WorldWideScience

Sample records for twentieth-century american medicine

  1. Early Twentieth Century Arrow, Javelin, and Dart Games of the Western Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional native American ball games continued to be positive culture traits of the American Indian in the early twentieth century. The investigation was centered about (1) determining the current arrow, javelin, and dart games of western native Americans, (2) determining the…

  2. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  3. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  4. A "His Story" of Insanity: Madness and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bumeistere, Lilita

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary study of the largely neglected relationship between madness and masculinity based on three American literary works written during different periods of the twentieth century. The study utilizes literary, social, and medical research in order to provide a holistic view of madness and masculinity as two social constructs that interact with and are contingent on each other. In Sherwood Anderson’s “Hands,” Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, and David F...

  5. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-10-02

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  6. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  7. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early Twentieth Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226 Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period

  8. American Art Music in the Twentieth-Century: An Assessment of the Basic Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alan Anthony

    This assessment of 62 reference sources that contain information on U.S. art (classical) music of the twentieth century examines the following categories of sources: (1) Pilot Sources; (2) Lexica; (3) Histories and Chronologies; (4) Gesamtausgaben, Denkmaler, and Thematic catalogs; (5) Indexes and Bibliographies of Literature; (6) Lists of Music…

  9. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  10. The return of the phoenix: the 1963 International Congress of Zoology and American zoologists in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the International Congress of Zoology held in Washington D.C. in 1963 as a portrait of American zoologists' search for effective and rewarding relationships with both each other and the public. Organizers of the congress envisioned the congress as a last ditch effort to unify the disparate subdisciplines of zoology, overcome the barriers of specialization, and ward off the heady claims of more reductionist biologists. The problems zoologists faced as they worked to fulfill these ambitious goals illuminate some of the challenges faced by members of the naturalist tradition as they worked to establish disciplinary unity while seeking public support in the competitive world of twentieth century science.

  11. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  12. The American in Europe as Portrayed in American Literature of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-22

    understood. In the end, James uses all of these characters to draw a distinction between stereotypical Americans and Europeans. One critic, James Tuttleton...lover in the ruins by moonlight , she would probably never have caught malaria. She falls critically ill because of the malaria and ultimately dies...America’s political dominance was established, ,.ry few people could question its cultural dominance. Today, Hollywood films are shown in every

  13. Carl Gawboy, Ojibwe Regional Painter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for the elementary grades of Carl Gawboy (Ojibwe), an American Indian painter, includes photographs of the artist and some of his work. A teacher's guide following the bibilography contains information on watercolor painting and the Ojibwe people, learning objectives and study questions, instructions for doing a watercolor painting and…

  14. Zeal of Acceptance: Balancing Image and Business in Early Twentieth-century American Dentistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumsen, Stine Slot

    2012-01-01

    to influence marketing strategies of dental manufacturers, reverse the relationship between manufacturers and the profession of dentistry, to brand dentistry in a wider, public context, and how it became an economic thorn in the side of the Board of Trustees of the American Dental Association....

  15. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  16. The American Aid to the Russian Reforms at the End of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Yuliya A.; Bolshakova, Lyubov S.; Yasenitsky, Igor A.; Larionova, Marija B.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the studied problem is caused by the USA's leading role in the development of modern world order and the economy, its influence in the international economic organizations. The article is aimed at revealing the reasons of choosing neoliberal strategy for Russian reforms, the amount and results of the American financial and…

  17. Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, Sioux Author. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students describes the life and career of Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve (Sioux), a Native American free-lance writer, and includes her photograph and a map of South Dakota reservations. A story by Mrs. Sneve tells about a half-Sioux boy who confronts his heritage when his grandfather makes a long journey between his…

  18. Key textbooks in the development of modern american plastic surgery: the first half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Nicholas T; McCarthy, Joseph G

    2013-07-01

    A number of historical texts published during the first half of the twentieth century played a pivotal role in shaping and defining modern plastic surgery in the United States. Blair's Surgery and Diseases of the Mouth and Jaws (1912), John Staige Davis's Plastic Surgery: Its Principles and Practice (1919), Gillies's Plastic Surgery of the Face (1920), Fomon's Surgery of Injury and Plastic Repair (1939), Ivy's Manual of Standard Practice of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Military Surgery Manuals (1943), Padgett and Stephenson's Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1948), and Kazanjian and Converse's The Surgical Treatment of Facial Injuries (1949) were reviewed. These texts were published at a time when plastic surgery was developing as a distinct specialty. Each work represents a different point in this evolution. All were not inclusive of all of plastic surgery, but all had a lasting impact. Four texts were based on clinical experience from World War I; one included experience from World War II; and two included experience from both. One text became a military surgical handbook in World Wars I and II, playing an important role in care for the wounded. History has demonstrated that times of war spark medical/surgical advancements, and these wars had a dramatic impact on the development of reconstructive plastic surgery. Each of these texts documented surgical advancements and provided an intellectual platform that helped shape and create the independent discipline of plastic surgery during peacetime. For many future leaders of plastic surgery, these books served as their introduction to this new field.

  19. The reformist triad and institutional forgetting of culture: a field study into twentieth-century Swedish social medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyce, James M; Timpka, Toomas

    2012-01-01

    Social medicine deals with the interplay between medicine and society. An awareness of how analytical categories have emerged historically can strengthen the role the discipline can play in the societal reinventions of health care now under way around the world. This study examines the categories that informed social medicine in Sweden during the 20th century. An anthropological field study was conducted over a 12-year period in a Swedish academic clinical setting. Historical documents were used to link local-level issues with macro-level (here, national and European) contexts. Social medicine, modernity, and social democracy were found to share a common history and a common vision of what society should be. As a result, concepts from politics, ideology, economy, and science tended to be conflated. As a clinician at the study site explained, "samhälle [community] is both society and state". The consequence for social medicine is that culture has become neglected as an analytical category. This institutional amnesia has strongly influenced how 21st century social medicine, in this region of the world, has defined itself and its interests. To return a cultural perspective to social medicine, a critical distance must be kept between the analyses the discipline undertakes and the prevailing societal ideologies.

  20. Defining American Heroes: Analyzing the Metamorphosis of the War Hero in Twentieth Century War Films Using Joseph Campbell's, "Hero's Journey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Luci A.

    In "The Hero's Journey" Joseph Campbell identifies the patterns that inform the myths of the "hero" throughout recorded history. By using Campbell's template, this paper examines how the American war hero is portrayed and has been portrayed in film. The paper states that Americans not only define their war heroes in films but…

  1. URBAN DISPLACEMENT AND LOW-INCOME COMMUNITIES: THE CASE OF THE AMERICAN CITY FROM THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Knight

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How can urban redevelopment benefit existing low-income communities? The history of urban redevelopment is one of disruption of poor communities. Renewal historically offered benefits to the place while pushing out the people. In some cases, displacement is intentional, in others it is unintentional. Often, it is the byproduct of the quest for profits. Regardless of motives, traditional communities, defined by cultural connections, are often disrupted. Disadvantaged neighborhoods include vacant units, which diminish the community and hold back investment. In the postwar period, American cities entered into a program of urban renewal. While this program cleared blight, it also drove displacement among the cities’ poorest and was particularly hard on minority populations clustered in downtown slums. The consequences of these decisions continue to play out today. Concentration of poverty is increasing and American cities are becoming more segregated. As neighborhoods improve, poorer residents are uprooted and forced into even more distressed conditions, elsewhere. This paper examines the history of events impacting urban communities. It further reviews the successes and failures of efforts to benefit low-income communities.

  2. THE HUMAN RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT AS AN IDENTITY OF THE AMERICAN QUAKERS IN THE ERAS BEFORE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriadi .

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how and why the Quakers dealt with human rights issues in the United States before 20th century, ranging from the mid 17th century to the mid 19th century. It applies Nash Smith’s interdisciplinary theory as a theoretical approach. The Quakers, as a Christian religious group, had got several features or identities since George Fox declared its existence in England in the mid of 17th century. They lived in simplicity, adopted the principle of pacifism, rejected paying tith and tax, rejected taking off hat, used archaic words, and so forth. However, the Quakers in the United States had shown a new feature or identity; namely, the enforcement of human rights in the eras before the 20th century. The human rights enforcement was motivated by their piety and loyality to the Quakerism. In other words, it was an expression of their belief in Quakerism. This theology empowered their thoughts and actions in responding issues pertaining to human rights of the minorities i.e. the Indians or Native Americans, the African-Americans, and women along the span of time. Their goal was to let the minorities enjoy their unalienable rights as what most of white men had enjoyed.

  3. Frontiers twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The revolution in twentieth century physics has changed the way we think about space, time and matter and our own place in the universe. It has offered answers to many of the big questions of existence, such as the ultimate nature of things and the how the universe came into being. It has undermined our belief in a Newtonian mechanistic universe and a deterministic future, posing questions about parallel universes, time-travel and the origin and end of everything. At the same time we have witnessed amazing attempts at unification so that physicists are able to contemplate the discovery of a si

  4. Twentieth Century Spectacle. Music and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ristivojević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Miroslava Lukić Krstanović. Spektakli XX veka: Muzika i moć. [Twentieth Century Spectacle. Music and Power]. 2010. Beograd: Etnografski institut SANU. Posebna izdanja 72

  5. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  6. Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

  7. The twentieth century in European Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Twentieth Century in European Memory investigates contested and divisive memories of conflicts, world wars, dictatorship, genocide and mass killing. Focusing on the questions of transculturality and reception, the book looks at the ways in which such memories are being shared, debated...

  8. Learning from Twentieth Century Hermeneutic Phenomenology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of commonalities in the contributions of five key thinkers in twentieth century phenomenology are discussed in relation to both original aims and contemporary projects. It is argued that, contrary to the claims of Husserl, phenomenology can only operate as hermeneutic phenomenology. Hermeneutics arose ...

  9. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  10. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

  11. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  12. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  13. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, elementary-particle physics, and cosmology are the four pillars of modern physics. The life in the 21th century is without them no more conceivable: The special relativity theory renewed our understanding of space and time, on the laws of quantum mechanics are based countless everyday objects like transistors, computer chips, and mobile telephones; in particle accelerators we study the components oof matter, and with telescopes we take an ever deeper look in the past of the universe. Taking reference books to these themes at hand, one is overwhelmed by the plethora and complexity of the mathematical formulas. This book of the renowned professor of physics David J. Griffiths id refreshingly different. By means of many illustrative examples and entertaining stories it introducts to the themes and helps the reader also without a large mathematical apparatus to a fundamental understanding of that, about which Einstein, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Hubble actually thought and spoke. In each chapter numerous, pedagogically selected examples are completely worked out, in order to fill the matter with life. Moreover the text contains a manifold of problems, which allow the reader to deepen his knowledge and apply immediately. Griffith's ''Revolution in Twentieth Century Physics'' appeals not only to pupils and future studyings of natural sciences, who want to get an appetite for what lies ahead, but also to interested readers, which have already heared in the media from quarks and quanta, the curved space-time, Albert Einstein, and the big bang and now want to understandably know what is at stake in all the excitement.

  14. Jews, Music-Making, and the Twentieth Century Maghrib

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Christopher Benno

    2017-01-01

    From the early twentieth century and through at least mid-century, indigenous North African Jews came to play an outsized role as music-makers and music-purveyors across the Maghrib. In Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, all under French rule until the middle of the twentieth century, Jewish vocalists and instrumentalists, record label artistic directors and concessionaires, commercial agents, and sonic impresarios utilized the phonograph and recording technology to safeguard and promote traditio...

  15. New perspectives on forced migration in the history of twentieth-century neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W; Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, comprised of six articles and one commentary, reflects on the multifold dimensions of intellectual migration in the neurosciences and illustrates them by relevant case studies, biographies, and surveys from twentieth-century history of science and medicine perspectives. The special issue as a whole strives to emphasize the impact of forced migration in the neurosciences and psychiatry from an interdisciplinary perspective by, first, describing the general research topic, second, by showing how new models can be applied to the historiography and social studies of twentieth-century neuroscience, and, third, by providing a deeper understanding of the impact of European émigré researchers on emerging allied fields, such as neurogenetics, biological psychiatry, psychosomatics, and public mental health, etc. as resulting from this process at large.

  16. Blackett physics, war, and politics in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Nye, Mary Jo

    2004-01-01

    This is a lively and compact biography of P. M. S. Blackett, one of the most brilliant and controversial physicists of the twentieth century. Nobel laureate, leader of operational research during the Second World War, scientific advisor to the British government, President of the Royal Society, member of the House of Lords, Blackett was also denounced as a Stalinist apologist for opposing American and British development of atomic weapons, subjected to FBI surveillance, and named as a fellow traveler on George Orwell’s infamous list. His service as a British Royal Navy officer in the First World War prepared Blackett to take a scientific advisory role on military matters in the mid-1930s. An international leader in the experimental techniques of the cloud chamber, he was a pioneer in the application of magnetic evidence for the geophysical theory of continental drift. But his strong political stands made him a polarizing influence, and the decisions he made capture the complexity of living a prominent twen...

  17. Memoirs a twentieth-century journey in science and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Teller, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The story of Edward Teller is the story of the twentieth century. Born in Hungary in 1908, Teller witnessed the rise of Nazism and anti-Semitism, two world wars, the McCarthy era, and the changing face of big science. A brilliant and controversial figure whose work on nuclear weapons was key to the American war effort, Teller has long believed in freedom through strong defense, a philosophy reflected in his stance on arms control and nuclear policy. These extraordinary recollections at last reveal the man behind the headlines-passionate and humorous, devoted and loyal. In clear and compelling prose, Teller tells of the people, events, and ideas that shaped him as a scientist, beginning with his early love of music and math, and continuing with his study of quantum physics with Werner Heisenberg. Present at many of the pivotal moments in modern science, Teller also describes his friendships with some of the century's greatest minds-Einstein, Bohr, Fermi, Szilard, von Neumann, Oppenheimer-and offers an honest a...

  18. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  19. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Review article on: David Cantor and Edmund Ramsden, eds. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century. Rochester Studies in Medical History. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2014. vi + 367 pp. Ill. $125.00 (978-1-58046-476-5).......Review article on: David Cantor and Edmund Ramsden, eds. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century. Rochester Studies in Medical History. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2014. vi + 367 pp. Ill. $125.00 (978-1-58046-476-5)....

  20. The Use of Primitivism in Some Twentieth Century Western Art ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    primitive in its basic sense is “primary in time” and by extension under developed, simple, crude and unsophisticated. He further postulates that to him, primitive art is none of these and that the most primitive art is the Old. Stone Age cave paintings of Europe. And that a great deal of the twentieth century Western art should ...

  1. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  2. Rethinking Folk Culture in Twentieth-Century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Changes in African smallholder agriculture in the twentieth century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in African smallholder agriculture in the twentieth century and the challenges of the twenty-first. ... These occurred in situations where the growing of perennial crops or access to markets encouraged people to abandon a truly shifting cultivation for a more static lifestyle. A striking feature of these developments was ...

  4. Qadimism and Jadidism in Twentieth-Century Daghestan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.; Shikhaliev, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the interplay of Jadidism and "Qadimism" in the North Caucasus region of Daghestan, through the twentieth century, with a focus on educational methods for teaching Arabic and Islam. In the multi-ethnic context of Daghestan the issue of pedagogy was important not only for

  5. The State of Native America at the End of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly Robison

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available When stereotypes of modern Native Americans are brought forward, these usually manifest themselves in visions of poor Indians living on reservations, which are on lands no one else wanted. Modern Native Americans are often stereotyped as drunks or succumbing to the pressure of gamblers to open their reservations to casinos. One place to start in order to disprove these stereotypes is the statistical data. What follows is not an interpretive essay in the classic scholarly vein, but an informative one that provides a picture of the state of Native America at the end of the Twentieth Century based on current statistical data.

  6. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations.

  7. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2015-01-22

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 ± 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records.The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.

  8. The gas industry at the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williot, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The beginning of gas industry in nineteenth and twentieth centuries is related here and opens on the nowadays natural gas industry. Clean, cheap, easy to handle, the only problems seem to be the transport and the storage but technologies work to solve them. The natural gas should take an important place in the next century and seems to be the only substitution energy source for some countries where pollution is a big problem such eastern Europe countries. (N.C.)

  9. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were “global” in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associ...

  10. Mustaches and masculine codes in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone-Moore, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century masculinity by considering the social function of facial hair. The management of facial hair has always been a medium of gendered body language, and as such has elicited a nearly continuous private and public conversation about manliness. Careful attention to this conversation, and to trends in facial hairstyles, illuminates a distinct and consistent pattern of thought about masculinity in early twentieth-century America. The preeminent form of facial hair - mustaches - was used to distinguish between two elemental masculine types: sociable and autonomous. A man was neither wholly one nor the other, but the presence and size of a mustache - or its absence - served to move a man one way or another along the continuum that stretched from one extreme to the other. According to the twentieth-century gender code, a clean-shaven man's virtue was his commitment to his male peers and to local, national or corporate institutions. The mustached man, by contrast, was much more his own man: a patriarch, authority figure or free agent who was able to play by his own rules. Men and women alike read these signals in their evaluation of men.

  11. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  12. Twentieth century Walker Circulation change: data analysis and model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingjia [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, River and Coastal Environment Research Center, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Qingdao (China); Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Martin, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Semenov, Vladimir A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Recent studies indicate a weakening of the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century. Here, we present evidence from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced by the history of observed sea surface temperature (SST) that the Walker Circulation may have intensified rather than weakened. Observed Equatorial Indo-Pacific Sector SST since 1870 exhibited a zonally asymmetric evolution: While the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific showed only a weak warming, or even cooling in one SST dataset, the western part and the Equatorial Indian Ocean exhibited a rather strong warming. This has resulted in an increase of the SST gradient between the Maritime Continent and the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific, one driving force of the Walker Circulation. The ensemble experiments with the AGCM, with and without time-varying external forcing, suggest that the enhancement of the SST gradient drove an anomalous atmospheric circulation, with an enhancement of both Walker and Hadley Circulation. Anomalously strong precipitation is simulated over the Indian Ocean and anomalously weak precipitation over the western Pacific, with corresponding changes in the surface wind pattern. Some sensitivity to the forcing SST, however, is noticed. The analysis of twentieth century integrations with global climate models driven with observed radiative forcing obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) database support the link between the SST gradient and Walker Circulation strength. Furthermore, control integrations with the CMIP models indicate the existence of strong internal variability on centennial timescales. The results suggest that a radiatively forced signal in the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century may have been too weak to be detectable. (orig.)

  13. Global generations: social change in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, June; Turner, Bryan S

    2005-12-01

    The concept of generation within sociology has until recently been a marginal area of interest. However, various demographic, cultural and intellectual developments have re-awakened an interest in generations that started with the classic essay by Karl Mannheim. To date, the sociological literature has generally conceptualized generations as nationally bounded entities. In this paper we suggest that the sociology of generations should develop the concept of global generations. This conceptual enhancement is important because the growth of global communications technology has enabled traumatic events, in an unparalleled way, to be experienced globally. The late nineteenth and early twentieth century was the era of international generations, united through print media, and the mid-twentieth century saw the emergence of transnational generations, facilitated by new broadcast communications. However, the latter part of the twentieth century is the period of global generations, defined by electronic communications technology, which is characterized, uniquely, by increasing interactivity. The 1960s generation was the first global generation, the emergence of which had world-wide consequences; today with major developments in new electronic communications, there is even more potential for the emergence of global generations that can communicate across national boundaries and through time. If in the past historical traumas combined with available opportunities to create national generations, now globally experienced traumas, facilitated by new media technologies, have the potential for creating global generational consciousness. The media have become increasingly implicated in the formation of generational movements. Because we are talking about generations in the making rather than an historical generation, this article is necessarily speculative; it aims to provoke discussion and establish a new research agenda for work on generations.

  14. The concept of ‘transcendence’ in modern Western philosophy and in twentieth century Hindu thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando SARDELLA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Transcendence’ has been a key subject of Western philosophy of religion and history of ideas. The meaning of transcendence, however, has changed over time. The article looks at some perspectives offered by the nineteenth and the twentieth century Anglo‑American and continental European philosophers of religion and presents their views in relation to the concept of transcendence formulated by the Bengali Hindu traditionalist Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati (1874–1937. The questions raised are what transcendence in the philosophy of religion is, how one can speak of it, and what its goal is. The paper points to parallels and differences in epistemology, ontology and practice. One difference is that the nineteenth and the twentieth century Western philosophy of religion tended to assume an ontological difference between self and transcendence inherited from personalities such as Søren Kierkegaard, but also to explore the concept of transcendence beyond the idea of a metaphysical God. Bhaktisiddhanta, whose foundational thought mirrors medieval Hindu philosophy of religion and the theistic schools of Vedānta, suggests that transcendence has a metaphysical and personal dimension that is to some degree ontologically similar to and directly knowable by the self. Bhaktisiddhanta’s approach to transcendence differs from Kierkegaard’s and other Western philosophers’ and revolves around the idea of God as a transcendent person that can be directly known morphologically and ontologically through devotion. The article is a contribution to the history of ideas and the philosophy of religion in Eurasia and beyond.

  15. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  16. The Long Twentieth Century and Barriers to China's Hegemonic Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gulick

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century is an almost unfathomably ambitious andcomplex work. Its monumentality derives from Arrighi 's conviction that the best way to handicapthe possible futures of the world capitalist geo-economy is to analyze the structural evolution ofthis global system, an evolution spanning more than five centuries; the genius of the work rests inthe distinctive approach that Arrighi takes. At the core of his approach is the identification ofthose long-term trends and accreted characteristics - one might call them "systemiccontradictions" - that promise to send the world capitalist geo-economy in a radically differentdevelopmental direction as US hegemony wanes. Arrighi 's assessment of these contradictionscompel him to make a provocative suggestion: in all likelihood, no singular concentration of stateand economic power possesses the territorial scale or the organizational capacities required tolead the global system through another round of restructuring and expansion. Properly framed,this illuminating insight could serve as the starting point for a theoretical exploration of thesocio-ecological constraints to global capitalist reproduction, but such is a journey (mostly nottaken by Arrighi in The Long Twentieth Century. In fact, to the degree that he subsequentlycontemplates the prospect of a China-centered reconstitution of the world geo-economy, Arrighimarginalizes the question of global systemic contradictions altogether.

  17. John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

  18. Riemannian geometry during the second half of the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel

    1999-01-01

    In the last fifty years of the twentieth century Riemannian geometry has exploded with activity. Berger marks the start of this period with Rauch's pioneering paper of 1951, which contains the first real pinching theorem and an amazing leap in the depth of the connection between geometry and topology. Since then, the field has become so rich that it is almost impossible for the uninitiated to find their way through it. Textbooks on the subject invariably must choose a particular approach, thus narrowing the path. In this book, Berger provides a truly remarkable survey of the main developments in Riemannian geometry in the last fifty years, focusing his main attention on the following five areas: Curvature and topology; the construction of and the classification of space forms; distinguished metrics, especially Einstein metrics; eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian; the study of periodic geodesics and the geodesic flow. Other topics are treated in less detail in a separate section. Berger's survey p...

  19. Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2009-11-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable.

  20. Financial crises of the early twentieth century in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the major financial crises in Ukraine at early twentieth century dealing with the crises of 1899–1902 and 1908–1910. The main attention is paid to the large-scale crisis of 1899–1902 at the new industrial region in Eastern Ukraine where numerous steel and mining companies based on massive foreign investment (mainly Belgian and French were created shortly. The general boom of new joint-stock companies and insufficient provision of these companies by state orders were the main reason of the crisis which was the reflection of the international industrial and financial crisis of those years. The author also researches the crisis of 1908–1910 in the Ukrainian sugar industry.

  1. J. E. W. Wallin's Diagnostic Theory for Classifying the Feeble-Minded and Backward in Early Twentieth-Century Public Schools in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, American psychologists began addressing problems related to the intellectual capacity of students enrolled in public schools. This paper focuses on the role and influence of psychologists in addressing these problems, specifically the difficulty of classifying students deemed feeble-minded and…

  2. Natural histories of infectious disease: ecological vision in twentieth-century biomedical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2004-01-01

    During the twentieth century, disease ecology emerged as a distinct disciplinary network within infectious diseases research. The key figures were Theobald Smith, F. Macfarlane Burnet, René Dubos, and Frank Fenner. They all drew on Darwinian evolutionism to fashion an integrative (but rarely holistic) understanding of disease processes, distinguishing themselves from reductionist "chemists" and mere "microbe hunters." They sought a more complex, biologically informed epidemiology. Their emphasis on competition and mutualism in the animated environment differed from the physical determinism that prevailed in much medical geography and environmental health research. Disease ecology derived in part from studies of the interaction of organisms - micro and macro - in tropical medicine, veterinary pathology, and immunology. It developed in postcolonial settler societies. Once a minority interest, disease ecology has attracted more attention since the 1980s for its explanations of disease emergence, antibiotic resistance, bioterrorism, and the health impacts of climate change.

  3. Of Sound Mind: Mental Distress and Sound in Twentieth-Century Media Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Siewert, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to specify the representation of mental disturbance in sound media during the twentieth century. It engages perspectives on societal and technological change across the twentieth century as crucial for aesthetic strategies developed in radio and sound film production. The analysis

  4. Twentieth-century English Bible translations | Naudé | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The twentieth century has emerged as a major period of Bible translations and publications. The article explores both the cultural and social circumstances under which the English Bible translations of the twentieth century were produced and aspects relating to the translation process and reception. It offers insights into the ...

  5. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  6. Les nouvelles frontières des Jeux Anthropologiques de Saint-Louis The new frontiers of the St. Louis Anthropological Games: sport and the racialization of the American nation at the onset of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Delsahut

    2012-06-01

    prejudices of their organizers. They also set up special competitions, called for the occasion “Anthropological Days”, reserved for those who were considered as sub-humans by the segregationist America of that time. From these facts, we would like to show how sports sciences and burgeoning anthropology began, together, to serve such questionable causes as racial hierarchy and the right to colonize and how they greatly contributed to the birth of an American nation that put sport in the heart of its constitution. The impact of race studies on the ways of thinking sport, contrary to what the different chairmen of the IOC tried hard to make believe during the new decades, was not only a mere avatar of the Olympic movement. Finally, we shall make some forecasts regarding the influence of that interracial athletic show outside the United States that surely allowed a certain perception of otherness and limited the integration of native peoples in the world sports fabric.

  7. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work.

  8. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  9. Aerological observations in the tropics in the early twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Inst. of Geography

    2013-10-15

    In the first decades of the 20{sup th} century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption ('Krakatoa easterlies'). The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the 'Twentieth Century Reanalysis', which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation. (orig.)

  10. Introduction: the struggle for Shakespeare's text: twentieth-century editorial theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter was published in the book, The Struggle for Shakespeare's Text Twentieth-Century Editorial Theory and Practice [© Cambridge University Press]. The publisher's website is at: http://www.cambridge.org/ We know Shakespeare's writings only from imperfectly-made early editions, from which editors struggle to remove errors. The New Bibliography of the early twentieth century, refined with technological enhancements in the 1950s and 1960s, taught generations of editors how to...

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    project ever undertaken, is discussed. Since World War II support from governments for physics has increased enormously, but the fortunes of many physicists have remained entwined with the military establishment and many others now work within megaprojects such as CERN. At the end of the century the numbers of physicists and of papers published have grown a hundred-fold, and funding by an even larger factor. Other aspects have changed less. Physics is still male-dominated and largely a North American and European enterprise. Latterly there has been some reduction in support. Physics, along with the rest of science, has also been under attack for the problems it has created. The beginning of the twenty-first century promises to be as interesting for physics as recent decades have been. Comparison with the other recent work in this field, the three-volume Twentieth Century Physics edited by Laurie Brown, Abraham Pais and Brian Pippard (Institute of Physics Publishing and American Institute of Physics Press, 1995), is unavoidable. They fill different niches. Twentieth Century Physics is a massive and expensive work by some 30 leading physicists, destined mainly for the shelves of academic libraries. Quantum Generations is a book by a professional historian covering much of the same physics, albeit more briefly, but written with a broader sweep that takes in more of the political and cultural milieu within which the physicists worked. References are given sparingly so as not to break up the text, but there are suggestions for further reading for each chapter, and there is an extensive bibliography. It is not a book for those with no background at all in physics - there are too many equations of nuclear reactions for that, and in any case such a book would be a superficial thing. Even many physicists will find some of the more esoteric ideas, such as the grand unified theories and superstring theory, heavy going. It is, however, accessible to a wide readership, and a book that

  12. The history of optic chiasm from antiquity to the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Claudia Florida; Turliuc, Şerban; Buzdugă, Cătălin; Cucu, Andrei Ionuţ; Dumitrescu, Gabriela Florenţa; Sava, Anca; Turliuc, Mihaela Dana

    2017-11-01

    The optic chiasm is an essential structure located at the skull base that stirred over time the curiosity of anatomists, who became more and more interested in its structure and function. Through centuries, the optic chiasm was viewed as a vessel crossing, a way of transporting tears secreted by the brain to the eye, integrating images, or responsible for coordinated eye movements. The paper aims to overview the history of understanding the optic chiasm from the beginnings of antiquity to the twentieth century. We reviewed the literature and studied all the historical sources on optic chiasm and eyes in the works of ancient, medieval, Renaissance authors, and the seventeenth to nineteenth century works. The optic chiasm is a structure that fascinated ancient anatomists and made them develop various theories on its function. In terms of function, the optic chiasm had a history based more on speculation, the seventeenth century bringing its first understanding and reaching the peak in the nineteenth century with the understanding of the anatomical structure of the chiasm and its role in the visual process. The history of the optic chiasm is a fascinating time travel displaying the conceptual transformations that have been made in anatomy and medicine by our forerunners.

  13. The German genius Europe's third renaissance, the second scientific revolution, and the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Peter Watson's virtuoso sweep through modern German thought and culture, from 1750 to the present day, will challenge and confound both the stereotypes the world has of Germany and those that Germany has of itself. From the end of the Baroque era and the death of Bach to the rise of Hitler in 1933, Germany was transformed from a poor relation among Western nations into a dominant intellectual and cultural force—more creative and influential than France, Britain, Italy, Holland, and the United States. In the early decades of the twentieth century, German artists, writers, scholars, philosophers, scientists, and engineers were leading their freshly unified country to new and unimagined heights. By 1933, Germans had won more Nobel Prizes than any other nationals, and more than the British and Americans combined. Yet this remarkable genius was cut down in its prime by Adolf Hitler and his disastrous Third Reich—a brutal legacy that has overshadowed the nation's achievements ever since. How did the Germans t...

  14. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reading baby books: medicine, marketing, money and the lives of American infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Janet; Weiner, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article examines American baby books from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century. Baby books are ephemeral publications—formatted with one or more printed pages for recording developmental, health, and social information about infants and often including personal observations, artifacts such as photographs or palm prints, medical and other prescriptive advice, and advertisements. For historians they serve as records of the changing social and cultural worlds of infancy, offering insights into the interplay of childrearing practices and larger social movements.Baby books are a significant historical source both challenging and supporting current historiography, and they illustrate how medical, market and cultural forces shaped the ways babies were cared for and in turn how their won behavior shaped family lives. A typology of baby books includes the lavishly illustrated keepsake books of the late nineteenth century, commercial and public health books of the twentieth century, and on-line records of the present day. Themes that emerge over time include those of scientific medicine and infant psychology, religion and consumerism. The article relies on secondary literature and on archival sources including the collections of the UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library as well as privately held baby books.

  16. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  17. Embodiments of Human Identity: Detecting and Interpreting Hidden Narratives in Twentieth-Century Design History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the practice and influence of design history can benefit from new forms of visual and chronological analysis. Identifies and discusses a unique phenomenon, the "historical visual narrative." Examines special instances of this phenomenon in twentieth-century design and visual culture, which are tied to the theme of the…

  18. No issue, no problem? Co-education in dutch secondary physical education during the twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, H.W.

    This article places the current state of Dutch co-education in physical education into a longitudinal perspective. Occasionally, comparisons are made with Germany and England. The dominant, twentieth-century, co-educational tradition in the Netherlands including its pragmatic argumentation has

  19. Psychiatric Cultures Compared : Psychiatry and Mental Health Care in the Twentieth Century: Comparisons and Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt-Hofstra, Marijke; Oosterhuis, Harry; Vijselaar, Joost; Freeman, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    The history of mental health care in the twentieth century is a relatively uncharted territory. Exemplifying a new emphasis on the comparative approach, this volume offers overviews of various national psychiatric cultures and explores new research subjects. By confronting Dutch psychiatry with

  20. Introduction: The era of management:a historical perspective on twentieth-century management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.; Kroeze, D.B.R.

    2014-01-01

    The twentieth century is a special period in the history of management. It is characterised by an extraordinary dissemination and diversification of management. However, the era consists of different phases. Inspired by the work of historians and philosophers of history who wrote on periodization as

  1. The Era of Management: A Historical Perspective on Twentieth-Century Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.J.; Kroeze, D.B.R.

    2014-01-01

    The twentieth century is a special period in the history of management. It is characterised by an extraordinary dissemination and diversification of management. However, the era consists of different phases. Inspired by the work of historians and philosophers of history who wrote on periodization as

  2. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…

  3. Intertransitions between Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan (Nineteenth-Early Twentieth Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadvokasova, Zakish T.; Orazbayeva, Altynay I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the historical facts related to conversion of indigenous people of the Kazakh steppe from Islam to Christianity and the conversion of the Russian migrants from Orthodoxy to Islam in Kazakhstan in the nineteenth-early twentieth century. The study deals with the laws that were detrimental to Islam and reforms…

  4. Bookends of the Twentieth Century: Irving Babbitt, E. D. Hirsch, and the Humanistic Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilie, Kipton D.

    2013-01-01

    Irving Babbitt and E.D. Hirsch defended the humanistic curriculum at both the beginning and end of the twentieth century, respectively. Both claimed that a set of specific knowledge needed to be passed from one generation to the next. Both found this knowledge primarily, though certainly not exclusively, through the classical Western tradition.…

  5. Alternative stories about race, gender and interracial intimacies at the turn of the twentieth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Based on empirical material from Danish exhibitions of so-called exotic people in which people of color were exhibited as mass entertainment at the turn of the twentieth century, the article aims at nuancing established scholarly understandings of interracial relationships and Asian masculinity. ...

  6. Predictability of twentieth century sea-level rise from past data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittermann, Klaus; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Perrette, Mahé; Vermeer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of global sea-level rise is one of the major challenges of climate science. While process-based models are still being improved to capture the complexity of the processes involved, semi-empirical models, exploiting the observed connection between global-mean sea level and global temperature and calibrated with data, have been developed as a complementary approach. Here we investigate whether twentieth century sea-level rise could have been predicted with such models given a knowledge of twentieth century global temperature increase. We find that either proxy or early tide gauge data do not hold enough information to constrain the model parameters well. However, in combination, the use of proxy and tide gauge sea-level data up to 1900 AD allows a good prediction of twentieth century sea-level rise, despite this rise being well outside the rates experienced in previous centuries during the calibration period of the model. The 90% confidence range for the linear twentieth century rise predicted by the semi-empirical model is 13–30 cm, whereas the observed interval (using two tide gauge data sets) is 14–26 cm. (letter)

  7. Twentieth Century evolution of machining in the United States – An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700's, virtually no ... expected that, by the middle of the 19th Century, as machine tools began to be manufactured .... Twentieth Century evolution of machining in the United States. 873. DESIGN ... Merchant M E 1961 The manufacturing system concept in production ...

  8. Monolingualism and Prescriptivism: The Ecology of Slovene in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savski, Kristof

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the ecology of Slovene in the twentieth century by focusing on two key emergent themes. It focuses firstly on monolingualism as a key goal for Slovene language planners, starting with their efforts to create a standard language with no German influences in the nineteenth century, and continuing in their work to prevent…

  9. Intellectual Portraits: Politics, Professions and Identity in Twentieth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article brings together six talented women historians in twentieth-century England whose scholarly productions helped shape modern historical practice but who are little known in the canonical accounts of history-writing in the period. The author is looking to map and describe historical communities from a grounded and qualitative perspective…

  10. Westward Bound? Dutch Education and Cultural Transfer in the Mid-Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the transition from philosophy to psychology as the main source of inspiration for education during the mid-twentieth century in the Netherlands, situated between Germany in the east and the English-speaking world in the west. Claims have been made that educational theory in the Netherlands was dominated by German philosophy…

  11. Writing the Nation : Transculturation and nationalism in Hispano-Filipino literature from the early twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villaescusa Illán, I.

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis explores a fairly unknown corpus of literature written by Filipino authors in Spanish in the first part of the twentieth century. Spanish speaking Filipinos from this period were caught in a transition between colonial powers: the end of 300 years of Spanish colonialism in 1898 led

  12. Singing the Nation into Being: Teaching Identity and Culture at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the music education in the United States and the Russian Empire at the turn of the twentieth century. In both countries, music educators struggled to secure a permanent role for vocal music in the school. By comparing Russian music instruction to that in the United States, educators can better understand not…

  13. Norman Mailer - the most influental critic of contemporary reality in the second half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Potočnik Topler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norman Mailer, one of the most influential authors of the second half of the twentieth century, faithfully followed his principle that a writer should alsobe a critic of contemporary reality. Therefore, most of his works portray the reality of the United States of America and the complexities of the contemporary American scene. Mailer described the spirit of his time - from the terror of war and numerous dynamic social and political processes to the 1969 moon landing. Conflicts were often in the centre of his writing, as was the relationship between an individual and the society; he speaks of politicalpower and the dangerous power of capital, while pointing to the threat of totalitarianism in America. Mailer spent his entire career writing about violence, power, perverted sexuality, the phenomenon of Hitler, terrorism, religion and corruption. He continually pointed out that individuals were in constant danger of losing freedom and dignity.

  14. Women, work and health between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from a national and international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Silvana

    2014-11-16

    A few years after a series of meetings of Italian scientists were convened prior to the unification of Italy, the first women qualified in medicine and other dedicated women participated in founding a movement for the improvement of living and working conditions of women and children in Italy. analysis of Italian women's contributions in the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses and their impact on increasing the number of women's occupational health studies presented at the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome in 1914. Analysis of the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses (Washington, Chicago, London), and of the Women's National Council and other documents so as to obtain a picture of Italian women's working conditions at that time. Women and children worked an excessive number of hours per day, were underpaid, and had a legal status of inferiority. The main work sectors were sewing, embroidery, lace making, ironing, cooking, washing, dressmaking, millinery, fashion design, typing, weaving, artificial flowers, etc. The same sort of work was available to Italian women who emigrated to the United States of America. The success achieved by the women's movement is shown in the paper presented by Irene de Bonis "Occupational diseases among women" and published in the proceedings of the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome, 9-14 June 1914. The article outlines the main features of the women's movement at the turn of the twentieth century, focussing on their publications describing Italian women's working conditions, considered in an international context. The movement's engagement in the promotion of women's occupational health at international and national level was successful but the First World War was to transform this achievement into the women's peace movement.

  15. History and development of Carboniferous palynology in North America during the early and middle twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, A.T.; Kosanke, R.M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Three main roots of upper Palaeozoic palynology in North America date from the opening of the twentieth century. These are Gresley`s recognition of spores in Iowa coal balls in 1901, analyses of spores by Sellards from Mazon Creek compressions in 1902, and Thiessen`s analyses of dispersed spores from coal maceration and thin sections in 1913. The Pollen Analysis Circular brought workers into contact in the 1940s and generated interest in older fossils. The Paleobotanical Section of the Botanical Society of America (1936) and the Coal Geology Division of the Geological Society of America (1955) encouraged palynologists to participate in meetings and field trips. Fundamental papers by Schopf et al. in 1944 and Kosanke in 1950 established Carboniferous palynology in North America. Active teaching and research centers at the University of Chicago in the 1920s and the University of Illinois and Coe College in the 1930s spawned new palynological centers, particularly throughout the Midwest. Palynological contributions on dispersed spores, mainly from coals and associated rocks, appeared from educational centers from 1929 through the 1950s. Limited reviews of early researches at early palynologic centers are here included by region. Palynology applied to petroleum exploration appeared in the 1940s and major petroleum companies had palynology laboratories in place by 1960. The first international palynology journals appeared in the 1950s and catalogs first appeared in the mid-1960s, except the Catalog of Fossil Spores and Pollen, which began in 1957. The first specific palynology organization, the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologisst, was founded in 1968. 304 refs., 38 figs

  16. Biography of a technology: North America's power grid through the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Julie A.

    North Americans are among the world's most intense consumers of electricity. The vast majority in the United States and Canada access power from a network of transmission lines that stretch from the East Coast to the West Coast and from Canada to the Mexican Baja. This network, known as the largest interconnected machine in the world, evolved during the first two thirds of the twentieth century. With the very first link-ups occurring at the end of the 1890s, a wide variety of public and private utilities extended power lines to reach markets, access and manage energy resources, balance loads, realize economies of scale, provide backup power, and achieve economic stability. In 1967, utility managers and the Bureau of Reclamation connected the expansive eastern and western power pools to create the North American grid. Unlike other power grids around the world, built by single, centrally controlled entities, this large technological system emerged as the result of multiple decisions across eighty-five years of development, and negotiations for control at the economic, political, and technological levels. This dissertation describes the process of building the North American grid and the paradoxes the resulting system represents. While the grid functions as a single machine moving electricity across the continent, it is owned by many independent entities. Smooth operations suggest that the grid is a unified system; however, it operates under shared management and divided authority. In addition, although a single power network seems the logical outcome of electrification, in fact it was assembled through aggregation, not planning. Interconnections intentionally increase the robustness of individual sub-networks, yet the system itself is fragile, as demonstrated by major cascading power outages. Finally, the transmission network facilitates increased use of energy resources and consumption of power, but at certain points in the past, it also served as a technology of

  17. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.

  18. Shifting standards experiments in particle physics in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2013-01-01

    In Shifting Standards, Allan Franklin provides an overview of notable experiments in particle physics. Using papers published in Physical Review, the journal of the American Physical Society, as his basis, Franklin details the experiments themselves, their data collection, the events witnessed, and the interpretation of results. From these papers, he distills the dramatic changes to particle physics experimentation from 1894 through 2009.Franklin develops a framework for his analysis, viewing each example according to exclusion and selection of data; possible experimenter bias; details of the experimental apparatus; size of the data set, apparatus, and number of authors; rates of data taking along with analysis and reduction; distinction between ideal and actual experiments; historical accounts of previous experiments; and personal comments and style.From Millikan’s tabletop oil-drop experiment to the Compact Muon Solenoid apparatus measuring approximately 4,000 cubic meters (not including accelerators) and...

  19. The concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy a philosophical thematic atlas

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of authoritative contributions on the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy. It is structured in the form of a thematic atlas: each section is accompanied by relevant elementary logic maps that reproduce in a “spatial” form the directionalities (arguments and/or discourses) reported on in the text. The book is divided into three main sections, the first of which covers phenomenology and the perception of time by analyzing the works of Bergson, Husserl, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, Guattari and Derrida. The second section focuses on the language and conceptualization of time, examining the works of Cassirer, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Lacan, Ricoeur and Foucault, while the last section addresses the science and logic of time as they appear in the works of Guillaume, Einstein, Reichenbach, Prigogine and Barbour. The purpose of the book is threefold: to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy; ...

  20. How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.

  1. Rabid epidemiologies: the emergence and resurgence of rabies in twentieth century South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the history of rabies in South Africa since the early twentieth century. It argues that rabies is a zoonotic disease that traverses rural and urban spaces, that transfers itself between wild and domestic animals and remains a potential threat to human life in the region. Scientists discovered an indigenous form of rabies, found primarily in the yellow mongoose, after the first biomedically confirmed human fatalities in 1928. Since the 1950s canine rabies, presumed to have moved southwards from across the Zambezi River, has become endemic also. South Africa is home to a comparatively large number of rabies strains and animal carriers, making it a particularly interesting case study. Environmental changes during the colonial and apartheid periods have helped to explain the increase in rabies cases since the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, developments in the biological and ecological sciences have provided insights into why the rabies virus has become endemic in certain wildlife species.

  2. The wisdom of elders: Inuvialuit social memories of continuity and change in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    The Inuvialuit of the Canadian Western Arctic are no strangers to change. From the arrival of whalers ca. 1890, they underwent a century of monumental societal upheaval. Perhaps against the odds, they sustained many of their traditional socioeconomic activities and continued to follow a land-based lifestyle through much of the twentieth century. With a few notable exceptions, historical accounts of this period were written by cultural outsiders who conveyed their own perspectives on Inuvialuit culture. This paper focuses on the social memories of present-day Inuvialuit Elders who recount aspects of their lifeways throughout the twentieth century, including seasonal practices, traditional skills they maintained, and responses to the historical events that challenged their ways of living and spurred continuous change. These oral narratives form part of a larger history for succeeding generations, and a platform from which to construct contemporary identities and to negotiate a collective future.

  3. Medical history for the masses: how American comic books celebrated heroes of medicine in the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bert

    2004-01-01

    When comic books rose to mass popularity in the early 1940s, one segment of the industry specialized in "true adventures," with stories about real people from the past and the present--in contrast to competing books that offered fantasy, science fiction, superheroes, detectives and crime, funny people, or funny animals. This study examines the figures from both medical history and twentieth-century medicine who were portrayed as heroes and role models in these comic books: first, to call attention to this very popular, if unknown, genre of medical history, and second, to illustrate how medical history was used at that time to popularize scientific and medical ideas, to celebrate the achievements of medical research, to encourage medical science as a career choice, and to show medicine as a humane and noble enterprise. The study explains how these medical history stories were situated in American popular culture more generally, and how the graphic power of comic books successfully conveyed both values and information while also telling a good story. Attention to this colorful genre of popular medical history enriches our picture of the mid-twentieth-century public's enthusiasm for medical progress.

  4. Qur'anic Invocations: Narrative Temporalities in Twentieth Century Maghrebi Literature

    OpenAIRE

    El Shakry, Hoda

    2012-01-01

    "Qur'anic Invocations: Narrative Temporalities in Twentieth Century Maghrebi Literature" investigates the dialogic relationship between literary and theological discourse in modern Arabophone and Francophone literature of the Maghreb. The novels of al-Tahir Wattar, Assia Djebar, Driss Chraibi and Mahmud al-Mas'adi critically explore the complex colonial histories and conflicted articulations of national identity, language and literature in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. While the 130-year Fr...

  5. Challenges in the twentieth century and beyond: Computer codes and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen major changes in computer architecture. From the early fifties to the early seventies, the word open-quotes computerclose quotes demanded reverence, respect, and even fear. Computers, then, were almost open-quotes untouchable.close quotes Computers have become the mainstream of communication on rapidly expanding communication highways. They have become necessities of life. This report describes computer codes and packaging, as well as compilers and operating systems

  6. Mutant utopias: evening primroses and imagined futures in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2013-09-01

    Hugo de Vries's mutation theory is now little more than a footnote to the history of biology, a failed theory that briefly led a few biologists astray. However, for the first quarter of the twentieth century it attracted considerable attention from both professional biologists and laypeople. De Vries's theory--together with the plant, Oenothera lamarckiana, that had supplied most of his evidence--became the focus of a surprising variety of imaginative hopes. Scientists and their various publics were fascinated by the utopian possibilities that the primrose seemed to offer, and their discussions shaped a public culture around biology that would help define the twentieth century as the "century of the gene." From a conventional history of science perspective (which, in the case of twentieth-century biology, often remains focused on the content of scientific theories and the professional communities that shaped them), the mutation theory seems unimportant. However, while De Vries's new theory of evolution ultimately failed to persuade the scientific community, it was much more important than is now realized, particularly because it helped make biology part of a wide variety of public debates. Understanding the mutation theory's story more fully suggests that we may need to rethink much of the rest of the century of the gene's history, to think less in terms of what happened in the lab and more about how biology came to function as public culture.

  7. Ocean heat content variability in an ensemble of twentieth century ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boisséson, Eric; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Mayer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a ten-member ensemble of twentieth century Ocean ReAnalyses called ORA-20C. ORA-20C assimilates temperature and salinity profiles and is forced by the ECMWF twentieth century atmospheric reanalysis (ERA-20C) over the 1900-2010 period. This study attempts to identify robust signals of ocean heat content change in ORA-20C and detect contamination by model errors, initial condition uncertainty, surface fluxes and observing system changes. It is shown that ORA-20C trends and variability in the first part of the century result from the surface fluxes and model drift towards a warmer mean state and weak meridional overturning circulation. The impact of the observing system in correcting the mean state causes the deceleration of the warming trend and alters the long-term climate signal. The ensemble spread reflects the long-lasting memory of the initial conditions and the convergence of the system to a solution compatible with surface fluxes, the ocean model and observational constraints. Observations constrain the ocean heat uptake trend in the last decades of the twentieth century, which is similar to trend estimations from the post-satellite era. An ocean heat budget analysis attributes ORA-20C heat content changes to surface fluxes in the first part of the century. The heat flux variability reflects spurious signals stemming from ERA-20C surface fields, which in return result from changes in the atmospheric observing system. The influence of the temperature assimilation increments on the heat budget is growing with time. Increments control the most recent ocean heat uptake signals, highlighting imbalances in forced reanalysis systems in the ocean as well as in the atmosphere.

  8. "Do grandmas have husbands?" Generational memory and twentieth-century women's lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This essay uses memory in the ancient and modern sense of the "inner life of thought" to describe the formation of generational memory in a modern professional family whose twentieth-century history has been fractured by migration, war, education, and divorce. It is about the power of feeling and law, which framed the practical freedoms of twentieth-century women's lives and introduced the modern citizen in the aftermath of universal suffrage and world war. The first part of the essay emphasizes the psychic dimension of bodily feeling and drive in the formation of memory; a dimension overlooked by oral history and social movements, yet confirmed by autobiography and memoir. My granddaughter's questions provoked resistance as well as family stories, and let me observe the thought process in a child. Social history, autobiography, and personal memory confirm the common experience of everyday life reaching back through generations of London families; folklore, commerce, and family story make narratives of dreams, hopes, terrors, and events; a child's comprehension of the outside world is grasped through curiosity, imagination, and play in which bodily feeling is as powerful as speech and prohibition to make meanings that flow between inner world and external reality. The second half of the essay reflects on Joan Riviere's description of the self. Leading British psychoanalyst, translator of Freud, writing in the 1950s, Riviere's language of the inner world resonates with the liberal social ethics -- empathy, public service, common good -- which underpinned women's and human rights mid-twentieth century and the egalitarian and reproduction reforms whose universalism has been challenged since the 1970s. Negative feeling is striking in Riviere's description of the self -- fear, shame, shock, and trauma, which are confirmed in memoir and autobiography. In contrast, liberal social democratic accounts of the time idealized English character. Today, the future uncertain

  9. Women Emancipation in the Early Twentieth Century in France Portrayed in Coco Before Chanel Movie

    OpenAIRE

    HIKMAYANTI, INDAH

    2014-01-01

    Keywords : Women Movement, Liberal Feminism, France, Early TwentiethCentury, Coco Before ChanelWomen movement is a women's action to break down the patriarchy system which evolves in society. The patriarchy system states that women is minority in the society. Their role is only to take care of their family. They can not go to work outside and interact with others in the society. In France society, women and men have difference of right. French women then start the women movement to break the ...

  10. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth ra...

  11. Hydrotherapy in state mental hospitals in the mid-twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Rebecca Bouterie

    2009-08-01

    This research describes nurses' experiences in administering "the water cure," hot or cold wet sheet packs, and continuous tub baths in state mental hospitals during the early twentieth century. Student and graduate nurses were required to demonstrate competence in hydrotherapy treatments used to calm agitated or manic patients in the era before neuroleptics. The nurses interviewed for this study indicated that, although labor intensive, hydrotherapy worked, at least temporarily. Although no longer used in state hospitals, hydrotherapy is regaining popularity with the general public and may serve as an adjunct to pharmacological treatments to calm hospitalized patients in the future.

  12. Buddhism, Christianity, and psychotherapy: A three-way conversation in the mid-twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the scope of 'religion-psy dialogue' in the mid-twentieth century, via a case study from Japan: Kosawa Heisaku, a Buddhist psychoanalyst based in Tokyo. By putting this case study in brief comparative perspective, with the conversation that took place in 1965 between Paul Tillich and Carl Rogers, the article discusses both the promise and the pitfalls of the modern and contemporary world of 'religion-psy dialogue', alongside the means by which specialists in a variety of fields might investigate and hold it to account.

  13. From Science to Industry: The Sites of Aluminium in France from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Muriel

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the history of the isolation and industrial production of aluminium in France, from the work of Henri Sainte-Claire Deville in the 1850s to the latter part of the twentieth century, focusing on the relationships between academic research and industrial exploitation. In particular, it identifies a culture and organisation of research and development, "learning-by-doing," that emerged in the French aluminium industry following the establishment of the first electrolytic production facilities in the late 1880s by Paul Héroult, who, along with the American Charles Hall, patented the electrolytic method of producing the metal. This French method of R&D was a product both of a scientific culture that saw a continuity between scientific research and industrial application, and of a state policy that, unlike in Germany or the United States, was late to recognise the importance of fostering, on a large scale, the relations between academic chemistry and industry. It was only after World War II that the French state came fully to recognise the importance of underpinning industry with scientific research. And it was only from the 1960s, in the face of intensifying global competition, the risks of pollution, and the cost of energy, that the major aluminium firm Pechiney et Cie was able to replace a culture of "learning-by-doing" by one that integrated fundamental science with the production process.

  14. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  15. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-06-01

    The terms 'genotype', 'phenotype' and 'gene' originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. © 2014 The Author. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  16. The acceleration of the masculine in early-twentieth-century Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, David James

    2012-01-01

    In early-twentieth-century Berlin, agents of speed and industrialisation, such as the railway, contributed to the seemingly unbridled velocity of urban life. Doctors and cultural critics took an ambivalent stance toward the impact of speed and technology on the human body. Critics argued that these factors, in conjunction with sexual excess and prostitution, accelerated the sexual maturation of young men, thereby endangering ‘healthy’ male sexuality. This comparison of Hans Ostwald's socio-literary study Dunkle Winkel in Berlin (1904) with Georg Buschan's sexual education primer Vom Jüngling zum Mann (1911) queries the extent to which speed shaped the understanding of ‘the masculine’ in pre-World-War-I Germany. The essay thus examines Ostwald's and Buschan's arguments and postulates that speed in the city (Berlin) can be seen as a feminised, sexualised force that determined sex in the city. According to this reading, the homosexual urban dandy resisted the accelerated modernist urban tempo, whereas the heterosexual man and hegemonic, heteronormative masculinity yielded to speed. ‘“Das Verhältnis”’ became a fleeting, momentary alternative to stable marital relationships, which in turn contributed to the general ‘crisis’ of – and in– masculinity in early-twentieth-century Berlin.

  17. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.

  18. Continuum mechanics through the ages from the renaissance to the twentieth century : from hydraulics to plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2016-01-01

    Mixing scientific, historic and socio-economic vision, this unique book complements two previously published volumes on the history of continuum mechanics from this distinguished author. In this volume, Gérard A. Maugin looks at the period from the renaissance to the twentieth century and he includes an appraisal of the ever enduring competition between molecular and continuum modelling views. Chapters trace early works in hydraulics and fluid mechanics not covered in the other volumes and the author investigates experimental approaches, essentially before the introduction of a true concept of stress tensor. The treatment of such topics as the viscoelasticity of solids and plasticity, fracture theory, and the role of geometry as a cornerstone of the field, are all explored. Readers will find a kind of socio-historical appraisal of the seminal contributions by our direct masters in the second half of the twentieth century. The analysis of the teaching and research texts by Duhem, Poincaré and Hilbert on cont...

  19. Real Men Wear Uniforms: Photomontage, Postcards, and Military Visual Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Otto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines early twentieth-century German representations of men and women in uniform to consider how mass culture allowed individuals to participate in aspects of gender construction. It also reveals how masculinity was increasingly linked to military ideals. The pictures under scrutiny here were made in two significant but as yet under-researched types of pictures: pre-avant-garde photomontaged soldier portraits and popular postcards. Both of these visual forms originated in the 1870s, the decade that Germany was itself founded, and they both were in wide circulation by the early twentieth century. Individualized soldier portraits and postcards offered a glorious vision of a man’s military service, and they performed what Theodor Lessing has called Vergemütlichung, the rendering harmless of history. These idealized images of soldierly life were available to a broad swath of the public, but their democratization only extended so far. Representations of women in uniform served to reinforce—through stereotyping and humor—the unquestionably male nature of military institutions and, by extension, of public space. At the same time, by making apparent their own constructed nature, these portraits and postcards offered viewers a glimpse behind the masquerade of masculinity. This essay thus also identifies these images’ links to the subsequent work of avant-garde artists and to the National Socialists’ return to the ideal of uniformed masculinity.

  20. PROBLEM UNACCOMPANIED MINORS IN THE 20 YEARS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (NIZHNY NOVGOROD PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vasilyevna Bystrovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the scientific, historical and socio-pedagogical bases of juvenile delinquency in the Nizhny Novgorod region in the context of Russia's historical and educational space. The causes of homelessness among children from 1917 to 1930.: The First World War, revolution, civil war, the policy of «war communism».The dynamics of the state in social and legal protection of minors in the period.Goal Is to determine the scientific, historical and socio-pedagogical bases of juvenile delinquency problem in the 20 years of the twentieth century (the Nizhny Novgorod region.Method or the methodology of work Implementing the principles of scientific and historicism, used for general historical science methods (identification, analysis, synthesis, study of archival and published materials, concrete historical, theoretical and system analysis, also found their application specific methods inherent historical and theoretical research: comparative comparative, historical situational, historical, genetic, specific historical, textual analysis.Results Suggested and scientifically substantiated system characteristic juvenile delinquency in the 20 years of the twentieth century in the Nizhny Novgorod region in the changing socio-political sphere in Russia.Practical implications The result is of obvious interest to educators, sociologists conducting research question juvenile delinquency.

  1. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.

  2. Landlordism, Rent Regulation and the Labour Party in mid-twentieth century Britain, 1950-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Phil

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the politics of private renting in 1950s and early 1960s Britain, through the radical approach taken by Labour Party towards private landlords. Through setting the radical aims of Labour in a mid-twentieth-century context of decrepit housing, rising rents and sluggish public housing programmes, Labour's rationale in arguing for the 'abolition' of the private landlord is more transparent. This article takes a chronological approach, investigating what actions Labour actors took, at local and national level, and what effect this had on the wider housing market. Part one takes a long view of Labour attitudes to the private rented sector. Part two explores the policy of 'municipalization'-the attempt to place rented homes under local authority control. Part three discusses the post-1962 policy shift to state-sponsored 'improvement' of private rented housing, prior to Labour's victory at the 1964 general election. Three key arguments are made: that Labour's radicalism hastened the collapse of the post-war private rented sector; that rental market weaknesses indicated the confused place of renting in the 'tenurial pattern'; and that the proposed 'abolition' of private landlords had a direct effect on slum clearance and the composition of British cities. The conclusion suggests that Labour's pursuit of the private landlord can shed light on the vast urban transformations of the post-war period. It invites greater attention to be paid to the effects that political ideas had on the composition of the twentieth-century British housing market.

  3. ‘Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms

  4. The reinvention of twentieth century microscopy for three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Lachlan W; McArthur, Kate; Geoghegan, Niall D; Rogers, Kelly L

    2017-07-01

    In just over a decade, the field of biomedical research has witnessed a radical evolution in technologies for the 3- and 4-dimensional imaging of biological samples. Light sheet fluorescence microscopy is quickly developing into a powerful approach for fast, volumetric imaging of cells, tissues and living organisms. This review touches on the development of 3-dimensional imaging, from its foundations, namely from the invention of confocal microscopy in the twentieth century to more recent examples, notably the IsoView SPIM, the Lattice Light Sheet Microscope and swept confocally aligned planar excitation. These technologies overcome the limitations of conventional optical sectioning techniques and enable unprecedented levels of spatio-temporal resolution with low levels of phototoxicity. Developing in parallel with powerful computational approaches, light sheet based methods promise to completely transform cell biology as we know it today.

  5. Hidden in plain sight marketing prescription drugs to consumers in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A; Herzberg, David

    2010-05-01

    Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the twentieth century. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices.

  6. Women and political struggles: achievements and limitations lived in the second half of twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Fernandes de Carvalhaes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the twentieth century was a period marked by important achievements and setbacks in the struggle for women's rights field. This study mapped out and described part of speeches, images and movements undertaken in that historical period and its effects on people's lives. Adopting a perspective of historical and theoretical analysis, the description looked up, first, the struggles carried out in some countries of Europe and the United States, highlighting its main challenges and difficulties. Then, the struggles undertaken are mapped in Brazil, with the analysis axis facing women inequality. Finally, it is considered that the political struggles carried out in the analyzed period had as greatest merits the disruption and exploitation of gender boundaries.

  7. The Establishment of a Car-Based Leisure Regime in Twentieth Century Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassamagnaghi, Silvia; Moretto, Giovanni; Wagner, Michael

    Comparative analysis of tourism and of its development in three different countries – Denmark, Italy and Soviet Union – has revealed the importance of the car as the keystone for changes in the habits of leisure time consumption all over in Europe. Even considering the specific features (social......, economic and political) of each country, and the different decades in which this phenomenon has occurred, “individual” travel and stay has become, in Twentieth Century, the characteristics of dominance over other forms of organized and “collective” tourism. “Gentlemen, we do not make this tour to drive. We...... wishes. A better mobility created also a new situation about Italian tourism national demand, transforming – sometimes radically – the landscape and the Italian “hospitality industry”, in order to satisfy the needs of a “democratic” holiday. The Soviet State-Party had carefully considered what...

  8. Thomson, his discovery of the electron and the twentieth century science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    1997-01-01

    Sir J. J. Thomson was the first to discover a subatomic particle i. e. electron. Due to this discovery he is remembered in the history as T he Atom Smasher . He was a great experimentalists and a devoted physicist. He himself, his son and his seven pupils earned Noble prizes on the basis of their scientific discoveries. The discovery of electron by Sir Thomson in 1897, at Cavendish Laboratory, has rewritten the entire physical science. Although electron has wide spread applications in almost every field, yet its exact nature is not fully known. This article briefly describes the life of Sir Thomson, his achievements and the impact of his discovery of electron on the twentieth century science and technology. (author)

  9. Intellectual disability, mental illness and offending behaviour: forensic cases from early twentieth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2010-09-01

    The history of institutional care for individuals with intellectual disability is under-researched, complex and troubling. To explore the experiences of women who may have had intellectual disability and/or mental illness and were admitted to forensic psychiatric care in early twentieth-century Ireland. All female case records at the Central Mental Hospital, Dublin from 1910 to 1948 (n = 42) were studied for evidence of possible intellectual disability and a series of five cases is presented in detail. These committals occurred in the context of adverse social conditions, over-crowding in asylums and a belief that rates of mental illness were rising. Particular challenges included diagnostic issues (especially in relation to intellectual disability), adjustment to asylum environments, mental illness and physical ill-health. The institutional experiences of individuals with intellectual disability represents an important area for further historical research, using larger and more varied forensic populations.

  10. Léon Rosenfeld physics, philosophy, and politics in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsen, Anja Skaar

    2012-01-01

    This book is a social-intellectual biography of the Belgian physicist Léon Rosenfeld (1904-1974). Rosenfeld was at the center of modern theoretical physics and he became the Danish physicist Niels Bohr's right-hand man. Rosenfeld was a perceptive, polyglot cosmopolitan, whose life crossed those of many important people in many countries. He was also a strong integrated personality capable of performing exotic calculations at one moment, while disentangling subtle philosophical questions or intervening in a political discussion the next — all at the highest level. This book aims at a broad audience interested in contextual history of twentieth century physics. No specialized knowledge of physics is required to read it.

  11. HIDDEN in PLAIN SIGHT Marketing Prescription Drugs to Consumers in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the twentieth century. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices. PMID:20299640

  12. Alfred Owre: revisiting the thought of a distinguished, though controversial, early twentieth-century dental educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2013-08-01

    Many in dental education are unfamiliar with the professional life and thought of Dr. Alfred Owre, a distinguished though controversial dental educator in the early twentieth century. Owre served as dean of dentistry at both the University of Minnesota, 1905-27, and Columbia University, 1927-33. He was also a member of the Carnegie Foundation's commission that developed the report Dental Education in the United States and Canada, written by Dr. William J. Gies. Owre was a controversial leader due to his creative and original ideas that challenged dental education and the profession. His assessment and critique of the problems of dental education in his era can readily be applied to contemporary dental education and the profession, just as his vision for transformative change resonates with ideas that continue to be advocated by some individuals today. This article also documents his tumultuous relationship with Gies.

  13. Market Research and Socio-Political Consciousness in the Twentieth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    of marketing as a professional field and academic discipline in the twentieth century. Design/methodology/approach – Based on archival research, the paper firstly establishes the biographical details of Abrams’ life and work. Secondly, the paper uses methodological and theoretical tools of historical sociology......Purpose – This paper investigates the case of the eminent British market researcher and social scientist Mark Alexander Abrams (1906 – 1994). Abrams’ career as a researcher spanned the six decades between the late 1920s and the late 1980s, and it bridged the gap between commercial market...... and consumer research on the one side and governmental social research on the other. By focusing on Abrams’ research strategies and career moves over these six decades, the paper establishes an alternative historical narrative to those that privilege the impact of capitalist market structures on the making...

  14. Taming the unknown a history of algebra from antiquity to the early twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    What is algebra? For some, it is an abstract language of x's and y's. For mathematics majors and professional mathematicians, it is a world of axiomatically defined constructs like groups, rings, and fields. Taming the Unknown considers how these two seemingly different types of algebra evolved and how they relate. Victor Katz and Karen Parshall explore the history of algebra, from its roots in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China, and India, through its development in the medieval Islamic world and medieval and early modern Europe, to its modern form in the early twentieth century. Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further dev...

  15. Twentieth century North Atlantic climate change. Part II: Understanding the effect of Indian Ocean warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerling, M.P.; Xu, T.; Bates, G.T. [Climate Diagnostics Center NOAA, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Hurrell, J.W.; Phillips, A.S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Ensembles of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments are used in an effort to understand the boreal winter Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropical climate response to the observed warming of tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the last half of the twentieth Century. Specifically, we inquire about the origins of unusual, if not unprecedented, changes in the wintertime North Atlantic and European climate that are well described by a linear trend in most indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The simulated NH atmospheric response to the linear trend component of tropic-wide SST change since 1950 projects strongly onto the positive polarity of the NAO and is a hemispheric pattern distinguished by decreased (increased) Arctic (middle latitude) sea level pressure. Progressive warming of the Indian Ocean is the principal contributor to this wintertime extratropical response, as shown through additional AGCM ensembles forced with only the SST trend in that sector. The Indian Ocean influence is further established through the reproducibility of results across three different models forced with identical, idealized patterns of the observed warming. Examination of the transient atmospheric adjustment to a sudden ''switch-on'' of an Indian Ocean SST anomaly reveals that the North Atlantic response is not consistent with linear theory and most likely involves synoptic eddy feedbacks associated with changes in the North Atlantic storm track. The tropical SST control exerted over twentieth century regional climate underlies the importance of determining the future course of tropical SST for regional climate change and its uncertainty. Better understanding of the extratropical responses to different, plausible trajectories of the tropical oceans is key to such efforts. (orig.)

  16. From Bureaucracy to Professionalism: An Essay on the Democratization of School Supervision in the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    In the early twentieth century, supervisors began to move toward increasing professionalism in their positions. In the late nineteenth century, supervision was characterized by bureaucratic methods in a centralized school management system. Research reveals that after the turn of the century, there was a concerted effort by supervisors to…

  17. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  18. The creation of play spaces in twentieth-century Amsterdam: from an intervention of civil actors to a public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstrate, L.; Karsten, L.

    2011-01-01

    This case study uncovers a turning point in the production of play space in Amsterdam. Whereas over the first half of the twentieth century the creation of play spaces used to be the primary responsibility of the Amsterdam civil society, this situation started to change after the Second World War.

  19. "Strong Mothers Make Strong Children": Sports, Eugenics and Nationalism in Brazil at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goellner, Silvana Vilodre; Votre, Sebastiao Josue; Pinheiro, Maria Claudia Brandao

    2012-01-01

    Based on post-structural feminist and gender studies, the present article analyses the importance given to the practice of physical education, sports and exercise as part of the national policy to strengthen the Caucasian-Brazilian population at the beginning of the twentieth century, emphasising the priority made of the White female body as the…

  20. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  1. Reading to the Soul: Narrative Imagery and Moral Education in Early to Mid-Twentieth-Century Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which narratives, including stories and poetry, have been used in school texts relating to moral instruction. The paper will draw on texts used in Queensland classrooms in the early part of the twentieth century to demonstrate the ways in which description of sights and the experiences of the senses, and of…

  2. Latin American social medicine across borders: South-South cooperation and the making of health solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Muntaner, Carles

    2018-02-22

    Latin American social medicine efforts are typically understood as national endeavours, involving health workers, policymakers, academics, social movements, unions, and left-wing political parties, among other domestic actors. But Latin America's social medicine trajectory has also encompassed considerable between-country solidarity, building on early twentieth century interchanges among a range of players who shared approaches for improving living and working conditions and instituting protective social policies. Since the 1960s, Cuba's country-to-country solidarity has stood out, comprising medic exchanges, training, and other forms of support for the health and social struggles of oppressed peoples throughout Latin America and around the world, recently via Misión Barrio Adentro in Venezuela. These efforts strive for social justice-oriented health cooperation based on horizontal power relations, shared political values, a commitment to social and economic redistribution, bona fide equity, and an understanding of the societal determination of health that includes, but goes well beyond, public health and medical care. With Latin America's left-wing surge now receding, this article traces the provenance, dynamics, impact, challenges, and legacy of health solidarity across Latin American borders and its prospects for continuity.

  3. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2017-05-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  4. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871-2012 period built on the NOAA Twentieth Century global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late nineteenth century onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the Safran high-resolution near-surface reanalysis, available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogue dates over the 1871-2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping the structure of the SANDHY method unchanged while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the analogues closest to the target calendar day. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale 2 m temperature (T). Comparisons to the Safran reanalysis over 1959-2007 and to homogenized series over the whole twentieth century show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily applicable method suitable in

  5. "For ever and ever": Child-raising, domestic workers and emotional labour in twentieth century Britain

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    Lucy Delap

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of physical and emotional labour which exist between children, parents and domestic workers are historically fluid. Different styles of parenting, discourses of social class, and material contexts of care have given rise to very diverse degrees of delegation of childcare to servants. Servants themselves have often invested emotionally in their relationships with children, and the relationship has clearly not been simply commodified in being delegated. However, the relationships that result have sometimes been troubled and ambivalent. A simple narrative of exploitation does little to capture the experiences of servants who cared for children, and the recent historiography of emotions and emotional labour can help to trace a fuller picture. In this paper, I examine the roles of laughter as a form of emotional expression that can shed light on the affects of care – the shared jokes, failed jokes and forms of mockery that characterised the management of servants by mothers who employed them, or the experiences of servants and children in late nineteenth and twentieth century servant-keeping houses.

  6. Twentieth-Century Hydrometeorological Reconstructions to Study the Multidecadal Variations of the Water Cycle Over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, R.; Boé, J.; Dayon, G.; Martin, E.

    2017-10-01

    Characterizing and understanding the multidecadal variations of the continental hydrological cycle is a challenging issue given the limitation of observed data sets. In this paper, a new approach to derive twentieth century hydrological reconstructions over France with an hydrological model is presented. The method combines the results of long-term atmospheric reanalyses downscaled with a stochastic statistical method and homogenized station observations to derive the meteorological forcing needed for hydrological modeling. Different methodological choices are tested and evaluated. We show that using homogenized observations to constrain the results of statistical downscaling help to improve the reproduction of precipitation, temperature, and river flows variability. In particular, it corrects some unrealistic long-term trends associated with the atmospheric reanalyses. Observationally constrained reconstructions therefore constitute a valuable data set to study the multidecadal hydrological variations over France. Thanks to these reconstructions, we confirm that the multidecadal variations previously noted in French river flows have mainly a climatic origin. Moreover, we show that multidecadal variations exist in other hydrological variables (evapotranspiration, snow cover, and soil moisture). Depending on the region, the persistence from spring to summer of soil moisture or snow anomalies generated during spring by temperature and precipitation variations may explain river flows variations in summer, when no concomitant climate variations exist.

  7. Ninety-Eight Atheists: Atheism among the Non-Elite in Twentieth Century Britain

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    Matt Sheard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread atheism in the general population is one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century British society, yet until very recently, it has largely been unregarded by historians. This study attempts to contribute to the remedy of this omission by considering autobiographies and oral histories of non-elite atheists between 1890 and 1980. It shows that atheisation (the transition from religious belief to atheism is principally a phenomenon of childhood and adolescence, with 80% of the sources becoming atheist by the age of twenty. The reasons the subjects gave for their irreligion were varied, of greatest significance were nearly two thirds who regarded religion as irrelevant to their lives, showing a lack of engagement with religion, its concepts and rituals. Many of these were from weakly religious or irreligious backgrounds who experienced ‘irreligious socialisation’, rendering religion irrelevant and contributed significantly to the progress of atheisation. Religious trauma, criticism of religion, personal trauma, radical politics, and rationalism accounted for similar proportions of reasons, and were mentioned by only 12–18% of sources. The potential influence of parental attitude to religion, other childhood experiences, religious education, reducing existential threat, historic events, and the social revolution of the 1960s are also considered as ‘unarticulated causes’ of the subjects’ irreligion.

  8. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century

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    Bijoy MUKHERJEE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937, in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today.

  9. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

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    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth rate figures in the 1960s, the populists’ views of the 1930s resurfaced in public discourse in the 1960s and 1970s and up to the present day. The concern about the increasing trend of single-child families in rural settlements as well as in urban areas appeared in the various works of Hungarian writers and journalists throughout the previous century. The present paper intends to focus on the intellectual background to the public debates on the population issue, outlining the accounts of the interwar ‘village explorers’ briefly, and the way they are related to the pre-Second World War populist movement. Finally the reappearance of the debates between populists and non-populists of the 1970s is discussed, a debate that is still continuing.

  10. Theory versus Practice in the Twentieth-Century Search for the Ideal Anaesthetic Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Ian D

    2016-02-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, an anaesthetist could choose between nitrous oxide, chloroform, and ether (diethyl ether) for the induction of painrelieving unconsciousness. By the end of century, the choice was between a small number of fluorinated aliphatic ethers such as Enflurane, Desflurane, and Sevoflurane, and (in some jurisdictions) the rare gas, xenon. Between these endpoints researchers had identified a surprisingly broad range of hydrocarbons, noble gases, organohalogens, and aliphatic ethers that possessed anaesthetic properties. None was entirely satisfactory, but clinicians at various times and in various places employed substances in each of these categories. Behind the search for new anaesthetic gases was a theory of action (Meyer- Overton theory) that was known to be inadequate, but as no alternative was strong enough to displace it the search continued on purely empirical grounds, while lip-service was paid to the theory. By the time a theory couched in more modern terms was proposed, a suite of modern anaesthetic gases was in place, and there have been no attempts to use that theory to drive a new search.

  11. Communal Cattle in Mixteca Alta: From Colonial Times to the Twentieth Century. The Case of Tepelmeme

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    Edgar Mendoza García

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an analysis of the political  and economic factors than allowed the keeping of a herd of goats as communal property from the  república de indios of the colonial period until municipal administrations at the beginning of the twentieth century  in the region called the Mixteca Alta. The case of Tepelmeme, Oaxaca, is the basis of an account of the economic importance of communal property in the local governments of villages and  municipios, as well of the opposition of villages to liberal laws of the nineteenth century. In short, during the colonial period and part of the nineteenth century,  communal property was the main economic support of Indian villages. Not only was this property equivalent to communal  savings kept  for  critical  moments, but  also  an  economic means  that  allowed financing public  administration and  paying for religious services. Moreover, it was a factor that gave cohesion to these villages and inserted them into a regional economy.

  12. The Representation of Jews in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Hungarian Proverb Collections

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    Ilana Rosen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs are concise formulations of folk wisdom and as such, when seen in masses, they may well express the spirit of their time and place. In Hungarian proverbial lore Jews figure prominently in nineteenth-century proverb collections but fade out of such collections as of the mid-twentieth century. In the nineteenth-century proverb collections Jews are invariably portrayed as faithless, dishonest, greedy, physically weak and unattractive. Largely, this portrayal as well as the dynamics of the earlier presence of Jews versus their later disappearance from Hungarian proverb collections match the shared history of Hungarians and Hungarian Jews since the 1867 Emancipation of the country's Jews and possibly even earlier, through their growing integration in significant arenas of their host society, up to their persecution and annihilation in the Holocaust, and later their decade long forced merging into the general Hungarian society under communism. This article traces the occurrence and disappearance of Jews in Hungarian proverb collections throughout the last two centuries and analyzes the language, content and messages of the proverbs about Jews in these collections.

  13. Creeping, drinking, dying: the cinematic portal and the microscopic world of the twentieth-century cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landecker, Hannah

    2011-09-01

    Film scholars have long posed the question of the specificity of the film medium and the apparatus of cinema, asking what is unique to cinema, how it constrains and enables filmmakers and audiences in particular ways that other media do not. This question has rarely been considered in relation to scientific film, and here it is posed within the specific context of cell biology: What does the use oftime-based media such as film coupled with the microscope allow scientists to experience that other visualization practices do not? Examining three episodes in the twentieth-century study of the cell, this article argues that the apparatus ofmicrocinematography constitutes what might be thought of as a technical portal to another world, a door that determines the experience of the world that lies on the other side of it. In this case, the design of apparatuses to capture time-lapsed images enabled the acceleration of cellular time, bringing it into the realm of human perception and experience. Further, the experience of the cellular temporal world was part of a distinct kind of cell biology, one that was focused on behavior rather than structure, focused on the relation between cells, and between the cell and its milieu rather than on cell-intrinsic features such as chromosomes or organelles. As such, the instruments and technical design of the microcinematographic apparatus may be understood as a kind of materialized epistemology, the history of which can elucidate how cinema was and is used to produce scientific knowledge.

  14. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Historical occurrence and extinction of Atlantic salmon in the River Elbe from the fourteenth to the twentieth centuries

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    Andreska J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on the occurrence, biology, and historical background of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., (Pisces, Salmoniformes in the Elbe river basin (Europe, North Sea drainage area with a focus on Bohemian territory (Central Europe from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries are summarized in this paper. Historical methods of salmon fishing in Central Europe and historical legal protection of salmon in Bohemia are presented. The salmon is a model example of species which was extirpated as a result of anthropogenic changes in the landscape and rivers in some water systems. The human activities, such as stream bed regulation, dam system construction, other migration barriers, water pollution, fisheries exploitation, that led to the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Elbe river basin (are discussed. The last sporadic migrating native salmon were registered in the Bohemian section of the Elbe river basin in the mid twentieth century.

  16. Writing History of Buddhist Thought in the Twentieth Century: Yinshun (1906-2005 in the Context of Chinese Buddhist Historiography

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    Marcus Bingenheimer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Venerable Yinshun 印 順 (1906–2005 was the eminent scholar-monk in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. This paper is about his historiographical practice and tries to outline his position in Chinese Buddhist historiography especially in reference to the Song dynasty historian Zhipan 志磐 (thirteenth century. It tries to answer the question in what ways Yinshun can be said to have modernized Buddhist historiography for Chinese Buddhism.

  17. Speeches and political practices towards infancy in the province of Buenos Aires. Girls and boys in the early twentieth century

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    Yolanda de Paz Trueba

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concern that abandoned and vulnerable children represented for governmental and intellectual elites in Argentina in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this paper analyses the vicissitudes around installation of a Patronato de Menores in the province of Buenos Aires. The article pays special attention to the relationship between budgetary issues and the political dimension, which colored parliamentary debate. I maintain that political centralization and the question of municipal autonomy crossed over into the debate surrounding children.

  18. Twentieth-century global-mean sea level rise: Is the whole greater than the sum of the parts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J.M.; White, N.J.; Church, J.A.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Box, J.E.; Van den Broeke, M.R.; Cogley, J.G.; Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Leclercq, P.W.; Marzeion, B.; Oerlemans, J.; Tamisiea, M.E.; Wada, Y.; Wake, L.M.; Van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Confidence in projections of global-mean sea level rise (GMSLR) depends on an ability to account for GMSLR during the twentieth century. There are contributions from ocean thermal expansion, mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets, groundwater extraction, and reservoir impoundment. Progress has been made toward solving the “enigma” of twentieth-century GMSLR, which is that the observed GMSLR has previously been found to exceed the sum of estimated contributions, especially for the earlier decades. The authors propose the following: thermal expansion simulated by climate models may previously have been underestimated because of their not including volcanic forcing in their control state; the rate of glacier mass loss was larger than previously estimated and was not smaller in the first half than in the second half of the century; the Greenland ice sheet could have made a positive contribution throughout the century; and groundwater depletion and reservoir impoundment, which are of opposite sign, may have been approximately equal in magnitude. It is possible to reconstruct the time series of GMSLR from the quantified contributions, apart from a constant residual term, which is small enough to be explained as a long-term contribution from the Antarctic ice sheet. The reconstructions account for the observation that the rate of GMSLR was not much larger during the last 50 years than during the twentieth century as a whole, despite the increasing anthropogenic forcing. Semiempirical methods for projecting GMSLR depend on the existence of a relationship between global climate change and the rate of GMSLR, but the implication of the authors' closure of the budget is that such a relationship is weak or absent during the twentieth century.

  19. Contributions to a genealogy of democracy in the twentieth century starting from the opposition Kelsen/Schmitt.

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    Andrés Fortunato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work I analyze the theories of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen of democracy in the light of the weberian topic of rationalization. My thesis is that this counterpoint does not escape the contemporary split that characterizes the nineteenth century modernity and continues in the twentieth century. At last, I’ll maintain that the political manifestation of this aporeticalbackground –over which one must understand the challenge of democracy– is what Schmitt calls the total State.

  20. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  1. Attitude of ukrainian left Galicia institutions to church and religion (late nineteenth century – the first third of the twentieth century

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    I. I. Begej

    2015-05-01

    Nevertheless, sometimes, frankly erroneous judgment, theoretical and practical heritage activities Ukrainian Galicia from the left end of the XIX i in the first third of the twentieth century church religious sphere remain valid and instructive.

  2. Potentially induced earthquakes during the early twentieth century in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence that early to mid‐twentieth‐century earthquakes in Oklahoma and Texas were likely induced by fossil fuel production and/or injection of wastewater (Hough and Page, 2015; Frohlich et al., 2016). Considering seismicity from 1935 onward, Hauksson et al. (2015) concluded that there is no evidence for significant induced activity in the greater Los Angeles region between 1935 and the present. To explore a possible association between earthquakes prior to 1935 and oil and gas production, we first revisit the historical catalog and then review contemporary oil industry activities. Although early industry activities did not induce large numbers of earthquakes, we present evidence for an association between the initial oil boom in the greater Los Angeles area and earthquakes between 1915 and 1932, including the damaging 22 June 1920 Inglewood and 8 July 1929 Whittier earthquakes. We further consider whether the 1933 Mw 6.4 Long Beach earthquake might have been induced, and show some evidence that points to a causative relationship between the earthquake and activities in the Huntington Beach oil field. The hypothesis that the Long Beach earthquake was either induced or triggered by an foreshock cannot be ruled out. Our results suggest that significant earthquakes in southern California during the early twentieth century might have been associated with industry practices that are no longer employed (i.e., production without water reinjection), and do not necessarily imply a high likelihood of induced earthquakes at the present time.

  3. The Diversity of Cloud Responses to Twentieth-Century Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L. G.; Paynter, D.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of the global temperature response to forcing. Previous work has shown strong connections between cloud feedbacks and climate change, and between these feedbacks and changing patterns of surface temperature. We show that strong variability of the climate feedback parameter is present in three GFDL atmospheric general circulation models (AM2.1, AM3, AM4) over the twentieth century. This variability is highly correlated with the global mean cloud radiative effect (CRE) and low-cloud cover (LCC) anomalies. The decadal variability is characterized by a period of high climate sensitivity (1925-1955) and a period of low climate sensitivity (1975-2005). Observed trends of surface temperature also show distinct differences over these two periods. Although it is the SST that drives the atmospheric response, the estimated inversion strength (EIS) is necessary to reproduce the changing LCC field. During both periods, trends of EIS are shown to closely mirror trends of LCC over much of the globe, not only in the typical stratocumulus regions. Trends of the shortwave CRE (SWCRE), LCC, and the EIS are analyzed in particular geographic regions. All of these regions show a consistent relationship between LCC, SWCRE, and EIS, as well as significant differences between the two time periods. This study uses a 15 member ensemble of amip-piForcing simulations from 1870 -2005. These experiments are driven by observed SST patterns and hold greenhouse gases and other atmospheric forcing agents fixed at constant pre-industrial levels. This allows for a clean analysis of how clouds respond to changing patterns of SST and the resulting influence on the climate feedback parameter. The cloudy response of the atmosphere to changing SST patterns is critical in driving the variability of the climate feedback parameter during periods of both high and low climate sensitivity.

  4. Radioactivity in the twentieth century and some of its implications for the third millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, Anselmo S.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity has always been present in the Earth, as well in the Universe at large. However, the discovery of the phenomenon of radioactivity occurred just over 100 years ago. It is well known today that nuclear processes are directly related to the nucleosynthesis in starts. As a matter of fact, all types of nuclear reactions, like fission and captures, occur in stars at different stages of stellar evolution. The sequence of episodes that took place between 1896 and 1898, involving Henry Becquerel, and Marie and Pierre Curie, led to the discover of the phenomena that would greatly influence the twentieth century. It took, however, until 1939 for the phenomenon of fission to be explained by Otto Frish and Lise Meitner, based on experimental results obtained earlier by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman. Aware of the potential military implications of fission Leo Szilard exhorted Albert Einstein to write a letter to the President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Such letter is regarded as the initial step of the mammoth Manhattan Project to build the first nuclear weapons. The aftermath of nuclear attacks to Japan, at the end of the Second World War, created dramatic changes in the relations among the nations. The escalation of the nuclear arsenals throughout the world created peculiar and secretive that, by and large, produced wastes of many kinds and a variety of radioactive concentrations which were held by the governments and/or the military industries themselves. The paper will discuss some possible international cooperative efforts to reduce some of the deleterious implications for the third millennium of the inheritance left behind by the military nuclear programs. (author)

  5. Metal Construction Toys of the Early Twentieth Century: Their Astronomical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    During the early twentieth century several toy manufacturers around the globe introduced construction toys in the form of sets of metal parts which could be assembled into a variety of models. The two most successful were the Erector Set, introduced in the United States by A.C. Gilbert in 1913, and the Meccano Set, patented in 1901 in England by Frank Hornby. Whereas the Erector Set never developed beyond being a child's toy, Hornby envisioned his Meccano system as providing a way to teach principles of mechanical engineering to young schoolboys. Indeed, his sets were first marketed under the name "Mechanics Made Easy", and were endorsed by Dr. H.S. Hele-Shaw, Head of the Engineering Department at Liverpool University. Popularity of the new Meccano sets spread throughout the world, spawning the formation of numerous amateur societies composed of adolescent boys and an increasing number of adult hobbyists. The variety of parts increased during the first third of the century, and increasingly sophisticated models were constructed and exhibited in competitive events. Among these were several clocks of remarkable accuracy, and at least one equatorial mounting for a small astronomical telescope. At the same time, many university science and engineering departments found these interchangeable metal parts invaluable in the construction of experimental apparatus. In 1934 a small-scale replica of Vannevar Bush's Differential Analyzer was constructed at the University of Manchester, and used for many years to perform mathematical computations. The introduction in 1928 of a flanged ring with 73 (a sub-multiple of 365) teeth allowed for construction of accurate orreries and astronomical clocks. The most remarkable of these was the Astronomical Clock constructed in the period 1924-1932 by M. Alexandre Rahm of Paris.

  6. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes

  7. Vagabond Figures in Slovenian Visual Art and Literature at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

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    Robert Simonišek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between visual and literary motifs in Slovenian painting (and illustration, graphics, and drawing and literature (both prose and poetry at the beginning of the twentieth century. It uses examples to show the popularity and rich variety of vagabond figures and their transformations and reciprocity at the level of the painting/text. However, a distinctive feature of this article is that it places the subject within the context of hermeneutics, a method that has not been used in Slovenian art history. In addition, it also reveals the symbolic complexity of the vagabond figure in the context of writers, other works, and social-historical circumstances. The emphasis is placed on artists that showed enthusiasm for this figure as a subject during the Belle Époque and also those that followed the very popular bohemian lifestyle in their everyday lives. The reception of Slovenian folk and traditional motifs from the past produced visual and semantic oscillation in which the phenomena of vagabond figures were systematized and interpreted. Many painters (e.g., Gvidon Birolla, and Maksim Gaspari and writers (e.g., Oton Župančič, Cvetko Golar, and Ivan Cankar clung to the Slovenian tradition with romantic overtones and, in line with their artistic atmosphere, integrated vagabond figures into typical Slovenian landscapes or environments. Some of them followed Symbolism and modernized the figures with autobiographical references (e.g., Fran Tratnik. The situation among the youngest generation of artists in particular showed that they managed to “escape” from copying traditional motifs and instead used them in a modern form in the “here and now” (e.g., Ivan Cankar. The discrepancy between the lack of the vagabond theme in oil painting and strong diversification in illustration, drawing, graphics, and literature could be explained by consumers’ perceived difference between “high” and “popular” art.

  8. Native Sons: A Critical Study of Twentieth-Century Negro American Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Edward

    This analysis of 20th-century Negro literature contains chapters discussing 16 authors: (1) "The First Forty Years: 1900-1940," including W. E. B. DuBois, Charles W. Chesnutt, James W. Johnson, Paul L. Dunbar, Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, Claude McKay, and Countee Cullen; (2) "Migration: William Attaway and 'Blood on the Forge'"; (3) "Richard…

  9. American Gadgets: Cybernetics, Consumer Electronics, and Twentieth-Century US Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Challenging the argument that liberal humanism faces extinction in the face of ubiquitous digital technologies, my dissertation analyzes the ways in which consumer electronics reinscribe the human subject as a privileged category in the information age. Through spaces like the Matrix, Windows 7, or even the single row of play controls on a…

  10. X-rays of inner worlds: the mid-twentieth-century American projective test movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This essay begins to tell the neglected history of the projective test movement in the U.S. behavioral sciences from approximately 1941 to 1968. This cross-disciplinary enterprise attempted to use projective techniques as "X-ray" machines to see into the psyches of subjects tested around the world. The aim was to gather subjective materials en masse, pursuing data on a scope, scale, and manner rarely hazarded before in any science. In particular, the targeted data included the traces of the inner life and elusive aspects of subjective experience including dreams, life stories, and myriad test results from a battery of tests. This essay explores how the movement and the experimental data bank that resulted were unlikely yet telling sites for the practice and pursuit of the Cold War human sciences. To look closely at the encounters that resulted is to show how the most out-of-the-way places and seemingly insignificant moments played a role in heady scientific ambitions and global geopolitical projects. At times, the projective test movement became a mirror of Cold War rationality itself, as tests were employed at the very limits of their possible extension. The essay argues for an off-kilter centrality in the movement itself, shedding light on the would-be unified social sciences after World War II and the "subjective turn" they took. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. If All the World Were Chicago: American Education in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Marvin

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of issues as they relate to the city of Chicago during the late 19th and early 20th centuries are examined: race and the liberal agenda, the role of academics in public policy, the organization of teachers, and the ambiguities of progressive policy. (RM)

  12. The Rise and Fall of Modern American Childhood in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Three factors central to the development of modern attitudes toward childhood are awareness that children and adults differ, the definition of women's primary role as maternal, and the increasingly complex demands made on adults. The combined pressures of feminism and the accessibility of broadcast media are changing these factors significantly.…

  13. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the 'people's pathologist', Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury's courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury's findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, 'celebrity' pathologist, his scalpel and the mortuary

  14. Balkans as a cultural symbol in the Serbian music of the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on the internalization of Western images in the Balkans has special significance in researching Serbian art. The functioning of Balkanism as it overlapped and intersected with Orientalism is indicated in the text by an examination of the cases of Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević and Josip Slavenski, the three significant composers working in Serbia during the first half of the twentieth century. Their modernistic projects present different metaphors of the Balkans. Nevertheless each of them is marked by desire to change the Balkan image into a 'positive' one and thus stands as a special voice for Serbian and regional placing in European competition for musical spaces.

  15. [The medical, social and institutional challenges resulting from poliomyelitis: comprehensive rehabilitation in Argentina in the mid-twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis on an epidemic scale gave rise to several challenges, one of which was the rehabilitation from the after-effects on many of the people who suffered from the disease. Paralysis and the ways it transformed the concept of physical rehabilitation (where the objective was only to restore the mobility of the affected muscles) and comprehensive rehabilitation that included social, educational and professional aspects in Argentina in the mid-twentieth century are the themes addressed in this article. It uses the methodology of institutional history that interacts in an ongoing manner with the history of health and disease.

  16. The restructuring of the Argentina Navy between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Soprano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a policy of national defense and internal security in democracy, created conditions to advance in the process of restructuring of the Argentina Navy, introducing changes in its organization and functions. In this article we will focus this process analyzing, on the one hand, the relationship between the definitions of defense policy and the configuration of naval military instrument between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century; and, on the other hand, understanding their development in the case of two components of the force: the marine corps and the division of maritime patrol.

  17. Salamanca’s theater and musical activity in the first quarter of twentieth century through the local press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Álvarez García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The theaters at the beginning of twentieth century are one of the main focuses in which condenses the musician-artistic activity of small and large Spanish cities. Salamanca could not be less and in the three capitals theaters “Liceo”, “Bretón” and “Moderno” we find a very rich musical activity like Zarzuelas, Concerts, Lyric Theatre, Tunas, etc., which will make to Salamanca the most important center of the music scene in the province until almost the Second Spanish Republic.

  18. The Role of Degeneration Theory in the Understanding of Mental Illness, Colombia First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Vásquez Valencia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on medical journals and theses from the first half of the twentieth century, this article analyzes the role played by the theory of degeneration in the understanding of mental illness in Colombia. It is particularly interesting to show how Colombian physicians have appropriated concepts such as degeneration, diathesis, morbid heredity and stigmas of degeneration since the early 20th century to describe, classify and define mental illnesses present in Colombian territory. During this period the theory of degeneration served as the conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding the etiology, genesis and evolution of mental illness.

  19. The losting memory and the mourning writing in two Portuguese novels of the second half of twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Kirst de Lima Girola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to analyze how is the writing of the mourning in two Portuguese novels, A Sibila (1954 by Agustina Bessa-Luís and Não entres tão depressa nessa noite escura (2000 by António Lobo Antunes. These novels have different literary styles and were published in different moments in the second half of the twentieth century, but both use the memory as an important resource for telling about traumatic events in the life of those characters who responsible for the writing.

  20. The other woman and her child: extra-marital affairs and illegitimacy in twentieth-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya Evans

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the numbers of 'other women' and their children up until the 1960s in Britain. It analyses 'irregular and illicit unions' in the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and her Child (now One Parent Families/Gingerbread), and explores evidence on these unions in the debates over the passage of the Divorce Acts of 1923 and 1937 as well as the Legitimacy Acts of 1926 and 1959. It suggests that the prevalence of illicit unions throughout the twentieth century and before allows us to question contemporary concerns about our supposed 'divorcing society' and the decline of family life in modern Britain.

  1. A historical perspective on the development of modern concepts of tissue perfusion: prehistory to the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nathan; Squiers, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    The historical development of the concept of perfusion is traced, with particular focus on the development of the modern clinical concepts of perfusion through the fields of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. This article reviews many of the significant contributors to the changing ideas of perfusion up through the twentieth century that have influenced the modern physiologic circulatory and metabolic models. The developments outlined have provided the modern model of perfusion, linking the cardiopulmonary circulation, tissue oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production, food intake, tissue waste production and elimination, and ultimately the production and utilization of ATP in the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    considered to correct monthly precipitation and temperature time series. The first one applies two new analogy steps, using the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale two-meter temperature. The second method is a calendar selection that keeps the closest analogue dates in the year for each target date. A sensitivity study has been performed to assess the final number of analogues dates to retain for each method. A comparison to Safran over 1958-2010 shows that biases on the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are strongly reduced with both methods. Using two supplementary analogy levels moreover leads to a large improvement of correlation in seasonal temperature time series. These two methods have also been validated before 1958 thanks to both raw observations and homogenized time series. The two post-processing methods come with some advantages and drawbacks. The calendar selection allows to slightly better correct for seasonal biases in precipitation and is therefore adapted in a forecasting context. The selection with two supplementary analogy levels would allow for possible season shifts and SST trends and is therefore better suited for climate reconstruction and climate change studies. Compo, G. P. et al. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137:1-28. doi: 10.1002/qj.776 Radanovics, S., Vidal, J.-P., Sauquet, E., Ben Daoud, A., and Bontron, G. (2013). Optimising predictor domains for spatially coherent precipitation downscaling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17:4189-4208. doi:10.5194/hess-17-4189-2013 Vidal, J.-P ., Martin, E., Franchistéguy, L., Baillon, M., and Soubeyroux, J.-M. (2010). A 50-year high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis over France with the Safran system. International Journal of Climatology, 30:1627-1644. doi:10.1002/joc.2003

  3. Working-Class Ideas and Experiences of Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Britain: Regionalism as a Category of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen

    2018-03-01

    This article will explore region as a category of analysis for understanding gender, sexual cultures, and the expression of same-sex desire. In unpicking the notion of regional difference in both its tangible and intangible forms, it outlines the corresponding impact on how sexual cultures developed and were experienced in twentieth-century Britain. By recognizing that the area in which an individual lived could have as much impact on their sense of self and their sexual experiences as issues of race, gender, and class, a new and fruitful avenue of interpretation is opened up for the history of sexuality and twentieth-century British history more broadly. Such a methodology has the potential to add a new dimension to all histories of non-state-sanctioned sexual experience such as illegitimacy, premarital sex, extramarital affairs, and prostitution. In using regional case studies and interrogating ideas of sexual taboo, this article offers a unique interpretation of sexual experience that destabilizes current London-centric narratives and offers a more democratic and nuanced history of sex.

  4. Has psychology "found its true path"? Methods, objectivity, and cries of "crisis" in early twentieth-century French psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how French psychologists understood the state of their field during the first quarter of the twentieth century, and whether they thought it was in crisis. The article begins with the Russian-born psychologist Nicolas Kostyleff and his announcement in 1911 that experimental psychology was facing a crisis. After briefly situating Kostyleff, the article examines his analysis of the troubles facing experimental psychology and his proposed solution, as well as the rather muted response his diagnosis received from the French psychological community. The optimism about the field evident in many of the accounts surveying French psychology during the early twentieth century notwithstanding, a few others did join Kostyleff in declaring that all was not well with experimental psychology. Together their pronouncements suggest that under the surface, important unresolved issues faced the French psychological community. Two are singled out: What was the proper methodology for psychology as a positive science? And what kinds of practices could claim to be objective, and in what sense? The article concludes by examining what these anxieties reveal about the type of science that French psychologists hoped to pursue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-year climate variability in the Southwestern United States within a context of a dynamically downscaled twentieth century reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carlos M.; Castro, Christopher L.; Chang, Hsin-I.; Luong, Thang M.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation evaluates whether there is coherency in warm and cool season precipitation at the low-frequency scale that may be responsible for multi-year droughts in the US Southwest. This low-frequency climate variability at the decadal scale and longer is studied within the context of a twentieth-century reanalysis (20CR) and its dynamically-downscaled version (DD-20CR). A spectral domain matrix methods technique (Multiple-Taper-Method Singular Value Decomposition) is applied to these datasets to identify statistically significant spatiotemporal precipitation patterns for the cool (November-April) and warm (July-August) seasons. The low-frequency variability in the 20CR is evaluated by exploring global to continental-scale spatiotemporal variability in moisture flux convergence (MFC) to the occurrence of multiyear droughts and pluvials in Central America, as this region has a demonstrated anti-phase relationship in low-frequency climate variability with northern Mexico and the southwestern US By using the MFC in lieu of precipitation, this study reveals that the 20CR is able to resolve well the low-frequency, multiyear climate variability. In the context of the DD-20CR, multiyear droughts and pluvials in the southwestern US (in the early twentieth century) are significantly related to this low-frequency climate variability. The precipitation anomalies at these low-frequency timescales are in phase between the cool and warm seasons, consistent with the concept of dual-season drought as has been suggested in tree ring studies.

  6. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  7. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New Research AADSM Highlights Members More news... Dental Sleep Medicine: An area of dental practice that focuses on ... SomnoMed Silver Sponsors Copyright © American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, All Rights Reserved. American Academy of Dental Sleep ...

  8. American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not trained in how to manage it. The American Board of Obesity Medicine certifies physicians looking to bridge this gap. ... an ABOM diplomate. APPLY NOW OUR MISSION The American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM) serves the public and the field ...

  9. Development of Accounting Theories Specific to the National Accounting Literature of the First Half of Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Damian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Need to identify plausible explanations of the principles underlying the double entry accountingover time determined by various manifestations of thought that have resulted in many theories. All thesetheories have proposed to explain and substantiate dopic formalism, but many of them no longer a valuetoday than a purely historical perspective. The representative of such theories has been many pages writtenRomanian and foreign authors in the first half of the twentieth century. Some Romanian authors mention theIoan E. Evian, D. Voina, CG Demetrescu, S. Iacobescu, Al. Sorescu, C. Pantu, C. Petrescu, Grigore-TrancuIaşi and others. Bibliography time accounting theories shared accounts: embryos of theories and scientifictheories.

  10. Conference Report: Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    the environment. Notably, IOs were central forums for negotiating and placing environmental protection on the international political agenda. It is widely assumed that 1972 – the year of the first UN conference on the human environment in Stockholm and of the publication of the Club of Rome report "Limits...... entrepreneurs, selecting, defining, diffusing and translating ideas about the environment in the course of the twentieth century? Secondly, which structural conditions facilitated – and at times inhibited – the diffusion or transfer of policy ideas? It can safely be assumed that the embedding of IOs in national...... and influential individuals – who transmitted and translated environmental ideas from the OECD Environment Committee in the early 1970s to the Brundtland Commission in the 1980s. The latter sought to overcome the apparent contradictions between developmental and environmental goals, advocating the notion...

  11. Winners, Socially Displaced and Cinderellas: Representations of Race and Social Climbing in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the study of articles published in Colombian magazines (particularly Cromos magazine in the second half of the twentieth century, this article proposes the analysis of some representations about upward mobility of black people. Consideration is given to the stories of some characters at different times: the judge Jose Antonio Camacho, the boxer Kid Pambelé, the model Laura Mosquera and the pianist Teresa Gómez. Although they emerged in different professional contexts, narratives about their paths have in common the emphasis on how the class representations articulated with the race and gender ones and were used to show the difficulty for a black person to be inserted in a social context different from the popular sectors, showing both their alleged incompatibility with the values of the middle class as well as the inability to fully integrate into a society dominated by whites.

  12. Italian news coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea; Pasquarè Mariotto, Federico

    2016-02-01

    This work uses a qualitative approach coupled with a quantitative software-based methodology to examine the Italian news media coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century. We analyze 80 news stories from two of the most influential Italian newspapers from that time: La Stampa (a daily newspaper) and La Domenica del Corriere (an Italian Sunday supplement). While much of previous research on media coverage of scientific topics was generally focused on present-day news, our work revolves around the ground-breaking discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the dawn of the last century. Our analysis aims to identify journalistic frames in the news coverage of radiation that journalists might have used to emphasize the benefits (or the risks) of the new discoveries. We also hypothesize how this kind of news coverage might have influenced public perception of technological, commercial, and public health applications of the new scientific advancements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Contributions to a historical review of biological anthropology in Brazil from the second half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verlan Valle Gaspar Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides a preliminary historical survey of Brazilian biological anthropology from the second half of the twentieth century. Even today, little historiographic information on the last 50 or 60 years is available and/or has been explored, while few allusions to bioanthropology can be found in existing works on the history and contemporary state of anthropology in Brazil; this article attempts to span this gap. The first section examines various aspects of the general development of biological anthropology as it radiated from the centers (Europe and the United States outward over time. This initial survey affords a clearer understanding of the Brazilian case, which is the topic of the second section. This is followed by a brief historical and bibliographic account of the most recent state of biological anthropology in the country, including a number of specialized areas of research. The article concludes with a short discussion of the material covered.

  14. Freedom to divorce or protection of marriage? The divorce laws in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouteillec, Nathalie; Bersbo, Zara; Festy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the period 1909-1927, new laws concerning divorce and marriage were enacted by the Scandinavian countries. Both at the time and more recently, these laws were considered as "liberal" as they promoted greater freedom to divorce based on individuality and gender equality. In this article, the authors first analyze the changes in these Family laws in the early twentieth century. Then, the authors study the effect of these laws on divorce and marriage patterns. As these laws did not modify the trend in divorce rates, the authors ask why this was the case. The authors' conclusions are that the laws were more concerned with preserving the sanctity of marriage and maintaining social order than with promoting individual freedom and gender equality.

  15. Planning ideology and geographic thought in the early twentieth century: Charles Whitnall's progressive era park designs for socialist Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lorne A

    2010-01-01

    As Milwaukee’s chief park planner in the early to mid-twentieth century, Charles Whitnall responded to the various underlying ideologies of the period within which he worked. His preference for parks was a political and physical response to and remedy for the industrialized and heavily congested city he called home. By examining the Progressive Era discourse associated with planning, this article situates Whitnall’s work within the political, aesthetic, and environmental contexts of geographic thought that influenced his plans for Milwaukee. In promoting a physical awareness associated with the natural features of the region and responding to the sociopolitical framework of contemporaries such as Ebenezer Howard, Whitnall incorporated a sense of compassion within his planning. He responded to the preexisting beer gardens of Pabst and Schlitz, as well as Olmsted-designed park spaces, by advocating for decentralization as part of a broader socialist agenda that had swept through Milwaukee during the early 1900s.

  16. Techniques for nothingness: Debate over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen in early-twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores a debate that took place in Japan in the early twentieth century over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen. The debate was among the first exchanges between psychology and Buddhism in Japan, and it cast doubt on previous assumptions that a clear boundary existed between the two fields. In the debate, we find that contemporaries readily incorporated ideas from psychology and Buddhism to reconstruct the experiences and concepts of hypnosis and Buddhist nothingness. The resulting new theories and techniques of nothingness were fruits of a fairly fluid boundary between the two fields. The debate, moreover, reveals that psychology tried to address the challenges and possibilities posed by religious introspective meditation and intuitive experiences in a positive way. In the end, however, psychology no longer regarded them as viable experimental or psychotherapeutic tools but merely as particular subjective experiences to be investigated and explained.

  17. Traveling with faith: the creation of women's immigrant aid associations in nineteenth and twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of French Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish women to morally, spiritually, and physically protect immigrant and migrant women and girls in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Women of faith worried about the dangers posed by the white slave trade, and they feared the loss of spiritual consciousness among women living far from their families and their places of worship. In response to these concerns, they developed numerous faith-based international organizations aimed at protecting vulnerable working-class immigrants. Upper-class women's work in immigrant aid societies allowed them to take on much greater social and religious leadership roles than they had in the past. Likewise, the intricate, international networks that these women developed contributed to the building of international cooperation throughout Europe.

  18. The limited effect of increasing educational attainment on childlessness trends in twentieth-century Europe, women born 1916–65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujouan, Eva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Zeman, Kryštof

    2016-01-01

    During the twentieth century, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population. Over time, childlessness levels of the medium-educated and high-educated became closer to those of the low-educated, but the difference in level between the two better educated groups remained stable in Western and Southern Europe and increased slightly in the East. PMID:27545484

  19. Crisis, change and creativity in science and technology: chemistry in the aftermath of twentieth-century global wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the organising ideas behind the symposium "Chemistry in the Aftermath of World Wars," held at the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology, Budapest, 2009, whose theme was "Ideas and Instruments in Social Context." After first recounting the origins of the notion of "crisis" as a decisive turning point in general history as well as in the history of science, the paper presents war and its aftermath as a form of crisis that may affect science and technology, including chemistry, in a variety of contexts and leading to a variety of types of change. The twentieth-century world wars were exemplary forms of crisis, whose aftermaths shaped the contexts for decisive changes in modern chemistry, which continue to offer challenging opportunities for historical research. In discussing these, the paper cites selected current literature and briefly describes how the individual papers of the symposium, including the three papers published in this volume, approached these challenges.

  20. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnan, Y.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Probst, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. - Highlights: ► We compared metal concentrations registered in contemporary and early 1900's lichens. ► In the past, As, Pb and Cd were enriched due to coal combustion. ► Nowadays, a new mixture of enriched contaminants (Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) was evidenced. ► REE originated from local bedrock and proved an increased dust deposition in the past. ► Lichens recorded both local and long-range atmospheric contamination. - Using lichens registration, past (As, Pb, Cd) and recent (Sb, Sn, Cu) atmospheric pollution from local and long-range transport, as well as dust deposition, was evidenced in SW France.

  1. Fumigating the Hygienic Model City: Bubonic Plague and the Sulfurozador in Early-Twentieth-Century Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Lukas

    2018-07-01

    The 1899/1900 arrival of bubonic plague in Argentina had thrown the model status of Buenos Aires as a hygienic city into crisis. Where the idea of foreign threats and imported epidemics had dominated the thinking of Argentina's sanitarians at that time, plague renewed concerns about hidden threats within the fabric of the capital's dense environment; concerns that led to new sanitary measures and unprecedented rat-campaigns supported by the large-scale application of sulphur dioxide. The article tells the story of early twentieth-century urban sanitation in Buenos Aires through the lens of a new industrial disinfection apparatus. The Aparato Marot, also known as Sulfurozador was acquired and integrated in the capital's sanitary administration by the epidemiologist José Penna in 1906 to materialise two key lessons learned from plague. First, the machine was supposed to translate the successful disinfection practices of global maritime sanitation into urban epidemic control in Argentina. Second, the machine's design enabled public health authorities to reinvigorate a traditional hygienic concern for the entirety of the city's terrain. While the Sulfurozador offered effective destruction of rats, it promised also a comprehensive - and utopian - disinfection of the whole city, freeing it from all imaginable pathogens, insects as well as rodents. In 1910, the successful introduction of the Sulfurozador encouraged Argentina's medico-political elite to introduce a new principle of 'general prophylaxis'. This article places the apparatus as a technological modernisation of traditional sanitary practices in the bacteriological age, which preserved the urban environment - 'el terreno' - as a principal site of intervention. Thus, the Sulfurozador allowed the 'higienistas' to sustain a long-standing utopian vision of all-encompassing social, bodily and political hygiene into the twentieth century.

  2. Sound Objects and Sound Products: Standardizing a New Culture of Listening in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter I develop the psychological underpinnings of environmental music towards an understanding of how the goals of cognitive and behavioral psycholo-gists contributed to a new kind of listening at the beginning of the twentieth century. I begin with an examination of nineteenth-century concerns about both the physical and psychological effects of music and fraught debate among experi-mental psychologists of the role of musical expertise in the laboratory. These con-cerns were, I argue, rooted in the assumption of a direct, corporeal connection between the generation and reception of music, usually bound within a single, individual body. In the twentieth century, new technology liberated the listener from a temporally- and geographically-bound experience of music. The Tone Tests, Re-Creation Recitals, and Mood Change “parties” of Thomas Edison and the psychologist Walter Bingham show that recording technology allowed for a normalization and standardization of listening not previously possible in the music halls and laboratories of the nineteenth century. Rather paradoxically, since it also made music more accessible to the individual listener, recorded music, mobilized by industrial psychologists and record companies alike, created a new sound experience actively designed for the lowest common denominator of mass listen-ing. It also contributed to the cultivation of a new practice of mass listening. The new mass listening practice presents broader questions about the definition of music and its functional role – If the function of music is to be ignored, is it still music?

  3. A Tale of Two Tails : Establishment Size and Labour Productivity in United States and German Manufacturing at the Start of the Twentieth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Joost; de Jong, Herman

    This paper studies the importance of establishment size for the German/US labour-productivity gap in manufacturing at the start of the twentieth century. First, we show that the left tail of the employment distribution by establishment size was larger in Germany than in the USA. Second, using US

  4. Twentieth-century fire patterns in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area, Idaho/Montana, and the Gila/Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Rollins; Tom Swetnam; Penelope Morgan

    2000-01-01

    Twentieth century fire patterns were analyzed for two large, disparate wilderness areas in the Rocky Mountains. Spatial and temporal patterns of fires were represented as GIS-based digital fire atlases compiled from archival Forest Service data. We find that spatial and temporal fire patterns are related to landscape features and changes in land use. The rate and...

  5. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upcoming Meetings Online Education Archived Meetings Faculty Resources Sports Medicine Fellowships Traveling Fellowship Submit an Abstract Submit ... Support AOSSM Research Publications Toggle American Journal of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal ...

  6. A twentieth-century triangle trade: selling black beauty at home and abroad, 1945–1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Malia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the careers of African American beauty culturists as they worked in the United States, Europe, and Africa between 1945 and 1965. Facing push back at home, African American beauty entrepreneurs frequently sought out international venues that were hospitable and receptive to black Americans in the years following World War II. By strategically using European sites that white Americans regarded as the birthplace of Western fashion and beauty, African American entrepreneurs in the fields of modeling, fashion design, and hair care were able to win accolades and advance their careers. In gaining support abroad, particularly in Europe, these beauty culturists capitalized on their international success to establish, legitimize, and promote their business ventures in the United States. After importing a positive reputation for themselves from Europe to the United States, African American beauty entrepreneurs then exported an image of themselves as the world's premier authorities on black beauty to people of color around the globe as they sold their products and marketed their expertise on the African continent itself. This essay demonstrates the important role that these black female beauty culturists played, both as businesspeople and as race leaders, in their generation's struggle to gain greater respect and opportunity for African Americans both at home and abroad. In doing so it places African American beauty culturists within the framework of transatlantic trade networks, the Black Freedom Movement, Pan-Africanism, and America's Cold War struggle.

  7. Predictive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, Marianne; ten Have, Henk

    2015-01-01

    In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health

  8. From Halsted to prevention and beyond: advances in the management of breast cancer during the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B

    1999-12-01

    This commentary evaluates progress made in the treatment of breast cancer during the twentieth century. Most of the period from 1900 to 1970 was governed by the 'non-science' of anecdotalism and classical inductivism and was marked by the absence of a scientific gestalt. In keeping with the Halstedian concept that breast cancer was a local disease that spread throughout the body by contiguous extension and could be cured by more expansive surgery, the disease was treated with radical surgery. In 1950, however, a new era of enlightenment began to emerge. The awareness that there was a scientific process in which hypotheses generated from laboratory and clinical investigation could be tested by means of randomised clinical trials was a seminal advance, as were findings from studies that laid the groundwork for the modern era of steroid hormone action, including identification of oestrogen receptors. Expanding knowledge regarding tumour cell kinetics, tumour heterogeneity, and technological advances related to mammography and radiation therapy were also to play a role in making possible the advances in therapy that were subsequently to occur. In the past 30 years, as a result of laboratory and clinical investigation, the Halstedian thesis of cancer surgery was displaced by an alternative hypothesis that was supported by findings from subsequent clinical trials. A new paradigm governed surgery for breast cancer, and lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy became accepted practice. A second paradigm that governed the use of adjuvant systemic therapy arose as a result of laboratory and clinical investigation. Treating patients who were free of identifiable metastatic disease with systemic adjuvant therapy because some of them might develop distant disease in the future was a revolutionary departure from prior treatment strategy and became a new exemplar. Not only did the chemotherapy favourably alter the outcome of breast cancer patients, but the anti

  9. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...

  10. The State and Industrial Development in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…

  11. Sex discrimination from the acetabulum in a twentieth-century skeletal sample from France using digital photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, P J

    2011-02-01

    Digital photogrammetric methods were used to collect diameter, area, and perimeter data of the acetabulum for a twentieth-century skeletal sample from France (Georges Olivier Collection, Musée de l'Homme, Paris) consisting of 46 males and 36 females. The measurements were then subjected to both discriminant function and logistic regression analyses in order to develop osteometric standards for sex assessment. Univariate discriminant functions and logistic regression equations yielded overall correct classification accuracy rates for both the left and the right acetabula ranging from 84.1% to 89.6%. The multivariate models developed in this study did not provide increased accuracy over those using only a single variable. Classification sex bias ratios ranged between 1.1% and 7.3% for the majority of models. The results of this study, therefore, demonstrate that metric analysis of acetabular size provides a highly accurate, and easily replicable, method of discriminating sex in this documented skeletal collection. The results further suggest that the addition of area and perimeter data derived from digital images may provide a more effective method of sex assessment than that offered by traditional linear measurements alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Charles Darwin's reputation: how it changed during the twentieth-century and how it may change again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Charles Darwin died in 1882. During the twentieth century his reputation varied through time, as the scientific foundation of evolutionary theory changed. Beginning the century as an intellectual hero, he soon became a virtual footnote as experimental approaches to evolution began to develop. As the Modern Synthesis developed his reputation began to rise again until eventually he was identified as a founding father of the Modern Synthesis itself. In the meantime, developmental approaches to evolution began to challenge certain aspects of the Modern Synthesis. Synthesis authors attempted to refute the relevance of development by methodological arguments, some of them indirectly credited to Darwin. By the end of the century, molecular genetics had given new life to development approaches to evolution, now called evo devo. This must be seen as a refutation of the aforesaid methodological arguments of the Modern Synthesis advocates. By the way, we can also see now how the historiography that credited Darwin with the Synthesis was in error. In conclusion, one more historical revision is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Making Space for Red Tide: Discolored Water and the Early Twentieth Century Bayscape of Japanese Pearl Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Kjell

    2017-05-01

    "Red tide" has become a familiar shorthand for unusual changes in the color of ocean waters. It is intimately related both to blooms of creatures like dinoflagellates and to the devastating effects they pose to coastal fisheries. This essay tracks the early twentieth century emergence of discolored water as an aquacultural problem, known in Japan as akashio, and its trans-oceanic transformation into the terms and practices of "red tide" in the post-World War II United States. For Japan's "Pearl King" Mikimoto Kōkichi and his contacts in diverse marine scientific communities, the years-long cycle of guarding and cultivating a pearl oyster went together with the ascription of moral qualities to tiny creatures that posed a threat to farmed bayscapes of pearl monoculture. As akashio, discolored water went from curiosity to marine livestock pest, one that at times left dead pearl oysters in its wake. Red tide arose from the sustained study of the mechanisms by which changes in the biological and chemical composition of seawater might become deadly to exclusively-claimed shellfish along Japanese coastlines, but came to be seen as a way to understand aquatic manifestations of harm in other parts of the littoral world.

  14. Il futurismo polacco nella critica letteraria dell’epoca [Polish Futurism in Literary Criticism of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. De Carlo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the critical voices raised against the young poets and artists who promoted Futurism in Poland during the first half of the Twentieth century. Futurist manifestos influenced the new Polish poetry, stimulating a lively debate among intellectuals of the calibre of Stefan Żeromski and Karol Irzykowski. In general, the coeval criticism of Polish Futurism focused on three main points: the lack of originality and servile imitation of foreign literary models; the repudiation of the past and national traditions; Futurism as an expression of ideologies such as Fascism in Italy and Bolshevism in Russia. In this article, specific attention is devoted to an analysis of the essay Snobizm i postęp (Snobbery and Progress, 1923 by Żeromski. The writer, criticising Polish imitators of Russian Futurism, affirmed that Polish literature and culture, in the context of national reconstruction after three partitions of Poland, needed to maintain its natural connection with the past and at the same time, without losing its national nature, to weave some universal suggestions into the plot of purely Polish themes. The goal of this article is to reveal that Żeromski and Irzykowski’s critical stance towards the Polish Futurists, which influenced the critics of the next generation, was dictated by a shallow analysis of Futuristic works and by their inability to understand Futuristic efforts to modernise Polish art and literature.

  15. The Silwood Circle a history of ecology and the making of scientific careers in late twentieth-century Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This is an original and wide-ranging account of the careers of a close-knit group of highly influential ecologists working in Britain from the late 1960s onwards. The book can also be read as a history of some recent developments in ecology. One of the group, Robert May, is a past president of the Royal Society, and the author of what many see as the most important treatise in theoretical ecology of the later twentieth century. That the group flourished was due not only to May's intellectual leadership, but also to the guiding hand of T. R. E. Southwood. Southwood ended his career as Linacre Professor of Zoology at the University of Oxford, where he also served a term as Vice-Chancellor. Earlier, as a professor and director of the Silwood Park campus of Imperial College London, he brought the group together. Since it began to coalesce at Silwood it has been named here the Silwood Circle. Southwood promoted the interests of its members with the larger aim of raising the profile of ecological and environmental ...

  16. Ready, willing, and able to divorce: an economic and cultural history of divorce in twentieth-century Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Per; Sandström, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study outlines a long history of divorce in Sweden, recognizing the importance of considering both economic and cultural factors in the analysis of marital dissolution. Following Ansley Coale, the authors examine how a framework of multiple theoretical constructs, in interaction, can be applied to the development toward mass divorce. Applying a long historical perspective, the authors argue that an analysis of gendered aspects of the interaction between culture and economics is crucial for the understanding of the rise of mass divorce. The empirical analysis finds support for a marked decrease in legal and cultural obstacles to divorce already during the first decades of the twentieth century. However, economic structures remained a severe obstacle that prohibited significant increases in divorce rate prior to World War II. It was only during the 1940s and 1960s, when cultural change was complemented by marked decreases in economic interdependence between spouses, that the divorce rate exhibited significant increases. The authors find that there are advantages to looking at the development of divorce as a history in which multiple empirical factors are examined in conjunction, recognizing that these factors played different roles during different time periods.

  17. The Significance Of Space In Iris Murdoch’s The Unicorn As A Twentieth-Century Irish Gothic Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarząb Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century almost all literary genres came back to prominence in different and alternative forms. The Gothic is no exception to this phenomenon as many a writer made an attempt at using this eighteenth-century genre once again, but adding to it some contemporary elements. Consequently, an abundance of new techniques have been introduced to Gothic fiction to evoke the feeling of horror and terror among the more and more demanding readers of modern times. Still, some writers prefer to return to the traditional concept of the Gothic – as does Iris Murdoch in her novel The Unicorn. The purpose of this article is to analyse the text from the perspective of the Irish Gothic. Those features of the genre which are traditional as well as local are going to be discussed in the context of space as the dominating aspect of the novel. The typical Irish landscape abounding in marshes, bogs and the sea will be contrasted with the inner space of the house, and its resemblance to the old Victorian mansions popular among the Anglo-Irish ascendancy of nineteenth-century Ireland. In what follows, the paper aims at showing how Murdoch’s skilful play with the spatial differentiation between the inside and the outside dislodges other more universal issues, such as the question of freedom, of social taboos and of the different anxieties still present in Irish society today.

  18. Industrial Growth in Araraquara and São Carlos Region in the First Decades of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Carvalho De Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes the formation of the first manufacturing activities and the industrial growth in Araraquara and São Carlos region in the early twentieth century. It shows that from the development of the coffee economy in the region, were created the initial conditions for the emergence of a variety of industrial transformation activities of goods for local and regional consumption that could survive while the conditions for its operation and reproduction prevailed. However, changes in the state economy after the 1929 crisis brought deep changes in industry course in the region. Classic studies on the industry origin in São Paulo are taken as reference. From a methodological point of view the research that led to this study had an exploratory and investigative nature of primary and secondary sources. The conclusions point to the cyclical nature of regional productive activities, to changes in the production cycle of the region from the 30s, and to the reasons for the survival of some companies that have managed to overcome the initial difficulties and till the XXI century are part of the regional productive structure.

  19. Psyche’s Sisters: Ambivalence of Sisterhood in Twentieth-century Irish Women’s Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and evaluates representations of problematic sisterly relationships in twentieth-century Irish women’s stories which display an emphasis on ambivalence and sibling rivalry.  The paper is based primarily on the literary output of Mary Lavin, Clare Boylan, Moy McCrory, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne, Jan Kennedy, Mary Morrissy and Claire Keegan.  The paper seeks, by reference both to feminist studies and Irish women’s short stories, to demonstrate the consequences and causes of a divided sisterhood which itself may be traced back to a suppression of expression of female solidarity embedded in western culture and manifested in western literary heritage.  Typically, such stories depict a conflict sourced in the need to develop self-identity and framed within the constraints imposed by separate social roles.  This kind of conflict results potentially in rivalry, antagonism, ambivalence, and the domination of one sibling by another.  Daughters/sisters are often depicted in these stories both as competing with each other for limited resources and also as seeking a sense of personal identity through mutual polarisation.  There are also stories into which are woven undertones of domination disguised as sisterly closeness, for which the actual motivation seems to be a repressed aspiration for intimacy.

  20. Holocaust and strategic bombing: case studies in the psychology, organization, and technology of mass killing in the twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markusen, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    After preliminary discussion of the unprecedented scale of mass killing in the twentieth century, the threat of nuclear war, and the widespread neglect of these issues, the literature on two major types of government sanctioned mass killing is reviewed; genocide, in which a government slaughters its own citizens or subjects, and total war, in which two or more governments slaughter each other's civilian citizens or subjects. This literature review reaches two basic conclusions: (1) there is considerable inconsistency and ambiguity among definitions of genocide and total war; and (2) there is a controversy regarding how distinct or similar the two forms of mass killing actually are. A comparative historical analysis was undertaken in which the Nazi Holocaust was selected as an example of genocide, and the Allied strategic bombing campaigns during World War II were selected to exemplify total war. The two cases are compared in terms of a conceptual framework of five hypothesized facilitating factors. On the basis of this comparative analysis, four or the five hypothesized facilitating factors are found to have played important roles in both cases. The findings of the study are discussed, and their implications for the threat of nuclear holocaust are explored.

  1. The "Make Love, Not War" Ape: Bonobos and Late Twentieth-Century Explanations for War and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare. In contrast, primatologist Frans de Waal's popular and scientific publications on primate reconciliation emphasized the naturalness of conflict resolution and peacemaking, thereby providing a counterpoint to the pessimism of aggression research while simultaneously shoring up the logic of simian analogy. De Waal's popular books heralded the "make love, not war" bonobo as humans' evolutionary next-of-kin and contributed to raising public interest in bonobos during the late twentieth century, although the apes' popular reputation subsequently exceeded the scientific discourse about them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clear and pregnant danger: the making of prenatal psychology in mid-twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ziv

    2010-01-01

    Despite shaky evidence, American medical literature in the twenty-first century includes assumptions about the ability of expectant women's psyche to impact their pregnancy. This essay argues that such notions are rooted in "prenatal psychology," a discursive hybrid constructed by renowned psychiatrists in the 1940s and 1950s. Benefiting from the popularity of Freudianism and from women's social status after the war, doctors like Karl Menninger, William Menninger, Helene Deutsch, and Flanders Dunbar fused traditional ideas about the power of women's emotions to influence pregnancy with trendy ego psychology and psychosomatic theories. They argued that women who experienced difficult pregnancies, threw up excessively or miscarried, suffered from a problem that had a name: neurosis. Several leading obstetricians and gynecologists embraced these ideas and helped spread them in the professional literature, urging their colleagues to use talk therapy in the care of pregnant women.

  3. ‘La Querelle des Femmes’ in the Late Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Scott

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the feminist debates on the parity movement in France in the 1990s. It shows how French and North-American feminists deploy stereotypes in articulating theoretical and political arguments for and against parity. Drawing comparisons between historical debates women’s political representation in France during the foundation of republicanism with more contemporary discussions, the author focuses on the arguments offered by contemporary defenders and opponents of the parity movement, including those advanced by feminists intellectuals situated on both the left and the liberal sides of the political spectrum. The author analizes how these arguments rely on binary oppositions such as equality and difference, and communitarism and universalism, claiming that the parity movement has opened a new conversation about the future of French politics and the universalist premises upon which its republicanism has been based.

  4. Corporate science education: Westinghouse and the value of science in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Sevan G; Shapiro, Leigh

    2015-02-01

    This study examines a largely neglected aspect of the history of science popularization in the United States: corporate depictions of the value of science to society. It delineates the Westinghouse Electric Corporation's portrayals of science to its shareholders, employees and consumers, and schoolchildren and educators during World War Two and the postwar era. Annual reports to shareholders, in-house news publications, publicity records, advertising campaigns, and educational pamphlets distributed to schools reveal the company's distinct, but complementary, messages for different stakeholders about the importance of science to American society. Collectively, Westinghouse encouraged these audiences to rely on scientists' expert leadership for their nation's security and material comforts. In an era of military mobilization, the company was able to claim that industry-led scientific research would fortify the nation and create unbounded prosperity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Ọmọ̀jọ́lá, Bodé. Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century: Identity, Agency and Performance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vallier, Gilles-Félix

    2017-01-01

    Ọmọ̀jọ́lá, Bodé. — Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century : Identity, Agency and Performance Practice. New York, University of Rochester Press ; Eastman, Rochester Studies in Ethnomusicology, 2012, 285 p., bibl., ill., CD. Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century de Bodé Ọmọ̀jọ́lá déconstruit efficacement la notion d'une culture musicale yorùbá singulière, découvrant à la place une tapisserie pittoresque de traditions socialement et esthétiquement diverses, lesquelles sont unies, dans bien des ...

  6. Thalidomide and the Titanic: reconstructing the technology tragedies of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J; Elias, S

    1999-01-01

    The Titanic has become a metaphor for the disastrous consequences of an unqualified belief in the safety and invincibility of new technology. Similarly, the thalidomide tragedy stands for all of the "monsters" that can be inadvertently or negligently created by modern medicine. Thalidomide, once banned, has returned to the center of controversy with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) announcement that thalidomide will be placed on the market for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, a severe dermatological complication of Hansen's disease. Although this indication is very restricted, thalidomide will be available for off-label uses once it is on the market. New laws regarding abortion and a new technology, ultrasound, make reasonable the approval of thalidomide for patients who suffer from serious conditions it can alleviate. In addition, the FDA and the manufacturer have proposed the most stringent postmarketing monitoring ever used for a prescription drug, including counseling, contraception, and ultrasonography in the event of pregnancy. The Titanic/thalidomide lesson for the FDA and public health is that rules and guidelines alone are not sufficient to guarantee safety. Continuous vigilance will be required to ensure that all reasonable postmarketing monitoring steps are actually taken to avoid predictable and preventable teratogenic disasters.

  7. Thalidomide and the Titanic: reconstructing the technology tragedies of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J; Elias, S

    1999-01-01

    The Titanic has become a metaphor for the disastrous consequences of an unqualified belief in the safety and invincibility of new technology. Similarly, the thalidomide tragedy stands for all of the "monsters" that can be inadvertently or negligently created by modern medicine. Thalidomide, once banned, has returned to the center of controversy with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) announcement that thalidomide will be placed on the market for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, a severe dermatological complication of Hansen's disease. Although this indication is very restricted, thalidomide will be available for off-label uses once it is on the market. New laws regarding abortion and a new technology, ultrasound, make reasonable the approval of thalidomide for patients who suffer from serious conditions it can alleviate. In addition, the FDA and the manufacturer have proposed the most stringent postmarketing monitoring ever used for a prescription drug, including counseling, contraception, and ultrasonography in the event of pregnancy. The Titanic/thalidomide lesson for the FDA and public health is that rules and guidelines alone are not sufficient to guarantee safety. Continuous vigilance will be required to ensure that all reasonable postmarketing monitoring steps are actually taken to avoid predictable and preventable teratogenic disasters. PMID:9987477

  8. Private Philanthropy and Basic Research in Mid-Twentieth Century America: The Hickrill Chemical Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortler, Leon; Weininger, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    The Hickrill Chemical Research Foundation, located north of New York City on the estate of its patrons, Sylvan and Ruth Alice Norman Weil, had a short (1948-59) but productive life. Ruth Alice Weil received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1947, directed by William von Eggers Doering of Columbia University. She intended that Hickrill contribute to cancer chemotherapy while providing resources for Doering's more speculative research. Ultimately, Doering's commitment to theoretical organic chemistry set Hickrill's research agenda. Lawrence Knox, an African American with a Harvard Ph.D., supervised the laboratory's daily activities. Hickrill's two dozen postdoctoral fellows produced path-breaking results in Hückel aromatic theory and reactive intermediate chemistry, fostering the postwar emphasis on "basic science." This essay places the Laboratory's successes in the wider context of postwar politics and scientific priorities. Private philanthropic support of basic science arose because it received little pre-World War II government support. In the immediate postwar period, modest organisations like Hickrill still met a need, but the increasing governmental defence- and non-defence-related support for science eventually rendered them unnecessary.

  9. Serbian music criticism in the first half of the twentieth century: Its canon, its method and its educational role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian music criticism became a subject of professional music critics at the beginning of the twentieth century, after being developed by music amateurs throughout the whole previous century. The Serbian Literary Magazine (1901- 1914, 1920-1941, the forum of the Serbian modernist writers in the early 1900s, had a crucial role in shaping the Serbian music criticism and essayistics of the modern era. The Serbian elite musicians wrote for the SLM and therefore it reflects the most important issues of the early twentieth century Serbian music. The SLM undertook the mission of educating its readers. The music culture of the Serbian public was only recently developed. The public needed an introduction into the most important features of the European music, as well as developing its own taste in music. This paper deals with two aspects of the music criticism in the SLM, in view of its educational role: the problem of virtuosity and the method used by music critics in this magazine. The aesthetic canon of the SLM was marked by decisively negative attitude towards the virtuosity. Mainly concerned by educating the Serbian music public in the spirit of the highest music achievements in Europe, the music writers of the SLM criticized both domestic and foreign performers who favoured virtuosity over the 'essence' of music. Therefore, Niccolò Paganini, Franz Liszt, and even Peter Tchaikowsky with his Violin concerto became the subject of the magazine's criticism. However their attitude towards the interpreters with both musicality and virtuoso technique was always positive. That was evident in the writings on Jan Kubelík. This educational mission also had its effect on the structure of critique writings in the SLM. In their wish to inform the Serbian public on the European music (which they did very professionally, the critics gave much more information on biographies, bibliographies and style of the European composers, than they valued the interpretation

  10. American College of Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 » More News Upcoming Events 7th Annual Comprehensive Sports Medicine Update and Board Review Minneapolis | Dates: 19 – 23 Jun, 2018 ACSM's 65th Annual Meeting, 9th World Congress on Exercise is Medicine® and World Congress on the Basic Science of Muscle Hypertrophy and Atrophy Minneapolis | Dates: 29 ...

  11. Anthropocene landscape change and the legacy of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Catchment, Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, David P.; Ouimet, William B.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Kotikian, Maneh; Wicherski, Will; Samuels, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Human impacts on earth surface processes and materials are fundamental to understanding the proposed Anthropocene epoch. This study examines the magnitude, distribution, and long-term context of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Creek catchment, Colorado, coupling airborne LiDAR topographic analysis with historical documents and field studies of river banks exposed by 2013 flooding. Mining impacts represent the dominant Anthropocene landscape change for this basin. Mining activity, particularly placer operations, controls floodplain stratigraphy and waste rock piles related to mining cover >5% of hillslopes in the catchment. Total rates of surface disturbance on slopes from mining activities (prospecting, mining, and road building) exceed pre-nineteenth-century rates by at least fifty times. Recent flooding and the overprint of human impacts obscure the record of Holocene floodplain evolution. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the Fourmile valley floor was as much as two meters higher in the past 2,000 years and that placer reworking, lateral erosion, or minor downcutting dominated from the late Holocene to present. Concentrations of As and Au in the fine fraction of hillslope soil, mining-related deposits, and fluvial deposits serve as a geochemical marker of mining activity in the catchment; reducing As and Au values in floodplain sediment will take hundreds of years to millennia. Overall, the Fourmile Creek catchment provides a valuable example of Anthropocene landscape change for mountainous regions of the Western United States, where hillslope and floodplain markers of human activity vary, high rates of geomorphic processes affect mixing and preservation of marker deposits, and long-term impact varies by landscape location.

  12. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics; Einfuehrung in die Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Relativitaetstheorie, Quantenmechanik, Elementarteilchenphysik und Kosmologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, David J. [Reed College, Portland, OR (United States). Howard-Vollum-Professur fuer Naturwissenschaften

    2015-07-01

    Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, elementary-particle physics, and cosmology are the four pillars of modern physics. The life in the 21th century is without them no more conceivable: The special relativity theory renewed our understanding of space and time, on the laws of quantum mechanics are based countless everyday objects like transistors, computer chips, and mobile telephones; in particle accelerators we study the components oof matter, and with telescopes we take an ever deeper look in the past of the universe. Taking reference books to these themes at hand, one is overwhelmed by the plethora and complexity of the mathematical formulas. This book of the renowned professor of physics David J. Griffiths id refreshingly different. By means of many illustrative examples and entertaining stories it introducts to the themes and helps the reader also without a large mathematical apparatus to a fundamental understanding of that, about which Einstein, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Hubble actually thought and spoke. In each chapter numerous, pedagogically selected examples are completely worked out, in order to fill the matter with life. Moreover the text contains a manifold of problems, which allow the reader to deepen his knowledge and apply immediately. Griffith's ''Revolution in Twentieth Century Physics'' appeals not only to pupils and future studyings of natural sciences, who want to get an appetite for what lies ahead, but also to interested readers, which have already heared in the media from quarks and quanta, the curved space-time, Albert Einstein, and the big bang and now want to understandably know what is at stake in all the excitement.

  13. P A Jungian Approach to Self-fragmentation of Twentieth Century in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhdeh Alizadeh Shirazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problematic life of modern human has always been a significant issue for many areas of study. In reaction to the absence of romantic values and the unity of the pre-modern world, Human being was afflicted with a sense of inner crises which is referred to as self-fragmentation. Fragmentation is one of the significant features of twentieth century when a mode of anxiety subjugated both art and society. In such an atmosphere many writers of the modern century attempted to reflect in their works of literature, what they had experienced in the real world. Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four is one of the popular novels of Modern Era that describes a modern but fragmented society wherein the modern human’s lack of self-integration is perceptible. By representing how the protagonists respond to the voices of their psyches through characterization and dreams, which is also of crucial significance in Jung’s Analytical Psychology, Orwell explores the roots of modern human’s urge for achieving a cohesive sense of self. Accordingly, this study, attempts to illustrate how modern human steps in the path of individuation and to what extent these efforts meet with success, if any. To achieve this goal, some terms and notions of Jungian Criticism such as archetypes and the process of individuation will be borrowed, and a particular focus will be held on dreams occurring in the course of the story. In addition, this paper would like to argue that the dystopian society portrayed in these novels is the offspring of a mere rationalism which prevents human from knowing the opposing forces working within as well as the forces functioning from without.

  14. Evidence-based medicine: the fourth revolution in American medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin C; Ram, Ashwin N

    2009-01-01

    The use of evidence has become a force in American medicine to improve the quality of health care. Funding decisions from payers will demand studies with high-level evidence to support many of the costly interventions in medicine. Plastic surgery is certainly not immune to this national tidal wave to revamp the health care system by embracing evidence-based medicine in our practices. In scientific contributions of plastic surgery research, application of evidence-based principles should enhance the care of all patients by relying on science rather than opinions. In this article, the genesis of evidence-based medicine is discussed to guide plastic surgery in this new revolution in American medicine.

  15. Value Measurement Systems, Professional Narratives and the (Un)Making of Market Regimes in Twentieth-Century American Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    During the 1920s, consumer psychologists and market researchers began to develop measurement systems that allowed their clients to express in ‘hard’ figures, and thus to put a financial value on, the impact that particular advertisements had on consumers. At the same time, advertising designers...... owners, their clients and by media organizations which printed, aired or screened commercial messages. Drawing on the notion of the socio-technical ‘agencements’, and on theories of the performativity of measurement regimes in the making of markets, economic sociologists have developed a good...... understanding of how the act of measuring itself can affect the behaviour of those whose social actions are being measured. Much less well developed is an economic-sociological account of how such measurement regimes are being resisted and how and why they decline. This paper uses the rise and fall...

  16. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The authors simulate transient twentieth-century climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the century in Greenland. Global BC effects peak early in the century (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the century (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the century, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the century is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late century warming.Over the century, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the century contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed

  17. Ranking GCM Estimates of Twentieth Century Precipitation Seasonality in the Western U.S. and its Influence on Floristic Provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K. L.; Eischeid, J. K.; Garfin, G. M.; Ironside, K.; Cobb, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Floristic provinces of the western United States (west of 100W) can be segregated into three regions defined by significant seasonal precipitation during the months of: 1) November-March (Mediterranean); 2) July- September (Monsoonal); or, 3) May-June (Rocky Mountain). This third region is best defined by the absence of the late spring-early summer drought that affects regions 1 and 2. Each of these precipitation regimes is characterized by distinct vegetation types and fire seasonality adapted to that particular cycle of seasonal moisture availability and deficit. Further, areas where these regions blend from one to another can support even more complex seasonal patterns and resulting distinctive vegetation types. As a result, modeling the effects of climates on these ecosystems requires confidence that GCMs can at least approximate these sub- continental seasonal precipitation patterns. We evaluated the late Twentieth Century (1950-1999 AD) estimates of annual precipitation seasonality produced by 22 GCMs contained within the IPCC Fourth Assessment (AR4). These modeled estimates were compared to values from the PRISM dataset, extrapolated from station data, over the same historical period for the 3 seasonal periods defined above. The correlations between GCM estimates and PRISM values were ranked using 4 measures: 1) A map pattern relationship based on the correlation coefficient, 2) A map pattern relationship based on the congruence coefficient, 3) The ratio of simulated/observed area averaged precipitation based on the seasonal precipitation amounts, and, 4) The ratio of simulated/observed area averaged precipitation based on the seasonal precipitation percentages of the annual total. For each of the four metrics, the rank order of models was very similar. The ranked order of the performance of the different models quantified aspects of the model performance visible in the mapped results. While some models represented the seasonal patterns very well, others

  18. Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in early twentieth century France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the early twentieth century Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How the nerves reached the muscle: Bernard Katz, Stephen W. Kuffler, and John C. Eccles-Certain implications of exile for the development of twentieth-century neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the work by Bernard Katz (1911-2003), Stephen W. Kuffler (1913-1980), and John C. Eccles (1903-1997) on the nerve-muscle junction as a milestone in twentieth-century neurophysiology with wider scientific implications. The historical question is approached from two perspectives: (a) an investigation of twentieth-century solutions to a longer physiological dispute and (b) an examination of a new kind of laboratory and academic cooperation. From this vantage point, the work pursued in Sydney by Sir John Carew Eccles' team on the neuromuscular junction is particularly valuable, since it contributed a central functional element to modern physiological understanding regarding the function and structure of the human and animal nervous system. The reflex model of neuromuscular action had already been advanced by neuroanatomists such as Georg Prochaska (1749-1820) in Bohemia since the eighteenth century. It became a major component of neurophysiological theories during the nineteenth century, based on the law associated with the names of François Magendie (1783-1855) in France and Charles Bell (1774-1842) in Britain regarding the functional differences of the sensory and motor spinal nerves. Yet, it was not until the beginning of the twentieth century that both the histological and the neurophysiological understanding of the nerve-muscle connection became entirely understood and the chemical versus electrical transmission further elicited as the mechanisms of inhibition. John C. Eccles, Bernard Katz, and Stephen W. Kuffler helped to provide some of the missing links for modern neurophysiology. The current article explores several of their scientific contributions and investigates how the context of forced migration contributed to these interactions in contingently new ways.

  20. Representing and Coping with Early Twentieth-Century Chongqing: “Guide Songs” as Maps, Memory Cells, and Means of Creating Cultural Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Chabrowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chongqing’s “guide songs” form an interesting subgenre among the broad category of haozi 號子 (workers’ songs. These early twentieth-century songs were a form of rhythm-based oral narrative describing Chongqing’s urban spaces, river docks, and harbors. Each toponym mentioned in the lyrics was followed by a depiction of the characteristic associations, whether visible or symbolic, of the place. This article aims to analyze the verbal images of Chongqing presented in these songs in order to understand how the city was remembered, reproduced, and represented. The article deconstructs representations of the city produced by the lower classes, mainly by Sichuan boatmen, and links culturally meaningful images of urban spaces with the historical experiences of work, religion, and historical-mythical memory. It also points to the functions that oral narratives had in the urban environment of early twentieth-century Chongqing. Rhythmic and easy to remember, the songs provided ready-to-use guides and repositories of knowledge useful to anyone living or working there. A cross between utilitarian resource books and cultural representations, they shaped modes of thinking and visualizations of urban spaces and Chongqing. Finally, this article responds to the need to employ popular culture in our thinking about Chinese cities and the multiplicity of meanings they were given in pre-Communist times.

  1. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities.

  2. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Mariam O.

    2013-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on ...

  3. The historical significance of the Trepça mine in the Region of Stan-Terg during the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafë Haziri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The historical significance of the Trepça’s mine in Stan-Terg is so big, that it is impossible to be presented in this scientific paper, because of its historic, economic and social character. This paper analyses chronologically the importance of Trepça mine, focusing with particular emphasis on the period of the twentieth century where in 1926 the first research that was implemented by the British government began. In 1930 began the modern exploitation of Trepça which was followed by some union movements which lasted until 1939. In 1941, Trepça fell into the hands of the nazi regime of Germany. Other aspects of this work include the period of the Second World War, when the nationalization of property was implemented during the communist regime in former Yugoslavia until the great strike of 1989.

  4. The Preparation of the Diccionario biográfico obrero de Chile. Printed Culture and Working-class Sociability in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Murillo Sandoval

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Printed between 1910 and 1919, the Diccionario biográfico obrero de Chile was the first book of its kind produced in Latin America in the twentieth century. Coordinated by journalist Osvaldo López, this dictionary sought to show the trajectories of leaders and representatives of the Chilean labor world to the beginning of the century. Although this work has served as a source for many investigations, little is known about its production process, and even less about their general contents, and what they indicate about the labor elites, their self-images, objectives or print culture. Therefore, this paper seeks to contribute to the analysis of this collective biography, by rebuilding its publishing history and examining the key feature which identified the workers: sociability.

  5. The architecture and artistic features of high-rise buildings in USSR and the United States of America during the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovina Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Skyscraper is a significant architectural structure in the world's largest cities. The appearance of a skyscraper in the city's architectural composition enhances its status, introduces dynamics into the shape of the city, modernizes the existing environment. Its architectural structure which can have both expressive triumphal forms and ascetic ones. For a deep understanding of the architecture of high-rise buildings must be considered by several criteria. Various approaches can be found in the competitive development of high-rise buildings in Moscow and the US cities in the middle of the twentieth century In this article we will consider how and on the basis of what the architectural decisions of high-rise buildings were formed.

  6. The architecture and artistic features of high-rise buildings in USSR and the United States of America during the first half of the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Svetlana; Oblasov, Yurii

    2018-03-01

    Skyscraper is a significant architectural structure in the world's largest cities. The appearance of a skyscraper in the city's architectural composition enhances its status, introduces dynamics into the shape of the city, modernizes the existing environment. Its architectural structure which can have both expressive triumphal forms and ascetic ones. For a deep understanding of the architecture of high-rise buildings must be considered by several criteria. Various approaches can be found in the competitive development of high-rise buildings in Moscow and the US cities in the middle of the twentieth century In this article we will consider how and on the basis of what the architectural decisions of high-rise buildings were formed.

  7. The sea as science: ocean research institutions and strategies in Portugal in the twentieth century (from the First Republic to democracy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Maria Fernanda; Queiroz, Maria Inês; Brandão, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Historical perspective has revealed the many aspects of Portugal's interest in the sea, evident in a series of initiatives and entities throughout the twentieth century. From the beginning of the century until the 1974 Revolution, the genesis of organizations devoted to the scientific study of the sea is analyzed, observing their specific missions in the context of the formulation of science policy, and more specifically "ocean policies." The Portuguese valued knowledge of the sea due to their maritime vocation, coastal life and geographic position. Traversing different historical and political contexts and development cycles, the assumptions and political implications that accentuate the strategic dimension of science policy, visible in the geopolitical affirmation of oceanography, are studied.

  8. Love Practices in the Colombian School during the First Half of the Twentieth Century: Notes for a History of Feminine Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Herrera Beltrán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America women increasingly detach themselves from feminine representations produced by certain discourses of modernity. However, unequal relations, binary constructions of sex and gender, and exclusion whenever there is any sign of resistance are still signs of contemporaneity. In response to this situation, this research paper shows, through an archaeological and genealogical study, how love, as a feeling and emotion, was a subject of education for girls in the Colombian school during the first half of the twentieth century. In that sense, the author reflects upon emotions, feelings and discourses, and reveals how society shaped practices and legitimized truths that, even today, define both men’s and women’s nature.

  9. Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century: the intellectual field in Criminalogia Moderna magazine and its relation to the positivist project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Carvalho Quinta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the beginning of criminology in Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, to understand how it was articulated during the nation-state building process. To achieve this purpose, a state project reflection unfolded in criminological perspective that is based on legal positivism of the period was made. The country was forefront in interest in criminology in that some intellectuals jurists published numerous articles on the crime studies in the first criminology journal of Argentina, Criminalogia Moderna magazine, founded in 1898 and directed by the teacher, lawyer and intellectual Italian, Pietro Gori. The influence of European sociological perspective in Argentina criminology can be seen from a literature review. The examination of some articles published in the journal indicates how criminology introduced in Europe grounds the buenosairean intellectuality. Some authors have linked criminology with social phenomena of a nation increasingly industrialized, proletarianized, politicized and urbanized.

  10. The Innovative Work of S. S. Glagolev: Theism in Russian Theological Academies of the Beginning of the Twentieth Century and Its Focusing on the Problem of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Ershova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author details the results of her study of the works of Sergey Sergeyevich Glagolev, a prominent professor of the Moscow Theological Academy. Glagolev’s heritage produces a profound impression by means of its versatility, its original way of looking at diverse problems as well as his unique solutions to the same problems. For this reason, it possesses enduring relevance. Despite this fact, his correspondence is still not well known nor understood. The author focuses on Glagolev’s analysis of the human problem. This choice may be explained by the fact that Sergey Sergeevich considered the problem of man to be the key issue behind the collision of religion and science taking place during the early twentieth century. Glagolev attempted to solve this problem by focusing on certain aspects of the subject: the origin of mankind, the interaction of the spirit and the body, the immortality of the soul, the origin of religion, as well as the way in which religious faith came about. A vital aspect of Glagolev’s treatment of the problem of man is his criticism of Charles Darwin and Darwinism, and thereby of the entire theory of evolution. Glagolev disagreed with the basic premises of this theory as well as with some of its specific conclusions. While opposing the concept of anthropo-genesis, Glagolev formulated his own theory regarding the origins of mankind. Thus, Glagolev viewed the origins and later history of mankind through the prism of his theory of degradation, which allowed him to seamlessly link the biblical narrative of the origins of man with contemporary scientific data. The author concludes that Glagolev was a major influence in the development of Russian theology during the first years of the twentieth century.

  11. Formalism in the first half of the twentieth century: ‘pure science’ or a case of effective rhetoric? [Review of: M.B. Frank, D. Adler German art history and scientific thought: beyond formalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, A.

    2012-01-01

    German Art History and Scientific Thought - Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a

  12. Guidelines in electrodiagnostic medicine. American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AAEM) is committed to the development of sound and clinically relevant guidelines through review of literature, expert opinion and consensus. In 1979, with the assistance of its Professional Practice Committee and association leaders, the association published its initial guidelines, Guidelines in Electrodiagnostic Medicine, covering the practice of electrodiagnostic medicine. The committee is charged with ongoing revision of the document, as needed, and the current version includes standards of practice in clinical electromyography, risks in electrodiagnostic medicine, basic equipment requirements, and the role of paramedical support. In 1988, Educational Guidelines for Electrodiagnostic Training Programs (Appendix A) was prepared by the AAEM Training Program Committee and added to aid training program directors in establishing new training programs or in reviewing the current status of the educational aspects of existing programs. In 1986, the AAEM charged its Quality Assurance Committee with the responsibility for the development of guidelines pertinent to electrodiagnostic medical consultations. The impetus for the charge was the requests received from members of the AAEM and other interested parties for educational material on indications for and conduct of electrodiagnostic medical consultations. As a result of the committee's efforts, Suggested Guidelines for Electrodiagnostic Medical Consultations (Appendix D), was published in 1989 and additional sections added subsequently. The current document includes (1) general indications for an electrodiagnostic medical consultation for patients with suspected myopathies, neuromuscular junction disorders, polyneuropathies, mononeuropathies, plexopathies, radiculopathies, neuronopathies and central nervous system disorders, (2) specific indications for patients with suspected lumbosacral or cervical radiculopathies, (3) general principles of electrodiagnostic

  13. The spectre of race in American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O

    2013-12-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices.

  14. [Health Centers: science and ideology in the re-organization of public health in the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila

    2011-12-01

    Health Centers appeared in the United States around 1910. They provided social assistance in conjunction with some type of medical care. Their original separation between preventive and curative medicine was superseded by the concept of whole health in the 1940s, when Health Center discourse became part of medical education. In the 1960s, the notion of community medicine arose out of the war on poverty. These ideas spread through Brazil in the 1920s and were strengthened under the Vargas policy of national construction, but it was the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Public Health Service) that was primarily responsible for lending them their practical and conceptual shape in this country.

  15. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O.

    2014-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563

  16. PAZ, PRI, AND PROGRESS: OCTAVIO PAZ’S POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND LITERARY STRUGGLE TO INSPIRE REFORM IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gene Pace

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout most of the twentieth century; Mexico’s political and economic policies were heavily influenced by the Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI. The landmark 1998 victory by Vicente Fox, the first presidential candidate in seven decades to win without the official sanction of the PRI,marked an important milestone in Mexican history; Octavio Paz, an eloquent proponent of political, economic, and social reform, sought for decades to inspire change. This paper seeks to illuminate Paz’s economic philosophy, and to demonstrate how the acclaimed writer, through courageous symbolic action coupled with an inimitable and potent pen, challenged the PRI’s hegemony in Mexico and contributed to the historic election he almost lived to celebrate (an elderly Paz died shortly before the historic 1998 election.“The Aztec ritual of 2 October [1968] in the Plaza de Tlatelolco. . . convinced me to abandon the Mexican Foreign Service.”“October 2, 1968 ended the student movement. It also ended an era in thehistory of Mexico.”

  17. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  18. [Nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century: a descriptive bibliometric study of the journal Anales de Bromatologia (1949-1993)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu-Mestre, J; Ureña Alberola, M T; Esplugues Pellicer, J X; Trescastro-López, E M; Galiana-Sánchez, M E; Castelló Botía, I

    2012-11-01

    To analyse the institutionalisation of nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century, and evaluate the activities of the journal Anales de Bromatología. Descriptive bibliometric study of the original articles. Full names of the authors and the complete article title were recorded. Using key words, each article was assigned by consensus of the researchers to a single main subject in accordance with the thirteen subject areas addressed by the Spanish Society of Bromatology in its meetings. An analysis was conducted of the distribution and trends of general productivity indicators and their characteristics. A total of 917 original articles were published, with a mean of 20.8 papers/year. The subjects for which the highest percentage of articles was recorded were foreign substances in foods, foods of plant origin and nutrition. A total of 874 authors contributed, with a collaboration rate of 2.43 and a transience rate of 70.1%. Distribution of the number of authors per article was close to that indicated by Lotka's law of scientific productivity. The top twelve producers, predominantly women, participated in 49.9% of the articles published. The journal showed low productivity and was of an endogamous nature, with a predominance of authors related to the School of Bromatology in the Faculty of Pharmacy, at the Complutense University. The subjects addressed reflected the demands of the nutrition transition in Spain.

  19. From Danger and Motherhood to Health and Beauty: Health Advice for the Factory Girl in Early Twentieth-Century Britain1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, VICKY; MARLAND, HILARY

    2015-01-01

    A survey of government reports and the archives and journals of other agencies interested in industrial health in early twentieth-century Britain has led us to conclude that, in addition to apprehension about the potentially harmful impact of industrial work on the reproductive health of women, there was a great deal of interest in the health of young, unmarried girls in the workplace, particularly the factory. Adopting a broader time frame, we suggest that the First World War, with its emphasis on the reproductive health of women, was an anomalous experience in a broader trend which stressed the growing acceptability of women’s work within industry. Concern with girls’ health and welfare embraced hygiene, diet, exercise, recreation, fashion and beauty within and outside of the workplace, as well as the impact of the boredom and monotony associated with industrial work. The health problems of young women workers tended to be associated with behaviour and environment rather than biology, as were anxieties about the impact of work on morals, habits and character. Efforts to ensure that young female factory workers would be equipped to take their place as citizens and parents, we argue, often dovetailed rather than diverged with the ‘boy labour’ question. PMID:20481061

  20. A Chronology of Annual-Mean Effective Radii of Stratospheric Aerosols from Volcanic Eruptions During the Twentieth Century as Derived From Ground-based Spectral Extinction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strothers, Richard B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Stratospheric extinction can be derived from ground-based spectral photometric observations of the Sun and other stars (as well as from satellite and aircraft measurements, available since 1979), and is found to increase after large volcanic eruptions. This increased extinction shows a characteristic wavelength dependence that gives information about the chemical composition and the effective (or area weighted mean) radius of the particles responsible for it. Known to be tiny aerosols constituted of sulfuric acid in a water solution, the stratospheric particles at midlatitudes exhibit a remarkable uniformity of their column-averaged effective radii r(sub eff) in the first few months after the eruption. Considering the seven largest eruptions of the twentieth century, r(sub eff) at this phase of peak aerosol abundance is approx. 0.3 micrometers in all cases. A year later, r(sub eff) either has remained about the same size (almost certainly in the case of the Katmai eruption of 1912) or has increased to approx. 0.5 micrometers (definitely so for the Pinatubo eruption of 1991). The reasons for this divergence in aerosol growth are unknown.

  1. Illustrating phallic worship: uses of material objects and the production of sexual knowledge in eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jana; Fisher, Kate; Grove, Jen; Langlands, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    This article reveals previously overlooked connections between eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science by presenting a comparative reading of two illustrated books: An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus , by British antiquarian scholar Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824), and Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (The World Journey of a Sexologist), by German sexual scientist Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935). A close analysis of these publications demonstrates the special status of material artefacts and the strategic engagement with visual evidence in antiquarian and scientific writings about sex. Through its exploration of the similarities between antiquarian and sexual scientific thought, the article demonstrates the centrality of material culture to the production of sexual knowledge in the Western world. It also opens up new perspectives on Western intellectual history and on the intellectual origins of sexual science. While previous scholarship has traced the beginnings of sexual science back to nineteenth-century medical disciplines, this article shows that sexual scientists drew upon different forms of evidence and varied methodologies to produce sexual knowledge and secure scientific authority. As such, sexual science needs to be understood as a field with diverse intellectual roots that can be traced back (at least) to the eighteenth century.

  2. "PROPAGANDISTS FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES": THE OVERLOOKED PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE CARNEGIE CORPORATION AND SSRC IN THE MID-TWENTIETH CENTURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The Carnegie Corporation's role as a patron of the behavioral sciences has been overlooked; its support for the behavioral sciences not only began earlier than the Ford Foundation's but was also at least equally important to their success. I show how the close postwar collaboration between the Carnegie Corporation and the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) to promote the behavioral sciences emerged after a struggle between Carnegie and the Rockefeller Foundation over the direction and leadership of the SSRC. I then focus on three postwar projects Carnegie helped conceive and fund that were publicized as the work of the SSRC: Chase's The Proper Study of Mankind (1948), Stouffer et al.'s The American Soldier (), and the Michigan's Survey Research Center 1952 election study. In each of these projects, Carnegie deliberately muted its own role and promoted the remade SSRC as a major advocate for the behavioral sciences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Book Review Imaginary modernity and tradition. Architecture of the twentieth century in Latin America / Reseña del Libro Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Benito Narváez Tijerina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Imaginary modernity and tradition. Architecture of the twentieth century in Latin America Reseña del Libro Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina. Ettinger, Catherine R. (coord. (2015. Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina. México: Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 259 páginas. ISBN: 978-6074019681.

  4. [Sport, medicine and art: the 'enchanted science' of the body in the works of Thomas Eakins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Victor Andrade de; Peres, Fabio de Faria

    2010-03-01

    The article analyzes representations of sport and medicine in the output of the American artist Thomas Eakins, one of the most influential and original in the United States during the transition between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It is based on the presupposition that Eakins was able to translate esthetically a plethora of representations related to modernity, including the prelude to intimate relationships and, in an age still sui generis, the practice of sports, health and medicine, transmitted through the idea of a show. This study hopes to be one more contribution to the promotion of what we have called a social archeology of sports, a prospecting of its presence among social networks and webs.

  5. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Adelson, Wendi J

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how various systems in medicine are limiting representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Flat and decreasing percentages of Underrepresented Minorities in Medicine (URMM), especially in the black and Native American populations, is concerning for family medicine since members from URMM groups care for minority and underserved populations in greater numbers. Underrepresentation is not only noted in the medical community but also in our medical schools when it comes to numbers of URMM faculty. The changing definition of "disadvantaged" in medical school admissions has also played a part in limiting URMM representation. In addition, the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) excludes black, Latino, and Native American students in greater numbers. The authors support these arguments with evidence from the medical literature. Although unintentional, these systems effectively limit representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Effective changes are suggested and can be implemented to ensure that URMM individuals have equal representation in careers in medicine.

  6. Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish as Determinants of Identity: As Illustrated in the Jewish Press of the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Olszewska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish as Determinants of Identity: As Illustrated in the Jewish Press of the First Half of the Twentieth Century The paper shows an image and functions of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish languages among Jewish Diaspora groups – the Balkan Sephardim and the Ashkenazim (the Ostjuden group – in the period from the beginning of the twentieth century until the outbreak of World War II. The study is based on the articles from Jewish weeklies, magazines and newspapers from pre-war Bosnia and Hercegovina and from Germany/Poland. It demonstrates a double-sided attitude towards the languages. On the one hand – an image of the languages as determinants of Jewish identity. Touching on this theme, the authors of the paper also try to highlight the images of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish and as determinants in a narrower sense – of the Sephardi/Ashkenazi identity in that period. On the other hand, the paper shows a tendency to treat the languages as “corrupted” and “dying” languages, and as factors slowing down the assimilation of Jewish groups and also as an obstacle for Zionist ideologies.   Języki jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpański jako wskaźniki tożsamości – na przykładzie żydowskich tekstów prasowych pierwszej połowy XX wieku Artykuł ukazuje obraz i funkcje języków jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpańskiego wśród żydowskich grup diasporowych – bałkańskich Sefardyjczyków oraz Aszkenazyjczyków (Ostjuden – w okresie od początków wieku XX do wybuchu II wojny światowej. Opis oparty jest na artykułach z żydowskich magazynów, tygodników, prasy codziennej z przedwojennej Bośni i Hercegowiny oraz Niemiec/Polski. Ukazany jest ambiwalentny stosunek wobec języków. Z jednej strony – obraz języków jako wskaźników żydowskiej tożsamości, jak również obraz jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpańskiego jako wskaźników tożsamości w węższym ujęciu: tożsamości sefardyjskiej/aszkenazyjskiej w omawianym okresie. Z drugiej

  7. Avalanche related damage potential - changes of persons and mobile values since the mid-twentieth century, case study Galtür

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, M.; Zischg, A.; Fuchs, S.; Hama, M.; Stötter, J.

    2005-01-01

    When determining risk related to natural hazard processes, many studies neglect the investigations of the damage potential or are limited to the assessment of immobile values like buildings. However, persons as well as mobile values form an essential part of the damage potential. Knowledge of the maximum number of exposed persons in an endangered area is of great importance for elaborating evacuation plans and immediate measures in case of catastrophes. In addition, motor vehicles can also be highly damaged, as was shown by the analysis of avalanche events. With the removal of mobile values in time as a preventive measure this kind of damage can be minimised. This study presents a method for recording the maximum number of exposed persons and monetarily assessing motor vehicles in the municipality of Galtür (Tyrol, Austria). Moreover, general developments of the damage potential due to significant socio-economic changes since the mid-twentieth century are pointed out in the study area. The present situation of the maximum number of persons and mobile values in the official avalanche hazard zones of the municipality is described in detail. Information on the number of persons is derived of census data, tourism and employment statistics. During the winter months, a significant increase overlaid by strong short-term fluctuation in the number of persons can be noted. These changes result from a higher demand of tourism related manpower as well as from varying occupancy rates. The number of motor vehicles in endangered areas is closely associated to the number of exposed persons. The potential number of motor vehicles is investigated by means of mapping, statistics on the stock of motor vehicles and the density distribution. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of the investigated damage potential are pointed out. The recording of the number of persons and mobile values in endangered areas is vital for any disaster management.

  8. Penélopes do século XX: a cultura popular revisitada Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleci Eulalia Favaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No processo de ocupação das chamadas Velhas Colônias italianas do Rio Grande do Sul, os imigrantes construíram um corpo de valores positivos, destinado a servir de suporte emocional e veículo de comunicação externa. Por meio do bordado de imagens e inscrições sobre panos de parede ou panos de cozinha em tecidos rústicos, as mulheres contribuíram para alimentar o sonho de uma vida melhor. Desejo de todos, realização de alguns, as penélopes do século XX deixaram naqueles objetos testemunhos de um modo de fazer, pensar e agir: museus locais e exposições estimulam o resgate de antigas técnicas e temas de bordado; os produtos, comercializados nas feiras e festas regionais, convertem-se em renda para mulheres excluídas, pela idade, do mercado de trabalho formal.During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

  9. The Debate about the Origin of Venereal Disease and VD Control in Modern China : Focusing on Shanghai and Beijing in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIHN Kyuhwan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines venereal disease(VD control in Shanghai and Beijing in the first half of the twentieth century. It focuses on the debate about the origin of VD in which western doctors stressed the importance of prostitution rather than VD itself. While missionary western doctors approached VD and prostitution from a moral perspective, Chinese western doctors adopted a public health approach. Because Chinese western doctors favored the medium of popular magazines and newspapers to publicize VD and enlighten the public, it is difficult to find their writings on VD in the medical journals such as The National Medical Journal of China(NMJ. Therefore, Chinese western doctors had not been indifferent to VD as previously thought. Common people preferred the black market to the open clinic, and abused salvarsan to cure VD in secret. This suggests the sensitive nature of VD as a disease that degrades personal honor. VD control varied depending on the perspective of the origin of VD and the prostitution, and measures taken. While moralists in the debate upheld a position to abolish licensed prostitution, public health enthusiasts propped up licensed prostitution. VD control in Shanghai and Beijing displays a striking contrast. In Shanghai, the power to control VD and prostitutes were separated. The Shanghai Municipal Council(SMC, French Municipal Council(FMC, and Shanghai Municipality(SM did not cooperate in the control of VD and prostitutes. When SMC devoted its energies to abolish licensed prostitution, FMC and SM enjoyed prostitute's taxes. The Beiping Municipality(1928-1937 practiced multiple forms of control patterns and targets of VD. They adopted a bifurcated policy regarding VD. The targets of diagnosis were divided into prostitute, pregnant women, and normal citizen. The range of the reach of the health administration in Beiping Municipality was gradually magnified.

  10. Avalanche related damage potential - changes of persons and mobile values since the mid-twentieth century, case study Galtür

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keiler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When determining risk related to natural hazard processes, many studies neglect the investigations of the damage potential or are limited to the assessment of immobile values like buildings. However, persons as well as mobile values form an essential part of the damage potential. Knowledge of the maximum number of exposed persons in an endangered area is of great importance for elaborating evacuation plans and immediate measures in case of catastrophes. In addition, motor vehicles can also be highly damaged, as was shown by the analysis of avalanche events. With the removal of mobile values in time as a preventive measure this kind of damage can be minimised. This study presents a method for recording the maximum number of exposed persons and monetarily assessing motor vehicles in the municipality of Galtür (Tyrol, Austria. Moreover, general developments of the damage potential due to significant socio-economic changes since the mid-twentieth century are pointed out in the study area. The present situation of the maximum number of persons and mobile values in the official avalanche hazard zones of the municipality is described in detail. Information on the number of persons is derived of census data, tourism and employment statistics. During the winter months, a significant increase overlaid by strong short-term fluctuation in the number of persons can be noted. These changes result from a higher demand of tourism related manpower as well as from varying occupancy rates. The number of motor vehicles in endangered areas is closely associated to the number of exposed persons. The potential number of motor vehicles is investigated by means of mapping, statistics on the stock of motor vehicles and the density distribution. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of the investigated damage potential are pointed out. The recording of the number of persons and mobile values in endangered areas is vital for any disaster management.

  11. American Internal Medicine in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-01-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine. PMID:12950486

  12. Changing Women: The Cross-Currents of American Indian Feminine Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1988-01-01

    Examines the writings of contemporary American Indian women with regard to Euro-American stereotypes and their own concepts of femininity and Indian identity. Relates these writings to the social history of American Indians, traditional beliefs, and the autobiographical experiences of early twentieth century Indian women. Contains 32 references.…

  13. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    , i.e., doubt and insecurity about international law and its basis. Rather than facilitating international law as a practical discipline, a superfi cial understanding of internationalism reinforced fetishisms of the discipline's theoretical past, not least the axiom that states only are proper...

  14. A Twentieth Century Morality Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallenik, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Criticizes Erving Goffman's theory that human gestures express cultural assumptions which, in turn, legitimize social structure. Contends that Goffman blurs the distinction between his own observations as a social scientist and the interpretations of behavior by people within social situations. (JMF)

  15. Desperate remedies: a Gothic tale of madness and modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, A

    1987-08-01

    The theory that many diseases were produced by focal infection or chronic sepsis enjoyed a brief vogue in general medicine in the first quarter of the twentieth century. This paper explores its practical applications in psychiatry, which extended well into the 1930s. The analysis focuses particularly closely on the activities of Henry A. Cotton at the Trenton State Hospital in New Jersey.

  16. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  17. Using Philosophical Liberalism and Philosophical Conservatism as an Organizing Theme in the First Half of the American History Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Since approximately 1970, many historians have been seeking a unifying theme for the American History Survey. Early in the twentieth century, Progressive historians identified class conflict as the main theme in American History, but during the 1950s and 1960s, this view was challenged by the Consensus Schools' assertion that Americans have always…

  18. American Academy of Home Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles Community Paramedicine Is at the Forefront of Home Care Medicine By Linda DeCherrie, MD Learn how community ... You can still learn from the leaders in home-based primary care. All of the stand-out sessions will be ...

  19. Mollified in Madison: Optimism in Contemporary American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Geraldine R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses difficulties in teaching/reading "depressing" twentieth-century American literature. Suggests that the underlying themes are not depressing, and illustrates this assertion with examples from Edith Wharton's "Ethan Frome" and F. Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby." Provides an annotated list of 25…

  20. Changes in the Authority of the Father in the Polish Family in the Twentieth Century. The Interpretation from the Historical and Pedagogical Perspective [Przemiany autorytetu ojca w rodzinie polskiej w XX wieku. Interpretacja z perspektywy historyczno-pedagogicznej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł ŚPICA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays numerous researchers are interested in the subject area concerning fatherhood, including the father’s role in bringing up the child. It is not coincidental. In the last couple of years the position of men has significantly changed in Polish families. Jerzy Witczak has indicated that since the 1970s the role of man has not been thoroughly defined. The changes have led to the modification the roles of fathers, previously which were traditionally based on taking care of material needs and representing the family to the outside world. While in the first half of the twentieth century the role of man in family was clearly defined, in the second half of the twentieth century the father’s authority was increasingly contested. The reasons for this state of affairs lie in the transformations that took place in Polish culture and in socio-economic policy. Consequently traditional educational methods upon which parents used to build their authority ceased to be effective in the educational practise. Increasingly, researchers have begun to ask questions concerning the importance of father in the process of raising a child. However, the transformation of family life in the twentieth-century Poland did not proceed equally in all social classes. Fathers from the villages held different positions than men living in the cities. The latter group adopted the so-called urban lifestyle. There is no doubt, however, that in the first and second environment – although in varying degrees – the father as the head of the family has lost its dominant position. In order to understand why the old methods stopped working, we should look through the prism of social history and we should not forget about the consequences of political and economical transformations, which directly and indirectly influenced the transformations of Polish families in the twentieth century. The main aim of the article is to provide the historical context and the scholars

  1. Shaping Sexual Knowledge: A Cultural History of Sex Education in Twentieth Century Europe. Routledge Studies in the Social History of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Lutz, Ed.; Davidson, Roger, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The history of sex education enables us to gain valuable insights into the cultural constructions of what different societies have defined as 'normal' sexuality and sexual health. Yet, the history of sex education has only recently attracted the full attention of historians of modern sexuality. "Shaping Sexual Knowledge: A Cultural History of…

  2. Two Sides of the Same COIN: A Comparative Analysis of American and British Counterinsurgency Approaches at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    franchise offered a means to a larger end which gradually won the support of public opinion and became central to the casus belli.56 British...gained control of concentration camps, the gold mining industry began to improve and “civil life was being restored.”91 87Belfield, 142. 88Ibid...the insurgents from their supporting base. These included concentrating the population into safe zones and destroying food , buildings, and supplies

  3. Tunnel Vision and Blind Spots: What the Past Tells Us about the Present; Reflections on the Twentieth-Century History of American Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history of United States librarianship. Suggests that the profession has failed to analyze the meaning of library service and its significance to users. Argues that this has limited the ability to understand the present role of the U.S. library and thus affects efforts to plan for the future. Contains 131 references. (Author/LRW)

  4. Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Between the turn of the twentieth century and the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954, the way that American schools taught about "race" changed dramatically. This transformation was engineered by the nation's most prominent anthropologists, including Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead, during World War II.…

  5. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  6. American Influencies in Brazilian Physical Education: Clues in the Specialised Periodical Press (1932-1950)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Omar; Neto, Amarílio Ferreira; da Silva Mello, André; dos Santos, Wagner; Votre, Sebastião Josué; Assunção, Wallace Rocha

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the American presence and influences in the physical education press to understand the way in which that presence influenced and contributed to the production of a sports culture in the first half of the twentieth century. As historical sources, the study uses periodicals in the field that were published in the period…

  7. Alguns aspetos da interferência das ideias da revolução científica do início do século XX na poesia de Mário de Sá-Carneiro // Some aspects of the interference of the ideas of the scientific revolution of the beginning of the twentieth century in the poetry of Mário de Sá-Carneiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mazniak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between poetic creativity and the achievements of scientific thought in the early twentieth century. It does this through an analysis of aesthetic concepts and examples from the poetry of Mário de Sá-Carneiro, alongside an exploration of the main provisions of Theoretical Physics from the early twentieth century as far as the conceptions of space are concerned.

  8. “Gate and Port of the South of Argentina”? Nuances and Debates in the Image of Bahia Blanca City in Its Regional Context in the Mid-twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana López Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For over a century the people of Bahia Blanca, Argentinian port city located at the south west of the province of Buenos Aires, they have imagined it and defined it not only as part of the Patagonian territories but also as their legitimate political, economic and cultural center. The aim of historicizing and questioning this idea, trying to account for the interests that were mobilized, the ideological postures that hinted, and the impact it had on the effective regional layout, is what motivates our research. To that end, this article does focus on economic and infrastructural dimension that some debates of mid-twentieth century used simultaneously as evidence and as ultimate goal of this alleged hegemony. For this purpose, we will analyze the writings of Domingo Pronsato and Ricardo M. Ortiz whom, from different geopolitical perspectives, devised specific roles for the city that suited their plans for the regional development of Patagonia.

  9. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  10. Dwudziestowieczna filozofia analityczna. O pewnej próbie całościowego ujęcia (TWENTIETH-CENTURY ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY. ON A RECENT ATTEMPT OF ITS GENERAL ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Szubka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although analytic philosophy is a major movement shaping contemporary philosophy, there are not too many historical accounts of that movement which would be comprehensive, unified and sufficiently detailed. An impressive attempt to fill in this lacuna is the two-volume book 'Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century', modestly described by its author Scott Soames (renowned mainly for his work in the philosophy of language as 'an introductory overview of the analytic tradition in philosophy covering roughly the period between 1900 and 1975'. The first volume discusses the philosophy of G.E. Moore, the most influential views of Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein's 'Tractatus', logical positivism (including emotivism in ethics and reaction against it, as well as the early philosophy of W.V. Quine. The second volume continues the story of analytic philosophy by providing an account of the later philosophy of Wittgenstein, the ordinary language philosophy and its demise, the philosophical naturalism of W.V. Quine, the theory of meaning of Donald Davidson, and finally Saul Kripke's seminal philosophy of language and its wide-ranging implications. The book contains also a short epilogue outlining the direction taken by analytic philosophy in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The two volumes of Soames' account of contemporary analytic tradition are packed with lucid, sophisticated and detailed discussions of various views of major thinkers of that tradition. However, besides these merits the book by Soames has several weaker points. It defines analytic philosophy in a rather loose and unspecific manner, as well as gives an arbitrarily selective and unbalanced account of its recent developments.

  11. Political Science and the Good Citizen: The Genealogy of Traditionalist Paradigm of Citizenship Education in the American School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to chronicle paradigm shifts in American political science during the twentieth century and their influence on political scientists' perspectives on pre-collegiate citizenship education curriculum. Methodology: The research questions explored in this article are concerned with the history of political…

  12. History of geriatric medicine: from Hippocrates to Marjory Warren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritch, A

    2012-01-01

    It is widely assumed that geriatric medicine was an invention of the twentieth century. However, from the time of Hippocrates, there has been interest in the prolongation of the lifespan, the maintenance of health in old age and agerelated disease patterns. The debate about whether old age was a natural phenomenon or a disease state was not resolved until the nineteenth century. Calls for medicine relating to old age to be recognised as a discrete entity at the time when medical specialisation was developing were disregarded until the second half of the twentieth century. This review discusses the history of the theories of ageing and of disease and the practice of medicine for older people from the classical period up to Marjory Warren's initiative in London in 1935 and the development of geriatrics as a medical specialty.

  13. The Underrepresentation of African Americans in Army Combat Arms Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    socially significant. While the glass ceiling for African Americans appears to have been shattered for society as a whole, the fact that only eight of more...Chief of Staff, and there has yet to be an African American Chief of Staff of the Army all suggest that the glass ceiling still exists in the Army.34...whole of society had even accepted these individuals as more than three-fifths of a person.1 In the twentieth century, women integrated into the

  14. From Civic Conservation to the Age of Ecology: The Rise and Synthesis of Ecological Ideas in the American High School Science Curriculum, 1900-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological ideas have been manifested in diverse ways in American high schools since the early twentieth century. Core scientific concepts in ecology--the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment--include adaptations, plant succession, ecosystem ecology, and population ecology. This dissertation argues, however, that there…

  15. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  16. Family ties and intergenerational relationships in European families in the twentieth century [Więzy rodzinne i relacje międzypokoleniowe w rodzinach europejskich w XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie MAREČKOVÁ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intergenerational family relationships still performed an important social function in rural society in Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century. The situation within the Czech family illustrates the current problems in family ties and intergenerational relationships that have surfaced since the nineteen nineties. Negative developmental trends are being seen, particularly in comparison with family circumstances in other European countries, most significantly the continuing ageing of the population and the wide-ranging activities of seniors. Looser relationships with their families and a decline in their engagement in caring for their grandchildren mean that Czech grandparents tend to rank alongside more socially developed countries in this respect. Under Czech conditions, however, this can lead to great strain on the active roles played by seniors. The growing number of adult offspring, particularly men, living with their parents is a far from progressive trend in social and economic development, and corresponds more closely with southern European traditions. A preference for alternative forms of cohabitation, particularly among partners with primary education, the postponing of the birth of the first child, the growth in the number of single-person households and, perhaps most importantly, the enormous rise in the number of households comprised of young or middle-aged individuals in the economically productive age group may, it is true, rank the Czech Republic among socially developed countries and at around the European average, though in view of the unfavourable demographic trend a fundamental change in state support for marriage and the family is, however, also essential in the Czech Republic. The fact is that more than a third of families with children are threatened with poverty. The conclusion arising from the analyses performed indicates that the current problems in state social and family policy are reflected in the increasing

  17. A glimmer of hope in American pain medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatman ME

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Schatman US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USAOver the past 8 years, I have acquired a degree of notoriety relating to my scathing criticism of the badly broken American pain care system. In the three-part series on the crisis in pain care in the United States that I coauthored with Dr Jim Giordano in 2008,1-3 we performed an ethical analysis of our system, examining the need for a paradigmatic revision if we were to adequately treat a disease as complex as is chronic pain, given the system's economic realities. Due to the insurance and hospital industries' adherence to the "business ethic" of cost-containment and profitability (as opposed to patient well-being, we were witnessing the profound undertreatment of pain in conjunction with a growing reliance upon technophilism, ie, an emphasis on technologically driven pain care sorely lacking a reasonable evidence-basis. Early in the following decade, Dr Alan Lebovits and I guest-edited a special series in Pain Medicine on the unfortunate devolution of the "profession" of pain medicine to the "business" of pain medicine.4 

  18. Formalism in the first half of the twentieth century: ‘pure science’ or a case of effective rhetoric? Mitchell B. Frank and Daniel Adler (eds, German Art History and Scientific Thought – Beyond Formalism, Ashgate, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Witte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available German Art History and Scientific Thought – Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a practical and methodological level, but at the same time illustrate how the quest for objectivity and scientific methods was accompanied by an irrational search for essential characteristics of art through race. Especially the exchange with psychology, physiognomy, and psychophysiology supported this kind reasoning in circles in which objectivity was related to holistic explanations. This led to a rhetoric of objective Kunstwissenschaft that spoke in terms of rational facts, but in which the concepts of character and evolution resulted in highly ideological interpretations, which became discredited after 1945. However, the post-war reaction to this in itself again affected another turn towards the ‘objective’ which goes to show how external, political, changes affected the relation between art history and the sciences.

  19. Evolutionary molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2012-05-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and related principles to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

  20. [Organization of medical specialization in cervical cancer and its control in Brazil: the Instituto de Ginecologia in Rio de Janeiro in the mid-twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Instituto de Ginecologia (Institute of Gynecology), in Rio de Janeiro, headed by Dr. Arnaldo de Moraes, was the first institution in Brazil to introduce and divulge medical techniques for the control of cervical cancer in the mid-1900s. It became a benchmark for actions geared towards the disease at the time, organizing a specific diagnostic procedure that set Brazilian medicine apart in the field, in which it remained a leader until the 1970s. The aim of this text is to discuss the organization and running of the institution from two perspectives: its role in enhancing the position of gynecology as a medical specialty, and its role in spreading a standard practice for the control of cervical cancer.

  1. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication.

  2. American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine in 2006: embracing the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Mitchell

    2007-04-01

    The American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) modified its mission and structure in 1997 to become an organization focused on medical rehabilitation research. Initially, this transformation accelerated an already diminishing membership, a weakened financial condition, and some level of dysfunction within the organizational structure. In recent years, with the advent of evidence-based practice and the expectation that empirical research is critical to the survival of clinical specialties such as rehabilitation medicine, ACRM has become re-energized. New initiatives have been spawned that have led to stabilization and an influx of new members, a measurable improvement in the quality of scientific presentations at, and participation in, the annual meetings, efforts directed toward increasing the visibility and involvement of ACRM on an international level, programming directed toward early career scientists, strong public policy advocacy, and renewed and expanded inter-organizational partnerships. In addition, the financial position of ACRM has improved markedly and prospects toward long-term fiscal health and growth are "the new reality." ACRM has now moved significantly beyond the "survival" step of the Maslow hierarchy toward the goal of self-actualization.

  3. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. On the Advantages and Defects of the American Structuralism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓莹

    2004-01-01

    During the years at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century when Saussure was working out his ideas in Europe, synchronic linguistics was emerging independently, and in a very different style, in America, under the leadership of the anthropologist Franz Boas. Boas set a direction for American linguistics. The school founded by Boas was called structural linguistics. Beside Boas, the other two major representatives of this school during this period were: Sapir and Bloomfield.

  5. Making to Taste: Culinary Experimentalism in Asian Pacific American Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Stephanie H.

    2014-01-01

    This project studies works by Asian Pacific American writers and artists that respond critically to the widespread enthusiasm for ethnic food and multiculturalism which arose in the United States during the late-twentieth century. This enthusiasm reflected popular hope that food culture's welcoming of ethnic cuisine was a sign of racism receding into the past. Yet consuming palatable ethnic food representations as a surrogate for racialized bodies encourages the disavowal of past inequities...

  6. The Kodály and Rajkó Methods: Voices, Instruments, Ethnicity, and the Globalization of Hungarian Music Education in the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Hooker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is one of the fields in which Hungary has distinguished itself around the world, and music education is an arena in which Hungarian methods have had a profound impact. The basic principles of Hungarian music-pedagogical methods, developed by Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967 and his disciples and thus known as the Kodály method, are systematic instruction in sight-singing using “movable-do” solfège and rhythmic syllables, with the ideal of developing music literacy in all children through high-quality music, mainly classical and folk repertoire for choirs. Another type of well-known Hungarian music, so-called “Gypsy music,” is specifically denied legitimacy both in Kodály’s writings and those of some of his students, for two reasons: much of it is primarily instrumental instead of vocal, and it is considered “bad.” Yet Romani (Gypsy musicians from Hungary have also become famous internationally, some from quite a young age. The Rajkó Ensemble, established in 1952 as the Gypsy Orchestra of the Young Communists’ League, brought Hungarian and Hungarian-Gypsy music to over a hundred countries over the years. Interviews with Rajkó members, some conducted by the author and some previously published, reveal those musicians struggling to claim the legitimacy not only of their music but of their music pedagogy, implicitly comparing the Rajkó method to the Kodály method. After a brief discussion of the Kodály method and its history, this essay gives some examples of how that method has dealt with talented Romani youth in Hungary; compares the Kodály method to methods of teaching instrumental music in Roma communities and in the Rajkó Ensemble; and considers how American ideals of multicultural education challenge some of Kodály’s tenets.

  7. Women’s Activism and Innovation in Education: the Role of the Unione Femminile Nazionale in Sicily for the Transformation of Italian Pedagogy at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letterio Todaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the twentieth century represented a special occasion in the development of women’s movements as a vehicle for a new culture of education. The growing role of women’s associations in modern society found fertile ground in the increasing demand for childcare. In Italy such a process reflected a meaningful phenomenon of social transformation, which was linked to the ascent of the lower classes and to the progression of democratic values. In a region like Sicily, the appearance of local branches of the Unione Femminile Nazionale in some principal cities of the isle, such as Catania, from 1909 onwards represented a crucial opportunity not only for the social and cultural elevation of working-class children, but also for the introduction of new models of schooling and the experimentation of new methods in education, within the wider framework of a general renewal in the science of education of the time. The most representative witness and «learner» of these innovative approaches to education was Giuseppe Lombardo Radice, who was to «transfer» many aspects of his experience into the reform of the entire primary school system in Italy (1923 in line with the design of «active schooling». A survey of the experience of the Sicilian sections of the Unione provides not only a significant example of civilization processes promoted by women’s activism, but also a key to better understanding the wealth of resources involved in the construction of a modern pedagogy in Italy before the coming of Fascism.

  8. History of twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1995-01-01

    The meaning and message of the history of science will be discussed with relevance to XX century physics. This decisive period began in 1894-95 with the discoveries of the electron,X-rays and radioactivity,with the consequent development of relativity and quantumphysics. Connections of the development of science and society in XX century with culture and the influence on industry will be examined. Finally, the corruption of physics by the military will be considered. The influence of physics on chemistry and biology will be briefly treated and the impact of the approach and method of physics on modern thinking will be assessed. It should be kept in mind that the history of science is not a way of getting a simplified or adulterated presentation of the subject ,in this case of physics and so some understanding of general physics will be assumed. On the other hand, the broader generalisations of the history of ideas and events are illustrated (if not proven) by the facts (and myths) of science. Finally,as an e...

  9. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  10. Military Planning in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Finally, the proceedings could not have been prepared without the able assistance of Ms. Nellie Dykes and Mrs. Christy Whale who prepared the pa ers...he was prepared to shove them aside once and for all. 20 4. He suffered from the normal ultra-Fascist addiction to the idea that war is the

  11. Misreading Science in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Considers textual aspects of scientific communication and problems for reception presented by the complex dynamics of communicating scientific work. Discusses scientific work based on fraud or misconduct and disputes about the nature of science, and applies reception theory and reader-response criticism to understand variations in readings of the…

  12. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David J

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual changes brought by modern physics are important, radical and fascinating, yet they are only vaguely understood by people working outside the field. Exploring the four pillars of modern physics – relativity, quantum mechanics, elementary particles and cosmology – this clear and lively account will interest anyone who has wondered what Einstein, Bohr, Schrödinger and Heisenberg were really talking about. The book discusses quarks and leptons, antiparticles and Feynman diagrams, curved space-time, the Big Bang and the expanding Universe. Suitable for undergraduate students in non-science as well as science subjects, it uses problems and worked examples to help readers develop an understanding of what recent advances in physics actually mean.

  13. Gauge Theories in the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the 1970s, it was clear that all the known forces of nature (including, in a sense, gravity) were examples of gauge theories , characterized by invariance under symmetry transformations chosen independently at each position and each time. These ideas culminated with the finding of the W and Z gauge bosons (and perhaps also the Higgs boson). This important book brings together the key papers in the history of gauge theories, including the discoveries of: the role of gauge transformations in the quantum theory of electrically charged particles in the 1920s; nonabelian gauge groups

  14. Presentation: Twentieth-century Dictatorships and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nelis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier agrupa trabajos que cubren una amplia zona geográfica, ofreciendo diferentes puntos de vista sobre aspectos concernientes a la relación entre políticas dictatoriales y religión. El resultado final es ocho artículos que abordan la cuestión en cuatro continentes: Asia, África, América y Europa. Por la diversidad de enfoques, los artículos tratan, desde perspectivas diferentes, las actitudes “pragmáticas” coloniales y postcoloniales hacia la religión en África (Grandhomme y Kroubo Dagnini, la identidad religiosa africana (Chande, el uso de la religión como una fuente de moral y ética en Argentina (Cousins y Francia (Stevens, el punto de tensión entre la religión y política tradicionales y el mito en China (Lee e Italia (Nelis, y las actitudes de la dictadura hacia la identidad religiosa en España (Beck.____________________ABSTRACT:This dossier contains essays that cover a broad geographic area, offering different points of view on various aspects concerning the relation between dictatorship policies and religion. The final result are eight articles, which deal with the situation on four continents: Asia, Africa, America and Europe. Presenting a great variety of approaches, the articles show different views on the “pragmatic” colonial and post-colonial attitudes towards religion in Africa (Grandhomme and Kroubo Dagnini, African religious identity (Chande, the use of religion as a source of morals and ethics in Argentina (Cousins and France (Stevens, the point of tension between traditional religion and politics and the myth in China (Lee and Italy (Nelis and the dictatorship’s attitude towards the religious identity in Spain (Beck.

  15. Learning from Twentieth Century Hermeneutic Phenomenology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annette Stones

    2008-05-01

    May 1, 2008 ... ... explicit in terms of intentionalities how, for instance, a memory ... and psychology to take heed of what the hermeneutic ..... the key passages from Husserl, a few short remarks ... because he took Husserl's attention to lived.

  16. La editorial Ricordi y su aportación a la publicidad italiana de principios del siglo XX / The publisher Ricordi and his contribution to the Italian advertising early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Francia Ferrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de estudio de la presente investigación es el nacimiento de las campañas publicitarias gráficas orquestadas por la fructífera colaboración entre empresarios, editores e ilustradores entre los siglos XIX y XX en Italia. El estudio se centra en la Casa Editorial Ricordi porque fue la creadora e impulsora del moderno cartel artístico y publicitario italiano, con un vasta producción de ejemplares, hoy considerados obras maestras del género. La etapa de oro del cartel italiano coincide, no por casualidad, con el predominio técnico y artístico de esta empresa en Italia que nada tenía que envidiar a sus competidoras francesas (como la prestigiosa Imprimerie Chaix parisina, tan querida por Jules Chéret, alemanas o inglesas. El período analizado (1890-1914 es el de mayor actividad y esplendor artístico en las artes gráficas. Son los años de los primeros pasos en el campo de la publicidad. Como en todos los comienzos, abundan las ideas, la energía, la ingenuidad y las ganas de experimentar. Es un tiempo lleno de cambios: la transformación económica, social e industrial que vivió Europa en un lapso tan corto de  tiempo es probablemente la mayor de su historia.The purpose of this research is the birth of graphic advertising campaigns orchestrated by the fruitful collaboration between employers, publishers and illustrators between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Italy. The study focuses on the Ricordi publishing house because it was the creator and driving force of the modern Italian poster art and advertising with a vast production of copies, today considered masterpieces of the genre. The golden age of Italian poster coincides, not coincidentally, with the technical and artistic dominance of this company in Italy that had nothing to envy their French competitors (including the prestigious Paris Imprimerie Chaix, so beloved by Jules Cheret, German or England. The period analyzed (1890-1914 is the most active and

  17. Las revistas de empresa en España: algunos ejemplos de house organ desde principios del siglo XX / House Organ in Spain: some examples from the early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Reina Estevez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sobre los house organ o revista de empresa parece haberse escrito muy poco y siempre desde su dimensión técnica, obviando su evolución histórica. Pese a ser una técnica con fuerte tradición en otros países como EEUU, Inglaterra o Francia desde finales del siglo XIX, en España su estudio ha pasado casi desapercibido. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es encontrar algunas manifestaciones de este instrumento en las organizaciones patrias desde principios del pasado siglo XX, para confeccionar una lista de ejemplos reales sin carácter exhaustivo. Para alcanzar los resultados se parte de una revisión bibliográfica de las primeras obras sobre publicidad que se publicaron en nuestro país, que dará lugar al estudio de los manuales sobre relaciones públicas que se han editado posteriormente. Esta metodología se completa con la consulta a hemerotecas y las, comúnmente conocidas, como librerías de viejo o librerías de segunda mano, donde a día de hoy se atesoran algunos ejemplares de house organ que han sobrevivido al paso del tiempo. / It´s have written about house organ very little and always from technical dimension, ignoring the historical evolution. Despite being a technique with a strong tradition in other countries like USA, England or France since the late nineteenth century, in Spain study it has gone unnoticed until now. The main objective of this research focuses on finding some manifestations of this instrument in the patriotic organizations since the beginning of the twentieth century, to compile a list of real examples without limitation. To achieve results is part of a literature review of the first works on advertising that were published in our country that will lead to the study of public relations manuals that have been subsequently released. This methodology is supplemented by consulting newspaper archives and used bookstores, where today some specimens of house organs have survived the passage of time.

  18. Los circuitos del agua y la higiene urbana en la ciudad de Cartagena a comienzos del siglo XX Water pipelines conduits and urban sanitation in Cartagena in the beginning of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro León Casas Orrego

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartagena de Indias, puerto en el Caribe colombiano, convivió durante su historia con la desventaja de no poder ofrecer condiciones de salubridad a sus habitantes y visitantes. La falta de un acueducto y de un sistema de alcantarillado fueron obstáculos para el progreso de la ciudad. Estos problemas provocaron, casi por cuarenta años (1890-1930, un sinnúmero de discursos de medicalización formulados por científicos, técnicos y políticos. El aporte de Cartagena a la solución del problema de la higiene de las ciudades consistió en aprovechar el saber del ingeniero. La construcción del equipamiento urbano, a comienzos del siglo XX, requirió la presencia de un conocimiento más técnico que planteara una solución integral para el problema del agua, garantizando abastecimiento suficiente y eficiente evacuación. Así, en el último cambio de siglo, el médico deja de ser la única autoridad en los asuntos de regulación de la vida urbana. Las obras que demandan al ingeniero y lo involucran en la salubridad pública producen una distinción entre "higiene" y "ciencia sanitaria".Throughout its history, Cartagena de Indias, a seaport in the Colombian Caribbean, has been handicapped for not offering salubrious conditions to its people and visitors. The lack of an aqueduct and a sewerage system was an impairment to progress. For nearly forty years (1890-1930 these problems have caused a myriad of medical discourses formulated by scientists, technicians and politicians. Cartagena’s contribution to solve the sanitation problem in cities has consisted in making use of engineers’ knowledge. The construction of urban facilities in the beginning of the twentieth century required a more technical knowledge, one which would advance a comprehensive solution to the water problem, ensure sufficient supply and efficient drainage. Thus, in the last turn of the century, the medical doctor is no longer the only authoritative voice when it comes to the

  19. THE APOLOGETIC CONCERN IN THE WORK OF BIBLICAL THEOLOGIANS OF THE KIEV THEOLOGICAL ACADEMY FROM THE END OF THE NINETEENTH TO THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (THE PROBLEM OF FINDING COMMON GROUND FOR THEOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Golovashchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the relationship between scientific and theological components in a selection of the works of well-known Biblical scholars active at the Kiev Theological Academy around the turn of the nineteenth century and the begin ning of the twentieth. Among them figure the names of F. J. Pokrovsky, V. P. Rybinsky, D. I. Bogdashevsky, and Father A. A. Glagolev. The work of these experts has been little studied until today. The spiritual, intellectual, and ideological context of the time has been taken into account by the author. The author of this article pays special attention to the ideological background surrounding the polemic between Russian Orthodox biblical scholars and those proponents of the negative school of biblical exegesis. The focus is on several key elements of understanding the Bible, the research and exposition of biblical history, as well as points of dogmatic and moral import stemming from an interpretation of the scriptures. The author demonstrates that the position of the Kievan biblical scholars was apologetic, contrasting the theological and scientific schools against the background of a more than positivistic understanding of history and the Bible seen as the sacred scripture of the Church. In this way, they contributed to academic research, and the way of teaching the scriptures of the schools, as well as the exposition of the scriptures for the purpose of dogmatic and moral enlightenment. At the same time, they began the process of working towards a synthesis as an approach for further scientific and theological research. Important for the continuing development of Russian Orthodox biblical studies during the twentieth century was finding a balance between Orthodox biblical apologetics and scientific thought . This attempt at re-discovering and reconstructing the apologetic atmosphere of the Kievan biblical scholars was made possible through a combination of several factors — one of the most important being

  20. Lincoln’s Image in the American Schoolbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Goldfield

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Lincoln's image in American school books has reflected the shifting political and social landscape of American society. Following Lincoln's assassination in 1865, textbooks for the next half century portrayed him as a martyr for a mostly evangelical Protestant nation and as a role model for African Americans. The centennial of Lincoln's birth in 1909 and the massive immigration during the first two decades of the twentieth century broadened the image of Lincoln in textbooks as a common man and an inspiration for American diversity.

  1. Estimating Neonatal Mortality Rates from the Heights of Children: The Case of American Slaves

    OpenAIRE

    Richard H. Steckel

    1985-01-01

    Underenumeration of vital events is a problem familiar topeople who work with historical demographic records. This paper proposes a method for recovering information about neonatal mortality.The approach utilizes average heights of young children to predict the birth weight of American slaves. The results suggest that slave newborns weighed on average about 5.1 pounds, which places them among the poorest populations of developing countries in the mid-twentieth century. The birth weight distri...

  2. More than a “Subspecies of American Literature”: Obstacles toward a Transnational Mormon Novel

    OpenAIRE

    Hales, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) has become an increasingly international organization with more than half of its members currently living outside US borders. Still, because of its US origins, strongly centralized Salt Lake City headquarters, and doctrinal traditions that privilege the United States as a Promised Land, Mormonism remains an American church in the eyes of much of the world. This essay explores Mormonism’s struggle to int...

  3. Concepts, Diagnosis and the History of Medicine: Historicising Ian Hacking and Munchausen Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Concepts used by historians are as historical as the diagnoses or categories that are studied. The example of Munchausen syndrome (deceptive presentation of illness in order to adopt the 'sick role') is used to explore this. Like most psychiatric diagnoses, Munchausen syndrome is not thought applicable across time by social historians of medicine. It is historically specific, drawing upon twentieth-century anthropology and sociology to explain motivation through desire for the 'sick role'. Ian Hacking's concepts of 'making up people' and 'looping effects' are regularly utilised outside of the context in which they are formed. However, this context is precisely the same anthropological and sociological insight used to explain Munchausen syndrome. It remains correct to resist the projection of Munchausen syndrome into the past. However, it seems inconsistent to use Hacking's concepts to describe identity formation before the twentieth century as they are given meaning by an identical context.

  4. The family and its problems in andragogical magazines of the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century [Rodzina i jej problemy w czasopismach andragogicznych przełomu lat pięćdziesiątych i sześćdziesiątych XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna JANIK-KOMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/publishThe text deals with the family problems and its support for their solutions based on articles published in andragogical magazines of the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century. These issues are extremely interesting, since they relate to the family life culture, marriage preparation and family life education. Preparing for marriage is of great importance for the future of its operation. Its absence has an effect on family problems and marital conflicts later in life. Parenting universities provided support for families in solving their problems, primarily in dealing with behavioral problems, but also provided knowledge from other areas of life.er/metadata

  5. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  6. Psychiatry in American Medical Education: The Case of Harvard's Medical School, 1900-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Tara H

    2018-01-01

    As American psychiatrists moved from the asylum to the private clinic during the early twentieth century, psychiatry acquired a growing presence within medical school curricula. This shift in disciplinary status took place at a time when medical education itself was experiencing a period of reform. By examining medical school registers at Harvard University, records from the Dean's office of Harvard's medical school, and oral histories, this paper examines the rise in prominence of psychiatry in medical education. Three builders of Harvard psychiatry - Elmer E. Southard, C. Macfie Campbell, and Harry C. Solomon - simultaneously sought to mark territory for psychiatry and its relevance. In doing so, they capitalized on three related elements: the fluidity that existed between psychiatry and neurology, the new venues whereby medical students gained training in psychiatry, and the broader role of patrons, professional associations, and certification boards, which sought to expand psychiatry's influence in the social and cultural life of twentieth-century America.

  7. Cárie dentária e flúor: uma relação do século XX Dental caries and fluorine: a twentieth century relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Capel Narvai

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No início do século XX a cárie dentária era um problema de saúde pública, na maior parte do planeta. As populações conviviam com infecção, dor, sofrimento e mutilação. A descoberta do efeito preventivo do flúor o transformou, ao longo do século, no principal agente utilizado no enfrentamento da doença em todo o mundo. Em vários países e também no Brasil produtos fluorados têm sido apontados como os principais responsáveis pelo declínio observado na prevalência da cárie. No Brasil, estudos pioneiros realizados nos anos 50 e 60 corroboraram a eficácia preventiva da fluoretação das águas. No período 1986-1996, com 42% da população recebendo água fluoretada, a queda na prevalência da cárie entre crianças de 12 anos de idade foi de 53%. Além da água fluoretada também os dentifrícios são, no presente, amplamente utilizados como veículos para uso do flúor em saúde pública. Neste artigo são abordados aspectos históricos do emprego de flúor, algumas características epidemiológicas da cárie dentária no Brasil, e as perspectivas da continuidade do uso de produtos fluorados nas próximas décadas.In the early of Twentieth Century, dental caries were a big public health problem around world. Infection, pain, suffering and mutilation reached all people. The discovering of preventive effect of fluorine became them, through the Century, the main agent in fighting to disease worldwide. In various countries, including Brazil, fluoridated products have been pointed as main causes for dental caries prevalence decline. Also in Brazil, at the 50s and 60s, the preventive effect of water fluoridation was ratified for some pioneer studies. For the period 1986-1996 epidemiological data shown a significant reduction of 53% in the DMF-T index value at 12-years-old schoolchildren. Water and dentifrices are largely used as vehicle for fluoride in public health actions. In Brazil 42% of population has access to fluoridated

  8. The premature newborn in mid-twentieth century according to Julius Hess Recém-nascido prematuro em meados do século xx, na ótica de Julius Hess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Oliveira Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrever, analiticamente, os cuidados propostos na admissão do recém-nascido na obra em referência. Método: Operação historiográfica na perspectiva da micro-história, com recorte temporal no século XX. Resultados: Para a admissão do recém-nascido, medidas como o uso de capa de lã com capuz ou a combinação de gaze com algodão estéril para envolver o RN deveriam ser empregada, assim como ou o uso de garrafas com água quente e incubadoras para a manutenção da temperatura. Quanto a permeabilidade das vias aéreas, era sabido que a remoção das secreções seja por meio da gravidade e posicionamento do RN, ou mesmo por dedo envolto em gaze eram as medidas em destaque. Conclusão: Ao longo dos anos analisados, é possível apontar que algumas modificações e adaptações foram feitas, mas com base em uma mesma justificativa para o cuidado em si. Abstract: Objective: To describe analytically the proposed care on admission of the newborn in the work in question. Method: historiographical operation from the perspective of micro- history, with time frame in the twentieth century. Results: For the admission of the newborn , measures such as the use of wool hooded cloak or a combination of gauze with sterile cotton to engage the RN should be used as well as or the use of bottles with hot water and incubators for maintaining the temperature . As the permeability of the airways, it was known that the removal of secretions or by means of gravity and positioning of the newborn , or even finger wrapped in gauze were the featured measures. Conclusion: Over the years analyzed , it is possible to point out that some modifications and adaptations were made, but based on the same rationale for the care itself. Descriptors: Infant, Newborn, History.   Resumen: Objetivo: Describir analíticamente la atención propuesta al ingreso del recién nacido en la obra en cuestión. Método: La operación historiográfica desde la perspectiva de la micro

  9. Readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Abhishek; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil; Frank, Rachel M

    2014-04-01

    Although studies have revealed high readability levels of orthopedic patient education materials, no study has evaluated sports medicine-related patient education materials. We conducted a study to assess the readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM). All sports medicine patient education articles available online in 2012 from the AAOS and the AOSSM, including the Stop Sports Injuries Campaign (STOP), were identified, and their readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) readability test. Mean overall FK grade level of the 170 articles reviewed (104 from AAOS, 36 from AOSSM, 30 from STOP) was 10.2. Mean FK levels for the 3 sources were 9.5 (AAOS), 11.0 (AOSSM), and 11.5 (STOP) (P = .16). Fifteen (8.8%) of the 170 articles had a readability level at or below eighth grade (average reading level of US adults); only 2 (1.2%) of the 170 articles were at or below the recommended sixth-grade level. The majority of sports medicine-related patient education materials from AAOS and AOSSM had reading levels higher than recommended, indicating that the majority of the patient population may find it difficult to comprehend these articles.

  10. O Jequitinhonha dos viajantes, séculos XIX e XX: olhares diversos sobre as relações sociedade - natureza no nordeste mineiro The voyagers' Jequitinhonha, Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries: different views over the society - nature relations in northeast Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lobato Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa as mudanças ambientais no Médio Jequitinhonha entre o início do século XIX e o início do XX, através da releitura de relatos de viajantes e textos de memorialistas. São indicadas as principais formas de degradação ambiental presentes na região e avaliados os seus impactos sobre as caatingas e as matas virgens. Conclui-se que: a houve aumento expressivo da velocidade de alteração das paisagens regionais na primeira metade do século XX e; b essa alteração fortaleceu a tendência de pecuarização na economia do Médio Jequitinhonha.This paper analyzes the environmental changes in the Middle Jequitinhonha between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries beginnings, through the reading of the memoirialists and voyagers reports. The major environmental degradating actions that take place in the region are indicated and its impacts over the caatingas and forests are evaluated. It concludes: a an expressive increase in the velocity of the regional landscapes change in the first half of twentieth century; b and this change annealed the tendency of cattle's predominance in Middle Jequitinhonha economy.

  11. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... a transnational sense of Arab Americanness to negotiate her own gender and ethnic identity. This is significant because we currently lack a broader historical understanding of Arab American women’s public agency, particularly during the mid-twentieth century. Hakim’s memoir requires us to rethink the history...... of Arab American women’s strategies of self-representation in ways that acknowledge but are not confined within the terms of conventional orientalist discourses....

  12. The Home Front and War in the Twentieth Century. The American Experience in Comparative Perspective: Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (10th) Held at the United States Air Force Academy on 20-22 October 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    dues, an unaccustomed charge for the recently unemployed ; for the federal income tax, for the first time collected on a pay-as-you-go basis; and for... psychic shock and physical stress. Schlieffen was by no means alone in his assertion that the armed forces available to modem nations could be maintained...measures concerned with creating employment-the most important political task considering six million unemployed -should be closely coordinated with the idea

  13. Race-Conscious Professionalism and African American Representation in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian W; White, Augustus A; Oriol, Nancy E; Jain, Sachin H

    2016-07-01

    African Americans remain substantially less likely than other physicians to hold academic appointments. The roots of these disparities stem from different extrinsic and intrinsic forces that guide career development. Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. Although essential, these initiatives fail to confront the unique intrinsic forces that shape career development. America's ignoble history of violence, racism, and exclusion exposes African American physicians to distinct personal pressures and motivations that shape professional development and career goals. This article explores these intrinsic pressures with a focus on their historical roots; reviews evidence of their effect on physician development; and considers the implications of these trends for improving African American representation in academic medicine. The paradigm of "race-conscious professionalism" is used to understand the dual obligation encountered by many minority physicians not only to pursue excellence in their field but also to leverage their professional stature to improve the well-being of their communities. Intrinsic motivations introduced by race-conscious professionalism complicate efforts to increase the representation of minorities in academic medicine. For many African American physicians, a desire to have their work focused on the community will be at odds with traditional paths to professional advancement. Specific policy options are discussed that would leverage race-conscious professionalism as a draw to a career in academic medicine, rather than a force that diverts commitment elsewhere.

  14. Theaters of time and space American planetaria, 1930-1970

    CERN Document Server

    Marche, Jordan

    2005-01-01

    Every year, millions of Americans visit planetariums and are captivated by their strikingly realistic portrayal of the night sky. Today, it is indeed difficult to imagine astronomy education without these magnificent celestial theaters. But projection planetariums, first developed in Germany, have been a part of American museum pedagogy only since the early twentieth century and were not widespread until the 1960s. In this unique social history, former planetarium director and historian of science Jordan D. Marché II offers the first complete account of the community of individuals and institu

  15. The role of medical education in the development of the scientific practice of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Lucien; Kaell, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The authors describe the important role of medical schools and graduate medical education programs (residencies) in relationship to the advances in Medicine witnessed during the twentieth century; diagnosis, prognosis and treatment were revolutionized. This historical essay details the evolution of the education system and the successful struggle to introduce a uniform, science-based curriculum and bedside education. The result was successive generations of soundly educated physicians prepared with a broad knowledge in science, an understanding of laboratory methods and the ability to practice medicine at the bedside. These changes in medical education created a foundation for the advancement of medicine.

  16. A Review of Tenure for Black, Latino, and Native American Faculty in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Zedeena E; Rodríguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M

    2017-01-01

    Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Education Resources Information Center for articles relating to URMM faculty and tenure. Articles published in the last 20 years, in English, that discussed recruitment or retention of women, URMM faculty, and tenure in academic medicine, and were of high quality based on data were included in the study. Narrative reviews, opinion, editorials, and letters to the editor were excluded. Of the 1038 articles we reviewed, 23 met the criteria for inclusion. Tenure was associated with leadership, higher salaries, and comfort in the work environment. URMM faculty comprised the lowest percentage of tenured faculty in academic medicine, with the highest percentage pertaining to white men. More research needs to be done to determine whether tenure status can improve the number of URMM faculty in academic medicine. Tenure may provide URMM faculty the benefits that they need to progress in their careers and remain in academic medicine.

  17. An Analysis Of American Social Condition In THE Middle Of 20Th Century Viewed In Harper Lee’s Novel To Kill A Mockingbird

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Dix Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul The Analysis of American Social Condition in the Middle of Twentieth Century Viewed in Harper Lee’s Novel To Kill A Mockingbird. Yaitu suatu analisis mengenai kondisi sosial masyarakat di Amerika Serikat pada pertengahan abad 20 yang terlihat dalam novel To Kill A Mockingbird karya dari Harper Lee. Dalam analisis ini, penulis menggunakan pendekatan historis mengenai sejarah Amerika pada pertengahan abad keduapuluh. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif ...

  18. Official Program and Abstracts of the 15. Meeting of the Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine Societies (ALASBIMN 97); Iberoamerican Congress of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This issue contains 117 abstracts of lectures and poster sessions of the 15th Meeting of the Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine Societies (ALASBIMN 97) and Iberoamerican Congress of Nuclear Medicine, held in Lima, Peru, from 26 to 30 October 1997. The key subjects addressed are nuclear medicine and diagnostic techniques on brain, liver, lungs, heart, osteo-articular, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, radiopharmaceuticals, medical physics, SPECT and their applications in diagnostic medicine. (APC)

  19. Big lie, small world: what E. Lynn Harris wanted readers to understand about the struggle for African American, homosexual males seeking to attain the American dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    This article will examine the social implications for African American homosexual males seeking to achieve the American Dream. Invisible Life and Just as I Am-the first two novels in a trilogy by the late E. Lynn Harris writing from a semi-autobiographical perspective in late-twentieth century America-will serve as the texts that drive this research topic. Careful analysis of these works will substantiate the assertion that the American Dream, even on the cusp of the new millennium, is just beyond the grasp of this specific subpopulation.

  20. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. McMahon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines examines the American colonization of the Philippines from three distinct but related literary perspectives. The first is the reaction of anti-imperialist American writers Mark Twain, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William James to America’s first foray into the role of colonizer and how their varied essays, letters, and speeches provide an incisive delineation of fundamental conflicts in American identity at the turn of the twentieth century. The book then analyzes how these same conflicts surface in the colonial regime’s use of American literature as a tool to inculcate American values in the colonial educational system. Finally, Dead Stars considers the way three early and important Filipino writers—Paz Marquez Benitez, Maximo Kalaw, and Juan C. Laya—interpret and represent these same tensions in their fiction.

  1. Das Unsichtbare sichtbar machen. Zum vergessenen Beitrag der alten deutschen Frauenbewegung zur Wohn- und Siedlungsreform im frühen 20. Jahrhundert Making the Invisible Visible—On a Forgotten Contribution to the Early German Women’s Movement: Housing Reform at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wucherpfennig

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Wohnungs- und Städtebau der Moderne gilt weitgehend als eine „Männerdomäne”. In ihrer Schrift Die Wohnungsfrage ist Frauensache! zeigen Ulla Terlinden und Susanna von Oertzen demgegenüber die vielfältigen und einflussreichen Beiträge der alten deutschen Frauenbewegung zur Wohnungsreform des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts und zum Neuen Bauen auf.The building of apartments and cities in modernity is seen often as a “male domain.” In the text The Apartment Question is Women’s Work! (Die Wohungsfrage ist Frauensache!, Ulla Terlinden and Susanna von Oertzen present the multiple and influential contributions of the early German women’s movement to housing reform at the beginning of the twentieth century as well as to Neues Bauen, an architectural style of the 1920s.

  2. 75 FR 35070 - American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... health professions and removing the multiple barriers to their entrance into the IHS and private practice... consistent with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American people... enrolled in a health career program of study at the respective college or university. Tuition and stipends...

  3. Shared Decision Making in ICUs: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A; Davidson, Judy E; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision making is endorsed by critical care organizations; however, there remains confusion about what shared decision making is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define shared decision making, recommend when shared decision making should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. The American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society were included in the statement. Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) DEFINITION: Shared decision making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make healthcare decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient's values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a shared decision making process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their "default" approach a shared decision making process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable, including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision

  4. [A scintillating specialty. Excerpts from the history of nuclear medicine in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is among the youngest medical specialties but its history spans more than a century. From the earliest discoveries of radioactivity and the establishment of the novel field of nuclear physics at the turn of the twentieth century and via the developments in radiochemistry set in motion by George de Hevesy from his base in Copenhagen to the specialty of today offering a multitude of diagnostic procedures. The present work is not intended to cover the entire history of nuclear medicine exhaustively but focus on pivotal events in the development of the field with special reference to Denmark.

  5. George Fulford and Victorian patent medicine men: Quack mercenaries or Smilesian entrepreneurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, L

    1999-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, a time when patent medicine men were stereotyped as evil and dishonest, G. T. Fulford of Brockville, Ontario made his fortune from an iron pill called Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People. Once successful, Fulford remained in Brockville where he served on the town council and gave generously to charities. In 1900 he was appointed by Laurier to the Senate. When he died in 1905 he was remembered as a kind and ethical man. His story, like that of several other prominent patent medicine men, conforms more with the ideals of Samuel Smiles than with the popular image of disrepute.

  6. Consumer Sleep Technology: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Seema; Deak, Maryann C; Gault, Dominic; Goldstein, Cathy A; Hwang, Dennis; Kwon, Younghoon; O'Hearn, Daniel; Schutte-Rodin, Sharon; Yurcheshen, Michael; Rosen, Ilene M; Kirsch, Douglas B; Chervin, Ronald D; Carden, Kelly A; Ramar, Kannan; Aurora, R Nisha; Kristo, David A; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Olson, Eric J; Rosen, Carol L; Rowley, James A

    2018-05-15

    Consumer sleep technologies (CSTs) are widespread applications and devices that purport to measure and even improve sleep. Sleep clinicians may frequently encounter CST in practice and, despite lack of validation against gold standard polysomnography, familiarity with these devices has become a patient expectation. This American Academy of Sleep Medicine position statement details the disadvantages and potential benefits of CSTs and provides guidance when approaching patient-generated health data from CSTs in a clinical setting. Given the lack of validation and United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance, CSTs cannot be utilized for the diagnosis and/or treatment of sleep disorders at this time. However, CSTs may be utilized to enhance the patient-clinician interaction when presented in the context of an appropriate clinical evaluation. The ubiquitous nature of CSTs may further sleep research and practice. However, future validation, access to raw data and algorithms, and FDA oversight are needed. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. American palms used for medicine, in the ethnobotanical and pharmacological publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sosnowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The center of diversity of palms (Arecaceae in tropical America is found in the Amazon basin and along the Panamanian isthmus.The greatest palm species richness has been reported for the Iquitos and Chocó areas. Many species of palms are used mainly for construction and due to their edible fruits. In addition, there are 104 palm species that are used for medicinal purposes in many regions of the Americas. Cocos nuciferaand Oenocarpus batauaare the most commonly used species for medicinal purposes. The fruit is the most commonly used part of palms for medicinal purposes (57 species. The traditional and medicinal use of plants has deep roots in indigenous communities of Latin America. The significance of ethnomedicine for health care of local populations can not be ignored anymore because it plays a significant role in basic health care in developing countries. Interdisciplinary research in antropology, ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology helps gather information on ethnomedicine and design new drugs for modern medicine. American palms are sources of useful bioactive compounds against diabetes, prostate hyperplasia and leishmaniasis.

  8. A survey and photographic inventory of metal truss bridges in Virginia, 1865-1932 : I : an examination of the development of the truss form including an annotated list of nineteenth and twentieth century bridge companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The romance and myths long associated with the covered wooden bridges that once populated the rural roads of the American landscape have produced a multitude of popular literary works on their form, purpose and ultimately demise. Consequently, covere...

  9. The Absence of Structural Americanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    . Theoretically, economic and technological forces were expected to drive convergence. The article suggests that the reason these forces have not driven convergence in recent years may be that the interplay between them have changed as part of a broader shift from the mass media, mass production, and mass markets......Several comparative media researchers have hypothesized that the media systems of affluent Western democracies are becoming more and more structurally homogeneous—that they are becoming “Americanized.” This article uses data on newspaper industry revenues, commercial television revenues, Internet...... characteristic of twentieth-century Western societies and toward the fragmented media landscapes, tailored production, and niche marketing increasingly characteristic of early-twenty-first century affluent democracies....

  10. Americans with Disabilities Act considerations for the practice of occupational medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.clair, Steven; Shults, Theodore

    1993-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), although developed in the context of civil rights legislation, is likely to have notable impact on the practice of occupational medicine. The ADA contains provisions limiting the use of preplacement examinations to determinations of the capability to perform the essential functions of the job and of direct threat to the health and safety of the job applicant and others. The Title 1 employment provisions of the ADA established definitions and requirements similar to those found in section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; leading cases that have been litigated under the Rehabilitation Act, as amended, are described. The limitations of available scientific and medical information related to determinations of job capability and direct threat and ramifications of the ADA on the practice of occupational medicine are discussed.

  11. Vignettes from the field of mathematical biology: the application of mathematics to biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J D

    2012-08-06

    The application of mathematical models in biology and medicine has a long history. From the sparse number of papers in the first half of the twentieth century with a few scientists working in the field it has become vast with thousands of active researchers. We give a brief, and far from definitive history, of how some parts of the field have developed and how the type of research has changed. We describe in more detail just two examples of specific models which are directly related to real biological problems, namely animal coat patterns and the growth and image enhancement of glioblastoma brain tumours.

  12. [Conceptualizing mental health into practice: considerations from the Latin American social medicine/collective health perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.

  13. Targeting the American Market for Medicines, ca. 1950s–1970s:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    summary The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of “scientific marketing.” PMID:25557515

  14. "The necessity for better bodies to perpetuate our institutions, insure a higher development of the individual, and advance the conditions of the race." Physical culture and the formation of the self in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martschukat, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the significance of sports and physical exercise in the turn-of-the-century culture and society of the U.S. It depicts how physical fitness became a decisive feature of collective and individual self-perception and was understood as being at the core of a successful shaping of both the self and of the American body politic. I concentrate in particular on paradigms and strategies of human resources management to exemplify the overarching significance of physical fitness as it established itself at the heart of the USA's enterprise culture that began to emerge in the later nineteenth century. American peculiarities will be considered, alongside ties and allusions to European, and particularly British, developments.

  15. A nomogram to predict the probability of passing the American Board of Internal Medicine examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Brateanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Although the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certification is valued as a reflection of physicians’ experience, education, and expertise, limited methods exist to predict performance in the examination. Purpose : The objective of this study was to develop and validate a predictive tool based on variables common to all residency programs, regarding the probability of an internal medicine graduate passing the ABIM certification examination. Methods : The development cohort was obtained from the files of the Cleveland Clinic internal medicine residents who began training between 2004 and 2008. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict the ABIM passing rate. The model was represented as a nomogram, which was internally validated with bootstrap resamples. The external validation was done retrospectively on a cohort of residents who graduated from two other independent internal medicine residency programs between 2007 and 2011. Results : Of the 194 Cleveland Clinic graduates used for the nomogram development, 175 (90.2% successfully passed the ABIM certification examination. The final nomogram included four predictors: In-Training Examination (ITE scores in postgraduate year (PGY 1, 2, and 3, and the number of months of overnight calls in the last 6 months of residency. The nomogram achieved a concordance index (CI of 0.98 after correcting for over-fitting bias and allowed for the determination of an estimated probability of passing the ABIM exam. Of the 126 graduates from two other residency programs used for external validation, 116 (92.1% passed the ABIM examination. The nomogram CI in the external validation cohort was 0.94, suggesting outstanding discrimination. Conclusions : A simple user-friendly predictive tool, based on readily available data, was developed to predict the probability of passing the ABIM exam for internal medicine residents. This may guide program directors’ decision

  16. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston I. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.

  17. Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Suzuki, Cláudio Shigueki; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2013-01-01

    the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.

  18. Shared Decision Making in Intensive Care Units: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.; Davidson, Judy E.; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Shared decision-making (SDM) is endorsed by critical care organizations, however there remains confusion about what SDM is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define SDM, recommend when SDM should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. Methods The American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of ACCM and ATS were included in the statement. Main Results Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) Definition: Shared decision-making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient’s values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a SDM process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their “default” approach a SDM process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision-making strategies. Conclusions Patient and surrogate preferences for decision-making roles regarding value

  19. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  20. The influence of the State Policy of Collectivization on the Marginalization of the Traditional Peasant Family Values in Poland in the Mid-Twentieth Century [Wpływ kolektywizacyjnej polityki państwa na marginalizację tradycyjnych wartości rodziny w chłopskiej w Polsce w połowie XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SKONIECZNY

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews, autobiographical materials, and archival documents from the mid-twentieth century, there is an attempt made to find answers to the question of how much the collectivization of agriculture in Poland broke young people’s emotional and economic ties with the family and their farms. The government’s decision on the necessity of making agriculture collective as soon as possible liberated the young from the previous obligation to inherit farms and allowed them to work outside agriculture without risking parental dissatisfaction. The establishment of production cooperatives enabled them to continue their studies in secondary school and made the dreams of those young people come true, namely to live in the city. It was much easier because the developing industries needed labour. This way the idea of patrimony, developed throughout decades as the sole basis of life of the peasant child was overthrown. Thus, with the move to the city such traditional peasant values as the authority of the father, piety, respect for bread faded away. The situation led to numerous conflicts with the family remaining in the countryside.

  1. Crítica social e idéias médicas nos excessos do desejo: uma análise dos "romances para homens" de finais do século XIX e início do XX Social criticism and medical ideas on desires' excesses: a study of "novels for men" from late nineteenth to early twentieth century

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    Alessandra El Far

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar a produção literária pornográfica desde a segunda metade do século XIX até o início do XX no Brasil. Também conhecidos como "leitura para homens" ou "romances para homens", esses enredos alcançaram uma repercussão singular naquele período. Se, em um primeiro momento, essas narrativas, repletas de fantasias e desejos, tratavam de questões sociais e políticas, com a chegada do novo século, de modo evidente, elas passaram a estabelecer um estreito diálogo com as teorias médicas e científicas da época.This article analyses the pornographic literature from the second half of the nineteenth century until the beginning of the twentieth century in Brazil. Also known as "reading for men" or "novels for men", these plots reached a singular repercussion at the time. If at first these stories, full of fantasies and desires, talked about both social and political issues, with the coming of the new century they clearly started to establish a close dialogue with current medical and scientific theories.

  2. Ceres, as mulheres e o sertão: representações sobre o feminino e a agricultura brasileira na primeira metade do século XX Ceres, women and the backlands: representations of the feminine and Brazilian agriculture in the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela de Souza Oliver

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro escolas superiores de agricultura estudadas o percentual de mulheres no corpo discente ou no corpo docente é estatisticamente desprezível nas décadas de 1930 e 1940. Apesar disso, do ponto de vista dos estudos de gênero e da história das ciências, é importante compreender essa presença para entender e reconhecer o papel das mulheres na sociedade e em particular no meio científico. Nosso propósito não foi o de realizar um balanço aprofundado sobre a carreira seguida pelas engenheiras agrônomas. Outrossim, reunimos o que falavam sobre elas as poesias, os ofícios, algumas fotos e figuras, relacionando essas representações ao processo de institucionalização das ciências agrícolas no Brasil no período.Our research on the historical trajectory of four Brazilian agricultural schools in the thirties and forties of the twentieth century does not show a significant number of women in the profession. Nevertheless, rethinking these data, inspired by the history of science and gender studies, it is possible to understand the meanings, and the role played of those women within society, and in the scientific milieu. We collected and analyzed speeches, poetry, official documents, images, and photos, which led to a reflection on these representations, as well as the process of institutionalization of agricultural science.

  3. American Prometheus. The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. Biography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Kai; Sherwin, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    A definitive portrait of legendary scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer, the ''father'' of the atomic bomb, discusses his seminal role in the twentieth-century scientific world, as well as his lesser-known roles as family man, supposed communist, and head of Princeton's Institute for Advanced Studies. ''American Prometheus'' is a rich evocation of America in mid-century and a compelling portrait of scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer, a man shaped by its major events--the Depression, World War II, and the Cold War. (orig.) [de

  4. 'Family-centred care' in American hospitals in late-Qing China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Today, patients' families in the West are regaining the access to hospitals that they lost when hospitals emerged as the primary site for medical treatment, research and training at the beginning of the twentieth century. In China, however, families were never excluded from American mission-run hospitals, in fact, they were indispensable. Families were in the waiting rooms, consulting rooms,wards and operating theatres. They provided more than reassurance and comfort: they fed and nursed their sick relatives, acted as advocates and middlemen and may even have lowered the incidence of cross-infection, the scourge of the contemporary hospital in the West.

  5. Abandoning evolution. The forgotten history of antievolution activism and the transformation of American social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienesch, Michael

    2012-12-01

    From its inception, antievolution activism has been aimed not only at the natural sciences but also, and almost as often, at the social sciences. Although almost entirely overlooked by scholars, this activism played a significant part in the development of American social science in the early twentieth century. Analyzing public writings and private papers of antievolution activists, academic social scientists, and university officials from the 1920s, this essay recalls this forgotten history, showing how antievolution activism contributed to the abandonment of evolutionary theory and the adoption of a set of secular, scientific, and professional characteristics that have come to define much of modern social science.

  6. American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 263: Standardizing Nomenclatures in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Charles S; Moran, Jean M; Bosch, Walter; Xiao, Ying; McNutt, Todd; Popple, Richard; Michalski, Jeff; Feng, Mary; Marks, Lawrence B; Fuller, Clifton D; Yorke, Ellen; Palta, Jatinder; Gabriel, Peter E; Molineu, Andrea; Matuszak, Martha M; Covington, Elizabeth; Masi, Kathryn; Richardson, Susan L; Ritter, Timothy; Morgas, Tomasz; Flampouri, Stella; Santanam, Lakshmi; Moore, Joseph A; Purdie, Thomas G; Miller, Robert C; Hurkmans, Coen; Adams, Judy; Jackie Wu, Qing-Rong; Fox, Colleen J; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo; Brown, Norman L; Verbakel, Wilko; Archambault, Yves; Chmura, Steven J; Dekker, Andre L; Eagle, Don G; Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Hong, Theodore; Kapoor, Rishabh; Lansing, Beth; Jolly, Shruti; Napolitano, Mary E; Percy, James; Rose, Mark S; Siddiqui, Salim; Schadt, Christof; Simon, William E; Straube, William L; St James, Sara T; Ulin, Kenneth; Yom, Sue S; Yock, Torunn I

    2018-03-15

    A substantial barrier to the single- and multi-institutional aggregation of data to supporting clinical trials, practice quality improvement efforts, and development of big data analytics resource systems is the lack of standardized nomenclatures for expressing dosimetric data. To address this issue, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 263 was charged with providing nomenclature guidelines and values in radiation oncology for use in clinical trials, data-pooling initiatives, population-based studies, and routine clinical care by standardizing: (1) structure names across image processing and treatment planning system platforms; (2) nomenclature for dosimetric data (eg, dose-volume histogram [DVH]-based metrics); (3) templates for clinical trial groups and users of an initial subset of software platforms to facilitate adoption of the standards; (4) formalism for nomenclature schema, which can accommodate the addition of other structures defined in the future. A multisociety, multidisciplinary, multinational group of 57 members representing stake holders ranging from large academic centers to community clinics and vendors was assembled, including physicists, physicians, dosimetrists, and vendors. The stakeholder groups represented in the membership included the AAPM, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), NRG Oncology, European Society for Radiation Oncology (ESTRO), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Children's Oncology Group (COG), Integrating Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO), and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine working group (DICOM WG); A nomenclature system for target and organ at risk volumes and DVH nomenclature was developed and piloted to demonstrate viability across a range of clinics and within the framework of clinical trials. The final report was approved by AAPM in October 2017. The approval process included review by 8 AAPM committees, with additional review by ASTRO

  7. Pharmacogenetics in Latin American populations: regulatory aspects, application to herbal medicine, cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Remírez-Figueredo, Diadelis; García-Mesa, Milagros; Dorado, Pedro; LLerena, Adrián

    2012-01-01

    Meeting report of the "Second Symposium on Pharmacology of Cytochrome P450 and Transporters" organized by the Cuban Society of Pharmacology in collaboration with the European Society of Pharmacogenetics and Theranostics (ESPT) and the Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (www.ribef.com). The Symposium covered different topics on pharmacogenetics and its clinical implications, focusing on Latin-American populations. The activities of the ESPT were also presented and discussed. The topics addressed were regulatory aspects, the use of pharmacogenetics in pre-clinical research, herbal medicine, and natural products, ending with a discussion about translation into clinical practice, specifically for cardiovascular disorders and psychiatry. Finally, the implication for population diversity in Latin America was also discussed. The RIBEF initiative represents a promising step towards the inclusion of Latin American populations among those to benefit from the implementation of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice. Among current RIBEF activities, the CEIBA.FP Consortium aims to study the variability of pheno- and genotypes in Hispanics that are relevant to pharmacogenetics. For this purpose, populations from Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia, Brasil, Perú, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, Portugal, and Spain are currently being studied. The meeting's main conclusion was that population pharmacogenetic studies as well as academic clinical trials might need to be conducted in the different geographic locations/countries. This is important in order to improve drug safety, dosage recommendations, and pharmacovigilance programs, because environmental and ethnic factors vary across locations.

  8. The American Medicine Chest Challenge: Evaluation of a Drug Take-Back and Disposal Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2016-07-01

    Prescription drug take-back programs provide a safe and convenient way to dispose of expired, unwanted, or unused medications that people store in homes, thus limiting the potential misuse of prescription drugs. This study evaluated public response to a social marketing campaign promoting a community-based drug take-back program, the American Medicine Chest Challenge. A telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of adults in New Jersey (N = 906) 2 weeks following the conclusion of the statewide collection day event in November 2010. The survey assessed public exposure to the campaign and the extent to which it is associated with public perceptions and behaviors the campaign was designed to influence. The campaign, which relied heavily on community channels for the dissemination of messages, was able to reach directly more than 60% of its target audience. When potential confounders were controlled for, campaign exposure was a strong predictor of a respondent having one or more conversations with others about medicine disposal (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4, 95% CI [1.5, 3.6]); actually disposing of expired, unwanted, or unused medicine in a collection site (OR = 2.14, 95% CI [1.15, 3.9]); and talking to kids about the dangers of prescription drug abuse (OR = 1.65, 95% CI [1.1, 2.45])-all of which were exclusively promoted through the campaign. This case illustrates the potential efficacy of community-based prevention marketing efforts to stimulate community discourse regarding the dangers of prescription drug misuse and to decrease the availability of expired, unwanted, or unused medicine in the community.

  9. American medicine as religious practice: care of the sick as a sacred obligation and the unholy descent into secularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Margaret P

    2011-03-01

    Modern medicine serves a religious function for modern Americans as a conduit through which science can be applied directly to the human body. The first half of this paper will focus on the theoretical foundations for viewing medicine as a religious practice arguing that just as a hierarchical structured authoritarian church historically mediated access to God, contemporary Western medicine provides a conduit by which the universalizable truths of science can be applied to the human being thereby functioning as a new established religion. I will then illustrate the many parallels between medicine and religion through an analysis of rituals and symbols surrounding and embedded within the modern practice of medicine. This analysis will pay special attention to the primacy placed on secret interior knowledge of the human body. I will end by responding to the hope for a "secularization of American medicine," exploring some of the negative consequences of secularization, and arguing that, rather than seeking to secularize, American medicine should strive to use its religious features to offer hope and healing to the sick, in keeping with its historically religious legacy.

  10. On the history of medicine in the United States, theory, health insurance, and psychiatry: an interview with Charles Rosenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles; Mantovani, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    An interview with Charles Rosenberg conducted by Rafael Mantovani in November 2013 that addressed four topics. It first focused on the way in which Rosenberg perceived trends and directions in historical research on medicine in the United States during the second half of the twentieth century. The second focus was on his experience with other important historians who wrote about public health. Thirdly, he discussed his impressions about the current debate on health policy in his country. Finally, the last part explores some themes related to psychiatry and behavior control that have appeared in a number of his articles.

  11. Eugenics, medicine and psychiatry in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi-Portocarrero, Santiago

    2018-03-01

    Eugenics was defined by Galton as 'the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race'. In Peru, eugenics was related to social medicine and mental hygiene, in accordance with the neo-Lamarckian orientation, that predominated in Latin America. Peruvian eugenists assumed the mission of fighting hereditary and infectious diseases, malnutrition, alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, criminality and everything that threatened the future of the 'Peruvian race'. There were some enthusiastic advocates of 'hard' eugenic measures, such as forced sterilization and eugenic abortion, but these were never officially implemented in Peru (except for the compulsory sterilization campaign during the 1995-2000 period). Eugenics dominated scientific discourse during the first half of the twentieth century, but eugenic discourse did not disappear completely until the 1970s.

  12. Exercise is medicine: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Jack W

    2010-01-01

    Much of the early information about exercise and medicine appeared in the ancient, medieval, and Renaissance medical literature in the context of the "six things nonnatural." These were the things that were under everyone's own control, directly influenced health, and became the central part of the new "physical education" movement in the early 19 century in the United States. They were known then as the "Laws of Health." Until the early 1900s, "physical education" was dominated by physicians who specialized in health and exercise. However, physical education changed to a games and sports curriculum led by coaches who introduced competition and athletic achievement into the classroom. As that happened, physicians disappeared from the profession. Through the last half of the twentieth century, as exercise became more central to public health, the medical community began to view exercise as part of lifestyle, a concept embracing what was once called the "six things nonnatural."

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  14. Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  15. Latin American Social Medicine and the Report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL GONZALEZ GUZMAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In October 2008 the Latin American Social Medicine Association (ALAMES organized an international workshop entitled “The Social Determinants of Health.” Representatives of ALAMES’ seven regions participated in discussions of the various consultative papers prepared by the working groups of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health as well as the Commission’s final report. The workshop considered how ALAMES should respond to the work of the Commission. In this paper we summarize the main points outlined in the position paper prepared by the Organizing Committee1 as well as a synopsis of the main contributions made by each of the workshop’s study sections.

  16. Policies to restrict secondhand smoke exposure: American College of Preventive Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michelle; Alonso, Alina M; Sherin, Kevin M; Koh, Yumi; Dhamija, Asha; Lowe, Andrea L

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure poses serious health risks for all nonsmokers, especially children and pregnant women. SHS is estimated to contribute to heart attacks in nonsmokers and nearly 53,800 deaths in the U.S. annually. A literature review of English-language articles was performed using PubMed, organizational websites, and pertinent review articles. Over the past 25 years, smokefree policies have protected nearly half the U.S. population from the adverse health effects of SHS. Smokefree policies have been shown to improve health outcomes with no consequences to local businesses. As of April 2013, a total of 24 states and 561 municipalities and territories, including the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, have established laws that require nonhospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars to be 100% smokefree. Four other states-Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, and Nevada-have smokefree laws that cover restaurants but provide an exemption for stand-alone bars. At least 14 states have no smokefree laws. This paper describes the benefits of policies that reduce SHS and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) recommends expanded clean indoor air policies for workplaces, stand-alone bars, restaurants, and multi-use family housing such as apartment buildings. ACPM recommends clean air policies for all university campuses, secondary school campuses, primary schools, child care centers, and city landmarks to further shift social norms and protect the health of children, adolescents, and adults. ACPM recommends closing existing gaps in clean indoor air policies. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Rules for Assessing Sleep Depth in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Walsh, James K; Kushida, Clete A; Staley, Bethany; Pien, Grace W

    2018-02-15

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has published manuals for scoring polysomnograms that recommend time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep stages (stage N1, N2, and N3 sleep) be reported. Given the well-established large interrater variability in scoring stage N1 and N3 sleep, we determined the range of time in stage N1 and N3 sleep scored by a large number of technologists when compared to reasonably estimated true values. Polysomnograms of 70 females were scored by 10 highly trained sleep technologists, two each from five different academic sleep laboratories. Range and confidence interval (CI = difference between the 5th and 95th percentiles) of the 10 times spent in stage N1 and N3 sleep assigned in each polysomnogram were determined. Average values of times spent in stage N1 and N3 sleep generated by the 10 technologists in each polysomnogram were considered representative of the true values for the individual polysomnogram. Accuracy of different technologists in estimating delta wave duration was determined by comparing their scores to digitally determined durations. The CI range of the ten N1 scores was 4 to 39 percent of total sleep time (% TST) in different polysomnograms (mean CI ± standard deviation = 11.1 ± 7.1 % TST). Corresponding range for N3 was 1 to 28 % TST (14.4 ± 6.1 % TST). For stage N1 and N3 sleep, very low or very high values were reported for virtually all polysomnograms by different technologists. Technologists varied widely in their assignment of stage N3 sleep, scoring that stage when the digitally determined time of delta waves ranged from 3 to 17 seconds. Manual scoring of non-rapid eye movement sleep stages is highly unreliable among highly trained, experienced technologists. Measures of sleep continuity and depth that are reliable and clinically relevant should be a focus of clinical research. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  18. Pass rates on the American Board of Family Medicine Certification Exam by residency location and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Middleton, Donald B

    2013-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sets residency performance standards for the American Board of Family Medicine Certification Examination. This study aims are to describe the compliance of residency programs with ACGME standards and to determine whether residency pass rates depend on program size and location. In this retrospective cohort study, residency performance from 2007 to 2011 was compared with the ACGME performance standards. Simple linear regression was performed to see whether program pass rates were dependent on program size. Regional differences in performance were compared with χ(2) tests, using an α level of 0.05. Of 429 total residency programs, there were 205 (47.8%) that violate ACGME performance standards. Linear regression showed that program pass rates were positively correlated and dependent on program size (P family medicine training programs do not meet the ACGME examination performance standards. Pass rates are associated with residency program size, and regional variation occurs. These findings have the potential to affect ACGME policy and residency program application patterns.

  19. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  20. O assassinato de um homossexual diante de um tribunal da Capital da República em meados do século XX The murder of a homosexual treated at a court in the Capital of de Republic of Brazil in the mid-twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivail Carvalho Rolim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é o de analisar como o assassinato de um homossexual foi tratado em um tribunal da Capital da República em meados do século XX. Os autos criminais podem revelar aspectos significativos sobre a aplicação do direito nas instâncias judiciais. Ressaltamos como a cultura jurídico-penal no país continuou reproduzindo os mesmos padrões socioculturais das culturas jurídico-penais ocidentais; em última instância, condenando o prazer ou pelo menos determinadas formas de senti-lo. Da mesma forma, inferimos que, por intermédio da legalidade processual, se reprimiu determinado comportamento sexual, já que a legalidade formal não preceituava a homossexualidade como crime.The aim of this paper is to analyze how the murder of a homosexual was treated at a court in the capital of the Republic of Brazil in mid-twentieth century. Although intrinsically individualizing, criminal records reveal significant aspects on the application of the law in judicial court instances. The juridical and penal culture of the period reproduced continually the same social and cultural standards of Western juridical and penal culture in spite of the contemporary accumulation of knowledge. In other words, pleasure was condemned or, at least, certain forms of feeling pleasure, especially those which directly impaired procreation. Results show that through juridical legality certain types of sexual behavior were repressed, since the law itself did not consider homosexuality a crime.

  1. Especies locales, mercado y transporte en las investigaciones embriológicas: el estudio de la poliembrionía en armadillos a principios del siglo XX Local species, the market, and transportation in embryological research: the study of polyembryony in armadillos in the early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana V. García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se examina en un caso concreto la afirmación general de la importancia de las redes de comunicación y la movilidad de las cosas para la ciencia. De qué forma esto jugó un papel relevante en las investigaciones sobre la embriología de ciertas especies de armadillos a principios del siglo XX? Como intentamos mostrar, el acceso a las hembras preñadas de esas especies silvestres y los tiempos en el transporte hasta el laboratorio fueron cuestiones substanciales en los inicios de esas investigaciones. Las estrategias para obtener muestras en el campo y la temporalidad de ciertos fenómenos, los circuitos comerciales en los que participan los organismos estudiados y su trasformación en el laboratorio permiten vislumbrar aspectos de cómo trabajaron y qué problemas enfrentaron esos científicos.The article examines the general affirmation that communication networks and mobility are important to science by examining how these factors played a relevant role in one specific case, that is, research on the embryology of certain species of armadillos in the early twentieth century. As we show, access to pregnant females of the species and transport time from the wild to the laboratory were significant issues in the early days of such research. The strategies used to obtain field samples, the temporality of certain phenomena, the commercial circuits of which the organisms under study were a part, and the transformations they underwent in the laboratory all afford a glimpse at some aspects of how these scientists approached their work and what problems they faced in producing new knowledge.

  2. Aprendiendo a ser mujer en la España del siglo XX: una mirada desde el Museo Pedagógico de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de Sevilla. // Learning to be a woman in the twentieth century Spain: a look from the Pedagogical Museum of the Faculty of Education at the University of Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rebollo Espinosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES La experiencia reseñada fue una iniciativa del Museo Pedagógico de la Facultad de CC. De la Educación de la Universidad de Sevilla, financiada por la Unidad de Igualdad de dicha Universidad e incluida en el programa de actividades didácticas que éste viene desarrollando desde sus inicios. Pensada para un variado público, su objetivo principal ha sido dar a conocer, de forma atractiva y reflexiva, la historia de la educación de las mujeres españolas del siglo XX, desde una perspectiva no victimista. El formato elegido fue el de una muestra expositiva combinada con un ciclo de conferencias, y rematada con una evaluación participativa y experiencial, lo que le proporcionó una mayor efectividad formativa. Su éxito ha asegurado la continuidad del proyecto para el curso próximo. // (EN The experience was an initiative outlined the Pedagogical Museum of the Faculty of Educational Sciences of the University of Seville, funded by the Equality Unit of the University and included in the program of educational activities it has developed since its inception. Designed for a diverse audience, its main aim has been to publicize, attractive and thoughtful way, the history of education of Spanish women of the twentieth century, from a non- victimization perspective. The format chosen was that of an exhibition shows combined with a series of lectures, and topped with a participatory and experiential evaluation, which provided increased training effectiveness. Its success has ensured the continuity of the project for next year.

  3. Impact of subspecialty elective exposures on outcomes on the American board of internal medicine certification examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Victoria K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Board of Internal Medicine Certification Examination (ABIM-CE is one of several methods used to assess medical knowledge, an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME core competency for graduating internal medicine residents. With recent changes in graduate medical education program directors and internal medicine residents are seeking evidence to guide decisions regarding residency elective choices. Prior studies have shown that formalized elective curricula improve subspecialty ABIM-CE scores. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of subspecialty elective exposures or the specific subspecialties which residents complete electives in impact ABIM-CE scores. Methods ABIM-CE scores, elective exposures and demographic characteristics were collected for MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine residents who were first-time takers of the ABIM-CE in 2006–2010 (n=152. Elective exposures were defined as a two-week period assigned to the respective subspecialty. ABIM-CE score was analyzed using the difference between the ABIM-CE score and the standardized passing score (delta-SPS. Subspecialty scores were analyzed using percentage of correct responses. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows. Results Paired elective exposure and ABIM-CE scores were available in 131 residents. There was no linear correlation between ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS and the total number of electives or the number of unique elective exposures. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures (143.4 compared to 129.7, p=0.051. Repeated electives in individual subspecialties were not associated with significant difference in mean ABIM-CE delta-SPS. Conclusions This study did not demonstrate significant positive associations between individual subspecialty elective exposures and ABIM-CE mean delta

  4. Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhead, Noel M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread evidence shows that the modern rates of extinction in many plants and animals exceed background rates in the fossil record. In the present article, I investigate this issue with regard to North American freshwater fishes. From 1898 to 2006, 57 taxa became extinct, and three distinct populations were extirpated from the continent. Since 1989, the numbers of extinct North American fishes have increased by 25%. From the end of the nineteenth century to the present, modern extinctions varied by decade but significantly increased after 1950 (post-1950s mean = 7.5 extinct taxa per decade). In the twentieth century, freshwater fishes had the highest extinction rate worldwide among vertebrates. The modern extinction rate for North American freshwater fishes is conservatively estimated to be 877 times greater than the background extinction rate for freshwater fishes (one extinction every 3 million years). Reasonable estimates project that future increases in extinctions will range from 53 to 86 species by 2050.

  5. Embodying the Global Soul: Internationalism and the American Evangelical Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Swartz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the twentieth century, neo-evangelicalism moved from an anticommunist nationalist consensus to a new internationalism characterized by concern for human rights, justice, and economic development. Case studies of World Vision, a global relief and development organization, and InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, a campus ministry, demonstrate that this trajectory was due in part to a growing global reflex in which many missionaries and third-world evangelicals “spoke back” to American evangelicalism. Interpreting the Bible for themselves—and increasingly for American evangelicals—substantial numbers of non-Western converts and missionaries offered sharp criticisms of American politics, culture, and capitalism. These critiques, sacralized by their origins on the mission field, helped turn some young evangelicals toward Vietnam protests, poverty relief, civil rights, and a tempered nationalism. By the 1970s, these progressive elements—and a more resolute global concern generally—had become important markers of the evangelical left.

  6. The making of 'American': race and nation in neurasthenic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brad

    2007-06-01

    This paper considers the underexamined racial and nationalistic components of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century neurasthenic discourse to propose that neurasthenia was as much a discourse of modern American identity as it was a discourse of disease. By closely reading the medical and general texts which helped to popularize it, and by scrutinizing the context of its vogue and supposed subsequent decline, this paper shows how neurasthenia was intimately bound up with the era's politics of race, nationalism and citizenship. Countering traditional understandings of the disease, this study suggests that neurasthenia did not simply anticipate but was pre-eminently preoccupied with the questions and crises of modernity; that it was not, after all, a quintessentially Victorian but a fundamentally modernist discourse, and a paradigmatic example of how the construction of a neurotic American subject was necessarily and inevitably a construction of a modern American subject.

  7. Inez Beverly Prosser and the education of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ludy T; Henry, Keisha D; McMahon, Lance R

    2005-01-01

    Inez Beverly Prosser (ca. 1895-1934) was arguably the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in psychology. Her dissertation, completed in 1933, examined personality differences in black children attending either voluntarily segregated or integrated schools and concluded that black children were better served in segregated schools. This research was one of several studies in the 1920s and 1930s that was part of the debate on segregated schools as maintained in the United States under the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This article examines the life and career of Prosser in the context of educational barriers and opportunities for African Americans in the early part of the twentieth century and explores the arguments that pitted African Americans against one another in determining how best to educate black children, arguments that eventually led to the desegregation decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 1980 Survey of Faculty Teaching in Departments of Medicinal/Pharmaceutical Chemistry at American Colleges of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak, Alice Jean; Sarnoff, Darwin

    1981-01-01

    An American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy survey of medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry faculty is reported. Data, including academic and experience backgrounds of faculty and their teaching load, are presented. Differences in training are noted in comparing the average chemistry professor to the average assistant professor. (Author/MLW)

  9. Communication in the Service of American Health...A Bicentennial Report from the National Library of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Programs of the National Library of Medicine over almost a century and a half are described, ranging from a history of American medical literature and the development of medical indexing to modern technological developments. Activities covered include the development of the Toxicology Information Program and the online data base TOXLINE; the…

  10. Radiation doses for pediatric nuclear medicine studies: comparing the North American consensus guidelines and the pediatric dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Frederick D; Gelfand, Michael J; Drubach, Laura A; Treves, S Ted; Fahey, Frederic H

    2015-04-01

    Estimated radiation dose is important for assessing and communicating the risks and benefits of pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Radiation dose depends on the radiopharmaceutical, the administered activity, and patient factors such as age and size. Most radiation dose estimates for pediatric nuclear medicine have not been based on administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals recommended by established practice guidelines. The dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the North American consensus guidelines each provide recommendations of administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals in children, but there are substantial differences between these two guidelines. For 12 commonly performed pediatric nuclear medicine studies, two established pediatric radiopharmaceutical administration guidelines were used to calculate updated radiation dose estimates and to compare the radiation exposure resulting from the recommendations of each of the guidelines. Estimated radiation doses were calculated for 12 common procedures in pediatric nuclear medicine using administered activities recommended by the dosage card of the EANM (version 1.5.2008) and the 2010 North American consensus guidelines for radiopharmaceutical administered activities in pediatrics. Based on standard models and nominal age-based weights, radiation dose was estimated for typical patients at ages 1, 5, 10 and 15 years and adult. The resulting effective doses were compared, with differences greater than 20% considered significant. Following either the EANM dosage card or the 2010 North American guidelines, the highest effective doses occur with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123. In 24% of cases, following the North American consensus guidelines would result in a substantially higher radiation dose. The guidelines of the EANM dosage card would lead to a substantially higher radiation dose in 39% of all cases, and in 62% of cases in which patients

  11. Radiation doses for pediatric nuclear medicine studies: comparing the North American consensus guidelines and the pediatric dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Frederick D.; Drubach, Laura A.; Treves, S. Ted; Fahey, Frederic H.; Gelfand, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Estimated radiation dose is important for assessing and communicating the risks and benefits of pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Radiation dose depends on the radiopharmaceutical, the administered activity, and patient factors such as age and size. Most radiation dose estimates for pediatric nuclear medicine have not been based on administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals recommended by established practice guidelines. The dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the North American consensus guidelines each provide recommendations of administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals in children, but there are substantial differences between these two guidelines. For 12 commonly performed pediatric nuclear medicine studies, two established pediatric radiopharmaceutical administration guidelines were used to calculate updated radiation dose estimates and to compare the radiation exposure resulting from the recommendations of each of the guidelines. Estimated radiation doses were calculated for 12 common procedures in pediatric nuclear medicine using administered activities recommended by the dosage card of the EANM (version 1.5.2008) and the 2010 North American consensus guidelines for radiopharmaceutical administered activities in pediatrics. Based on standard models and nominal age-based weights, radiation dose was estimated for typical patients at ages 1, 5, 10 and 15 years and adult. The resulting effective doses were compared, with differences greater than 20% considered significant. Following either the EANM dosage card or the 2010 North American guidelines, the highest effective doses occur with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123. In 24% of cases, following the North American consensus guidelines would result in a substantially higher radiation dose. The guidelines of the EANM dosage card would lead to a substantially higher radiation dose in 39% of all cases, and in 62% of cases in which patients

  12. Readability of patient education materials on the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Han, Alex; Truntzer, Jeremy; Daniels, Alan H

    2014-11-01

    The recommended readability of patient education materials by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. However, online resources may be too complex for some patients to understand, and poor health literacy predicts inferior health-related quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated whether the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website's patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. We hypothesized that the readability of these online materials would have a Flesch-Kincaid formula grade above the sixth grade. All 65 patient education entries of the AOSSM website were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. The average (standard deviation) readability of all 65 articles was grade level 10.03 (1.44); 64 articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level, which is the maximum level recommended by the AMA and NIH. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 4.03 grade levels (95% CI, 3.7-4.4; P reading level of US adults. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 2.03 grade levels (95% CI, 1.7-2.4; P online AOSSM patient education materials exceeds the readability level recommended by the AMA and NIH, and is above the average reading level of the majority of US adults. This online information may be of limited utility to most patients due to a lack of comprehension. Our study provides a clear example of the need to improve the readability of specific education material in order to maximize the efficacy of multimedia sources.

  13. Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, C M; Hauri, P J; Espie, C A; Spielman, A J; Buysse, D J; Bootzin, R R

    1999-12-15

    This paper reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for primary chronic insomnia. It is based on a review of 48 clinical trials and two meta-analyses conducted by a task force appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to develop practice parameters on non-drug therapies for the clinical management of insomnia. The findings indicate that nonpharmacological therapies produce reliable and durable changes in several sleep parameters of chronic insomnia sufferers. The data indicate that between 70% and 80% of patients treated with nonpharmacological interventions benefit from treatment. For the typical patient with persistent primary insomnia, treatment is likely to reduce the main target symptoms of sleep onset latency and/or wake time after sleep onset below or near the 30-min criterion initially used to define insomnia severity. Sleep duration is also increased by a modest 30 minutes and sleep quality and patient's satisfaction with sleep patterns are significantly enhanced. Sleep improvements achieved with these behavioral interventions are sustained for at least 6 months after treatment completion. However, there is no clear evidence that improved sleep leads to meaningful changes in daytime well-being or performance. Three treatments meet the American Psychological Association (APA) criteria for empirically-supported psychological treatments for insomnia: Stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, and paradoxical intention; and three additional treatments meet APA criteria for probably efficacious treatments: Sleep restriction, biofeedback, and multifaceted cognitive-behavior therapy. Additional outcome research is needed to examine the effectiveness of treatment when it is implemented in clinical settings (primary care, family practice), by non-sleep specialists, and with insomnia patients presenting medical or psychiatric comorbidity.

  14. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  15. Mining the Twentieth Century's History from the Time Magazine Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestemont, Mike; Karsdorp, F.B.; Düring, Marten

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report on an explorative study of the history of the twentieth cen- tury from a lexical point of view. As data, we use a diachronic collection of 270,000+ English-language articles har- vested from the electronic archive of the well-known Time Magazine (1923–2006). We attempt to

  16. the twentieth century development of different types of bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    common practice to catapult the bodies of dis- ... e Present defensive capabilities of NATO and ... organisms and bacteria (rickettsiae, viruses and fungi) used in the context of warfare with the .... cides to deprive the Vietcong of the natural cover .... and for CW delivery systems the ratio is 5 to 1 in ... would be less immune to it.

  17. The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Blaine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Traces the convoluted alliances and diplomatic blundering that resulted in World War I. Places a large degree of the blame on Kaiser Wilhelm II who almost singlehandedly dismantled or ruptured the alliances and treaties of imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Includes photos, paintings, and diary entries. (MJP)

  18. Population deconcentration in metropolitan Manila in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, W F; Bacol-montilla, M

    1981-10-01

    "The present analysis is intended to delineate the extent of population deconcentration through an examination of changes in core-periphery growth and density patterns within the Metropolitan Manila complex. Specifically, [the authors] examine changes in absolute and relative population growth and density levels in the central city of Manila, the inner suburban ring, and the outer suburban ring from 1903 to 1975. [The authors] also present a preliminary assessment of the demographic processes underlying the post-World War II trends." Data are from the 1975 Philippine census. excerpt

  19. twentieth-century english bible translations 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boys, ascertained the meaning of the Greek text before proceeding to express it in contemporary English. In other words, Weymouth was interested in the way in which an inspired writer would have written had he lived in a later period of time. The translation is couched in modern, dignified but diffused English.

  20. Population and society in twentieth-century Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, C

    1994-09-01

    The historical demographic analysis in this article is a revision of a paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest Regional Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in 1988 at the University of Oregon. The author takes the view that fertility has remained high in the Southeast Asian region due to the dynamics of colonialism and the reinforcement of traditional society. Industrialization, urbanization, and advancing education was not favored by colonial policy. The shift to planting cash crops was labor-intensive work which reinforced large families. The fertility decline after the 1960s is attributed to population pressure and the lower limits of land and production per family. Incentives for smaller families are identified as the expansion of mass education, increased consumer aspirations, and opportunities for modern sector employment. The impact of population growth is viewed as multidimensional and indicative of the conflicts between resources, obligations, and aspirations. The historical record in Southeast Asia reveals a population shortage and the risk of losing the minimum supply of labor necessary for a subsistence economy. Traditional local authorities were in need of men for waging war and producing an economic surplus. Colonial administrators imported cheap labor. As mortality declined and population increased, the societal response was migration, usually to frontier areas. New zones of wet rice production were created in lower Burma, central Siam, and Cochin China due to increased demand. Other survival strategies are identified as infinite land subdivision and multiple job holding in the off-season. Densely populated areas appeared to have lower fertility. Over the past 20 years the strategy appears to have been lower fertility coupled with acceptance of family planning, higher female educational attainment, and higher age at marriage. Southeast Asian patterns are considered indicative of the impact of wars, crises, and economic change on demographic processes and of the demographic impact of changes in population size, density, and structure on social, political, and economic outcomes.

  1. Writing Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Hui

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation argues that Chinese scholars of the 1920s and ’30s (re)interpreted the traditions of Chinese art in order to build a modern field of Chinese art history. These scholars faced with challenges such as China’s internal needs to develop, her indirect and direct encounters with

  2. One hundred years of alcoholism: the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Hermann, D; Heinz, A

    2000-01-01

    The past 100 years witnessed the formation of a disease concept of alcoholism and a rapid increase in the knowledge of its aetiopathology and treatment options. In the first half of the century, public sanctions aimed at the abolition of alcoholism. In the United States, alcohol prohibition was revoked in the economic turmoil of the Great Depression. In Germany, proposed medical procedures to reduce the fertility of alcoholics had catastrophic consequences during the fascist dictatorship. A revived focus on alcoholics as patients with a right to medical treatment came out of self-organized groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. The current disease concept includes the psychosocial and neurobiological foundations and consequences of alcoholism. Neurobiological research points to the dispositional factor of monoaminergic dysfunction and indicates that neuroadaptation and sensitization may play a role in the maintenance of addictive behaviour. New treatment options include pharmacological approaches and indicate that behaviour and motivational therapy and the attendance of patient groups may equally reduce the relapse risk. The task of the future will be to apply scientific discoveries in the best interest of the patients and to support their efforts to be respected like subjects suffering from other diseases.

  3. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  4. Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellek, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Wellek, Philip Rahv, Murray Krieger, Irving Howe, Eliseo Vivas, D. H. Lawrence, Sigmund Freud, Dmitri Chizhevsky, V. V. Zenkovsky, Georg Lukacs, and Derek Traversi--all dealing with the biography and literary work of…

  5. Races at War: Nationalism and Genocide in Twentieth Century Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelberg, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    .... Genocide is the ultimate expression of this form of integral nationalism. As a result of the Second World War, the term "genocide" was introduced to describe the victimization of nations, and became codified in international law and agreements...

  6. How Terrorist Groups End: Studies of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    efforts to compete in political elections to Japan’s Diet in February 1990 brought in few votes. Humiliation set arrogance and self- interest together on...a hospital. 45. By contrast, Malaysian communists were pushed out without surrendering. Chin Peng and some remnants held out for decades in Thai

  7. Dental caries and fluorine: a twentieth century relation

    OpenAIRE

    Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2000-01-01

    No início do século XX a cárie dentária era um problema de saúde pública, na maior parte do planeta. As populações conviviam com infecção, dor, sofrimento e mutilação. A descoberta do efeito preventivo do flúor o transformou, ao longo do século, no principal agente utilizado no enfrentamento da doença em todo o mundo. Em vários países e também no Brasil produtos fluorados têm sido apontados como os principais responsáveis pelo declínio observado na prevalência da cárie. No Brasil, estudos pio...

  8. Experiments in Reconstructing Twentieth-Century Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Douglas, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    One approach to reconstructing historical sea level from the relatively sparse tide-gauge network is to employ Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) as interpolatory spatial basis functions. The EOFs are determined from independent global data, generally sea-surface heights from either satellite altimetry or a numerical ocean model. The problem is revisited here for sea level since 1900. A new approach to handling the tide-gauge datum problem by direct solution offers possible advantages over the method of integrating sea-level differences, with the potential of eventually adjusting datums into the global terrestrial reference frame. The resulting time series of global mean sea levels appears fairly insensitive to the adopted set of EOFs. In contrast, charts of regional sea level anomalies and trends are very sensitive to the adopted set of EOFs, especially for the sparser network of gauges in the early 20th century. The reconstructions appear especially suspect before 1950 in the tropical Pacific. While this limits some applications of the sea-level reconstructions, the sensitivity does appear adequately captured by formal uncertainties. All our solutions show regional trends over the past five decades to be fairly uniform throughout the global ocean, in contrast to trends observed over the shorter altimeter era. Consistent with several previous estimates, the global sea-level rise since 1900 is 1.70 +/- 0.26 mm/yr. The global trend since 1995 exceeds 3 mm/yr which is consistent with altimeter measurements, but this large trend was possibly also reached between 1935 and 1950.

  9. Mechanical engineering prospects at the end of the twentieth century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The future of Mechanical Engineering in Spain appears to be very bright indeed. This conclusion has been derived from an analysis of its evolution in the last 20 years, a period which has seen the development of excellent working universities, research organizations and centres, and in industry. The initial delay in Spain's industrialization process, as compared to other European countries, has led to the situation where we do not have multinational companies which are purely Spanish-owned in these areas. Nevertheless, a process of globalization of the industry is clearly under way, not only in Europe, under the aegis of the EC, but also all over the world. This implies that in this new context it will be possible to access, from Spain itself, posts of growing responsibility in large post-multinational companies, and also to work in areas I have defined as more noble. The possibility of these companies implementing activities of major interest in Spain will depend on factors such as existing infrastructure, qualification of personnel and the surrounding life style. The qualification of personnel relies on basic training and promotion of research activities; therefore, these aspects will require special attention. (author)

  10. Coupled model simulations of twentieth century climate of the Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    models showed serious problems in simulating the northward seasonal migration of the Inter- tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) into the Indian landmass. They have also shown .... state-of-the-art AGCMs when forced by observed. SST are unable to simulate properly Asian–Pacific summer monsoon rainfall. In their analysis ...

  11. Physics in the twentieth century. A selection of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, V.F.

    1974-01-01

    A number of papers from Victor F. Weisskopf have been collected in this book. The papers included in the first part are dealing with basic concepts in quantum mechanics. Particle-wave duality, quantum scale, and the Niels Bohr works. Papers in the second part describe the recent developments in the physics field during the 20th century: the electron theory, compound nucleus, nuclear structure, and quantum theory of elementary particles. The third part is concerned with peculiar cases: nuclear models, the Lorentz relativistic contraction, light-matter interaction, parity decay, and symmetry. In the fourth part are gathered papers on sciences in general, for which they present a sort of natural philosophy [fr

  12. Educating the Young Mathematician: The Twentieth Century and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Educational programs for young children emerged reasonably early in the history of the United States of America. The movements of Child-Centered Education, the Nursery School, the Project Method, Curriculum Reform, and contemporary research have all influenced mathematics in early childhood education. The Froebelian kindergarten and the Montessori…

  13. Yeats: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterecker, John, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by John Unterecker, W. H. Auden, High Kenner, Giogio Melchiori, Frank Kermode, W. Y. Tindall, T. S. Eliot, R. P. Blackmur, Alex Zwerdling, Curtis Bradford, D. J. Gordon, Ian Fletcher, A. G. Stock, Allen Tate, and Richard…

  14. Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, George, Ed.; Fagles, Robert, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by George Steiner, Leo Tolstoy, Ezra Pound, Erich Auerbach, Edwin Muir, Cedric H. Whitman, Albert B. Lord, W. H. Auden, Ernst Bloch, Georg Lukacs, C. Day Lewis, Gabriel Germain, Franz Kafka, Rachel Bespaloff, Robert…

  15. Hardy: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerard, Albert J., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Albert Guerard, Donald Davidson, Morton Dauwen Zabel, D. H. Lawrence, John Hollowan, Dorothy Van Ghent, John Paterson, A. Alvarez, Delmore Schwartz, W. H. Auden, David Perkins, and Samuel Hynes--all dealing with the…

  16. twentieth-century english bible translations 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fashioned vocabulary and .... somewhat traditional translation in terms of translation theory. This ... the focus is to make the original meaning accessible to its readers. Eugene A. .... Old Testament translation and on the Nestle-Aland 25th edition of the.

  17. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  18. Women, University and Science in Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Antonio Fco.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to question the widely accepted idea that female university students in Spain have, in the past, tended to opt for degrees in the field of humanities. Based on an analysis of the official statistics that are currently available, the paper demonstrates that Spanish female university students showed a clear preference for…

  19. Twentieth-century warming revives the world's northernmost lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perren, Bianca B.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Cooke, Colin A.

    2012-01-01

    lake to explore this question. Microfossils indicate that siliceous diatoms and chrysophytes were abundant initially, but disappeared 2400 yr ago in concert with Neoglacial cooling. Microfossils reappear in 20th-century sediments and reach unprecedented concentrations in sediments deposited after ca. A.......D. 1980, tracking increasing summer temperatures in the absence of evidence for atmospheric nutrient subsidies. These results indicate that current warming in northern Greenland is unprecedented in the context of the past 2400 yr, and that climate change alone is responsible for the marked biological...

  20. Demography in the United States: Some Twentieth Century Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Robert L.

    Five demographic myths related to education pose dangers to educational planning and thinking. The first myth says the return of service personnel after World War II caused the baby boom. Actually the baby boom began in 1939 and was not related to service personnel. The second myth claims the Great Depression decreased the birth and fertility…

  1. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk., Robert G.W.; Cantor, David; Ramsden, Edmund; Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Stress is one of the most widely utilized medical concepts in modern society. Originally used to describe physiological responses to trauma, it is now applied in a variety of other fields and contexts, such as in the construction and expression of personal identity, social relations, building and engineering, and the various complexities of the competitive capitalist economy. In addition, scientists and medical experts use the concept to explore the relationship between an ever increasing num...

  2. Chinese Avant-garde Art in the Late Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the present paper is the '85 Art Movement, which was the first significant nationwide Avant-garde art movement in China. This movement, which arose in the mid-80s, defined the aesthetic foundations and identity of contemporary Chinese art, and represented Chinese globalized society on the threshold of the 21st century. Whilst focusing on China’s specific cultural and political contexts, the present paper analyses the concepts of humanism (renwen 人文 and idea (guannian 觀念. The spirit of humanism, with a rationalist connotation, and the desire for a revolution of ideas were the two main factors underpinning the Chinese Avant-garde movement and its artistic expressions. The paper also shows that the '85 Art Movement did not stem solely from the socio-political challenges of the 1980s, but should be regarded in the wider context of the “modernization project of Chinese art”, in the early 20th century.

  3. Political elites and China's search of modernity in twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lemus Delgado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between the foundation, consolidation and reinvention of the political elite in the People's Republic of China and the search to modernization from an historical perspective. To do this, this article proposes that modernity is a political project that has been an important ideological justification. This justification allowed that Chinese Communist Party took the political power. Also, the project of modernization has favored the reinvention of the political elite. The contribution of this paper is to present this process and the particular characteristics of Chinese history. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the search to modernization has been a constitutive element with deep historical roots.

  4. Internet: The Marketing Challenge of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Paul; Hale, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Previously thought to be above commercial activity, the Internet is proving to be an outstanding marketing tool. This article examines linkage via World Wide Web, electronic mail, and news groups; argues that a home page is vital for the success of any business today; and tries to assess the impact of the Internet on the discipline of marketing.…

  5. Hemingway; A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Robert P., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Lillian Ross, Malcolm Crowley, E.M. Halliday, Harry Levin, Leslie Fiedler, D.H. Lawrence, Philip Young, Sean O'Faolain, Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren, Carlos Baker, Mark Spilka, Ray B. West, Jr., Nemi D'Agostino,…

  6. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Persano

    2016-01-01

    ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States) nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ ...

  7. The Imperfect Child in Early Twentieth-Century Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the role that conceptualisations of child "imperfection" played in the rise and fall of Russian "child study" between the 1900s and the 1930s. Drawing on Georges Canguilhem's ideas on "the normal" and "the pathological", the article analyses practices centred on diagnosing subnormality…

  8. PHILOSOPHIC AND CLINICAL DISCOURSE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Skyrtach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to identify common and distinctive features of concepts and methodology of the problem of subject within different discourses, implicitly or explicitly relevant to the definition of "clinical" mode of human existence. The research methodology combines techniques of discourse analysis and basic principles of historical and philosophical studies. Originality of the research lies in definition of the clinical philosophical discourse as a special communicative process, where utterances not only focus on disease syndromes, and reveal phenomenology of inner experience of a pathological self, but also structure a certain type of sociality. Clinical discourse represents the space where the patient is treated not as a subject but as an object of disease. Ontology of clinical discourse prevails over ontology of disease, since its structures determine the notion of disease as such. Categorization of the disease, the idea of disease as a phenomenon subdued to professional authority leads to the idea of the need for patient’s isolation from the natural environment and removing him to special social institutions. The clinicist doctrines share the intention to reduce the patient’s self to its bodily dimension, while ignoring social determinants of psychological deviations. Conclusions of the study are summarized in the following positions: the current clinical discourse is based on the positivist-biological trend in humanitarian knowledge and it is the basis for the production and reproduction of medical and pharmaceutical repressive ideology; criticism of philosophical clinical discourse opens the possibility of overcoming the dominance of purely clinicist discourse; such a transformation is possible only after a paradigm shift in understanding the category of subject.

  9. Love in the twentieth century: democratic romanticism versus therapeutic intimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rüdiger, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo do artigo é esclarecer de que modo a paulatina legitimação dos padrões de relacionamento romântico ocorrida no século passado - conforme pregados por várias defensoras da reforma dos costumes e promovidos por meios de comunicação em massa - enfrenta a resistência, entre os setores partidários do racionalismo terapêutico, de um discurso em favor do intimismo amoroso. A hipótese é de que o sentido dessa reação seja o de proteção contra os efeitos negativos potencialmente gerados pela...

  10. Care and consumption: A Latin American social medicine's conceptual framework to comprehend oral health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Martínez-Parra, Adriana Gisela

    2017-10-01

    This article offers a conceptual framework that arises out of the Latin American Social Medicine/Collective Health (LASM/CH) tradition to comprehend inequalities in oral health. We conducted a dialogue between the LASM/CH proposal called social determination of health (in particular one of its nuclear categories 'ways of living together') and studies that address social inequalities and oral health. This dialogue allowed us to redefine oral health-disease-treatment as a process that either promotes or harms well-being and is modulated by different ways of living together where not only patients and professionals, but also governments, supranational bodies, and national and international markets represented by food, pharmaceutical, insurance, personal care, and cosmetic companies interact. The article proposes the cycle particular-consumption care/institutional-consumption care as the construct that allows investigators to think about how ways of living together relate to oral health inequalities. 'Particular-consumption care' includes ways and possibilities to access healthy foods and practice protective hygienic measures. 'Institutional-consumption care' refers to institutional responses related to supply, access to services, capabilities for resolution, and pedagogical practices.

  11. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  12. The Lauramann Howe Russell Papers: a Window into Critical Care Medicine during the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbaty, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    The Civil War influenced all aspects of American society and culture, including the field of medicine and critical care. Union physician Lauramann Howe Russell's letter to his daughter, Ellen Howe, written on October 19, 1862, illustrates the changes in hospital construction, gender roles in healthcare and medical treatments which revolutionized healthcare during the Civil War. This letter offers a glimpse of the medical care of wounded soldiers during the early years of the Civil War. In describing his conversion hospital, he reveals the precursor to the new hospital construction which would greatly influence hospital design for decades to come. His description of women volunteers hints at the evolving role and growing importance of women in healthcare. Finally, the advancements in surgical and medical practice which developed during the Civil War are embodied in Russell's descriptions of his patients. His letter freezes a moment in medical history, bridging the gap between archaic medical practice and modern critical care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A moral economy of American medicine in the managed-care era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, R H

    2001-06-01

    The moral economy of American medicine has been transformed by contentious innovations in organization, administration, regulation, and finance. In many settings old fee-for-service incentives and disincentives have been replaced by those of "managed care", while in other settings they have been diluted or distorted. In the everyday care of patients, old and new may alternate or interact. These innovations may also be having secondary effects on participation in life-sciences research and the development and employment of new technologies, discouraging collective support for preliminary investigation and delaying adoption of improved goods and services until cost-reducing potential has already been realized. This motivational complexity, particularly in its moral dimensions, is hard to address using standard assumptions and methods. I argue for different assumptions, based on the clinical behavior of individual patients rather than the market behavior of aggregated consumers, and I describe a different method, based on an old idea in political economy. I then present a new way to explain the core obligations of clinicians, researchers, and planners and to interpret the policy problems they must now share.

  14. Choosing wisely in headache medicine: the American Headache Society's list of five things physicians and patients should question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Elizabeth; Weizenbaum, Emma; Frishberg, Benjamin; Silberstein, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to draw attention to tests and procedures associated with low-value care in headache medicine, the American Headache Society (AHS) joined the Choosing Wisely initiative of the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation. The AHS president appointed an ad hoc "Choosing Wisely" task force of the AHS. The committee surveyed AHS members to develop a candidate list of items for the AHS "Top 5" list of low-value care in headache medicine. Through a process of literature review and consensus, the final list of five items was chosen. Draft recommendations went through several rounds of revision and a process of outside review. The AHS Board of Directors approved the final list of "Five Things." The five recommendations approved by the AHS Board of Directors are: (1) don't perform neuroimaging studies in patients with stable headaches that meet criteria for migraine; (2) don't perform computed tomography imaging for headache when magnetic resonance imaging is available, except in emergency settings; (3) don't recommend surgical deactivation of migraine trigger points outside of a clinical trial; (4) don't prescribe opioid- or butalbital-containing medications as a first-line treatment for recurrent headache disorders; and (5) don't recommend prolonged or frequent use of over-the-counter pain medications for headache. We recommend that headache medicine specialists and other physicians who evaluate and treat headache disorders should use this list when discussing care with patients. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  15. A dozen years of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) International Mini-Fellowship: program evaluation and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachimescu, Octavian C; Wickwire, Emerson M; Harrington, John; Kristo, David; Arnedt, J Todd; Ramar, Kannan; Won, Christine; Billings, Martha E; DelRosso, Lourdes; Williams, Scott; Paruthi, Shalini; Morgenthaler, Timothy I

    2014-03-15

    Sleep medicine remains an underrepresented medical specialty worldwide, with significant geographic disparities with regard to training, number of available sleep specialists, sleep laboratory or clinic infrastructures, and evidence-based clinical practices. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) is committed to facilitating the education of sleep medicine professionals to ensure high-quality, evidence-based clinical care and improve access to sleep centers around the world, particularly in developing countries. In 2002, the AASM launched an annual 4-week training program called Mini-Fellowship for International Scholars, designed to support the establishment of sleep medicine in developing countries. The participating fellows were generally chosen from areas that lacked a clinical infrastructure in this specialty and provided with training in AASM Accredited sleep centers. This manuscript presents an overview of the program, summarizes the outcomes, successes, and lessons learned during the first 12 years, and describes a set of programmatic changes for the near-future, as assembled and proposed by the AASM Education Committee and recently approved by the AASM Board of Directors. Ioachimescu OC; Wickwire EM; Harrington J; Kristo D; Arnedt JT; Ramar K; Won C; Billings ME; DelRosso L; Williams S; Paruthi S; Morgenthaler TI. A dozen years of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) international mini-fellowship: program evaluation and future directions.

  16. Following the American Example? American Models for Hospital Medicine and Research: The Case of the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, C

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines how and why American models were applied in the reorganization of West German hospitals and medical research centers in the post-war period. After discussing why American clinical medical centers turned into model institutions over the last century or so, a case study is discussed in some detail: the Kerckhoff Institute for cardiovascular research in Bad Nauheim, since 1951 an institute within the Max Planck Society with its own research clinic (which was unusual for Max P...

  17. The Economy of Scandinavian-American Exchange: Donations and Scholarships in the American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1912–1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Mays

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of philanthropy for academic exchange cannot be overestimated. Especially in the first half of the twentieth century, scholarships for academic exchange originated from the private sector instead of the state. But what is the relationship between academic exchange and the donations which finance scholarships? How can specific donations and the restrictions placed on them change the flow of exchange? This article investigates donation and scholarship praxis within the American-Scandinavian Foundation (ASF from 1912–1995, a philanthropic organisation devoted to academic exchange between Scandinavia and the United States. The period, 1912–1944, is characterised by various small donations and few scholarships to mostly American fellows. The second period, 1945–1995, represents an era of economic growth created from a surge in large, restricted donations invested in scholarship funds. This led to an increased number of scholarships to a more geographically diverse population.

  18. From secularism to suffragettism: conceptual frameworks and strategies of action of republican feminism during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries | Del laicismo al sufragismo: marcos conceptuales y estrategias de actuación del feminismo republicano entre los siglos XIX Y XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Sanfeliu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first years of the Spanish Restoration, some republican feminists, together with other more moderate feminist groups, made use of the press to demand access for women to education (including higher education that would enable them to work in the liberal professions. In a later period, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, lay feminist networks also demanded education and freedom of conscience for women, gained access to public platforms and promoted their social actions through the network of associations linked to free thought and republicanism. Subsequently, these lay groups would adopt clearly suffragist positions alongside other feminist organisations whose main objective around 1918 was the claim for political rights. Accordingly, the fight for the emancipation of women propagated new meanings relating to womanhood that in practice led to forms of female identity that were closer to those of men. | Durante los primeros años de la Restauración, algunas feministas republicanas en conjunción con otros sectores feministas más moderados demandaron, a través de la prensa, el acceso de las mujeres a una educación, también superior, que les permitiera ejercer profesiones liberales. En una etapa posterior, las redes del feminismo laicista, entre los siglos XIX y XX, reivindicaron también la educación y la libertad de conciencia de las mujeres, accedieron a las tribunas y promovieron su acción social a través del entramado asociativo vinculado al librepensamiento y al republicanismo. Posteriormente, esos mismos núcleos laicistas evolucionarían hacia postulados claramente sufragistas en alianza con otras organizaciones feministas que, en torno a 1918, hicieron de la reivindicación de derechos políticos su principal objetivo. En todo caso, las demandas en pro de la emancipación difundieron nuevos significados en torno a las mujeres que se concretaron en la práctica en formas de identidad femenina más equivalentes a las

  19. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  20. A partnership of a Catholic faith-based health system, nursing and traditional American Indian medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Ann O

    2008-04-01

    The paper presents a historically unique partnership between an American Southwestern, Catholic faith-based, urban hospital and a program it sponsored on the spirituality of American Indian Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) by a Comanche medicine man. A discussion is offered on the cultural partnerships, experiences and benefits achieved through the cultural accommodations of these spiritual beliefs and practices within this healthcare system. The theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Culture Care Theory), including the Sunrise Enabler, is applied in discussion of these past experiences to explore the relationships among and between the participating cultures. The intent of the partnerships within this program was not to 'learn Indian healing ceremonies' but to share the philosophy of TIM with all people (clients and professionals) as a means to enhance their own way of living. Examples of actual nursing decisions and actions are provided including outcomes from the program within the healthcare system and globally.

  1. [Following the American example? American models for hospital medicine and research: the case of the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines how and why American models were applied in the reorganization of West German hospitals and medical research centers in the post-war period. After discussing why American clinical medical centers turned into model institutions over the last century or so, a case study is discussed in some detail: the Kerckhoff Institute for cardiovascular research in Bad Nauheim, since 1951 an institute within the Max Planck Society with its own research clinic (which was unusual for Max Planck Institutes). The history of this institution illustrates which local and specific considerations drove historical actors to embrace American models. German academic and administrative realities, however, imposed tight constraints on the implementation of US institutional models.

  2. Concurrent Validity Between a Shared Curriculum, the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination, and the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Stephen D; Bertram, Amanda; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-03-01

    A core objective of residency education is to facilitate learning, and programs need more curricula and assessment tools with demonstrated validity evidence. We sought to demonstrate concurrent validity between performance on a widely shared, ambulatory curriculum (the Johns Hopkins Internal Medicine Curriculum), the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE), and the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE). A cohort study of 443 postgraduate year (PGY)-3 residents at 22 academic and community hospital internal medicine residency programs using the curriculum through the Johns Hopkins Internet Learning Center (ILC). Total and percentile rank scores on ILC didactic modules were compared with total and percentile rank scores on the IM-ITE and total scores on the ABIM-CE. The average score on didactic modules was 80.1%; the percentile rank was 53.8. The average IM-ITE score was 64.1% with a percentile rank of 54.8. The average score on the ABIM-CE was 464. Scores on the didactic modules, IM-ITE, and ABIM-CE correlated with each other (P ITE total and percentile rank scores (P ITE percentile rank. Performance on a widely shared ambulatory curriculum is associated with performance on the IM-ITE and the ABIM-CE.

  3. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, L; Franchignoni, F; Frontera, W; Negrini, S

    2013-04-01

    Case reports (CR) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side-effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. Yet, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AJPMR) and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, we discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well-written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  4. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçakar, Levent; Franchignoni, Franco; Negrini, Stefano; Frontera, Walter

    2013-02-01

    Case reports (CRs) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. However, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, the authors discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  5. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Implementation Science in Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Curtis H; Krishnan, Jerry A; Au, David H; Bender, Bruce G; Carson, Shannon S; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Cloutier, Michelle M; Cooke, Colin R; Erickson, Karen; George, Maureen; Gerald, Joe K; Gerald, Lynn B; Goss, Christopher H; Gould, Michael K; Hyzy, Robert; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mittman, Brian S; Mosesón, Erika M; Mularski, Richard A; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Patel, Sanjay R; Rand, Cynthia S; Redeker, Nancy S; Reiss, Theodore F; Riekert, Kristin A; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Tate, Judith A; Wilson, Kevin C; Thomson, Carey C

    2016-10-15

    Many advances in health care fail to reach patients. Implementation science is the study of novel approaches to mitigate this evidence-to-practice gap. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) created a multidisciplinary ad hoc committee to develop a research statement on implementation science in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. The committee used an iterative consensus process to define implementation science and review the use of conceptual frameworks to guide implementation science for the pulmonary, critical care, and sleep community and to explore how professional medical societies such as the ATS can promote implementation science. The committee defined implementation science as the study of the mechanisms by which effective health care interventions are either adopted or not adopted in clinical and community settings. The committee also distinguished implementation science from the act of implementation. Ideally, implementation science should include early and continuous stakeholder involvement and the use of conceptual frameworks (i.e., models to systematize the conduct of studies and standardize the communication of findings). Multiple conceptual frameworks are available, and we suggest the selection of one or more frameworks on the basis of the specific research question and setting. Professional medical societies such as the ATS can have an important role in promoting implementation science. Recommendations for professional societies to consider include: unifying implementation science activities through a single organizational structure, linking front-line clinicians with implementation scientists, seeking collaborations to prioritize and conduct implementation science studies, supporting implementation science projects through funding opportunities, working with research funding bodies to set the research agenda in the field, collaborating with external bodies responsible for health care delivery, disseminating results of implementation

  6. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  7. The House, the Street and the Brothel: Gender in Latin American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kuznesof

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article delineates scholarship in Latin American history (mostly in English defined by gender relations and/or focused on women. From 1492 until 1750, the honor code, the process of miscegenation or race mixture, and property rights are emphasized. Scholarship has overturned the traditional view that colonial households and production were invariably patriarchal, since between 25 to 45 percent of households were headed by women. Illegitimacy and consensual unions were found to be prevalent principally among the non-white and non-elite populations. From 1750 to 1930, profound and contradictory changes included a secularization process that caused women’s loss of many colonial protections. However, new opportunities developed for women’s employment and control of property. Women were essentially controlled within the private sphere during the colonial period, but that control moved to the workplace in the nineteenth century, and to the state in the early twentieth century. Gender was an important discourse in struggles to define the nation-state, with prostitution and disease as central themes. In the twentieth century social historians have demonstrated the differential gender impacts of economic and technological change brought by development projects, industrialization, and shifting strategies of multinational corporations. The most striking contributions of recent books on gender in Latin America include the continuing significance of honor after independence. Motherhood is another recurring theme in writings about women and their history in Latin America.

  8. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Support for the American Expeditionary Forces by the US Army Medical Corps During World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James R; Baskin, Leland B

    2015-09-01

    Historical research on pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I has been limited. In the Spanish American War, these efforts were primarily focused on tropical diseases. World War I problems that could be addressed by pathology and laboratory medicine were strikingly different because of the new field of clinical pathology. Geographic differences, changing war tactics, and trench warfare created new issues. To describe the scope of pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I and the value these services brought to the war effort. Available primary and secondary sources related to American Expeditionary Forces' laboratory services were analyzed and contrasted with the British and German approaches. The United States entered the war in April 1917. Colonel Joseph Siler, MD, a career medical officer, was the director, and Colonel Louis B. Wilson, MD, head of pathology at the Mayo Clinic, was appointed assistant director of the US Army Medical Corps Division of Laboratories and Infectious Disease, based in Dijon, France. During the next year, they organized 300 efficient laboratories to support the American Expeditionary Forces. Autopsies were performed to better understand treatment of battlefield injuries, effects of chemical warfare agents, and the influenza pandemic; autopsies also generated teaching specimens for the US Army Medical Museum. Bacteriology services focused on communicable diseases. Laboratory testing for social diseases was very aggressive. Significant advances in blood transfusion techniques, which allowed brief blood storage, occurred during the war but were not primarily overseen by laboratory services. Both Siler and Wilson received Distinguished Service Medals. Wilson's vision for military pathology services helped transform American civilian laboratory services in the 1920s.

  9. Undergraduate, Nonprofessional Pharmacology: Status of Courses Taught by North American Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A study assessed and compared the current status of undergraduate, nonprofessional pharmacology courses as taught in the U. S. and Canadian colleges of pharmacy and medicine; courses offered by veterinary medicine are also noted. Pharmacy courses seek to increase general drug knowledge and promote rational drug use. (Author/MLW)

  10. XIX Congress of the Latin-American Association of Societies of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (ALASBIMN), Cancun, Mexico, May, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Horacio

    2003-01-01

    From May 25 to 30, 2003 the beautiful city of Cancun, located in the heart of the ancient Maya Empire in Mexico, hosted the XIX ALASBIMN CONGRESS. More than 300 attendees and 80 lecturers from the American continent and Europe had the opportunity to share their knowledge and enjoy an outstanding scientific, cultural and social program. The Scientific program included reviews and original scientific papers on basic and clinical sciences as well as on new developments in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Cardio-vascular, neuropsychiatric, oncology, skeletal and paediatric procedures were comprehensively analysed by several experts. Introduction of new cyclotrons and modern PET and PET/CT systems in Latin America has opened new horizons for the nuclear medicine community in this sub-continent. New radiopharmaceuticals based on different peptides, receptors and gene expression dominated the scene. Reporter gene imaging of gene expression has become the first and best example of what is achievable by modern molecular imaging. Of particular interest was the presentation of novel and potential agents for radio-metabolic therapy. Additionally, in connection with the congress the IAEA organised a very successful Regional Training Course on Paediatric Nuclear Medicine with 23 participants from 11 countries. The Agency also hosted the first national project coordinators meeting of the IAEA Regional Project aimed at establishing a regional tele-nuclear medicine network in the Latin American Region in conjunction with the ALASBIMN meeting. Once again the major companies representing the nuclear medicine industry participated in the Congress and contributed to the success of the ALASBIMN meeting. In summary, attending the XIX ALASBIMN meeting was a very rewarding experience in every aspect. We are most grateful to the organisers for hosting such a nice congress. Congratulations! Now we are looking forward to participate in the next ALASBIMN Congress to be held in the

  11. Validation of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines/recommendations in white European men presenting for couple's infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Ippolito, Silvia; Scano, Roberta; Moschini, Marco; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Papaleo, Enrico; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    To retrospectively validate the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines/recommendations concerning endocrine evaluation in a cohort of white European men presenting for couple's infertility. Retrospective study. Academic reproductive medicine outpatient clinic. Cohort of 1,056 consecutive infertile men (noninterracial infertile couples). Testicular volume was assessed with a Prader orchidometer. Serum hormones were measured (8-10 a.m.) in all cases. Hypogonadism was defined as total T Society definition. Semen analysis values were assessed based on the 2010 World Health Organisation reference criteria. ASRM indications for endocrine assessment in infertile men (sperm concentration Society classification criteria. Conversely, 37 (23.7%) out of 156 patients with biochemical hypogonadism would have been overlooked. The overall predictive accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the ASRM guidelines was 58%, 76%, and 39%, respectively. Our nomogram was not reliable enough to predict hypogonadism, despite demonstrating a significantly higher predictive accuracy (68%) than the ASRM guidelines. The current findings show that the ASRM guidelines/recommendations for male infertility workup may not be suitable for application in white European infertile men. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The golden section and American psychology, 1892-1938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John G

    2010-01-01

    The golden section has been said by many to be the most beautiful proportion. Fechner was the first to investigate it experimentally, and several late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century American psychologists followed up on his work. Among these were four prominent names: Lightner Witmer (1867-1956), Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949), Robert S. Woodworth (1869-1962), and Robert M. Ogden (1877-1959). Why did such well-known psychologists bother with the golden section? In attempting to answer this question we discovered that the golden section was surprisingly well known during this period, not only in psychology but also in advertising and design. It would have been entirely congruent with their stature for prominent psychologists to take an interest in it.

  13. Creating a segregated medical profession: African American physicians and organized medicine, 1846-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert B; Washington, Harriet A; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R

    2009-06-01

    An independent panel of experts, convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) Institute for Ethics, analyzed the roots of the racial divide within American medical organizations. In this, the first of a 2-part report, we describe 2 watershed moments that helped institutionalize the racial divide. The first occurred in the 1870s, when 2 medical societies from Washington, DC, sent rival delegations to the AMA's national meetings: an all-white delegation from a medical society that the US courts and Congress had formally censured for discriminating against black physicians; and an integrated delegation from a medical society led by physicians from Howard University. Through parliamentary maneuvers and variable enforcement of credentialing standards, the integrated delegation was twice excluded from the AMA's meetings, while the all-white society's delegations were admitted. AMA leaders then voted to devolve the power to select delegates to state societies, thereby accepting segregation in constituent societies and forcing African American physicians to create their own, separate organizations. A second watershed involved AMA-promoted educational reforms, including the 1910 Flexner report. Straightforwardly applied, the report's population-based criterion for determining the need for phySicians would have recommended increased training of African American physicians to serve the approximately 9 million African Americans in the segregated south. Instead, the report recommended closing all but 2 African American medical schools, helping to cement in place an African American educational system that was separate, unequal, and destined to be insufficient to the needs of African Americans nationwide.

  14. Factors predicting publication of sexual medicine abstracts presented at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berookhim, Boback M; Kaya, Yekta; Deveci, Serkan; Nelson, Christian J; Mulhall, John P

    2013-10-01

    At sexual medicine meetings throughout the world, hundreds of scientific abstracts are presented each year. To our knowledge, no previous studies have looked at the rate of publication of these studies in a peer-reviewed journal. To define the fate of abstracts presented at sexual medicine sessions at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) and to describe the factors predicting ultimate publication in scientific journals. All abstracts presented at the 2006 and 2007 AUA annual meeting were surveyed to find sexual medicine abstracts. Publication status as of October 2009 was assessed using the Medline database. Abstract parameters were recorded including number of authors, country of origin, clinical or basic research, and area of sexual research. Predictors of publication were analyzed using a multivariable model. Publication status of all sexual medicine abstracts presented at the 2006 and 2007 AUA annual meetings. A total of 208 sexual medicine abstracts were presented in 2006 and 2007. Fifty-one percent of these were published by October 2009. On univariate analysis, the predictors of publication in a peer-reviewed journal included the number of authors (r=0.22, Pacademic centers (RR 2.7, CI 1.7-4.3, Pacademic center (OR 5.9, CI 2.8-12.7, Pmedicine abstracts presented at the 2006 and 2007 annual AUA meetings have been published within 2 to 3 years of the date of presentation. Studies originating from academic centers were six times more likely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  16. Targeting the American market for medicines, ca. 1950s-1970s: ICI and Rhône-Poulenc compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of "scientific marketing."

  17. Segregation, civil rights, and health disparities: the legacy of African American physicians and organized medicine, 1910-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Harriet A; Baker, Robert B; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1910 and 1968, the National Medical Association (NMA) repeatedly clashed with the American Medical Association (AMA) over the latter organization's racial bars to membership and other health policy issues. The NMA, founded in 1895 as a nonexclusionary medical society to provide a voice for disenfranchised black physicians and patients, struggled in its early years, during which AMA leadership took scant notice of it. But skirmishes ensued over such actions as stigmatizing racial labels in the AMA's American Medical Directory, which, beginning in 1906, listed all U.S. physicians but designated African Americans with the notation col. The NMA also repeatedly asked the AMA to take action against overt racial bars on blacks' membership in its constituent state and county societies. During the civil rights era, African American physicians received no AMA support in seeking legal remedies to hospital segregation. And the NMA and AMA found themselves opposed on other policy issues, including Medicaid and Medicare. These differences eventually catalyzed a series of direct confrontations. The 1965 AMA meeting in New York City, for example, was protested by about 200 NMA-led picketers. The NMA's quest for racial equality in medicine was supported by some other medical organizations, such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights. In 1966, the AMA House voted to amend the AMA Constitution and Bylaws, giving its Judicial Council (now the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs) the authority to investigate allegations of discrimination. This paved the way for a subsequent era of increasing cooperation and understanding.

  18. Scientific biography, cognitive deficits, and laboratory practice. James McKeen Cattell and early American experimental psychology, 1880-1904.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.

  19. Using Precept-Assist® to predict performance on the American Board of Family Medicine In-Training Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert E; Jamena, Gemma P; Gamble, James D

    2014-09-01

    Precept-Assist® (PA) is a computer-based program developed by the Virtua Family Medicine Residency where residents receive a score on a Likert-type scale from an attending for each precept based on their knowledge base. The purpose of this study was to attempt to validate this program for precepting family medicine residents. This was a validation study. PA and American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) In-Training Exam (ITE) scores for all residents from a community-based family medicine residency between the years 2002 and 2011 were included (n=216). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between PA scores for the second quarter of the academic year (October 1 to December 31) and scores on the ITE. An ROC curve was also created to determine sensitivity and specificity for various PA scores in predicting residents scoring 500 or above on the ITE. The PA mean (SD) score was 5.18 (0.84) and the ITE mean (SD) score was 425.1 (87.6). The Pearson correlation coefficient between PA and ITE scores was 0.55, which is a moderately positive correlation. The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.783 (95% CI 0.704-0.859). A PA score of 5.5 (between the level of a PGY-2 and PGY-3) was 72% sensitive and 77% specific for scoring 500 or above on the ITE with a positive LR of 3.12. There is a significant correlation between PA scores and ABFM In-Training Exam scores. PA is a valid screening tool that can be used as a predictor for future performance in Family Medicine In-Training exams.

  20. Leaf venation pattern to recognize austral South American medicinal species of "cow's hoof" (Bauhinia L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée H. Fortunato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves extracts of some species of Bauhinia L. s.l. are consumed to treat diabetes, inflammation, pains and several disorders in traditional medicine in austral South America. Despite its wide use and commercialization, sale is not controlled, and botanical quality of samples is not always adequate because of plant misidentification and adulteration. Here, we characterized leaf vein pattern in nineteen taxa to contribute to the recognition and commercial quality control of plant material commercially available. The vein characters intercostal tertiary and quinternary vein fabric, areole development and shape, free ending veinlet branching and marginal ultimate venation allowed to distinguish the main medicinal species in the region.

  1. Report from the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine organization 2012 workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries.

  2. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  3. Duty or dream? Edwin G. Conklin's critique of eugenics and support for American individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Kathy J

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses ideas about moral and reproductive duty in American eugenics during the early twentieth century. While extreme eugenicists, including Charles Davenport and Paul Popenoe, argued that social leaders and biologists must work to prevent individuals who were "unfit" from reproducing, moderates, especially Edwin G. Conklin, presented a different view. Although he was sympathetic to eugenic goals and participated in eugenic organizations throughout his life, Conklin realized that eugenic ideas rarely could meet strict hereditary measures. Relying on his experience as an embryologist, Conklin instead attempted to balance more extreme eugenic claims - that emphasized the absolute limits posed by heredity - with his own view of "the possibilities of development." Through his critique he argued that most human beings never even begin to approach their hereditary potential; he moderated his own eugenic rhetoric so that it preserved individual opportunity and responsibility, or what has often been labeled the American Dream.

  4. An International Comparison of Attitudes Toward Traditional and Modern Medicine in a Chinese and an American Clinic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Burke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. International comparative research on traditional medicine (TM offers a useful method for examining differences in patient characteristics and can provide insight into: (i more universal characteristics which may cross cultures and international borders; (ii unique characteristics influenced by regional/national factors; and (iii cultural values of immigrant populations. To explore these issues TM patients from the United States and China were compared. Methods. Data collection took place at two TM college clinics. A convenience sample of 128 patients in China and 127 patients in the United States completed a 28-item questionnaire. Results. There was a marked similarity between the two patient groups in terms of the biological characteristics of age and gender. Musculoskeletal issues were the most common presenting complaints in the United States; while in China TM was used for a more diverse array of conditions. The majority of patients in both countries had initially used allopathic medicine (AM; significantly, more of the United States respondents stopped allopathic treatment after beginning traditional treatment. In comparing the two countries, patients in China were significantly more satisfied with AM and American patients significantly more satisfied with TM. In comparing the two medicines, the patient samples in both countries were significantly more satisfied with TM than AM. Discussion. Although treatment often originated with allopathic providers, many patients sought alternatives presumably to find the best solution to their problems. This tendency toward self-assignment suggests that a pluralistic healthcare system may provide the greatest satisfaction resulting from personal choice and improved outcomes.

  5. Running the "Medicine Line": Images of the Border in Contemporary Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author is concerned with the intersection of two congruent phenomena: (1) an increasing number of references to borders in contemporary Native American art; and (2) an increasing occurrence of border-rights conflicts between Native nations and the governments of the United States and Canada. Focusing on the period roughly 1990…

  6. The lost history of American veterinary medicine: the need for preservation*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C. Trenton

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050

  7. The American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination and State Medical Board Disciplinary Actions: a Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Furman S; Duhigg, Lauren M; Arnold, Gerald K; Hafer, Ruth M; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2018-03-07

    Some have questioned whether successful performance in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program is meaningful. The association of the ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) MOC examination with state medical board disciplinary actions is unknown. To assess risk of disciplinary actions among general internists who did and did not pass the MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification. Historical population cohort study. The population of internists certified in internal medicine, but not a subspecialty, from 1990 through 2003 (n = 47,971). ABIM IM MOC examination. General internal medicine in the USA. The primary outcome measure was time to disciplinary action assessed in association with whether the physician passed the ABIM IM MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification, adjusted for training, certification, demographic, and regulatory variables including state medical board Continuing Medical Education (CME) requirements. The risk for discipline among physicians who did not pass the IM MOC examination within the 10 year requirement window was more than double than that of those who did pass the examination (adjusted HR 2.09; 95% CI, 1.83 to 2.39). Disciplinary actions did not vary by state CME requirements (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.16), but declined with increasing MOC examination scores (Kendall's tau-b coefficient = - 0.98 for trend, p actions were less severe among those passing the IM MOC examination within the 10-year requirement window than among those who did not pass the examination. Passing a periodic assessment of medical knowledge is associated with decreased state medical board disciplinary actions, an important quality outcome of relevance to patients and the profession.

  8. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.

  9. How four different political systems have shaped the modernization of traditional Korean medicine between 1900 and 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongwon, Shin

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, I examine the modern formation of traditional Korean medicine and discuss the characteristics of the modernization, or modernity, of the medicine. I probe for answers to three questions: first, prior to the twentieth century, what were the main factors that traditional Korean medicine needed to be transformed into a new one? Second, how did four states, the Taehan Empire, colonial Korea, North Korea, and South Korea, treat traditional medicine differently, and why? Third, what are the main characteristics of the modernization of traditional Korean medicine? In examining these questions, I found the following four factors to be important in shaping the modern formation of traditional Korean medicine during the twentieth century: first, the influences of Western science and institutions; second, the rise of nationalism; third, the economics of the state; and fourth, the effectiveness of traditional medicine. Among them, the introduction of Western science and institutions was the most important factor. All the different states in modern Korea realized that Western science and institutions were indispensable for the country to be a powerful nation and to enhance people's welfare. The degree of confidentiality in scientific Western medicine determined the number of traditional medical practitioners and their professional status. The modernization also was greatly affected by modern nationalism, which clashed with Westernization. Many Koreans and the Korean governments regarded the traditional medicine as something culturally valuable to protect from Western culture. Especially, the majority of Koreans who had experienced the cruelty of the Japanese rule under colonization tended to believe that Japan, a foreign ruler, had suppressed traditional Korean medicine as a liquidation policy of Korean culture during the colonial period. This belief contributed greatly to the recovery of the traditional doctors' prestige in South Korea and North Korea after

  10. Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Hannah

    2001-01-01

    America's first hospitals for premature infants were built at the turn of the twentieth century at fairs, amusement parks, and expositions. These hospitals represented both a medical and a social frontier. They had a great impact on American medicine because they demonstrated the success of caring for premature infants using incubators. The…

  11. Archeology and Native American Religion at the Leon River Medicine Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    varieties of plants. The eastern side of including pecan (Carya illinoinensis), slippery elm the facility (East Range) is typified by dense (Ulmus rubra...southern part of the Cross Timbers and Prairies texana), and cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia). A Vegetation Area. Alired and Mitchell (1955) term variety of...south (West Fort americana), American elm (Ulmus americana), Hood) are generally more open, ranging from TRC MARIAH ASSOCIATES, INC. (662-21

  12. The American Newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Will

    This book presents a series of fifteen articles, written in 1911 by the journalist Will Irwin, that discuss the origins, purposes, and principles of newspaper journalism. The articles first appeared in "Collier's" magazine and have been reprinted to give journalism students a better understanding of how twentieth-century newspapers…

  13. Taking care of business: self-help and sleep medicine in american corporate culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that corporate management in the United States has expanded its scope beyond office walls and encompasses many aspects of workers' daily lives. One new element of corporate training is the micromanagement of sleep; self-help books, newspaper reports, magazine articles, and consulting firms currently advise workers and supervisors on optimizing productivity by cultivating certain sleep habits. Although consultants and self-help books make specific recommendations about sleep, most medical research is inconclusive about sleep's benefits for human performance. Using the ideas of Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze as a philosophical backdrop, this article examines the complex and often contradictory links between self-help, medicine, and corporate governance.

  14. The ‘Dangerous’ Women of Animal Welfare: How British Veterinary Medicine Went to the Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the turn toward the small companion animal that occurred in British veterinary medicine in the twentieth century. The change in species emphasis is usually attributed to post-war socioeconomic factors, however this explanation ignores the extensive small animal treatment that was occurring outwith the veterinary profession in the interwar period. The success of this unqualified practice caused the veterinary profession to rethink attitudes to small animals (dogs initially, later cats) upon the decline of horse practice. This paper argues that a shift toward seeing the small animal as a legitimate veterinary patient was necessary before the specialty could become mainstream in the post-war years, and that this occurred between the wars as a result of the activities of British animal welfare charities, especially the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals of the Poor. PMID:25067889

  15. Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: A Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for optimal health. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and Sleep Research Society (SRS) developed a consensus recommendation for the amount of sleep needed to promote optimal health in adults, using a modified RAND Appropriateness Method process. The recommendation is summarized here. A manuscript detailing the conference proceedings and evidence supporting the final recommendation statement will be published in SLEEP and the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

  16. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Bonutti, Faustino; Msaki, Peter; Kazema, R.

    2011-01-01

    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4. 0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers' characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly. (author)

  17. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroad Muhogora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR systems, (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4.0 image plates, Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers′ characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009 and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006 probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284 suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly.

  18. The status of evolutionary medicine education in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H; Asghar, Anila; Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M; Wolpaw, Terry M; Skursky, Nicole K; Bennett, Katelyn J; Beyrouty, Matthew W; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-03-08

    Medical and public health scientists are using evolution to devise new strategies to solve major health problems. But based on a 2003 survey, medical curricula may not adequately prepare physicians to evaluate and extend these advances. This study assessed the change in coverage of evolution in North American medical schools since 2003 and identified opportunities for enriching medical education. In 2013, curriculum deans for all North American medical schools were invited to rate curricular coverage and perceived importance of 12 core principles, the extent of anticipated controversy from adding evolution, and the usefulness of 13 teaching resources. Differences between schools were assessed by Pearson's chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Spearman's correlation. Open-ended questions sought insight into perceived barriers and benefits. Despite repeated follow-up, 60 schools (39%) responded to the survey. There was no evidence of sample bias. The three evolutionary principles rated most important were antibiotic resistance, environmental mismatch, and somatic selection in cancer. While importance and coverage of principles were correlated (r = 0.76, P evolutionary principles were covered by 4 to 74% more schools. Nearly half (48%) of responders anticipated igniting controversy at their medical school if they added evolution to their curriculum. The teaching resources ranked most useful were model test questions and answers, case studies, and model curricula for existing courses/rotations. Limited resources (faculty expertise) were cited as the major barrier to adding more evolution, but benefits included a deeper understanding and improved patient care. North American medical schools have increased the evolution content in their curricula over the past decade. However, coverage is not commensurate with importance. At a few medical schools, anticipated controversy impedes teaching more evolution. Efforts to improve evolution education in medical schools

  19. Medical Cannabis and the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene M; Kirsch, Douglas B; Chervin, Ronald D; Carden, Kelly A; Aurora, R Nisha; Kristo, David A; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Olson, Eric J; Rosen, Carol L; Rowley, James A

    2018-03-30

    The diagnosis and effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults is an urgent health priority. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy remains the most effective treatment for OSA, although other treatment options continue to be explored. Limited evidence citing small pilot or proof of concept studies suggest that the synthetic medical cannabis extract dronabinol may improve respiratory stability and provide benefit to treat OSA. However, side effects such as somnolence related to treatment were reported in most patients, and the long-term effects on other sleep quality measures, tolerability, and safety are still unknown. Dronabinol is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of OSA, and medical cannabis and synthetic extracts other than dronabinol have not been studied in patients with OSA. The composition of cannabinoids within medical cannabis varies significantly and is not regulated. Synthetic medical cannabis may have differential effects, with variable efficacy and side effects in the treatment of OSA. Therefore, it is the position of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) that medical cannabis and/or its synthetic extracts should not be used for the treatment of OSA due to unreliable delivery methods and insufficient evidence of effectiveness, tolerability, and safety. OSA should be excluded from the list of chronic medical conditions for state medical cannabis programs, and patients with OSA should discuss their treatment options with a licensed medical provider at an accredited sleep facility. Further research is needed to understand the functionality of medical cannabis extracts before recommending them as a treatment for OSA. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Notas preliminares sobre o cantochão acompanhado na prática musical luso-brasileira dos séculos XVIII e XIX: o Hino a São João Batista de José Maurício Nunes Garcia Preliminary notes on the accompanied plainchaint in the nineteenth- and twentieth-century Brazilian-Portuguese musical practice: the Hymn to St. John the Baptist by José Maurício Nunes Garcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Guerra Cotta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de registros que comprovam o uso de acompanhamento do cantochão na prática musical de catedrais brasileiras nos séculos XVIII e XIX, este estudo procura discutir preliminarmente a utilização de documentos pertencentes ao Cabido Metropolitano do Rio de Janeiro (RJ para a realização deste tipo de repertório, exemplificado no Hino a São João Batista de José Maurício Nunes Garcia. Busca estimular futuros estudos sobre o tema e, sobretudo, a performance desta música. Indiretamente, pretende-se fornecer subsídios para novas formas de utilização do instrumento catedralício por excelência - o órgão de tubos - re-inserindo este repertório litúrgico nas práticas sócio-culturais e musicais atualmente em voga, estimulando a reutilização deste instrumento nos circuitos históricos brasileiros em que se encontram.Departing from evidences of the use of accompanied plainchant in the musical practice of Brazilian cathedrals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, this study discusses preliminarily the use of documents belonging to the Cabido Metropolitano do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil to support the realization of this type of repertoire, exemplified in Hymn to St. John the Baptist by Brazilian composer José Maurício Nunes Garcia. It also encourages future studies on this subject and, especially, the performance of this music. Indirectly, it intends to give subsidies for new forms of use of the organ, re-inserting this liturgical repertoire in the present cultural and musical practices, stimulating the use of this instrument in the Brazilian historical circuits in which some exemplars remain.

  1. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. McMahon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines examines the American colonization of the Philippines from three distinct but related literary perspectives. The first is the reaction of anti-imperialist American writers Mark Twain, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William James to America’s first foray into the role of colonizer and how their varied essays, letters, and speeches provide an incisive delineation of fundamental conflicts in American identity at the turn of the twentieth century. The book then analyzes how these same conflicts surface in the colonial regime’s use of American literature as a tool to inculcate American values in the colonial educational system. Finally, Dead Stars considers the way three early and important Filipino writers—Paz Marquez Benitez, Maximo Kalaw, and Juan C. Laya—interpret and represent these same tensions in their fiction.

  2. The Case of the Suzhou Hospital of National Medicine (1939-41): War, Medicine, and Eastern Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidoji, Keiko; Karchmer, Eric I

    2017-06-01

    This article explores the founding of the Suzhou Hospital of National Medicine in 1939 during the Japanese occupation of Suzhou. We argue that the hospital was the culmination of a period of rich intellectual exchange between traditional Chinese and Japanese physicians in the early twentieth century and provides important insights into the modern development of medicine in both countries. The founding of this hospital was followed closely by leading Japanese Kampo physicians. As the Japanese empire expanded into East Asia, they hoped that they could revitalize their profession at home by disseminating their unique interpretations of the famous Treatise on Cold Damage abroad. The Chinese doctors that founded the Suzhou Hospital of National Medicine were close readers of Japanese scholarship on the Treatise and were inspired to experiment with a Japanese approach to diagnosis, based on new interpretations of the concept of "presentation" ( shō / zheng ). Unfortunately, the Sino-Japanese War cut short this fascinating dialogue on reforming medicine and set the traditional medicine professions in both countries on new nationalist trajectories.

  3. The American Board of Emergency Medicine ConCert Examination: Emergency Physicians' Perceptions of Learning and Career Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Wahl, Robert P; Counselman, Francis L; Heller, Barry N; Harvey, Anne L; Joldersma, Kevin B; Kowalenko, Terry; Coombs, Andrea B; Reisdorff, Earl J

    2016-09-01

    As part of the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program, ABEM-certified physicians are required to pass the Continuous Certification (ConCert) examination at least every 10 years. With the 2015 ConCert examination, ABEM sought to better understand emergency physicians' perceptions of the benefits of preparing for and taking the examination and the career benefits of staying ABEM-certified. This was a prospective survey study. A voluntary postexamination survey was administered at the end of the 2015 ABEM ConCert examination (September 21-26, 2015). Physicians were asked about the benefits of preparing for the examination and maintaining ABEM certification. Examination performance was compared to perceptions of learning and career benefits. Of the 2,601 on-time test takers, 2,511 respondents participated (96.5% participation rate). The majority of participants (92.0%) identified a benefit to preparing for the ConCert examination, which included reinforced medical knowledge (73.9%), increased knowledge (66.8%), and making them a better clinician (39.4%). The majority of respondents (90.8%) identified a career benefit of maintaining ABEM certification, which included more employment options (73.8%), more positively viewed by other physicians (56.8%), and better financial outcomes (29.8%). There was a statistically significant association between the perception of knowledge reinforcement and examination performance (p Medicine.

  4. Patriarchy, Power, and Pay: The Transformation of American Families, 1800-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes explanations for the transformation of American families over the past two centuries. I describe the impact on families of the rise of male wage labor beginning in the nineteenth century and the rise of female wage labor in the twentieth century. I then examine the effects of decline in wage labor opportunities for young men and women during the past four decades. I present new estimates of a precipitous decline in the relative income of young men and assess its implications for the decline for marriage. Finally, I discuss explanations for the deterioration of economic opportunity and speculate on the impact of technological change on the future of work and families.

  5. Patriarchy, Power, and Pay: The Transformation of American Families, 1800–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes explanations for the transformation of American families over the past two centuries. I describe the impact on families of the rise of male wage labor beginning in the nineteenth century and the rise of female wage labor in the twentieth century. I then examine the effects of decline in wage labor opportunities for young men and women during the past four decades. I present new estimates of a precipitous decline in the relative income of young men and assess its implications for the decline for marriage. Finally, I discuss explanations for the deterioration of economic opportunity and speculate on the impact of technological change on the future of work and families. PMID:26511502

  6. Eye of them: perceptions of History colombia 1920-1950, From the stories three women American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Meyer Rausch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to review books written by three North American women who traveled to Colombia between 1920 and 1950 in order to assess their potential value as a source of information for historians of the irst half of the twentieth century. The three authors and their books are: Blair Niles, Colombia: Land of Miracles (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1939, Virginia Paxton, Penthouse in Bogotá (New York: Reynal &, Hitchcock, 1943, and Nancy Bell Bates, East of the Andes and West of Nowhere: A Naturalist’s Wife in Colombia New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1947. After examining the books, the essay concludes that although the authors did not always understand what they observed, they each recorded valuable data that might otherwise have been lost.

  7. The American Society of Clinical Oncology's Efforts to Support Global Cancer Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saghir, Nagi S.; Cufer, Tanja; Cazap, Eduardo; de Guzman, Roselle; Othieno-Abinya, Nicholas Anthony; Sanchez, Jose Angel; Pyle, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Despite much progress in the management of malignant diseases, the number of new cases and cancer-related deaths continues to rise around the world. More than half of new cases occur in economically developing countries, where more than two thirds of cancer deaths are expected. However, implementation of all necessary steps to accomplish the dissemination of state-of-the-art prevention, diagnosis, and management will require increased allocation of resources, and, more importantly, harmonization of the efforts of hundreds of national and international public health agencies, policy-setting bodies, governments, pharmaceutical companies, and philanthropic organizations. More than 30% of the members of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reside and practice outside US borders, and more than half of attendees at all of the scientific congresses and symposia organized by ASCO are international. As cancer has become an increasingly global disease, ASCO has evolved as a global organization. The ASCO Board of Directors currently includes members from France, Brazil, and Canada. In 2013, the ASCO Board of Directors identified a number of strategic priorities for the future. Recognizing the importance of non-US members to the society, their first strategic priority was improving the society's service to non-US members and defining these members' identity in the international oncology community. This article reviews current ASCO activities in the international arena and its future plans in global oncology. PMID:26578614

  8. The research contributions of predominantly North American Family Medicine educators to medical learner feedback: a descriptive analysis following a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Victoria; Bing-You, Robert; Varaklis, Kalli; Trowbridge, Robert; Kemp, Heather; McKelvy, Dina

    2018-01-25

    In 2016, we performed a scoping review as a means of mapping what is known in the literature about feedback to medical learners. In this descriptive analysis, we explore a subset of the results to assess the contributions of predominantly North American family medicine educators to the feedback literature. Nineteen articles extracted from our original scoping review plus six articles identified from an additional search of the journal Family Medicine are described in-depth. The proportion of articles involving family medicine educators identified in our scoping review is small (n=19/650, 3%) and the total remains low (25) after including additional articles (n=6) from a Family Medicine search. They encompass a broad range of feedback methods and content areas. They primarily originated in the United States (n=19) and Canada (n=3) within Family Medicine Departments (n=20) and encompass a variety of scientific and educational research methodologies. The contributions of predominantly North American Family Medicine educators to the literature on feedback to learners are sparse in number and employ a variety of focus areas and methodological approaches. More studies are needed to assess for areas of education research where family physicians could make valuable contributions.

  9. Defining High-Quality Palliative Care in Oncology Practice: An American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine Guidance Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Kathleen E; McNiff, Kristen; Buss, Mary K; Kamal, Arif; Lupu, Dale; Abernethy, Amy P; Broder, Michael S; Shapiro, Charles L; Acheson, Anupama Kurup; Malin, Jennifer; Evans, Tracey; Krzyzanowska, Monika K

    2016-09-01

    Integrated into routine oncology care, palliative care can improve symptom burden, quality of life, and patient and caregiver satisfaction. However, not all oncology practices have access to specialist palliative medicine. This project endeavored to define what constitutes high-quality primary palliative care as delivered by medical oncology practices. An expert steering committee outlined 966 palliative care service items, in nine domains, each describing a candidate element of primary palliative care delivery for patients with advanced cancer or high symptom burden. Using modified Delphi methodology, 31 multidisciplinary panelists rated each service item on three constructs: importance, feasibility, and scope within medical oncology practice. Panelists endorsed the highest proportion of palliative care service items in the domains of End-of-Life Care (81%); Communication and Shared Decision Making (79%); and Advance Care Planning (78%). The lowest proportions were in Spiritual and Cultural Assessment and Management (35%) and Psychosocial Assessment and Management (39%). In the largest domain, Symptom Assessment and Management, there was consensus that all symptoms should be assessed and managed at a basic level, with more comprehensive management for common symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspnea, and pain. Within the Appropriate Palliative Care and Hospice Referral domain, there was consensus that oncology practices should be able to describe the difference between palliative care and hospice to patients and refer patients appropriately. This statement describes the elements comprising high-quality primary palliative care for patients with advanced cancer or high symptom burden, as delivered by oncology practices. Oncology providers wishing to enhance palliative care delivery may find this information useful to inform operational changes and quality improvement efforts. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: concussion in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A; Gammons, Matthew; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Halstead, Mark; Herring, Stanley A; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Pana, Andrea; Putukian, Margot; Roberts, William O

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STATEMENT: ▸ To provide an evidence-based, best practises summary to assist physicians with the evaluation and management of sports concussion. ▸ To establish the level of evidence, knowledge gaps and areas requiring additional research. ▸ Sports medicine physicians are frequently involved in the care of patients with sports concussion. ▸ Sports medicine physicians are specifically trained to provide care along the continuum of sports concussion from the acute injury to return-to-play (RTP) decisions. ▸ The care of athletes with sports concussion is ideally performed by healthcare professionals with specific training and experience in the assessment and management of concussion. Competence should be determined by training and experience, not dictated by specialty. ▸ While this statement is directed towards sports medicine physicians, it may also assist other physicians and healthcare professionals in the care of patients with sports concussion. ▸ Concussion is defined as a traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function and involves a complex pathophysiological process. Concussion is a subset of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) which is generally self-limited and at the less-severe end of the brain injury spectrum. ▸ Animal and human studies support the concept of postconcussive vulnerability, showing that a second blow before the brain has recovered results in worsening metabolic changes within the cell. ▸ Experimental evidence suggests the concussed brain is less responsive to usual neural activation and when premature cognitive or physical activity occurs before complete recovery the brain may be vulnerable to prolonged dysfunction. ▸ It is estimated that as many as 3.8 million concussions occur in the USA per year during competitive sports and recreational activities; however, as many as 50% of the concussions may go unreported. ▸ Concussions occur in all sports with the highest incidence in football, hockey

  11. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Disease Modeling and Precision Medicine: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musunuru, Kiran; Sheikh, Farah; Gupta, Rajat M; Houser, Steven R; Maher, Kevin O; Milan, David J; Terzic, Andre; Wu, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprece-dented opportunity to study human physiology and disease at the cellular level. They also have the potential to be leveraged in the practice of precision medicine, for example, personalized drug testing. This statement comprehensively describes the provenance of iPSC lines, their use for cardiovascular disease modeling, their use for precision medicine, and strategies through which to promote their wider use for biomedical applications. Human iPSCs exhibit properties that render them uniquely qualified as model systems for studying human diseases: they are of human origin, which means they carry human genomes; they are pluripotent, which means that in principle, they can be differentiated into any of the human body's somatic cell types; and they are stem cells, which means they can be expanded from a single cell into millions or even billions of cell progeny. iPSCs offer the opportunity to study cells that are genetically matched to individual patients, and genome-editing tools allow introduction or correction of genetic variants. Initial progress has been made in using iPSCs to better understand cardiomyopathies, rhythm disorders, valvular and vascular disorders, and metabolic risk factors for ischemic heart disease. This promising work is still in its infancy. Similarly, iPSCs are only just starting to be used to identify the optimal medications to be used in patients from whom the cells were derived. This statement is intended to (1) summarize the state of the science with respect to the use of iPSCs for modeling of cardiovascular traits and disorders and for therapeutic screening; (2) identify opportunities and challenges in the use of iPSCs for disease modeling and precision medicine; and (3) outline strategies that will facilitate the use of iPSCs for biomedical applications. This statement is not intended to address the use of stem cells as regenerative therapy, such as transplantation into the body to

  12. The Third American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity: Executive Summary 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Joseph M; Barrington, Michael J; Fettiplace, Michael R; Gitman, Marina; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Mörwald, Eva E; Rubin, Daniel S; Weinberg, Guy

    2018-02-01

    The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine's Third Practice Advisory on local anesthetic systemic toxicity is an interim update from its 2010 advisory. The advisory focuses on new information regarding the mechanisms of lipid resuscitation, updated frequency estimates, the preventative role of ultrasound guidance, changes to case presentation patterns, and limited information related to local infiltration anesthesia and liposomal bupivacaine. In addition to emerging information, the advisory updates recommendations pertaining to prevention, recognition, and treatment of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. WHAT'S NEW IN THIS UPDATE?: This interim update summarizes recent scientific findings that have enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms that lead to lipid emulsion reversal of LAST, including rapid partitioning, direct inotropy, and post-conditioning. Since the previous practice advisory, epidemiological data have emerged that suggest a lower frequency of LAST as reported by single institutions and some registries, nevertheless a considerable number of events still occur within the general community. Contemporary case reports suggest a trend toward delayed presentation, which may mirror the increased use of ultrasound guidance (fewer intravascular injections), local infiltration techniques (slower systemic uptake), and continuous local anesthetic infusions. Small patient size and sarcopenia are additional factors that increase potential risk for LAST. An increasing number of reported events occur outside of the traditional hospital setting and involve non-anesthesiologists.

  13. [The portrait of medicine and Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Young, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Gustav Klimt was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most important representatives of the modernist movement of the Viennese Secession. The most notable works carried out at his golden age were the "Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I" and "The kiss". In 1901 he paints "Medicine" where he returns to the entanglement of floating bodies -the lifetime- among which appears the skeleton of death; a female figure stands out from the column to represent freedom from pain. The figure of Hygeia or Hygieia, daughter of Aesculapius, who personifies medicine, is shown in the foreground. In 1911, thanks to "The life and death", a picture related to medicine, he was awarded the first prize at the Universal Exhibition of Rome. A number of his artworks were confiscated by the Nazi dictatorship. During the advance of enemy troops, and fearing that these works would become spoils of war, it was decided to burn the castle where they remained confiscated. Therefore, countless artworks were lost. The progressive development of symbolic or abstract motifs already emphasized the freedom of spirit that permeated all the avant-garde of early twentieth century.

  14. Development of forensic medicine in post reform Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syukriani, Yoni Fuadah; Novita, Nita; Sunjaya, Deni K

    2018-05-03

    Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected. It is thus important to identify the scope of the problems plaguing the development of forensic medicine, as well as its causes. We conducted a qualitative study to explain the problems and propose solutions. The results show that the standards of practice have developed more slowly than those in many other branches of medicine, despite its increasing popularity from its role in counterterrorism and disaster victim identification. A strong thriving spirit exists in forensic science, although growth in forensic research activities should be facilitated more. The 2009 Health Law has included forensic medicine practice in the health system to cover the role of forensic medicine for health and medical education purposes. It also potentially provides a way to support the justice system without exposing forensic practitioners to possible conflicts of interest, for instance, by utilizing a tiered referral system. To this aim, an alternative is proposed: to place forensic medicine practice within the context of the health system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Balancing life and work by unbending gender: Early American women psychologists' struggles and contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elizabeth; Johnson, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Women's participation in the work force shifted markedly throughout the twentieth century, from a low of 21 percent in 1900 to 59 percent in 1998. The influx of women into market work, particularly married women with children, put pressure on the ideology of domesticity: an ideal male worker in the outside market married to a woman taking care of children and home (Williams, 2000). Here, we examine some moments in the early-to-mid-twentieth century when female psychologists contested established norms of life-work balance premised on domesticity. In the 1920s, Ethel Puffer Howes, one of the first generation of American women psychologists studied by Scarborough and Furumoto (1987), challenged the waste of women's higher education represented by the denial of their interests outside of the confines of domesticity with pioneering applied research on communitarian solutions to life-work balance. Prominent second-generation psychologists, such as Leta Hollingworth, Lillian Gilbreth, and Florence Goodenough, sounded notes of dissent in a variety of forums in the interwar period. At mid-century, the exclusion of women psychologists from war work galvanized more organized efforts to address their status and life-work balance. Examination of the ensuing uneasy collaboration between psychologist and library scholar Alice Bryan and the influential male gatekeeper E. G. Boring documents gendered disparities in life-work balance and illuminates how the entrenched ideology of domesticity was sustained. We conclude with Jane Loevinger's mid-century challenge to domesticity and mother-blaming through her questioning of Boring's persistent focus on the need for job concentration in professional psychologists and development of a novel research focus on mothering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Publication rates of podium versus poster presentations at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine meetings: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Stuart D; Menge, Travis J; Anderson, Allen F; Spindler, Kurt P

    2015-05-01

    Presentations at scientific meetings are often used to influence clinical practice, yet many presentations are not ultimately published in peer-reviewed journals. Previously reported publication rates for orthopaedic specialties have varied from 34% to 52%. In addition, the publication rate of accepted abstracts is a strong indicator of meeting quality, and it has a potential effect on clinical practice. To date, no studies have investigated publication rates in the field of sports medicine, and specifically for abstracts presented at American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) meetings. To determine the overall publication rate of abstracts presented at AOSSM annual meetings and whether there were differences in publication rates between poster and podium presentations. Descriptive epidemiology study. A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar for all published manuscripts pertaining to abstracts presented at the 2006 to 2010 AOSSM annual meetings. Abstracts were classified according to presentation type (podium, poster) and subsequently were categorized into subspecialty area and study design. For published abstracts, the journal and publication date were recorded. A total of 1665 abstracts were submitted to AOSSM annual meetings from 2006 to 2010, with 444 abstracts accepted (26.7% overall acceptance rate); there were 277 podium presentations and 167 posters. Of these 444 abstracts, 298 (67.1%) were published within 3 years in peer-reviewed journals. The overall publication rates for podium and poster presentations were 73.3% and 56.9%, respectively. For the combined years of 2006 to 2010, podium presentations were 2.08 (95% CI, 1.39-3.11) times more likely to be published compared with poster presentations. The overall publication rate of abstracts presented at AOSSM annual meetings (67.1%) was much higher than that reported for other orthopaedic meetings (34%-52%), highlighting the overall educational value and

  17. Rationalizing 'folk medicine' in interwar Germany: faith, business, and science at "Dr. Madaus & Co.'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, C

    2001-12-01

    The relationship between orthodox or mainstream medicine and heterodox or alternative practices has often been expressed in terms of dichotomies, such as science versus anti-science or rationality versus irrationality. By studying the history of a company producing herbal medicines and homoepathic remedies in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s, this paper attempts to create a more differentiated picture. 'Dr. Madaus & Co.' was founded in 1919 by the three sons of a free church minister and his wife, who practised as a non-licensed healer herself. The company not only sold medicines, it also produced journals and books promoting heterodox healing methods and contributing to ongoing health political debates, for example over compulsory vaccination programmes, human experimentation, quackery, and a general 'crisis of medicine'. Gerhard Madaus, a medical doctor and one of the three founders, published in 1938 a three-volume Textbook of Biological Healing Methods, turning folk medicine into science. The essay follows the rise of the Madaus family firm and interprets the story of 'Dr. Madaus & Co.' as an example of social rationalization, emphasizing the role of commercial operations in twentieth-century alternative medicine in Germany.

  18. Delaying Middle School and High School Start Times Promotes Student Health and Performance: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Martin, Jennifer L; Wise, Merrill S; Carden, Kelly A; Kirsch, Douglas B; Kristo, David A; Malhotra, Raman K; Olson, Eric J; Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene M; Rowley, James A; Weaver, Terri E; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-04-15

    During adolescence, internal circadian rhythms and biological sleep drive change to result in later sleep and wake times. As a result of these changes, early middle school and high school start times curtail sleep, hamper a student's preparedness to learn, negatively impact physical and mental health, and impair driving safety. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence shows that delaying school start times positively impacts student achievement, health, and safety. Public awareness of the hazards of early school start times and the benefits of later start times are largely unappreciated. As a result, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine is calling on communities, school boards, and educational institutions to implement start times of 8:30 AM or later for middle schools and high schools to ensure that every student arrives at school healthy, awake, alert, and ready to learn. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  19. Relationship of residency program characteristics with pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Atsawarungruangkit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between the pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certifying exam and the characteristics of residency programs. Methods: The study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with publicly available data from the ABIM and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All categorical residency programs with reported pass rates were included. Using univariate and multivariate, linear regression analyses, I analyzed how 69 factors (e.g., location, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment are related to the pass rate. Results: Of 371 programs, only one region had a significantly different pass rate from the other regions; however, as no other characteristics were reported in this region, I excluded program location from further analysis. In the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with four program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of osteopathic doctors, formal mentoring program, and on-site child care (OCC. Numerous factors were not associated at all, including minimum exam scores, salary, vacation days, and average hours per week. Conclusions: As shown through the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions and whether there was a formal mentoring program, a highly supervised training experience was strongly associated with the pass rate. In contrast, percentage of osteopathic doctors was inversely related to the pass rate. Programs with OCC significantly outperformed programs without OCC. This study suggested that enhancing supervision of training programs and offering parental support may help attract and produce competitive residents.

  20. A Case Study of the Neti Pot's Rise, Americanization, and Rupture as Integrative Medicine in U.S. Media Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Cady, Kathryn A; Robles, Jessica S

    2016-10-01

    In a period of only one decade in the United States, the neti pot shifted from obscure Ayurvedic health device to mainstream complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), touted by celebrities and sold widely in drug stores. We examine the neti pot as a case study for understanding how a foreign health practice became mainstreamed, and what that process reveals about more general discourses of health in the United States. Using discourse analysis of U.S. popular press and new media news (1999-2012) about the neti pot, we trace the development of discourses from neti's first introduction in mainstream news, through the hype following Dr. Oz's presentation on Oprah, to 2011 when two adults tragically died after using Naegleria fowleri amoeba-infested tap water in their neti pots. Neti pot discourses are an important site for communicative analysis because of the pot's complexity as an intercultural artifact: Neti pots and their use are enfolded into the biomedical practice of nasal irrigation and simultaneously Orientalized as exotic/magical and suspect/dangerous. This dual positioning as normal and exotic creates inequitable access for using the neti pot as a resource for increasing cultural health capital (CHC). This article contributes to work that critically theorizes the transnationalism of CIM, as the neti pot became successfully Americanized. These results have implications for understanding global health practices' incorporation or co-optation in new contexts, and the important role that popularly mediated health communication can play in framing what health care products and practices mean for consumers.