WorldWideScience

Sample records for twelve western european

  1. On some Western European Aphids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille Ris Lambers, D.

    1939-01-01

    1. The genus Atheroides Haliday Of this genus 3 Western European species are known : A. serrulatus Hal. (syn. festucae Mordv.?), A. hirtellus Hal. (syn. A. junci Laing) and A. brevicornis Laing. a) A. serrulatus Hal. is quite common. It lives on Poa annua often, but prefers species of grass with nar

  2. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content ana

  3. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...

  4. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content

  5. The Western European Mobile Service Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza; Hjarup, Søren

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the development of the structure in the Western European mobile services market, based primarily on technological and economic parameters. The focus of the analysis is on the market consolidation process, taking place horizontally, i.e. among the mobile network...

  6. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in twelve European countries results of the European cardiac rehabilitation registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzer, Werner; Rauch, Bernhard; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Results from EuroCaReD study should serve as a benchmark to improve guideline adherence and treatment quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 2.054 CR patients in 12 European countries were derived from 69 centres. 76% were male. Indication for CR...... were under medication according to current guidelines for the treatment of CV risk factors. A wide range of CR programme designs was found (duration 3 to 24weeks; total number of sessions 30 to 196). Patient programme adherence after admission was high (85%). With reservations that eCRF follow-up data...

  7. Improving Comparability Of Survey Results Through Ex-Post Harmonisation A Case Study With Twelve European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    that reflect behavioural differences rather than methodological ones, in the context of the COST Action SHANTI (Survey Harmonisation with New Technologies Improvement, TUD0804) an ex-post harmonisation approach was developed using microdata from twelve European NTS’s. The paper presents both concept and basic...

  8. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze important aspects of buying behavior of food retailers, i.e., trade buyers' evaluation of product and vendor attributes, based on a number of background variables, when choosing a new supplier of an already well-known product category. The study encompassed...... the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...... attributes, and that it is possible to generalise retailers' buying behavior for different food products across countries, retail organizations, and buyers....

  9. Mathematics in middle schools in Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrum, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement has conducted a number of cross-national studies in which Western European countries participated. Results from the Second International Mathematics Study regarding the content and outcomes of this study in some Western Euro

  10. The Reactivation of the Western European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-02

    Philp ~j Broke, P.D The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of thestudent author and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S...Washington: National Defense Press, 1985. Taylor, Trevor. European defence cooperation. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul (The Royal

  11. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  12. The Development of Green Care in Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubenhofer, D.K.; Elings, M.; Hassink, J.; Hine, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different

  13. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  14. Tracks for Eastern/Western European Future Launch Vehicles Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus

    2002-01-01

    exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  15. Ocean versus atmosphere control on western European wintertime temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ayako; Palter, Jaime B.; Lozier, M. Susan; Bourqui, Michel S.; Leadbetter, Susan J.

    2015-12-01

    Using a novel Lagrangian approach, we assess the relative roles of the atmosphere and ocean in setting interannual variability in western European wintertime temperatures. We compute sensible and latent heat fluxes along atmospheric particle trajectories backtracked in time from four western European cities, using a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model driven with meteorological reanalysis data. The material time rate of change in potential temperature and the surface turbulent fluxes computed along the trajectory show a high degree of correlation, revealing a dominant control of ocean-atmosphere heat and moisture exchange in setting heat flux variability for atmospheric particles en route to western Europe. We conduct six idealised simulations in which one or more aspects of the climate system is held constant at climatological values and these idealised simulations are compared with a control simulation, in which all components of the climate system vary realistically. The results from these idealised simulations suggest that knowledge of atmospheric pathways is essential for reconstructing the interannual variability in heat flux and western European wintertime temperature, and that variability in these trajectories alone is sufficient to explain at least half of the internannual flux variability. Our idealised simulations also expose an important role for sea surface temperature in setting decadal scale variability of air-sea heat fluxes along the Lagrangian pathways. These results are consistent with previous studies showing that air-sea heat flux variability is driven by the atmosphere on interannual time scales over much of the North Atlantic, whereas the SST plays a leading role on longer time scales. Of particular interest is that the atmospheric control holds for the integrated fluxes along 10-day back trajectories from western Europe on an interannual time scale, despite that many of these trajectories pass over the Gulf Stream and its North Atlantic

  16. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  17. New Regionalism in Russia: Is the Western European Experience Applicable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Albina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to explore Western approaches to regionalism in order to analyze how the Russian experience of regionalism can fit into the existing paradigm. After having examined Western European theoretical approaches to regionalism (‘old’ and ‘new’ regionalism are compared and experience in regional policy, the article examines the obstacles and opportunities for the rise of new regionalism in Russia. The primary statement of the article is that the political mobilization of Russian regions is dependent not only on external pressures (be it globalization and Europeanization, national pressures (dominance of the state-centred approach, but also on internal regional factors, such as the style of regional leadership, economic potential and proximity to the border which can shape the strength of regional ‘actorness’. To show the validity of the proposed hypothesis, the regions endowed with such factors are studied through the prism of the analytical framework of ‘opportunity structures’.

  18. Choice and dissonance in a European cultural context: the case of Western and Eastern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkoris, Michail D; Kühnen, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that members of collectivistic cultures are less likely to reduce cognitive dissonance after making a choice, compared to members of individualistic cultures. This difference has been attributed to different conceptualizations of choice that derive from different self-construals across cultures. In individualistic cultures, choice leads to stronger commitment to the chosen option compared to collectivistic cultures, because it implicates core aspects of the independent self, such as personal preferences. However, this cultural variation in postchoice dissonance has thus far been studied exclusively by comparing East Asians and North Americans. Building on the assumption that this difference is due to different construals of the self, we conducted an experiment with movie choices using the classic free-choice paradigm to examine differences in dissonance reduction between Western and Eastern Europeans, two populations known to differ with respect to interdependence. The results show that Eastern Europeans are less likely than Western Europeans to reduce postchoice dissonance by spreading their alternatives. Our findings speak to the generalizability of the hypothesis that in cultures differing in independence or interdependence people also differ in the way they construe choice, as well as in the way the act of choosing affects their self-concept.

  19. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  20. Finnish Mothers’ Assessments of the Harmfulness of Childcare at Home on Occupational Careers: A Comparison of Twelve European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Weckström

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that long periods of childcare at home deteriorate mothers’ occupational careers. This study examined mothers’ experiences regarding negative career consequences of full-time care of children at home, and of part-time work due to childcare. The focus was on Finland, a country that provides all mothers a financially compensated, longer-term childcare leave linked with unrestricted access to day care services. Experiences of Finnish mothers were compared with experiences of mothers in 11 other European countries. The data were based on European Social Survey (ESS round 2, conducted in 2004 and 2005. In all of the studied countries, the majority of mothers assessed that taking care of children at home had not harmed their occupational careers. There was, however, a clear cross-country variation. Perceived career consequences for both types of care at home were least common in Finland. In most of the investigated countries, longer times spent with children at home increased the probability to perceive negative career consequences. In Finland, the difference was relatively small. Thus, as long as the focus is on mothers’ perceptions, the longer-term childcare leave does not seem to markedly deteriorate Finnish mothers’ careers.

  1. Differences in health between Americans and Western Europeans: Effects on longevity and public finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Gailey, Adam; Zheng, Yuhui

    2011-07-01

    In 1975, 50-year-old Americans could expect to live slightly longer than most of their Western European counterparts. By 2005, American life expectancy had fallen behind that of most Western European countries. We find that this growing longevity gap is primarily due to real declines in the health of near-elderly Americans, relative to their Western European peers. We use a microsimulation approach to project what US longevity would look like, if US health trends approximated those in Western Europe. The model implies that differences in health can explain most of the growing gap in remaining life expectancy. In addition, we quantify the public finance consequences of this deterioration in health. The model predicts that gradually moving American cohorts to the health status enjoyed by Western Europeans could save up to $1.1 trillion in discounted total health expenditures from 2004 to 2050.

  2. Psychotropic drug prescriptions in Western European nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, Sarah I M; van Manen, Jeannette G; IJzerman, Maarten J; Zuidema, Sytse U

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the numerous warnings of European and national drug agencies as well as clinical guidelines since the year 2004, psychotropic drugs are still frequently used in dementia. A systematic review comparing the use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes from different European countrie

  3. Psychotropic drug prescriptions in Western European nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, Sarah I. M.; van Manen, Jeannette G.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Zuidema, Sytse U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous warnings of European and national drug agencies as well as clinical guidelines since the year 2004, psychotropic drugs are still frequently used in dementia. A systematic review comparing the use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes from different European countrie

  4. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differe

  5. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic

  6. Epiphytic diatoms along environmental gradients in Western European shallow lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, S.; Cejudo-Figueiras, C.; Álvarez-Blanco, I.; Van Donk, E.; Gross, E.M.; Hansson, L-A.; Irvine, K.; Jeppesen, E.; Kairesalo, T.; Moss, B.; Nõges, T.; Bécares, E.

    2014-01-01

    European shallow lakes; epiphyton; Bacillariophyta; bioindication; eutrophication; total phosphorus Diatom-based assays have been successfully associated worldwide with the trophic status of lakes. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between epiphytic diatoms and nutrient load in shallow

  7. A European Solution to Islamic Extremism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-14

    any circumstances. Germany recently passed a law granting the Defense Minister authority to shoot down a hijacked plane , but the law suspended while... Carrera , “The EU’s Fight against International Terrorism: Security Problems, Insecure Solutions.” Centre for European Policy Studies, Policy Brief, Number...Balzacq, Thierry and Sergio Carrera , “The EU’s Fight against International Terrorism: Security Problems, Insecure Solutions.” Centre for European Policy

  8. Education and the Process of Emancipation of Western European Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Susanne M.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that political, technological, and social changes in Western Europe have produced a need for reassessment of the education of women and greater gender equality. Introduces the articles on equal education for women contained in this journal issue. (BSR)

  9. Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Wiener, P; Pong Wong, R; Dunner, S

    2014-07-01

    Current customers' demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n - 3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers' acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality.

  10. Widening socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in six Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); V. Bos (Vivian); O. Andersen (Otto); M. Cardano; G. Costa (Giuseppe); S. Harding (Seeromanie); A. Reid; O. Hemstrom; T. Valkonen (Tapani); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: During the past decades a widening of the relative gap in death rates between upper and lower socioeconomic groups has been reported for several European countries. Although differential mortality decline for cardiovascular diseases has been suggested as an

  11. Crisis and Survival in Western European Oil Refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, David A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, oil refining in Western Europe has experienced a period of intense contraction. Discussed are the nature of the crisis, defensive strategies that have been adopted, the spatial consequences of the strategies, and how effective they have been in combatting the root causes of crises. (RM)

  12. Adult Education and Training in Western European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubens, Beatrice G.

    No single system or model of adult education and training describes the actual situation in the countries of Western Europe. Considerable variability exists from nation to nation in regard to scope, characteristics, organization, and financing. The countries, however, share an interest in the deliberate expansion of all phases of adult education.…

  13. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  14. Attachment in cultural context: Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...

  15. Reverse migration: Western European Muslim women’s flights to ISIL territory

    OpenAIRE

    DeSitter, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since early 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has increasingly recruited Western Muslim men and women to its radical ideology. This thesis examines why Western European Muslim women—specifically from France and Great Britain—are voluntarily migrating to ISIL territory to support Islamic extremism. It evaluates women’s involvement in previous terrorist movements and proposes five potential motivations for migration: ...

  16. Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuling, Adriaan J.; Taylor, Christopher M.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Melsen, Lieke A.; Miralles, Diego G.; van Heerwaarden, Chiel C.; Vautard, Robert; Stegehuis, Annemiek I.; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; de Arellano, Jordi Vilà-Guerau

    2017-01-01

    Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, we show that widespread windthrow by cyclone Klaus in the Landes forest led to a significant decrease in local cloud cover in subsequent years. Strong cloud development along the downwind edges of larger forest areas are consistent with a forest-breeze mesoscale circulation. Our results highlight the need to include impacts on cloud formation when evaluating the water and climate services of temperate forests, in particular around densely populated areas.

  17. Go East: Differences between Poland and Western European countries in the motivational structures underlying seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    in the Netherlands. Despite the variation between Western European countries, a common finding was a much higher consistency between intentions and actual consumption behavior as compared to Poland. The differences are discussed in terms of their implications for supply chain management, product supply...

  18. The Decline in Stroke Mortality Exploration of Future Trends in 7 Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, Anton E.; Amiri, Masoud; Janssen, Fanny

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-This article aims to make projections of future trends in stroke mortality in the Year 2030 based on recent trends in stroke mortality in 7 Western European countries. Methods-Mortality data were obtained from national cause of death registries. Annual rates of decline in stro

  19. Increased competition on the supply side of the Western European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golombek, R.; Gjelsvik, E.; Rosendahl, K.N.

    1996-03-01

    This publication discusses the impact of breaking up national gas sales consortia in Western Europe. A numerical model of the Western European natural gas market is used to show that once the demand side of the market is liberalized, each producing country has an incentive to break up its national gas sales consortium. The situation is not stable, however, since each country has an incentive to increase the number of domestic producers in response to more competitors. Consequently the model suggests that there may be a large number of producers in a completely liberalized natural gas market. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Fish assemblage in European Western Highlands and Western Plains: a type-specific approach to assess ecological quality of running waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenouillet, G.; Roset, N.; Goffaux, D.; Breine, J.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2007-01-01

    After typological pre-classification of 398 calibration sites, fish-based metric models were used to predict the impact of human activities on river quality in European Western Highlands and Western Plains ecoregions. Calibration sites were grouped into six assemblage types and according to their ge

  1. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Neo Christopher Chung; Joanna Szyda; Magdalena Frąszczak

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Important...

  2. Coordination, Employment Flexibility, and Industrial Relations in Western European Multinationals: Evidence from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kahancová, M.; van der Meer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the significant investment of multinational companies (MNCs) in Central and Eastern Europe, we have limited information about the diffusion of employment practices in this region. This paper aims to fill this gap by conceptualizing and exploring coordination, employment flexibility and industrial relations in a Polish factory of a Western European industrial company. We argue that the MNCs’ corporate intention to utilize local conditions and an underdeveloped international coordinatio...

  3. Industrial policy and European integration: lessons from experience in Western Europe over the last 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw together the work undertaken for the EU (Fourth Framework Programme) TSER project on Science, Technology and Broad Industrial Policy with the experience of the countries of East and Central Europe (CEECs) as it has been catalogued through the papers written for this ESRC Programme on the Emerging Industrial Architecture of the Wider Europe. The former project sought to explore developments in science, technology and industrial/innovation policy in six Western European...

  4. The Far Right in Europe: A summary of attempts to define the concept, analyze its identity, and compare the Western European and Central European far right.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Kopeček

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the far right with emphasis on summing up some of its more widespread definitions, evaluating the reasons for classifying it as a distinctive family of parties, and comparing of the Western European and (post-Communist Central European far right. The text presents the theories of Piero Ignazi, Hans-Georg Betz, Cas Mudde, and other authors. The best working definition of the contemporary far right may be the four-element combination of nationalism, xenophobia, law and order, and welfare chauvinism proposed for the Western European environment by Cas Mudde. This concept allows for a basic ideological classification within a unified party family, despite the heterogeneity of the far right parties. Comparison of Central European far right parties with those of Western Europe shows that these four elements are present in Central Europe as well, though in a somewhat modified form, despite differing political, economic, and social influences.

  5. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a

  6. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a radic

  7. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a radic

  8. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    In this paper we analyse how different welfare state regimes affect popular support for redistribution across 15 Western European countries. We suggest that the main reasons why previous studies have not been able to connect welfare state regimes and popular attitudes towards the welfare state...... Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... at: http://www.sfi.dk/s%c3%b8geresultat-10668.aspx?Action=1&NewsId=248&PID=32427#sthash.ISdYS6vF.dpuf...

  9. Comparison between Polish and Western European fish consumers in their attitudinal and behavioural patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Brunsø, Karen;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate consumer attitudes and behavioural patterns related to fish consumption in Poland and four Western European countries (Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Spain). A quantitative cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out and a total sample...... of 4786 respondents, representative within each country for age and region (n=800-1100 respondents per country) was obtained. Although Polish consumers have the most positive general attitudes toward fish and the strongest belief that eating fish is healthy and safe, their intention and fish consumption...

  10. Subduction of European continental crust to 70 km depth imaged in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Guillot, Stéphane; Solarino, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The first conclusive evidence in support of the burial (and exhumation) of continental crust to depths larger than 90 km was provided by the discovery of coesite-bearing metamorphic rocks in the Dora Maira massif of the Western Alps (Chopin, 1984). Since then, even though similar outcrops of exhumed HP/UHP rocks have been recognized in a number of collisional belts, direct seismic evidences for subduction of continental crust in the mantle of the upper plate remain rare. In the Western Alps, the greatest depth ever recorded for the European Moho is 55 km by wide-angle seismic reflection (ECORS-CROP DSS Group, 1989). In an effort to image the European Moho at greater depth, and unravel the very complex lithospheric structure of the W-Alps, we have installed the CIFALPS temporary seismic array across the Southwestern Alps for 14 months (2012-2013). The almost linear array runs from the Rhône valley (France) to the Po plain (Italy) across the Dora Maira massif where exhumed HP/UHP metamorphic rocks of continental origin were first discovered. We used the receiver function processing technique that enhances P-to-S converted waves at velocity boundaries beneath the array. The receiver function records were migrated to depth using 4 different 1-D velocity models to account for the strongest structural changes along the profile. They were then stacked using the classical common-conversion point technique. Beneath the Southeast basin and the external zones, the obtained seismic section displays a clear converted phase on the European Moho, dipping gently to the ENE from ~35 km at the western end of the profile, to ~40 km beneath the Frontal Penninic thrust (FPT). The Moho dip then noticeably increases beneath the internal zones, while the amplitude of the converted phase weakens. The weak European Moho signal may be traced to 70-75 km depth beneath the eastern Dora Maira massif and the westernmost Po plain. At shallower level (20-40 km), we observe a set of strong

  11. Trends in Environmental Education Images of Textbooks from Western and Eastern European Countries and Non-European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Branca Tracana, Rosa; Skujiene, Grita; Turcinaviciene, Jurga

    2011-12-01

    Textbook analysis is seen as a major element for studying environmental education addressing pupils, image analysis being rather relevant when studying textbooks written in 11 languages. We analysed 25 textbooks from 14 countries addressed to 14-16-year-old pupils, focusing on: (1) local and foreign/global images; (2) urban/rural and nature images; (3) negative impact, human management, and the beauty of nature; and (4) men and women in images with negative and positive impact. We distinguished some trends between Western (WEc) and Eastern (EEc) European countries and non-European countries (NEc). In contrast to textbooks from EEc and NEc, which tend to show the beauty of nature with little human influence, WEc textbooks tend to exhibit more images of urban/rural landscape, of human negative impact and of human management, expressing an anthropocentric view of the environment. Men are usually more present in textbook images than women. However, some images exhibiting more women than men could be found in textbooks from WEc and EEc, but never in NEc. In negative impact pictures, men are more often present than women but NEc women are never present in such images. Women are more frequent than men in positive impact images. Results suggest that textbooks from EEc and NEc should give more emphasis to human management and urban/rural images, whereas those from WEc should give more attention to the beauty of nature. A balance in the presence of men and women in images should be a matter of greater concern by all textbooks' authors and publishers.

  12. Response of the Western European climate to a collapse of the thermohaline circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurian, A.; Drijfhout, S.S.; Hazeleger, W.; Hurk, B. van den [KNMI, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Two ensemble simulations with the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model have been investigated for the atmospheric response to a thermohaline circulation (THC) collapse. The model forcing was specified from observations between 1950 and 2000 and it followed a rising greenhouse gases emission scenario from 2001 to 2100. In one ensemble, a THC collapse was induced by adding freshwater in the northern North Atlantic, from 2001 onwards. After about 20 years, an almost stationary response pattern develops, that is, after the THC collapse, global mean temperature rises equally fast in both ensembles with the hosing ensemble displaying a constant offset. The atmospheric response to the freshwater hosing features a strong zonal gradient in the anomalous 2-m air temperature over Western Europe, associated with a strong land-sea contrast. Since Western Europe climate features a strong marine impact due to the prevailing westerlies, the question arises how such a strong land-sea contrast can be maintained. We show that a strong secondary cloud response is set up with increased cloud cover over sea and decreased cloud cover over land. Also, the marine impact on Western European climate decreases, which results from a reduced transport of moist static energy from sea to land. As a result, the change in lapse rate over the cold sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies west of the continent is much larger than over land, dominated by changes in moisture content rather than temperature. (orig.)

  13. Defamilialisation Policies and Attitudes and Behaviour Among Mothers in Twelve European Countries. Do results for Denmark, Finland and Sweden differ from the others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weckström, Sirpa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diverse family leave and day care policies create varying monetary incentives for mothers to stay at home with their children. They also affect attitudes of mothers and this should influence childcare decisions. In this study, attitudes of mothers towards cutting down on paid work for the sake of family as well as their behaviour regarding childcare at home were studied in 12 European countries. Of special interest were Denmark, Finland and Sweden, three Nordic countries with a long tradition of childcare policies supporting mothers’ work participation. The data is based on the European Social Survey (ESS Round 2, conducted in 2004 and 2005. The least familialistic attitudes were found in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. A coarse indicator for the effectiveness of childcare policy was devised and indicated that attitudes correlated with the policies in several countries. No correspondence was found between attitudes and average times spent with children at home. Regarding the Nordic countries (particularly Sweden and Finland, the contradictions observed were consistent with childcare policies that affect short- and long-term behaviour in opposite directions. In Finland, a familialistic attitude was relatively common among mothers whose youngest child was under 1-year-old.

  14. Variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L.. I - Comportamento de 12 variedades procedentes da Holanda, Alemanha e Suécia Behavior of twelve potato varieties from European sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatadas experiências com 12 variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., recebidas da Holanda (Prinslander, Irene, Froma e Barima, Alemanha (Merkur, Sabina, Linda e Concordia e Suécia Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran e Jätte-Bintje. Essas experiências, em número de seis, das quais três no chamado período "da sêca" (março-julho e três no "das águas" (setembro-janeiro, foram executadas nas localidades de Campinas, Louveira o Capão Bonito, no Estado de São Paulo. Ficou evidenciado o seguinte: a dado o bom estado de brotação dos tubérculos, as porcentagens de falhas no plantio "da sêca" foram baixas; já no plantio "das águas", as variedades de brotação lenta, como "Voran" e "Sabina", falharam muito; b "Prinslander" e "Konsuragis" resistiram bem à sêca prolongada, e "Barima" o "Linda" mostraram ser muito sensíveis; c "Linda", "Voran" e "Merkur", principalmente a primeira destas, apresentaram boa resistência a Phytophthora infestans, e "Jätte-Bintje" foi muito suscetível; "Voran", "Irene", "Prinslander" e "Barima" não ofereceram resistência a Alternaria solani; d "Merkur" e "Konsuragis" foram as mais produtivas para as duas épocas de plantio, sendo que "nas águas", "Eigenheimer", "Barima", "Concordia" e Jätte-Bintje", também produziram bem. Outros aspectos relacionados com variedades foram estudados.Twelve potato varieties imported from Holland (Prinslander, Irene, Froma, and Barima, Germany (Merkur, Sabina, Linda, and Concordia, and Sweden (Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran, and Jätte-Bintje were compared in six experiments carried out at three different localities in the state of São Paulo (Campinas, Louveira, and Capão Bonito. The experiments were planted twice a year, once during the so-called dry season (March lo July, and another time during the rainy season (September to March. The following results were obtained: a plantings made in the dry season had a good stand, whereas this was

  15. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weakened international competitiveness. An unattractive environment for productive entrepreneurship has created barriers to the entry of SMEs, and at the same time large informal economies. Several countries have become labour-export economies, with significant outflows of skilled labour. Economic development follows a low-skill growth path. The current global economic crisis is having a further deleterious effect as export revenues, foreign direct investment, and labour remittances all diminish. Furthermore, as transition has proceeded, disparities between capital cities and rural areas have increased, while weak administrative capacities have hindered the implementation of effective local development policies to counteract these effects. Endogenous local development cannot provide an alternative to greater engagement with the global economy. The conclusion is that the countries of the region have been left out of the most beneficial elements of the globalisation process, while simultaneously suffering from its main defects. Without a faster process of accession to the EU, local disparities are likely to widen, and the region may remain within the European super-periphery for the foreseeable future.

  16. Towards a Western European “Social Movement Society”? An Assessment: 1981–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Quaranta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some social movements scholars argue that contemporary democracies are becoming “social movements societies”: citizens are often mobilized to make claims; protest actions are progressively becoming part of institutional politics; and protest has diffused to new constituents. In other words, participants in protest activities are more difficult to be identified. This article aims to provide an updated assessment of the “social movement society” thesis in Western Europe, with a focus on the expansion, institutionalization, and, in particular, to the diffusion of political protest to new groups. Using the European Values Study, which spans from 1981 to 2009, it is found that in Western Europe forms of protest are more popular than in the past, that a partial institutionalization has occurred, and that traditionally disengaged individuals protest more compared to the past. However, the process of “normalization” of the political protester has yet to be completed, given that differences in the levels of engagement still exist among social groups.

  17. Trends in Spring Phenology of Western European Deciduous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliakim Hamunyela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenology is changing because of recent global warming, and this change may precipitate changes in animal distribution (e.g., pests, alter the synchronization between species, and have feedback effects on the climate system through the alteration of biogeochemical and physical processes of vegetated land surface. Here, ground observations (leaf unfolding/first leaf separation of six deciduous tree species and satellite-derived start-of-growing season (SOS are used to assess how the timing of leafing/SOS in Western European deciduous forest responded to climate variability between 2001 and 2011 and evaluate the reliability of satellite SOS estimates in tracking the response of forest leafing to climate variability in this area. Satellite SOS estimates are derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Temporal trends in the SOS are quantified using linear regression, expressing SOS as a function of time. We demonstrated that the growing season was starting earlier between 2001 and 2011 for the majority of temperate deciduous forests in Western Europe, possibly influenced by regional spring warming effects experienced during the same period. A significant shift of up to 3 weeks to early leafing was found in both ground observations and satellite SOS estimates. We also show that the magnitude and trajectory of shifts in satellite SOS estimates are well comparable to that of in situ observations, hence highlighting the importance of satellite imagery in monitoring leaf phenology under a changing climate.

  18. Family Practitioners’ Advice about Taking Time Off Work for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: A Prospective Study in Twelve European Primary Care Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Nocun, Marek; Butler, Christopher C.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Hood, Kerenza; Fleten, Nils; Kowalczyk, Anna; Melbye, Hasse

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute cough and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are one of the most important causes of lost working hours. Aim to explore variation and predictors in family practitioners (FPs) advice to patients with LRTIs about taking time off work in different European countries. Methods Prospective observational study in primary care networks in 12 countries, with multilevel mixed-effects binomial logistic regression. Results 324 FPs recruited 1616 employed adults who presented to primary care with LRTIs. The proportion of patients advised to take time off work varied from 7.6% in the Netherlands to 89.2% in Slovakia, and of these, 88.2% overall were advised to stay off work for seven days or less. None of Finnish or Dutch patients were advised to take more than 7 days off, in contrast to 35.5% of Polish and 27.0% of Slovak patients. The strongest predictors of FPs’ advice about time off work were: patient symptoms interfering with normal activities (OR 4.43; P<0.001), fever (2.49; P<0.001), patients feeling generally unwell (2.21; P<0.001), antibiotic prescribing (1.51; P = 0.025) and auscultation abnormality (1.50; P = 0.029). Advice to take time off was not associated with patient reported recovery. Conclusions There is large variation in FPs’ advice given to patients with LRTIs in Europe about taking time off work, which is not explained by differences in patients’ reported illness duration, but might be explained by differences in regulations around certification and sick pay. Evidence based guidance for advising patients about taking time off work for this common condition is needed. PMID:27760225

  19. Mergers and acquisitions in Western European health care: exploring the role of financial services organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Federica; Maarse, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Recent policy developments in Western European health care - for example in the Netherlands - aim to enhance efficiency and curb public expenditures by strengthening the role of private sector. Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) play an important role in this respect. This article presents an analysis of 1606 acquisition deals targeting health care provider organizations in Western Europe between 1990 and 2009. We particularly investigate the role of financial services organisations as acquirers. Our analysis highlights (a) a rise of M&As in Western Europe since 2000, (b) an increase of M&As with financial service organisations acting as acquirer in absolute terms, and (c) a dominant role of the latter type of M&As in cross-border deals. To explain these developments, we make a distinction between an integration and a diversification rationale for M&As and we argue that the deals with financial services organisations in the role of acquirer are driven by a diversification rationale. We then provide arguments why health care, from the acquirer's perspective, can be considered as an interesting target in a diversification strategy and we advance reasons why health care providers may welcome this development. Although caution in drawing conclusions is needed, our findings suggest a penetration of private capital into health care provision that may be interpreted as a specific form of privatisation. Furthermore, they point to a rising internationalisation of health care. Both findings may entail far-reaching implications for health care, as they may induce both cultural privatisation and cultural internationalisation.

  20. On cooperation and competition: a comparative analysis of national policies for internationalisation of higher education in seven Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten-Lub, Anneke; Wende, van der Marijk; Huisman, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this article is on a comparison of the national policies for internationalisation in seven Western European countries (Austria, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom). In this comparison, it will be shown that the trend suggested in previous research

  1. The Certificate Program in Western European Area and in Latin American Area Studies as Incentives to Study French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Claude

    The University of San Francisco developed a certificate program in Western European area studies covering French-speaking countries, and subsequently a Latin American area studies program for Spanish-speaking countries, in response to uneven language enrollments and as a means of increasing intermediate-level enrollment. The French program begins…

  2. Western european forum: `will Western europe face an energy shortage?` Western european energy supplies: what risks? what shortages?; Seio forum:seio wa energy busoku ni chokumen suruka? seio no energy kyokyu-donoyona risuku ga aruka? naniga fusoku suruka?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-30

    The Western European Regional Forum organized by the Energy Council of France was held in Strasbourg on 12 to 13 March 1997. Over 280 delegates attended the working sessions and the delegates were from not only Europe but also from more than 30 countries of North and South America, Asia and Africa. This kind of high attendance from different regions of the word clearly illustrates the value of such an event on the them which might have been considered by some as no longer of current importance. Pierre Gadonneix, Chairman of the Energy Council of France and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Gaz de France, introduced the problem. Whether West Europe face energy deficiency? As a sub text of this forum. The conclusion of the discussion was that Europe will not face energy deficiency. On the other hand, risk and threat do exist. These were the conclusions

  3. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  4. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Neo Christopher; Szyda, Joanna; Frąszczak, Magdalena; Fries, Hans Rudolf; SandøLund, Mogens; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Boichard, Didier; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, Roel; Goddard, Michael; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Hayes, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Importantly, we relaxed a strong assumption of discrete or admixed population, by adapting latent variable models for individual-specific allele frequencies that directly capture a wide range of complex structure from genome-wide genotypes. As measured by magnitude of differentiation, selection pressure on SNPs within genes is substantially greater than that on intergenic regions. Additionally, broad regions of chromosome 6 harboring largest genetic differentiation suggest positive selection underlying population structure. We carried out gene set analysis using SNP annotations to identify enriched functional categories such as energy-related processes and multiple development stages. Our population structure analysis of bull genomes can support genetic management strategies that capture structural complexity and promote sustainable genetic breadth. PMID:28084449

  5. Comparison of quality control for trauma management between Western and Eastern European trauma center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambale Giorgio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality control of trauma care is essential to define the effectiveness of trauma center and trauma system. To identify the troublesome issues of the system is the first step for validation of the focused customized solutions. This is a comparative study of two level I trauma centers in Italy and Romania and it has been designed to give an overview of the entire trauma care program adopted in these two countries. This study was aimed to use the results as the basis for recommending and planning changes in the two trauma systems for a better trauma care. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a total of 182 major trauma patients treated in the two hospitals included in the study, between January and June 2002. Every case was analyzed according to the recommended minimal audit filters for trauma quality assurance by The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT. Results Satisfactory yields have been reached in both centers for the management of head and abdominal trauma, airway management, Emergency Department length of stay and early diagnosis and treatment. The main significant differences between the two centers were in the patients' transfers, the leadership of trauma team and the patients' outcome. The main concerns have been in the surgical treatment of fractures, the outcome and the lacking of documentation. Conclusion The analyzed hospitals are classified as Level I trauma center and are within the group of the highest quality level centers in their own countries. Nevertheless, both of them experience major lacks and for few audit filters do not reach the mmum standard requirements of ACS Audit Filters. The differences between the western and the eastern European center were slight. The parameters not reaching the minimum requirements are probably occurring even more often in suburban settings.

  6. Impact of unemployment variations on suicide mortality in Western European countries (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanani, Moussa; Ghosn, Walid; Jougla, Eric; Rey, Grégoire

    2015-02-01

    A scientific debate is currently taking place on whether the 2008 economic crisis caused an increase in suicide rates. Our main objective was to assess the impact of unemployment rate on suicide rate in Western European countries between 2000 and 2010. We then tried to estimate the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment during the 2008-2010 economic crisis. The yearly suicide rates were modelled using a quasi-Poisson model, controlling for sex, age, country and a linear time trend. For each country, the unemployment-suicide association was assessed, and the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed, notably in order to evaluate whether the unemployment-suicide association found was biased by a confounding context effect ('crisis effect'). A significant 0.3% overall increase in suicide rate for a 10% increase in unemployment rate (95% CI 0.1% to 0.5%) was highlighted. This association was significant in three countries: 0.7% (95% CI 0.0% to 1.4%) in the Netherlands, 1.0% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.8%) in the UK and 1.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 2.9%) in France, with a significant excess number of suicides attributable to unemployment variations between 2008 and 2010 (respectively 57, 456 and 564). The association was modified inconsistently when adding a 'crisis effect' into the model. Unemployment and suicide rates are globally statistically associated in the investigated countries. However, this association is weak, and its amplitude and sensitivity to the 'crisis effect' vary across countries. This inconsistency provides arguments against its causal interpretation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Quantification of sediment supply : a method and an example from Triassic of Western European basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, S.; Bourquin, S.; Duran, M.; Fluteau, F.; Guillocheau, F.

    2003-04-01

    Triassic is a key period of Earth history, with tectonic, climatic and eustatic events. It corresponds to (i) the initial fragmentation of the Pangea, (ii) a transition from Paleozoic ice house to Mesozoic green house, (iii) a sea-level rise from Upper Triassic, followed by an eustatic fall during Lias. This special geological setting has led to the formation of large Mesozoic basins, mainly characterized by a continental sedimentation, with fluvial and/or evaporitic environments, well-conserved in Pangean supercontinent. This Triassic specificity implies a total free space for sedimentation, i.e. accommodation (A), balanced with an important sediment supply (S), as SgeA.The purpose of this study is to develop a good methodology for understanding the S parameter in past geological systems, as Triassic. Firstly, by considering three key periods of Triassic : (1) the Lower Scythian, (2) the Lower Ladinian, (3) the Carnian-Norien ; we have realized paleogeographic and paleotopographic maps either for Western Europe or entire world. These reconstructions allow us to precise (i) erosional or sedimentary areas, (ii) coastal lines and sebkha boundaries, (iii) river basins and continental systems associated. Moreover, by using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), we are actually simulating the climatic response by applying data of maps for Triassic European areas. By this way, we are able to obtain different parameters of climate (rainfall, temperature variations,...) in order to test the effect on topography, evaporitic plains and climate interactions. In parallel, paleoenvironmental maps allow us to separate three main fluvial systems developed during the Triassic period : (1) larged braided alluvial systems in vast endoreic basins that characterize the transitional stage between the Zeichstein system (Permian) and the Tethyan system (Triassic) ; (2) anastomosed systems whose preservation is controlled by sea-level (Anisian and Middle Carnian) ; (3) alluvial

  8. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  9. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate t

  10. Knowledge and practice among dietitians in four Western European countries regarding malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Lies ter; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Slinde, Frode; Orrevall, Ylva; Henriksen, Christine; Johansson, Madelene; Vereecken, Carine; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2015-01-01

    Adequate distinction between malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia is important in clinical care. Despite the overlap in physical characteristics, differences in etiology have therapeutical and prognostic implications. We aimed to determine whether dietitians in selected European countri

  11. Determinants of the sustainability of farming on leased agricultural land in Poland in comparison with selected Western European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majchrzak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe the lease is the dominant form of land management in agriculture. This is not only due to the tradition of this institution, but also to the scope of the regulations that guarantee the stability of the legal relationship and ensure the independence of the lessee in production process based on the subject of the lease. This article attempts to assess the instruments for the protection of farming on leased agricultural land in Poland in comparison with solutions applicable in after countries of Western Europe. In this paper, a review of regulations relating to the length of the lease, the obligation to care for the preservation of the quality of the resource, as well as the criteria for determining the amount of the rent, is examines . On this basis, it has been shown that the regulations determining the stability of the lease in Poland deviate far from the norms provided in most Western European countries. This implies that the legal position of a lessee in Poland is weaker than it is in the rest of Western Europe, which is a negative assessment from point of view the of agrarian structure in Poland.

  12. Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and the Extinction of European Great Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel DeMiguel; David M Alba; Salvador Moyà-Solà

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithe...

  13. Human Evolution in Science Textbooks from Twelve Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDING IN THE NORTH WESTERN REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droj Laurentiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Romanian absorption capacity of the funds allocated through the REGIO programme, which is part of ERDF programme. Within the paper are presented the concept of absorption capacity and several opinions regarding its main composing elements. Also the Regio programme, its main axis and its budget is briefly presented. In the last chapter of the analysis a thorough analysis of the implementation of REGIO in the Romanian North-West Region was carried out and several causes for the low absorption of European Founds have been identified.. The process of improving the absorption capacity of European Funds is still at the beginning in Romania and will certainly become an important issue over the following years at all levels of the Romanian society and at the level of the European Funding Authorities as well.

  15. THE CRITICAL THINKING OF SOME WESTERN EUROPEAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS AFTER FINANCIAL CRISIS, CORPORATE SCANDALS AND MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh TRAN NGOC HUY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After the recent global crisis, corporate scandals and bankruptcy in US and Europe, there is some certain evidence on weak auditing, risk management, accounting and audit system. This paper chooses a different analytical approach and among its aims is to give some systematic opinions on corporate governance criteria as a benchmark for stock markets. Firstly, it classifies limited Western European representative corporate governance (CG standards into two (2 groups: The Netherlands and Belgium latest CG principles covered in group 1 and, group 2, including corporate governance principles from Italy and Austria, so-called relative good CG group, while it uses OECD and ICGN principles as reference. Secondly, it identifies through analysis the differences and advantages between the above set of standards which are and have been used as reference principles for many relevant organizations. Third, it establishes a selected comparative set of standards for Western European representative corporate governance system in accordance to international standards. Last but not least, this paper covers some ideas and policy suggestions.

  16. A compilation of Western European terrestrial records 60-8 ka BP: towards an understanding of latitudinal climatic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Svensson, Anders; Brooks, Stephen J.; Connor, Simon; Engels, Stefan; Fletcher, William; Genty, Dominique; Heiri, Oliver; Labuhn, Inga; Perşoiu, Aurel; Peyron, Odile; Sadori, Laura; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Wulf, Sabine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial records of past climatic conditions, such as lake sediments and speleothems, provide data of great importance for understanding environmental changes. However, unlike marine and ice core records, terrestrial palaeodata are often not available in databases or in a format that is easily accessible to the non-specialist. As a consequence, many excellent terrestrial records are unknown to the broader palaeoclimate community and are not included in compilations, comparisons, or modelling exercises. Here we present a compilation of Western European terrestrial palaeo-records covering, entirely or partially, the 60-8-ka INTIMATE time period. The compilation contains 56 natural archives, including lake records, speleothems, ice cores, and terrestrial proxies in marine records. The compilation is limited to include records of high temporal resolution and/or records that provide climate proxies or quantitative reconstructions of environmental parameters, such as temperature or precipitation, and that are of relevance and interest to a broader community. We briefly review the different types of terrestrial archives, their respective proxies, their interpretation and their application for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. We also discuss the importance of independent chronologies and the issue of record synchronization. The aim of this exercise is to provide the wider palaeo-community with a consistent compilation of high-quality terrestrial records, to facilitate model-data comparisons, and to identify key areas of interest for future investigations. We use the compilation to investigate Western European latitudinal climate gradients during the deglacial period and, despite of poorly constrained chronologies for the older records, we summarize the main results obtained from NW and SW European terrestrial records before the LGM.

  17. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye;

    The food-realaed life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and different cultural setting, to compare results, a...

  18. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    state regimes, in the paper we assess countries’ degree of belonging to welfare state regimes along a range of theoretically defined characteristics: level and composition of public social spending, strength of left-wing political power, and degree of neo-corporatism. Utilising data from the European...... Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... increases with total social expenditure relative to GDP, family benefits, and active labour market policies. Furthermore, we find that institutionalised left-wing political power as measured by left-wing government seats and neo-corporatism are significant predictors of support for redistribution.- See more...

  19. The Franco-German Concordat: The Key to Future Western European Security and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-20

    34)v this was publicly changed under President Pompidou to focus on the Soviet Union. 2 1 This targeting doctrine has remained largely unchanged, and the...the SPD, the German people chose to place the major promoters of the Atlantic and West European circles, the right-of- center Christian Democratic Union...34Beyond INF: West Germany’s Center -Right Party and Arms Control," International Affairs Volume 65 (1) (Winter 1988/89), pp. 54-74. 9. Daniel Colard

  20. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the...

  1. Source regions of whistlers detected in the American, African/European and Western Pacific sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronczay, David; Steinbach, Peter; Lichtenberger, Janos

    2016-04-01

    AWDANet is a recently completed network for automatic whistler detection and analysis. Here we investigate whistler measurements from its first years of operation, analyzing the time distribution of whistlers detected at various stations in Western Antarctica, Southern Africa, Europe and the Western Pacific region. Whistlers detected on the ground are thought to originate in their magnetic conjugate location, travelling through the plasmasphere before returning to the ground. We carry out a correlation analysis, comparing the occurrence of whistler events to lightning strokes using multiple lightning databases, including WWLLN (World Wide Lightning Location Network), to locate the events' source region. Our results can lead to a better understanding of the source regions and mechanisms of whistlers observed on the ground. This knowledge can improve their use as a tool to probe the plasmasphere.

  2. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DeMiguel

    Full Text Available Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods, most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments, whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity, although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  3. Western European influences on Post-Byzantine panel painting technique through binding media identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouloumpi, E. [De Montfort University -UK, National Gallery- Alexandros Soutzos Museum, Conservation Department.1 Michalacopoulou Street, 11601, Athens (Greece); Lawson, G. [Head of Research, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Hawthorn Building, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Pavlidis, B. [School of Allied Health Sciences, Hawthorn Building, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)]. e-mail: elenikouloumpi@nationalgallery.gr

    2006-07-01

    Post-Byzantine is called the period after the invasion of the Ottomans in Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium in 1453, which lasted until the establishment of the first Greek State in 1836. The Post - Byzantine era is one of the most important artistic periods of the Neo-Hellenic Pictorial Art, since, through cultural exchanges with Western Europe, it sets the fundaments for oil painting. The thematology changes from religious to civil, the technique changes from egg yolk to egg-oil emulsion in order to end up to pure oil painting and finally, it opens 'the gates' for the modern artistic movements of the world. The current research is focused on the study of the effects of western influences on the technique and pictorial characteristics of the post-Byzantine icons by the study of any changes in the pigment's binding media through scientific analyses (SEM-EDX, micro-FTIR and GC), as well as of any changes in the painting style of the icons through comparison with both Byzantine and western painting standards. Research never ends and the results of this work give rise to further analysis, in order to throw some light to this transitional period of art. (Author)

  4. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  5. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  6. Food-related life styles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye;

    The food-related life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up til now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly...

  7. Water vapour accumulation mechanisms in the Western Mediterranean Basin and the development of European extreme rainfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sáez de Cámara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of a recently described warm season circulation at the middle troposphere of northern Africa and that of the recirculation-accumulation mode of the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB in the initiation of rainfall episodes in central and eastern Europe. Both of these atmospheric mechanisms can accumulate not only soil dust and pollutants for several days but also water vapour by evaporation both over the subtropical Atlantic and the western and central Mediterranean. Accumulation layers are vented off into the surrounding area after the irruption of perturbations. In particular, this work explores the exportation of water vapour under perturbed conditions associated with the passage of ‘Vb’ cyclones. The exceptional rainfall experienced over large areas of central Europe (Elbe/Danube floods during August 11-13, 2002 is exposed as a case study. The procedure to simulate the mechanisms involves a combination of the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System and HYbrid PArticle Concentration and Transport modelling systems. MODIS water vapour products, radio-soundings, wind profiler radars and surface-satellite precipitation data are used to verify the simulation outputs. Our results show that most of the precipitation occurring in the target area during the initiation and deepening of the episode was very likely originated in an air mass exported from the WMB. After our tracking experiment, that air mass, with an initial Atlantic origin, entered the WMB and circulated during 4 days (August 6-9 within the marine boundary layer and the coastal range of mountains of the WMB, accumulating vapour. Then, most of it was transported on August 10, after the irruption of the 'Vb' cyclone Ilse, through the Italian Peninsula and the Adriatic Sea, across the Western Balkans into the target area. The transported vapour together with evaporation en route initiated the rainfall episode.

  8. Immigrant Integration policies and perceived Group Threat: A Multilevel Study of 27 Western and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Elmar; Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad

    2013-05-01

    Although immigrant integration policies have long been hypothesized to be associated with majority members' anti-immigrant sentiments, systematic empirical research exploring this relationship is largely absent. To address this gap in the literature, the present research takes a cross-national perspective. Drawing from theory and research on group conflict and intergroup norms, we conduct two studies to examine whether preexisting integration policies that are more permissive promote or impede majority group members' subsequent negative attitudes regarding immigrants. For several Western and Eastern European countries, we link country-level information on immigrant integration policies from 2006 with individual-level survey data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 collected in 2009 (Study 1) and from the fourth wave of the European Value Study collected between 2008 and 2009 (Study 2). For both studies, the results from multilevel regression models demonstrate that immigrant integration policies that are more permissive are associated with decreased perceptions of group threat from immigrants. These findings suggest that immigrant integration policies are of key importance in improving majority members' attitudes regarding immigrants, which is widely considered desirable in modern immigrant-receiving societies.

  9. Decline in endangered species as an indication of anthropic pressures: the case of European mink Mustela lutreola Western population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, T; Cormier, J P; Le Jacques, D

    2001-12-01

    Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and the decline was associated with an increase in mustelid trapping, changes in watercourse quality, and habitat modifications due to agricultural practices. The pattern of decline showed a fragmentation restricting the minks into very small areas. Trapping was the first known cause of mortality. Although feral American mink Mustela vison may compete with autochthonous carnivores, M. lutreola had disappeared from streams before the introduction of the American species, suggesting that competitive interactions were not responsible. Furthermore, American mink has never been found or has remained rare in 62.4% of the area from which M. lutreola has disappeared. During the past 25 years, permanent grassland surfaces were reduced by 40%, whereas fodder culture increased by 470%, causing considerable habitat changes. Furthermore, 55.7% of water courses were classified as being of bad quality or polluted. Therefore, our data suggests that a conjunction of intensive trapping, alterations in water quality and habitat modification was critical for the European mink's decline. Although there are difficulties in ascribing specific cause to distribution changes in a top predator, this decline can be regarded as an indication for anthropic pressures on natural habitats.

  10. Complex interactions of the Eastern and Western Slavic populations with other European groups as revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava V; Perkova, Maria A; Bednarek, Jarosław; Woźniak, Marcin

    2007-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation was examined by the control region sequencing (HVS I and HVS II) and RFLP analysis of haplogroup-diagnostic coding region sites in 570 individuals from four regional populations of Poles and two Russian groups from northwestern part of the country. Additionally, sequences of complete mitochondrial genomes representing K1a1b1a subclade in Polish and Polish Roma populations have been determined. Haplogroup frequency patterns revealed in Poles and Russians are similar to those characteristic of other Europeans. However, there are several features of Slavic mtDNA pools seen on the level of regional populations which are helpful in the understanding of complex interactions of the Eastern and Western Slavic populations with other European groups. One of the most important is the presence of subhaplogroups U5b1b1, D5, Z1 and U8a with simultaneous scarcity of haplogroup K in populations of northwestern Russia suggesting the participation of Finno-Ugrian tribes in the formation of mtDNA pools of Russians from this region. The results of genetic structure analyses suggest that Russians from Velikii Novgorod area (northwestern Russia) and Poles from Suwalszczyzna (northeastern Poland) differ from all remaining Polish and Russian samples. Simultaneously, northwestern Russians and northeastern Poles bear some similarities to Baltic (Latvians) and Finno-Ugrian groups (Estonians) of northeastern Europe, especially on the level of U5 haplogroup frequencies. The occurrence of K1a1b1a subcluster in Poles and Polish Roma is one of the first direct proofs of the presence of Ashkenazi-specific mtDNA lineages in non-Jewish European populations.

  11. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the content (number of fans, posts, number of likes, the dynamics of comments, response rate on the Facebook pages of Tarom, Blue Air, Wizz Air, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, KLM International and Air Europa on a one week period (10th February – 18th February 2014 and successful practices on social media. The paper also aims to provide solutions for airlines to better connect with their passengers and effectively use the social media environment to increase sales and customer satisfaction.

  12. Imprint of North-Atlantic abrupt climate changes on western European loess deposits as viewed in a dust emission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Adriana; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles; Schulz, Michael; Balkanski, Yves; Antoine, Pierre; Dulac, François; Hatté, Christine

    2009-12-01

    Western European loess sequences of the last glaciation (˜100,000-15,000 years BP) exhibit strong, cyclic variations of the sedimentation rate, which are coeval to the Greenland stadial/interstadial cycles and the Heinrich events. These North-Atlantic rapid climate changes appear, thus, as a potential cause for the sedimentation variations, via changes in dust intensity cycle. Here we make a first step in testing this hypothesis, by modelling the impact of the North-Atlantic abrupt climate variations on dust emission. Our dust emission calculations use meteorological fields generated by the LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model at a resolution down to 60 km over Western Europe. Three numerical experiments are run, representing a Greenland stadial, an interstadial and a Heinrich event. Orbital parameters and ice-sheet configuration correspond to conditions from Marine Isotope Stage 3 (˜60,000-25,000 years BP), a period characterized by strong millennial-scale climate variability. The only differences we impose in the boundary conditions regard the North-Atlantic surface temperature and sea-ice cover in the latitudinal band 30°-63°N. The changes in wind, precipitation, soil moisture and snow cover from one simulated state to another result in small differences in dust emission intensity. In contrast, when the inhibition of the aeolian erosion by vegetation is taken into account, the dust fluxes for the cold climate states (Greenland stadial and Heinrich event) become generally more than twice higher than those for the relatively warmer Greenland interstadial, in agreement with the loess data. These results support the hypothesis that the North-Atlantic millennial-scale variability is imprinted in Western European loess profiles, and point to vegetation changes as the main factor responsible for millennial-scale sedimentation variations. An analysis for the English Channel and southern North Sea areas, major potential dust sources, shows that the seasonality

  13. Managing mixed fisheries in the European western waters: application of Fcube methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iriondo, Ane; García, Dorleta; Santurtún, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries management is moving towards ecosystem based management instead of traditional single species based advice. To progress towards an ecosystem approach, a new methodology called “Fleet and Fisheries Forecast” (Fcube) has been proposed. In the application of the method, a precise initial f...... the lowest. In this analysis, Western Waters fleet management results show consistency between stocks and their respective TACs. The study highlights that it is possible to deliver advice within the context of mixed fisheries using the Fcube method......Fisheries management is moving towards ecosystem based management instead of traditional single species based advice. To progress towards an ecosystem approach, a new methodology called “Fleet and Fisheries Forecast” (Fcube) has been proposed. In the application of the method, a precise initial...

  14. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in Bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or Western bean cutworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials were conducted (2007 to 2010) to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against European corn borer and Western bean cutworm (WBC). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) w...

  15. The Media as a Dual Mediator of the Political Agenda–Setting Effect of Protest : A Longitudinal Study in Six Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.; Wouters, R.; Hutter, S.; Jennings, W.; Gava, R.; Tresh, A.; Varone, F.; Grossman, E.; Breunig, C.; Brouard, S.; Chaques-Bonafont, L.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the impact of media coverage of protest on issue attention in parliament (questions) in six Western European countries. Integrating several data sets on protest, media, and political agendas, we demonstrate that media coverage of protest affects parliamentary agendas: the more

  16. Vaginal birth after a caesarean section : the development of a Western European population-based prediction model for deliveries at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorel, E. N. C.; van Kuijk, S. M. J.; Melman, S.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Smits, L. J. M.; Aardenburg, R.; de Boer, K.; Delemarre, F. M. C.; van Dooren, I. M.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Kaplan, M.; Kleiverda, G.; Kuppens, S. M. I.; Kwee, A.; Lim, F. T. H.; Mol, B. W. J.; Roumen, F. J. M. E.; Sikkema, J. M.; Smid-Koopman, E.; Visser, H.; Woiski, M.; Hermens, R. P. M. G.; Scheepers, H. C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo develop and internally validate a model that predicts the outcome of an intended vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) for a Western European population that can be used to personalise counselling for deliveries at term. DesignRegistration-based retrospective cohort study. SettingFive uni

  17. The Twelve Hotel, Barna : Video

    OpenAIRE

    Irish Food Channel

    2014-01-01

    Fergus O'Halloran, Managing Director of The Twelve Hotel in Barna in County Galway, talks about his philosophy in running this unique boutique hotel. Reproduced with kind permission from John & Sally McKenna. 3.35 mins

  18. Application of the European water framework directive in a Western Mediterranean basin (Málaga, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, F.; Sánchez, D.; Vadillo, I.; Andreo, B.; Martínez, C.; Fernández, L.

    2008-04-01

    The water framework directive (WFD) is applied within the Guadalhorce river basin, a Western Mediterranean basin in the Málaga province (South Spain). Criteria defining different surface and groundwater bodies are described. The basic hydrographic network is constituted of low-mountain and low-altitude Mediterranean mineralized rivers. Heavily modified surface water bodies correspond (1) to areas where dams regulate the main watercourses, (2) to areas downstream of reservoirs, where river flow is reduced, and (3) to the coastal sector of the river where artificial channelling has caused morphological variations. Groundwater bodies are related to carbonate and porous aquifers and, locally, to aquifers influenced by dissolution of evaporites. The main impacts to water bodies are irrigated lands and livestock farming. There are also point sources of pollution, such as wastewater, landfills, golf courses, industrial zones, quarries and petrol stations. In addition, groundwater is frequently pumped for human supply and irrigation. Qualitative status of groundwater bodies was done by chemical analysis of samples from a monitoring network and the quantitative status by examining variations in piezometric levels. Both revealed the existence of water bodies at risk of not meeting the environmental objectives of the WFD. The main indicators of pollution are nitrates related to agricultural activities, and total organic carbon (TOC), PO{4/3-} and NH{4/+} in relation to wastewater.

  19. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Design Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Setting Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. Subjects In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45–69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40–60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21 326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Results Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII) = 2·02–5·17) and women (RII = 2·09–3·57). Conclusions The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position. PMID:20843403

  20. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thierry Smith; Kishor Kumar; Rajendra S. Rana; Annelise Folie; Floréal Solé; Corentin Noiret; Thomas Steeman; Ashok Sahni; Kenneth D. Rose

    2016-01-01

    The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Cor-yphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyr-osaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during ep-isodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the KohistaneLadakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These dispersals would have

  1. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Coryphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyrosaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during episodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the Kohistan–Ladakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These

  2. Estimation of age-at-death for adult males using the acetabulum, applied to four Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissech, Carme; Estabrook, George F; Cunha, Eugenia; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2007-07-01

    Methods to estimate adult age from observations of skeletal elements are not very accurate and motivate the development of better methods. In this article, we test recently published method based on the acetabulum and Bayesian inference, developed using Coimbra collection (Portugal). In this study, to evaluate its utility in other populations, this methodology was applied to 394 specimens from four different documented Western European collections. Four strategies of analysis to estimate age were outlined: (a) each series separately; (b) on Lisbon collection, taken as a reference Coimbra collection; (c) on Barcelona collection, taken as a reference both Portuguese collections; and (d) on London collection taken as reference the three Iberian collections combined. Results indicate that estimates are accurate (83-100%). As might be expected, the least accurate estimates were obtained when the most distant collection was used as a reference. Observations of the fused acetabulum can be used to make accurate estimates of age for adults of any age, with less accurate estimates when a more distant reference collection is used.

  3. A proposed algorithm for multimodal liver trauma management from a surgical trauma audit in a western European trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Saverio, S; Sibilio, A; Coniglio, C; Bianchi, E; Biscardi, A; Villani, S; Gordini, G; Tugnoli, G

    2014-11-01

    Management of liver trauma is challenging and may vary widely given the heterogeneity of liver injuries' anatomical configuration, the hemodynamic status, the settings and resources available. Perhaps the use of non-operative management (NOM) may have potential drawbacks and the role of damage control surgery (DCS) and angioembolization represents a major evolving concept.1 Most severe liver trauma in polytrauma patients accounts for a significant morbidity and mortality. Major liver trauma with extensive parenchymal injury and uncontrollable bleeding is therefore a challenge for the trauma team. However a safe and effective surgical hemostasis and a carefully planned multidisciplinary approach can improve the outcome of severe liver trauma. The technique of perihepatic packing, according to DCS approach, is often required to achieve fast, early and effective control of hemorrhage in the highest grades of liver trauma and in unstable patients. A systematic and standardized technique of perihepatic packing may contribute to improve hemostatic efficacy and overall outcomes if wisely combined in a stepwise "sandwich" multimodal approach. DCS philosophy evolved alongside with damage control resuscitation (DCR) in the management of trauma patients, requiring close interaction between surgery and resuscitation. Therefore, as a result of a combined surgical and critical care clinical audit activity in our western European trauma center, a practical algorithm for multimodal sequential management of liver trauma has been developed based on a historical cohort of 253 liver trauma patients and subsequently validated on a prospective cohort of 135 patients in the period 2010-2013.

  4. Assessing the spatial dependence of adaptive loci in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds using AFLP markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past decades, neutral DNA markers have been extensively employed to study demography, population genetics and structure in livestock, but less interest has been devoted to the evaluation of livestock adaptive potential through the identification of genomic regions likely to be under natural selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landscape genomics can greatly benefit the entire livestock system through the identification of genotypes better adapted to specific or extreme environmental conditions. Therefore we analyzed 101 AFLP markers in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds both with Matsam software, based on a correlative approach (SAM, and with Mcheza and Bayescan, two FST based software able to detect markers carrying signatures of natural selection. Matsam identified four loci possibly under natural selection--also confirmed by FST-outlier methods--and significantly associated with environmental variables such as diurnal temperature range, frequency of precipitation, relative humidity and solar radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that landscape genomics can provide useful information on the environmental factors affecting the adaptive potential of livestock living in specific climatic conditions. Besides adding conservation value to livestock genetic resources, this knowledge may lead to the development of novel molecular tools useful to preserve the adaptive potential of local breeds during genetic improvement programs, and to increase the adaptability of industrial breeds to changing environments.

  5. Elemental carbon in snow from Western Siberia and Northwestern European Russia during spring 2014, 2015 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Espen Yttri, Karl; Eckhardt, Sabine; Sollum, Espen; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Kobelev, Vasily O.; Korobov, Vladimir B.; Lobanov, Andrey A.; Starodymova, Dina P.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC) concentrations in snow samples collected in spring 2014, 2015 and 2016 in Western Siberia, in the Kindo Peninsula and in Arkhangelsk (Northwestern European Russia). EC is often used as a proxy of BC [1], [2]. The use of the terms EC and BC has been under debate for several years. Recently, they were defined based on the analytical measurement method used [3]. Thermal or refractory analytical methods give EC, whereas optical methods give equivalent BC concentrations. The measurement data are compared to simulation results from the Langrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) FLEXPART and subsequently use the model to quantify the sources contributing to BC in snow in Russia. The highest EC concentrations in 2014 were observed in Western Siberia near Tomsk (147 to 219 ng g-1). FLEXPART emission sensitivities for these samples showed that the air was coming from the north and east. This explains these high concentrations of EC in snow well, as most of the anthropogenic BC sources are located in these regions. In the rest of snow samples, EC concentrations between 4 and 170 ng g-1 were observed. The highest concentrations were found near the Ob River with air masses mainly arriving from Europe. During the 2015 field campaign, EC concentrations were the highest near Archangelsk (175 ng g-1), for which FLEXPART showed that the air was coming from nearby areas. Therefore, it is likely that the samples were affected by direct emissions from the city or the port of Arkhangelsk. During the same campaign, snow samples collected in the Kindo peninsula (White Sea) showed high variability in EC concentrations (46 - 152 ng g-1, median = 70±37 ng g-1), while air masses were transported to Kindo peninsula from Central and Southern Europe. Finally in 2016, snow samples were collected outside Arkhangelsk, in the Kindo peninsula close to the Arctic Circle Dive Centre, as well as in the transect from Tomsk to Yamal in Western Siberia

  6. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-10-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal developments differed dramatically between countries. Existing comparative studies on abortion laws in Western-European countries lack detail, usually focus either on first-trimester abortions or second trimester abortions, cover a limited time-span and are sometimes inconsistent with one another. Combining information from various primary and secondary sources, we show how and when the conditions for legally obtaining abortion during the entire gestation period in 20 major Western-European countries have changed between 1960 and 2010. We also construct a cross-nationally comparable classification of procedural barriers that limit abortion access. Our cross-national comparison shows that Western-Europe witnessed a general trend towards decreased restrictiveness of abortion laws. However, legal approaches to regulating abortion are highly different in detail. Abortion access remains limited, sometimes even in countries where abortion is legally available without restrictions relating to reasons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE FLAT TAX EFFECTS a€“ THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Aura Carmen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a close look at the advantages and disadvantages of the flat tax and looks at its proven benefits and failings in some European countries which adopted it and its theoretical or possible effects on the economies of other European countrie

  8. European Environmental Priorities: an Integrated Economic and Environmental Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa K; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  9. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of pure european beech forests in Oraştie river basin (central-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BURESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Festuco drymejaeFagetum Morariu et al. 1968 (Syn.: Fagetum sylvaticae transylvaticum facies with Festuca drymeja I. Pop et al. 1974, found in the pure European beech forests of the Orăştie river basin, lying in the central-western part of Romania. The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done byselecting the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to the Orăştie river basin. The phytocoenoses of these beech forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  10. New archeointensity data from Novgorod (North-Western Russia) between c. 1100 and 1700 AD. Implications for the European intensity secular variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnaia, Natalia; Gallet, Yves; Genevey, Agnès; Antipov, Ilya

    2017-08-01

    Reconstructing the secular variation of Europe's geomagnetic field over the past millennium is challenging because of the lack of recently acquired archeomagnetic data from Western Russia. In this paper, we report on nine new archeointensity values obtained from groups of brick fragments sampled in Novgorod (North-Western Russia) and its vicinities. These fragments were collected from churches whose precise ages range from the beginning of the 12th century to the end of the 17th century AD. All the archeointensity measurements were carried out using the Triaxe experimental protocol, which takes into account the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy effect. Intensity determinations were performed using fast and slow cooling rates for laboratory-TRM acquisition. The results confirm that the Triaxe protocol overcomes the TRM cooling rate dependence. The new data shows that geomagnetic field intensities in North-Western Russia have decreased in the past millennium. Comparisons were made with other data previously obtained in Western Europe, the Balkans and Russia, as well as with intensity values expected in Novgorod from global geomagnetic field models. These comparisons yielded three main results: 1) The new archeointensity data do not show the occurrence of large intensity variations in North-Western Russia, as those observed in the Balkan dataset. Conversely, they appear more compatible with Western European results, which suggests a limited non-dipole field effect across Europe during the past millennium; 2) Our data are weaker than the intensity values expected in Novgorod from the available global geomagnetic field models. This suggests that the field models are inaccurate for the Novgorod area; 3) A constant linear decrease of the geocentric axial dipole moment since 1600 AD does not appear compatible with our younger data.

  11. Contributions to the phytocoenologic study in pure european beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains (North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we present a phytocoenologic study on the associations found in pure European beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains namely: Festuco drymejae-Fagetum Morariu et al. 1968, Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955.Characterization of the associations we studied and presentation of the tables have been made considering the selection of the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to Codru-Moma Mountains.The phytocoenoses of pure forest stands of European beech forests belonging to the two associations were analyzed in terms of floristic composition, life forms spectrum, spectrum chart of the floral elements and ecological indices.

  12. Cones, Seeds, and Foliage of Tetraclinis Salicornioides (Cupressaceae) from the Oligocene and Miocene of Western North America: A Geographic Extension of the European Tertiary Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvacek; Manchester; Schorn

    2000-03-01

    The cupressaceous genus Tetraclinis is recognized from the Oligocene and Miocene of western North America on the basis of co-occurring seed cones, seeds, and foliage branches. Morphological and anatomical comparisons with the two previously recognized European Tertiary species indicate that the North American specimens are morphologically inseparable from Tetraclinis salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek. The North American taxon is treated as a new variety, T. salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek var. praedecurrens (Knowlton) comb. et stat. nov., and is distinguished from the European representatives, T. salicornioides (Unger) Kvacek var. salicornioides, by slight anatomical differences in the leaf epidermis. Although cones and seeds of the fossil species are closely similar to those of extant Tetraclinis articulata, the foliage is more "spreading," composed of flattened segments with fused facial and lateral leaves that are apparently adaptive for a more mesic climate. The recognition of T. salicornioides in western North America along with the absence of Tetraclinis in the fossil and recent flora of eastern Asia provide evidence for communication of the species across the North Atlantic during the early or middle Tertiary.

  13. Spatial correlation of mantle heterogeneities beneath the south-western part of the East-European platform with oil-gas deposits and basic-ultrabasic magmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlyanska, L.

    2009-04-01

    Velocity model of mantle beneath the south-western margin of the East-European platform demonstrates its heterogeneous structure. Accordingly to the crustal structures above mantle heterogeneities were defined as: Volyno-Podolian, Ros-Bug, Ingulo-Middlednieper, Periasov, Volyno-Podolian plate, Peridnister, Peri-Blacksea, Chernigov, Dnieper, Donetsk, Eastern-Blacksea, Crimea, Western-Blacksea. These blocks are defined as regions differing in the depth of the bottom of the velocity layers that characterize velocity structure of the mantle and in the velocity characteristics of these layers. Layer boundaries are defined as intersection with 1-d reference model. Areas with residuals >0.0 km/s are considered as high-velocity while areas with residuals Donetsk) that situated beneath the Dnieper-Donetsk depression display spatial correlation with crust-seated oil-gas provinces - Crimean, Volyno-Podolian, Pericarpathian, and Dnieper-Donetsk, correspondingly. Oil-gas field have a propensity for boundaries of mentioned above mantle blocks. Those mantle blocks (Volyno-Podolian, Ros-Bug, Ingulo-Middlednieper, Periasov) that located under the Ukrainian shield display spatial correlation with basic-ultrabasic magmatism that confined to the blocks boundaries. Age of this magmatism varies from Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic. Velocity model of the south-western part of the East-European platform obtained by the method of seismic tomography employing methodology of the Taylor's approximation of the solution of the task of seismic tomography of the times of arrivals of P-waves developed by V.S. Geyko [1]. Solution is represented as a series of horizontal and vertical sections. Vertical (latitudinal and longitudinal) sections represented to the 850 km depths with 1 step as residuals relative reference 1-D model that was obtained due to solution of the seismotomographic task for Eurasia. Horizontal sections are imagined as true velocities at depths from 50 to 850 km with step 25

  14. A study of the 2013 Western European issue of aflatoxin contamination of maize from the Balkan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, de T.C.; Egmond, van H.P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Herbes, R.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Samson, R.A.; Slate, A.B.; Spiegel, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    In March 2013 a large shipment of maize, intended for feed was subject of an alert in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Commission (EC) because the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) level in the load exceeded the EC regulated maximum level of 20 µg/kg. Since the shipment had passed import

  15. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Preliminary testing of a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen

    1999-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results...

  16. How to play the game as the bridge between two European power markets—the case of Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Amundsen, Eirik S.; Donslund, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to investigate the price and quantity fluctuations in Western Denmark, which took place during the winter season 2002–2003. It was a period, which exhibited critical supply conditions in the Nordic area due to a shortage of hydropower. On average, the market in Western...... Denmark helped to ease the situation by large net exports. However, a more detailed investigation reveals anomalies in market behaviour that do not fit well into this overall positive description of the situation. Several explanations of the anomalies are offered. These may work separately or act...

  17. First Steps into the Wild - Exploration Behavior of European Bison after the First Reintroduction in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Philip; Caspers, Stephanie; Warren, Paige; Witte, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is rapidly declining globally. One strategy to help to conserve species is to breed species in captivity and release them into suitable habitats. The way that reintroduced animals explore new habitats and/or disperse from the release site is rarely studied in detail and represents key information for the success of reintroduction projects. The European bison (Bison bonasus L. 1758) was the largest surviving herbivore of the post-glacial megafauna in Europe before it became extinct in the wild, surviving only in captivity since 1919. We investigated the exploration behavior of a herd of European bison reintroduced into the Rothaargebirge, a commercial forest in low range mountain intensively used and densely populated by humans, in the first six months after release. We focused on three questions: (1) how did the European bison move and utilize the habitat on a daily basis, (2) how did the animals explore the new environment, and (3) did their habitat preferences change over time. The European bison dispersed away from their previous enclosure at an average rate of 539 m/month, with their areas of daily use ranging from 70 to 173 ha, their movement ranging from 3.6 km to 5.2 km per day, and their day-to-day use of areas ranged between 389 and 900 m. We could identify three major exploration bouts, when the animals entered and explored areas previously unknown to them. During the birthing phase, the European bison reduced daily walking distances, and the adult bull segregated from the herd for 58 days. Around rut, roaming behavior of the herd increased slightly. The animals preferred spruce forest, wind thrown areas and grassland, all of which are food abundant habitat types, and they avoided beech forest. Habitat preference differed slightly between phases of the study period, probably due to phenological cycles. After six months, the complete summer home range was 42.5 km2. Our study shows that a small free-ranging herd of European bison can live in an

  18. First Steps into the Wild - Exploration Behavior of European Bison after the First Reintroduction in Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Schmitz

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is rapidly declining globally. One strategy to help to conserve species is to breed species in captivity and release them into suitable habitats. The way that reintroduced animals explore new habitats and/or disperse from the release site is rarely studied in detail and represents key information for the success of reintroduction projects. The European bison (Bison bonasus L. 1758 was the largest surviving herbivore of the post-glacial megafauna in Europe before it became extinct in the wild, surviving only in captivity since 1919. We investigated the exploration behavior of a herd of European bison reintroduced into the Rothaargebirge, a commercial forest in low range mountain intensively used and densely populated by humans, in the first six months after release. We focused on three questions: (1 how did the European bison move and utilize the habitat on a daily basis, (2 how did the animals explore the new environment, and (3 did their habitat preferences change over time. The European bison dispersed away from their previous enclosure at an average rate of 539 m/month, with their areas of daily use ranging from 70 to 173 ha, their movement ranging from 3.6 km to 5.2 km per day, and their day-to-day use of areas ranged between 389 and 900 m. We could identify three major exploration bouts, when the animals entered and explored areas previously unknown to them. During the birthing phase, the European bison reduced daily walking distances, and the adult bull segregated from the herd for 58 days. Around rut, roaming behavior of the herd increased slightly. The animals preferred spruce forest, wind thrown areas and grassland, all of which are food abundant habitat types, and they avoided beech forest. Habitat preference differed slightly between phases of the study period, probably due to phenological cycles. After six months, the complete summer home range was 42.5 km2. Our study shows that a small free-ranging herd of European

  19. Species of the Paramecium aurelia complex in Russia (western region of European Russia) with molecular characteristics of Paramecium novaurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria; Potekhin, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    The presence of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, P. triaurelia, and P. novaurelia of the P. aurelia complex was revealed in the studied region of Russia. RAPD-PCR fingerprints (band patterns) of newly identified P. novaurelia strains from Russia were compared to those characteristic for the other chosen European strains of the species. The strains revealed intraspecific polymorphism as several groups of genotypes confirming the existence of polymorphism within P. novaurelia.

  20. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  1. Occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensation in western European patients with cirrhosis type B. The EUROHEP Study Group on Hepatitis B Virus and Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Schalm, S W

    1995-01-01

    . At entry into the study all patients were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg; 34% of patients were HBeAg-positive) and antibody to hepatitis delta virus (anti-HDV; 20% of patients were anti-HDV-positive); 48% of 252 patients tested were hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA-positive. During follow-up HCC......To examine the morbidity of compensated cirrhosis type B, a cohort of 349 Western European, white patients (86% men; mean age, 44 years) with biopsy-proven cirrhosis was followed up for a mean period of 73 months and was studied for occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and decompensation...... developed in 32 (9%) of the 349 patients and decompensation was observed in 88 (28%) of 317 tumor-free patients. Five years after diagnosis, the probability of HCC appearance was 6% and the probability of decompensation was 23%. After the first episode of decompensation the probability of survival was 35...

  2. The Polycentric Metropolis: A Western European Perspective on Mega-city Regions%多中心大都市:西欧巨型城市区透视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彼得·霍尔; 钱雯

    2009-01-01

    本文根据2008年8月5日香港大学召开的“巨型城市区管治与规划创新”国际专题讨论会的发言“The Polycentric Metropolis:A Western European Perspective on Mega-city Regions”译出,文章主要论述了巨型城市区的定义、多中心的测度方法、功能性多中心城市信息流获取、巨型城市区的定性信息获取以及巨型城市区的政策实施等.

  3. Out of the Celtic cradle: The genetic signature of European hake connectivity in South-western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Alfonso; Pérez, Montse; Balado, Miguel; Presa, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic data of marine genetic resources add up to establish their pattern of connectivity. Such pattern determines the choice of a suitable management strategy to those resources in space and time. This study addresses the pattern of connectivity among European hake grounds upon the largest sampling effort so far developed in this species. Bayesian inference made on multilocus genotypic data provides evidence that a large genetic connectivity exists among Atlantic grounds and is mediated by significant migration rates stepping up from the Celtic Sea towards its adjacent Atlantic grounds. Therefore, the spawning biomass of the northern hake population could play a crucial role at ensuring the sustainability of southern hake fish grounds. The deepest restriction to gene flow was observed at the easternmost side of the Alboran Sea what suggests that the Almeria-Oran Oceanographic Front is an effective barrier keeping apart the two major gene pools so far shown in this species. A molecular clock calibrated for cytochrome b sequences of fishes and applied to the divergence between hake pools (0.3%) suggests that the Atlantic-Mediterranean population split might date back to the Middle Pleistocene (150,000 years BP). Complementarily, Bayesian treatments of multilocus genotypes indicate that such barrier to gene flow remains active nowadays. This study shows the upmost interest of future integrative efforts to incorporate population genetic data into current assessment practices, in order to better manage European hake populations and make its exploitation sustainable.

  4. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  5. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  6. Impact of Arabic Philosophy on Western European Renaissance%阿拉伯哲学对西欧文艺复联的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丰

    2012-01-01

    Arabic philosophy blends Aristotle's doctrine of ancient Greece, Neo-Platonism, other abroad philosophical thoughts and Arabic traditions together to create a unique system of Arabic-Islamic philosophy. In the late Medieval Ages, Arabic philosophy fed back to Western Europe through Spain and Sicily two main approaches in the translation movement. Arabic philosophy played an important impact on rising and deepening the Western European Renaissance.%阿拉伯哲学将古希腊亚里士多德的学说、新柏拉图主义和传入的其他哲学思想与自身传统融会贯通,形成富于自身特色的阿拉伯——伊斯兰哲学体系。中世纪晚期,阿拉伯哲学经由西班牙和西西里岛这两个主要途径,通过翻译运动回哺西欧,对西欧文艺复兴运动的兴起和深化产生重要影响。

  7. Western Balkan Countries and European Neo-regionalisation Case study: CEFTA and its impact on Kosovar economy: 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of “the problem” of neo-regionalisation for study directly deals with its importance as a determining factor of many developments in the arena of international relations. Its importance appears especially when it is manifested as a theoretical approach, as an analytical category and as a new practice of economic and political organisation in the regional level and in the same way in the international aspect as well. Although studiers concede that the world is going towards larger units of integration in global level, however, regionalisation (neo- regionalisation is becoming a new identity for people in the 21st century. This is valid especially for the European societies and states aiming to be part of the supranational structures of the European Union. In relation to this, the study below is focused on new integrating practices in Europe, which is known as “Neo-regionalism” in order to see how this new practice is influencing in intensifying the regional cooperation. To make the study even more concrete, a concentration in case study has been made in regional cooperation within CEFTA with a particular focus in its implications towards Kosovo and vice versa. The theses will also be discussed whether Kosovo has benefited or lost from this cooperation to review the possibilities of continuing further cooperation or to quit it. Undoubtedly, the establishments presented above may be used for reaching a concrete conclusion for the results of this cooperation, what is going to serve as a platform for drawing some recommendations for further coordination of actions for cooperation in the regional plan.

  8. North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Oivind; Hustad, Steinar; IJssennagger, Noortje; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M.; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Dossus, Laure; Perquier, Florence; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Grote, Verena A.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Ros, Martine M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Luisa Redondo, Maria; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Schneede, Joern; van Guelpen, Bethany; Wark, Petra A.; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Vollset, Stein Emil

    2013-01-01

    Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and

  9. Pollution by oestrogenic endocrine disruptors and β-sitosterol in a south-western European river (Mira, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria João; Cruzeiro, Catarina; Reis, Mário; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Mira River is a Portuguese water body widely known for its wilderness and is advertised as one of the less polluted European rivers. On this presumption, the levels of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in Mira waters were never measured. However, because environmentalists have claimed that the Mira could be moderately polluted, a range of 17 EDCs were measured not only at the estuary but also along the river. The targeted EDCs included natural and pharmaceutical oestrogens (17β-oestradiol, oestrone and 17α-ethynylestradiol), industrial/household pollutants (octylphenols, nonylphenols and their monoethoxylates and diethoxylates and bisphenol A), phytoestrogens (formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein, genistein) and the phytosterol sitosterol (SITO). For this propose, waters from six sampling sites were taken every 2 months, over a 1-year period (2011), and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Unexpectedly high levels of oestrogens and of industrial/household pollutants were measured at all sampling sites, including those located inside natural protected areas. Indeed, the annual average sum of EDCs was ≈57 ng/L for oestrogens and ≈1.3 μg/L for industrial/household chemicals. In contrast, the global average levels of phytoestrogens (≈140 ng/L) and of SITO (≈295 ng/L) were lower than those reported worldwide. The EDC concentrations were normalised for ethynylestradiol equivalents (EE2eq). In view of these, the oestrogenic load of the Mira River attained ≈47 ng/L EE2eq. In addition, phosphates were above legal limits at both spring and summer (>1 mg/L). Overall, data show EDCs at toxicant relevant levels in the Mira and stress the need to monitor rivers that are allegedly less polluted.

  10. nab-Paclitaxel plus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer: a subgroup analysis of the Western European cohort of the MPACT trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Josep; Kunzmann, Volker; Scheithauer, Werner; Reni, Michele; Shiansong Li, Jack; Ferrara, Stefano; Djazouli, Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The global Phase III MPACT trial demonstrated superior efficacy of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine over gemcitabine alone as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer. Region was a randomization stratification factor in the MPACT trial. This subgroup analysis of MPACT examined efficacy and safety of patients treated in Western Europe. Patients and methods Patients received nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer as previously described. A total of 76 patients were included in this analysis (n=38 for each arm). Results Differences between the overall Western European cohort and the intention-to-treat population included lower percentages of male patients (46% and 58%, respectively) and patients with biliary stents (8% and 17%), and higher percentages of patients with Karnofsky performance status of 90–100 (78% and 60%) and primary tumors in the body of the pancreas (48% and 31%). The median overall survival was 10.7 months with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine vs 6.9 months with gemcitabine alone (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48–1.40]; P=0.471). Median progression-free survival was 5.3 vs 3.7 months, respectively (HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.37–1.33]; P=0.277). The independently assessed overall response rate was 18% vs 5% (response rate ratio, 3.50 [95% CI: 0.78–15.78]; P=0.076). The most common grade ≥3 adverse events with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine and gemcitabine alone were neutropenia (46% vs 33%, respectively), leukopenia (35% vs 19%), anemia (22% vs 0%), asthenia (21% vs 6%), thrombocytopenia (14% vs 3%), and peripheral neuropathy (13% vs 3%). Conclusion Although a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms was not reached for efficacy endpoints, this study does report treatment benefit and a manageable safety profile associated with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine in patients treated in Western Europe with

  11. Comparison of the catches of European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758 taken with experimental gillnets of different mesh sizes in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sbrana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the gillnet fishery on Merluccius merluccius (European hake was investigated in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, western Mediterranean. Four mesh sizes were tested: 53, 62.5, 70 and 82 mm. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, hake and tub gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucerna dominated the catches, from a minimum of 89% (82 mm mesh to a maximum of 97.8% (70 mm of the biomass caught. Efficiency of the four meshes was not significantly different with respect to the total hake catches. Selectivity on M. merluccius was assessed by Sechin and SELECT methods. Tangling was an important catch modality for hake, as evidenced by the results of the Sechin model which described only the first mode of the size distributions corresponding to the entangled specimens. SELECT showed that the bi-modal function gave the best adjustment to the length-frequency distributions; the modal catch sizes were 33, 39.2, 43.6 and 51 cm total length respectively for the 53, 62.5, 70 and 82 mm mesh sizes. Taking into account the size of first maturity for females (35.1 cm TL, 62.5 mm is the most adequate mesh for exploiting hake as it gives some protection to both immature specimens and large females.

  12. Multinational corporations and foreign investors in CEE: Western European multinationals in the CEE agro-food industry: The cases of Nestle, Unilever and InBev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chobanova Yordanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Systems of Innovation Approach (SI and International Business (IB literature, this paper analyzes the level of embeddedness of Multi­national Enterprises (MNEs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. MNEs are discussed as they link the host country economy with the global economy by their regional and global networks. The expansion and successful embeddedness of West European multinational firms is crucial for the industrial integration of CEECs into the EU. The focus of the study is on the largest food processing com­panies, which invested in the region - namely Nestlé Unilever and InBev. The paper discusses the motives of investment and the entry strategies of food MNEs, outlines their contribution to the local development and stresses on the national actors as forces to embedded foreign direct investment (FDI. The paper discovered that EU membership facilitated the processes of global reorganizations of Nestlé, Unilever and InBev in CEE. All the three MNEs object of this research closed partially or completely plants all over CEE (and Western Europe. Hence, in a liberal trade regime it is very difficult to talk about long-term embeddedness of MNEs. It seems that the global strategies of the companies and the size of the market are the factor, which pre-determines the level of embeddedness of food MNEs in a certain economy and not so much the national actors and institutions. .

  13. The European Struggle to Educate and Include Roma People: A Critique of Differences in Policy and Practice in Western and Eastern EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Hanlon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism is an established feature of the UK and other European States since the establishment of the Treaty of Rome in 1959. Enlargement has brought EU membership from six (1952 to twenty eight members since its foundation, and allowed free migration across its borders. However, many countries, in spite of agreements to adhere to ‘democratic’ practices, deny minority citizens their full rights, particularly in education contexts. Some recent accession EU States have education systems that are less adaptive to expected policy responsibilities. It is a more unstable aspect of Eastern Europe because of the failure of many of these countries to reduce social and educational inequalities and to establish rights for minority groups, particularly the Roma. An educational focus is used as a platform to highlight issues re the segregation, and discrimination against, Roma children in Europe, typically through the use of special education, which is not suitable for them. Europe generally, both East and West has failed to fully integrate the Roma. Often, institutional blame is placed on Roma communities, rather than situate them socially and economically due to ingrained structural inequalities. Stereotyped categories are often used to ‘label’ them. Countries with high Roma populations, four in Western and five in Eastern Europe are evaluated and compared in relation to the education of Roma children.

  14. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  15. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  16. European Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    on the belief that conflicts between former belligerents can be transformed through association processes thought to bring peace to unstable regions. Examining whether this is actually the case, this contribution traces European peacebuilding from the early integration of post-World War Two economies in Western......This contribution argues that the peace that has emerged between and increasingly within European states is a historical achievement. A variety of different peace initiatives have brought Europe to where it is today, but a particularly significant player in this process has been and still...

  17. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  18. Seismic anisotropy in localized shear zones versus distributed tectonic fabrics: examples from geologic and seismic observations in western North America and the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Kevin H.; Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Condit, Cailey; Leydier, Thomas; Goncalves, Philippe; Raju, Anissha; Brownlee, Sarah; Orlandini, Omero F.

    2017-04-01

    Modern methods for detecting seismic anisotropy offer an array of promising tools for imaging deep crustal deformation but also present challenges, especially with respect to potential biases in both the detection methods themselves as well as in competing processes for localized versus distributed deformation. We address some of these issues from the geophysical perspective by employing azimuthally dependent amplitude and polarity variations in teleseismic receiver functions combined with a compilation of published rock elasticity tensors from middle and deep crustal rocks, and from the geological perspective through studies of shear zone deformation processes. Examples are highlighted at regional and outcrop scales from western North America and the European Alps. First, in regional patterns, strikes of seismically detected fabric from receiver functions in California show a strong alignment with current strike-slip motion between the Pacific and North American plates, with high signal strength near faults and from depths below the brittle-ductile transition suggesting these faults have deep ductile roots. In contrast, despite NE-striking shear zones being the most prominent features portrayed on Proterozoic tectonic maps of the southwestern USA, receiver function anisotropy from the central Rocky Mountain region appears to more prominently reflect broadly distributed Proterozoic fabric domains that preceded late-stage localized shear zones. Possible causes for the discrepancy fall into two categories: those that involve a) bias in seismic sampling and/or b) deformation processes that lead to either weaker anisotropy in the shear zones compared to adjacent domains or to a symmetry that is different from that conventionally assumed. Most of these explanations imply that the seismically sampled domains contain important structural information that is distinct from the shear zones. The second set of examples stem from studies of outcrop-scale shear zones in upper

  19. Advocating vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older in Western Europe: statement by the Joint Vaccine Working Group of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society and the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Pierre; Chidiac, Christian; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Johnson, Robert W; Lambert, Paul Henri; Maggi, Stefania; Moulias, Robert; Nicholson, Karl; Werner, Hans

    2009-04-01

    Vaccines are an underused public health strategy for healthy aging. Considering the risks of vaccine-preventable diseases and the current low vaccine coverage rates in older European citizens, the two European geriatric and gerontological societies (European Union Geriatric Medicine Society [EUGMS] and International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region [IAGG-ER]) convened a Joint Vaccine Working Group to develop a consensus document advocating routine vaccination of aging populations. The mandate of this Working Group was to improve the uptake of routine vaccinations in adults aged 60 years and over. The consensus statement underlines the need to establish, strengthen, and harmonize European policies that continue routine vaccinations to adulthood and that will include older populations. Improved vaccination rates will promote healthy aging by reducing the burden of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in older populations, a population that is rapidly increasing in Europe.

  20. Twelve tips for peer observation of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zarrin Seema; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Carr, Sandra E

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines twelve tips for undertaking peer observation of teaching in medical education, using the peer review model and the experiences of the authors. An accurate understanding of teaching effectiveness is required by individuals, medical schools, and universities to evaluate the learning environment and to substantiate academic and institutional performance. Peer Observation of Teaching is one tool that provides rich, qualitative evidence for teachers, quite different from closed-ended student evaluations. When Peer Observation of Teaching is incorporated into university practice and culture, and is conducted in a mutually respectful and supportive way, it has the potential to facilitate reflective change and growth for teachers.

  1. Combining ability of twelve maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacaro Elton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic progress depends on germplasm quality and breeding methods. Twelve maize populations and their crosses were evaluated to estimate combining ability and potential to be included as source populations in breeding programs. Plant height, point of insertion of the first ear, number of ears per plant, number of grains per ear, root and stalk lodging and grain yield were studied in two locations in Brazil, during the 1997/98 season. Genotype sum of squares was divided into general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. Results indicated the existence of genetic divergence for all traits analyzed, where additive effects were predominant. The high heterosis levels observed, mainly in Xanxerê, suggested the environmental influence on the manifestation of this genetic phenomenon. Populations revealed potential to be used in breeding programs; however, those more intensively submitted to selection could provide larger genetic progress, showing the importance of population improvement for the increment of the heterosis in maize.

  2. Twelve tips for getting your manuscript published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A

    2016-01-01

    The author shares twelve practical tips on how to navigate the process of getting a manuscript published. These tips, which apply to all fields of academic writing, advise that during the initial preparation phase authors should: (1) plan early to get it out the door; (2) address authorship and writing group expectations up front; (3) maintain control of the writing; (4) ensure complete reporting; (5) use electronic reference management software; (6) polish carefully before they submit; (7) select the right journal; and (8) follow journal instructions precisely. Rejection after the first submission is likely, and when this occurs authors should (9) get it back out the door quickly, but first (10) take seriously all reviewer and editor suggestions. Finally, when the invitation comes to revise and resubmit, authors should (11) respond carefully to every reviewer suggestion, even if they disagree, and (12) get input from others as they revise. The author also shares detailed suggestions on the creation of effective tables and figures, and on how to respond to reviewer critiques.

  3. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  4. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  5. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries: A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, M.; Sluiter, R.; Need, A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal d

  6. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal d

  7. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries: A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, M.; Sluiter, R.; Need, A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal

  8. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal

  9. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal d

  10. Contemporary Issues of Studying of Western European and Russian Mindset (According to the Results of Russian Nationwide Conference “National Identity through Language and Literature. Characteristics of Conceptosphere of a National Culture”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratsiburskaya L. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available He work of the Russian nationwide conference “National identity through language and literature. Characteristics of conceptoshere of national culture” is analyzed in the article. Previous theoretical sources on the issue in question are summarized. The matters represented in the considered scientific forum are generalized. Diachronic analysis of national cultural consciousness as well as complex cognitive-based approach are used to investigate the issue. Special attention is paid to the study of linguistic world-image as exemplified in fiction, folklore, religious texts, business papers, scholarly works and media texts, as well as to the research of intercultural communication in the era of multiculturalism and globalization. As long as terms “cultural code”, “national code”, and “fictional code” are not precisely defined, the problem of terminological field was noted, as well as the issue of linguo-cognitive interpretation of methods for representing country image in linguistic consciousness. The attention was paid to Russian as a foreign language, to perception and transforming of European cultural codes by American and western European writers in synchronous and diachronic ways. Geopolitical factor of North and South that matters both in global (European and local (in a particular countries context was noted, particularly the issue of German distinction of the modern European mindset was reviewed. Lots of speaker papers mirrored interdisciplinary links that is of importance for contemporary scholarship in the context of globalization and multicultural society. Up-to-date schools of thought in the field of linguistics, literary studies and journalism were represented.

  11. Hepatic Angiosarcoma: a Review of Twelve Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Xishan Hao

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS), a lethal disease, is the most common sarcoma arising in the liver. Little information about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and management of HAS has been reported. Increased familiarity with this disease will facilitate correct diagnosis and help to improve management of this condition in the future.The objective of this study was to describe cases of hepatic angiosarcoma and to discuss the etiologic, diagnostic, therapeutic features and prognosis of this tumor. This report not only serves to give more evidence of the relationship between hepatic angiosarcoma and carcinogenic exposure, but also demonstrates the key points in different methods of diagnosis and the optimal treatment of hepatic angiosarcoma.METHODS Twelve cases of hepatic angiosareoma were analyzed retrospectively, representing the different character in clinical presentations and laboratory computed tomographical scans; pathological data and treatment are described. Clinical and biologic follow-up was carried out for two years after surgical treatment.RESULTS There were nine men and three women varying in ages from 57 to 71 years with an average of 64.3 years. Ten patientshad a history of exposure to vinyl chloride or thorotrast. Mild or moderate abdominal pain and bloating, abdominal mass and fever were the common clinical presentations. Tumors were visualized by ultrasonography and CT scans in all patients. Biochemical profiles yielded variable results and proved to be of little value in detection or diagnosis. Surgical resection was feasible for each patient who was treated as follows: two wedge resections, six segementectomies and four bisegmentectomies. Five patients received Neoadjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively. The survival rate of those cases was poor. The maximum survival time was fourteen months. The mean survival time for this chemotherapeutic group was 11 months. The difference between the survival time of those treated with an operation

  12. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, G.J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: g.j.pierce@abdn.ac.uk; Santos, M.B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain); Murphy, S. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB (United Kingdom); Learmonth, J.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Zuur, A.F. [Highland Statistics, 6 Laverock Road, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB41 6FN (United Kingdom); Rogan, E. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lahaye, V. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Ridoux, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts.

  13. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  14. Discovery of Western European R1b1a2 Y chromosome variants in 1000 genomes project data: an online community approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Rocca

    Full Text Available The authors have used an online community approach, and tools that were readily available via the Internet, to discover genealogically and therefore phylogenetically relevant Y-chromosome polymorphisms within core haplogroup R1b1a2-L11/S127 (rs9786076. Presented here is the analysis of 135 unrelated L11 derived samples from the 1000 Genomes Project. We were able to discover new variants and build a much more complex phylogenetic relationship for L11 sub-clades. Many of the variants were further validated using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. The identification of these new variants will help further the understanding of population history including patrilineal migrations in Western and Central Europe where R1b1a2 is the most frequent haplogroup. The fine-grained phylogenetic tree we present here will also help to refine historical genetic dating studies. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science for analysis of whole genome sequence data.

  15. Nuclear Energy in Western Europe: At the End of its Business Cycle? A review of policies in selected West European countries and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Kristian

    1997-12-31

    A series of seminars were held in Norway in 1995-97 focusing on nuclear energy policies, mainly in Europe. The key questions were: (1) What are the major driving forces behind the development of the nuclear industry?, and (2) Are we seeing the end of the nuclear energy era, or will we actually discover that the nuclear energy is moving towards its second blossom? This report summarizes the discussions at the seminars and discusses the above questions. The nature of the driving forces depends on the country in question. In France and Russia the nuclear sectors are large and prestigious and the course is difficult to change. In Germany and Sweden, political parties have adopted an anti-nuclear attitude and the issue is controversial, involving arguments both pro and con. The British nuclear sector has come to the end of the road. The main driving force has been the deregulation of the electricity market. In all countries, climate issues, independence from energy import, prestige and low costs have been arguments against close-downs. Massive expansion of nuclear power in Europe is unlikely. However, new plants might appear in Finland, Turkey or France. It is likely that technological development of the nuclear power sector, if any, will come in Asia. It is unclear whether this sector will benefit from climate issues. Renewable energy could become an important competitor if enough electricity could be produced. A state has been reached in which nuclear energy is both difficult to expand and to phase out. The nuclear energy issues are unlikely to affect the European gas market significantly. 53 refs., 10 refs., 13 tabs.

  16. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, V; Lukanova, A; Bamia, C; Trichopolou, A; Trepo, E; Nöthlings, U; Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Boffetta, P; Tjønneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Fagherazzi, G; Racine, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Grote, V; Kaaks, R; Boeing, H; Naska, A; Adarakis, G; Valanou, E; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Panico, S; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Siersema, P D; Peeters, P H; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Quirós, J R; Zamora-Ros, R; Sánchez, M J; Amiano, P; Huerta, J M; Barricarte, A; Johansen, D; Lindkvist, B; Sund, M; Werner, M; Crowe, F; Khaw, K T; Ferrari, P; Romieu, I; Chuang, S C; Riboli, E; Jenab, M

    2013-02-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case-control subset. Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17-1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55-0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52-0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23-1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37-0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk.

  17. From Naivity to Pragmatism: 10 Years of Spanish Participation in the European Diplomatic Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barbé

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years spanning 1986-1995, Spain, headed by the pro-european activist President Felipe Gonzalez, sought to pursue its historical and geographical interests in the Arab world, Latin America and the Mediterranean by pragmatically reorienting its self-defined peripheral status in the European Union as a middle-size power within the post cold-war international structures of defense and security. Today, the European Union is no longer seen by Spanish leaders as the solution to the country’s internal problems (source of a certain naivity in 1986. Instead, this article analyzes how the EU’s political and defense structures have come to be regarded as a mechanisms which must be tempered, pragmatically, by Spanish diplomacy. Top priorities have been Spain’s efforts to reform the common foreign and security policy (CFSP within the framework of theIntergovernmental Conference and to “europeanize” the Mediterranean reality at the moment of both EU enlargement (from twelve members to fifteen and debate about the EU’s interests towards the East. With more discretion since the arrival of the Popular Party in government in 1996, Spain’s policy of prudent realism has continued. ReformingEU institutions and the CFSP, and developing an European Defense Identity (EDI organized by the Western European Union and the EU as a complementary force to NATO constitute Spain’s leading diplomatic objectives in the coming years.

  18. Levels of hexabromocyclododecane in harbor porpoises and common dolphins from western European seas, with evidence for stereoisomer-specific biotransformation by cytochrome p450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Bart N; Mets, Anchelique; Van Bommel, Ronald; Minkenberg, Chris; Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; Pierce, Graham J; Boon, Jan P

    2005-04-01

    Commercial hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high-production-volume flame-retardant applied in polystyrene foams. It contains three stereoisomers, of which gamma-HBCD always dominates. Here we report on the levels of HBCD in blubber of harbor porpoise and common dolphin from different European seas. The highest total (sigma)-HBCD levels were measured in harbor porpoises stranded on the Irish and Scottish coasts of the Irish Sea (median concentration 2.9 microg (g of lipid)(-1)) and the northwest coast of Scotland (median concentration 5.1 microg (g of lipid)(-1)). The median levels in other areas were, for the harbor porpoise south coast of Ireland, 1.2 microg (g of lipid)(-1), for the coasts of The Netherlands, Belgium, and France north of Calais (southern North Sea), 1.1 microg (g of lipid)(-1), for the east coast of Scotland (northern North Sea), 0.77 microg (g of lipid)(-1), and, for Galicia (Spain), 0.1 microg (g of lipid)(-1). The median levels for the common dolphin were, for west coast of Ireland, 0.9 microg (g of lipid)(-1), for the French coast of the English Channel between Normandy and Brest, 0.4 microg (g of lipid)(-1), and, for Galicia, 0.2 microg (g of lipid)(-1). A subset of 10 harbor porpoise and 9 common dolphin blubber samples representing all areas were analyzed by LC/MS to determine the diastereomeric composition of their HBCD residues. All samples showed exclusively the peak of alpha-HBCD. To test if biotransformation by the cytochrome P450 system could explain the observed compositional difference with technical HBCD mixtures, a number of in vitro assays with microsomal preparations of liver were carried out. We had to revert to material stored at -80 degrees C from laboratory rats and a fresh harbor seal found dead in the Dutch Wadden Sea, since such liver samples of cetaceans were not in our possession. The in vitro assays showed that beta- and gamma-HBCDs were indeed significantly metabolized when incubated in the presence of NADPH as

  19. The twelve dimensional super (2+2)-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Hewson, S F

    1996-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in twelve dimensions and present a covariant supersymmetric action for a brane with worldsheet signature (2,2), called a super (2+2)-brane, propagating in the osp(64,12) superspace. This superspace is explicitly constructed, and is trivial in the sense that the spinorial part is a trivial bundle over spacetime, unlike the twisted superspace of usual Poincare supersymmetry. For consistency, it is necessary to take a projection of the superspace. This is the same as the projection required for worldvolume supersymmetry. Upon compactification of this superspace, a torsion is naturally introduced and we produce the membrane and type IIB string actions in 11 and 10 dimensional Minkowski spacetimes. In addition, the compactification of the twelve dimensional supersymmetry algebra produces the correct algebras for these theories, including central charges. These considerations thus give the type IIB string and M-theory a single twelve dimensional origin.

  20. The European Central Bank and the Eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Carol C. Bertaut

    2002-01-01

    The Eurosystem comprises the European Central Bank at its center as well as the national central banks of the twelve countries currently participating in monetary union. The European Central Bank was established in July 1998, six months before the beginning of Stage Three of economic and monetary union. Although decisions regarding monetary policy are made centrally by the Governing Council of the Eurosystem, the operational aspects of monetary policy-including open market operations, adminis...

  1. Alcoholics anonymous and other twelve-step programs in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detar, D Todd

    2011-03-01

    Recovery is a new way of life for many patients; a life without substances to alter their moods but with a major change improving the physical, psychological, and emotional stability with improved overall health outcomes. The Twelve Steps of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are the foundation of the AA, describing both the necessary actions and the spiritual basis for the recovery program of the AA. The Twelve Steps of the AA provide a structure for which a patient with alcoholism may turn for an answer to their problem of alcohol use, abuse, or dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Twelve invasive plant taxa in U.S. western riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessments of stream ecosystems often include an evaluation of riparian condition; a key stressor in riparian ecosystems is the presence of invasive plants. We analyzed the distribution of 12 invasive taxa (common burdock [Arctium minus], giant reed [Arundo donax], cheatgrass [B...

  3. Vitamin and mineral intake of twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jakobsen, Jette; Friis, H

    2005-01-01

    , and niacin all met RSDI by 208%, 107%, and 131%, respectively. Similarly, the intakes of magnesium, iron, and zinc were 272%, 404%, and 122% of RSDI, respectively, while calcium and selenium were below, 47% and 49%, respectively. The daily intakes of phosphorous, copper, and chromium were estimated to 4214...

  4. The Frequency of Occurrence of Air Masses Over Twelve European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    measurements were made on the ground and made aloft by an " instrumented tethered balloon. Results reported by Lindberg 2 s of vertical profiles of liquid...Atmosphere and a Proposed Model for Frontal Analysis," Tellus, Vol 5 ’’N. S. McDonald, 1975, "Etgenvectur Analisis as an Aid to Air Mass Recognition...Vol 305, (Bellingham, A". Moc ety of Photo-uptical Instrumentation Lnglneers). 26. Nilsson, Bertil, 1979, "Meteorological Influence on Aerosol

  5. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Tiago Nunes da; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoret

  6. EFFORTS Technical annex for the twelve month progress report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Eriksen, Morten; Thomas christensen, Thomas Vennick;

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU during the second year of project activity. The report describes the work completed by DTU in general as well as on the active sub-tasks within materials properties, friction modelling and physical modelling, over the last twelve...

  7. Bibliography of Spanish Materials for Students, Grades Seven through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This annotated bibliography of Spanish materials for students in grades seven through twelve is divided into the following categories: (1) Art, Drama, Music, and Poetry; (2) Books in Series; (3) Culture; (4) Dictionaries and Encyclopedias; (5) Literature; (6) Mathematics; (7) Physical Education, Health, and Recreation; (8) Reading and Language…

  8. European Ancestry Predominates in Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antônio Carlos; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Rocha, Cristiane Franklin; Brito, Maria Lucia; de Oliveira, Enedina Maria Lobato; Bichuetti, Denis Bernardi; Gabbai, Alberto Alan; Diniz, Denise Sisterolli; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio Ramon; Comini-Frota, Elizabeth Regina; Vieira Wiezel, Claudia E.; Muniz, Yara Costa Netto; da Silva Costa, Roberta Martins; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Barreira, Amilton Antunes; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS) presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. Methods Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP), Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP). Principal Findings European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7%) patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5%) patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil. PMID:23527051

  9. European ancestry predominates in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis patients from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralina Guimarães Brum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. METHODS: Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP, Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7% patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5% patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil.

  10. On some mainly Western European Aphids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille Ris Lambers, D.

    1947-01-01

    1. Ramitrichophorus nov. subgen. Macrosiphoniella janckei Börner, 1939 (Arb. phys. angew. Entom., vol. VI, p. 83), found on Helichrysum arenarium, differs from all species of Macrosiphoniella which I have seen in the structure of its hairs, rostrum and cauda. The dorsal hairs and partly those on the

  11. Western European and NATO Navies, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    continuing the process of disposing of its large surface ships in favor of submarines, fast patrol craft, and minecraft . Of its three remaining destroyers...Mainland. Robert G., -A Somehat Different View of The Appliad Mathetics and Statistics, University of British Optimal Novel Posture," 37 pp., Jun... University of BrItish Colle, Russell C., "Comntu on: Principles of Information Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Retrieval by Menfred Kochen,"f 10 pp., Mar 78

  12. Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K. B.; Ma, Y.; Tan, X. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Liu, G.; Li, Z. L.; Chen, J. M.; Xia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Global surface temperature change is one of the most important aspects in global climate change research. In this study, in order to overcome shortcomings of traditional observation methods in meteorology, a new method is proposed to calculate global mean surface temperature based on remote sensing data. We found that (1) the global mean surface temperature was close to 14.35 °C from 2001 to 2012, and the warmest and coldest surface temperatures of the global in the recent twelve years occurred in 2005 and 2008, respectively; (2) the warmest and coldest surface temperatures on the global land surface occurred in 2005 and 2001, respectively, and on the global ocean surface in 2010 and 2008, respectively; and (3) in recent twelve years, although most regions (especially the Southern Hemisphere) are warming, global warming is yet controversial because it is cooling in the central and eastern regions of Pacific Ocean, northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean, northern regions of China, Mongolia, southern regions of Russia, western regions of Canada and America, the eastern and northern regions of Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. The analysis of daily and seasonal temperature change indicates that the temperature change is mainly caused by the variation of orbit of celestial body. A big data model based on orbit position and gravitational-magmatic change of celestial body with the solar or the galactic system should be built and taken into account for climate and ecosystems change at a large spatial-temporal scale.

  13. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  14. Twelve Theses on Reactive Rules for the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect and react to events, is an essential functionality in many information systems. In particular, Web systems such as online marketplaces, adaptive (e.g., recommender) sys- tems, and Web services, react to events such as Web page updates or data posted to a server. This article investigates issues of relevance in designing high-level programming languages dedicated to reactivity on the Web. It presents twelve theses on features desira...

  15. Interaction and cooperative effort among scientific societies. Twelve years of COSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Nazario; Andradas, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of knowledge and technology in recent decades has brought profound changes in science policy, not only in the countries but also in the supranational organizations. It has been necessary, therefore, to adapt the scientific institutions to new models in order to achieve a greater and better communication between them and the political counterparts responsible for defining the general framework of relations between science and society. The Federationon of Scientific Societies of Spain (COSCE, Confederación de Sociedades Científicas de España) was founded in October 2003 to respond to the urgent need to interact with the political institutions and foster a better orientation in the process of making decisions about the science policy. Currently COSCE consists of over 70 Spanish scientific societies and more than 40,000 scientists. During its twelve years of active life, COSCE has developed an intense work of awareness of the real situation of science in Spain by launching several initiatives (some of which have joined other organizations) or by joining initiatives proposed from other groups related to science both at the Spanish level and at the European and non-European scenarios. [Int Microbiol 18(4): 245-251 (2015)].

  16. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  17. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  18. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the Europea

  19. European structuralism

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    European structuralism is a paradigm for the study of language developed by prominent European linguists during the inter-war period and the first decades after World War II that radically rejected the prevailing atomism of 19th century (particularly neo-grammarian) linguistics and language psychology.

  20. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. Gendering Citizenship in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona

    The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee p...

  2. The twelve theses: a call to a new reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Shelby Spong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With every discovery emerging from the world of science over the last 500 years concerning the origins of the universe and of life itself, the traditional explanations offered by the Christian Church appeared to be more and more dated and irrelevant.  Christian leaders, unable to embrace the knowledge revolution seemed to believe  that the only way to save Christianity was not to disturb the old patterns either by listening to, much less by entertaining the new knowledge. I tried to articulate this challenge in a book entitled: Why Christianity Must Change or Die, published in 1998.  In that book I examined in detail the issues that I was convinced Christianity must address. Shortly after that book was published I reduced its content to twelve theses, which I attached in Luther-like fashion to the great doors on the Chapel of Mansfield College at Oxford University in the United Kingdom. I then mailed copies of those Twelve Theses to every acknowledged Christian leader of the world. It was an attempt to call them into a debate on the real issues that I was certain the Christian Church now faced.  I framed my twelve theses in the boldest, most provocative language possible, designed primarily to elicit response and debate. I welcome responses from Christians everywhere.  I claim no expertise or certainty in developing answers, but I am quite confident that I do understand the problems we are facing as Christians who are seeking to relate to the 21st century.

  3. Western Opera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “ALTHOUGH the road islong and leads far,I’llsearch hard for truth.″Ithink these lines by Qu Yuan(c.340-278 B.C.)are most appropriatein describing Western opera inChina.Opera originated from musicaldrama in Italy.From Dafne by Flo-rentine composer Jacopo Peri in1597,opera has a history of nearly400 years,if we do not count folk,church or court music and danceor song dramas in Europe.Afterspreading from Italy to Austria,France,Germany,Britain,northernEuropean countries and Russia,op-era has developed many national

  4. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  5. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  6. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  7. Twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sebastian Charles Keith; Anderson, John Leeds

    2017-07-01

    Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty. As a result of SS' own experiences as a medical student with dyslexia, we have been researching and teaching on this topic for the past two years. Here, we present twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia. These are gathered from our personal experiences and research, discussions with other educators, and wider literature on the topic. This article aims to shed some light on dyslexia, and also to make practical suggestions. Teaching students with dyslexia should not be a daunting experience. Small changes to existing methods, at minor effort, can make a difference - for example, adding pastel colors to slide backgrounds or avoiding Serif fonts. These tips can help educators gain more insight into dyslexia and incorporate small, beneficial adaptations into their teaching.

  8. Antibacterial activities of extracts from twelve Centaurea species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeli Yener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Centaurea (Asteraceae have been used in traditional plant-based medicine. The methanol extracts of twelve Centaurea species, of which five are endemic to Turkey flora, were screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the microdilution method and the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC of the extracts were determined. C. cariensis subsp. microlepis exhibited an antimicrobial effect on all tested microorganisms. The extracts from eight Centaurea species (C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis, C. kotschyi var. kotschyi, C. solstitialis subsp. solstitialis, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei and C. virgata possessed antibacterial activity against several of the tested microorganisms.

  9. Twelve tips on how to compile a medical educator's portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Claudia Lucy; Wilson, Anthony; Agius, Steven

    2017-09-17

    Medical education is an expanding area of specialist interest for medical professionals. Whilst most doctors will be familiar with the compilation of clinical portfolios for scrutiny of their clinical practice and provision of public accountability, teaching portfolios used specifically to gather and demonstrate medical education activity remain uncommon in many non-academic settings. For aspiring and early career medical educators in particular, their value should not be underestimated. Such a medical educator's portfolio (MEP) is a unique compendium of evidence that is invaluable for appraisal, revalidation, and promotion. It can stimulate and provide direction for professional development, and is a rich source for personal reflection and learning. We recommend that all new and aspiring medical educators prepare an MEP, and suggest twelve tips on how to skillfully compile one.

  10. Spectroscopy of twelve Type Ia supernovae at intermediate redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Pain, R; Walton, N A; Amanullah, R; Astier, Pierre; Ellis, Richard S; Fabbro, S; Goobar, A; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Irwin, M J; McMahon, R M; Mendez, J M; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Sainton, G; Schahmaneche, K; Stanishev, V

    2005-01-01

    We present spectra of twelve Type Ia supernovae obtained in 1999 at the William Herschel Telescope and the Nordic Optical Telescope during a search for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) at intermediate redshift. The spectra range from z=0.178 to z=0.493, including five high signal-to-noise ratio SN Ia spectra in the still largely unexplored range 0.15 < z < 0.3. Most of the spectra were obtained before or around restframe B-band maximum light. None of them shows the peculiar spectral features found in low-redshift over- or under-luminous SN Ia. Expansion velocities of characteristic spectral absorption features such as SiII at 6355 angs., SII at 5640 angs. and CaII at 3945 angs. are found consistent with their low-z SN Ia counterparts.

  11. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  12. WESTERN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Meddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion by rain and surface runoff is an important problem in the Mediterranean countries. The study of the relationship between erosion and sediment transport with hydrological and climatic factors have b een conducted in many countries around the world. The aim of this work is to show ra infall impact on the variability of spatial and temporal concentration in twelve drainage basins in the west of Algeria. We will also seek to find a representative parameter of rainfall erosive potential on a Time and spatial scale. When studying sediment transport in twelve drainage basins of the Centre and the west of Algeria, we have found that the modified Fournier index Which explains much of the specific degradation comp ared to the Fournier index. The study of the temporal variability of the annual rain fall series, modified Fournier index and concentration of the precipitation in the year for a series from 1930 to 2007 showed a negative trend of the two variables. The a nnual rainfall and modified Fournier index have declined by more than 20%. This de cline is more significant in inland areas.

  13. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  14. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  15. Twelve novel Atm mutations identified in Chinese ataxia telangiectasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Yang, Lu; Wang, Jianchun; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Ying; Xia, Rongjun; Yuan, Xianhou; Yan, Mingshan

    2013-09-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized mainly by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, and immunodeficiency. This disease is caused by mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) gene. More than 500 Atm mutations that are responsible for A-T have been identified so far. However, there have been very few A-T cases reported in China, and only two Chinese A-T patients have undergone Atm gene analysis. In order to systemically investigate A-T in China and map their Atm mutation spectrum, we recruited eight Chinese A-T patients from six unrelated families nationwide. Using direct sequencing of genomic DNA and the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, we identified twelve pathogenic Atm mutations, including one missense, four nonsense, five frameshift, one splicing, and one large genomic deletion. All the Atm mutations we identified were novel, and no homozygous mutation and founder-effect mutation were found. These results suggest that Atm mutations in Chinese populations are diverse and distinct largely from those in other ethnic areas.

  16. Oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma in twelve dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B G; Jordan, R C; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-01-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a distinct histological subtype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), described in both dogs and man. In dogs, PSCC has long been considered a malignant oral tumour of very young animals, but it has recently been reported to occur in adult dogs as well. The aim of this study was to describe the major clinicopathological characteristics of canine oral PSCC (COPSCC). Twelve dogs diagnosed with COPSCC were included in this retrospective study (1990-2012). The majority (75%) of the dogs were >6 years of age (median age 9 years). All tumours were derived from the gingiva of dentate jaws, with 66.7% affecting the rostral aspects of the jaws. The gross appearance of the lesions varied, with one having an intraosseous component only. The majority (91.7%) of the tumours were advanced lesions (T2 and T3), but no local or distant metastases were noted. Microscopically, two patterns were seen: (1) invasion of bone forming a cup-shaped indentation in the bone or a deeply cavitating cyst within the bone (cavitating pattern), (2) histologically malignant growth, but lack of apparent bone invasion (non-cavitating pattern). The microscopical appearance corresponded to imaging findings in a majority of cases, with cavitating forms presenting with a cyst-like pattern of bone loss or an expansile mass on imaging and non-cavitating forms showing an infiltrative pattern of bone destruction on imaging. These features suggest two distinct biological behaviours of COPSCC.

  17. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  18. Twelve tips for designing and running longitudinal integrated clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel; Graves, Lisa; Berry, Sue; Myhre, Doug; Cummings, Beth-Ann; Konkin, Jill

    2013-12-01

    Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) involve learners spending an extended time in a clinical setting (or a variety of interlinked clinical settings) where their clinical learning opportunities are interwoven through continuities of patient contact and care, continuities of assessment and supervision, and continuities of clinical and cultural learning. Our twelve tips are grounded in the lived experiences of designing, implementing, maintaining, and evaluating LICs, and in the extant literature on LICs. We consider: general issues (anticipated benefits and challenges associated with starting and running an LIC); logistical issues (how long each longitudinal experience should last, where it will take place, the number of learners who can be accommodated); and integration issues (how the LIC interfaces with the rest of the program, and the need for evaluation that aligns with the dynamics of the LIC model). Although this paper is primarily aimed at those who are considering setting up an LIC in their own institutions or who are already running an LIC we also offer our recommendations as a reflection on the broader dynamics of medical education and on the priorities and issues we all face in designing and running educational programs.

  19. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  20. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Tiago Nunes

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoretical discussion. In particular, we study the nature of the bulk transition that separates a chirally broken phase at strong coupling from a chirally restored phase at weak coupling. When a non-improved action is used, a rapid crossover is observed at small bare quark masses. Our results confirm a first order nature for this transition, in agreement with previous results we obtained using an improved action. As shown in Ref.[1], when improvement of the action is used, the transition is preceded by a second rapid crossover at weaker coupling and an exotic phase emerges, where chiral symmetry is not yet broken. This can be explained [1] by the non hermiticity of the improved lattice Transfer matrix, arising from the c...

  1. The Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Twelve Galloyl Glucosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve galloyl glucosides 1–12, showing diverse substitution patterns with two or three galloyl groups, were synthesized using commercially available, low-cost D-glucose and gallic acid as starting materials. Among them, three compounds, methyl 3,6-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (9, ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (11 and ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (12, are new compounds and other six, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1, 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2, 1,2-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (3, 1,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (4, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranose (6 and methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (10, were synthesized for the first time in the present study. In in vitro MTT assay, 1–12 inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60 and HeLa cells with inhibition rates ranging from 64.2% to 92.9% at 100 μg/mL, and their IC50 values were determined to be varied in 17.2–124.7 μM on the tested three human cancer cell lines. In addition, compounds 1–12 inhibited murine sarcoma S180 cells with inhibition rates ranging from 38.7% to 52.8% at 100 μg/mL in the in vitro MTT assay, and in vivo antitumor activity of 1 and 2 was also detected in murine sarcoma S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice using taxol as positive control.

  2. [Twelve years of working of Brazzaville cancer registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsondé Malanda, Judith; Nkoua Mbon, Jean Bernard; Bambara, Augustin Tozoula; Ibara, Gérard; Minga, Benoît; Nkoua Epala, Brice; Gombé Mbalawa, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The Brazzaville cancer registry was created in 1996 with the support of the International Agency Research against Cancer (IARC) which is located in Lyon, France. The Brazzaville cancer registry is a registry which is based on population which records new cancer cases occurring in Brazzaville by using Canreg 4.0 Software. Its aim is to supply useful information to fight against cancer to physicians and to decision makers. We conducted this study whose target was to determine the incidence of cancer in Brazzaville during twelve years, from January 1st, 1998 to December 31, 2009. During that period 6,048 new cancer cases were recorded: 3,377 women (55.8%), 2,384 men (39.4%), and 287 children (4.8%) from 0 to 14 years old with an annual average of 504 cases. Middle age to the patient's diagnosis was 49.5 years in female sex and 505.5 years old for male sex. The incidence rate of cancers in Brazzaville was 39.8 or 100.000 inhabitants per year and by sex we observed 49 to female sex and 35.2 for male sex. The first cancers localizations observed to women were in order of frequency: breast, cervix uterine, liver ovaries, hematopoietic system, to men : liver, prostate, hematopoietic system, colon and stomach; to children : retina, kidney, hematopoietic system, liver and bones. These rates are the basis to know the burden of cancer among all pathologies of Brazzaville and the achievement of a national cancer control program.

  3. Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome: report of twelve unrelated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lonlay, P; Benelli, C; Fouque, F; Ganguly, A; Aral, B; Dionisi-Vici, C; Touati, G; Heinrichs, C; Rabier, D; Kamoun, P; Robert, J J; Stanley, C; Saudubray, J M

    2001-09-01

    Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome has been reported as a cause of moderately severe hyperinsulinism with diffuse involvement of the pancreas. The disorder is caused by gain of function mutations in the GLUD1 gene, resulting in a decreased inhibitory effect of guanosine triphosphate on the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme. Twelve unrelated patients (six males, six females) with hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome have been investigated. The phenotypes were clinically heterogeneous, with neonatal and infancy-onset hypoglycemia and variable responsiveness to medical (diazoxide) and dietary (leucine-restricted diet) treatment. Hyperammonemia (90-200 micromol/L, normal carbamylglutamate administration. The patients had mean basal GDH activity (18.3 +/- 0.9 nmol/min/mg protein) not different from controls (17.9 +/- 1.8 nmol/min/mg protein) in cultured lymphoblasts. The sensitivity of GDH activity to inhibition by guanosine triphosphate was reduced in all patient lymphoblast cultures (IC(50), or concentrations required for 50% inhibition of GDH activity, ranging from 140 to 580 nM, compared with control IC(50) value of 83 +/- 1.0 nmol/L). The allosteric effect of ADP was within the normal range. The activating effect of leucine on GDH activity varied among the patients, with a significant decrease of sensitivity that was correlated with the negative clinical response to a leucine-restricted diet in plasma glucose levels in four patients. Molecular studies were performed in 11 patients. Heterozygous mutations were localized in the antenna region (four patients in exon 11, two patients in exon 12) as well as in the guanosine triphosphate binding site (two patients in exon 6, two patients in exon 7) of the GLUD1 gene. No mutation has been found in one patient after sequencing the exons 5-13 of the gene.

  4. Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  6. An Experiment in Humanistic Management within Community College District Twelve, Centralia/Olympia, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dale A.; Hurley, John A.

    Community College District Twelve, a multi-college district serving a two-county area in southwestern Washington, has attempted to incorporate at administrative levels many of the humanistic, process-oriented principles of management discussed by Maslow and Maccoby. A concept of the ideal leadership style for District Twelve guides the selection…

  7. Service offshoring and productivity in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Crinò

    2008-01-01

    Using comparable data for nine Western European countries, this paper finds that service offshoring exerts positive and economically large effects on domestic productivity. A one percentage point increase in service offshoring is found to raise Total Factor Productivity by 0.5-0.6 percent.

  8. Women's and Feminist Activism in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buikema, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    First- and second-wave Western European feminists struggled to realize full access to civil rights for women and the creation of a participatory democracy that ensured social solidarity. They consequently stressed the fact that in addition to the struggle for civil rights, women needed to contest th

  9. Urban regeneration in European social housing areas, Chapter 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, C.; Lelevrier, C.; Wassenberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Many European countries have policies to renew cities and neighbourhoods. This paper examines the policies of France, the Netherlands and Germany. In these, as in most Western European countries, the social housing sector forms an important part of regeneration schemes. Social housing is both actor

  10. Urban regeneration in European social housing areas, Chapter 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, C.; Lelevrier, C.; Wassenberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Many European countries have policies to renew cities and neighbourhoods. This paper examines the policies of France, the Netherlands and Germany. In these, as in most Western European countries, the social housing sector forms an important part of regeneration schemes. Social housing is both actor

  11. A rare ancestral HLA-DRB1(∗)15:01̃DQB1(∗)02:01 haplotype and its reversion in the same Western European family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas M C; Kelsch, Reinhard; Wikner, Julia M; Aly, Lilian; Brendel, Cornelia; Alster, Ina; Kühnl, Peter; Finckh, Ulrich; Eiermann, Thomas H

    2015-03-01

    The HLA-DR and -DQ loci are close neighbors on chromosome 6 that are highly linked. Many common associations between HLA-DR and DQ-alleles are known, normally transmitted as HLA-DR̃DQ haplotypes from one generation to another. Reports of very recent genetic rearrangements between HLA-DR and -DQ are rarely found in the literature. In Europeans haplotypes containing DRB1(∗)15:01, DQB1(∗)02:01, and DQA1(∗)05:01 have not been reported before. We report the finding of the rare HLA haplotype A(∗)24:02̃C(∗)07:02̃B(∗)07:02̃MICA(∗)008:01̃DRB5(∗)01:01̃DRB1(∗)15:01̃DQA1(∗)05:01̃DQB1(∗)02:01̃DPB1(∗)04:01 in a German stem cell donor with East Frisian ancestry. Our observation suggests a rare ancestral recombination between the DR and DQ loci. In order to investigate this haplotype, we typed 50/74 members of the family encompassing four generations for HLA classes I and II by serological and molecular methods. The rare haplotype was identified in 12 heterozygous carriers. Furthermore, we identified and further characterized a putative crossing over event resulting in its reversion to a common haplotype.

  12. The impact of alcoholics anonymous on other substance abuse-related twelve-step programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the twelve-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery twelve-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug-dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addicted to alcohol. Future directions in twelve-step research are noted in closing.

  13. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most....... In comparison,Western European retailers prefer doing business with suppliers that are capable of supplying all shops in a chain. Also the question about traceability is decisive.Retailers also prefer doing business with suppliers that are interested in a long-term trade relationship and who are from their own...

  14. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF “TWELVE WELL-POINTS” IN EMERGENCY TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段功保

    2000-01-01

    In many years' clinical practice, I used blood-letting method of “Twelve Well-points” to treat emergencies as coma, syncope, acute infantile convulsion, wind-stroke syndrome, hysteria, epilepsy, etc. and have achieved immediate results.

  15. Skill Content of Intra-European Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeddies, Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the international division of labor has expanded rapidly in the wake of European integration. In this context, especially Western European high-wage countries should have specialized on (human-capital intensively manufactured goods and should have increasingly sourced labor-intensively manufactured goods, especially parts and components, from Eastern European low wage countries. Since this should be beneficial for the high-skilled and harmful to the lower-qualified workforce in high-wage countries, the opening up of Eastern Europe is often considered as a vital reason for increasing unemployment of the lower-qualified in Western Europe. This paper addresses this issue by analyzing the skill content of Western European countries’ bilateral trade using input-output techniques in order to evaluate possible effects of international trade on labor demand. Thereby, differences in factor inputs and production technologies have been considered, allowing for vertical product differentiation. In this case, skill content of bilateral exports and imports partially differs substantially, especially in bilateral trade between Western and Eastern European countries. According to the results, East-West trade should be harmful particularly to the medium-skilled in Western European countries.

  16. Rent seeking oligopolistic behaviour in European gasoline markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael L. Polemis; Panagiotis N Fotis

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the asymmetric adjustment speed of gasoline price in twelve European Union (EU) countries transmitted directly in a single stage formulation. The empirical results shed new light on the taxation effect and its role to the price asymmetry nexus, pointing that in many EU countries a crude oil price increase is passed through more forcefully than a price decrease revealing a rent-seeking oligopolistic behaviour by the marketers.

  17. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  18. European Liaisons? A study on European bi-national marriages in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelet, S.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    European bi-national marriages as a special case of interethnic unions have received relatively little attention in research. Existing studies on interethnic marriage mainly orient on union formation among non-western migrants and in particular intermarriages between the majority group and non-weste

  19. Motivation of Chinese consumers toward Western luxury clothing products

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Shuk Man

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to investigate the motivation of Chinese consumers towards the consumption/purchase of Western luxury clothing products, specifically the luxury in Chinese market, interpersonal and personal motives to purchase luxury products, and Chinese culture influences on luxury purchase motivation. The research was conducted by in-depth interviews following an interview guide. Snowball sampling technique was employed, and there were twelve Chinese participants involved in the...

  20. Chapter Twelve

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    dissemination in Nigeria· Some local jingles from Radio Nigeria Purity F.M. .... Indigenous Language in Advertisement: Problems and Prospects – Thecla ... the rural newspapers from performing their role of rural development· The ..... Sharma Raman, M· and, S (2004), Technical Communication Principle and Practice· India:.

  1. A First Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genetic Diversity and Drug-Resistance Patterns in Twelve Caribbean Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Millet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of some French-speaking islands, data on tuberculosis (TB in the Caribbean are scarce. In this study, we report a first assessment of genetic diversity of a convenience sample of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains received from twelve Caribbean territories by spoligotyping and describe their drug-resistance patterns. Of the 480 isolates, 40 (8.3% isolates showed resistance to at least one anti-TB drug. The proportion of drug-resistant strains was significantly higher in The Bahamas (21.4%; P=0.02, and Guyana (27.5%; P<0.0001, while it was significantly lower in Jamaica (2.4%; P=0.03 than in other countries of the present study. Regarding genetic diversity, 104 distinct spoligotype patterns were observed: 49 corresponded to clustered strains (2 to 93 strains per cluster, while 55 remained unclustered among which 16 patterns were not reported previously. Combining the study results with regional data retrieved from the international SITVIT2 database underlined a connection between frequency of certain M. tuberculosis phylogenetic lineages and the language spoken, suggesting historical (colonial and ongoing links (trade, tourism, and migratory flows with European countries with which they shared a common past.

  2. A Salutary Shock: The European Suffrage Movement and Democracy in the European Community, 1948-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric O'Connor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the experience of democratic participation during the European Community’s most undemocratic era, 1948-1973. An important segment of European activists, a suffrage movement of sorts, considered European-wide elections as the most effective technique of communicating European unity and establishing the EC’s democratic credentials. Going beyond strictly information dissemination, direct elections would engage citizens in ways pamphlets, protests, and petitions could not. Other political elites, however, preferred popular democracy in the form of national referendums, if at all. This article examines the origins and implications of incorporating the two democratic procedures (national referendums and direct elections into the EC by the end of the 1970s. It also identifies a perceived deficit in democracy as a spectre that has haunted European activists since the first post-war European institutions of the late 1940s, a spectre that has always been closely related to an information deficit. Based on archival research across Western Europe, this article touches upon the larger historiographical issues of European democratization, political communication, and the role of elections in European unity.

  3. A European test of pesticide-leaching models: methodology and major recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclooster, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Trevisan, M.; Brown, C.D.; Capri, E.; Eklo, O.M.; Gottesbüren, B.; Gouy, V.; Linden, van der A.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Testing of pesticide-leaching models is important in view of their increasing use in pesticide registration procedures in the European Union. This paper presents the methodology and major conclusions of a test of pesticide-leaching models. Twelve models simulating the vertical one-dimensional moveme

  4. AIRLESS, a European project on HVAC systems: Project programme and current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Björkroth, M.; Müller, B.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Clausen, G.H.; Molina, J.L.; Roulet, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies from seven E

  5. AIRLESS, a European project on HVAC systems: Project programme and current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Björkroth, M.; Müller, B.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Clausen, G.H.; Molina, J.L.; Roulet, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies from seven

  6. European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Seldin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between "northern" and "southern" European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek have >85% membership in the "southern" population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the "northern" population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the "southern" population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies.

  7. European Honors Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Marca Wolfensberger

    2016-01-01

    In M. Wolfensberger (Chair), Models of support. Break out session conducted at the Utrecht Honours Conference 2016: Honours Futures, June 2-3 Utrecht. The European Honors Council (EHC) is a new European network around the subject of talent development in European higher education.

  8. European Network Against Racism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    From the point of view of social movement theory, ENAR (European Network Against Racism) is a strange creature. Partly being an outcome of the European Year Against Racism celebrated in 1997, ENAR was created in 1998 explicitly as an interlocutor with the European Commission in terms of its...

  9. European psychiatry: moving towards integration and harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John L

    2007-02-01

    This paper summarizes political and social changes in Europe that directly affect the training of psychiatrists and the provision of mental health services. In Western Europe the demands of service users have led to a closer integration of social and health services, and a closer working and training of health professionals. The European psychiatrist of the future will be an internationalist, familiar with the impact of culture on mental disorders and able to work in a multi-professional team.

  10. Isolation and characterization of twelve microsatellite loci for the Japanese Devilray (Mobula japanica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Galvan-Magana, Felipe; Bernardi, Giacomo; Croll, Donald A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellites loci were characterized for Mobula japanica (Japanese Devilray) using an enrichment protocol. All but two loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium or null-alleles for a sample of 40 individuals from two populations. The num

  11. 17 CFR 210.3-06 - Financial statements covering a period of nine to twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975... to twelve months. Except with respect to registered investment companies, the filing of...

  12. Twelve new species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira Da; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-05-09

    Twelve species of Triplocania, seven based on male and female specimens and five based on male specimens, are here described and illustrated; nine species are Brazilian, three are Ecuadorian, and one of the latter is shared with Peru. Comments on sexes known and distribution of the species are included.

  13. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  14. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among students of ... Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. ... having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use ...

  15. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  16. A novel double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel proposal of double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding ac converter. Modular power units are developed from reconfigured eight classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI has one additional bi-directional switching ...

  17. The Western European Military Establishment: A Re-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    unless a criminal offense is committed, gays or lesbians cannot be discriminated against. So there is little pressure on them, or incentive to vindicate...may not hold true beyond a couple of fiscal years : the apparent wait-and-see attitude of those in office as regards a possible sea-change cannot last...nuclear factor will be crucial. Italy and Sweden (defense industries). A stronger role will be sought for the WEU, as the provisional defense arm of

  18. Epiphytic Diatoms along Environmental Gradients in Western European Shallow Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Saul; Cejudo-Figueiras, Cristina; Alvarez-Blanco, Irene; van Donk, Ellen; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Irvine, Kenneth; Jeppesen, Erik; Kairesalo, Timo; Moss, Brian; Noges, Tiina; Becares, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    Diatom-based assays have been successfully associated worldwide with the tropic status of lakes. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between epiphytic diatoms and nutrient load in shallow lakes and wetlands. We examine the relative importance of environmental factors in explaining the st

  19. Volatility of Aerosols in the Western European Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    562-576, 1987.I Stratmann, F. and H. Fissan. Convection , diffusion and thermophoresis in cooled laminar tube flow. J. Aerosol Sci., 19. 793-796, 1988.I...contractual work was performed, it was only possible to perform aerosol volatility work up to a temperature of 3000C . Therefore the nature of I the...can severly affect the I propagation or transmission of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere. Quantitative estimates of these effects

  20. Certification of passive houses: a Western European overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Kaan, H.; Hodgson, G.

    2008-01-01

    According to the popular definition, passive houses have to reach a target energy demand for heating less than 15 kWh per square meter and per year. This criterion is used as a basis for quality assurance procedures and certification of passive house projects. This paper identifies the experiences

  1. Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.; Taylor, C.; Meirink, J.F.; Melsen, L.A.; Miralles, D.G.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Vautard, R.; Stegehuis, A.I.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.

    2017-01-01

    Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of

  2. Optics 󈨚: Four Western European Countries Review Recent Achievements,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-27

    rincip!e, the universal applicability. processor, and many extensions cin Se , More d-etails of this research effort imagined. But T think that the way...recently in all aspects of digital I n , n .. .. .mage processing. Design techniques have J matured to a point which permits the (Note that, unlike the...34murphoog ical." The the zero and first-order Taylor co- speaker illustrated how a median filter- efficients). Thus, In a sense, triple ing proceso ! can

  3. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, T.H. van de; Berben, S.A.A.; Samsom, M.; Engelen, L.J.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision

  4. Certification of passive houses: a Western European overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Kaan, H.; Hodgson, G.

    2008-01-01

    According to the popular definition, passive houses have to reach a target energy demand for heating less than 15 kWh per square meter and per year. This criterion is used as a basis for quality assurance procedures and certification of passive house projects. This paper identifies the experiences i

  5. Beyond Eurocentrism: Manuel Poirier’s Breton Road-film Western

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Catherine Sicard-Cowan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on Manuel Poirier’s 1998 film Western, I explore the Peruvian-born director’s construction of Europe as a ‘home’ for non-European immigrants and Europeans alike. Through his appropriation and creative re-signification of the conventions pertaining to the genre of the American western, Poirier projects an image of the French equivalent of the American Far West, i.e. the region of Brittany, as a micro-version of an idealized Europe in which non-European male immigrants turn into friends, lovers and hosts for their homeless, jobless and/or loveless European counterparts.

  6. European Capitals of Culture: A “soft power” resource for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sianos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using English-language newspaper articles retrieved from digital repositories, this paper examines the cultural asymmetrical encounter between Western and Eastern Europe after 1989. It argues that due to the rise of the Iron Curtain after 1948 and the post-war progress of the Western European integration project after 1950, the idea of “Europe” was confined to the West until 1989. After 1989, however, the Eastern European nations were free to “return to Europe”, and in order to do so they followed the “reference model” of the West. The paper takes the institution of the European Capital of Culture (ECOC as a case study and demonstrates how both Western and Eastern European cities used the ECOC title as a gateway to modernity, why it acquired an extra functionality in the East as a stage where they could showcase their “European” credentials, and how it gradually developed into one of the E.U.’s “soft power” resources.

  7. Minor and trace metals levels in human milk in north western cities of Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahabbis, M. T.; Elkubat, M. S.; Kut, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    Levels of twelve minor and trace metals were determined by using (AAS, ES and ICP/MS) in breast milk obtained from 60 women living in north western cities of Libya. Samples were collected at one week up to two years after delivery. Women with age>21 years old to an age of <43 years old were investigated. (Author)

  8. Genomic structure in Europeans dating back at least 36,200 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Sikora, Martin

    2014-01-01

    European Neolithic farmers. We find that Kostenki 14 contains more Neandertal DNA that is contained in longer tracts than present Europeans. Our findings reveal the timing of divergence of western Eurasians and East Asians to be more than 36,200 years ago and that European genomic structure today dates......The origin of contemporary Europeans remains contentious. We obtained a genome sequence from Kostenki 14 in European Russia dating from 38,700 to 36,200 years ago, one of the oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans from Europe. We find that Kostenki 14 shares a close ancestry with the 24......,000-year-old Mal'ta boy from central Siberia, European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, some contemporary western Siberians, and many Europeans, but not eastern Asians. Additionally, the Kostenki 14 genome shows evidence of shared ancestry with a population basal to all Eurasians that also relates to later...

  9. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Caloplaca in Central European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchnik Eugenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides data on 21 Caloplaca Th. Fr. species from central European Russia. Two species are new for Russia: C. atroflava (Turner Mong. s.l. and C. soralifera Vondrák & Hrouzek. A further seven are new for European Russia [C. flavocitrina (Nyl. H. Olivier, C. inconnexa (Nyl. Zahlbr., C. marmorata (Bagl. Jatta, C. oasis (A. Massal. Szatala] or central European Russia [C. dichroa Arup, C. interfulgens (Nyl. J. Steiner, C. monacensis (Leder. Lettau]. Short taxonomic notes together with information on habitat and distribution are provided for the newly recorded species. An additional twelve Caloplaca species recognized in the area are also briefly presented.

  11. Children of non-Western origin with end-stage renal disease in the Netherlands, Belgium and a part of Germany have impaired health-related quality of life compared with Western children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, N.J.; Haverman, L.; Tromp, W.F.; Lee, J.H. van der; Offringa, M.; Adams, B.; Bouts, A.H.M.; Collard, L.; Cransberg, K.; Dyck, M. van; Godefroid, N.; Hoeck, K. van; Koster-Kamphuis, L.; Lilien, M.R.; Raes, A.; Taylan, C.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) living in Western Europe are of non-Western European origin. They have unfavourable somatic outcomes compared with ESRD children of Western origin. In this study, we compared the Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of both groups. METH

  12. Anatomical studies on twelve clones of Camellia species with reference to their taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies of leaf and stem of twelve clones of Camellia were investigated. Cross sections of the stem of all the clones exhibited a typical pattern of arrangement of tissues characteristics of woody plants. Two types of idioblastic sclereids were found in the medullary parenchyma of the taxa studied. While astrosclereids werepresent in 10 of the twelve clones, the vesciculose sclereids were found only in the four clones belonging to C. sinensis. Leaves of the clones show variations in the number of palisade layers. Astro sclereids, brachy sclereids, and dendritic forms were observed in the leaves, their distribution varying in the different clones. A few other micromorphological features are also recorded. Our study forms a basis for answering uncertainties in taxonomic revision in the genus Camellia.

  13. East Asian contributions to Dutch traditional and western commercial chickens inferred from mtDNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullu, N.D.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Hanotte, O.; Mwacharo, J.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the complex origin of domesticated populations is of vital importance for understanding, preserving and exploiting breed genetic diversity. Here, we aim to assess Asian contributions to European traditional breeds and western commercial chickens for mitochondrial genetic diversity. To

  14. Changing claims and changing frames in the politics of migration in Western Europe, 1995-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive report on the politicization of immigration in seven Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, the UK), 1995 to 2009. Changes in patterns of claims-making are presented, including changes in frames.

  15. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the princip......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  16. Descriptions of twelve new species of ochyroceratids (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae) from mainland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupérré, Nadine

    2015-05-12

    Twelve new species in three different genera from the spider family Ochyroceratidae are described from mainland Ecuador: Speocera bioforestae sp. n., Speocera violacea sp. n., Speocera musgo sp. n., Ochyrocera rinocerotos sp. n., Ochyrocera callaina sp. n., Ochyrocera italoi sp. n., Ochyrocera minotaure sp. n., Ochyrocera losrios sp. n., Ochyrocera zabaleta sp. n., Ochyrocera otonga sp. n., Ochyrocera cashcatotoras sp. n. and Psiloochyrocera tortilis sp. n. Speocera machadoi Gertsch 1977 is transferred to Ochyrocera.

  17. A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2003-12-13

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  18. Premarital Sex in the Last Twelve Months and Its Predictors among Students of Wollega University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Tesfaye; Chala, Dereje; Adeba, Emiru

    2016-07-01

    Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega University. A cross-sectional survey using pretested, structured questionnaire was conducted on a total of 704 regular undergraduate students of Wollega University from February to March, 2014. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit study participants. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were performed using SPSS version 20 to assess predictors of premarital sex. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Wollega University youths who had premarital sex in the last twelve months were 28.4%; 55.5% of them did not use condom during last sex while 31.3% engaged in multiple sex. Being male [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)(95% Confidence Interval(CI))=2.7(1.58-4.75)], age 20-24 years [AOR(95%CI)=2.8(1.13-7.20)], training on how to use condom [AOR(95%CI)=1.7(1.17-2.46)], being tested for HIV [AOR(95%CI)=2.3(1.48-3.53)], using social media frequently [AOR(95%CI)=1.8(1.14-2.88)], having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use [AOR (95%CI)=2.2(1.31-3.56)] were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the last twelve months. Nearly one-third of regular undergraduate students of the university were engaged in premarital sex in the last twelve months. Being male, using social media frequently and alcohol use were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the stated period. Thus, higher institutions have to deliver abstinence messages alongside information about self-protection.

  19. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincaré symmetry in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Pasqua, A; Zumino, B; Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  20. Citizenship Education Development: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suslov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the European experience of the citizenship education developmentan important aspect of internal policy in the most countries. The education in question is considered to be the democratic citizenship training aimed at developing the loyal attitude to different value priorities in society, social responsibility, active citizenship position, awareness of democratic rights, capability of using and protecting them.The author looks at the transformation of citizenship education concept in the last three decades from the civics education (i.e. history, political science, law, etc. to the democratic citizen education. The paper analyzes differ- ent approaches to citizenship education in several European countries including the post-soviet ones. It is emphasized that both in western and eastern Europe a lot of effort is made for spreading and supporting the education in question. The author recommends considering the foreign experience of integrating the democratic citizenship education into the state academic curricula at the primary, secondary and higher school levels. 

  1. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states.......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... and the transformation of states provides an extensive comparative survey of the central governments in four Scandinavian countries and analyses the ways in which the European Union has influenced the day-to-day work of their state administrations. It includes coverage of: Denmark, a long-standing member of the European...

  2. The European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper it is generally examined the institution of the European arrest warrant according to the latest changes and additions through the adoption of a new European legislative act. The paper is a continuation of research in the area of judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. It may be useful to the judicial bodies with the responsibilities of issuing and executing a specific European arrest warrant and to academics and students in law schools. The research results, the essential contribution, the originality consist of the general examination of the institution, the critical remarks and proposals for amending and completing certain provisions insufficiently clear.

  3. Europeanization and Transnational States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove Kaj; Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states.......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... and the transformation of states provides an extensive comparative survey of the central governments in four Scandinavian countries and analyses the ways in which the European Union has influenced the day-to-day work of their state administrations. It includes coverage of: Denmark, a long-standing member of the European...

  4. WORK COMPETENCES AT WESTERN BANK DISCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidee Coste

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the generic work competences in the staff of the Vice Presidency of Compensation and Development of the Western Bank Discount. Authors were consulted such as Alles (2008, Tobon (2006 and Hay Group (2004, among others. The research is descriptive, non-experimental, transactional and field design. The population consisted of twelve (12 subjects belonging to the vice presidency. It was applied a questionnaire of thirty (30 items, validated by the trial of three (3 experts, with 0.92 reliability by Cronbach alpha coefficient.  It is concluded the employees of the vice presidency have a high level of the generic work competences customer focus, teamwork, effective communication, innovation, emotional intelligence and making decisions. It is strength for the institution, because staff with those competences contributes doing the best for the development of the institution.

  5. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  6. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  7. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  8. Theorizing European societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, M.R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Explores key sociological concepts and theory in relation to European crises, identity, inequality and social order. It offers a firm understanding of the modernization of Europe and everyday European life, while not neglecting the historical context. Essential reading for students of sociology in E

  9. Railway separation: European diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, D.M.; Röntgen, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The European railway sector currently exhibits a wide variety of institutional configu- rations as a result of the reforms initiated by European legislation. This chapter de- scribes the situation in the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Great-Britain and France, providing a good coverage of the

  10. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  11. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  12. The European Geoparks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NickolasZouros

    2004-01-01

    The European Geoparks Network was established in June 2000 by four regions of different European Countries--France, Germany, Spain and Greece--with similar natural and socioeconomic characteristics. These four regions are rural areas, with a particular geological heritage, natural beauty and high cultural potential, all facing problems of slow economic development,

  13. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual Medi

  14. Institutionalization through Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    to the question of Europeanization. The main argument is that the EC’s ongoing push for the Pan-European idea, through pressures and enabling structures, have contributed to the promotion of a process of institutionalization with re-nationalization and affirmation of national film-cultural diversity as its main...

  15. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  16. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  17. The rise of homogamy in 19th century Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, F.W.A.; Vanassche, S.; Sanchez, M.; Jidkova, S.; Eeckhaut, M.; Oris, M.; Matthijs, K.

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of Western Europe the age at first marriage and the level of celibacy declined in the second half of the 19th century. This weakening of the European marriage pattern (EMP) can be interpreted as a ‘‘classic’’ response to the increase of the standard of living, but a more far-reaching i

  18. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether......NB: For those interested in our use of the Issuecrawler in this paper, please see our more recent web science paper entitled "Tracing Eurosceptic Party Networks via Hyperlink Network Analysis and #FAIL!ng: Can Web Crawlers Keep up with Web Design?", where we outline the limitations we uncovered...... while using the Issuecrawler. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the, perhaps paradoxical, phenomenon of Europeanization of Eurosceptic parties and the role the internet played in this process during the campaign for the European Parliament elections of May 2014. We exemplify this phenomenon...

  19. Ancient split of major genetic lineages of European Black Pine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naydenov, Krassimir D.; Naydenov, Michel K.; Alexandrov, Alexander; Vasilevski, Kole; Gyuleva, Veselka; Matevski, Vlado; Nikolic, Biljana; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Bogunic, Faruk; Paitaridou, Despina; Christou, Andreas; Goia, Irina; Carcaillet, Christopher; Alcantara, Adrian Escudero; Ture, Cengiz; Gulcu, Suleyman; Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Kamary, Salim; Bojovic, Srdjan; Hinkov, Georgi; Tsarev, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The European Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) has a long and complex history. Genetic distance and frequency analyses identified three differentiated genetic groups, which corresponded to three wide geographical areas: Westerns Mediterranean, Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor. These groups shared comm

  20. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries...

  1. Striking elevation in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a province of western Hungary between 1977-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabor Mester; Zsuzssnna Erdelyi; Mihaly Balogh; Istvan Szipocs; Gyorgy Kamaras; Peter Laszlo Lakatos

    2004-01-01

    AIM: An investigation into inflammatory bowel disease and colorectel cancer in Veszprem Province was conducted from 1977 to 2001.METHODS: Both hospital and outpatient records were collected and reviewed comprehensively. The majority of patients were followed up regularly.RESULTS: The population of the province was decreased from 386 000 to 376 000 during the period. Five hundred sixty new cases of ulcerative colitis (UC), 212 of Crohn's disease (CD), and 40 of indeterminate colitis (IC) were diagnosed. The inddence rates increased from 1.66 to 11.01 cases per 100 000 persons for UC, from 0.41 to 4.68 for CD and from 0,26 to 0.74 for IC. The prevalence rate at the end of 2001 was 142.6 for UC and 52.9 cases per 100 000 persons for CD. The peak onset age in UC patients was between 30 and 40 years, in CD between 20 and 30 years. A family history of IBD was present in 3.4 % in UC and 9.9% in CD patients. Smoking increased the risk for CD (OR=1.94) while it decreased the risk for UC (OR=0.25). Twelve colorectal carcinomas were observed in this cohort, the cumulative colorectal cancer risk after 10 years in UC was 2%, after 20 years 8.8%, after 30 years 13.3%.CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence rates of IBD have increased steadily in Veszprem Province, now equivalent to that in Western European countries. Rapid increase in incidence rates supports a probable role for environmental factors. The rate of colorectal cancers in IBD is similar to that observed in Western countries.

  2. Western Retrospections and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 10-year anniversary of the strategy on development of China’s western region. With a land area of 6.85 million square km, accounting for 71.4 percent of the country’s total, the western region has been an indispensable part in achieving China’s overall prosperity and

  3. Definition of a Twelve-Point Polygonal SAA Boundaryfor the GLAST Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; /UC, Santa Cruz /SLAC

    2007-08-29

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), set to launch in early 2008, detects gamma rays within a huge energy range of 100 MeV - 300 GeV. Background cosmic radiation interferes with such detection resulting in confusion over distinguishing cosmic from gamma rays encountered. This quandary is resolved by encasing GLAST's Large Area Telescope (LAT) with an Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD), a device which identifies and vetoes charged particles. The ACD accomplishes this through plastic scintillator tiles; when cosmic rays strike, photons produced induce currents in Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) attached to these tiles. However, as GLAST orbits Earth at altitudes {approx}550km and latitudes between -26 degree and 26 degree, it will confront the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region of high particle flux caused by trapped radiation in the geomagnetic field. Since the SAA flux would degrade the sensitivity of the ACD's PMTs over time, a determined boundary enclosing this region need be attained, signaling when to lower the voltage on the PMTs as a protective measure. The operational constraints on such a boundary require a convex SAA polygon with twelve edges, whose area is minimal ensuring GLAST has maximum observation time. The AP8 and PSB97 models describing the behavior of trapped radiation were used in analyzing the SAA and defining a convex SAA boundary of twelve sides. The smallest possible boundary was found to cover 14.58% of GLAST's observation time. Further analysis of defining a boundary safety margin to account for inaccuracies in the models reveals if the total SAA hull area is increased by {approx}20%, the loss of total observational area is < 5%. These twelve coordinates defining the SAA flux region are ready for implementation by the GLAST satellite.

  4. U.S. Heritage-Seeking Students Discover Minority Communities in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comp, David

    2008-01-01

    This research article examines quantitative data relevant to an increasingly multiethnic Western Europe and investigates European opportunities for U.S. minority heritage-seeking students. In addition to analyzing the demographic data of Western Europe, a review of U.S. higher education enrollment demographics derived from current national…

  5. Theory of the “New Music” Expressionism Based on Schoenberg’ s Twelve-Tone Music%论“新音乐”的表现主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林健丹

    2014-01-01

    The Western music of the 20th century, due to the social change, the influence of the economic recovery and cultural ideological trend, produced extremely complex and changeful music form and cultural form.This article, through the innovation of the 20th century Western new music composing techniques, taking Schoenberg and expressionist music representative of twelve-tone music as an example, discusses the“new music” under the influence of the ideological trend of expressionist music, as well as the“tradition” in the leading position of expressionist music.%20世纪的西方音乐,由于受到社会变动、经济复苏和文化思潮的影响,产生了极其复杂多变的音乐形式和文化形态。本文将借20世纪西方新音乐作曲技法的创新,并以表现主义音乐代表人物勋伯格的十二音音乐为例进行分析,论述了“新音乐”思潮影响下的表现主义音乐,以及“反传统”思想在表现主义音乐中的主导地位。

  6. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-07-08

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.

  7. New Eyes on the Universe Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "New Eyes on the Universe -- Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them" gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Uni

  8. DETECTION OF CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN TWELVE PRIMARY GASTRIC CANCERS BY DIRECT CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS AND FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Direct chromosome analysis and FISH were performed on twelve primary gastric carcinomas. Two of them had simple chromosome changes: 48,XX, +8, +20, and 49, XY, +2, +8, +9, and the others had complicated chromosome changes, which includes much more numerical and structural chromosome aberrations. Frequent structural changes in the complicated types involved chromosome 7, 3, 1, 5 and 12 etc. The del 7q was noted in eight cases. The del (3p) and del (1p) were noted in six and five cases, respectively. The results provide some important clues for isolation of the genes related to gastric cancer.

  9. Developing a learning culture: twelve tips for individuals, teams and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Lynn; Pearson, David; Lucas, Beverley

    2006-06-01

    A culture of learning in providing health services and education for health professionals is a constant challenge for individuals, team and organizations. The importance of such a culture was highlighted by the findings of the Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry (2001). This was discussed in the context of the literature on the Learning Organization (Senge, 1990) at the 2004 Association of Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) conference, and reviewed a year later at the 2005 AMEE conference. This paper outlines twelve tips for educational and health service organizations in facilitating a culture of learning for their members and also offers specific advice to individual students and professionals.

  10. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  11. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  12. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    ’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting......In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union...

  13. European journals on microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  14. Hydrogen and Biofuels - A Modeling Analysis of Competing Energy Carriers for Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guel, Timur; Kypreos, Socrates; Barreto, Leonardo

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the prospects of hydrogen and biofuels as energy carriers in the Western European transportation sector. The assessment is done by combining the US hydrogen analysis H2A models for the design of hydrogen production and delivery chains, and the Western European Hydrogen Markal Model EHM with a detailed representation of biofuels, and the European electricity and transportation sector. The paper derives policy recommendations to support the market penetration of hydrogen and biofuels, and investigates learning interactions between the different energy carriers. (auth)

  15. Exploring patterns in European singles charts

    CERN Document Server

    Buda, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    European singles charts are important part of the music industry responsible for creating popularity of songs. After modeling and exploring dynamics of global album sales in previous papers, we investigate patterns of hit singles popularity according to all data (1966-2015) from weekly charts (polls) in 12 Western European countries. The dynamics of building popularity in various national charts is more than the economy because it depends on spread of information. In our research we have shown how countries may be affected by their neighbourhood and influenced by technological era. We have also computed correlations with geographical and cultural distances between countries in analog, digital and Internet era. We have shown that time delay between the single premiere and the peak of popularity has become shorter under the influence of technology and the popularity of songs depends on geographical distances in analog (1966-1987) and Internet (2004-2015) era. On the other hand, cultural distances between nation...

  16. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  17. Approximate analytic method for high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashkovyaka, M. A.; Zaslavskii, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an approach to the study of the evolution of high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites. We describe parameters of the motion model used for the artificial Earth's satellite such that the principal gravitational perturbations of the Moon and Sun, nonsphericity of the Earth, and perturbations from the light pressure force are approximately taken into account. To solve the system of averaged equations describing the evolution of the orbit parameters of an artificial satellite, we use both numeric and analytic methods. To select initial parameters of the twelve-hour orbit, we assume that the path of the satellite along the surface of the Earth is stable. Results obtained by the analytic method and by the numerical integration of the evolving system are compared. For intervals of several years, we obtain estimates of oscillation periods and amplitudes for orbital elements. To verify the results and estimate the precision of the method, we use the numerical integration of rigorous (not averaged) equations of motion of the artificial satellite: they take into account forces acting on the satellite substantially more completely and precisely. The described method can be applied not only to the investigation of orbit evolutions of artificial satellites of the Earth; it can be applied to the investigation of the orbit evolution for other planets of the Solar system provided that the corresponding research problem will arise in the future and the considered special class of resonance orbits of satellites will be used for that purpose.

  18. Western Food in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    AS the Chinese saying goes, "Ask for local custom when you enter a foreign country." Western food’s first introduction to China in the 17th century was accompanied with its adoption to Chinese dining habits. Western food was introduced into China in large scale during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. However, as early as the 17th century Western missionaries and envoys were introducing food from their homeland to upper-class Chinese as a means of paying tribute or

  19. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  20. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  1. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours...... to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  2. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  3. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  4. MOOCs, the European way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How the European approach to MOOCs is largely that of a pedagogical innovation whereas the initial US xMOOCs were largely seen as a vehicle to make education cheaper, to export American quality education to developing countries

  5. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  6. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize...

  7. MOOCs, the European way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How the European approach to MOOCs is largely that of a pedagogical innovation whereas the initial US xMOOCs were largely seen as a vehicle to make education cheaper, to export American quality education to developing countries

  8. A profile of European ICU nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depasse, B; Pauwels, D; Somers, Y; Vincent, J L

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate major similarities and major differences between Western European countries in intensive care unit (ICU) nurse staffing, education, training, responsibilities, and initiative. A questionnaire was sent to Western European doctor members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, to be passed on to the nurse-in-charge of their ICU. 156 completed questionnaires were analyzed: 49% were from university hospitals, 26% from university-affiliated hospitals, and 25% from community hospitals; 42% of the hospitals had more than 700 beds, 67% of the ICUs had between 6 and 12 beds, and 54% were mixed medical-surgical units. Among British units, 79% had more than three full-time nursing equivalents (FTE) per ICU bed, while in Sweden 75% of units had less than two FTE/ICU bed. University hospitals had more nursing staff per bed than community hospitals. As regards training, 33% of nurses followed a training course before starting work on the ICU and 64% after starting on the unit, and 85% had easy access to continuing education, particularly in the university hospitals. In an emergency, more than 70% of nurses regularly initiated oxygen administration, mask ventilation, or cardiac massage. In Sweden 100% of nurses and in Switzerland 91% of nurses regularly inserted peripheral intravenous catheters, but only 7% of German nurses did. No German nurses and only 12% of British nurses regularly performed arterial puncture, but in Sweden 75% of nurses regularly did. Even though the number of participants were limited, our questionnaire revealed variations in nurse staffing patterns among European countries and in their systems of training and education. Nurse autonomy also varies widely between countries.

  9. European Agricultural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    This bulletin is a supplement to the Europe Team's Situation and Outlook Series and expands upon material traditionally presented as an appendix in the annual Europe Report. This report presents an extensive statistical database on European agriculture. The geographic scope covers most of the countrias of Europe, including the 15 member states of the European Union (Austria. Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy. Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, a...

  10. European Robotics Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Halt, Lorenz; Bubeck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The European Robotics Challenges (EuRoC) aims at strengthening collaboration and cross-fertilization between the industrial and the research community by launching three industrially-relevant challenges in European robotics with applicability to the factory of the future. To qualify for admission, potential challengers are asked to solve a simulated task. The aim of this talk is to describe the development of a simulated human-robot collaboration task using ROS/gazebo. Furthermore several bac...

  11. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  12. Luxury and Gender in European Towns, 1700-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of gendered identities and the transmission of ideas across local, national and transnational boundaries. This book draws on research undertaken within a pan-European network of historians from twelve countries whose interests lie in examining the ways that the European urban experience was gendered over time...... and across borders. This book will mirror some of the concerns of the network and will focus on the operation of gender in three distinct, but interrelated, areas of urban study: the economic, the political and the spatial. The three central themes speak directly to newer ideas of exploring the dynamics...... of culture – both as definition and as practice. Importantly, ‘political culture’ does not mean politics as it is usually defined, but refers to power and influence. Thus, how power was legitimated and understood was important in creating a space for women and for gendered political culture, which...

  13. The Affordable Care Act and Abortion Comparing the U.S. and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Deborah R

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Affordable Health Care Act (ACA) treats abortion differently than any other health service, precluding public funding for abortion and imposing other restrictions on American states. To determine whether the ACA's abortion restrictions are uniquely American or have counterparts in other national health systems, this study employs a cross-sectional design comparing abortion restrictions in the ACA with those in 17 Western European countries. Using a six-item scale, the intensity of abortion restrictions is compared across Western European nations. A similar scale is employed for a five-state sample of state-level abortion restrictions. Although the United States is not alone in having abortion restrictions, how abortion is proscribed in the ACA has no counterpart in Western Europe. Unlike many Western European countries, the ACA's restrictions focus on abortion funding, not the length of gestation or the health of the pregnant woman.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics and comparative anatomy of Kimberleytrachia Köhler, 2011 - a genus of land snail endemic to the coastal Kimberley, Western Australia with description of new taxa (Gastropoda, Camaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criscione, F.; Köhler, F.

    2014-01-01

    Kimberleytrachia Köhler, 2011 is a genus of camaenid land snail endemic to the Western Australian Kimberley region. It comprises twelve previously recognised species, all of which occur within the high precipitation zone along the north-western coast between the Admiralty Gulf and King Sound and wit

  15. Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.F. Voight (Benjamin); L.J. Scott (Laura); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); A.D. Morris (Andrew); C. Dina (Christian); R.P. Welch (Ryan); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); C. Huth (Cornelia); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); L.J. McCulloch (Laura); T. Ferreira (Teresa); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Amin (Najaf); G. Wu (Guanming); C.J. Willer (Cristen); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); C. Langenberg (Claudia); O.M. Hofmann (Oliver); J. Dupuis (Josée); L. Qi (Lu); A.V. Segrè (Ayellet); M. van Hoek (Mandy); P. Navarro (Pau); K.G. Ardlie (Kristin); B. Balkau (Beverley); R. Benediktsson (Rafn); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R. Blagieva (Roza); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); K.B. Boström (Kristina Bengtsson); B. Bravenboer (Bert); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); N.P. Burtt (Noël); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); P.S. Chines (Peter); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); D.J. Couper (David); G. Crawford (Gabe); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); K.S. Elliott (Katherine); M.R. Erdos (Michael); C.S. Fox (Caroline); C.S. Franklin (Christopher); M. Ganser (Martha); C. Gieger (Christian); N. Grarup (Niels); T. Green (Todd); S. Griffin (Simon); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); S. Hadjadj (Samy); N. Hassanali (Neelam); C. Herder (Christian); B. Isomaa (Bo); A.U. Jackson (Anne); P.R.V. Johnson (Paul); T. Jørgensen (Torben); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); N. Klopp (Norman); A. Kong (Augustine); P. Kraft (Peter); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T. Lauritzen (Torsten); M. Li (Man); A. Lieverse (Aloysius); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); M. Marre (Michel); T. Meitinger (Thomas); K. Midthjell (Kristian); M.A. Morken (Mario); N. Narisu (Narisu); P. Nilsson (Peter); K.R. Owen (Katharine); F. Payne (Felicity); J.R.B. Perry (John); A.K. Petersen; C. Platou (Carl); C. Proença (Christine); I. Prokopenko (Inga); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); N.R. Robertson (Neil); G. Rocheleau (Ghislain); M. Roden (Michael); M.J. Sampson (Michael); R. Saxena (Richa); B.M. Shields (Beverley); P. Shrader (Peter); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); T. Sparsø (Thomas); K. Strassburger (Klaus); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Q. Sun (Qi); A.J. Swift (Amy); B. Thorand (Barbara); J. Tichet (Jean); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); R.M. van Dam (Rob); T.W. van Haeften (Timon); T.W. van Herpt (Thijs); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); G.B. Walters (Bragi); M.N. Weedon (Michael); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Cauchi (Stephane); F.S. Collins (Francis); A.L. Gloyn (Anna); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T. Hansen (Torben); W.A. Hide (Winston); G.A. Hitman (Graham); A. Hofman (Albert); D. Hunter (David); K. Hveem (Kristian); M. Laakso (Markku); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I. Rudan (Igor); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); L.D. Stein (Lincoln); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Campbell (Harry); M.J. Daly (Mark); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); J.B. Meigs (James); J.S. Pankow (James); O. Pedersen (Oluf); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); I. Barroso (Inês); J.C. Florez (Jose); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R. Sladek (Rob); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J.F. Wilson (James); T. Illig (Thomas); P. Froguel (Philippe); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); D. Altshuler (David); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); R.M. Watanabe (Richard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBy combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals w

  16. Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voight, Benjamin F.; Scott, Laura J.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Morris, Andrew P.; Dina, Christian; Welch, Ryan P.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Huth, Cornelia; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; McCulloch, Laura J.; Ferreira, Teresa; Grallert, Harald; Amin, Najaf; Wu, Guanming; Willer, Cristen J.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; McCarroll, Steve A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Hofmann, Oliver M.; Dupuis, Josee; Qi, Lu; Segre, Ayellet V.; van Hoek, Mandy; Navarro, Pau; Ardlie, Kristin; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blagieva, Roza; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bostrom, Kristina Bengtsson; Bravenboer, Bert; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Burtt, Noisel P.; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chines, Peter S.; Cornelis, Marilyn; Couper, David J.; Crawford, Gabe; Doney, Alex S. F.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Elliott, Amanda L.; Erdos, Michael R.; Fox, Caroline S.; Franklin, Christopher S.; Ganser, Martha; Gieger, Christian; Grarup, Niels; Green, Todd; Griffin, Simon; Groves, Christopher J.; Guiducci, Candace; Hadjadj, Samy; Hassanali, Neelam; Herder, Christian; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Paul R. V.; Jorgensen, Torben; Kao, Wen H. L.; Klopp, Norman; Kong, Augustine; Kraft, Peter; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lauritzen, Torsten; Li, Man; Lieverse, Aloysius; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Midthjell, Kristian; Morken, Mario A.; Narisu, Narisu; Nilsson, Peter; Owen, Katharine R.; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John R. B.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Platou, Carl; Proenca, Christine; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Roden, Michael; Sampson, Michael J.; Saxena, Richa; Shields, Beverley M.; Shrader, Peter; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sparso, Thomas; Strassburger, Klaus; Stringham, Heather M.; Sun, Qi; Swift, Amy J.; Thorand, Barbara; Tichet, Jean; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; van Dam, Rob M.; van Haeften, Timon W.; van Herpt, Thijs; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Walters, G. Bragi; Weedon, Michael N.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witteman, Jacqueline; Bergman, Richard N.; Cauchi, Stephane; Collins, Francis S.; Gloyn, Anna L.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hansen, Torben; Hide, Winston A.; Hitman, Graham A.; Hofman, Albert; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Laakso, Markku; Mohlke, Karen L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Sijbrands, Eric; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Campbell, Harry; Daly, Mark J.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hu, Frank B.; Meigs, James B.; Pankow, James S.; Pedersen, Oluf; Wichmann, H-Erich; Barroso, Ines; Florez, Jose C.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif; Sladek, Rob; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Wilson, James F.; Illig, Thomas; Froguel, Philippe; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Stefansson, Kari; Altshuler, David; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2010-01-01

    By combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals with combined

  17. Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Scott, Laura J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur

    2010-01-01

    By combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals...

  18. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  19. Monetary Determinants of Deposit Euroization in European Post-Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tkalec Marina

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run and short-run relationship between deposit euroization in twelve European post-transition economies and two determinants of deposit euroization that are under the influence of monetary policy: the exchange rate and the interest rate differential. The link between deposit euroization, exchange rates and interest rate differentials is investigated using Johansen cointegration and error correction models for each country separately. The results suggest ...

  20. The Role of Beta and Size in the Cross-Section of European Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Heston; K. Rouwenhorst; Roberto Wessels

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of beta and size to explain cross-sectional variation in average returns in twelve European countries. We find that average stock returns are positively related to beta and negatively related to firm size. The beta premium is in part due to the fact that high beta countries outperform low beta countries. Within countries high beta stocks outperform low beta stocks only in January, not in other months. We reject the hypothesis that differences in average returns...

  1. Exploring Content Schemata Influence on L2 Reading: The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amizura Hanadi Mohd Radzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the aspects of content schemata in second language reading among diploma level students who were taking a reading course in Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis. In this qualitative case study, the researcher had selected two short stories that are categorized as content-familiar texts, i.e. The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid. Six participants were asked to write a 150-word entry response on the short story and a grading criteria was used to assess the participants’ level of comprehension. An in-depth interview was also conducted on each participant. The entry responses and the interview patterns were analyzed to determine whether content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text. This study discovered that content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text because the learners’ comprehension was facilitated by their background knowledge on the content-familiar texts.

  2. Development and characterization of twelve microsatellite markers for Porphyra linearis Greville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena; Paulino, Cristina; Serrão, Ester A

    2017-02-01

    The genus Porphyra (and its sister genus Pyropia) contains important red algal species that are cultivated and/or harvested for human consumption, sustaining a billion-dollar aquaculture industry. A vast amount of research has been focused on species of this genus, including studies on genetics and genomics among other areas. Twelve novel microsatellite markers were developed here for Porphyra linearis. Markers were characterized using 32 individuals collected from four natural populations of P. linearis with total heterozygosity varying from 0.098 to 0.916. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 18. All markers showed cross amplification with Porphyra umbilicalis and/or Porphyra dioica. These polymorphic microsatellite markers are useful for investigating population genetic diversity and differentiation in P. linearis and may become useful for other genetic research on the reproductive biology of this important species.

  3. Proteomic characterization of human milk whey proteins during a twelve-month lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Human milk is a rich source of bioactive proteins that support the early growth and development of the newborn. Although the major components of the protein fraction in human milk have been studied, the expression and relative abundance of minor components have received limited attention. We examined the expression of low-abundance proteins in the whey fraction of human milk and their dynamic changes over a twelve-month lactation period. The low-abundance proteins were enriched by ProteoMiner beads, and protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred and fifteen proteins were identified, thirty-eight of which have not been previously reported in human colostrum or milk. We also for the first time described differences in protein patterns among the low-abundance proteins during lactation. These results enhance our knowledge about the complexity of the human milk proteome, which constitutes part of the advantages to the breast-fed infant.

  4. Fate of the conformal fixed point with twelve massless fermions and SU(3) gauge group

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Zoltan; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him

    2016-01-01

    We report new results on the conformal properties of an important strongly coupled gauge theory, a building block of composite Higgs models beyond the Standard Model. With twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group, an infrared fixed point of the $\\beta$-function was recently reported in the theory (Cheng:2014jba) with uncertainty in the location of the critical gauge coupling inside the narrow $[ 6.0

  5. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cominsky, Lynn; Simonnet, Aurore; Education, the Fermi

    2013-01-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission's science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: Higher Education; Elementary and Secondary Education; Informal Education and Public Outreach.

  6. Twelve tips for developing and delivering a massive open online course in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D; Henningsohn, Lars; DeRuiter, Marco C; de Jong, Peter G M; Reinders, Marlies E J

    2017-07-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a novel mode of online learning. They are typically based on higher education courses and can attract a high number of learners, often in the thousands. They are distinct from on-campus education and deliver the learning objectives through a series of short videos, recommended readings and discussion fora, alongside automated assessments. Within medical education the role of MOOCs remains unclear, with recent proposals including continuing professional development, interprofessional education or integration into campus-based blended learning curricula. In this twelve tips article, we aim to provide a framework for readers to use when developing, delivering and evaluating a MOOC within medical education based on the literature and our own experience. Practical advice is provided on how to design the appropriate curriculum, engage with learners on the platform, select suitable assessments, and comprehensively evaluate the impact of your course.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides from Arctii Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2014-09-17

    Twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides (1-12), including two benzofuran-type neolignans, two 8-O-4' neolignans, two dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, and six tetrahydrofuranoid lignans, together with six known lignan glucosides (13-18), were isolated from the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as Arctii Fructus. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR, MS, IR, ORD, and UV) and on the basis of chemical evidence. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-12 were confirmed using rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), the circular dichroic (CD) exciton chirality method, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD spectrum analysis. All of the isolated compounds were tested for hepatoprotective effects against D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 hepatic cells. Compounds 1, 2, 7-12, and 17 showed significantly stronger hepatoprotective activity than the positive control bicyclol at a concentration of 1 × 10(-5) M.

  8. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  9. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Peter WM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. Results The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH, which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. Conclusions M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  10. Roots and Branches of the European Network of Guided Imagery and Music (ENGIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Wärja

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade the GIM community of Europe has grown considerably. I undertook my own training in the early 90´s at The Bonny Foundation of Music-Centered Therapies in Kansas with Helen Bonny, Lisa Summer and Fran Goldberg as inspiring teachers. I was the first Swedish GIM Fellow and in 1998 I became the first European Primary Trainer. In twelve years we have grown to now include eleven Primary GIM Trainers working around Europe. With more trainers come more students and more Fellows! In this time period there has been a movement towards developing a European organization of GIM. I will describe the gradual growth of the European community into the European Network of GIM (ENGIM and the efforts of the appointed ENGIM steering committee, while taking into account the support garnered from the Association for Music and Imagery (AMI, the American GIM organization and Helen Bonny, herself.

  11. The European arrest warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđić Vojislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper portrays the new European Union extradition system, established by the Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States of 2002. In the introductory remarks, the author explains the formation and development of the traditional extradition procedure, depicts relevant legal sources, and points to its flaws, which boil down to tardiness and inefficiency. The main author's standpoint is that the European arrest warrant is based on mutual trust in the member-states' legal systems, and that it depoliticizes the extradition procedure by transforming interstate cooperation into cooperation between member - states' law enforcement authorities. On these grounds, the author determines the nature of this new legal institute, that introduces radical changes into the paradigm of the classical extradition, and explains its main features as well as the scope of application. Further on, the paper explores the conditions for issuance of the European arrest warrant, which are proscribed by negative formulations - as absolute and relative obstacles for extradition. Finally, the author explains the standardized formal elements of the European arrest warrant content, which should make its application easier and more expeditious.

  12. Diversity of microsporidia (Fungi: Microsporidia) among captive great apes in European zoos and African sanctuaries: evidence for zoonotic transmission?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sak, Bohumil; Kvác, Martin; Petrzelková, Klára; Kvetonová, Dana; Pomajbíková, Kateina; Mulama, Martin; Kiyang, John; Modrý, David

    2011-01-01

    ...; 53 western gorillas, Gorilla gorilla) and 20 personnel from thirteen European zoos and two African sanctuaries were sampled and examined in order to determine the occurrence ofEnterocytozoon bieneusi and species of Encephalitozoon...

  13. Intensification of agriculture, landscape composition and wild bee communities: A large scale study in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feon, Le V.; Schermann-Legionnet, A.; Delettre, Y.; Aviron, S.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Hendrickx, F.; Burel, F.

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of agricultura

  14. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  15. Making European Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education, and government policy intersect in the lives of young Muslims and inform their developing religious beliefs and practices. Mark Sedgwick’s introduction provides a framework for theorizing Muslimness in the European context, arguing that Muslim children must navigate different and sometimes......Making European Muslims provides an in-depth examination of what it means to be a young Muslim in Europe today, where the assumptions, values and behavior of the family and those of the majority society do not always coincide. Focusing on the religious socialization of Muslim children at home...

  16. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  17. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...

  18. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  19. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  20. Y-STR variation in the Basque diaspora in the Western USA: evolutionary and forensic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Laura; Rosique, Melania; Köhnemann, Stephan; Cardoso, Sergio; García, Ainara; Odriozola, Adrián; Aznar, Jose María; Celorrio, David; Schuerenkamp, Marianne; Zubizarreta, Josu; Davis, Michael C; Hampikian, Greg; Pfeiffer, Heidi; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2012-03-01

    Individuals of Basque origin migrated in large numbers to the Western USA in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the flow continued with less intensity during the last century. The European source population, that of the Basque Country, has long been a cultural and geographical isolate. Previous studies have demonstrated that Y-STR frequencies of Basques are different from those of other Spanish and European populations [1]. The Basque diaspora in the Western USA is a recent migration, but the founder effect and the incorporation of new American Y chromosomes into the paternal genetic pool of the Basque diaspora could have influenced its genetic structure and could thus have practical implications for forensic genetics. To check for genetic substructure among the European source and Basque diaspora populations and determine the most suitable population database for the Basque diaspora in the Western USA, we have analysed the haplotype distribution of 17 Y-STRs in both populations. We have found that the Basque diaspora in the Western USA largely conserve the Y chromosome lineage characteristic of the autochthonous European Basque population with no statistically significant differences. This implies that a common 17 Y-STR Basque population database could be used to calculate identification or kinship parameters regardless of whether the Basque individuals are from the European Basque Country or from the Basque diaspora in the Western USA.

  1. APPROACHES TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salagean Horatiu Catalin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, quality has become a source of competitive advantage and organizations must perceive quality as something natural and human in order to achieve excellence. The proper question for the context of the internationalisation of the economy is whether the culture of the regions, states or nations affects the development in the quality management field and the quality approach. The present study tries to give a theoretical approach of how culture influences the quality approach at the European level. The study deals only with the European quality approach, beacuse at European level one could meet a great variety of models and methodologies. In the U.S.A. and Japan one could identify a specific cultural approach regarding quality. At the European level, we cannot discuss in the same terms, because each country has a different cultural specifics in terms of quality. In order to determine the cultural specificity of the countries surveyed, the study has used the most popular analysis tool of cultural dimensions, namely the Dutch Professor Geert Hofstede\\'s model. The model illustrates according to a survey, the organizational behavior of several countries and was able to identify a set of variables and fundamental dimensions, that differentiates one culture from another. An attempt was made to see if there are connections between the values of Hofestede \\'s cultural dimensions and the quality characteristics in the analysed countries. The study, describes on the one hand,the quality evolution from quality control to Total Quality Management and on the other hand, focuses on the quality approach modalities at European level. The second part of the paper is structured into two parts, addressing on the one hand the quality in countries of Western Europe, such as United Kingdom, France and Germany,because these three countries are considered to be the exponents of quality development in Western Europe. In the same time, the

  2. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  3. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Astrupgaard, Cecilie; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...

  4. Teaching European Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  5. Becoming Pan-European?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Brüggemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    be platforms of a transnational European discourse. Four ideal-types of transnational media can be distinguished: (1) national media with a transnational mission, (2) international media, (3) pan-regional media and (4) global media. Within this framework the article analyses transnational media in Europe...

  6. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  7. Tasty European Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An European Union delegation paid an official visit to China from March 25 to 30 to attend the opening ceremony of Shanghai International Food and Beverage Exhibition, the largest ever held in the city. The EU set a special stall to display high-quality food from its members.

  8. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    This article reviews ENAR’s (European Network Against Racism) history from its inception in 1998 to the present – a development which reflects an increasing need for a professionalised lobby organisation with the ability to respond to Brussels-induced demands. Furthermore, against the backdrop...

  9. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  10. European politics of survivance: Europeanization as a rite of passage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaviša Raković

    2013-01-01

    .... It is argued that Europeanization may be viewed as a rite of passage that comes out of a social drama staged for the purpose of surpassing the flaws of the European existence, and for the sake of survivance (risk reduction...

  11. Twelve-year cyclic surging episode at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, M.; Abe, T.; Sakakibara, D.

    2015-12-01

    Surge-type glaciers exhibit several-fold to orders-of-magnitude speed-up during the short active phase, resulting in km-scale terminus advance. Although there are many surge-type glaciers near the border of Alaska and the Yukon, the generation mechanisms remain uncertain because of limited and few continuous observations. To better understand the surge dynamics and predict the next event, it is essential to examine the entire surge cycles. Here we use Landsat optical imageries to reveal the long-term evolutions, and report three surging episodes at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada. Using the Landsat images, we found three surging events in 1989, 2001, and 2013. In the 2001 event, the surface speed significantly increased by up to 4.5 m/d; during the quiescent phases it was ~0.5 m/d at the terminus. While the duration of active phase is about 4~5 and 2~3 year in the 2001 and 2013 events, the period in the 1989 event is unclear because of the lack of high temporal resolution data. Remarkably, the surging area is limited to the ~20-km section from the terminus instead of the entire glacier. Moreover, we examined the terminus area changes from 1975 to 2014. Although the area has been secularly decreasing probably due to the tread of global warming, it has also revealed four significant fluctuations during the nearly forty years. Comparing the speed and the area changes, the three speed-up events correspond to the terminus area fluctuations with a few time lags. It turns out that the surge event has been quite regularly repeating every twelve years. Although the behavior is rather similar to that in Svalbard glaciers in terms of maximum speed and unclear initiation season, the recurrence interval is much shorter than other nearby surges. Considering that the surge events seem to have initiated around significantly narrower area than upstream, the strong valley constriction may control the regularity as well as the twelve-year recurrence time.

  12. Studying Summer Season Drought in Western Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Lupo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2010 summer, a severe drought impacted Western Russia, including regions surrounding Moscow and Belgorod (about 700 km south of Moscow. The drought was accompanied by high temperatures. Moscow recorded 37.8°C (100°F for the first time in over 130 years of record keeping. The record heat, high humidity, dry weather, and smoke from forest fires caused increased human mortality rates in the Moscow region during the summer. The excessive heat and humidity in Western Russia were the result of atmospheric blocking from June through mid-August. The NCAR-NCEP reanalyses were used to examine blocking in the Eastern European and Western Russia sector during the spring and summer seasons from 1970 to 2012. We found that drier years were correlated with stronger and more persistent blocking during the spring and summer seasons. During these years, the Moscow region was drier in the summer and Belgorod during the spring seasons. In the Moscow region, the drier summers were correlated with transitions from El Niño to La Niña, but the opposite was true in the Belgorod region. Synoptic flow regimes were then analyzed and support the contention that dry years are associated with more blocking and El Niño transitions.

  13. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  14. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  15. Twelve-year proximity relationships in a captive group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Onishi, Kenji; Silldorf, April; Sexton, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Proximity data were collected in a captive breeding group of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park (currently called the San Diego Zoo Safari Park) twice a year (spring and fall periods) for over 12 years, by using a convenient method in which individuals less than 5 m from each animal in the group were recorded by scan sampling, approximately once per hour. Immature females from infancy to young adulthood maintained relatively frequent proximity to both their mothers and the silverback male and spent little time alone (no animals within 10 m), with relatively large individual differences. On the other hand, immature males decreased the time spent near their mothers and the silverback male and increased the time spent alone with increasing age. Therefore, sex differences in proximity to mothers and the silverback male became apparent after late juvenility. Some adult females maintained increased frequency of proximity to the silverback male than that by other females over the 12-year period, indicating the presence of long-term, stable proximity relationships between the silverback male and the adult females. Such long-term, stable proximity relationships were also observed among adult females. Some association patterns reported in wild gorillas, such as frequent proximity between adult females with dependent offspring and the silverback male and close relationships between related females, were not observed in the present study. The idiosyncratic or individual factors influencing some association patterns were easily reflected in captive situations.

  16. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...

  17. How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozak, M.; Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change intern

  18. Stem cell transplantation for nervous system disorders in Italy, European Union, and Ukraine:Clinical approach and governmental policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dario Siniscalco; Nataliia Sych

    2015-01-01

    Several debates have been raised over the use of stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine. Indeed, stem cell transplantation must follow strict rules. However, to date, many differences exist among different Western and Eastern European countries. This brief review summarizes the state‐of‐the‐art stem cell regulation in Italy, European Union, and Ukraine.

  19. Margalef revisited: A new phytoplankton mandala incorporating twelve dimensions, including nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve response or effects traits, or environmental characteristics, related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing. The new mandala serves to highlight the differences and trade-offs between traits and/or environmental conditions, and illustrates some traits tend to track each other, a concept that may be helpful in trait-based modeling approaches and in understanding environmental factors associated with harmful algal blooms. It is hoped that this new mandala captures some of our recent insight into phytoplankton physiology and functional traits, and has contemporary relevance in light of anthropogenic changes in nutrient form and ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Margalef revisited: A new phytoplankton mandala incorporating twelve dimensions, including nutrient ratios and forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve traits or environmental characteristics related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing. The new mandala serves to highlight the differences and trade-offs between traits and/or environmental conditions, and illustrates some traits tend to track each other, a concept that may be helpful in trait-based modeling approaches. It is hoped that this new mandala captures some of our recent insight into phytoplankton physiology and functional traits, and has contemporary relevance in light of anthropogenic changes in nutrient form and ratio.

  1. Evolution and potential function of fibrinogen-like domains across twelve Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middha Sumit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibrinogen-like (FBG domain consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, which has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen β and γ chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs containing one or more FBG domains are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this gene family in Drosophila, we analyzed FREPs in twelve Drosophila species. Results Using the genome data from 12 Drosophila species, we identified FBG domains in each species. The results show that the gene numbers in each species vary from 14 genes up to 43 genes. Using sequence profile analysis, we found that FBG domains have high sequence similarity and are highly conserved throughout. By comparison of structure and sequence conservation, some of the FBG domains in Drosophila melanogaster are predicted to function in recognition of carbohydrates and their derivatives on the surface of microorganisms in innate immunity. Conclusion Sequence and structural analyses show that FREP family across 12 Drosophila species contains conserved FBG domains. Expansion of the FREP families in Drosophila is mainly accounted by a major expansion of FBG domains.

  2. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  3. Validation of Twelve Small Kepler Transiting Planets in the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Caldwell, Douglas A; Twicken, Joseph D; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Henze, Christopher E; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard T; Jenkins, Jon M; Muirhead, Philip S; Newton, Elisabeth R; Petigura, Erik A; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J; Crepp, Justin R; Everett, Mark E; Horch, Elliott P; Howard, Andrew W; Kolbl, Rea; Marcy, Geoffrey W; McCauliff, Sean; Quintana, Elisa V

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of twelve candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For eleven of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false po...

  4. Measurement and analysis of angular velocity variations of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatović, Ž. M.; Štavljanin, M. S.; Tomić, M. V.; Knežević, D. M.; Biočanin, S. Lj.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the procedures for measuring and analyzing the angular velocity variation of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft on its free end and on the power-output end. In addition, the paper deals with important aspects of the measurement of crankshaft torsional oscillations. The method is based on digital encoders placed at two distances, and one of them is a sensor not inserted directly on the shaft, i.e. a non-contact method with a toothed disc is used. The principle based on toothed disc is also used to measure the actual camshaft angular velocity of in-line compact high-pressure pump the engine is equipped with, and this paper aims to demonstrate the possibility of measuring the actual angular velocity of any rotating shaft in the engine, on which it is physically possible to mount a toothed disc. The method was created completely independently during long-range development and research tests of V46 family engines. This method is specific for its particular adaptability for use on larger engines with extensive vibrations and torsional oscillations. The main purpose of this paper is a practical contribution to all the more interesting research of the use of engine crankshaft angular velocity as a diagnostic tool for identifying the engine irregular running.

  5. Access to oral health services in children under twelve years of age in Peru, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hernández-Vásquez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the patterns of dental health services access in children under twelve years of age in Peru. Data from 25,285 children under 12 years who participated in the Demographic and Family Health Survey of 2014 were reviewed. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed to project the proportions of children with access to dental health services, according to national regions, type of health service and urban or rural place of residence. The results show that of the total sample, 26.7% had access to dental health services in the last six months, 39.6% belonged to the age group 0-4 years, 40.6% lived in the Andean region and 58.3% lived in urban areas. The regions of Huancavelica, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Lima and Pasco had the highest percentages of access nationwide. In conclusion, there is low access to dental health services in the population under 12 years of age in Peru. The spatial distribution of access to dental health services allows regions to be identified and grouped according to similar access patterns, in order to better focus public health actions.

  6. Synergy between Seeking Safety and Twelve-Step Affiliation on Substance Use Outcomes for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Saavedra, Lissette M.; Hien, Denise A.; Campbell, Aimee N.; Wu, Elwin; Ruglass, Lesia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Recovery Management paradigm provides a conceptual framework for the examination of joint impact of a focal treatment and post-treatment service utilization on substance abuse treatment outcomes. We test this framework by examining the interactive effects of a treatment for comorbid PTSD and substance use, Seeking Safety, and post-treatment Twelve-Step Affiliation (TSA) on alcohol and cocaine use. Method Data from 353 women in a six-site, randomized controlled effectiveness trial within the NIDA Clinical Trials Network were analyzed under latent class pattern mixture modeling. LCPMM was used to model variation in Seeking Safety by TSA interaction effects on alcohol and cocaine use. Results Significant reductions in alcohol use among women in Seeking Safety (compared to Health Education) were observed; women in the Seeking Safety condition who followed up with TSA had the greatest reductions over time in alcohol use. Reductions in cocaine use over time were also observed but did not differ between treatment conditions nor were there interactions with post-treatment TSA. Conclusions Findings advance understanding of the complexities for treatment and continuing recovery processes for women with PTSD and SUDs, and further support the chronic disease model of addiction. PMID:23558158

  7. Coréia aguda na gravidez Acute chorea in pregnancy: comments on twelve consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados doze casos de coréia aguda observados entre 150.000 gestantes (1/12.500. A maioria dos surtos ocorreu no segundo trimestre da primeira gravidez. A duração média dos sintomas foi de três meses, não tendo sido registrado caso algum de óbito materno. Todos os partos foram espontâneos e normais. Houve apenas um óbito fetal conseqüente a choque hemorrágico. São tecidas considerações a propósito dos aspectos clínico, laboratorial e prognóstico da coréia gravídica, sendo focalizado mais pormenorizadamente o problema fisiopatogênico dessa afecção.Twelve consecutive cases of acute chorea occurring among 150.000 pregnant women (1/12.500 are reported. Most of the cases occurred from the fourth do the sixth month of the first pregnancy. The average duration of the symptoms was of three months and no one case of maternal death was verified in the group. The deliveries were spontaneous and normal in all the patients. Only one case of fetal death occurred in consequence of a hemorragic shock. Comments are made on the clinical, laboratorial and prognostic features of chorea gravidarum, being particulary focused the physiopathogenic problem of this condtion.

  8. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. VIII. CATALOG OF TRANSIT TIMING MEASUREMENTS OF THE FIRST TWELVE QUARTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Nachmani, Gil; Holczer, Tomer; Sokol, Gil [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zucker, Shay [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welsh, William [Astronomy Department, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Following the works of Ford et al. and Steffen et al. we derived the transit timing of 1960 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) using the pre-search data conditioning light curves of the first twelve quarters of the Kepler data. For 721 KOIs with large enough signal-to-noise ratios, we obtained also the duration and depth of each transit. The results are presented as a catalog for the community to use. We derived a few statistics of our results that could be used to indicate significant variations. Including systems found by previous works, we have found 130 KOIs that showed highly significant times of transit variations (TTVs) and 13 that had short-period TTV modulations with small amplitudes. We consider two effects that could cause apparent periodic TTV—the finite sampling of the observations and the interference with the stellar activity, stellar spots in particular. We briefly discuss some statistical aspects of our detected TTVs. We show that the TTV period is correlated with the orbital period of the planet and with the TTV amplitude.

  9. Peer teaching in medical education: twelve reasons to move from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven

    2007-09-01

    To provide an estimation of how often peer teaching is applied in medical education, based on reports in the literature and to summarize reasons that support the use of this form of teaching. We surveyed the 2006 medical education literature and categorised reports of peer teaching according to educational distance between students teaching and students taught, group size, and level of formality of the teaching. Subsequently, we analysed the rationales for applying peer teaching. Most reports were published abstracts in either Medical Education's annual feature 'Really Good Stuff' or the AMEE's annual conference proceedings. We identified twelve distinct reasons to apply peer teaching, including 'alleviating faculty teaching burden', 'providing role models for junior students', 'enhancing intrinsic motivation' and 'preparing physicians for their future role as educators'. Peer teaching appears to be practiced often, but many peer teaching reports do not become full length journal articles. We conclude that specifically 'near-peer teaching' appears beneficial for student teachers and learners as well as for the organisation. The analogy of the 'journeyman', as intermediate between 'apprentice' and 'master', with both learning and teaching tasks, is a valuable but yet under-recognized source of education in the medical education continuum.

  10. Heterochromatic banding patterns on chromosomes of twelve weevil species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria; Lachowska, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    The C-banding patterns of twelve weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species: with a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises seven species (Apionidae: Holotrichapion pisi; Curculionidae: Phyllobius urticae, Ph. pyri, Ph. maculicornis, Tanymecus palliatus, Larinodontes turbinatus, Cionus tuberculosus). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus in interphase are visible, afterwards in mitotic and meiotic prophase appearing as dark dots. The absence of C-bands does not indicate a lack of heterochromatin but heterochromatic regions are sometimes so small that the condensation is not visible during the cell cycle. The second group comprises five species (Otiorhynchus niger, O. morio, Polydrusus corruscus, Barypeithes chevrolati, Nedyus quadrimaculatus) which possess much larger heteropicnotic parts of chromosomes visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have paracentromeric C-bands on autosomes and the sex chromosome X, except for Otiorhynchus niger, which also has an intercalary bands on one pair of autososomes. All the species examined differ in the size of segments of constitutive heterochromatin. The y heterochromosome is dot-like and wholly euchromatic in all the studied species.

  11. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  12. The SLUGGS Survey: Kinematics for over 2500 Globular Clusters in Twelve Early-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Vincenzo; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Brodie, Jean P; Spitler, Lee R; Strader, Jay; Foster, Caroline; Arnold, Jacob A; Benson, Andrew; Blom, Christina; Hargis, Jonathan R; Rhode, Katherine L; Usher, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We present a spectro-photometric survey of 2522 extragalactic globular clusters (GCs) around twelve early-type galaxies, nine of which have not been published previously. Combining space-based and multi-colour wide field ground-based imaging, with spectra from the Keck DEIMOS instrument, we obtain an average of 160 GC radial velocities per galaxy, with a high velocity precision of 15 km/s per GC. After studying the photometric properties of the GC systems, such as their spatial and colour distributions, we focus on the kinematics of metal-poor (blue) and metal-rich (red) GC subpopulations to an average distance of ~8 effective radii from the galaxy centre. Our results show that for some systems the bimodality in GC colour is also present in GC kinematics. The kinematics of the red GC subpopulations are strongly coupled with the host galaxy stellar kinematics. The blue GC subpopulations are more dominated by random motions, especially in the outer regions, and decoupled from the red GCs. Peculiar GC kinematic ...

  13. Whole-Proteome Analysis of Twelve Species of Alphaproteobacteria Links Four Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of whole-genome and whole-proteome sequences have been made available through advances in sequencing technology, and sequences of millions more organisms will become available in the coming years. This wealth of genetic information will provide numerous opportunities to enhance our understanding of these organisms including a greater understanding of relationships among species. Researchers have used 16S rRNA and other gene sequences to study the evolutionary origins of bacteria, but these strategies do not provide insight into the sharing of genes among bacteria via horizontal transfer. In this work we use an open source software program called pClust to cluster proteins from the complete proteomes of twelve species of Alphaproteobacteria and generate a dendrogram from the resulting orthologous protein clusters. We compare the results with dendrograms constructed using the 16S rRNA gene and multiple sequence alignment of seven housekeeping genes. Analysis of the whole proteomes of these pathogens grouped Rickettsia typhi with three other animal pathogens whereas conventional sequence analysis failed to group these pathogens together. We conclude that whole-proteome analysis can give insight into relationships among species beyond their phylogeny, perhaps reflecting the effects of horizontal gene transfer and potentially providing insight into the functions of shared genes by means of shared phenotypes.

  14. INCIDENCE AND SURVIVAL OF LIPOLYTIC ORGANISMS MONITORED FOR TWELVE MONTHS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER AND RECEIVING STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale Odeyemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and survival of lipolytic organisms in domestic wastewater and receiving stream were monitored over 12 months. The average total bacterial count in the wastewater samples reduced in April and November by 24.2% and 41.6% respectively. There was also a reduction of 42.3% and 60.1% in the load in the receiving stream in August and July. Subsequently, at 5m downstream from the entry of the wastewater the microbial load reduced in March (19.2% and June (19.2%. However, the occurrence of coliforms was more affected in the months of May (53% to July (87.2%. At 5m and 10m downstream the coliform population reduced by 27.9% and 30.1% respectively. Of the twelve (12 bacterial isolates obtained at the exit of the wastewater into the receiving stream, only four (4 were found to possess lipolytic activity. These include the species of Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus. There was no significant difference in the amount of nutrients found in the domestic wastewater and receiving stream during the months. This paper also discusses the implication of disposing large amounts of wastewater effluents into the receiving water and the need to remedy and minimize the overall impact of such pollution on the environment.

  15. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  16. Differences in antimicrobial activity of chlorine against twelve most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan C; Sullivan, Tarah S; Shah, Devendra H

    2017-06-01

    Chlorine is the most widely used carcass sanitizer in poultry processing in the USA. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of organic matter on the susceptibility of twelve most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) to chlorine. To mimic the microenvironment of the water used for immersion chilling, we manipulated organic matter contamination levels in pre-chilled (pH∼6, T∼4 °C) chlorinated (50 ppm) water using varying concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) of chicken-meat-extract (CME) produced from frozen chicken carcasses. This CME-based in vitro model was challenged with ∼1 × 10(5) CFUs of each MPPST isolate and the bacterial survival was tested at 5, 30, 60 and 90 min post-challenge. In this model, the decimal reduction time (D90-values) of each MPPST was linearly correlated with the concentration of CME. Significant inter-serotype differences in the D90-values were observed. The results show that the pH, concentration of total- and free-chlorine were also linearly correlated with the presence of CME in a concentration-dependent manner. The findings of this study indicate that the serotype and the levels of organic matter contamination significantly influence Salmonella survival and that both variables should be included in models that predict effectiveness of chlorine treatment in immersion chilling.

  17. Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step recovery: a model based on social and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine recent findings associated with these disciplines that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying this change. Literature review and hypothesis development. Pertinent aspects of the neural impact of drugs of abuse are summarized. After this, research regarding specific brain sites, elucidated primarily by imaging techniques, is reviewed relative to the following: Mirroring and mentalizing are described in relation to experimentally modeled studies on empathy and mutuality, which may parallel the experiences of social interaction and influence on AA members. Integration and retrieval of memories acquired in a setting like AA are described, and are related to studies on storytelling, models of self-schema development, and value formation. A model for ascription to a Higher Power is presented. The phenomena associated with AA reflect greater complexity than the empirical studies on which this article is based, and certainly require further elucidation. Despite this substantial limitation in currently available findings, there is heuristic value in considering the relationship between the brain-based and clinical phenomena described here. There are opportunities for the study of neuroscientific correlates of Twelve-Step-based recovery, and these can potentially enhance our understanding of related clinical phenomena. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Deathly silence and apocalyptic noise: Observations on the soundscape of the Book of the Twelve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Schart

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reading of the Book of the Twelve (used interchangeably with �Twelve� and �Book� for convenience that concentrates on the sound that is included in the description of the world of the text. Three onomatopoeic devices are singled out. First, the mourning cry h�y is considered. This interjection is used differently in several of the writings: in Amos (5:18; 6:1 the prophet cries out in compassion with the addressees. By contrast, in Nahum 3:1 and Habakkuk 2:6�19, h�y is uttered in a mood of mockery. In Zechariah 2:10 a third, joyful h�y is used. It appears that the different usages cohere nicely with the overall structure of the Book of the Twelve. Secondly, the interjection has likewise shows different usages. In Amos 6:10 and 8:3, it simulates the last breath of Israelites dying when the land is devastated. By contrast, in Habakkuk 2:20, Zephaniah 1:7 and Zechariah 2:17, the addressees are directed to be silent before YHWH. This command should be perceived as an act of reverence. Again, the sequence of the occurrences coheres with the overall structure of the Book of the Twelve. Of special relevance is that the last three instances build a frame around the Babylonian exile, which lies between Zephaniah and Haggai. The third example is the phrase ham�n�m, ham�n�m in Joel 4:14. The author employs an irregular double plural to construe this place as the loudest spot (�apocalyptic noise� within the Twelve.Setu sa go tiba le modumo wa aphokhaliptiki: Ditemogo ka medumo ya Puku ya ba LesomepediPampiri ye e �i�inya go balwa ga Puku ya ba Lesomepedi (yeo e ka nogo bit�wa �Lesomepedi� goba �Puku� go bebofat�a ditaba ka go gatelela modumo wo o lego ka gare ga tlhaloso ya lefase la go tswala dingwalo t�e. Ditsela t�e tharo t�a onomathopoiki di bewa pepeneng. La mathomo, go �et�wa sello sa mahloko sa h?y. Lelahlelwa le le �omi�wa ka go fapana mo dingwalong t�e mmalwa: go Amosi

  19. Fate of the conformal fixed point with twelve massless fermions and SU(3) gauge group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him

    2016-11-01

    We report new results on the conformal properties of an important strongly coupled gauge theory, a building block of composite Higgs models beyond the Standard Model. With twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group, an infrared fixed point (IRFP) of the β -function was recently reported in the theory [A. Cheng, A. Hasenfratz, Y. Liu, G. Petropoulos, and D. Schaich, J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2014) 137] with uncertainty in the location of the critical gauge coupling inside the narrow [6.0 fixed point and scale invariance in the theory with model-building implications. Using the exact same renormalization scheme as the previous study, we show that no fixed point of the β -function exists in the reported interval. Our findings eliminate the only seemingly credible evidence for conformal fixed point and scale invariance in the Nf=12 model whose infrared properties remain unresolved. The implications of the recently completed 5-loop QCD β -function for arbitrary flavor number are discussed with respect to our work.

  20. Twelve tips for creating trigger images for problem-based learning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2007-03-01

    A trigger is the starting point of problem-based learning (PBL) cases. It is usually in the form of 5-6 text lines that provide the key information about the main character (usually the patient), including 3-4 of patient's presenting problems. In addition to the trigger text, most programs using PBL include a visual trigger. This might be in the form of a single image, a series of images, a video clip, a cartoon, or even one of the patient's investigation results (e.g. chest X-ray, pathology report, or urine sample analysis). The main educational objectives of the trigger image are as follows: (1) to introduce the patient to the students; (2) to enhance students' observation skills; (3) to provide them with new information to add to the cues obtained from the trigger text; and (4) to stimulate students to ask questions as they develop their enquiry plan. When planned and delivered effectively, trigger images should be engaging and stimulate group discussion. Understanding the educational objectives of using trigger images and choosing appropriate images are the keys for constructing successful PBL cases. These twelve tips highlight the key steps in the successful creation of trigger images.

  1. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  2. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  3. Les mutations du raffinage européen : contraintes et stratégies The European Refining Industry: Constraints and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Plus que toute autre région dans le monde, l'Europe occidentale a profondément ressenti dans son industrie du raffinage, le contrecoup des crises énergétiques et pétrolières des douze dernières années. A l'issue d'une première phase de rationalisation et de restructuration unique dans son histoire, elle se trouve à nouveau confrontée à des problèmes d'adaptation de son outil aux exigences quantitatives et qualitatives de sa demande de produits finis. Desservant un marché de plus en plus sensible aux concurrences intérieures et extérieures, le raffinage de l'Europe occidentale devra nécessairement effectuer des choix stratégiques, rationaliser et investir afin de faire face aux contraintes du marché des produits, gagner en flexibilité et accroître sa compétitivité. More than in any other region in the world, Western Europe's refining industry has been deeply hurt by the aftershocks of the energy and oil crises in the last twelve years. After an initial phase of unprecedented restructuring, this industry is once again having to face problems of adapting its equipment to the quantitative and qualitative requirements of the demand for refined products. Because it serves a market that is more and more sensitive to internal and external competition, Western European refining must necessarily make strategic choices, it must invest to maintain its competitiveness, i. e. its very survival.

  4. Ethics and the European countries in transition--the past and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovecki, Ana; ten Have, Henk; Oreskovic, Stiepan

    2006-01-01

    This paper surveys the situation regarding bioethical issues in the European transitional societies. It aims at exploring past, present and future characteristics of bioethics in the European countries in transitions, analysing similarities, differences and common themes together with the historical development of bioethics. By carefully studying articles published since the early 1990s, one can perceive a number of bioethical issues, varying from specificities for certain countries to similar problems for all transitional European societies. It seems that more than 15 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Central and Eastern European societies were able to achieve significant improvements in the development of bioethics. However, looking at the bioethical issues important for European transitional societies, it seems that the invisible wall between eastern and western European societies is still there and that it will take years to remove it.

  5. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...

  6. Old European Couples' Retirement Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Ranzani, Marco

    This study investigates old European couples' retirement choices in order to bridge the gap between the European and the American literature. The typical European family approaching retirement is a dual-earner family: the dataset used in this paper reveals that 78 percent of working males is marr...

  7. The Balkans: Between Economic Crisis And European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans region (also known as the „Powder keg of Europe” has always been an European question, a Western question, as underlined by Arnold Toynbee, in 1922. At present, European Union is confronted with the fifth enlargement, also known as the “post-conflict” enlargement – the integration of Balkan states. Bulgaria joined European Union in 2007. Croatia signed the Accession Treaty in 2011 and is expected to become an EU member in 2013. The other countries encounter in different stages of European integration. However, this process presents several challenges and dilemmas, either for European Union, or for the Balkan enclave. The main challenge in the case of this enlargement is to reconcile the nation-state building and the European integration. From the economic point of view, the Balkans region is underdeveloped. Several factors determined this stance of the region: the poor endowment in terms of natural resources, the political situation over the centuries (the military conflicts – impeding the economic development, the cultural factors. At present, the region is confronted with the consequences of the worst economic and financial crisis o global economy since the end of World War II.

  8. The Translog Costs Function Applied to European Railways.

    OpenAIRE

    Preston, P.M.; Aldridge, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper expands the exploratory analysis undertaken by Vigoroux-Steck (1990), who used statistical cost techniques, in conjunction with UIC published data, to estimate cost functions for 13 Western European railway operations. Four improvements have been made to Steck's work. Firstly, the data has been up-dated from 1987 to 1990 and re-indexed to incorporate the most recent information on international prices. Secondly, consistency is introduced into the Returns to Scale and Density measur...

  9. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  10. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    while using the Issuecrawler. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the, perhaps paradoxical, phenomenon of Europeanization of Eurosceptic parties and the role the internet played in this process during the campaign for the European Parliament elections of May 2014. We exemplify this phenomenon...... with the case of Sweden. Sweden is a good example because it has a high density of internet use, a politically active population as reflected in voter turnout and many politicians and political parties with a web presence. The main research questions of the paper are: Which actors are involved in the Swedish......, the online transnational communication of Swedish Eurosceptics. The explanatory dimension will elucidate some of the phenomena described, focusing on the transformative power of the internet for transnational political communication. The normative dimension will explore the implications the creation...

  11. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    European cultural landscapes are mostly characterized by only one of the dimensions. Our paper can help to identify pressures to cultural landscapes and thus to target measures for the conservation of these landscapes, to link similar landscapes in different regions, and to inform policy design on the most......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes...

  12. Pirating European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Science has gained a lot of attention not only within the academic community but also among policy-makers. Some international publishers have been active in moving towards open access publications and research data, but, overall, modest results have been achieved so far. In this context, the digital piracy engines emerge as vital actors in disseminating and determining the impact of research. This study examines the Sci-Hub downloads data in order to uncover patterns of piracy in European Studies research. We identify journals and the subjects of articles that have been pirated the most. We also study the geographical distribution of download requests. The analysis reveals that the readers are mostly interested in subjects reflecting the current major European challenges, specifically populism and the economic crisis. Both developing countries as well as the ‘old’ EU members are active in illegal downloads.

  13. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  14. European Nuclear Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barre, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Jimenez, J.L.; Velarde, G.; Navarro, J.M.; Hittner, D.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bollini, G.; Martin, A.; Suarez, J.; Traini, E.; Lang-Lenton, J.

    2004-09-01

    ''European Nuclear Features - ENF'' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue General Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal of Nuclear Power (Germany). The ENF support the international Europeen exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The second issue of ENF contains contributions about theses topics, among others: Institutional and Political Changes in the EU. - CIEMAT Department of Nuclear Fission: A General Overview. - Inertial Fusion Energy at DENIM. - High Temperature Reactors. European Research Programme. - On Site Assistance to Khmelnitsky NPP 1 and 2 (Ukraine). - Dismantling and Decommissioning of Vandellos I. (orig.)

  15. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  16. Groundwater quality in western New York, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  17. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  18. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  19. Care, Europeanization and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    This book adresses the recent underexamined developments concerning care in Europe, including the negotiations about care at the top EU level to that of individual workers. Through a comparative and interdisciplinary approach, this collection examines and further develops current theoretical...... and political debares about complexities of care and the impact of multilevel changes in Europe. It provides a foundation for understanding the major restructuring of care that is taking place at the European level as related to the global phenonomena of care markets....

  20. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  1. Communicating with Westerners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; Callicott

    2007-01-01

    <正>The majority response from my students when asked "what do you want to learn from my class?" is "How do I communicate better with westerners?" My students also have other questions such as "How do I improve my oral English?" and "How is America different from China?" These questions can be answered in many different ways, but hopefully I will give you a couple of ideas to get you started.

  2. DISCURSUL EUROPEAN: SINTAGME SI PARADIGME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina CMECIU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to interpret some of the most frequently usedparadigms and syntagms belonging to the European discourse since Romania joined theEuropean Union against the background of cultural postmodernism. The process ofcommunication, that is of encoding and decoding messages, circumscribes, on the one hand,a type of two-way journey (from European authoritative institutions to a local individualand from the latter back to European heights and, on the other hand, the awareness of adouble citizenship mentality (both Romanian and European.

  3. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, K. M.; Simonnet, A.; Fermi E/PO Team

    2013-04-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission’s science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: ● Higher Education: Fermi E/PO promotes STEM careers through the use of NASA data including research experiences for students and teachers (Global Telescope Network), education through STEM curriculum development projects (Cosmology curriculum) and through enrichment activities (Large Area Telescope simulator). ● Elementary and Secondary education: Fermi E/PO links the science objectives of the Fermi mission to well-tested, customer-focused and NASA-approved standards-aligned classroom materials (Black Hole Resources, Active Galaxy Education Unit and Pop-up book, TOPS guides, Supernova Education Unit). These materials have been distributed through (Educator Ambassador and on-line) teacher training workshops and through programs involving under-represented students (after-school clubs and Astro 4 Girls). ● Informal education and public outreach: Fermi E/PO engages the public in sharing the experience of exploration and discovery through high-leverage multi-media experiences (Black Holes planetarium and PBS NOVA shows), through popular websites (Gamma-ray Burst Skymap, Epo's Chronicles), social media (Facebook, MySpace), interactive web-based activities (Space Mysteries, Einstein@Home) and activities by

  4. Relative peripheral refraction in children: twelve-month changes in eyes with different ametropias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsui-Tsui; Cho, Pauline

    2013-05-01

    To determine the peripheral refraction of children with different types of ametropias and to evaluate the relationship between central refractive changes, baseline relative peripheral refraction (RPR) and changes in RPR over a 12-month monitoring period. Cycloplegic central and peripheral refraction were performed biannually on the right eyes of children aged 6-9 for 12 months, using an open-view autorefractor. Peripheral refraction were measured along 10°, 20° and 30° from central fixation in both nasal and temporal fields. Refractive data were transposed into M, J0 and J45 vectors for analyses. RPR was determined by subtracting the central measurement from each peripheral measurement. Hyperopic eyes showed relative peripheral myopia while myopic eyes had relative hyperopia across the central 60° horizontal field at baseline. Emmetropic eyes had relative myopia within but showed relative hyperopia beyond the central 30° field. However, there was no significant correlation between central refractive changes and baseline RPR or between changes in central refraction and RPR over twelve months in any refractive groups. Correlations between changes in PR and central myopic shift were found mainly in the nasal field in different groups. In the subgroup analysis on the initially emmetropic and the initially myopic groups, the subgroups with faster myopic progression did not have significantly different RPR from the subgroups with slower progression. The RPR pattern of the initially emmetropic and the initially myopic groups became more asymmetric at the end of the study period with a larger increase in relative hyperopia in the temporal field. RPR patterns were different among hyperopic, emmetropic and myopic eyes. However, baseline RPR and changes in RPR cannot predict changes in central refraction over time. Our results did not provide evidence to support the hypothesis of RPR as a causative factor for myopic central refractive changes in children. Ophthalmic

  5. Computational study of the structural and vibrational properties of ten and twelve vertex closo-carboranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, A.; Deleuze, M.S.; Francois, J.-P

    2003-01-01

    Calculations using ab initio Hartree-Fock and Density Functional theories, the latter employing the B3LYP functional, in combination with a number of large standard basis sets ranging from 6-31G** to cc-pVDZ, have been performed on a series of ten and twelve vertex closo-carborane isomer species. Results obtained for optimized structural parameters and molecular properties are presented for 1,2-, 1,6- and 1,10-C{sub 2}B{sub 8}H{sub 10} and 1,2-, 1,7- and 1,12-C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12} and compared, where possible, with both earlier theoretical data and experiment. Irrespective of the model chemistry chosen, the para-isomer in each class of carborane cluster is found to be the most stable species, corresponding to a structure in which the cage carbon atoms are positioned at diametrically opposed ends of the respective polyhedron. Boron-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen bond lengths are found to change little on going from isomers of one particular cage size to another, supporting analogous conclusions previously established for small closo-carborane cages possessing five, six and seven vertices. The calculated vibrational spectra of the isomers of both decacarborane and dodecacarborane are seen to be similar to each other and reflect a high degree of rigidity within each cluster. Key polyhedral skeletal breathing modes along with characteristic boron-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen stretching frequencies are identified in the spectra and compared with experiment. Thermochemical data relating to each species are also analyzed.

  6. Indifference to pain syndrome in a twelve-year-old boy (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdadi T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: People vary greatly in their response to painful stimuli, from those with a low pain threshold to those with indifference to pain. However, insensitivity to pain is a rare disorder, characterized by the lack of usual subjective and objective responses to noxious stimuli. Patients who have congenital indifference to pain sustain painless injuries beginning in infancy, but have sensory responses that are otherwise normal on examination. Perception of passive movement, joint position, and vibration is normal in these patients, as are tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Case report: A twelve-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital for a painless deformity, degeneration in both knees and a neglected femoral neck fracture that was inappropriately painless. Further examination revealed normal sensory responses, perception of passive movement, joint position, vibration tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Spinal cord and brain MRI were normal as was the electromyography and nerve conduction velocity (EMG/NCV examination. There was no positive family history for this disorder. Conclusion: The deficits present in the different pain insensitivity syndromes provide insight into the complex anatomical and physiological nature of pain perception. Reports on pain asymbolia, in which pain is perceived but does not cause suffering, and related cortical conditions illustrate that there can be losses that independently involve either the sensory-discriminative component or the affective-motivational component of pain perception, thus highlighting their different anatomical localization. The paucity of experience with this entity and the resultant diagnostic problems, the severity of the associated disabling arthropathy and underscore the importance of this case report of indifference to pain.

  7. Removal of trace level amounts of twelve sulfonamides from drinking water by UV-activated peroxymonosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changzheng; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Lei; Han, Qi; Lin, Kuangfei; Lu, Shuguang; Zhang, Dong; Cao, Guomin

    2016-12-01

    Trace levels of residual antibiotics in drinking water may threaten public health and become a serious problem in modern society. In this work, we investigated the degradation of twelve sulfonamides (SAs) at environmentally relevant trace level concentrations by three different methods: ultraviolet (UV) photolysis, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation, and UV-activated PMS (UV/PMS). Sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxydiazine, and sulfadimethoxine were be effectively removed by direct UV photolysis and PMS oxidation. However, sulfanilamide, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, and sulfachloropyridazine were not completely degraded, despite prolonging the UV irradiation time to 30min or increasing the PMS concentration to 5.0mg·L(-1). UV/PMS provided more thorough elimination of SAs, as demonstrated by the complete removal of 200ng·L(-1) of all SAs within 5min at an initial PMS concentration of 1.0mg·L(-1). UV/PMS promoted SA decomposition more efficiently than UV photolysis or PMS oxidation alone. Bicarbonate concentration and pH had a negligible effect on SA degradation by UV/PMS. However, humic acid retarded the process. Removal of 200ng·L(-1) of each SA from a sample of sand-filtered effluent from a drinking water treatment plant (DWTPs) was quickly and completely achieved by UV/PMS. Meanwhile, about 41% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was eliminated. Scavenging experiments showed that sulfate radical (SO4(-)) was the predominant species involved in the degradation. It is concluded that UV/PMS is a rapid and efficient method for removing trace-level SAs from drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A survey of innovation through duplication in the reduced genomes of twelve parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D DeBarry

    Full Text Available We characterize the prevalence, distribution, divergence, and putative functions of detectable two-copy paralogs and segmental duplications in the Apicomplexa, a phylum of parasitic protists. Apicomplexans are mostly obligate intracellular parasites responsible for human and animal diseases (e.g. malaria and toxoplasmosis. Gene loss is a major force in the phylum. Genomes are small and protein-encoding gene repertoires are reduced. Despite this genomic streamlining, duplications and gene family amplifications are present. The potential for innovation introduced by duplications is of particular interest. We compared genomes of twelve apicomplexans across four lineages and used orthology and genome cartography to map distributions of duplications against genome architectures. Segmental duplications appear limited to five species. Where present, they correspond to regions enriched for multi-copy and species-specific genes, pointing toward roles in adaptation and innovation. We found a phylum-wide association of duplications with dynamic chromosome regions and syntenic breakpoints. Trends in the distribution of duplicated genes indicate that recent, species-specific duplicates are often tandem while most others have been dispersed by genome rearrangements. These trends show a relationship between genome architecture and gene duplication. Functional analysis reveals: proteases, which are vital to a parasitic lifecycle, to be prominent in putative recent duplications; a pair of paralogous genes in Toxoplasma gondii previously shown to produce the rate-limiting step in dopamine synthesis in mammalian cells, a possible link to the modification of host behavior; and phylum-wide differences in expression and subcellular localization, indicative of modes of divergence. We have uncovered trends in multiple modes of duplicate divergence including sequence, intron content, expression, subcellular localization, and functions of putative recent duplicates that

  9. Characterizing gene-gene interactions in a statistical epistasis network of twelve candidate genes for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rishika; Hu, Ting; Moore, Jason H; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have reemphasized the importance of epistasis, or gene-gene interactions, as a contributing factor to the unexplained heritability of obesity. Network-based methods such as statistical epistasis networks (SEN), present an intuitive framework to address the computational challenge of studying pairwise interactions between thousands of genetic variants. In this study, we aimed to analyze pairwise interactions that are associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) between SNPs from twelve genes robustly associated with obesity (BDNF, ETV5, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, MC4R, MTCH2, NEGR1, SEC16B, SH2B1, and TMEM18). We used information gain measures to identify all SNP-SNP interactions among and between these genes that were related to obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) within the Framingham Heart Study Cohort; interactions exceeding a certain threshold were used to build an SEN. We also quantified whether interactions tend to occur more between SNPs from the same gene (dyadicity) or between SNPs from different genes (heterophilicity). We identified a highly connected SEN of 709 SNPs and 1241 SNP-SNP interactions. Combining the SEN framework with dyadicity and heterophilicity analyses, we found 1 dyadic gene (TMEM18, P-value = 0.047) and 3 heterophilic genes (KCTD15, P-value = 0.045; SH2B1, P-value = 0.003; and TMEM18, P-value = 0.001). We also identified a lncRNA SNP (rs4358154) as a key node within the SEN using multiple network measures. This study presents an analytical framework to characterize the global landscape of genetic interactions from genome-wide arrays and also to discover nodes of potential biological significance within the identified network.

  10. Thermal environment in eight low-energy and twelve conventional Finnish houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Erkki; Salmi, Kari; Holopainen, Rauno; Pasanen, Pertti; Reijula, Kari

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the thermal environment of eight recently built low-energy houses and twelve conventional Finnish houses. We monitored living room, bedroom and outdoor air temperatures and room air relative humidity from June 2012 to September 2013. Perceived thermal environment was evaluated using a questionnaire survey during the heating, cooling and interim seasons. We compared the measured and perceived thermal environments of the low-energy and conventional houses. The mean air temperature was 22.8 °C (21.9-23.8 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 23.3 °C (21.4-26.5 °C) in the conventional houses during the summer (1. June 2013-31. August 2013). In the winter (1. December 2012-28. February 2013), the mean air temperature was 21.3 °C (19.8-22.5 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 21.6 °C (18.1-26.4 °C) in the conventional houses. The variation of the air temperature was less in the low-energy houses than that in the conventional houses. In addition, the occupants were on average slightly more satisfied with the indoor environment in the low-energy houses. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean air temperature and relative humidity of the low-energy and conventional houses. Our measurements and surveys showed that a good thermal environment can be achieved in both types of houses.

  11. Phytochemical screening of twelve species of phytoplankton isolated from Arabian Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the phytochemicals in twelve species of marine phytoplankton. Methods: Total phenolic content of methanol extract was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content of the methanol extarct was determined by aluminium chloride method. Chlorophylls, β-carotene and astaxanthin were estimated by acetone extraction method. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenyl-hydrazine method. Phycobiliproteins such as allophycocyanin, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in the aqueous extracts were determined. Results: Total phenolics varied from 5.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW in Phormidium corium (P. corium to 17.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW in Oscillatoria fremyii (O. fremyii. Total flavonoids ranged between 0.74 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW in P. corium and 9.87 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW in Nannochloropsis oceanica. Chlorophyll-a pigment was high in Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans (15.51 mg/g DW and low in P. corium (1.08 mg/g DW. Chlorophyll-c ranged between 0.07 mg/g DW in Nannochloropsis oceanica and 4.62 mg/g DW in C. calcitrans. High contents of β-carotene and astaxanthin were found in C. calcitrans and low in P. corium which ranged from 0.33 to 10.03 mg/g DW and 0.18 to 3.85 mg/g DW, respectively. Vitamin C content varied from 0.50 mg/g DW in C. calcitrans to 1.51 mg/g DW in Phormidium tenue. O. fremyii showed highest total phycobiliproteins of 317.05 mg/g DW. High contents of allophycocyanin and phycocyanin were found in O. fremyii, whereas high contents of phycoerythrin were found in Oscillatoria sancta. All the three phycobiliproteins were low in Chroococcus turgidus. Conclusions: Marine phytoplankton are one of the natural sources providing novel biologically active compounds with potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities...... and community. I use this framework to discuss the possibilities and challenges to the European identity-construction of the ECB. I argue that central banks generally create national identity and outline national communities in four ways: (a) through the practice of designing and circulating banknotes and coins...... then use the ideas to reflect on whether or not the ECB might contribute to the construction of a European identity. I argue that the ECB may contribute to European identity through the circulation of euro banknotes and coins, and that the ECB’s anti-inflationary policies may promote European community...

  13. European politics of survivance: Europeanization as a rite of passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša Raković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine Europeanization as a politics that inaugurates an imagined common sociality among imagined Europeans. It is argued that Europeanization may be viewed as a rite of passage that comes out of a social drama staged for the purpose of surpassing the flaws of the European existence, and for the sake of survivance (risk reduction. The notion of Europeanization is examined against a body of empirical (secondary data as well as against theoretical concepts stemming from different areas of humanistic knowledge. The conclusion is that Europeanization is staged as a process of bringing about qualitative changes in politics, the economy and the social order with the aim to create and maintain the desired image of an imagined progressive Europe.

  14. Reading Our Lips: The History of Lipstick Regulation in Western Seats of Power

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffer, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the history of lipstick’s social and legal regulation in Western seats of power, from Ur circa 3,500 B.C. to the present-day United States. Sliced in this manner, lipstick’s history emerges as heavily cyclical across the Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, Western European, English, and American reigns of power. Examination of both the informal social and formal legal regulation of lipstick throughout these eras reveals that lipstick’s fluctuating signification concerning ...

  15. Phytochemical screening of twelve species of phytoplankton isolated from Arabian Sea coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai; Madaiah Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the phytochemicals in twelve species of marine phytoplankton. Methods: Total phenolic content of methanol extract was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content of the methanol extarct was determined by aluminium chloride method. Chlorophylls,β-carotene and astaxanthin were estimated by acetone extraction method. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenyl-hydrazine method. Phycobiliproteins such as allophycocyanin, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in the aqueous extracts were determined. Results: Total phenolics varied from 5.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) in Phormidium corium (P. corium) to 17.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW inOscillatoria fremyii(O. fremyii). Total flavonoids ranged between 0.74 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW inP. corium and 9.87 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW inNannochloropsis oceanica. Chlorophyll-a pigment was high inChaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans)(15.51 mg/g DW) and low inP. corium (1.08 mg/g DW). Chlorophyll-c ranged between 0.07 mg/g DW inNannochloropsis oceanica and 4.62 mg/g DW inC. calcitrans. High contents ofβ-carotene and astaxanthin were found inC. calcitrans and low inP. corium which ranged from 0.33 to 10.03 mg/g DW and 0.18 to 3.85 mg/g DW, respectively. Vitamin C content varied from 0.50 mg/g DW inC. calcitrans to 1.51 mg/g DW inPhormidium tenue.O. fremyii showed highest total phycobiliproteins of 317.05 mg/g DW. High contents of allophycocyanin and phycocyanin were found inO. fremyii, whereas high contents of phycoerythrin were found inOscillatoria sancta. All the three phycobiliproteins were low inChroococcus turgidus. Conclusions: Marine phytoplankton are one of the natural sources providing novel biologically active compounds with potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Nutrient Contents per Serving of Twelve Varieties of Cooked Rice Marketed in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jordan imports rice from different countries without any quality preferences. Twelve varieties of cooked rice marketed in Jordan were analyzed. The content per serving of these varieties were computed for energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron and phosphorous. The protein content per serving found to range from 0.49 g for La Cigala rice to 6.2 g for Harvest rice. The fat content for all rice brands was less than 0.37 g per serving. The energy content ranged from 172.12 g/serving for Basmati rice to 212.25 g/serving for Sun White rice. Generally, all rice varieties contain significant amounts of minerals per serving. Ruzzana found to contain the highest level of calcium (38.2 mg/serving and Amber the lowest calcium content (6.7 mg/serving. Magnesium content found to range from 5.7 mg/serving for Royal Umberella rice to 16.3 mg/serving for Ruzzana rice. Consumption of one serving of Harvest cooked rice will cover 13.5% of the daily requirement of protein for females and 11.1% for males. Manganese content of one serving of Harvest, Sun White, Abu bent and La Cigala will cover 22.2% of the daily requirements for females and 14.7% for males, while consumption of one of Basmati, Sos rice or Amber will cover only 11.1% and 8.75 of requirement for females and males respectively. Planning a healthful diet is not a simple task. Dietary Reference Intake planning and assessing the diets of individuals or groups of healthy individuals according to their stage of life and sex. Food choice is a function of many factors, including personal preferences, habits, ethnic heritage and tradition. Dietary guidelines for Americans, consider whole grain products like rice are among the food groups that form the basis of a healthy diet. Including rice as part of a healthy, balanced diet can be linked to overall healthier eating patterns. Rice eaters are more likely to eat a diet consistent with the 2005 Dietary

  17. Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: Twelve-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčević Mirjana

    2004-01-01

    basis of RF number and combination for genesis and development of CND in our sample, 74.7% of variability (development or risk may be accounted for angina pectoris (AP, 74.2% for DM+HTA, 70.0% for DM, 79.9% for HTA, 80.8% for myocardial infarction (Ml, and 85.8% of variability (development or risk for cerebrovascular insult (CVI. Twelve-week intervention resulted in reduction of HTA, HLP, glucose, and PC (p<0.001 levels as well as lower BMI and PA (p<0.5. To accomplish the aforementioned goals, continuous mutual activity of an individual, his/her family, health service and community is required, along with occasional evaluation of the obtained results.

  18. Experiencing a constructivist museum exhibit: A case study of twelve children and their families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Martha Anne Leech

    2002-04-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Research Council have called for the creation of a scientifically literate populace and introduced science standards and guidelines to direct this process. Science education in traditional school settings plays a key role in reaching this goal, but individuals over their lifetimes will have more exposure to science ideas through informal science experiences such as visits to museums and through diverse media sources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role museums play in this journey to science literacy. This qualitative collective case study examined the experience of 12 children and their families in a children's museum as they interacted with an exhibit designed along the tenets of constructivist theory to introduce children to ideas of science. Twelve children and their families were videotaped interacting with a model of a watershed that included the stream, surrounding land, gravel, and dam building and erosion abatement manipulatives. Children were interviewed to ascertain their stream-related ideas and conceptual understanding prior to and after using the exhibit. Parents completed demographic and post-exhibit experience questionnaires. Two museum staff members who played key roles in the development of the exhibit and surrounding gallery were also interviewed. Individual and cross-case analyses were done to describe the experience of each child and family, and to elucidate the commonalities of these experiences to describe the phenomenon of using a constructivist-based science exhibit. Results of the study indicate (1) the type of experience children and families had at the exhibit depended on child and parent interactions and roles each assumed, and (2) experience with the exhibit encouraged children to think more deeply about water topics, past experiences, and ideas they had previously constructed. Implications of this research include (1) parents should engage children

  19. [Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: twelve-week prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapcević, Mirjana; Vuković, Mira

    2004-01-01

    RF number and combination for genesis and development of CND in our sample, 74.7% of variability (development or risk) may be accounted for angina pectoris (AP), 74.2% for DM+HTA, 70.0% for DM, 79.9% for HTA, 80.8% for myocardial infarction (MI), and 85.8% of variability (development or risk) for cerebrovascular insult (CVI). Twelve-week intervention resulted in reduction of HTA, HLP, glucose, and PC (p<0.001) levels as well as lower BMI and PA (p<0.5). To accomplish the aforementioned goals, continuous mutual activity of an individual, his/her family, health service and community is required, along with occasional evaluation of the obtained results.

  20. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  1. Care, Europeanization and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book adresses the recent underexamined developments concerning care in Europe, including the negotiations about care at the top EU level to that of individual workers. Through a comparative and interdisciplinary approach, this collection examines and further develops current theoretical and ...... and political debares about complexities of care and the impact of multilevel changes in Europe. It provides a foundation for understanding the major restructuring of care that is taking place at the European level as related to the global phenonomena of care markets....

  2. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  3. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  4. Europeanization and Secession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2014-01-01

    that the EU provides a complex web of opportunities and constraints for pro- and anti-independence movements in the UK. The EU is both an arena for articulating claims and a source of allies, while appeals to images, histories and experiences of the EU and other European states can be mobilized discursively...... actively employed by activists to justify or criticize the premises underpinning reasons to support or reject secession, although more research is needed to determine whether these arguments about Europe resonated with voting publics in Scotland and Catalonia....

  5. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  6. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  7. EUROPEAN MANAGEMENT - CHARACTERISTICS AND PARTICULARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA TOMESCU-DUMITRESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research object of euromanagement is a specific and complex reality: the concept and management practice of European organizations. The elements that define European superficiality and which are shared by all those who identify themselves as citizens of Europe, whether individuals or corporations, are the common basis of the European model of behavior and management. European management is, in fact, a mosaic of national management models. European management is the specific managerial behavior specific to European decision-makers and companies to solve the organization's daily problems (planning, strategies, decision making, coordination, employee motivation, control, etc. to achieve its mission and achieve success in the competition global; Business organizations and other institutions in which we find this specific behavior of employees are located in EU countries.

  8. Transmission needs across a fully renewable European power system

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Rolando A; Andresen, Gorm B; Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The residual load and excess power generation of 27 European countries with a 100% penetration of variable renewable energy sources are explored in order to quantify the benefit of power transmission between countries. Estimates are based on extensive weather data, which allows for modelling of hourly mismatches between the demand and renewable generation from wind and solar photovoltaics. For separated countries, balancing is required to cover around 24% of the total annual energy consumption. This number can be reduced down to 15% once all countries are networked together with uncon- strained interconnectors. The reduction represents the maximum possible benefit of transmission for the countries. The total Net Transfer Capacity of the unconstrained interconnectors is roughly twelve times larger than current values. However, constrained interconnector capacities six times larger than the current values are found to provide 97% of the maximum possible benefit of cooperation. This motivates a detailed investig...

  9. Environmental Conditions and Occupant Perceptions in European Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-03-01

    This is a preliminary report regarding a portion of the environmental conditions and occupant comfort perceptions from a five nation, 26 building European field data collection effort. Approximately 1,000 participants were involved in this project which included twelve monthly visits to each building. Climate, building and cultural variation will be illustrated for the five countries involved - France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK). Each country used identical instrumentation; questionnaires and experimental protocols imbedded in a custom hardware/software system. The comfort survey was based on the ASHRAE model. The physical measurements included air temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air movement, CO{sub 2}, light, and sound levels. Where possible, connections and explanations between variables are made. Potential energy and policy ramifications are illustrated. (The publication includes two reports from EU JOULE III projects JOE3CT970066 'Smart controls and thermal comfort project)

  10. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Content of Twelve Bestselling US Principles of Economics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    How have authors of twelve bestselling introductory US textbooks in economics responded to the traumatizing financial crisis? In general the financial crisis is described with a couple of lines here and there or it is dealt with in boxes, separate sections, or specific isolated chapters. Some...... of the textbooks distinguish themselves by also having made some modest qualitative changes of content as a reaction to the financial crisis (especially Colander 2010 and Krugman and Wells 2013). Applying my general analysis of the changes being made already in the twelve textbooks seen as a whole, I discuss how...... any introductory textbook could integrate the financial crisis more adequately into the general presentation, thereby hopefully contributing to enhancing the interest of the students....

  11. European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ertug Ercin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops water footprint scenarios for Europe for 2050, at the country level, based on projections regarding population and economic growth, production and trade patterns, consumption patterns (diets and bioenergy use and technological development. The objective is to estimate possible future changes in the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of production and consumption, to analyze the main drivers of projected changes and to assess Europe’s future dependence on water resources elsewhere in the world. We develop four scenarios, considering globalization versus regional self-sufficiency, and development driven by economic objectives versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows that the most critical driver of change affecting Europe’s future WF is the consumption pattern. The WFs of both production and consumption in Western Europe increase under scenarios with high meat consumption and decrease with low-meat scenarios. Besides, additional water demands from increasing biofuel needs will put further pressure on European water resources. The European countries with a large ratio of external to total WF of consumption in 2000 decrease their dependencies on foreign water resources in 2050.

  12. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  13. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Turner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  14. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  15. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...... a stratified random sample of 36 900 subjects from the entire EPIC cohort, using a software program (EPIC-SOFT) specifically designed to standardise the dietary measurements across study populations. This paper describes the design and populations of the calibration sub-studies set up in the EPIC centres...

  16. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...... population differed slightly from the overall cohort but the differences were small for most characteristics and centres. The overall results suggest that, after adjustment for age, dietary intakes estimated from calibration samples can reasonably be interpreted as representative of the main cohorts in most...

  17. RUGBY GAME-RELATED STATISTICS THAT DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN WINNING AND LOSING TEAMS IN IRB AND SUPER TWELVE CLOSE GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to identify the Rugby game- related statistics that discriminated between winning and losing teams in IRB and S12 close games. Archival data reported to game-related statistics from 120 IRB games and 204 Super Twelve games played between 2003 and 2006. Afterwards, a cluster analysis was conducted to establish, according to game final score differences, three different match groups. Only the close games group was selected for further analysis (IRB n = 64 under 15 points difference and Super Twelve n = 95 under 11 points difference. An analysis to the structure coefficients (SC obtained through a discriminant analysis allowed to identify the most powerful game-related statistics in discriminating between winning and losing teams. The discriminant functions were statistically significant for Super Twelve games (Chi-square = 33.8, p < 0.01, but not for IRB games (Chi- square = 9.4, p = n.s.. In the first case, winners and losers were discriminated by possessions kicked (SC = 0.48, tackles made (SC = 0.45, rucks and pass (SC = -0.40, passes completed (SC = 0. 39, mauls won (SC = -0.36, turnovers won (SC = -0.33, kicks to touch (SC = 0.32 and errors made (SC = -0.32. The minus sign denotes higher values in losing teams. Rugby game-related statistics were able to discriminate between winners and losers in Super Twelve close games and suggest that a kicking based game supported by an effective defensive structure is more likely to win matches than a possession based one

  18. European Conference on Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own.

  19. Attitude to plagiarism in different European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is an important and frequently discussed issue, which may have severe financial impacts for higher education institutions across Europe. However, there are different attitudes to this topic in different countries. Whereas ECTS aims to provide an objective measurement of student effort allowing students to spend part of their studies at different institutions and even different countries, the penalties for plagiarism and other types of cheating may be different. Even the definition of plagiarism may be understood differently in particular European countries. One of the aims of the project IPPHEAE is to identify these differences and try to find common solutions for related problems.The aim of the paper is to present results of research focused on attitudes to plagiarism in Great Britain, Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and Bulgaria. A questionnaire survey was conducted in these countries among students and teachers. The results are interesting and inspiring and show huge differences in attitude to plagiarism between western and post-communist countries, surprisingly including the Czech Republic in the group of western countries.

  20. Radicular anatomy of twelve representatives of the Catasetinae subtribe (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root structure of the Brazilian genera belonging to the Catasetinae subtribe is poorly known, we describe the roots of twelve representatives from this subtribe. For anatomical analysis, the roots were fixed in FAA 50, preserved in ethanol 70% and sectioned at its medium region using razor blades. The sections were stained with 0.05% astra blue and safranin and mounted in glycerin. For the identification of starch we used Lugol's solution; for lignin, floroglucin chloridric; for lipids, Sudan III, and for flavanoids, potassium hydroxide. The relevant aspects were registered using a digital camera joined with an Olympus microspope (BX51 model. The structural similarities of all roots support the placement of the subtribe Catasetinae into the monophyletic tribe Cymbidieae. Some root features are restricted to one or two taxa and can be useful in the systematics of the subtribe. For example, the occurrence of flavonoidic crystals characterizes the genera Catasetum and Cychnodes, and the number of the velamen layers and the shape of the epivelamen cells are useful to confirm the taxonomic position of Clowesia amazonica. The presence of velamen and flavonoidic crystals was interpreted as an adaptation to the epiphytic habit.Considerando que a estrutura das raízes de gêneros brasileiros pertencentes à subtribo Catasetinae é pouco conhecida, descrevemos as raízes de doze representantes desta subtribo. Para análise anatômica, as raízes foram fixadas em FAA 50, preservadas em álcool 70% e seccionadas na sua região média usando lâminas de barbear. Os cortes foram corados com astra blue e Safrablau 0,05% e montados em glicerina. Para a identificação do amido, utilizou-se a solução de Lugol; da lignina, floroglucina clorídrica, dos lipídios, Sudan III e dos flavonóides, hidróxido de potássio. Os aspectos relevantes foram registrados usando câmera digital acoplada a um microscópio Olympus (modelo BX51. As semelhan

  1. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  2. Twelve possible strategies for enhancing interprofessional socialisation in higher education: Findings from an interpretive phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Karen; Dixon, Kathryn; Warner, Paul; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interprofessional socialisation experiences of health professional educators (HPEs) across five health science faculties in Perth, Australia. Evidence supported the importance of educators teaching and learning together, although there was minimal evidence with regard to the type of support HPEs received or required in order to socialise interprofessionally within higher education. Interview participants comprised 26 HPEs from various health-related professions across Western Australia. An interpretive phenomenological framework was used to discover the phenomena of interprofessional socialisation. The examination of the data was undertaken via qualitative content analysis with the aid of NVivo 10 software. Content coding led to the development of categories, sub-categories, and then themes. Five themes were identified; however, only one of these themes, "interprofessional socialisation strategies within higher education," is explored within this article. Based on the data within this theme, 12 possible socialisation strategies (formal and informal) were identified for HPEs, which could be implemented within health science faculties, taking into account the organisation's culture and strategic intent towards interprofessional collaboration and education.

  3. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...

  4. Rectors of European universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Several rectors of European universities visited CERN recently while in Geneva for a conference on coordination between their institutions. The visit began with a welcome by Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of Collider Programmes,and continued with tours of CMS, ALICE and the LHC magnet assembly hall. Photos 01, 02: The visitors in the ALICE assembly hall: (left to right) Dr. Raymond Werlen, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities; visit guide Prof. Alain Blondel, Department of Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics, University of Geneva; Prof. Adriano Pimpão, Rector of the University of Algarve, President of the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities; Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Conference of University Presidents, France; Prof. Jean-Paul Lehners, Vice-President of the Centre Universitaire, Luxemburg.

  5. European Cenozoic rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    The European Cenozoic rift system extends from the coast of the North Sea to the Mediterranean over a distance of some 1100 km; it finds its southern prolongation in the Valencia Trough and a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic chain crossing the Atlas ranges. Development of this mega-rift was paralleled by orogenic activity in the Alps and Pyrenees. Major rift domes, accompanied by subsidence reversal of their axial grabens, developed 20-40 Ma after beginning of rifting. Uplift of the Rhenish Shield is related to progressive thermal lithospheric thinning; the Vosges-Black Forest and the Massif Central domes are probably underlain by asthenoliths emplaced at the crust/mantle boundary. Evolution of this rift system, is thought to be governed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and by early phases of a plate-boundary reorganization that may lead to the break-up of the present continent assembly.

  6. Western Parenting: A Personal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Ward

    2011-01-01

    Bonding: Western fathers are keen to take an equal role in parenting. They recognise their responsibility as a new dad, and are committed early to sharing every family task with the mother. It is common to see a proud western father walking outside, on their own, with their tiny baby. Western dad's know that this time is special, and the mother needs to relax and feel confident to trust the dad with the baby.

  7. Westinghouse European trainee program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, G. [Safety and Licensing Department, Westinghouse Electric Spain, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company is proud of giving its employees the possibility to work and act globally. The company's European Trainee Program provides an opportunity to work within different fields of business within Westinghouse, participating in a wide range of projects and experiencing and learning from the different cultures of the company. In 2006 the first Trainee Program started with seven Swedish Trainees. During these eighteen months they worked 12 months in Sweden and then went off to six-month-assignments in France and in the US. In April 2008, the first European Trainee Program was launched with ten Trainees from four different countries: five from Sweden, two from Germany, two from Spain and one from Belgium. As with the previous program, its length was eighteen months. During the first year, the European Trainees had the opportunity to work in various areas within their country of hire, as well as to visit different Westinghouse headquarters in Europe and the US to learn more about the global business. Their kick-off session took place in Vaesteraas, Sweden in April 2008. During four days, the Trainees participated in group dynamic exercises as well as presentations of the business of Westinghouse abroad and in Sweden. Two of the most interesting parts of this session were the visits to the Fuel Factory and to the Field Services mock-ups. The second session took place in June 2008 in Monroeville, Pennsylvania (USA), where Westinghouse had its main headquarters, nowadays located in Cranberry, PA. During two weeks, the trainees got to know even more about Westinghouse through visits, lectures and forums for open discussions. The visits comprised for example the tubing factory at Blairsville, the Field Services main headquarters in Madison and the George Westinghouse Research and Technology Park near Pittsburgh. The meetings included presentations of each Westinghouse business unit, detailed information about future projects and round table

  8. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Portugal: a multicentric retrospective study in twelve Portuguese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jorge; Alves, Carlos C; Neto, Rosa; Arroja, Bruno; Vidal, Rosário; Macedo, Guilherme; Nunes, Ana A; Rego, Ana; Carvalho, Joao; Banhudo, António; Curado, António; Lima, Paula N; Baranda, Joao; Ribeiro, Filipe

    2012-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is associated with important mortality. More information is needed in order to improve NVUGIB management. The aims of this study were: (a) characterizing Portuguese patients and clinical approaches used in NVUGIB, (b) comparing management used in Portugal with management globally used in European countries, (c) identify factors associated with management options, and (d) identify factors associated with adverse outcome. ENERGiB was an observational, retrospective cohort study, on NVUGIB with endoscopic evaluation, carried across Europe. This study focuses on Portuguese patients of the ENERGiB study. Patients were managed according to routine care. Later, data were collected from files. Multivariate/univariate analyses were conducted on predictive factors of poor outcome and clinical decisions. Patients (n=404) were mostly men (66.8%), mean age 68, with co-morbidities (72%), frequently on NSAIDs/aspirin. Most were assisted by general medical (57.8%) or surgical team (20.6%), only 19.4% by gastroenterology/GI-bleeding team. PPI was largely used. Gastric/duodenal ulcers, erosive gastritis and esophagitis were the main bleeding causes. 10% had bleeding persistence/recurrence. Death occurred in 24 patients, 20 from a non-bleeding related cause. Poor outcomes were related with age >65, co-morbidities, fresh blood haematemesis, shock/syncope, bleeding through previous nasogastric tube, massive fluid replacement or transfusions besides erythrocytes. This study contributed to characterization of Portuguese patients and NVUGIB episodes in real clinical setting and identified factors associated with a poor outcome. It also identified differences, especially in the organization of GI bleeding teams, which might help us to improve the management of these patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  9. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from western Colombia and western Ecuador (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2007-01-01

    The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.

  10. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding m

  11. HISTORY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan V t man

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate how the project of the ‘European Union’ evolved both in the interwar period and in the years following the Second World War, focusing on promoters of the idea of federal Europe who attempted to find the best ways for building a suitable European Community development. The establishment of three European Communities in the 50`s, although they were mainly orientated economically also involved political cooperation, thus contributing to a new federal vision. Evolution of the European Communities has been marked by the widening of their accession of new members and by the review of the institutive treaties in order to speed and flexibly achieve those objectives. Given the constant changing of modern world, the European leaders had to agree on new rules that would take into account political, economic and social changes, while also meeting the aspirations and hopes of the Europeans. Signing the Lisbon Treaty was the recognition that the EU needs to modernize and to have effective and consistent tools, not only adapted to the functioning of a Union extended to 27 countries, but also to the rapid changes of the present day world. The Lisbon Treaty clearly defined objectives and values of the European Union on peace, democracy, human rights, justice, equality, rule of law durability and also set up a stable institutional framework which gives the ability to obtain better results closer to expectations of European citizens.

  12. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renami...

  13. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  14. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    announced by Descartes degenerates to the pseudo-materialistic consumo ergo sum.”98 One major point in this development is that both on the national...change the patron -client relationship.270 The European solution to this asymmetrical relationship led the European Community to further diversify

  15. Third European Stroke Science Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dichgans, Martin; Planas, Anna M.; Biessels, Geert Jan; van der Worp, Bart; Sudlow, Cathie; Norrving, B.; Lees, Kennedy; Mattle, Heinrich P.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Eibsee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, November 19 to 21, 2015: The European Stroke Organization convened >120 stroke experts from 27 countries to discuss latest results and hot topics in clinical, translational, and basic stroke research. Since its inception in 2011, the European Stroke Science

  16. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  17. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...

  18. Participation in European water policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko); S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general,

  19. Safety of over twelve hundred infant male circumcisions using the Mogen clamp in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa R Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sub-Saharan African countries plan to scale-up infant male circumcision (IMC for cost-efficient HIV prevention. Little data exist about the safety of IMC in East and southern Africa. We calculated adverse event (AE rate and risks for AEs associated with introduction of IMC services at five government health facilities in western Kenya. METHODS: AE data were analyzed for IMC procedures performed between September, 2009 and November, 2011. Healthy infants aged ≤ 2 months and weighing ≥ 2.5 kg were eligible for IMC. Following parental consent, trained clinicians provided IMC services free of charge under local anesthesia using the Mogen clamp. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to explore AE risk factors. FINDINGS: A total of 1,239 IMC procedures were performed. Median age of infants was 4 days (IQR=1, 16. The overall AE rate among infants reviewed post-operatively was 2.7% (18/678; 95%CI: 1.4, 3.9. There was one severe AE involving excision of a small piece of the lateral aspect of the glans penis. Other AEs were mild or moderate and were treated conservatively. Babies one month of age or older were more likely to have an AE (OR 3.20; 95%CI: 1.23, 8.36. AE rate did not differ by nurse versus clinical officer or number of previous procedures performed. CONCLUSION: IMC services provided in Kenyan Government hospitals in the context of routine IMC programming have AE rates comparable to those in developed countries. The optimal time for IMC is within the first month of life.

  20. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  1. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  2. Challenges in European higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. Orphanides

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance has been one of the most important components of the Bologna Process and the EHEA. Quality and innovation are sine qua non in achieving competitiveness in European higher education, especially when the focus is on its challenges in a global context. This principle certainly applies to the entire world as well. It is vital that all European countries and all European higher education institutions implement punctually and with distinction the 'Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area' concerning internal and external quality assurance, and quality assurance agencies, as well as the function and operation of the European Quality Assurance Register (EQAR. On the other hand, if diversity in higher education provision is to be considered an asset, a transparent, multidimensional classification system of instruments designed to benchmark higher education institutions on research and innovation, teaching and learning outcomes, services to society, etc., may help identify and make visible such diversity.

  3. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fa

  4. Attitudes towards homosexuality amongst recent Polish migrants in Western Europe: Migrant selectivity and attitude change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röder, A.; Lubbers, M.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution investigates the socially conservative attitudes of newly arrived immigrants from Poland in two Western European countries, Ireland and the Netherlands, with a particular interest in the selective nature of out-migration along non-economic factors and attitude change after migratio

  5. Assessing the risk and prevalence of hate crime victimization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, John

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of multivariate and multi-level analyses of data on hate crime victimization from 14 Western European nations. Although the ethnic composition of immigrant communities shows considerable variation across the 14 countries, in all countries self-defined immigrants are dis

  6. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  7. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  8. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  9. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  10. Natural and experimental infection of sheep with European bat lyssavirus type-1 of Danish bat origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Fooks, A.R.; Agerholm, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 and 2002, European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) was demonstrated in brain tissue of five Danish sheep suffering from micrological disorders. Four of the five sheep also had encephalic listeriosis. The animals originated from four flocks on pastures within a limited area of western Jutland...

  11. Asthma control and differences in management practices across seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, PA; Rabe, KF; Soriano, JB; Maier, WC

    2002-01-01

    Failure to follow asthma management guidelines may result in poor asthma control for many patients. The Asthma Insights and Reality in Europe (AIRE) survey, a multi-national survey assessing the level of asthma control from the patients perspective in seven Western European countries, previously dem

  12. European Explorers' Engagements with Sexuality in Indigenous Cultures : The Forsters' Interpretations of Tahitian Sexual Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    While current analyses of European interpretations of non-western cultures are guided by a modern concept of sexuality, this article argues for a more encompassing, historical awareness by drawing historical constructs of sexuality into the analysis. To illustrate the point, it will analyze the acco

  13. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammad Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew...

  14. Packaging tomorrow : modelling the material input for European packaging in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Joosten, L.A.J.; Worrell, E.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a result of the MATTER project (MATerials Technology for CO2 Emission Reduction). The project focuses on CO2 emission reductions that are related to the Western European materials system. The total impact of the reduction options for different scenario's will be modeled in MARKAL (MAR

  15. Stigmella rolandi sp. n.: a widespread southern European species on Rosa (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Stigmella rolandi sp. n., belonging to the Stigmella sangaisorbae group, is described from southern Europe. It has previously been misidentified as S. spinosissimae Waters, a western European species. The species is characterized by a costal hair pencil on the male hindwing. The distribution is mapp

  16. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian. The

  17. Towards an ethnographic understanding of the European Marriage Pattern: Global correlates and links with female status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, S.G.; van Zanden, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution compares the EMP, and the associated Western European family system (inheritance practices, intergenerational co-residence and exogamy), with what is known about family systems and marriage patterns in the rest of the world, with a special focus on the consequences of these family

  18. Asthma control and differences in management practices across seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, PA; Rabe, KF; Soriano, JB; Maier, WC

    Failure to follow asthma management guidelines may result in poor asthma control for many patients. The Asthma Insights and Reality in Europe (AIRE) survey, a multi-national survey assessing the level of asthma control from the patients perspective in seven Western European countries, previously

  19. Stigmella rolandi sp. n.: a widespread southern European species on Rosa (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Stigmella rolandi sp. n., belonging to the Stigmella sangaisorbae group, is described from southern Europe. It has previously been misidentified as S. spinosissimae Waters, a western European species. The species is characterized by a costal hair pencil on the male hindwing. The distribution is

  20. European Explorers' Engagements with Sexuality in Indigenous Cultures : The Forsters' Interpretations of Tahitian Sexual Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    While current analyses of European interpretations of non-western cultures are guided by a modern concept of sexuality, this article argues for a more encompassing, historical awareness by drawing historical constructs of sexuality into the analysis. To illustrate the point, it will analyze the

  1. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe.

  2. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Occurrence, course and prognosis during the first year of disease in a European population-based inception cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    nurses were not used in Eastern European IBD centres. Expenses for the cohort during the initial year of disease exceeded four million Euros with most money spent on diagnostics and surgery. Biological therapy accounted for one fourth costs in Western European CD patients. Long-term follow-up of the Epi...

  3. La Base Del Derecho Alimentario Europeo: Una Reflexión Crítica Sobre El Concepto De Alimento No Seguro (The Foundation of European Food Law: A Critical Reflection on the Concept of Unsafe Food)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a Spanish language continuation of: B.M.J. van der Meulen, The Core of Food Law, European Food and Feed Law Review 3/2012, pp. 117-125. It has been made at the request of AIBADA, Asociación Iberoamericana para el Derecho Alimentario. The most fundamental notion underlying twelve years

  4. La Base Del Derecho Alimentario Europeo: Una Reflexión Crítica Sobre El Concepto De Alimento No Seguro (The Foundation of European Food Law: A Critical Reflection on the Concept of Unsafe Food)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a Spanish language continuation of: B.M.J. van der Meulen, The Core of Food Law, European Food and Feed Law Review 3/2012, pp. 117-125. It has been made at the request of AIBADA, Asociación Iberoamericana para el Derecho Alimentario. The most fundamental notion underlying twelve years

  5. Frontiers in European radiology 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baert, A.L. (ed.) (Leuven Univ. (Belgium)); Heuck, F.H.W. (ed.) (Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    The twelve chapters of the book - which were not prepared for separate retrieval from the database - deal with recent enhancements in equipment or technique, or novel applications, of existing diagnostic medical radiology methods such as magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, Doppler sonography, digital subtraction angiography, and non-invasive thermometry. Possible side effects of the methods covered are also discussed, as e.g. nephropathy induced by contrast media, or artifacts involved in MRI. (UWA). 182 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadickal V. Joydas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature, and human (i.e., from oil-related activities sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world's largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill. However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE species richness (S of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′ of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI's Marine Biotic Index, AMBI conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2 show relatively higher S, H' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2. In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  7. Total Water Vapor Transport Observed in Twelve Atmospheric Rivers over the Northeastern Pacific Ocean Using Dropsondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, F. M.; Iacobellis, S.; Neiman, P. J.; Cordeira, J. M.; Spackman, J. R.; Waliser, D. E.; Wick, G. A.; White, A. B.; Fairall, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Demory et al (2013) recently showed that the global water cycle in climate models, including the magnitude of water vapor transport, is strongly influenced by the model's spatial resolution. The lack of offshore observations is noted as a serious limitation in determining the correct amount of transport. Due to the key role of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in determining the global distribution of water vapor, quantifying transport from ARs is a high priority. This forms a foundation of the CalWater-2 experiment aimed at sampling many ARs during 2014-2018. In February 2014, an "early-start" deployment of the NOAA G-IV research aircraft sampled 10 ARs over the northeast Pacific Ocean. On six of these flights, dropsondes were deployed in a line crossing the AR so as to robustly sample the total water vapor transport (TVT). The TVT is defined here as the sum of the vertically integrated horizontal water vapor transport (IVT) in the AR using a baseline that stretches from its warm southern (or eastern) edge to its cool northern (or western) edge. TVT includes both AR-parallel and AR-perpendicular transport. These data double the overall number of such cross-AR airborne samples suitable for calculating TVT. Analysis of TVT for these six new samples, in combination with the six previous samples from the preceding 16 years (from CalJet, WISPAR, and a Hawaii-based campaign), will be shown. A comparison will be made of the AR width and TVT determined using the well-established integrated water vapor (IWV) threshold of 2 cm, versus an IVT threshold of 250 kg m-1 s-1. Finally, the data from a well sampled case on 13 February 2014 (23 sondes with 75-100 km spacing) will be used to assess the sensitivity of TVT to dropsonde horizontal spacing and vertical resolution. This sensitivity analysis is of practical importance for the upcoming CalWater-2 field campaign where the G-IV will be used to sample many additional AR events, due to the relatively high cost of the dropsondes.

  8. Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal V.

    2017-08-03

    The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature), and human (i.e., from oil-related activities) sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world\\'s largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill). However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE) species richness (S) of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′) of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI\\'s Marine Biotic Index, AMBI) conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI) ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE) values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2) show relatively higher S, H\\' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2). In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.

  9. European integration, financial resources and the absorption of European funds in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The regional integration has the purpose to enhance the income in the region, which may be achieved through getting higher economic results by using the production factors more efficiently, increasing their mobility and benefiting from the access to a comprehensive knowledge base. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration, financial resources and, absorption of European funds. The paper proposes an analysis of financial framework by means of data and statistics provided by European institution, national statistics institutions and international statistics institutions. The financial framework is a mechanism designed to ensure a strict budgetary discipline of the maximum spending cap for each major area of European Union budget. This mechanism is drawing on the basis of political and economic priorities. One of the main objectives should be the expenditure forecasting, annual budgets, so they be situated under overall cap, knowing that achieving long-term economic growth depends on the financial incentives that the European Union can sustain.

  10. Monetary determinants of deposit euroization in European post-transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkalec Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-run and short-run relationship between deposit euroization in twelve European post-transition economies and two determinants of deposit euroization that are under the influence of monetary policy: the exchange rate and the interest rate differential. The link between deposit euroization, exchange rates and interest rate differentials is investigated using Johansen cointegration and error correction models for each country separately. The results suggest that changes in both monetary drivers have significant effects on deposit euroization and are therefore important for explaining and fighting deposit euroization. Differences between exchange rate regimes, fixed and managed vs. floating, seem to matter for deposit euroization.

  11. European XFEL (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    European X-Ray FEL – free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the “proof of principle” was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  12. Ocular hypotensive effect, preservation of visual fields, and safety of adding dorzolamide to prostaglandin therapy for twelve months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Inoue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1,3, Mieko Masumoto1,3, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita2, On behalf of the Ochanomizu Ophthalmology Study Group31Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ochanomizu Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively evaluate the safety, hypotensive effect, and preservation of visual fields of dorzolamide when added to latanoprost.Subjects and methods: This study included 46 patients (46 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma who had been treated with latanoprost. Dorzolamide (1% was added to latanoprost, and the intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored before and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean deviation shown by Humphrey perimetry was compared before and after twelve months of treatment. Adverse reactions were monitored over the 12-month study period.Results: The mean baseline IOP was 17.2 ± 3.0 mmHg while those after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment were 14.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, 14.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, and 14.6 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (P < 0.0001, 1-ß(power = 0.9999571. The absolute reduction of IOP and the percent reduction were similar after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. The mean deviation on Humphrey perimetry was similar before and after twelve months of treatment. Three patients discontinued dorzolamide therapy due to elevation of IOP and one patient discontinued it because of adverse reactions.Conclusion: Dorzolamide is safe and effective when used for twelve months as add-on therapy to latanoprost for open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: dorzolamide, primary open-angle glaucoma, latanoprost 

  13. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  14. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Baruch

    2007-06-01

    The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies.

  15. The myrmicine ant genus Metapone Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a global taxonomic review with descriptions of twelve new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert W; Alpert, Gary D

    2016-04-26

    The 28 known species of Metapone are monographed and illustrated. Twelve are described as new: M. africana, Gabon; M. balinensis, Bali, Indonesia; M. enigmatica, northeast New Guinea; M. hoelldobleri, northeast Queensland, Australia; M. javana, Java, Indonesia; M. manni, Viti Levu, Fiji; M. mathinnae, Flinders Island, Tasmania, Australia; M. philwardi, northeast New Guinea; M. salomonis, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands; M. tecklini, northeast Queensland; M. titan, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea; M. wallaceana, Lombok, Indonesia; spp.n. New synonymies include M. greeni Forel = M. johni Karavaiev (Sri Lanka) syn.n, and M. jacobsoni Crawley (Sumatra) = M. nicobarensis Tiwari & Jonathan (Great Nicobar Island) syn.n.

  16. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  17. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Gend en Loos and Costa V. ENEL. The jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the ECSC was allegedly conservative dominated by technical and economic considerations less than adventurous activism. Recent historical research has demonstrated the complexity of the legal landscape of the 1950s, in which...... the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making....

  18. Remuneration in European Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tóth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the new rules to be applied in the European Union, data on compensation of material risk takers are to be disclosed from year 2014. This paper overviews the different expectations regarding remuneration of bank managers highlighting the requirements of European Parliament and Council. Furthermore, it analyses data of 18 European banks disclosed based on the new lawful requirements. Based on empirical study it proves there is correlation between number of material risk takers and value of total assets. However this correlation is not too strong.

  19. How to Enforcement European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...... crisis that had evolved in the late 1970s between France and the ECJ, led to a change in the EC’s case law that limited the direct effect of directives to the vertical relation between citizens and the respective member state and excluded any horizontal effect. The story is an example of how the activist...

  20. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.