Se and vitamin E on the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, ATP concentration of spermatozoa, and the effects of adding sodium selenite to semen extenders on subsequent sperm motility. The experiment was a 2 x 2 arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. A total of 10 mature boars were fed from weaning to 18 mo of age diets fortified with two levels of supplemental Se (0 or .5 ppm) or vitamin E (0 or 220 IU/kg diet). The nonfortified diets contained .06 ppm Se and 4.4 IU vitamin E/kg. In Exp. 1, the spermatozoa from all boars were examined by electron microscopy. Vitamin E had no effect on structural abnormalities in the spermatozoa. When the low-Se diet was fed the acrosome or nuclei of the spermatozoa was unaffected, but the mitochondria in the tail midpiece were more oval with wider gaps between organelles. The plasma membrane connection to the tail midpiece was not tightly bound as when boars were fed Se. Immature spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets were more numerous when boars were fed the low-Se diet, but the occurrence of midpiece abnormalities occurred in boars fed diets with or without Se or vitamin E. Our results suggest that Se may enhance spermatozoa maturation in the epididymis and may reduce the number of sperm with cytoplasmic droplets. In Exp. 2, the concentration of ATP in the spermatozoa was evaluated in the semen of all treatment boars. When the low-Se diet was fed, ATP concentration was lower (P boar semen with a semen extender with sodium selenite added at 0, .3, .6, or .9 ppm Se. Three ejaculates from each boar were used to evaluate these effects on sperm motility to 48 h after dilution. Sperm motility declined (P extender, and this decline was exacerbated as the concentration of added Se increased (P boars resulted in abnormal spermatozoal mitochondria, a lower ATP concentration in the spermatozoa, and a loose apposition of the plasma membrane to the helical coil of the

  3. Building On Builder: The Persistent Icarus Syndrome at Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    mission of the United States Air Force is to "fly, fight, and win…in air, space and cyberspace"--as an intergral member of the Joint team that...Scenarios: A Military Futurist Explores War in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Bantam Books Trade Paperbacksl, 2009), 17. 33 Carl H. Builder

  4. Management of twenty patients with neck trauma in Khartoum ENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neck trauma is a great surgical challenge, because there are multi organ and systems involved. Objective: To study the clinical presentation, management and outcome of twenty patients presented to Khartoum ENT Hospital with neck trauma. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in Khartoum ENT ...

  5. Proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics (NSCM22), taking event 22-23 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark. The papers presented at the Optimization Seminar in Honour of Niels Olhoff, held 21 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark...

  6. Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth General Assembly Beijing 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Preface; 1. Inaugural ceremony; 2. Twenty-eighth General Assembly business sessions; 3. Closing ceremony; 4. Resolutions; 5. Report of Executive Committee, 2009-2012; 6. Reports on Division, Commission, and Working Group meetings; 7. Statutes, bye-laws, and working rules; 8. New members admitted at the General Assembly; 9. Divisions and their Commissions.

  7. Twenty Years of French "Didactique" Viewed from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    One cannot begin considering the topic of this colloquium without asking, why twenty years? Why not two hundred? Two hundred years ago, Silvestre Franois Lacroix was about to be named chief officer of the Commission Executive de L'Instruction Publique. Out of that experience, together with his long career in instruction, especially as professor of…

  8. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  9. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  10. Investigating the Twenty Year Lag in the Vocational Rehabilitation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowitt, Julian

    In the rehabilitation workshop there is insufficient attention to job development oriented to the current and future needs of industry. Many types of work which were done in vocational workshops in contract from industrial firms are now done by automation. Semiskilled labor is thus in diminished demand. There is a twenty year lag in the industrial…

  11. SEAPOWER: A GUIDE FOR THE TWENTY- FIRST CENTURY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    $154,37 (amazon.com hardback). With the publication of Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century. Geoffrey Till has set the standard for publications on all things maritime. The updated and expanded new edition of the book is an essential guide for students of naval history and maritime strategy and provides ...

  12. Summary record of the twenty-seventh meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    1990-01-01

    The topics presented and discussed at the twenty-seventh international meeting of the Nuclear Data Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency are summarized. Relations with other committees and reports of data centers are analyzed. Problems concerning nuclear model codes are underlined. National evaluation efforts on data library and data file are reported. Reports from several laboratories and subcommittees are summarized

  13. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  14. Why the American public supports twenty-first century learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Aware that constituent support is essential to any educational endeavor, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation), in conjunction with two respected national research firms, measured Americans' attitudes toward the implementation of twenty-first century skills. The foundation's national research survey was intended to explore public perceptions of the need for changes in the educational system, in school and after school, with respect to the teaching of twenty-first century skills. The author summarizes the findings of the survey, which were released by the foundation in June 2003. One thousand adults were surveyed by telephone, including African Americans, Latinos, teachers, and business executives. In general, the survey found that Americans believe today's students need a "basics-plus" education, meaning communication, technology, and critical thinking skills in addition to the traditional basics of reading, writing, and math. In fact, 92 percent of respondents stated that students today need different skills from those of ten to twenty years ago. Also, after-school programs were found to be an appropriate vehicle to teach these skills. Furthermore, the survey explored how well the public perceives schools to be preparing youth for the workforce and postsecondary education, which twenty-first century skills are seen as being taught effectively, and the level of need for after-school and summer programs. The survey results provide conclusive evidence of national support for basics-plus education. Thus, a clear opportunity exists to build momentum for a new model of education for the twenty-first century.

  15. Twenty years of artificial directional selection have shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, G; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Samorè, A B; Bertolini, F; Russo, V; Gallo, M; Buttazzoni, L; Fontanesi, L

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated at the genome-wide level if 20 years of artificial directional selection based on boar genetic evaluation obtained with a classical BLUP animal model shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed. The most influential boars of this breed (n = 192), born from 1992 (the beginning of the selection program of this breed) to 2012, with an estimated breeding value reliability of >0.85, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. After grouping the boars in eight classes according to their year of birth, filtered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to evaluate the effects of time on genotype frequency changes using multinomial logistic regression models. Of these markers, 493 had a PBonferroni  selection program. The obtained results indicated that the genome of the Italian Large White pigs was shaped by a directional selection program derived by the application of methodologies assuming the infinitesimal model that captured a continuous trend of allele frequency changes in the boar population. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Analysis of correlated count data using generalised linear mixed models exemplified by field data on aggressive behaviour of boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mielenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Population-averaged and subject-specific models are available to evaluate count data when repeated observations per subject are present. The latter are also known in the literature as generalised linear mixed models (GLMM. In GLMM repeated measures are taken into account explicitly through random animal effects in the linear predictor. In this paper the relevant GLMMs are presented based on conditional Poisson or negative binomial distribution of the response variable for given random animal effects. Equations for the repeatability of count data are derived assuming normal distribution and logarithmic gamma distribution for the random animal effects. Using count data on aggressive behaviour events of pigs (barrows, sows and boars in mixed-sex housing, we demonstrate the use of the Poisson »log-gamma intercept«, the Poisson »normal intercept« and the »normal intercept« model with negative binomial distribution. Since not all count data can definitely be seen as Poisson or negative-binomially distributed, questions of model selection and model checking are examined. Emanating from the example, we also interpret the least squares means, estimated on the link as well as the response scale. Options provided by the SAS procedure NLMIXED for estimating model parameters and for estimating marginal expected values are presented.

  17. A genome-wide association study to detect QTL for commercially important traits in Swiss Large White boars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Becker

    Full Text Available The improvement of meat quality and production traits has high priority in the pork industry. Many of these traits show a low to moderate heritability and are difficult and expensive to measure. Their improvement by targeted breeding programs is challenging and requires knowledge of the genetic and molecular background. For this study we genotyped 192 artificial insemination boars of a commercial line derived from the Swiss Large White breed using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip with 62,163 evenly spaced SNPs across the pig genome. We obtained 26 estimated breeding values (EBVs for various traits including exterior, meat quality, reproduction, and production. The subsequent genome-wide association analysis allowed us to identify four QTL with suggestive significance for three of these traits (p-values ranging from 4.99×10⁻⁶ to 2.73×10⁻⁵. Single QTL for the EBVs pH one hour post mortem (pH1 and carcass length were on pig chromosome (SSC 14 and SSC 2, respectively. Two QTL for the EBV rear view hind legs were on SSC 10 and SSC 16.

  18. Effect of haemolysis and repeated freeze-thawing cycles on wild boar serum antibody testing by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boadella Mariana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring wildlife diseases is needed to identify changes in disease occurrence. Wildlife blood samples are valuable for this purpose but are often gathered haemolysed. To maximise information, sera often go through repeated analysis and freeze-thaw cycles. Herein, we used samples of clean and haemolysed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa serum stored at -20°C and thawed up to five times to study the effects of both treatments on the outcome of a commercial ELISA test for the detection of antibodies against Suid Herpesvirus 1 (ADV. Results The estimated prevalence of antibodies against ADV was 50-53% for clean and haemolysed sera. Hence, haemolysis did not reduce the mean observed serum antibody prevalence. However, 10 samples changed their classification after repeated freeze-thawing. This included 3 (15% of the clean sera and 7 (41% of the haemolysed sera. Conclusions We recommend (1 establishing more restrictive cut-off values when testing wildlife sera, (2 recording serum quality prior to sample banking, (3 recording the number of freezing-thawing cycles and (4 store sera in various aliquots to reduce repeated usage. For instance, sera with more than 3 freeze-thaw cycles and a haemolysis of over 3 on a scale of 4 should better be discarded for serum antibody monitoring. Even clean (almost not haemolysed sera should not go through more than 5 freeze-thaw cycles.

  19. De novo assembly of mitochondrial genomes provides insights into genetic diversity and molecular evolution in wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Pan; Bhuiyan, Ali Akbar; Chen, Jian-Hai; Li, Jingjin; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Shuhong; Du, Xiaoyong; Li, Hua; Yu, Hui; Liu, Xiangdong; Li, Kui

    2018-05-10

    Up to date, the scarcity of publicly available complete mitochondrial sequences for European wild pigs hampers deeper understanding about the genetic changes following domestication. Here, we have assembled 26 de novo mtDNA sequences of European wild boars from next generation sequencing (NGS) data and downloaded 174 complete mtDNA sequences to assess the genetic relationship, nucleotide diversity, and selection. The Bayesian consensus tree reveals the clear divergence between the European and Asian clade and a very small portion (10 out of 200 samples) of maternal introgression. The overall nucleotides diversities of the mtDNA sequences have been reduced following domestication. Interestingly, the selection efficiencies in both European and Asian domestic pigs are reduced, probably caused by changes in both selection constraints and maternal population size following domestication. This study suggests that de novo assembled mitogenomes can be a great boon to uncover the genetic turnover following domestication. Further investigation is warranted to include more samples from the ever-increasing amounts of NGS data to help us to better understand the process of domestication.

  20. Effects of in vitro storage time and semen-extender on membrane quality of boar sperm assessed by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, K E; De Angelis, P M; Haugan, T; Paulenz, H; Hofmo, P O; Farstad, W

    2004-12-01

    The Norwegian AI company Norsvin has used the short-term semen-extender BTS to extend and store boar semen since the late 1980s. Fertility results have been consistent when extended semen has been used for AI within 3 days after collection, however, from a production and economic point of view it is preferable that semen stored for up to 5 days can be used. The aim of this study was to compare membrane quality of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days with sperm stored in the long-term semen-extenders Androstar, Mulberry III and X-cell for 5 days. Using a split-sample design, plasma membrane- and acrosome-integrity were assessed flow cytometrically by use of Yo-Pro-1 and PNA-FITC, and fluidity and phospholipid asymmetry of the membrane were assessed by use of MC540 and Annexin V-FITC. Due to observed sperm fragmentation in Androstar after Day 1, the data for Androstar were excluded from the analyses. After 5 days of storage, the membrane quality of X-cell-stored sperm was not statistically different from that of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days, while membrane quality of sperm stored in Mulberry III was statistically better on Day 5 compared to BTS on Day 3. In conclusion, Mulberry III and X-cell preserve sperm quality, as well as that of BTS on Day 3, for up to 5 days after collection.

  1. Removal of bacteria from boar ejaculates by Single Layer Centrifugation can reduce the use of antibiotics in semen extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Wallgren, M

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable interest world-wide in reducing the use of antibiotics to stem the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. An alternative to the routine addition of antibiotics to semen extenders in livestock breeding would be to separate the spermatozoa from bacterial contaminants in the semen immediately after collection. The present study was designed to determine whether such separation was possible by Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) using the colloid Androcoll™-P. The results showed that complete removal (6 out of 10 samples), or considerable reduction of bacterial contaminants (4 out of 10 samples) was possible with this method. The type of bacteria and/or the length of time between collection and SLC-processing affected the removal of bacteria, with motile flagellated bacteria being more likely to be present after SLC than non-flagellated bacteria. Although further studies are necessary, these preliminary results suggest that the use of SLC when processing boar semen for AI doses might enable antibiotic usage in semen extenders to be reduced. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  3. Twenty years of analysis of light elements at the LARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the applications of ion beam analysis of light elements performed in the LARN during the last twenty years. The works mainly concern: helium bubbles in aluminum foils, Li in aluminum alloys, carbon in high purity MgO crystals and in olivines, nitrogen bubbles in glass and implanted nitrogen in iron and aluminum, oxygen in YBaCuO superconductors, fluorine in tooth enamel and implanted fluorine in metals. (orig.)

  4. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities

  5. Proceedings of the twenty-second LAMPF users groupd meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinuzzi, R.

    1989-04-01

    The Twenty-Second Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held October 17--18, 1988, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities

  6. Twenty five years of clusters -- from Bochum to Strasbourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1994-01-01

    Developments in the area of clustering aspects of nuclear structure and reactions over the past twenty-five years are reviewed. The viewpoint is that the nucleus is an assembly of clusters. The question is whether clusters actually exist in the nucleus. Although there is abundant evidence for this in light nuclei, the situation for more complex clusters in heavier nuclei is much worse. Differential cross sections for scattering of alpha particles and heavy ions are shown

  7. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  8. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...5d. PROJECT NUMBER Colonel John K. Jones 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  9. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society

    OpenAIRE

    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

    2014-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the h...

  10. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  11. Open Adoption Placement by Birth Mothers in Their Twenties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutter, Lynn B

    The purpose of this study was to summarize birth mothers' descriptions of unplanned pregnancy experienced in their twenties and how open adoption influenced their lives. Naturalistic inquiry was used with purposive sampling from one agency and telephone interviews of women who experienced unplanned pregnancy in their twenties and relinquishment through open adoption. Recorded, transcribed, and deidentified interviews were analyzed for qualitative themes. Fifteen participants judiciously weighed the open adoption decision. Over half parented other children prior to placement. Most knew they could not have parented this child due to life stressors. Placement was a hard decision, but ongoing contact with birth child and adoptive family was valued. Open adoption processes made them stronger by being happy that their child experienced family life with greater opportunities than birth mothers could offer at the time. Summarized themes used the acronym COMMITTED: C-care deeply about what is best for the child, O-ongoing open adoption: good and hard, M-meeting together regularly, M-moving on in personal growth, accomplishments, and milestones, I-independence from previous stressors or crises, T-transitions, T-therapeutic support, E-emotions, D-depression giving way to deepened strength and personal direction. Open adoption is reinforced as a positive resolution of unintended pregnancy for birth mothers in their twenties.

  12. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  13. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun, E-mail: parkck@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period.

  14. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in boar spermatozoa: purification, biochemical properties and changes in activity during semen storage (16°C) in different extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzołek, Aleksandra; Wysocki, Paweł; Strzeżek, Jerzy; Kordan, Władysław

    2013-03-01

    The antioxidant system in semen is composed of enzymes, low-molecular weight antioxidants and seminal plasma proteins. Loss of enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) during semen preservation may cause insufficient antioxidant defense of boar spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize SOD molecular forms from spermatozoa and to describe changes in SOD activity in boar sperm during preservation at 16°C. Sperm extracts were prepared from fresh or diluted semen and used for SOD purification or activity measurement. Ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration was used to purify SOD molecular forms. BTS, Dilu Cell, M III and Vitasem were used as diluents for 5-day storage of semen at +16°C. The molecular form of SOD released from spermatozoa after cold shock and homogenization had a molecular weight of approximately 67kDa. The activity of the SOD form was the highest at pH 10 within the temperature range between 20 and 45°C. The enzymatic activity of form released after cold shock was inhibited by H2O2 and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC; by 65 and 40%, respectively). The SOD form released by homogenization was inhibited by H2O2 and DDC (40%). The molecular form released after urea treatment was a 30kDa protein with maximum activity at 20°C and pH 10. Enzymatic activity of this form was inhibited by H2O2 by 35%, DDC by 80% and 2-mercaptoethanol by 15%. The antigenic determinants of SOD isolated from boar seminal plasma and spermatozoa were similar to each other. Susceptibility of spermatozoa to cold shock increased during storage, but the differences between extenders were statistically non-significant. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H 2 O 2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H 2 O 2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period

  16. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment s...

  17. Iodine and Selenium Contents in Skeletal Muscles of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus, Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and Wild Boar (Sus scrofa in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Kursa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine iodine and selenium contents in skeletal muscles of selected species of game animals living in regions with low iodine and selenium contents in the soil and water. Iodine content was determined in 66 samples of skeletal muscles of red deer cut out of the musculus gracilis, 32 samples and 27 samples from the same muscle of roe deer and wild boar, respectively. The shot game animals came from hunting grounds in western and southern regions of the Czech Republic and in Protected Landscape Area Šumava. In red deer muscles the average iodine content was 44.9 ± 15.2 μg I·kg-1 wet weight with the range of 6.9 to 82.0 μg I·kg-1. The lower concentration in roe deer meat with the average 39.3 ± 14.1 μg I·kg-1 and the range from 18.3 to 84.4 μg I·kg-1 may be due to differences between biotopes and food. The average iodine concentration in the musculus gracilis of wild boars was 55.9± 27.0 μg·kg-1 wet weight. Selenium content was determined in 22 samples of red deer, 51 samples of roe deer and 27 samples of wild boar skeletal muscles. The average values of selenium content in the meat of red deer, roe deer and wild boars were 16.2 ± 8.4, 36.9 ± 16.6 and 27.6 ± 19.8 μg Se·kg-1 wet weight, respectively. All three species of game animals are characterised by low content and high variability of selenium concentration in meat with the minimum value 3.9 µg and maximum value 83.3 μg·kg-1 wet weight. The study brings new data on iodine and selenium content in the muscle of game animals in the Czech Republic.

  18. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  19. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future

  20. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  1. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  2. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  3. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors reduce membrane fluidity of capacitated boar sperm by impairing their activation by bicarbonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barboni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammalian spermatozoa acquire their full fertilizing ability (so called capacitation within the female genital tract, where they are progressively exposed to inverse gradients of inhibiting and stimulating molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present research, the effect on this process of anandamide, an endocannabinoid that can either activate or inhibit cannabinoid receptors depending on its concentration, and bicarbonate, an oviductal activatory molecule, was assessed, in order to study the role exerted by the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R in the process of lipid membrane remodeling crucial to complete capacitation. To this aim, boar sperm were incubated in vitro under capacitating conditions (stimulated by bicarbonate in the presence or in the absence of methanandamide (Met-AEA, a non-hydrolysable analogue of anandamide. The CB1R involvement was studied by using the specific inhibitor (SR141716 or mimicking its activation by adding a permeable cAMP analogue (8Br-cAMP. By an immunocytochemistry approach it was shown that the Met-AEA inhibits the bicarbonate-dependent translocation of CB1R from the post-equatorial to equatorial region of sperm head. In addition it was found that Met-AEA is able to prevent the bicarbonate-induced increase in membrane disorder and the cholesterol extraction, both preliminary to capacitation, acting through a CB1R-cAMP mediated pathway, as indicated by MC540 and filipin staining, EPR spectroscopy and biochemical analysis on whole membranes (CB1R activity and on membrane enriched fraction (C/P content and anisotropy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these data demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system strongly inhibits the process of sperm capacitation, acting as membrane stabilizing agent, thus increasing the basic knowledge on capacitation-related signaling and potentially opening new perspectives in diagnostics and therapeutics of male infertility.

  4. An approach to model monitoring and surveillance data of wildlife diseases-exemplified by Classical Swine Fever in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnke, N; Liebscher, V; Staubach, C; Ziller, M

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of epidemiological field data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSSs) in wild animals is of great importance in order to evaluate the performance of such systems. By parameter estimation from MOSS data, conclusions about disease dynamics in the observed population can be drawn. To strengthen the analysis, the implementation of a maximum likelihood estimation is the main aim of our work. The new approach presented here is based on an underlying simple SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for a disease scenario in a wildlife population. The three corresponding classes are assumed to govern the intensities (number of animals in the classes) of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. A sampling rate was defined which describes the process of data collection (for MOSSs). Further, the performance of the diagnostics was implemented in the model by a diagnostic matrix containing misclassification rates. Both descriptions of these MOSS parts were included in the Poisson process approach. For simulation studies, the combined model demonstrates its ability to validly estimate epidemiological parameters, such as the basic reproduction rate R0. These parameters will help the evaluation of existing disease control systems. They will also enable comparison with other simulation models. The model has been tested with data from a Classical Swine Fever (CSF) outbreak in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) from a region of Germany (1999-2002). The results show that the hunting strategy as a sole control tool is insufficient to decrease the threshold for susceptible animals to eradicate the disease, since the estimated R0 confirms an ongoing epidemic of CSF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in beef, pork, chicken, deer, boar, bison, and rabbit retail meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Dang, Huu Anh; Mills, Edward W; Cutter, Catherine N; Roberts, Elisabeth L; DeBroy, Chitrita

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the incidence of contamination by the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O-groups, responsible for the majority of E. coli infections in human beings, in retail meat from different animal species. Samples from ground beef (n = 51), ground pork (n = 16), ground chicken (n = 16), and game meat (deer, wild boar, bison, and rabbit; n = 55) were collected from retail vendors for the detection of 7 STEC O-groups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157). Meat samples were tested by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the wzx gene of O antigen gene clusters of the 7 STEC O-groups. The positive samples were further tested for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Out of a total of 83 ground beef, pork, and chicken samples, 17 (20%) carried O121, 9 (10%) carried O45, 8 (9%) carried O157, 3 (3%) carried O103, and 1 (1%) carried O145. None of the samples were positive for O26, O111, or the stx gene. All 3 white-tailed deer samples (100%) were positive for O45, O103, or both, 2 (10%) out of 20 red deer samples exhibited the presence of O103, and all 3 bison samples were contaminated with either O121, O145, or O157. One sample from ground deer, contaminated with E. coli O45, carried the stx1 gene. This preliminary investigation illustrates the importance of microbiological testing of pathogens in meat products, as well as the recognized need for increased surveillance and research on foodborne pathogens.

  6. A comparative study of boar semen extenders with different proposed preservation times and their effect on semen quality and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Anastasia Karageorgiou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the quality characteristics of boar semen diluted with three extenders of different proposed preservation times (short-term, medium-term and long-term. A part of extended semen was used for artificial insemination on the farm (30 sows/extender, while the remaining part was stored for three days (16–18 °C. Stored and used semen was also laboratory assessed at insemination time, on days 1 and 2 after the collection (day 0. The long-term extender was used for a short time, within 2 days from semen collection, with the aim to investigate a possible advantage over the others regarding laboratory or farm fertility indicators at the beginning of the preservation time. Viability, motility, kinetic indicators, morphology and DNA fragmentation were estimated. The results showed reduced viability, higher values for most of the kinetics, and higher immotile spermatozoa from day 1 to day 2 in all extenders; however, the long-term extender was superior compared to the other two on both days. With regard to morphology and chromatin integrity, the percentage of abnormal and fragmented spermatozoa increased on day 2 compared to day 1 for all of the extenders. However, based on the farrowing rate and the number of piglets born alive after the application of conventional artificial insemination within 2 days from semen collection/dilution, it was found that the medium-term diluents were more effective. In conclusion, it seems that the in vivo fertilization process involves more factors than simply the quality of laboratory evaluated sperm indicators, warranting further research.

  7. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  8. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

  9. Effect van grondstoffensamenstelling en aminozuurgehalte op technische resultaten van beren, borgen en zeugjes = Influence of diet composition and level of amino acids on performance of boars, barrows and gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Straathof, S.B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    At Pig Innovation Centre Sterksel two experiments were done to find out what the effects are on the performance of boars, barrows and gilts of: 1) fine-tuning the composition of raw materials in starter, grower, and finisher diets; 2) fine-tuning the composition of raw materials plus extra amino

  10. Pigs and wild boar in Corsica harbor Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 at levels of concern for public health and local economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Boué, Franck

    2014-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis widespread in the Mediterranean area. The parasite is commonly maintained in a domestic cycle involving dogs and livestock species. As no new data have been made available for the last 15 years concerning the French Mediterranean island of Corsica, a cross-sectional survey at the slaughterhouse was conducted in 2009-2010 to describe the current presence of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in intermediate hosts. Only pig infections with the G6/7 genotype of Echinococcus canadensis were observed. No infection was detected in other breeding species but this should be interpreted with caution because 75% of the cows inspected during the survey were calves, and all sheep and goats were younger than two months old. In parallel four wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 hunting season were also infected by the same genotype. These data constitute the first report of E. canadensis in France and the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus sensu lato in a wild species in France. The current prevalence observed in pigs (5.9%, n=2527) highlights the fact that CE is still of economic concern on Corsica, an island where certain regional products are produced using pig's liver ("Figatelli"). This prevalence, and the similar one observed in wild boars (4.0%, n=101), is a consequence of certain breeding practices and hunting practices which enable circulation of the parasite in the environment in close contact with humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Androgen Signaling Disruption during Fetal and Postnatal Development Affects Androgen Receptor and Connexin 43 Expression and Distribution in Adult Boar Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hejmej

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, limited knowledge exists regarding the role of the androgen signaling during specific periods of development in the regulation of androgen receptor (AR and connexin 43 (Cx43 in adult prostate. Therefore, in this study we examined mRNA and protein expression, and tissue distribution of AR and Cx43 in adult boar prostates following fetal (GD20, neonatal (PD2, and prepubertal (PD90 exposure to an antiandrogen flutamide (50 mg/kg bw. In GD20 and PD2 males we found the reduction of the luminal compartment, inflammatory changes, decreased AR and increased Cx43 expression, and altered localization of both proteins. Moreover, enhanced apoptosis and reduced proliferation were detected in the prostates of these animals. In PD90 males the alterations were less evident, except that Cx43 expression was markedly upregulated. The results presented herein indicate that in boar androgen action during early fetal and neonatal periods plays a key role in the maintenance of normal phenotype and functions of prostatic cells at adulthood. Furthermore, we demonstrated that modulation of Cx43 expression in the prostate could serve as a sensitive marker of hormonal disruption during different developmental stages.

  12. Supplemental effect of different levels of taurine in Modena on boar semen quality during liquid preservation at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Fang, Qian; Liu, Qi; Du, Ren-Rang; Yang, Gong-She; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h. Modena diluent containing taurine suppressed the reduction in sperm qualities during the process of liquid preservation compared with those of the control group. After 5 days of liquid preservation, the addition of taurine at 5 mmol/L had the optimal effect on survival time as well as maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, T-AOC activity and MDA content. These results may suggest the possibility that the proper addition of taurine to the semen extender improves the swine production system using artificial insemination by the suppressing of sperm damage and subsequent dysfunction during liquid preservation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Meucci, A; Cremonesi, F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r(2)>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage.

  14. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cremonesi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA. Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term or 12 days (long-term. The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’ tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA. The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r2>0.9 irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05. FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage.

  15. Fertilisation rate obtained with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid using a single insemination timed according to vulvar skin temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, Victoria; Gil, Lydia; Olaciregui, Maite; Grandía, Juan; Ansó, Trinidad; De Blas, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of sows with frozen-thawed semen usually results in lower pregnancy rates and litter sizes than the use of liquid preserved semen. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of vulvar skin temperature changes as a predictor of ovulation in sows and determined the fertility rates obtained after AI with frozen-thawed semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA). Semen was collected from mature boars and cryopreserved in experimental extenders supplemented with or without 105 μM of RA. Multiparous sows were inseminated with a single dose of semen when vulvar skin temperature decreased to a value below 35 °C. Intrauterine insemination was performed using 1.5 × 109 spermatozoa. The sows were slaughtered 48 h after AI and the embryos and oocytes were recovered from the oviducts. Total and progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity were significantly (P semen samples compared with the control. Fertilisation occurred in all sows inseminated in the study, although there were no significant differences between the experimental groups. Sows inseminated with RA-supplemented semen showed a slight increase in the number of embryos recovered as compared to sows inseminated with control semen. In conclusion, insemination according to vulvar skin temperature changes resulted in successful fertilisation in all sows, although supplementation of the freezing media with RA did not improve the fertilising ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

  16. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in hunters from a district in Central Germany, 2013: a cross-sectional study providing evidence for the benefit of protective gloves during disembowelling of wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielke, A; Ibrahim, V; Czogiel, I; Faber, M; Schrader, C; Dremsek, P; Ulrich, R G; Johne, R

    2015-10-22

    In Germany, 17% of the general human population have antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) (recomLine HEV-IgG/IgM immunoassay [Mikrogen GmbH]). Wild boars represent an animal reservoir for HEV genotype 3, which is the common genotype in Germany. We estimated the seroprevalence among hunters with contact to wild boars to identify factors that may be associated with past or present HEV infection. In 2013, the local veterinarian authority in a district in Central Germany attended meetings of hunters who provided blood specimens and completed a questionnaire collecting information on age, sex, hunting-related activities and consumption of wild boar meat. Specimens of wild boars were taken during drive hunts in this district during the season 2012/2013. All specimens were tested for HEV RNA and anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for the hunters. Of 126 hunters (median age 55; 94% male) 21% tested positive for anti-HEV IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval [CI] 13-28%) (recomWell HEV IgG assay [Mikrogen GmbH]). Anti-HEV prevalence was highest in the age group of the 70-79-year-olds (67%; 95% CI 39-95%). Wild boars showed an average anti-HEV prevalence of 41%. HEV RNA was detected in 4/22 (18%) liver specimens and in 1/22 (4.5%) muscle specimens. Most wild boars were tested positive for HEV RNA (3/10; 30%) and HEV-specific antibodies (7/15; 47%) in the southwestern part of the district. Hunters preferring this hunting ground had a lower anti-HEV prevalence when gloves were frequently used during disembowelling of wild boars compared to hunters using gloves never or infrequently (age-adjusted PR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.86). Hunters may benefit from wearing gloves when in contact with blood or body fluids of HEV animal reservoirs. Anti-HEV prevalence among the hunters of this study did not significantly differ from that of the general population suggesting that other factors play a major role in the

  17. Increasing precipitation volatility in twenty-first-century California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Daniel L.; Langenbrunner, Baird; Neelin, J. David; Hall, Alex

    2018-05-01

    Mediterranean climate regimes are particularly susceptible to rapid shifts between drought and flood—of which, California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012 and 2016 to extreme wetness during the 2016-2017 winter provides a dramatic example. Projected future changes in such dry-to-wet events, however, remain inadequately quantified, which we investigate here using the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble of climate model simulations. Anthropogenic forcing is found to yield large twenty-first-century increases in the frequency of wet extremes, including a more than threefold increase in sub-seasonal events comparable to California's `Great Flood of 1862'. Smaller but statistically robust increases in dry extremes are also apparent. As a consequence, a 25% to 100% increase in extreme dry-to-wet precipitation events is projected, despite only modest changes in mean precipitation. Such hydrological cycle intensification would seriously challenge California's existing water storage, conveyance and flood control infrastructure.

  18. The Turn to Precarity in Twenty-First Century Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Jago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen several attempts by writers and critics to understand the changed sensibility in post-9/11 fiction through a variety of new -isms. This essay explores this cultural shift in a different way, finding a ‘turn to precarity’ in twenty-first century fiction characterised by a renewal of interest in the flow and foreclosure of affect, the resurgence of questions about vulnerability and our relationships to the other, and a heightened awareness of the social dynamics of seeing. The essay draws these tendencies together via the work of Judith Butler in Frames of War, in an analysis of Trezza Azzopardi’s quasi-biographical study of precarious life, Remember Me.

  19. Twenty-First Water Reaction Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 2, presents papers on severe accident research

  20. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  1. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  2. Inter- and intra-breed comparative study of sperm motility and viability in Iberian and Duroc boar semen during long-term storage in MR-A and XCell extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hidalgo, D; Barón, F J; Robina, A; Bragado, M J; Llera, A Hurtado de; García-Marín, L J; Gil, M C

    2013-06-01

    During boar semen liquid preservation, extender is one of the factors that influence storage tolerance of spermatozoa. However, there are few studies about intra-breed variation in the preservation of semen quality during storage in different extenders. Similarly, boar breed is generally not considered a possible factor influencing variation in the semen storage tolerance in a particular extender. The aim of this study was to compare boar semen storage potential, in terms of the ability to maintain sperm viability and motility, of two currently used long-term extenders, MR-A and XCell. Extended semen from two breeds, Iberian and Duroc that had been stored at 17°C for up to 7 days was used. Intra- and inter-breed effect was studied. On Days 1, 4 and 7 (Day 0=day of semen collection), motility parameters and the percentage of total motile sperm and progressively motile sperm using a CASA system was evaluated. Viability (SYBR-14/PI) was evaluated by flow cytometry. Within each breed and for each storage day, there were differences between extenders, although semen tolerance to preservation was more influenced by the extender in the Iberian than in the Duroc breed. Neither breed nor extender influenced the percentage of viable spermatozoa during the storage time. Moreover, differences in motility parameters were observed between breeds, although the differences were greater when the XCell extender was used. In conclusion, both extender and breed influence motility characteristics of liquid-stored boar semen, so both aspects have to be considered in the design of comparative studies about stored boar semen quality from different breeds or with different extenders. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Twenty years of RERTR in Russia: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangelsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    The Russian RERTR Program started approximately 20 years ago. The USSR always supported principles and goals of the policy of nonproliferation and at the end of 70's the Soviet Government decided to create such national program. Twenty years is the sufficient time to estimate preliminary results of the realization of the program and its prospects on the future. After the first successes of the program, when the enrichment of uranium in fuel elements for foreign supplies was reduced from 80 % to 36 %, the realization of the program was suspended in connection with financial difficulties. But in the beginning of the 90's the Program has received a new pulse connected to the inclusion of Russian scientists and engineers in the international Program. Now basic directions in development of new kinds of fuel are development of works on fuel on a basis dioxide of uranium and development of fuel on a basis of U-Mo alloy. In the future to basic goals of the program the problem of the management of the spent nuclear fuel should be added. The management of HEU at the final stage of a fuel cycle becomes an important objective of the program, since the basic amount of HEU is concentrated in storage of SNF. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK)

  5. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  6. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  7. The Antigerminative Activity of Twenty-Seven Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress, under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10−5 M, 10−6 M.

  8. Accelerators for the twenty-first century - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1990-01-01

    Modern synchrotrons and storage rings are based upon the electrical technology of the 1900s boosted by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration now seems to be approaching its practical limit. It is high time that we seek a new physical acceleration mechanism to provide the higher energies and luminosities needed to continue particle physics beyond the machines now on the stocks. Twenty years is a short time in which to invent, develop, and construct such a device. Without it, high-energy physics may well come to an end. Particle physicists and astrophysicists are invited to join accelerator specialists in the hunt for this new principle. This report analyses the present limitations of colliders and explores some of the directions in which one might look to find a new principle. Chapters cover proton colliders, electron-positron colliders, linear colliders, and two-beam accelerators; transverse fields, wake-field and beat-wave accelerators, ferroelectric crystals, and acceleration in astrophysics. (orig.)

  9. The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

    2014-04-01

    Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process.

  10. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  11. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of 137 Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone – 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone – 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of 137 Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The 137 Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg – animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3–10.6 kBq/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of 90 Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that 90 Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of 90 Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained 90 Sr – 30.0–110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0–30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone

  12. Occurrence and characterization of stx and/or eae-positive Escherichia coli isolated from wildlife, including a typical EPEC strain from a wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carla Andrea; Mora, Azucena; Díaz, Dafne; Blanco, Miguel; González-Barrio, David; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Simón, Carmen; Blanco, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2017-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains are food-borne pathogens associated with acute diarrhea. Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is often a complication of STEC infection. In order to examine the occurrence, serotypes, virulence and antimicrobial-resistance profiles of STEC and EPEC in wildlife, 326 faecal E. coli strains from 304 clinically healthy animals were analyzed. For this approach stx 1 , stx 2 and eae genes, as well as accessory virulence determinants (ehx, hlyA, saa, tia, bfp, subAB) were PCR-screened and sequenced. Serotyping was performed employing all available O (O1-O185) and H (H1-H56) antisera. Genetic diversity was analyzed by XbaI-PFGE and phylotyping. Thirteen STEC (4.3%) and 10 EPEC (3.3%) were identified among 12 deer, 3 mouflon, 6 wild boars and 2 birds. Nine STEC showed seropathotypes B (O145:[H28]) and C (O22:H8, O128:[H2]) associated with HUS, and D (O110:H28, O146:H21, O146:[H28], ONT:H8) associated with human diarrhea. Although most isolates harbored stx 2b and stx 1c variants, stx 2a and stx 1a (related with severe disease) were also detected. Additionally, the eae gene was present in one stx 2a -positive O145:[H28] STEC from a deer and 11 STEC harbored subAB genes (mainly the subAB 2 variant). EPEC isolates showed 7 different intimin variants (β1, β2, γ1, ε1, ζ1, ι1-A, κ). Interestingly, the O49:[H10] eae-κ EPEC isolated from a wild boar was bfpA-positive showing a combination of serotype/virulence profile previously detected among human clinical tEPEC. Based on present results, wild ruminants, wild boars and to a lesser extent birds would be carriers of potentially pathogenic STEC and EPEC strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of freezing and thawing rates on the post-thaw viability of boar spermatozoa frozen in FlatPacks and Maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-11-01

    The effects of different freezing and thawing rates on the post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of boar spermatozoa, processed as split samples in Maxi-straws or flat PET-plastic packages (FlatPack) were studied. A programmable freezing device was used to obtain freezing rates of either 20, 50 or 80 degrees C/min. Thawing of the samples was performed in a bath of circulating water; for 40s at 50 degrees C or 27s at 70 degrees C for Maxi-straws and 23s at 35 degrees C, 13s at 50 degrees C or 8s at 70 degrees C for the FlatPacks. Sperm motility was assessed both visually and with a computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) apparatus, while plasma membrane integrity was assessed using the fluorescent probes Calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1. Temperature changes during freezing and thawing were monitored in both forms of packaging. Values for motile spermatozoa, sperm velocity and lateral head displacement variables were significantly (pstraws, with superior results at higher thawing rates. Freezing at 50 degrees C/min yielded better motility than 20 or 80 degrees C/min, although the effect was rather small. Neither freezing rate nor thawing rate had any effect on membrane integrity (p>0.05). A significant boar effect was seen for several parameters. The most striking difference in temperature courses between containers was a 4-5-fold lowering of the thawing rate, between -20 and 0 degrees C, in the center of the Maxi-straw, compared with the FlatPack. This is apparently due to the insulating effect of the thawed water in the periphery of the Maxi-straw. The improvement in sperm motility seen when using the FlatPack appears to be related to the rapid thawing throughout the sample, which decreases the risk of cell damage due to recrystallization during thawing. Since sperm motility patterns have been reported to be correlated with fertility both in vitro and in vivo it is speculated that the use of the FlatPack might improve the results when using frozen

  14. Twenty years of operation of Ljubljana's TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty years have now passed since the start of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The reactor was critical on May 31, 1966. The total energy produced until the end of May 1986 was 14.048 MWh or 585 MWd. For the first 14 years (until 1981) the yearly energy produced was about 600 MWh, since 1981 the yearly energy produced was 1000 MWh when a routine radioactive isotopes production started for medical use as well as other industrial applications, such as doping and irradiation with fast neutrons of silicon monocrystals, production of level indicators (irradiated cobalt wire), production of radioactive iridium for gamma-radiography, leak detection in pipes by sodium, etc. Besides these, applied research around the reactor is being conducted in the following main fields, where- many unique methods have been developed or have found their way into the local industry or hospitals: neutron radiography, neutron induced auto-radiography using solid state nuclear track detectors, nondestructive methods for assessment of nuclear burn-up, neutron dosimetry, calculation of core burn-up for the optimal in-core fuel management strategy. The solvent extraction method was developed for the everyday production of 99m Tc, which is the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The methods were developed for the production of the following isotopes: 18 F, 85m Kr, 24 Na, 82 Br, 64 Zn, 125 I. Neutron activation analysis represents one of the major usages for the TRIGA reactor. Basic research is being conducted in the following main fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic scattering of the neutrons), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics and neutron activation analysis. The reactor is used very extensively as a main instrument in the Reactor Training Centre in Ljubljana where manpower training for our nuclear power plant and other organisations has been performed. Although the reactor was designed very carefully in order to be used for

  15. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar IV, H.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have

  16. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H 2 , CH 4 , and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  17. Transferable integrons of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the gut of a wild boar in the buffer zone of a national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of integron-bearing Gram-negative bacteria in the gut of a wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) shot in the buffer zone of a national park. Five Gram-negative strains of Escherichia coli, Serratia odorifera, Hafnia alvei and Pseudomonas sp. were isolated. Four of these strains had class 2 integrase (intI2), and one harbored class 1 integrase (intI1). The integron-positive strains were multiresistant, i.e., resistant to at least three unrelated antibiotics. All of the integrons were transferred to E. coli J-53 (Rif(R)) in a conjugation assay. The results showed that a number of multiresistant, integron-containing bacterial strains of different genera may inhabit a single individual of a wild animal, allowing the possibility of transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes.

  18. Antimicrobial-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in wild mammals in central Europe: multiresistant Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Literak, I.; Dolejska, Monika; Radimersky, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To determine the presence of antibiotic-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in populations of wild mammals in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods and Results: Rectal swabs or faeces collected during 2006-2008 from wild mammals were spread on MacConkey agar and MacConkey agar containing 2...... mg l-1 of cefotaxime. From plates with positive growth, one isolate was recovered and identified as E. coli. Susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion method. Resistance genes, class 1 and 2 integrons and gene cassettes were detected in resistant isolates by polymerase...... of resistant isolates was 6%. Class 1 and 2 integrons with various gene cassettes were recorded in resistant isolates. From wild boars, five (2%, n(rectal smears) = 293) multiresistant isolates producing ESBL were recovered: one isolate with bla(CTX-M-1) + bla(TEM-1), three with bla(CTX-M-1) and one with bla...

  19. Do antimicrobial peptides PR-39, PMAP-36 and PMAP-37 have any effect on bacterial growth and quality of liquid-stored boar semen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussalleu, Eva; Sancho, Sílvia; Briz, Maria D; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2017-02-01

    The use of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) has become one of the most promising alternatives to the use of antibiotics (Abs) in semen extender's formulation to overcome the increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics. However, AMP may impair boar sperm quality, so that their deleterious effects might be higher than their effectiveness against bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether three different AMP, the proline-arginine-rich antimicrobial peptide PR-39 (PR-39), and the porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptides 36 (PMAP-36) and 37 (PMAP-37) had any effect upon boar sperm quality and bacterial growth. For this purpose, three different concentrations of each peptide (1 μM, 10 μM and 20 μM for PR-39 and 0.5 μM, 1 μM and 3 μM for PMAP-36 and PMAP-37) were added to 2 mL of a pool of extended semen with BTS without Abs; two controls, one without AMPs and Abs, and the other with Abs only were used for each peptide (n = 3). Total (TMOT) and progressive (PMOT) sperm motility, sperm viability and bacterial concentration were assessed before the addition of each AMP or Abs and at 1, 3, 6, 8 and 10 days post-addition. For each AMP, results revealed a drop in the TMOT and PMOT in all treatments and controls. In regard to sperm viability, while PR-39 at 10 μM maintained it in values similar to those of the control with Abs and PMAP-36 kept also the sperm viability in a similar fashion to the treatment with Abs, PMAP-37 was more effective in keeping sperm viability than controls (P semen, as it hardly impairs sperm viability and controls the bacterial load. Nevertheless, further studies are still required to improve its effectiveness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Conception rate and litter size in multiparous sows after intrauterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 10(9) motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 10(9) motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 10(9) sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus.

  1. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 109 sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus. PMID:24954517

  2. Effect of commercial long-term extenders on metabolic activity and membrane integrity of boar spermatozoa stored at 17 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekońska, A; Fraser, L; Majewska, A; Lecewicz, M; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Kordan, W

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the metabolic activity and membrane integrity of boar spermatozoa following storage in long-term semen extenders. Boar semen was diluted with Androhep EnduraGuard (AeG), DILU-Cell (DC), SafeCell Plus (SCP) and Vitasem LD (VLD) extenders and stored for 10 days at 17 degrees C. Parameters of the analyzed sperm metabolic activity included total motility (TMOT), progressive motility (PMOT), high mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP content, whereas those of the membrane integrity included plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome. Extender type was a significant (P semen storage. In all extenders the metabolic activity and membrane integrity of the stored spermatozoa decreased continuously over time. Among the four analyzed extenders, AeG and SCP showed the best performance in terms of TMOT and PMI on Days 5, 7 and 10 of storage. Marked differences in the proportions of spermatozoa with high MMP were observed between the extenders, particularly on Day 10 of storage. There were not any marked differences in sperm ATP content between the extenders, regardless of the storage time. Furthermore, the percentage of spermatozoa with NAR acrosomes decreased during prolonged storage, being markedly lower in DC-diluted semen compared with semen diluted with either AeG or SCP extender. The results of this study indicated that components of the long-term extenders have different effects on the sperm functionality and prolonged semen longevity by delaying the processes associated with sperm ageing during liquid storage.

  3. New insights on the management of wildlife diseases using multi-state recapture models: the case of classical swine fever in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sophie; Toigo, Carole; Hars, Jean; Pol, Françoise; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Depner, Klaus; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of host-parasite systems in wildlife is of increasing interest in relation to the risk of emerging diseases in livestock and humans. In this respect, many efforts have been dedicated to controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in the European Wild Boar. But CSF eradication has not always been achieved even though vaccination has been implemented at a large-scale. Piglets have been assumed to be the main cause of CSF persistence in the wild since they appeared to be more often infected and less often immune than older animals. However, this assumption emerged from laboratory trials or cross-sectional surveys based on the hunting bags. In the present paper we conducted a capture-mark-recapture study in free-ranging wild boar piglets that experienced both CSF infection and vaccination under natural conditions. We used multi-state capture recapture models to estimate the immunization and infection rates, and their variations according to the periods with or without vaccination. According to the model prediction, 80% of the infected piglets did not survive more than two weeks, while the other 20% quickly recovered. The probability of becoming immune did not increase significantly during the summer vaccination sessions, and the proportion of immune piglets was not higher after the autumn vaccination. Given the high lethality of CSF in piglets highlighted in our study, we consider unlikely that piglets could maintain the chain of CSF virus transmission. Our study also revealed the low efficacy of vaccination in piglets in summer and autumn, possibly due to the low palatability of baits to that age class, but also to the competition between baits and alternative food sources. Based on this new information, we discuss the prospects for the improvement of CSF control and the interest of the capture-recapture approach for improving the understanding of wildlife diseases.

  4. The impact of olive leaves, mosses and the burrowing of wild boars on soil erosion in olive orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Brevik, Eric C.; Pulido, Manuel; Maestre, Fermando T.; Taguas, Tani; Novara, Agata; Keesstra, Saskia; Cammeraat, Erik; Parras-Alcantara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    The main factor controlling soil erosion is vegetation cover (Cerdà and Doerr, 2005; Van Eck et al., 2016; van Hall et al., 2017). However, due to the removal of the vegetation in agricultural fields and the increase in soil erosion rates other factors arise as keys to control soil erosion rates and mechanisms (Ochoa-Cueva et al., 2016; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). Soil erosion rates in olive plantations are high due to the lack of vegetation cover as a consequence of intensive tillage and herbicides abuse (Taguas et al., 2015; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016; Zema et al., 2016). This is also found in vineyards and other orchards around the world (Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Rodrígo Comino et al., 2016), and the reason to look for sustainable management techniques such as geotextiles, mulches or catch crops that will stop the accelerated soil erosion (Giménez Morera et al., 2010; Mwango et al., 2016; Nawaz et al., 2016a; 2016b; Nishigaki et al., 2016). All these management techniques are difficult to apply and have high costs. Natural solutions such as weeds to provide cover are very efficient and have no cost (Cerdà et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016) and they can be adapted to the management of the farmers. In olive orchards under herbicide treatment there is a natural growth of mosses and the development of a litter layer composed of olive leaves. There is also burrowing by wild boars that "ploughs" the soil. This research evaluates the impact of the three items above on soil erosion. The measurements were carried out using simulated rainfall experiments over an area of 0.25 m2 at a rainfall rate of 55 mm h-1 during one hour (Cerdà, 1996; Prosdocimi et al., 2017) on 15 plots of mosses, 15 wild boar burrowed surfaces and 15 leaf covered surfaces during the winter of 2015. The soil erosion rates were 34 times greater in the wild boar burrowed soils, meanwhile the litter and mosses covered soils showed similar erosional responses and the soil erosion rates were

  5. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  6. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  7. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, C.

    2006-01-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  8. Fontes de óleo e níveis de suplementação de vitamina E na ração sobre a qualidade do sêmen suíno acondicionado a 17 e 5ºC Oil sources and levels of vitamin E supplementation in the diet on the quality of boar semen cooled at 17 and 5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Andrade Moraes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição de fontes de óleo e dos níveis de suplementação de vitamina E na ração sobre as características do sêmen suíno resfriado a 17ºC e 5ºC. Foram utilizados 24 suínos machos reprodutores Dalboar 85 distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 3, com duas fontes de óleo (soja e salmão e três níveis de antioxidantes (150, 300 e 450 mg de vitamina E/kg. Nos animais sob suplementação com óleo de salmão, a motilidade e o teste hiposmótico dos espermatozoides após 24, 48 e 72 horas foram superiores aos observados nos animais alimentados com a ração com óleo de soja. O óleo de salmão aumentou o vigor em ambas as temperaturas avaliadas após 24 e 48 horas. A ocorrência de anormalidades morfológicas totais foi maior no sêmen dos animais sob suplementação com óleo de soja e resfriado a 17ºC, enquanto na menor temperatura de resfriamento (5º não houve diferença entre os animais sob suplementação. A morfologia anormal no sêmen a 5ºC foi maior que no sêmen resfriado a 17ºC. O óleo de salmão melhora as características espermáticas do sêmen suíno resfriado a 17 e 5ºC durante 24 a 48 horas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of oil sources and levels of vitamin E supplementation in the rations on the characteristics of boar semen cooled at 17 and 5ºC. It was used twenty-four Dalboar 85 boars distributed in a complete random design, in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, with two sources of oil (soybean and salmon and three levels of antioxidant (150, 300 and 450 vitamin E mg/kg. For animals under supplementation with salmon oil, the motility and hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST of sperm after 24, 48, and 72 hours was higher than the ones observed in animals fed soybean oil ration. Salmon oil increased the vigor in both temperatures evaluated after 24 and 48 hours. The occurence of total morphological abnormalities

  9. Three times twenty by twenty-twenty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    Under the German presidency, the European Council adopted a program of climate protection and energy policy on March 9, 2007. It contains these 3 objectives: (1) By 2020, greenhouse gas emissions in the EU will be reduced by at least 20 percent from their 1990 level. (2) The share of renewable energies in primary energy consumption in the EU will be raised to 20 percent by 2020. (3) To enhance energy efficiency, energy consumption in the EU is to be reduced by 20 percent relative to the forecasts for 2020. The reason given by the European Council for the ambitious energy efficiency goal is its conviction that, in addition to the considerable increase in renewables, a major improvement in energy efficiency will enhance the security of energy supply, attenuate the forecast rise in energy prices, and diminish greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power is mentioned only in passing and as a topic for national decisionmaking, which is absolutely unsatisfactory in the light of what nuclear power currently is, and could go on, contributing to the security of supply, the climate protection, and reasonably priced electricity supply. On the whole, the package of energy and environmental policy measures devised by the European Council may be termed ambitious. (orig.)

  10. Aujeszky’s Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, François; Rossi, Sophie; Jori, Ferran; Maestrini, Oscar; Richomme, Céline; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian; Jouve, Johan; Pavio, Nicole; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2018-01-01

    Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild–domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80%) and ADV (40%) in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs’ exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80%) suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows’ release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV, ADV

  11. Aujeszky's Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, François; Rossi, Sophie; Jori, Ferran; Maestrini, Oscar; Richomme, Céline; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian; Jouve, Johan; Pavio, Nicole; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2018-01-01

    Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild-domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80%) and ADV (40%) in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs' exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80%) suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows' release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV, ADV seroprevalence was

  12. Aujeszky’s Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Charrier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild–domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80% and ADV (40% in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs’ exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80% suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows’ release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV

  13. Molecular study of Porcine Circovirus type 2 in wild boars and domestic pigs in Uruguay from 2010 to 2014: Predominance of recombinant circulating strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Porley, Dario; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Cabrera, Karina; Lozano, Alejandra; Arbiza, Juan

    2017-12-30

    Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed pathogen and one of the most economically relevant swine infections. Four genotypes have been recognized and it is well known that PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d have a global distribution. However, the information about recombinant strains circulation and their influence in driving PCV2 evolution is a poorly studied area. In Uruguay, PCV2 associated symptoms began to be frequently observed in pigs from different farms since 2010. The main purpose of this study was to thoroughly investigate the molecular epidemiology of PCV2 in nationwide swine herds and free-living wild boars during the period 2010-2014, providing an extensive viral sequence dataset. Surprisingly, the findings revealed a predominance of recombinant strains circulation, evidencing for the first time in the field that PCV2 recombination can lead to the emergence of strains able to compete and potentially displace parental ones. In addition, the circulation of the genotypes PCV2d (29%), PCV2b (10.5%) and PCV2a (7.9%) were also observed. Since 2013, a high circulation of PCV2d was identified in the country and probably reflected the recent global scenario of the emergence of this genotype. In addition, fluctuations in the frequency of PCV2 infection in the period evaluated may suggest a limitation of biosecurity strategies implemented in Uruguay for the disease control, including the instability of vaccination practices. On the other hand, the sustained PCV2 infection observed in wild boar population and the similarity among circulating viral strains from these animals and domestic pigs, suggested that wild animals could serve as permanent reservoir of the disease. Altogether, this work put forward that many factors play a role in PCV2 heterogeneity including rapid viral spread and evolution, recombination, wide movement within national boundaries and multiples introduction events resulting of international trade. Continuous monitoring of viral

  14. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  15. Twenty-One at TREC-8: using Language Technology for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-8. The Twenty-One group participated in the Ad-hoc, CLIR, Adaptive Filtering and SDR tracks. The main focus of our experiments is the development and evaluation of retrieval methods that are motivated by natural language

  16. Guidelines to Design Engineering Education in the Twenty-First Century for Supporting Innovative Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Maria Grazia; Vezzetti, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, meeting our technological challenges demands educational excellence, a skilled populace that is ready for the critical challenges society faces. There is widespread consensus, however, that education systems are failing to adequately prepare all students with the essential twenty-first century knowledge and skills…

  17. Twenty-One at TREC-7: ad-hoc and cross-language track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-7. The Twenty-One group participated in the ad-hoc and the cross-language track and made the following accomplishments: We developed a new weighting algorithm, which outperforms the popular Cornell version of BM25 on the ad-hoc

  18. Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and…

  19. Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first…

  20. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF SEMINAL PLASMA, VITAMIN E AND INCUBATION TIME ON POST-THAWED SPERM VIABILITY IN BOAR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G C Pech-Sansores

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of seminal plasma (SP, vitamin E (VE, and incubation time on sperm viability of post-thawed boar semen. Thirty six ejaculates were used and allocated to four treatments: T1, semen + BTS (Belstville Thawing Solution + 10% SP; T2, semen + BTS + 200μg/ml VE; T3, semen + BTS + 10% SP + 200μg/ml VE; T4, semen + BTS (control. Motility (MOT, intact acrosomes (IA, membrane integrity (MI and mitochondrial activity (MA were evaluated, at 0 and 30 min after thawing. A split plot design was used and the data analyzed using a mixed model analysis of variance. There was a significant effect of SP and VE on IA and MI (P0.05. There was significant effect of incubation time on MOT (21.3 and 27.9% and IA (46.0 and 36.0%, at 0 and 30 min post-thawing (P <0.05. It is concluded that the vitamin E, seminal plasma or the combination of both, affected the thawed sperm traits here studied. Incubation time increased motility and intact acrosome percentage but did not affect the membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity.