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Sample records for twelve ternary metal-oxygen

  1. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  2. High temperature microcalorimetry. Study of metal-oxygen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetot, R.; Picard, C.; Boureau, G.; Gerdanian, P.

    1981-01-01

    Determination of partial molar enthalpy in metal-oxygen systems at 1050 0 C. Three representative systems are studied: the solution of oxygen in titanium, the titanium-oxygen system and the uranium-oxygen system from UOsub(2.00) to UOsub(2.60) [fr

  3. Ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ternary superconductors constitute a class of superconducting compounds with exceptional properties such as high transition temperatures (≅ 15.2 K), extremely high critical fields (H c2 >60 Tesla), and the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order. This has generated great interest in the scientific community and resulted in a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations in which many new ternary compounds have been discovered. A review of some of the properties of these ternary compounds is presented with particular emphasis on the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and the ternary rare earth transition metal tetraborides. The effect of partial substitution of a second metal atom to form pseudoternary compounds is examined as well as some of the proposed correlations between the superconducting transition temperature and the structural and electronic properties of the ternary superconductors

  4. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the competition between different geometries as well as different positioning of the fragments. Also, an attempt was made to calculate the mass distribution of ternary fission process within the ...

  5. Ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1946, light (charged) particle accompanied fission (ternary fission) has been extensively studied, for spontaneous as well as for induced fission reactions. The reason for this interest was twofold: the ternary particles being emitted in space and time close to the scission point were expected to supply information on the scission point configuration and the ternary fission process was an important source of helium, tritium, and hydrogen production in nuclear reactors, for which data were requested by the nuclear industry. Significant experimental progress has been realized with the advent of high-resolution detectors, powerful multiparameter data acquisition systems, and intense neutron and photon beams. As far as theory is concerned, the trajectory calculations (in which scission point parameters are deduced from the experimental observations) have been very much improved. An attempt was made to explain ternary particle emission in terms of a Plateau-Rayleigh hydrodynamical instability of a relatively long cylindrical neck or cylindrical nucleus. New results have also been obtained on the so-called open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission (fission in three about-equal fragments). The spontaneous emission of charged particles has also clearly been demonstrated in recent years. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of ternary fission, theoretical models, light particle emission probabilities, the dependence of the emission probabilities on experimental variables, light particle energy distributions, light particle angular distributions, correlations between light particle accompanied fission observables, open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission, and spontaneous emission of heavy ions. 143 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  7. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  8. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  9. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  10. Twelve years at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    As reported in our previous issue (page 27), on 28 February Volker Soergel stepped down after serving as Chairman of the Board of the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg since January 1981, when the previous chairman, Herwig Schopper, moved to become Director General of CERN. DESY is now headed by Bjorn Wiik. During the twelve years of Soergel's mandate, DESY substantially evolved and progressed. Dominating the landscape was the big HERA electron-proton collider - the world's first - proposed, approved, constructed and commissioned under Soergel's leadership. As well as pioneering electron-proton collisions, HERA also broke new ground in international collaboration. At the approval of the project by the German government, it had already been made clear that both the machine and its experiments had to be built with full international cooperation, using material contributions from foreign institutes. With the difficult task of transforming these requirements into hard reality, Volker Soergel succeeded brilliantly. The 'HERA model', with interested countries pledging contributions in equipment and/or manpower, established a new route to major project involvement. For HERA, the substantial Italian contribution, organized by Antonino Zichichi, was vital to the success of the project

  11. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  12. New ternary superconducting germanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschalkov, V. V.; Muttik, I. G.; Samarin, N. A.; Seropegin, Yu. D.; Rudometkina, M. V.

    1991-12-01

    We have studied the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of new ternary compounds with germanium and transition metals of IV and V groups (Ti 0.7V 0.3Ge 3, Hf 2V 3Ge, Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32, Hf 2Nb 3Ge 4, HfVGe, Zr 15-17V 39-40Ge 44-45, Hf 10.8-21.7V 36.0-42.8). The homogeneity fields for all new phases are determined. Resistivity (T) and magnetic susceptibility χ(T) are investigated at T=4.2…300 K. Two new superconductors have been found - Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32 and HfVGe with T c=4.7 K and 5.7 K, respectively.

  13. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  14. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  15. True ternary fission in 310126X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  16. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  17. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  18. Ternary scandium and transition metals germanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.

    1992-01-01

    Brief review of data on phase diagram of ternary Sc-Me-Ge systems (Me-d - , f-transition element) is given. Isothermal sections at 870 and 1070 K of 17 ternary systems are plotted. Compositions and their structural characteristics are presented. Variability of crystal structure is typical for ternary scandium germanides: 70 compounds with the studied structure belong to 23 structural types. Ternary germanides isostructural to types of Sm 4 Ge 4 , ZrCrSi 2 , ZrNiAl, ScCeSi, TiNiSi U 4 Re 7 Si 6 145 compounds from 70 under investigation are mostly formed in studied systems

  19. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  20. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  2. [Twelve years of liver transplantation in Lausanne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosimann, F; Bettschart, V; Gardaz, J P; Fontolliet, C; Tissot, J D; Meuwly, J Y; Chioléro, R; Gillet, M

    2001-02-01

    From 1988 to June 2000 138 transplantations were performed in 129 adult patients. Actuarial patient and graft survivals have been 80.7% and 75.4% at one year and 67.8% and 63.5% at 10 years. This compares favourably with the statistics of the European Liver Transplant Registry that collected data from more than 30,000 grafts. Over the twelve years of activity, the indications have become more liberal and the techniques have been simplified. The waiting list has therefore grown and some patients are now unfortunately dying before a graft can be found because the number of brain dead donors remains stable. In order to palliate this shortage, older donors are now being accepted even with co-morbidities and/or moderate alterations of the liver function tests. The use of live donors and the split of the best cadaveric grafts for two recipients will also reduce the gap between the demand and the offer.

  3. Description of the ternary system Cu-Ge-Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogguy, M.; Carcaly, C.; Rivet, J.; Flahaut, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Cu-Ge-Te ternary system has been studied by DTA and by crystallographic and metallographic analysis. The existence of a ternary compound Cu 2 GeTe 3 is demonstrated; this compound has a ternary incongruent melting point at 500 0 C. This ternary compound has a superstructure of a zinc blende type. The study shows the existence of five ternary eutectics. Two liquid-liquid miscibility gaps exist: the first is situated entirely in the ternary system; the second gives a monotectic region within the ternary system. (Auth.)

  4. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  5. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Steele

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to −1, 0, or +1. This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  6. Twelve Girls' Band' A Modern Miracle of Traditional Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoZhanxiong

    2004-01-01

    Twelve antique traditional instruments. Twelve spirited, pretty girls. "Twelve Girls' Band" is a traditional instrument orchestra playing well-known folk music in the form of pop. Besides age-old traditional instruments peculiar to China, such as zheng (ancient 21 to 25-stringed plucked instrument), qin (seven-stringed plucked instrument) and erhu (two-stringed Chinese fiddle),

  7. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav

    2014-01-01

    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  8. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  9. Energy and greenhouse effect. Twelve short notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, Henri

    2013-12-01

    The author proposes twelve brief notes aimed at discussing the reduction of fossil energy consumption in order to reduce CO 2 emissions and to improve the French energy supply security, without any useless expense. These notes address the reason for energy savings, the cost and price of a CO 2 ton, the issue of thermal regulation for buildings (it's not in compliance with the law, and results in higher expenses and increased CO 2 emissions), the introduction of a carbon tax to incite investments for energy saving, the status and health of the CO 2 European market, the support of actions aimed at reducing fossil energy consumption, the fact that bio-heat is ten times more efficient than bio-fuel and that therefore car holders should finance bio-heat, the development of hybrid uses of energy to avoid the difficulty of energy storage, the reduction of CO 2 emissions at low cost (by consuming as much renewable energy as nuclear energy but without wind or photovoltaic energy), the cost of less CO 2 , less fossil energy and less nuclear, and the interest of France to act on its own to reduce CO 2 emissions. The author proposes a brief synthesis of these notes and some proposals regarding thermal regulation for buildings, taxes, the European CO 2 market, the forest biomass, electricity production, and the European and word dimensions of these issues

  10. Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru

  11. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  12. Ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönnenwein Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary fission of (e,e U- and Pu- isotopes induced by cold polarized neutrons discloses some new facets of the process. In the so-called ROT effect shifts in the angular distributions of ternary particles relative to the fission fragments show up. In the so-called TRI effect an asymmetry in the emission of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by the fragment momentum and the spin of the neutron appear. The two effects are shown to be linked to the components of angular momentum perpendicular and parallel to the fission axis at the saddle point of fission. Based on theoretical models the spectroscopic properties of the collective transitional states at the saddle point are inferred from experiment.

  13. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  14. A Josephson ternary associative memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-valued content addressable memory cell using a Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. The memory cell proposed here can perform three operations of searching, writing and reading in ternary logic system. The principle of the memory circuit is illustrated in detail by using the threshold-characteristics of the JCTL. In order to investigate how a high performance operation can be achieved, computer simulations have been made. Simulation results show that the cycle time of memory operation is 120psec, power consumption is about 0.5 μW/cell and tolerances of writing and reading operation are +-15% and +-24%, respectively

  15. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  16. Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); García-Rodríguez, Amaranda [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Prosa, Mario [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Bologna (Italy); Bayseç, Şebnem; Palma-Cando, Alex [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Katsouras, Athanasios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pagona, Georgia; Gregoriou, Vasilis G. [Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens (Greece); Chochos, Christos L. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ulrich [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany); Ameri, Tayebeh, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-13

    One of the key aspects to achieve high efficiency in ternary bulk-hetorojunction solar cells is the physical and chemical compatibility between the donor materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel conjugated polymer (P1) containing alternating pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole between two different donor fragments, dithienosilole and indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT), used as a sensitizer in a host system of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene,2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 70} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM). We found that the use of the same IDTT unit in the host and guest materials does not lead to significant changes in the morphology of the ternary blend compared to the host binary. With the complementary use of optoelectronic characterizations, we found that the ternary cells suffer from a lower mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, adversely impacting the fill factor. However, the significant light harvesting in the near infrared region improvement, compensating the transport losses, results in an overall power conversion efficiency enhancement of ~7% for ternary blends as compared to the PIDTTQ:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  17. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  18. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2017-09-08

    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  19. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  20. Does Science Also Prefer a Ternary Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, L.; Klein, D. J.; Balaban, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Through the importance of the number three in our culture and the strange preference for a ternary pattern of our nature one can perceive how and why number theory degraded to numerology. The strong preference of our minds for simple patterns can be read as the key to understanding not only the development of numerology, but also why scientists…

  1. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  2. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to binary metallic glasses. They are of interest since third element can modify the physical properties of binary metallic glasses and can also be used as a probe to study the host. ..... conducting nature in the present case. When we. Figure 6. Variation of transition temperature (TC) with valance (Z) of ternary metallic glasses.

  3. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  4. Bacteriological And Clinical Evaluation Of Twelve Cases Of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological And Clinical Evaluation Of Twelve Cases Of Post-Surgical Sepsis Of Odontogenic Tumours At A ... East African Medical Journal ... Intervention: Adequate review of patient\\'s medical history, bacteriological investigations and

  5. Vegetative propagation of twelve fodder tree species indigenous to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative propagation of twelve fodder tree species indigenous to the Sahel, West Africa. Catherine Ky-Dembele, Jules Bayala, Antoine Kalinganire, Fatoumata Tata Traoré, Bréhima Koné, Alain Olivier ...

  6. The ternary system nickel-nobium-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmaier, H.H.; Fiedler, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system nickel-niobium-carbon was studied by metallographic and X-ray diffraction methods to produce a liquidus projection and an isothermal section at 1,100 0 C. The liquidus projection is dominated by a wide field of primary NbC that extends far into the nickel corner of the composition triangle. Only one ternary compound is observed in this system, an eta-carbide formed in a peritectoid reaction. It has a narrow homogeneity range at Ni 2 Nb 4 C, and its lattice constant in alloys quenched from 1,100 0 C varies between 11.659 and 11.667 A. No eta-carbide Ni 3 Nb 3 C or Ni 6 Nb 6 could be detected. (orig.) [de

  7. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  8. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.

  10. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F; Makhlouf, A; Silvestrov, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  11. Description of light charged particle emission in ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Scheid, W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the motion of three fragments starting from the scission point of ternary system. In the alpha-accompanied ternary fission the initial conditions are not the free parameters and determined by minimization of potential energy at scission point. In the trajectory calculations the angular distribution and mean value of the kinetic energy of the alpha-particles are well described in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252 Cf. In the Be- and C-accompanied ternary fission we found that the emission of the third particle occurs from one of the heavy fragments after their separation. (authors)

  12. Role of ternary fission in synthesis of bypassed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarovskij, Ya.M.; Chechev, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    A possible influence of ternary fission with escape of neutron-enriched light charged particles on the synthesis of bypassed nuclides is considered. It is shown that this concept cannot give explanation of bypassed isotope concentrations, but it can make some contribution, if the probability of ternary fission for superheavy nuclei grows sharply with Z 2 /A parameter. The account of β-delayed fission contributes to the shift of ternary fission fragments into the region of neutron-deficient isotopes. Consistent consideration of the ternary fission role in the nucleosynthesis is possible only with an important accumulation of experimental and theoretical data on this process, particularly for the nuclei with Z > 100

  13. Fusibility diagram of ternary system with incongruently melting double compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsyk, V.I.; Vorob'eva, V.P.; Sumkina, O.G.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature calculation and properties of ternary eutectics and concentration coordinates of ternary peritectics accoriding to the linear model of initial crystallization surfaces as an element of the expert system for simulating fusibility diagrams of ternary systems is considered. It is shown that the calculated and experimental data on coordinates of ternary nonvariant points in the systems NaCl-PbCl 2 -CdCl 2 , PbCl 2 -CaCl 2 -UCl 4 , CaF 2 -NaF-CsF and UCl 3 -CaCl 2 -ThCl 4 are in good agreement

  14. Ten colour photometry of twelve Ap-stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musielok, B.; Lange, D.; Schoeneich, W.; Hildebrandt, G.; Zelwanowa, E.; Hempelmann, A.; Salmanov, G.

    1980-01-01

    Ten-colour photoelectric observations are presented for twelve Ap-stars. Improved ephemeris for seven of them is given. Phase relations between the light curves and line intensity variations are discussed. The problem of the electromagnetic flux conctancy of IOTA Cas is approached from a qualitative point of view. (author)

  15. Education and Development: Twelve Considerations for Transformative Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBalkom, W. Duffie; Eastham, Sarada

    2011-01-01

    Twelve factors that are essential to consider when embarking on the process of transformative development are examined in the context of international development programming in education and training. Each factor raises a number of questions for the deliberations of policy makers, development practitioners, scholars, international educators,…

  16. Secondary Textbook Review: English, Grades Nine through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This book is intended as a resource for teachers and curriculum developers who select textbooks for secondary English courses. It includes a compilation of 32 factual textbook reviews obtained from the application of a review instrument, which was based on the California "Model Curriculum Standards: Grades Nine through Twelve, English…

  17. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: quench detection and energy dump, stationary normal region of conductor, current leads, electrical arcing, electrical shorts, conductor joints, forces from unequal currents, eddy current effects, cryostat rupture, vacuum failure, fringing field and instrumentation for safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  18. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  19. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  20. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Diaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  1. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leyi; Qiu Aitao; Liu Lanjie; Jiang Ming; Lu Xionggang; Li Chonghe

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The full experimental results of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system and its sub-binary systems are reviewed and analysed in detail. → Based on the latest thermodynamic assessments of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the thermodynamic parameters of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system are fully assessed by the Calphad method. → The transformation of disorder to order (bcc a 2 to B2) and the new ternary compound L 12T i 25 Cr 8 Al 67 are considered in this work. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is one of the most important systems to studying the titanium alloys. Some experimental data of this ternary system are available and a few partial thermodynamic assessments are reported. However, no full thermodynamic descriptions were published. In this study, the previous work on the Ti-Al-Cr system and its related binary systems are reviewed. Based on the thermodynamic descriptions of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is assessed by means of the Calphad method. Several isothermal sections from 1073 K to 1573 K and some invariant reactions are calculated, which are in good agreement with the most of the experimental results.

  3. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  4. Calculation of ternary interdiffusion coefficients using a single diffusion couple

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Rothová, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 305-314 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : diffusion * interdiffusion * ternary alloys * ternary diffusion coefficients Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  5. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  6. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  7. Nanoscratching of nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscratch behavior of nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA/clay ternary nanocomposites produced by different blending protocols with contrasting microstructures is studied by using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. A standard diamond Berkovich indenter is used for scratching and a low load of 1 mN, along with a low sliding velocity of 1 μm s -1 , are employed for this purpose. It is shown that in order to resist penetration it is more important to have exfoliated clay in the continuous nylon matrix during nanoscratching than to have the clay in the dispersed soft rubber domains. The results obtained also explain the preferred usage of ternary nanocomposites compared to binary nanocomposites, particularly nylon 66/exfoliated clay nanocomposites. This research extends current basic knowledge and provides new insights on the nature of nanoscale processes that occur during nanoscratching of polymer nanocomposites. Critical questions are raised on the relationships between the penetration depth and material deformation and damage left behind the moving indenter

  8. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  9. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  10. Twelve years of fireworks market surveillance in France

    OpenAIRE

    Branka , Ruddy

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the view of market surveillance, more than 4400 fireworks have been taken on the spot by sworn people or bought on the market in France since 1999 for inspection purposes. This paper presents the market surveillance sampling evolution during twelve years, carried out by the PYRO unit of the Accidental Risks Division of INERIS as testing body ; the related measures implemented : additional audits in importer plants, interlaboratory tests for guarantying the reliabili...

  11. Twelve Theses on Reactive Rules for the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Eckert, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect and react to events, is an essential functionality in many information systems. In particular, Web systems such as online marketplaces, adaptive (e.g., recommender) sys- tems, and Web services, react to events such as Web page updates or data posted to a server. This article investigates issues of relevance in designing high-level programming languages dedicated to reactivity on the Web. It presents twelve theses on features desira...

  12. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry in eleven dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional super Poincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry that governs the theory

  13. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  14. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  15. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Bueyuekmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H.O.; Goennenwein, F.; Boulyga, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249 Cf(n th ,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30 Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37 Si and 37 S; their possible origin is discussed

  16. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  17. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  18. Twelve tips for creating an academic teaching portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little-Wienert, Kim; Mazziotti, Mark

    2018-01-01

    An academic teaching portfolio is not only a requirement at many academic teaching institutions, but it is also important in a medical educator's growth and development through documentation, reflection, evaluation, and change. Creating an academic portfolio may appear daunting at first but with careful advanced preparation, organized evidence collection of your educational work, proof of scholarship, and thorough documentation of self-reflection and change, you can produce a successful product that accurately represents your educational beliefs, accomplishments, and growth throughout your career. This article provides medical educators with twelve steps for creating a successful academic teaching portfolio.

  19. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Each is described under the five categories: Identification and Definition, Possible Safety Effects, Current Practice, Adequacy of Current Practice for Fusion Magnets and Areas Requiring Further Analytical and Experimental Study. Priorities among these areas are suggested; application is made to the Large Coil Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  20. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermo-acoustics Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad,. Allahabad 211 002, India ... compressibility data of these industrially important organic compounds of ternary and higher liquid ... distillation. Densities and ...

  1. Kinetic study of lithium-cadmium ternary amalgam decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, M.H.; Andrade, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of metals, which form stable lithium phase in binary alloys, on the formation of intermetallic species in ternary amalgams and their effect on thermal decomposition in contact with water is analyzed. Cd is selected as ternary metal, based on general experimental selection criteria. Cd (Hg) binary amalgams are prepared by direct contact Cd-Hg, whereas Li is formed by electrolysis of Li OH aq using a liquid Cd (Hg) cathodic well. The decomposition kinetic of Li C(Hg) in contact with 0.6 M Li OH is studied in function of ageing and temperature, and these results are compared with the binary amalgam Li (Hg) decomposition. The decomposition rate is constant during one hour for binary and ternary systems. Ageing does not affect the binary systems but increases the decomposition activation energy of ternary systems. A reaction mechanism that considers an intermetallic specie participating in the activated complex is proposed and a kinetic law is suggested. (author)

  2. Ternary complex formation at mineral/solution interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption of trace concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals from aqueous solution is dependent on pH, absorbent and adsorbate concentration, and speciation of the metal in solution. In particular, complexation of metal ions by organic and inorganic ligands can dramatically alter adsorption behavior compared to ligand-free systems. The presence of complexing ligands can cause the formation of ''metal like'' or ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes depending on whether adsorption of the ternary complex increases or decreases with increasing pH, respectively. Examples of ternary surface complexes behaving ''metal like'' include uranyl-EDTA surface complexes on goethite, neptunyl-EDTA surface complexes on hematite and neptunyl-humic surface complexes on gibbsite. Examples of ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes include uranyl-carbonato and neptunyl-carbonato surface complexes on iron oxides. The effects of complex solutions and multimineralic systems are discussed. (authors). 39 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghala, D; Ramya, P; Pasang, T; Raj, J M; Ranganathaiah, C; Williams, J F

    2013-01-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (α ij ) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, α eff , was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  4. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  5. Analytical determination of distillation boundaries for ternary azeotropic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio; Velasco, Raúl; Serrano Cayuelas, María Dolores; Olaya López, María del Mar

    2009-01-01

    A new straight forward algorithm to calculate distillation boundaries in ternary azeotropic systems has been developed. The proposed method allows, using cubic splines, the calculation of distillation trajectories and the calculation of that corresponding to the searched distillation boundaries. The algorithm is applied to 4 ternary liquid-vapour systems to test its validity. Vicepresidency of Research (University of Alicante) and Generalitat Valenciana (GV/2007/125)

  6. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  7. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  8. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  9. Binary and ternary photofission of thorium 232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titterton, E W; Brinkley, T A

    1950-05-01

    Work by Titterton and Goward (1949) has shown that uranium undergoes photofission into three charged fragments. Experiments have been conducted to determine whether a similar process takes place in the photofission of thorium. Some difficulties were encountered in loading plates with /sup 232/Th atoms, but this was finally accomplished by means of a technique described in detail. Plates loaded by this method were irradiated with a continuous spectrum of ..gamma.. rays of maximum energy 24 MeV from the (Atomic Energy Research Establishment) Synchrotron. Three irradiations, of 100, 150, and 180 r, were made and the resulting plates showed a fission density of 2.5 x 10/sup 4//cc at the 150 r level. In an examination involving 2500 binary photofissions, 5 cases of ternary fission involving the emission of a long range light fragment, probably an ..cap alpha..-particle, were observed. These events are described. A number-range curve was determined for the photofission tracks and is compared with a similar curve for tracks formed by the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U in a D/sub 1/ emulsion under conditions of similar emulsion sensitivity. It appears that the energy release in the photofission of /sup 232/Th is smaller than that in the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U. The data indicate that 124 MeV is the mean kinetic energy released in the photofission of /sup 232/Th.

  10. Anisotropy in the ternary cold fission

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, accompanied by sup 4 He, sup 1 sup 0 Be and sup 1 sup 4 C within a stationary scattering formalism. We show that the light cluster should be born in the neck region. It decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb plus harmonic oscillator potential, centred in this region and eccentric with respect to the symmetry axis. This description gives a simple answer to the question why the averaged values in the energy spectra of emitted clusters are close to each other, in spite of different Coulomb barriers. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. Experimental angular distributions can be explained by the spherical shapes of emitted clusters, except for a deformed sup 1 sup 0 Be. We also predicted some dependences of half-lives for such tri-nuclear systems upon potential parameters.

  11. Extended investigation of the twelve-flavor β-function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Zoltán; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nógrádi, Dániel; Wong, Chik Him

    2018-04-01

    We report new results from high precision analysis of an important BSM gauge theory with twelve massless fermion flavors in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. The range of the renormalized gauge coupling is extended from our earlier work [1] to probe the existence of an infrared fixed point (IRFP) in the β-function reported at two different locations, originally in [2] and at a new location in [3]. We find no evidence for the IRFP of the β-function in the extended range of the renormalized gauge coupling, in disagreement with [2,3]. New arguments to guard the existence of the IRFP remain unconvincing [4], including recent claims of an IRFP with ten massless fermion flavors [5,6] which we also rule out. Predictions of the recently completed 5-loop QCD β-function for general flavor number are discussed in this context.

  12. Twelve reasons to refuse the nuclear in the MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonduelle, A.

    2000-01-01

    The author presents twelve reasons which show that the nuclear energy has not a place in the MDP Mechanism of Clean Development: a main loophole for the developed countries, the doubtful ''additionality'' of the nuclear, the treaty ratification is more difficult with the nuclear, the domestic energy conservation is more efficient in Europe than the nuclear development, the nuclear white elephants facing the South debts, the technology transfers are doubtful, the developing countries and the sustainable development policies are evicted from the MDP, some options are more powerful in the South, the reactors and transport networks size are unsuited, the absence of democratic control, the nuclear proliferation, the nuclear safety and the wastes. (A.L.B.)

  13. Constitution of the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krendelsberger, Natalja; Weitzer, Franz; Du, Yong; Schuster, Julius C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Reaction scheme and liquidus surface for Cr-Ni-Ti are given. •In the ternary the C14-type Laves phase coexists with the liquid phase. •Two ternary eutectics are identified. -- Abstract: The nature of solid–liquid phase equilibria in the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti was investigated using electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Literature data on solid state phase equilibria are confirmed. The Cr 2 Ti Laves phase modifications coexisting with Ni–Ti phases are clarified to be hexagonal C14-type and cubic C15-type. The C14-type Laves phase γCr 2 Ti is found to coexist with the liquid phase. It forms in the pseudobinary peritectic reaction p max1 from L + β(Cr,Ti) at 1389 °C. On further cooling γCr 2 Ti + NiTi solidify at 1202 °C in the pseudobinary eutectic e max2 . In the Cr-rich part of the system ternary eutectics occur at 1216 °C (E 1 : L = Ni 3 Ti + (Ni) + β(Cr,Ti)) and 1100 °C (E 2 : L = NiTi + Ni 3 Ti + β(Cr,Ti)), respectively. No ternary eutectic is found in the Ti-rich part. Rather the eutectic trough ends in the binary eutectic L = NiTi 2 + β(Ti)

  14. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  15. Ternary systems Sr-{Ni,Cu}-Si: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Navida; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Giester, Gerald; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phase relations were established in the Sr-poor part of the ternary systems Sr-Ni-Si (900 deg. C) and Sr-Cu-Si (800 deg. C) by light optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on as cast and annealed alloys. Two new ternary compounds SrNiSi 3 (BaNiSn 3 -type) and SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type) were found in the Sr-Ni-Si system along with previously reported Sr(Ni x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type). The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type. At higher Si-content X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal the formation of a vacant site (□) corresponding to a formula SrNi 5.5 Si 6.5 □ 1.0 . Phase equilibria in the Sr-Cu-Si system are characterized by the compounds SrCu 2-x Si 2+x (ThCr 2 Si 2 -type), Sr(Cu x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type), SrCu 9-x Si 4+x (0≤x≤1.0; CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type) and SrCu 13-x Si x (4≤x≤1.8; NaZn 13 -type). The latter two structure types appear within a continuous solid solution. Neither a type-I nor a type-IX clathrate compound was encountered in the Sr-{Cu,Ni}-Si systems. Structural details are furthermore given for about 14 new ternary compounds from related alloy systems with Ba. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type and is related to CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type.

  16. Model for competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism by which competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions can occur is proposed. Calculations are undertaken for the specific system CH3(+) + NH3 + He which has been studied in the laboratory by Smith and Adams (1978), and the potential surface of which has been studied theoretically by Nobes and Radom (1983). It is shown that a potential-energy barrier in the exit channel prevents the rapid dissociation of collision complexes with large amounts of angular momentum and thereby allows collisional stabilization of the complexes. The calculated ternary-reaction rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value, but a plot of the effective two-body rate coefficient of the ternary channel vs helium density does not quite show the observed saturation. 21 references

  17. Collective and tracer diffusion kinetics in the ternary random alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Allnatt, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, collective and tracer diffusion kinetics is addressed for the ternary random alloy. A formal solution from the self-consistent theory of Moleko et al (Moleko L K, Allnatt A R and Allnatt E L 1989 Phil. Mag. A 59 141) is derived for collective diffusion and compared with the corresponding solution for the binary random alloy. Tracer diffusion in the ternary alloy is treated from the perspective of a special case of the quaternary random alloy. Results from Monte Carlo calculations for tracer and collective correlation factors (for the bcc ternary random alloy) are found to be in excellent agreement with this self-consistent theory but in only semi-quantitative agreement with the earlier theory of Manning (Manning J R 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 1111). (author)

  18. Constitutional studies of the molybdenum-ruthenium-palladium ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, L.A.; Pratt, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental and computational study has been made of phase equilibria in the Mo-Ru-Pd ternary system. The constitution of annealed binary and ternary alloys was investigated using optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and SEM phase analysis techniques. Limited thermodynamic measurements were made using the ZrO 2 solid electrolyte e.m.f. method. The data obtained from the various techniques were used to construct a ternary isothermal section at 1473 K. The experimentally determined section is compared with a calculated section for the same temperature, computed using thermodynamic coefficients derived solely from binary system information. Lattice parameters are reported for the b.c.c., f.c.c. and c.p.h. solid solutions and for the σ phase. (orig.)

  19. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  20. α-ternary decay of Cf isotopes, statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Jayesh George; Santhosh, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The process of splitting a heavier nucleus to three simultaneous fragments is termed as ternary fission and compared to usual binary fission, it is a rare process. Depending on the nature of third particle either it is called light charged particle (LCP) accompanying fission if it is light or true ternary fission if all three fragments have nearly same mass distributions. After experimental observations in early seventies, initially with a slow pace, now theoretical studies in ternary fission has turned to a hot topic in nuclear decay studies especially in past one decade. Mean while various models have been developed, existing being modified and seeking for new with a hope that it can beam a little more light to the profound nature of nuclear interaction. In this study a statistical method, level density formulation, has been employed

  1. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  2. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  3. New ternary hydride formation in U-Ti-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Kayano, Hideo; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption properties of two titanium-rich uranium alloys, UTi 2 and UTi 4 , were studied in order to prepare and identify the recently found ternary hydride. They slowly reacted with hydrogen of the initial pressure of 10 5 Pa at 873K to form the ternary hydride. The hydrogenated specimen mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride but contained also U(or UO 2 ), TiH x , and some transient phases. X-ray powder diffraction and Electron Probe Micro Analysis proved that it was the UTi 2 H x with the expected MgCu 2 structure, though all the X-ray peaks were broad probably because of inhomogeneity. This compound had extremely high resistance to powdering on its formation, which showed high potential utilities for a non-powdering tritium storage system or for other purposes. (author)

  4. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  5. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-01

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, ∼0.2 M sun ) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  6. Equilibrium phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, S.; Bahari, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system Ag-Au-Pb has been established using differential thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Four vertical sections were studied: X Pb = 0.40, X Au /X Pb = 1/3, X Ag /X Au = 4/1 and X Ag /X Au = 1/1. Two ternary transitory peritectics and one ternary eutectic were characterized. A schematic representation of the ternary equilibria is given

  7. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  8. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A

    2008-01-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  9. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  10. A novel ternary logic circuit using Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Oochi, K.; Nishizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. This fundamental circuit is constructed by combination of two SQUIDs, one of which is switched in the positive direction and the other in the negative direction. The JCTL can perform the fundamental operations of AND, OR, NOT and Double NOT in ternary form. The principle of the operation and design criteria are described in detail. The results of the simulation show that the reliable operations of these circuits can be achieved with a high performance

  11. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  12. Binary and ternary carbides and nitrides of the transition metals and their phase relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrance and the structure of the binary and ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides are described. Phase diagrams are assessed for most of the binary and ternary systems. Many ternary phase diagrams are published in this report for the first time. (orig.) [de

  13. Comparative analysis of family poultry production in twelve African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.B.; Dwinger, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a survey on family poultry to obtain information on disease prevalence, feeding practices, and the management of poultry housing in twelve African countries. The survey data were collected during both the wet and dry seasons and summarised (average and standard deviation) by country, village/region, season, and survey question. The disease data results show that three (greenish/bloody diarrhoea, swollen head, and coughing) of top four reported symptoms are part of Newcastle disease's presenting signs. Chick mortality was also higher in the wet season, when there is a higher incidence of Newcastle disease. This was also supported by the individual country data in that those countries with high chick mortality data also had low hatchability in the wet season with Egypt being the only exception. The types of housing used for shelter for family poultry was quite variable and presented a challenge to determine the level of cleaning/sanitation to assist in controlling Newcastle disease. On the one hand, a large percentage of households reported never cleaning the poultry house (e.g., Cameroon, Morocco, Mauritius, and Sudan). On the other hand, 34% of the responses to housing type were either trees or other forms of housing that would be difficult to clean i.e., old car, fence, surrounding wall, etc. Obviously, these results should be closely examined when instituting control programs for Newcastle disease. The large variety of available scavenged feed without any data on intake raises the question of how to balance the ration for the flock. Family poultry scientists need to determine a method to estimate intake which could assist in determining what supplementary feed is necessary if any. This challenge may be one of the most important aspects to family poultry management because of the importance of nutrition to poultry production with the added difficulty of providing balanced nutrition in an extensive system. (author)

  14. Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Twelve massless flavors and three colors below the conformal window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nogradi, Daniel; Schroeder, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We report new results for a frequently discussed gauge theory with twelve fermion flavors in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. The model, controversial with respect to its conformality, is important in non-perturbative studies searching for a viable composite Higgs mechanism beyond the Standard Model (BSM). In comparison with earlier work, our new simulations apply larger volumes and probe deeper in fermion and pion masses toward the chiral limit. Investigating the controversy, we subject the model to opposite hypotheses with respect to the conformal window. In the first hypothesis, below the conformal window, we test chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) with its Goldstone spectrum, F π , the χSB condensate, and several composite hadron states as analytic functions of the fermion mass when varied in a limited range with our best effort to control finite volume effects. In the second test, for the alternate hypothesis inside the conformal window, we probe conformal behavior driven by a single anomalous mass dimension under the assumption of unbroken chiral symmetry at vanishing fermion mass. Our results at fixed gauge coupling, based on the assumptions of the two hypotheses we define, show low level of confidence in the conformal scenario with leading order scaling analysis. Relaxing the important assumption of leading mass-deformed conformality with its conformal finite size scaling would require added theoretical understanding of the scaling violation terms in the conformal analysis and a comprehensive test of its effects on the confidence level of the fits. Results for the running coupling, based on the force between static sources, and preliminary indications for the finite temperature transition are also presented. Staggered lattice fermions with stout-suppressed taste breaking are used throughout the simulations.

  16. Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Voznyak, O.M.; Bodak, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Phase equilibria in Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems are investigated at 1070 K. Sc 2+x W 3-x Si 4 ternary compound (0≤x≤1) is determined, its crystal structure (Ce 2 Sc 3 Si 4 structural type), as well as, change of elementary cell parameters and microhardness within homogeneity range are determined. Regularities of component interaction within Sc-M-Si(Ge) (M-Cr, Mo, W) ternary system are determined. Ternary systems with Mo and W are more closer to each other according to the phase equilibria character, than to ternary systems with Cr

  17. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12 TPB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Critical Micellar Concentrations (CMCs) by conductometry, but their ternary mixtures produce single ... efficiently quenched pyrene fluorescence; the performances of the homologues in this respect were assessed. Keywords ..... The shape of the amphiphile aggregates ..... Haque M E, Das A R and Moulik S P 1999 J. Colloid.

  18. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  19. Robust Self-Triggered Coordination With Ternary Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo; Nair, G.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  20. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  1. Robust self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  2. Calculation of Fe–B–V ternary phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolová, Viera; Kroupa, Aleš; Výrostková, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase diagram of Fe–B–V system was modelled by CALPHAD method. ► Database for thermodynamic calculations for Fe–B–V system was created. ► The new ternary phase was found in 67Fe–18B–15V [in at.%] alloy. - Abstract: The phase equilibria of the Fe–B–V ternary system are studied experimentally and theoretically in this paper. Phase diagram of the system was modelled by CALPHAD method. Boron was modelled as an interstitial element in the FCC and BCC solid solutions. The calculations of isothermal sections of phase diagram are compared with our experimental results at 903 and 1353 K and with available literature experimental data. New ternary phase (with chemical composition 28Fe32V40B in at.%) was found in 67Fe–18B–15V alloy [in at.%]. Further experimental studies for the determination of exact nature of the ternary phase including crystallographic information are necessary.

  3. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better

  4. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  5. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  6. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  7. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main comput...

  8. Phase coexistence and line tension in ternary lipid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, T.; Leeuwen, van J.M.J.; Storm, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ternary system consisting of cholesterol, a saturated lipid, and an unsaturated one exhibits a rich phase behavior with multiple phase coexistence regimes. Remarkably, phase separation even occurs when each of the three binary systems consisting of two of these components is a uniform mixture.

  9. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.-J.

    1997-01-01

    A thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system has been made by using thermodynamic models for the Gibbs energy of individual phases. A consistent model parameter set was determined so that the calculation of isothermal sections and other thermodynamic quantities becomes possible. The agreement between calculation and corresponding experimental data was generally good along large temperature and composition range. (orig.)

  10. Design of ternary low-power Domino JKL flip—flop and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Yang Qiankun; Zheng Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    By researching the ternary flip—flop and the adiabatic Domino circuit, a novel design of low-power ternary Domino JKL flip—flop on the switch level is proposed. First, the switch-level structure of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is derived according to the switch-signal theory and its truth table. Then the ternary loop operation circuit and ternary reverse loop operation circuit are achieved by employing the ternary JKL flip—flop. Finally, the circuit is simulated by using the Spice tool and the results show that the logic function is correct. The energy consumption of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is 69% less than its conventional Domino counterpart. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Experimental investigation of the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadieva, Leyla F.; Aliev, Ziya S.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.; Babanly, Mahammad B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The self-consistent phase diagram of the Ag–Bi–I system is constructed. ► Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are the only ternary phases of the system. ► Standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are calculated. - Abstract: The phase equilibriums in the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases were experimentally determined by using DTA and XRD techniques and EMF measurements with the Ag 4 RbI 5 solid electrolyte. According to the obtained experimental results, the polythermal sections of the ternary phase diagram, its isothermal section at 300 K as well as the projection of the liquids surface have been revised. The fields of the primary crystallization and types and coordinates of nonvariant and monovariant equilibriums were determined. The partial molar functions of silver iodide and silver in the alloys as well as the standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 were calculated based on EMF measurements.

  12. Ternary Fission of U235 by Resonance Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitek, I.; Popov, Ju.P.; Rjabov, Ju.V.

    1965-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have appeared indicating considerable variations in the ratio of the ternary-fission cross-section to the binary-fission cross-section of U 235 on transition from one neutron resonance to another. However, such variations have not been discovered in U 233 and Pu 239 . The paper reports investigations of the ternary fission of U 235 by neutrons with an energy of 0.1 to 30 eV. Unlike other investigators of the ternary fission of U 235 , we identified the ternary-fission event by the coincidence of one of the fission fragments with a light long-range particle. This made it passible to separate ternary fissions from the possible contribution of the (n, α)reaction. The measurements were performed at the fast pulsed reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research by the time-of-flight method. A flight length of 100 m was used, giving a resolution of 0.6 μs/m. Gas scintillation counters filled with xenon at a pressure of 2 atm were used to record the fission fragments and the light long-range particle. A layer of enriched U 235 ∼2 mg/cm 2 thick and ∼300 cm 2 in area was applied to an aluminium foil 20-fim thick. The scintillations from the fission fragments were recorded in the gas volume on one side of the foil and those from the light long-range particles in that on the other. In order to assess the background (e.g . coincidences of the pulse from a fragment with that from a fission gamma quantum or a proton from the (n, p) reaction in the aluminium foil), a measurement was carried out in which the volume recording the long-range particle was shielded with a supplementary aluminium filter 1-mm thick. The results obtained indicate the absence of the considerable variations in the ratio between the ternary-and binary- fission cross-sections for U 235 that have been noted by other authors. Measurements showed no irregularity in the ratio of the cross-sections in the energy range 0.1 to 0.2 eV. The paper discusses the possible effect of

  13. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I. KOSTOV

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  14. Ternary carbide uranium fuels for advanced reactor design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    Solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides such as the pseudo-ternary carbide, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise for advanced reactor design applications because of their high thermal conductivity and high melting point (typically greater than 3200 K). Additionally, because of their thermochemical stability in a hot-hydrogen environment, pseudo-ternary carbides have been investigated for potential space nuclear power and propulsion applications. However, their stability with regard to sodium and improved resistance to attack by water over uranium carbide portends their usefulness as a fuel for advanced terrestrial reactors. An investigation into processing techniques was conducted in order to produce a series of (U, Zr, Nb)C samples for characterization and testing. Samples with densities ranging from 91% to 95% of theoretical density were produced by cold pressing and sintering the mixed constituent carbides at temperatures as high as 2650 K. (author)

  15. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  16. Reconstructing Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees from Symbolic Ternary Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Stefan; Long, Yangjing; Wu, Yaokun

    2018-03-09

    Böcker and Dress (Adv Math 138:105-125, 1998) presented a 1-to-1 correspondence between symbolically dated rooted trees and symbolic ultrametrics. We consider the corresponding problem for unrooted trees. More precisely, given a tree T with leaf set X and a proper vertex coloring of its interior vertices, we can map every triple of three different leaves to the color of its median vertex. We characterize all ternary maps that can be obtained in this way in terms of 4- and 5-point conditions, and we show that the corresponding tree and its coloring can be reconstructed from a ternary map that satisfies those conditions. Further, we give an additional condition that characterizes whether the tree is binary, and we describe an algorithm that reconstructs general trees in a bottom-up fashion.

  17. Ternary fission in an effective liquid drop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Sergio B.; Tavares, Odilon A.P.; Dimarco, A.; Goncalves, Marcello; Guzman, Fernando; Trallero-Herrera, Carlos; Rodriguez, Oscar; Garcia, Fermin

    2001-01-01

    Full text follows: The nuclear partition in three fragments has been observed in recent experiments for fission process of 252 Cf and 24 '0 Pu. We apply the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM), successfully used for discussing binary cold fission and cluster emissions for a three center geometric shape parametrization, describing the quasi-molecular deformation which can lead to ternary fragmentation. A preliminary calculation for rates of these processes are performed and the results are compared to the rate of the dominant binary fission process. A large range of parent nuclei (spherical and deformed) is covered in the calculation. The purpose is to point out others possible ternary fission process experimentally measurable. (author)

  18. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  19. Dynamical theory of subconstituents based on ternary algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, I.; Guenaydin, M.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a dynamical theory of possible fundamental constituents of matter. Our scheme is based on (super) ternary algebras which are building blocks of Lie (super) algebras. Elementary fields, called ''ternons,'' are associated with the elements of a (super) ternary algebra. Effective gauge bosons, ''quarks,'' and ''leptons'' are constructed as composite fields from ternons. We propose two- and four-dimensional (super) ternon theories whose structures are closely related to CP/sub N/ and Yang-Mills theories and their supersymmetric extensions. We conjecture that at large distances (low energies) the ternon theories dynamically produce effective gauge theories and thus may be capable of explaining the present particle-physics phenomenology. Such a scenario is valid in two dimensions

  20. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E.; Mijangos, R.R.; Valdez, E.; Duarte, C.

    2001-01-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl x KBrRbCl 2 maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  1. Developing Low-Clinker Ternary Blends for Indian Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Aritra

    2018-05-01

    In today's scenario cement-concrete has become the backbone of infrastructure development. The use of concrete is increasing day by day and so does cement. One of the major concerns is that the cement manufacturing contributes 7% of total man-made CO2 emission in the environment. At the same time India being a developing country secured the second position in cement production. On the other hand solid waste management is one of the growing problems in India. As we are one of the major contributors in this situation so, the time has come to think about the sustainable alternatives. From various researches it has been observed that the low clinker cement can be suitable option. In the present paper we have tried to develop a low clinker ternary blend for Indian cement industry using the concept of synergetic behavior of fly ash-limestone reaction and formation of more stable monocarboaluminate hydrate and hemicarboaluminate hydrate. 30% fly ash and 15% limestone and 5% gypsum have been used as supplementary cementing material for replacing 50% clinker. The mechanical properties like, compressive strength, have been studied for the fly ash limestone ternary blends cements and the results have been compared with the other controlled blends and ternary blends. The effect of intergrinding of constituent materials has shown a comparable properties which can be used for various structural application. The effect of dolomitic limestone has also been studied in fly ash limestone ternary blends and the result shows the relation between compressive strength and dolomite content is inversely proportional.

  2. Tetragonal ternary borides: superconductivity, ferromagnetism and the role of scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthias, B.T.; Patel, C.K.N.; Barz, H.; Corenzwit, E.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report and discuss two discoveries made while studying the condensation phenomena of ternary rhodium borides, MRh 4 B 4 . M is generally a trivalent transition metal, usually a rare earth element RE. An exception is scandium which by itself does not form an isomorphous boride, but in combination with many other elements will do just that. A suprising correlation between ferromagnetic and superconducting transition temperatures has been found. (Auth.)

  3. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  4. New ternary oxides with rhenium(4) of the perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B; Nowakowski, T; Mrozinski, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    A series of ternary oxides described by general formula CaIrsub(x)Resub(1-x)O/sub 3/, where x 0.25; 0.33; 0.66; 0.75, has been obtained. The X-ray investigations have shown, that these compounds have a distorted perovskite structure. The proximal coordination sphere of Re/sup 4 +/ and Ir/sup 4 +/ ions constituted by an octahedron of oxide ions was confirmed by the IR spectra.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  6. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  7. Synthesis of Ternary Quantum Logic Circuits by Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Faisal Shah; Perkowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in multi-valued logic for quantum computing has shown practical advantages for scaling up a quantum computer. Multivalued quantum systems have also been used in the framework of quantum cryptography, and the concept of a qudit cluster state has been proposed by generalizing the qubit cluster state. An evolutionary algorithm based synthesizer for ternary quantum circuits has recently been presented, as well as a synthesis method based on matrix factorization.In this paper, a re...

  8. Development and application of high strength ternary boride base cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction boronizing sintering is a novel strategy to form a ternary boride coexisting with a metal matrix in a cermet during liquid phase sintering. This new sintering technique has successfully developed world first ternary boride base cermets with excellent mechanical properties such as Mo 2 FeB 2 , Mo 2 NiB 2 and WCoB base ones. In these cermets Mo 2 FeB 2 and Mo 2 NiB 2 base ones consist of a tetragonal M 3 B 2 (M: metal)-type complex boride as a hard phase and a transition metal base matrix. The cermets have already been applied to wear resistant applications such as injection molding machine parts, can making tools, and hot copper extruding dies, etc. This paper focuses on the characteristics, effects of the additional elements on the mechanical properties and structure, and practical applications of the ternary boride base cermets. - Graphical abstract: TRS and hardness of Ni-5B-51Mo-17.5Cr and Ni-5B-51Mo-12.5Cr-5V-xMn mass% cermets as functions of Mn content (Fig. 17)

  9. Phase Equilibria of Sn-Co-Cu Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Sinn-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Huang, Yu-Chih

    2012-10-01

    Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys are promising lead-free solders, and isothermal sections of Sn-Co-Cu phase equilibria are fundamentally important for the alloys' development and applications. Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys were prepared and equilibrated at 523 K, 1073 K, and 1273 K (250 °C, 800 °C, and 1000 °C), and the equilibrium phases were experimentally determined. In addition to the terminal solid solutions and binary intermetallic compounds, a new ternary compound, Sn3Co2Cu8, was found. The solubilities of Cu in the α-CoSn3 and CoSn2 phases at 523 K (250 °C) are 4.2 and 1.6 at. pct, respectively, while the Cu solubility in the α-Co3Sn2 phase is as high as 20.0 at. pct. The Cu solubility increases with temperature and is around 30.0 at. pct in the β-Co3Sn2 at 1073 K (800 °C). The Co solubility in the η-Cu6Sn5 phase is also significant and is 15.5 at. pct at 523 K (250 °C).

  10. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  11. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  12. Superconductivity of ternary metal compounds prepared at high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Shirotani, I

    2003-01-01

    Various ternary metal phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, silicides and germanides have been prepared at high temperatures and high pressures. These ternary metal compounds can be classified into four groups: [1] metal-rich compounds MM' sub 4 X sub 2 and [2] MM'X, [3] non-metal-rich compounds MXX' and [4] MM' sub 4 X sub 1 sub 2 (M and M' = metal element; X and X' = non-metal element). We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these materials at low temperatures, and found many new superconductors with the superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of above 10 K. The metal-rich compound ZrRu sub 4 P sub 2 with a tetragonal structure showed the superconducting transition at around 11 K, and had an upper critical field (H sub c sub 2) of 12.2 tesla (T) at 0 K. Ternary equiatomic compounds ZrRuP and ZrRuSi crystallize in two modifications, a hexagonal Fe sub 2 P-type structure [h-ZrRuP(Si)] and an orthorhombic Co sub 2 P-type structure [o-ZrRuP(Si)]. Both h-ZrRuP and h-ZrRuSi have rather h...

  13. Study on the solid state chemistry of ternary uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    1988-03-01

    With the increase of burnup of uranium oxide fuels, various kinds of fission products are formed, and the oxygen atoms combined with the consumed heavy atoms are freed. The solid state chemical and/or thermodynamic properties of these elements at high temperatures are complex, and have not been well clarified. In the present report, an approach was taken that the chemical interactions between UO 2 and these fission products can be regarded as causing overlapped effects of composing ternary uranium oxides, and formation reactions and phase behavior were studied for several ternary uranium oxides with typical fission product elements such as alkaline earth metals and rare earth elements. Precise determination methods for the composition of ternary uranium oxides were developed. The estimated accuracies for x and y values in M y U 1-y O 2+x were ± 0.006 and ± 0.004, respectively. The thermodynamic properties and the lattice parameters of the phases in the Ca-U-O and Pr-U-O systems were discussed in relation to the composition determined by the methods. Crystal structure analyses of cadmium monouranates were made with X-ray diffraction method. (author) 197 refs

  14. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  15. Ternary fission of 184466,476X formed in U + U collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthikraj, C.; Subramanian, S.; Selvaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the very rare process of nuclear ternary fission has been of great interest in nuclear dynamics. Based on the statistical theory of fission, we discuss here the ternary-fission mass distribution of 184 466,476 X formed in low-energy U + U collisions for different heavy third fragments at T = 1 and 2 MeV. The expected ternary configurations 208 Pb + 208 Pb + 50 Ca and 204 Hg + 204 Hg + 58 Cr are obtained from the ternary fission of 184 466 X at T = 2 MeV. In addition, for both the systems, various possible ternary modes are listed for different heavy third fragments. Our results clearly indicate that the favored ternary configurations have either proton and/or neutron shell closure nucleus as one of their partners. (orig.)

  16. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, K.M.; Rose, R.M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-01-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 0 K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys

  17. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralls, K. M.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-06-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 °K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys.

  18. Zr-Fe-Sn Ternary System Phase Diagrams- New Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Gomez, A; Arias, D

    2004-01-01

    New experimental results for the Zr-Fe-Sn ternary system are presented in this paper. The phases present and equilibrium relations for the 900 o C isothermal on the central zone of the Gibbs triangle are analysed. A set of ternary alloys was designed and obtained, and they were analysed by semi quantitative SEM- EDS, XRD, and metallographic samples. The resulting ternary phase diagrams are presented here (JCH)

  19. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, Zahra; Elgadi, Mohamed; Rivet, Jacques; Dugue, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  20. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, Zahra [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Elgadi, Mohamed [Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Rivet, Jacques [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Dugue, Jerome [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)], E-mail: jerome.dugue@univ-paris5.fr

    2009-05-27

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  1. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  2. Ternary equilibria in bismuth--indium--lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, K.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Nelson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The liquidus surface is characterized by three binary equilibria. One binary extends from the Pb--Bi peritectic to the Pb--In peritectic. The other two extend from In--Bi eutectics, merge at 50 at. percent Bi and 30 at. percent Pb, and end at the Bi--Pb eutectic. Based on analysis of ternary liquidus contours and vertical sections, it is suggested that solidification for high lead and very high indium alloys occurs from two-phase equilibria. Solidification from all other alloys occurs from three-phase equilibria. Four-phase solidification does not occur in this system

  3. Paramagnetic centers in ternary coordinated oxygen in beryllium aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaginina, L.A.; Zatsepin, A.F.; Dmitriev, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Glasses of the composition 3BeO-Al 2 O 3 -6SiO 2 containing a homogenizing additive of MgF 2 were synthesized. The ESR spectra of x-ray and gamma irradiated specimens were determined. A complex ESR spectrum arose in the original glass. The ESR spectrum of the gamma-irradiated polycrystalline Be 2 SiO 4 glass was almost identical to the crystallized glass. It was shown that the presence of beryllium atoms in the composition of silicate glasses created the conditions for the formation of structural fragments with ternary coordinated oxygen

  4. Implementation of DFT application on ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Peng; Youyi, Fu; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Shuai, Kong; Xinyu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As its characteristics of huge number of data bits and low energy consumption, optical computing may be used in the applications such as DFT etc. which needs a lot of computation and can be implemented in parallel. According to this, DFT implementation methods in full parallel as well as in partial parallel are presented. Based on resources ternary optical computer (TOC), extensive experiments were carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are correct and feasible. They provide a foundation for further exploration of the applications on TOC that needs a large amount calculation and can be processed in parallel.

  5. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described

  6. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  8. Ternary system of cesium, rubidium and lead iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchanskaya, V.V.; Dunaeva, T.I.; Il'yasov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Meltability diagram of ternary system (CsI) 2 -(RbI) 2 -PbI 2 has been studied. The liquidus of the given system consists of crystallization fields of solid solutions (CsI-RbI) and (CsI·PbI 2 -RbI-PbI 2 ), fields of incongruently melting compounds 9RbI·PbI 2 , 4CsI·PbI 2 and field of PbI 2 component. In the system two nonvariant points at 410 and 380 deg C are detected

  9. First principle study of cubic ScGaN ternaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adli, W.; Mecheref, R.; Sekkal, N.; Tair, F.; Amrani, B.

    2008-08-01

    The electronic properties of the Sc x Ga1- x N ternary alloy are investigated. The transition from rocksalt (B1) to zinc blende (B3) structure is found to occur rapidly after incorporating just a small fraction (less than 1%) of Ga. In the present paper, the first principles method the full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals method (FPLMTO) in its atomic sphere approximation (ASA) coupled to the technique of the empty spheres is employed. Our results concerning the electronic properties are different from those reported in literature. (author)

  10. Phase diagram of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.; Gonzalez Camus, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that Ti stabilizes the high temperature cubic phase of Zr and that Sn stabilizes the low temperature hexagonal phase of Zr. The effect of Sn on the Zr-Ti diagram has been studied in the present paper. Using high purity metals, nine different alloys have been prepared, with 4-32 at % Ti, 0.7-2.2 at % Sn and Zr till 100%. Resistivity and optical and SEM metallography techniques have been employed. Effect of some impurities have been analyzed. The results are discussed and different isothermic sections of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn diagram are presented. (Author) [es

  11. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Zhao, Chao; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid

  12. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  13. Detection of the ternary alpha particles from 252Cr spontaneous source with timepix pixeleted detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, G.S.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Garibov, A.A.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2013-01-01

    A third charged particle is emitted besides the two main fission fragments in ternary fission. Because of the ternary fission is a unique tool to explore the dynamics and structure of atomic nuclei by probing the fissioning system near the scission point and observing fissioning reaction and decay mechanisms main tool to study nuclear fission processes

  14. Ternary System with Controlled Structure: A New Strategy toward Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huang, Wenchao; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Meng, Lei; Sun, Pengyu; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Qin, Meng; Zhu, Chenhui; Zhan, Xiaowei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact. Herein, the concept and design of donor/acceptor/acceptor ternary OPV with more controlled structure (C-ternary) is reported. The C-ternary OPV is fabricated by a sequential solution process, in which the second acceptor and donor/acceptor binary blend are sequentially spin-coated. After the device optimization, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all OPV with C-ternary are enhanced by 14-21% relative to those with the simple ternary blend; the best PCEs are 10.7 and 11.0% for fullerene-based and fullerene-free solar cells, respectively. Moreover, the averaged PCE value of 10.4% for fullerene-free solar cell measured in this study is in great agreement with the certified one of 10.32% obtained from Newport Corporation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingjun; Zhu Yihong; Yu Yan; Wang Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-W-V ternary system. → A stable liquid miscibility gap is newly discovered in the Co-W-V ternary system. → This work is of great essence to establish the thermodynamic database for the Co-based alloys. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system were experimentally investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the equilibrated alloys. Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined, and no ternary compound was found in this system. In addition, a novel phenomena induced by the liquid phase separation in the Co-W-V alloys was firstly discovered, suggesting that a stable liquid miscibility gap exists in the Co-W-V ternary system. The newly determined phase equilibria and firstly discovered phase separation phenomena in the Co-W-V system will provide important information for the development of Co-W based alloys.

  16. Multicomponent ternary cocrystals of the sulfonamide group with pyridine-amides and lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-11-04

    SMBA was selected as a bifunctional sulfa drug to design ternary cocrystals with pyridine amides and lactam coformers. Supramolecular assembly of five ternary cocrystals of p-sulfonamide benzoic acid with nicotinamide and 2-pyridone is demonstrated and reproducible heterosynthons are identified for crystal engineering.

  17. Asymmetry in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons and fission mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Gennenvajn, F.; Dzhessinger, P.; Mutterer, M.; Petrov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the P-odd, P-even (right-left) and T-odd asymmetries of the charged particles emission in the double and ternary fission, induced by the polarized neutrons, are considered. It is shown, what kind of information on the mechanism of the ternary nuclear fission may be obtained from the theoretical analysis of these data [ru

  18. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  19. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  20. Energy dissipation in the process of ternary fission in heavy nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xian; Wang Chengqian; Yan Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the collective motion, interaction potential, the total kinetic and excitation energies in ternary fissions of 197 Au + 197 Au system at 15 MeV/u, and discussed energy dissipation of this reaction. Through the comparison with energy-angle correlation data in binary fissions, we preliminarily concluded that the rst fission of ternary fission was an extreme deep-inelastic process. We further analyzed the correlation of the total kinetic energy with impact parameters in both binary and ternary reactions, and found that the total energy of binary reactions systems was lost about 150 MeV more than ternary fission with small impact parameters, and with larger impact parameters the total energy of ternary reactions were lost 300 MeV more than binary reactions. (authors)

  1. First-principles study of ternary fcc solution phases from special quasirandom structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Dongwon; Wang Yi; Liu Zikui; Walle, Axel van de

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, ternary special quasirandom structures (SQSs) for a fcc solid solution phase are generated at different compositions, x A =x B =x C =(1/3) and x A =(1/2), x B =x C =(1/4), whose correlation functions are satisfactorily close to those of a random fcc solution. The generated SQSs are used to calculate the mixing enthalpy of the fcc phase in the Ca-Sr-Yb system. It is observed that first-principles calculations of all the binary and ternary SQSs in the Ca-Sr-Yb system exhibit very small local relaxation. It is concluded that the fcc ternary SQSs can provide valuable information about the mixing behavior of the fcc ternary solid solution phase. The SQSs presented in this work can be widely used to study the behavior of ternary fcc solid solutions

  2. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  3. Chapter Twelve

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    okada na obere jenareto ai passi mai nebo·. 17 ... Oluchukwu Micro-Finance Bank gbasara aka inyere ndi 10. Mmadu aka n'uzo di .... Nigeria· This in no small measure has been helping unemployed people, graduates ... Even in the transport sector people have been empowered to be self reliant· This could be seen in the ...

  4. Experimental Investigation of the 1073 K (800 °C) Isothermal Section of the Al-V-Zr Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yude; Ouyang, Xuemei; Yin, Fucheng; Zhao, Manxiu; Lou, Jia

    2018-03-01

    This work is focused on an experimental investigation of the phase equilibria of the Al-V-Zr system at 1073 K (800 °C). The phase equilibria were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The results confirmed the presence of twelve three-phase regions and one ternary compound, Τ, which contains 10.0 to 16.5 at. pct Zr, 52.8 to 55.2 at. pct Al, and 29.3 to 36.3 at. pct V. The T phase can be in equilibrium with Al8V5, Al3Zr, Al2Zr, and α-V. The T phase belongs to the tetragonal crystal system with confirmed lattice parameters of a = 0.658531 nm and c = 0.517334 nm. The Al2Zr phase region is extraordinarily large and can be in equilibrium with all the compounds in the Al-Zr and V-Zr systems, with the exception of the AlZr phase.

  5. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  6. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  7. Face Liveness Detection Using Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Parveen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP, which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.

  8. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department

    2017-06-14

    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  9. A ternary logic model for recurrent neuromime networks with delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, R D; Cull, P

    1995-07-01

    In contrast to popular recurrent artificial neural network (RANN) models, biological neural networks have unsymmetric structures and incorporate significant delays as a result of axonal propagation. Consequently, biologically inspired neural network models are more accurately described by nonlinear differential-delay equations rather than nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and the standard techniques for studying the dynamics of RANNs are wholly inadequate for these models. This paper develops a ternary-logic based method for analyzing these networks. Key to the technique is the realization that a nonzero delay produces a bounded stability region. This result significantly simplifies the construction of sufficient conditions for characterizing the network equilibria. If the network gain is large enough, each equilibrium can be classified as either asymptotically stable or unstable. To illustrate the analysis technique, the swim central pattern generator (CPG) of the sea slug Tritonia diomedea is examined. For wide range of reasonable parameter values, the ternary analysis shows that none of the network equilibria are stable, and thus the network must oscillate. The results show that complex synaptic dynamics are not necessary for pattern generation.

  10. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.O.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  11. Investigation of transient photoresponse of WSSe ternary alloy crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Payal; Solanki, G. K.; Tannarana, Mohit; Pataniya, Pratik; Patel, K. D.; Pathak, V. M.

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal chalcogenides have been studied intensively in recent time due to their tunability of electronic properties by compositional change, alloying and by transforming bulk material into crystalline 2D structure. These changes lead to the development of verities of next generation opto-electronic device applications such as solar cells, FETs and flexible detectors etc. In present work, we report growth and characterization of crystalline ternary alloy WSSe by direct vapour transport technique. A photodetector is constructed using grown crystals to study its transient photoresponse under polychromatic radiation. The WSSe crystals are mechanically exfoliated to thickness of 3 µm and the lateral dimension of prepared sample is 2.25 mm2. The time-resolved photoresponse is studied under polychromatic illumination of power density ranging from 10 to 40 mW/cm2. The photo response is also studied under different bias voltages ranging from 0.1 V to 0.5 V. The typical photodetector parameters i.e. photocurrent, rise and fall time, responsivity and sensitivity are evaluated and discussed in light of the ternary alloy composition.

  12. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  13. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make

  14. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru; Bulychev, A. O. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  15. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  16. He and Be ternary spontaneous fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J K; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H

    2002-01-01

    Ternary and binary fission studies of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf have been carried out by using the Gammasphere detector array with light charged particle (LCD) detectors. The relative sup 4 He and sup 5 He ternary fission yields were determined. The kinetic energies of the sup 5 He and sup 4 He ternary particles were found to be approximately 11 and 16 MeV, respectively. The sup 5 He particles contribute 10-20 % to the total observed alpha ternary yield. The data indicate that in nuclei with octupole deformations the population for the negative parity bands might be enhanced in the alpha ternary fission. >From LCP-gamma double gated spectra, neutron multiplicity distributions for alpha ternary fission pairs were measured. The average neutron multiplicity decreases about 0.7 AMU in going from the binary to alpha ternary fission in the approximately same mass splittings (104-146). From the analysis of the gamma-gamma matrix gated on the sup 1 sup 0 Be particles, the two fragment pairs of sup 1 sup 3 sup 8 Xe - sup 1...

  17. Quantum error-correcting code for ternary logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ritajit; Basu, Saikat; Ghosh, Shibashis; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2018-05-01

    Ternary quantum systems are being studied because they provide more computational state space per unit of information, known as qutrit. A qutrit has three basis states, thus a qubit may be considered as a special case of a qutrit where the coefficient of one of the basis states is zero. Hence both (2 ×2 ) -dimensional and (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors can occur on qutrits. In this paper, we (i) explore the possible (2 ×2 ) -dimensional as well as (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors in qutrits and show that any pairwise bit swap error can be expressed as a linear combination of shift errors and phase errors, (ii) propose a special type of error called a quantum superposition error and show its equivalence to arbitrary rotation, (iii) formulate a nine-qutrit code which can correct a single error in a qutrit, and (iv) provide its stabilizer and circuit realization.

  18. Ternary ceramic alloys of Zr-Ce-Hf oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, P.F.; Funkenbusch, E.F.

    1990-11-20

    A ternary ceramic alloy is described which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce[sub x]Hf[sub y]Zr[sub 1[minus]x[minus]y]O[sub 2], is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites. 1 fig.

  19. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-13

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  20. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  1. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S [Stony Brook, NY; Park, Tae-Jin [Port Jefferson, NY

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  2. Structural study of the continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desforge, Christine

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the structure of a continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions of oil-in-water type, composed of water and octane, and stabilised by means of a cationic surfactant (DDAB, didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide). It shows that the kinetic stability is due to electrostatic repulsions between octane drops, and that these repulsions are due to the presence of positive charges on the DDAB mono-layer located at the interface between water and oil. Various aspects are highlighted by neutron and X ray scattering. In this study, the DDAB is replaced by a non-ionic surfactant. Its use results in very steady oil/water emulsions [fr

  3. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    it possible using the same equation of state to describe the thermodynamic properties of the segregated and the bulk phases. For comparison, we also used the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) to describe adsorption equilibria. The main advantage of these two models is their capabilities to predict......The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes...... multicomponent adsorption equilibria on the basis of single-component adsorption data. We compare the MPTA and IAST models to a large set of experimental data, obtaining reasonable good agreement with experimental data and high degree of predictability. Some limitations of both models are also discussed....

  4. Site occupancies in ternary C15 ordered Laves phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotula, P.G.; Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.; Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1996-01-01

    Site occupancies in three C15-structured AB 2 (X) Laves phases have been determined by Atom Location by CHanneling Enhanced MIcroanalysis (ALCHEMI). In NbCr 2 (V), the results were consistent with exclusive site occupancies of Nb for the A sublattice and Cr and V for the B sublattice. The B-site occupancy of V is not expected from atom size effects alone. In NbCr 2 (Ti), the results were consistent with Ti partitioning mostly to the A sites with some anti-site defects likely. In HfV 2 (Nb), the results were consistent with Nb partitioning between the A and B sites. The results of the ALCHEMI analyses of these ternary C15 Laves phase materials will be discussed with respect to previously determined phase diagrams and first-principles total energy and electronic structure calculations

  5. Quadrupole interaction in ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Degering, D; Deicher, M; Kortus, J; Magerle, R; Möller, A; Samokhvalov, V; Unterricker, S; Vianden, R

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients have been measured at substitutional lattice sites in ternary semiconductors using perturbed gamma - gamma angular correlation spectroscopy. The experimental results for A/sup I/B/sup III/C/sub 2//sup VI/ chalcopyrite structure compounds and Square Operator A/sup II/B/sub 2//sup III/C/sub 4//sup VI/ defect chalcopyrites are compared with ab-initio calculations. The latter were carried out with the WIEN code that uses the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within a density functional theory. The agreement between experiment and theory is in most cases very good. Furthermore, the anion displacements in AgGaX/sub 2/- compounds (X: S, Se, Te) have been determined theoretically by determining the minimum of the total energy of the electrons in an elementary cell. (20 refs).

  6. Superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.G.; Aleksivskii, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy of the type Cu 93 Nb 5 Sn 2 , subjected to a variety of mechanical and heat treatments, are discussed. The as-cast alloy does not turn superconducting down to 4.5K; but the cold-work and subsequent prescribed heat treatments are found to raise the transition temperature Tsub(c) to values as high as 18.1K and the critical current density Jsub(c) (of the Nb 3 Sn formed during annealing) to a value of 3.6x10 5 Acm -2 (at 4.2K and 30kOe). Various possibilities to improve Jsub(c) of this alloy to still higher values are discussed. The as-cast alloy is ductile, easy to draw, and economical from a technical point of view, and the annealed wires and strips are flexible enough for winding. (author)

  7. Secondary ordering in ternary alloy CuMnPt6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miwako; Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    Using the pulsed-neutron diffraction technique, we performed in situ measurements of structural ordering in the ternary alloy CuMnPt 6 . The diffraction patterns at various temperatures give a direct observation of a double-step ordering: disorder to Cu 3 Au type order as an ordering within the fundamental face-centered cubic lattice to subdivide the lattice into two sublattices formed by face-centered sites (first sublattice) and corner sites (second sublattice) at 968degC; and Cu 3 Au type order to ABC 6 type order as an ordering within the second to subdivide the lattice further into two sublattices formed by alternating (111) planes at 746degC. The order parameters for the ABC 6 type structure experimentally estimated by the method of static concentration waves indicate that the primary ordering developed almost completely, but the secondary ordering remained incomplete. (author)

  8. Bond charges and electronic charge transfer in ternary semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a simple molecule-theoretic model of 'linear superposition of two-electron molecules' the bond charges between nearest neighbours and the effective charges of ions are calculated for ternary zinc-blende structure alloys as well as chalcopyrite semiconductors. Taking into account both, the charge transfer among the ions caused by the differences of electronegativities of atoms used and between the bonds created by the internal stress of the lattice a nearly unvaried averaged bond charge amount of the alloy is found, but rather dramatically changed local bond charge parameters in comparison with the respective values of binary compounds used. This fact should influence the noncentral force interaction in such semiconductors. (author)

  9. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.; Naous, Rawan; Masmoudi, M.

    2017-01-01

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  10. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  11. Enhancement of phononic band gaps in ternary/binary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) and Bloch theory, the interaction of elastic waves (normal incidence) with 1D phononic crystal had been studied. The transfer matrix method was obtained for both longitudinal and transverse waves by applying the continuity conditions between the consecutive unit cells. Dispersion relations are calculated and plotted for both binary and ternary structures. Also we have investigated the corresponding effects on the band gaps values for the two types of phononic crystals. Furthermore, it can be observed that the complete band gaps are located in the common frequency stop-band regions. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of different thickness ratios inside each unit cell on the band gap values, as well as unit cells thickness on the central band gap frequency. These phononic band gap materials can be used as a filter for elastic waves at different frequencies values.

  12. Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Testa, Paolo; Anantharaman, Surendra Babu; Heier, Jakob; Jenatsch, Sandra; Leclaire, Nicolas; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Wang, Lei; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component. Our results show that organic ternary blends are attractive for the fabrication of semitransparent solar cells in general, because a guest component with a complementary absorption can compensate for the inevitably reduced current generation capability of a high-performing binary blend when applied as a thin, semitransparent film.

  13. New method for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrtens, A.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    1988-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum apparatus is described for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems. Three singly controlled electron beam evaporation sources provide a constant evaporation rate of the different elements. A specially designed rotating mask guarantees a concentration gradient on the substrate according to a ternary phase diagram. The conversion of the actual concentration profile into a standard ternary phase diagram is done by simple computer calculations. They involve corrections for the beam characteristics of the evaporation sources and for the rotating mask. As an example, measurements for the Zr--Cu--Co system are given. The concentration range for the amorphous phase is compared with thermodynamic predictions using Miedema's parameter

  14. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-01-01

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: 3 He, 11 Li, 14 Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10 -10 per fission. Results from the fissioning systems 233 U (n th , f), 235 U(n th ,f), 239 Pu(n th ,f) 241 Pu(n th ,f) and 245 Cm(n th ,f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed

  15. Who should do what in environmental management? Twelve principles for allocating responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.

    2015-01-01

    In environmental management there is often discussion on the allocation of responsibilities. Such discussions can continue for a long time and can form an obstacle for effective action. In this article twelve normative principles for the allocation of responsibilities are identified, coming from

  16. Key lessons: Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Key lessons: Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the policy and at the operational levels ... from slums in central New Delhi to the city's desolate periphery face daily indignities and danger as they collect water o.

  17. Peucedanum ostruthium (L. Koch: Morphological and phytochemical variability of twelve accessions from the Swiss alpine region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCardell, Jessica Heather

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostruthin, a natural bioactive compound mainly occurring in the roots of Peucedanum ostruthium, is the focus of this study. P. ostruthium was collected from twelve locations in the Swiss alpine region and reared in an experimental field, subdivided into twelve lots over two years. In the spring and fall, a portion of each of the twelve accessions was harvested and separated into above and below ground plant parts. The dried plants were then extracted with 60 % ethanol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC.The above and below ground plant parts were then analyzed concerning their dry matter yield (DMY, their ostruthin concentration and their ostruthin yield. Focusing on ostruthin, it was found that the below ground plant parts harvested in the fall rendered the highest ostruthin yield. Furthermore, a variability concerning ostruthin among the twelve accessions was found. This variability among the accessions is of interest with regards to a breeding program used to develop a cultivar with a high ostruthin yield.

  18. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  19. Isolation and characterization of twelve microsatellite loci for the Japanese Devilray (Mobula japanica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Galvan-Magana, Felipe; Bernardi, Giacomo; Croll, Donald A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellites loci were characterized for Mobula japanica (Japanese Devilray) using an enrichment protocol. All but two loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium or null-alleles for a sample of 40 individuals from two populations. The

  20. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega ...

  1. The effects of planting density and cultural intensity on loblolly pine crown characteristics at age twelve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison Akers; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Dehai Zhao; Santosh Subedi

    2012-01-01

    Twelve-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands were analyzed for the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree and crown attributes. Four study installations were located in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain regions of the U.S. South. The treatments included six planting densities (740, 1480, 2220, 2960, 3700, 4440 trees...

  2. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna

    2017-11-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  3. Crystal chemistry and magnetic properties of ternary rare earth sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, C.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1977-01-01

    The results of magnetic measurements on two groups of ternary rare earth sulphides are described, the MLnS 2 (M=Li, Na, K) type of compounds and the series Ln 2 ZrS 5 , where Ln denotes one of the rare earths. None of these compounds is metallic, excluding the possibility of RKKY-interaction. In chapter II a survey of the relevant theory on magnetic properties and crystal field splitting is given. In spite of the similarity in chemical properties of the rare earths, the crystal chemistry of their compounds is rather complex. This is due to the lanthanide contraction. The third chapter deals with the description and classification of the numerous crystal structures of both ternary and binary rare earth sulphides that have been observed. Rather simple relations between various structures are presented using a new method of structure classification. The magnetic interactions expected to be based on superexchange via the anions, which is usually very structure dependent. Experiments to study the crystallographic ordering, applying both X-ray and electron diffraction methods and the results of the magnetic measurements on the compounds MLnS 2 are reported in chapter IV. The compounds Ln 2 ZrS 5 are candidates for a systematic study of the variation of the magnetic properties along the rare earth series. The results of magnetic measurements on these compounds are presented in chapter V, combined with the results of specific heat measurements. Also the magnetic structure of two representatives, Tb 2 ZrS 5 and Dy 2 ZrS 5 , determined by neutron diffraction experiments below the ordering temperature, is reported

  4. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  5. Organic Solar Cells beyond One Pair of Donor-Acceptor: Ternary Blends and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Yan, Liang; You, Wei

    2013-06-06

    Ternary solar cells enjoy both an increased light absorption width, and an easy fabrication process associated with their simple structures. Significant progress has been made for such solar cells with demonstrated efficiencies over 7%; however, their fundamental working principles are still under investigation. This Perspective is intended to offer our insights on the three major governing mechanisms in these intriguing ternary solar cells: charge transfer, energy transfer, and parallel-linkage. Through careful analysis of exemplary cases, we summarize the advantages and limitations of these three major mechanisms and suggest future research directions. For example, incorporating additional singlet fission or upconversion materials into the energy transfer dominant ternary solar cells has the potential to break the theoretical efficiency limit in single junction organic solar cells. Clearly, a feedback loop between fundamental understanding and materials selection is in urgent need to accelerate the efficiency improvement of these ternary solar cells.

  6. Synthesis and properties of ternary mixture of nickel/cobalt/tin oxides for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S.; Passos, R. R.; Pocrifka, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports the synthesis and morphological, structural and electrochemical characterization of ternary oxides mixture containing nickel, cobalt and tin. The ternary oxide is synthesized by Pechini method with subsequent deposition onto a titanium substrate in a thin-film form. XRD and EDS analysis confirm the formation of ternary film with amorphous nature. SEM analysis show that cracks on the film favor the gain of the surface area that is an interesting feature for electrochemical capacitors. The ternary film is investigated in KOH electrolyte solution using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge study with a specific capacitance of 328 F g-1, and a capacitance retention of 86% over 600 cycles. The values of specific power and specific energy was 345.7 W kg-1 and 18.92 Wh kg-1, respectively.

  7. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr 7 Ni 10 , ZrNi, ZrNi 5 , Zr 14 Cu 51 , and Zr 2 Cu 9 , show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ 3 (Zr 31.1-30.7 . Cu 28.5-40.3 Ni 40.4-29.0 ) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  8. The ternary systems Sc-Sm(Dy)-Si at 870 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Mokra, I.Ya.; Toporinskij, A.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal cross sections of the ternary systems Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si at 870 K have been plotted. Investigation of scandium and disprosium in ternary systems have been examined by X-ray diffraction and microstructure analysis. Besides literary data on binary systems Sc-Si, Sm-Si, Dy-Si have been used. Formation of limited (Sc-Sm-Si, Sc-Dy-Si) and continuous (Sc-Dy-Si) solid solutions based on bisilicides of Sc and Sm(Dy) is discovered. Two and five ternary compounds in Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si systems have been determined and their crystal structure has been established. When investigating of Sc-(rare earth element)-Si ternary systems and should take into account the specific interaction of scandium and samarium with REE

  9. A computer calculation of the ternary Mo-Pd-Rh phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerler, R.; Pratt, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic coefficients for the phases in the binary Mo-Pd, Pd-Rh and Mo-Rh systems were derived by the assessment of the available experimental data using the binary Lukas optimization program. The resulting coefficients were first successfully utilised in reestablishing the binaries. The coefficients thus obtained in the binary computation were combined with ternary descriptions to compute ternary isothermal sections. Although no ternary interaction term was involved in the construction of the isotherms, the section calculated at 1373 K is found to be consistent with the experimentally established isothermal section at the same temperature. The location of three-phase field (bcc+hcp+fcc) and phase boundaries in both isotherms are matching reasonably well. Combining only binary coefficients of these phases, it is possible to construct reasonable isothermal sections at different temperatures. Following this conclusion, isothermal sections ranging from 1373 to 2673 K of the ternary Mo-Pd-Rh system were calculated. (orig.)

  10. Theoretical study of physical properties and oxygen incorporation effect in nanolaminated ternary carbides 211-MAX phases

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we employ ab initio approaches to review some important physical properties of nanolaminated ternary carbides MAX phases. We fi rstly use an all electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method within the generalized

  11. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Jiang, Chao; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a

  12. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestone, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~ 1.2 MeV and ~ 10 -22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission. (author)

  13. Partially fluorinated aarylene polyethers and their ternary blends with PBI and H3PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Pan, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Ternary blend membranes based on sulphonated partially fluorinated arylene polyether, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and phosphoric acid were prepared and characterised as electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Partially fluorinated arylene polyether was first prepared from...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Thiophosphates

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing development of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals such as coherent mid-IR sources focuses on various classes of materials such as ternary and quaternary metal chalcophosphates. In case of thiophosphates, the connection between PS4

  15. On the application of the NRTL method to ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Julia, Jorge; Barrero, Carmen R.; Corso, Maria E.; Grande, Maria del Carmen; Marschoff, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the NRTL method for correlating experimental data in ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria is considered. It is concluded that parameters obtained by direct correlation techniques have not a direct physical meaning. Also, it is shown that the resulting values for these parameters depend on the number of experimental points considered and on the particular calculation method employed. Thus, it is very risky to employ such parameters in predicting equilibria of other ternary mixtures

  16. Structure of the novel ternary hydrides Li4Tt2D (Tt=Si and Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hui; Rush, J.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD; Hartman, M.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR; Udovic, T.J.; Zhou Wei; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Vajo, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of newly discovered Li 4 Ge 2 D and Li 4 Si 2 D ternary phases were solved by direct methods using neutron powder diffraction data. Both structures can be described using a Cmmm orthorhombic cell with all hydrogen atoms occupying Li 6 -octahedral interstices. The overall crystal structure and the geometry of these interstices are compared with those of other related phases, and the stabilization of this novel class of ternary hydrides is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Consideration of the Verleur model of far-infrared spectroscopy of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, B. V.; Kisiel, A.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    The clustering model proposed by Verleur and Barker [Phys. Rev. 149, 715 (1966)] to interpret far infrared data for face-centered-cubic ternary compounds is critically analyzed. It is shown that their approach, satisfactory for fitting some ternary compound spectral curves, is too restricted by its one-parameter β model to be able to describe preferences (with respect to a random distribution case) for the five tetrahedron configurations

  18. Affine planes, ternary rings, and examples of non-Desarguesian planes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Nikolai V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a detailed self-contained exposition of a part of the theory of affine planes leading to a construction of affine (or, equivalently, projective) planes not satisfying the Desarques axiom. It is intended to complement the introductory expositions of the theory of affine and projective planes. A novelty of our exposition is a new notation for the ternary operation in a ternary ring, much more suggestive than the standard one.

  19. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-01-01

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the...

  20. A new model for predicting thermodynamic properties of ternary metallic solution from binary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Zhang Quanru

    2006-01-01

    A model has been derived to predict thermodynamic properties of ternary metallic systems from those of its three binaries. In the model, the excess Gibbs free energies and the interaction parameter ω 123 for three components of a ternary are expressed as a simple sum of those of the three sub-binaries, and the mole fractions of the components of the ternary are identical with the sub-binaries. This model is greatly simplified compared with the current symmetrical and asymmetrical models. It is able to overcome some shortcomings of the current models, such as the arrangement of the components in the Gibbs triangle, the conversion of mole fractions between ternary and corresponding binaries, and some necessary processes for optimizing the various parameters of these models. Two ternary systems, Mg-Cu-Ni and Cd-Bi-Pb are recalculated to demonstrate the validity and precision of the present model. The calculated results on the Mg-Cu-Ni system are better than those in the literature. New parameters in the Margules equations expressing the excess Gibbs free energies of three binary systems of the Cd-Bi-Pb ternary system are also given

  1. Experimental determination of the phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.P.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, H.H.; Hu, H.F.; Liu, X.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We determined four isothermal sections of the Co-Fe-Zr system from 1000 o C to 1300 o C. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system. → The solubility of Fe in the liquid phase at 1300 o C is extremely large. → The (Co, Fe) 2 Zr phase form the continuous solution from Co-Zr side to Fe-Zr side. → The solubility of Zr in the fcc (Co, Fe) phase is extremely small. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on equilibrated ternary alloys. Four isothermal sections of the Co-Fe-Zr ternary system at 1300 o C, 1200 o C, 1100 o C and 1000 o C were experimentally established. The experimental results indicate that (1) no ternary compound was found in this system; (2) the solubility of Fe in the liquid phase of the Co-rich corner at 1300 o C is extremely large; (3) the liquid phase in the Zr-rich corner and the (Co,Fe) 2 Zr phase form the continuous solid solutions from the Co-Zr side to the Fe-Zr side; (4) the solubility of Zr in the fcc (Co, Fe) phase is extremely small.

  2. Temperature dependence of binary and ternary recombination of H3+ ions with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glosik, J.; Plasil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrik, T.; Novotny, O.; Hlavenka, P.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, Chris H.

    2009-01-01

    We study binary and the recently discovered process of ternary He-assisted recombination of H 3 + ions with electrons in a low-temperature afterglow plasma. The experiments are carried out over a broad range of pressures and temperatures of an afterglow plasma in a helium buffer gas. Binary and He-assisted ternary recombination are observed and the corresponding recombination rate coefficients are extracted for temperatures from 77 to 330 K. We describe the observed ternary recombination as a two-step mechanism: first, a rotationally excited long-lived neutral molecule H 3 * is formed in electron-H 3 + collisions. Second, the H 3 * molecule collides with a helium atom that leads to the formation of a very long-lived Rydberg state with high orbital momentum. We present calculations of the lifetimes of H 3 * and of the ternary recombination rate coefficients for para- and ortho-H 3 + . The calculations show a large difference between the ternary recombination rate coefficients of ortho- and para-H 3 + at temperatures below 300 K. The measured binary and ternary rate coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the calculated values.

  3. Temperature dependence of binary and ternary recombination of H3+ ions with electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosík, J.; Plašil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrík, T.; Novotný, O.; Hlavenka, P.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, Chris H.

    2009-05-01

    We study binary and the recently discovered process of ternary He-assisted recombination of H3+ ions with electrons in a low-temperature afterglow plasma. The experiments are carried out over a broad range of pressures and temperatures of an afterglow plasma in a helium buffer gas. Binary and He-assisted ternary recombination are observed and the corresponding recombination rate coefficients are extracted for temperatures from 77 to 330 K. We describe the observed ternary recombination as a two-step mechanism: first, a rotationally excited long-lived neutral molecule H3∗ is formed in electron- H3+ collisions. Second, the H3∗ molecule collides with a helium atom that leads to the formation of a very long-lived Rydberg state with high orbital momentum. We present calculations of the lifetimes of H3∗ and of the ternary recombination rate coefficients for para- and ortho- H3+ . The calculations show a large difference between the ternary recombination rate coefficients of ortho- and para- H3+ at temperatures below 300 K. The measured binary and ternary rate coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the calculated values.

  4. Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, κ-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and κ-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Equilibrium studies of ternary systems containing some selected transition metal ions, triazoles and aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed Magdy; Radalla, Abd-Elatty; Qasem, Fatma; Khaled, Rehab [Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Solution equilibria of the binary and ternary complex systems of the divalent transition metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} with 1,2,4-triazole (TRZ), 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (TRZSH), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (TRZAM) and aromatic carboxylic acids (phthalic, anthranilic, salicylic, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) have been studied pH-metrically at (25.0±0.1) .deg. C, and a constant ionic strength I=1x10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3} in an aqueous medium. The potentiometric titration curves show that binary and ternary complexes of these ligands are formed in solution. The stability constants of the different binary and ternary complexes formed were calculated on the basis of computer analysis of the titration data. The relative stability of the different ternary complex species is expressed in terms of Δ log K values, log X and R. S.% parameters. The effect of temperature of the medium on both the proton-ligand equilibria for TRZAM and phthalic acid and their metal-ligand equilibria with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} has been studied along with the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. The complexation behavior of ternary complexes is ascertained using conductivity measurements. In addition, the formation of ternary complexes in solution has been confirmed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  6. Ternary complex formation of lanthanides and radiolanthanides with phosphate and serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, B.; Roesch, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radioyttrium was recently reported to form ternary complexes with phosphate and serum proteins in blood. In the present work it was investigated whether the trivalent radiolanthanides react in a chemically similar way. In systematic binding studies using gel filtration a ternary complex formation between different lanthanides, phosphate and serum proteins could be identified. The tendency to build a ternary compound of the type Ln III - phosphate - serum protein, however, is dependent on the ionic radii of the lanthanides. Whereas the light and transition lanthanides have a strong inclination to build a ternary complex, this tendency is weaker for the heavier ones. Taking into account the high content of phosphate in human blood, the corresponding ternary complexes of radiolanthanides represent an important transport form of these elements in blood. This finding may contribute to an understanding of the nuclear medical observation on the biodistribution of radiolanthanides. The heavy radiolanthanides can be classified as bone seeking metals, whereas the light and transition lanthanide elements accumulate mainly in the liver and the spleen. For the lighter radiolanthanides the corresponding ternary complexes thus represent an important transport form in blood. This physicochemical form of lanthanides mainly results in reticulo endothelial accumulation; on the other hand, the lower tendency of heavier lanthanides leads to preferential skeletal deposition. (orig.)

  7. Phase equilibria in M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal, X,X'-B,C,N,Si) and crystal chemistry of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The data on phase equilibria in the M-X-X' and M-Al-X ternary systems (M-transition metal of 3 to 8 groups, X-B,C, N, Si) have been considered and summarized. modern oxygen-free advanced ceramics is based on these ternary systems. Phase diagrams of the 130 ternary systems have been discussed, more than two hundred ternary phases forming in these systems have been systematized and described. The typical crystal structures of ternary compounds and phase have been considered, the common and distinctive features of these structures have been analysed. It has been shown that the ternary compounds with octahedral atomic groups XM 6 have a regions of homogeneity. Refs. 240

  8. Balancing Accuracy and Computational Efficiency for Ternary Gas Hydrate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic accumulations of natural gas hydrates hold vast organic carbon reserves, which have the potential of meeting global energy needs for decades. Estimates of vast amounts of global natural gas hydrate deposits make them an attractive unconventional energy resource. As with other unconventional energy resources, the challenge is to economically produce the natural gas fuel. The gas hydrate challenge is principally technical. Meeting that challenge will require innovation, but more importantly, scientific research to understand the resource and its characteristics in porous media. Producing natural gas from gas hydrate deposits requires releasing CH4 from solid gas hydrate. The conventional way to release CH4 is to dissociate the hydrate by changing the pressure and temperature conditions to those where the hydrate is unstable. The guest-molecule exchange technology releases CH4 by replacing it with a more thermodynamically stable molecule (e.g., CO2, N2). This technology has three advantageous: 1) it sequesters greenhouse gas, 2) it releases energy via an exothermic reaction, and 3) it retains the hydraulic and mechanical stability of the hydrate reservoir. Numerical simulation of the production of gas hydrates from geologic deposits requires accounting for coupled processes: multifluid flow, mobile and immobile phase appearances and disappearances, heat transfer, and multicomponent thermodynamics. The ternary gas hydrate system comprises five components (i.e., H2O, CH4, CO2, N2, and salt) and the potential for six phases (i.e., aqueous, liquid CO2, gas, hydrate, ice, and precipitated salt). The equation of state for ternary hydrate systems has three requirements: 1) phase occurrence, 2) phase composition, and 3) phase properties. Numerical simulation of the production of geologic accumulations of gas hydrates have historically suffered from relatively slow execution times, compared with other multifluid, porous media systems, due to strong nonlinearities and

  9. Vitamin and mineral intake of twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jakobsen, Jette; Friis, H

    2005-01-01

    runners was carried out to determine their micronutrient intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over a two-week period, samples of the main eaten food were collected for analysis of micronutrient distribution and a daily 24 recall interview performed to determine additional food intake. RESULTS: The estimated...... mg, 1309 microg, and 79 microg, respectively. CONCLUSION: Total daily micronutrient intake of the twelve Kalenjin runners was far from adequate compared to FAO/WHO daily recommended and suggested adequate intake....

  10. A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2003-12-13

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  11. Morphology of the spermathecae of twelve species of Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Ribeiro, Aline Rimoldi; Almeida, Larissa Aguiar; de Oliveira, Jader; Mendonça, Vagner José; Cilense, Mário; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2017-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted by triatomines that have been described in a large number of studies. Most of those studies are related to external morphology and taxonomy, but some biochemical, genetic and physiological studies have also been published. There are a few publications in the literature about the internal organs of Triatominae, for instance the spermathecae, which are responsible for storing and maintaining the viability of the spermatozoids until the fertilization of the oocytes. This work aims to study the spermathecae of twelve species of triatomines obtained from the Triatominae Insectarium of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP, Araraquara, using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The spermathecae of the twelve species studied showed three morphological patterns: a) P. herreri sn, P. lignarius, P. megistus, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. juazeirensis, T. sherlocki and T. tibiamaculata have spermathecae with a thin initial portion and an oval-shaped final portion; b) R. montenegrensis, R. nasutus, R. neglectus, R. pictipes and R. prolixus have tubular and winding spermathecae; c) T. infestans has oval spermathecae. In addition to the three morphological patterns, it was noted that each of the twelve species has particular features that differentiate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TEXTURE-AWARE DENSE IMAGE MATCHING USING TERNARY CENSUS TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Textureless and geometric discontinuities are major problems in state-of-the-art dense image matching methods, as they can cause visually significant noise and the loss of sharp features. Binary census transform is one of the best matching cost methods but in textureless areas, where the intensity values are similar, it suffers from small random noises. Global optimization for disparity computation is inherently sensitive to parameter tuning in complex urban scenes, and must compromise between smoothness and discontinuities. The aim of this study is to provide a method to overcome these issues in dense image matching, by extending the industry proven Semi-Global Matching through 1 developing a ternary census transform, which takes three outputs in a single order comparison and encodes the results in two bits rather than one, and also 2 by using texture-information to self-tune the parameters, which both preserves sharp edges and enforces smoothness when necessary. Experimental results using various datasets from different platforms have shown that the visual qualities of the triangulated point clouds in urban areas can be largely improved by these proposed methods.

  13. The role of In in III-nitride ternary semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Redondo cubero, A

    This proposal aims to study the role of In in the outstanding efficiency of luminescent devices based on group III-nitride ternary semiconductors. To study the microscopic environments of In in GaInN and AlInN, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments will be performed using the PAC-probes $^{111m}$Cd($^{111}$Cd), $^{115}$Cd($^{115}$In) and $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). Temperature dependent PAC measurements using the $^{111}$In($^{111}$Cd) probe indicated that In in GaN and AlN forms a complex with a defect, possibly a nitrogen vacancy (V$_{N}$), which is stable up to high temperatures and might be involved in the luminescence mechanisms. Analysing these results two questions arose: \\\\ \\\\1. Does the fact that the actual measurement is performed with the daughter nucleus $^{111}$Cd (being an acceptor) influence the probe-defect interaction? This question can be answered by performing measurements with the complementary probe $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). \\\\ \\\\ 2. What is the significance of $\\textit{a...

  14. Ternary choices in repeated games and border collision bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Forno, Arianna; Gardini, Laura; Merlone, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We extend a model of binary choices with externalities to include more alternatives. ► Introducing one more option affects the complexity of the dynamics. ► We find bifurcation structures which where impossible to observe in binary choices. ► A ternary choice cannot simply be considered as a binary choice plus one. - Abstract: Several recent contributions formalize and analyze binary choices games with externalities as those described by Schelling. Nevertheless, in the real world choices are not always binary, and players have often to decide among more than two alternatives. These kinds of interactions are examined in game theory where, starting from the well known rock-paper-scissor game, several other kinds of strategic interactions involving more than two choices are examined. In this paper we investigate how the dynamics evolve introducing one more option in binary choice games with externalities. The dynamics we obtain are always in a stable regime, that is, the structurally stable dynamics are only attracting cycles, but of any possible positive integer as period. We show that, depending on the structure of the game, the dynamics can be quite different from those existing when considering binary choices. The bifurcation structure, due to border collisions, is explained, showing the existence of so-called big-bang bifurcation points.

  15. Symmetric and asymmetric ternary fission of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.; Leegte, H.K.W.; Siemssen, R.H.; Wilschut, H.W.; Grotowski, K.; Panasiewicz, A.; Sosin, Z.; Wieloch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Emission of α particles accompanying fusion-fission processes in the 40 Ar + 232 Th reaction at E( 40 Ar) = 365 MeV was studied in a wide range of in-fission-plane and out-of-plane angles. The exact determination of the emission angles of both fission fragments combined with the time-of-flight measurements allowed us to reconstruct the complete kinematics of each ternary event. The coincident energy spectra of α particles were analyzed by using predictions of the energy spectra of the statistical code CASCADE . The analysis clearly demonstrates emission from the composite system prior to fission, emission from fully accelerated fragments after fission, and also emission during scission. The analysis is presented for both symmetric and asymmetric fission. The results have been analyzed using a time-dependent statistical decay code and confronted with dynamical calculations based on a classical one-body dissipation model. The observed near-scission emission is consistent with evaporation from a dinuclear system just before scission and evaporation from separated fragments just after scission. The analysis suggests that the time scale of fission of the hot composite systems is long (about 7x10 -20 s) and the motion during the descent to scission almost completely damped

  16. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  17. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Binary and Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Su, Ching-Hua; Hopkins, R. H.; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very exciting optical and electrical properties including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt-liquid-vapor medium. We describe preliminary results of binary and ternary selenide materials in light of recent theories. Experiments were performed with lead selenide and thallium arsenic selenide systems which are multifunctional material and have been used for detectors, acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection applications. We observed that small units of nanocubes and elongated nanoparticles arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places. Growth of lead selenide nanowires was performed by physical vapor transport method and thallium arsenic selenide nanowire by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. In some cases very long wires (>mm) are formed. To achieve this goal experiments were performed to create situation where nanowires grew on the surface of solid thallium arsenic selenide itself.

  18. Delay Insensitive Ternary CMOS Logic for Secure Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. P. Nair

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As digital circuit design continues to evolve due to progress of semiconductor processes well into the sub 100 nm range, clocked architectures face limitations in a number of cases where clockless asynchronous architectures generate less noise and produce less electro-magnetic interference (EMI. This paper develops the Delay-Insensitive Ternary Logic (DITL asynchronous design paradigm that combines design aspects of similar dual-rail asynchronous paradigms and Boolean logic to create a single wire per bit, three voltage signaling and logic scheme. DITL is compared with other delay insensitive paradigms, such as Pre-Charge Half-Buffers (PCHB and NULL Convention Logic (NCL on which it is based. An application of DITL is discussed in designing secure digital circuits resistant to side channel attacks based on measurement of timing, power, and EMI signatures. A Secure DITL Adder circuit is designed at the transistor level, and several variance parameters are measured to validate the efficiency of DITL in resisting side channel attacks. The DITL design methodology is then applied to design a secure 8051 ALU.

  19. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-01-01

    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...... little effect on HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly. This contrasts with our earlier studies on 1P–S–H2O in that Na+, F− and Cl− are found as hydration centers from the induced changes on HIP-IPEHEIP--IP in the presence of S, while Br−, I−, and SCN− are found to act as hydrophiles. In comparison with the Hofmeister...... ranking of these ions, the kosmotropes are hydration centers and the more kosmotropic the higher the hydration number, consistent with the original Hofmeister’s concept of “H2O withdrawing power.” Br−, I− and SCN−, on the other hand, acted as hydrophiles and the more chaotropic they are the more...

  20. Radiation-induced segregation in binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of our current knowledge of radiation-induced segregation of major and minor elements in simple binary and ternary alloys as derived from experimental techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, ion-backscattering, infrared emissivity measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of the temperature, dose and dose-rate dependences as well as of the effects of such materials variables as solute solubility, solute misfit and initial solute concentration has proved particularly valuable in understanding the mechanisms of segregation. The interpretation of these data in terms of current theoretical models which link solute segregation behavior to defect-solute binding interactions and/or to the relative diffusion rates of solute and solvent atoms the interstitial and vacancy migration mechanisms has, in general, been fairly successful and has provided considerable insight into the highly interrelated phenomena of solute-defect trapping, solute segregation, phase stability and void swelling. Specific examples in selected fcc, bcc and hcp alloy systems are discussed with particular emphasis given to the effects of radiation-induced segregation on the phase stability of single-phase and two-phase binary alloys and simple Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. (Auth.)

  1. Contribution to the aluminum-tin-zinc ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drápala, J.; Kostiuková, G.; Losertová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The Sn-Zn-Al alloys are one of significant candidates in the proposal of alternative lead-free solders for higher temperature soldering. This paper deals with the study of the aluminum-tin-zinc system. Twenty Sn-Zn-Al alloys together with six binary Sn-Zn alloys were prepared and studied experimentally. Alloys were prepared from pure Sn, Zn and Al (melting and cooling in a vacuum resistance furnace). The specimens were studied metallographically including the micro-hardness measurements, complete chemical analysis (ICP-AES, OES), X-ray micro-analysis of alloys by SEM and EDX in order to determine the composition and identification of individual phases. Significant temperatures and enthalpies of phase transformations were determined by DTA. After long-term annealing of selected alloys in vacuum followed by quenching the structural and chemical microanalyses of the present phases and their limit concentrations were carried out. The achieved results were compared with the thermodynamic modelling of the ternary Sn-Zn-Al system (computer programs THERMOCALC, MTDATA, PANDAT and databases CALPHAD, COST). Electrical resistivity, density, magnetic susceptibility and wettability of Sn-Zn-Al solders were measured as well.

  2. Effects of magnetic atoms on the properties of ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently it has been commonly accepted that small impurities of magnetic atoms were severely detrimental to superconductivity, and that superconductivity and long-range magnetic ordering could not occur in the same materials. In known binary and pseudo-binary compounds, this is still the case. However, many recent experiments on ternary superconductors have shown that the effects of magnetism are considerably more complex. In some cases, the addition of magnetic atoms has been found to enhance superconducting properties by increasing the superconducting critical field, without significantly lowering the transition temperature. In many cases, compounds will show both superconducting and long range magnetic ordering transitions. The destruction of superconductivity by ferromagnetic ordering and the coexistence of superconductivity with antiferromagnetic ordering is now well established. Hyperfine interaction measurements have played a significant role in the investigations of these materials, including measurement of the magnitude of the exchange interaction between rare-earth spin and conduction electron spin, elucidation of the mechanism for critical field enhancement, specification of crystalline field ground states, and studies of the nature of magnetic ordering

  3. Ternary alloying study of MoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, D.; Li, C.; Akselsen, O.M.; Ulvensoen, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ternary alloying of MoSi 2 with adding a series of transition elements was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Iron, Co, Ni, Cr, V, Ti, and Nb were chosen as alloying elements according to the AB 2 structure map or the atomic size factor. The studied MoSi 2 base alloys were prepared by the arc melting process from high-purity metals. The EDS analysis showed that Fe, Co, and Ni have no solid solubility in as-cast MoSi 2 , while Cr, V, Ti, and Nb exhibit limited solid solubilities, which were determined to be 1.4 ± 0.7, 1.4 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.1, and 0.8 ± 0.1. Microstructural characterization indicated that Mo-Si-M VIII (M VIII = Fe, Co, Ni) and Mo-Si-Cr alloys have a two-phase as-cast microstructure, i.e., MoSi 2 matrix and the second-phase FeSi 2 , CoSi, NiSi 2 , and CrSi 2 , respectively. In as-cast Mo-Si-V, Mo-Si-Ti, and Mo-Si-Nb alloys, besides MoSi 2 and C40 phases, the third phases were observed, which have been identified to be (Mo, V) 5 Si 3 , TiSi 2 , and (Mo, Nb) 5 Si 3

  4. Electronic structure and phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traiber, A.J.S.; Allen, S.M.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable, consistent scheme to study phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys based on the tight-binding approximation is presented. With electronic parameters from linear muffin-tin orbital calculations, the computed density of states and band structures compare well with those from more accurate abinitio calculations. Disordered alloys are studied within the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation extended to alloys; energetics of ordered systems are obtained through effective pair interactions computed with the general perturbation method; and partially ordered alloys are studied with a novel simplification of the molecular coherent-potential approximation combined with the general perturbation method. The formalism is applied to bcc-based Zr-Ru-Pd alloys which are promising candidates for medical implant devices. Using energetics obtained from the above scheme, we apply the cluster- variation method to study phase equilibria for particular pseudo- binary alloys and show that results are consistent with observed behavior of electronic specific heat coefficient with composition for Zr 0.5 (Ru, Pd) 0.5

  5. Control mechanism of double-rotator-structure ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, SONG; Liping, YAN

    2017-03-01

    Double-rotator-structure ternary optical processor (DRSTOP) has two characteristics, namely, giant data-bits parallel computing and reconfigurable processor, which can handle thousands of data bits in parallel, and can run much faster than computers and other optical computer systems so far. In order to put DRSTOP into practical application, this paper established a series of methods, namely, task classification method, data-bits allocation method, control information generation method, control information formatting and sending method, and decoded results obtaining method and so on. These methods form the control mechanism of DRSTOP. This control mechanism makes DRSTOP become an automated computing platform. Compared with the traditional calculation tools, DRSTOP computing platform can ease the contradiction between high energy consumption and big data computing due to greatly reducing the cost of communications and I/O. Finally, the paper designed a set of experiments for DRSTOP control mechanism to verify its feasibility and correctness. Experimental results showed that the control mechanism is correct, feasible and efficient.

  6. Iron binary and ternary coatings with molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira, E-mail: gulmira-alma-ata@mail.ru [Institute Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050038, Al-Farabi av., 71, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ved, Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Karakurkchi, Anna; Yermolenko, Iryna [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • High quality coatings of double Fe-Mo and ternary Fe-Mo-W electrolytic alloys can be produced both in a dc and a pulsed mode. • Application of unipolar pulsed current allows receiving an increased content of the alloying components and their more uniform distribution over the surface. • It is established that Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W coatings have an amorphous structure and exhibit improved corrosion resistance and microhardness as compared with the steel substrate due to the inclusion molybdenum and tungsten. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Fe-Mo-W and Fe-Mo layers from a citrate solution containing iron(III) on steel and iron substrates is compared. The utilization of iron(III) compounds significantly improved the electrolyte stability eliminating side anodic redox reactions. The influence of concentration ratios and electrodeposition mode on quality, chemical composition, and functional properties of the alloys is determined. It has been found that alloys deposited in pulse mode have more uniform surface morphology and chemical composition and contain less impurities. Improvement in physical and mechanical properties as well as corrosion resistance of Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W deposits when compared with main alloy forming metals is driven by alloying components chemical passivity as well as by alloys amorphous structure. Indicated deposits can be considered promising materials in surface hardening technologies and repair of worn out items.

  7. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter

  8. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  9. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  10. Ternary Blend Composed of Two Organic Donors and One Acceptor for Active Layer of High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Choi, Yoon Suk; Ahn, Hyungju; Jo, Won Ho

    2016-05-04

    Ternary blends composed of two donor absorbers with complementary absorptions provide an opportunity to enhance the short-circuit current and thus the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells. In addition to complementary absorption of two donors, ternary blends may exhibit favorable morphology for high-performance solar cells when one chooses properly the donor pair. For this purpose, we develop a ternary blend with two donors (diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer (PTDPP2T) and small molecule ((TDPP)2Ph)) and one acceptor (PC71BM). The solar cell made of a ternary blend with 10 wt % (TDPP)2Ph exhibits higher PCE of 7.49% as compared with the solar cells with binary blends, PTDPP2T:PC71BM (6.58%) and (TDPP)2Ph:PC71BM (3.21%). The higher PCE of the ternary blend solar cell is attributed mainly to complementary absorption of two donors. However, a further increase in (TDPP)2Ph content in the ternary blend (>10 wt %) decreases the PCE. The ternary blend with 10 wt % (TDPP)2Ph exhibits well-developed morphology with narrow-sized fibrils while the blend with 15 wt % (TDPP)2Ph shows phase separation with large-sized domains, demonstrating that the phase morphology and compatibility of ternary blend are important factors to achieve a high-performance solar cell made of ternary blends.

  11. Definition of a Twelve-Point Polygonal SAA Boundary for the GLAST Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; UC, Santa Cruz; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), set to launch in early 2008, detects gamma rays within a huge energy range of 100 MeV - 300 GeV. Background cosmic radiation interferes with such detection resulting in confusion over distinguishing cosmic from gamma rays encountered. This quandary is resolved by encasing GLAST's Large Area Telescope (LAT) with an Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD), a device which identifies and vetoes charged particles. The ACD accomplishes this through plastic scintillator tiles; when cosmic rays strike, photons produced induce currents in Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) attached to these tiles. However, as GLAST orbits Earth at altitudes ∼550km and latitudes between -26 degree and 26 degree, it will confront the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region of high particle flux caused by trapped radiation in the geomagnetic field. Since the SAA flux would degrade the sensitivity of the ACD's PMTs over time, a determined boundary enclosing this region need be attained, signaling when to lower the voltage on the PMTs as a protective measure. The operational constraints on such a boundary require a convex SAA polygon with twelve edges, whose area is minimal ensuring GLAST has maximum observation time. The AP8 and PSB97 models describing the behavior of trapped radiation were used in analyzing the SAA and defining a convex SAA boundary of twelve sides. The smallest possible boundary was found to cover 14.58% of GLAST's observation time. Further analysis of defining a boundary safety margin to account for inaccuracies in the models reveals if the total SAA hull area is increased by ∼20%, the loss of total observational area is < 5%. These twelve coordinates defining the SAA flux region are ready for implementation by the GLAST satellite

  12. Effect on strength of ternary alloying additions in L12 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanpang.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of {111} antiphase boundaries (APBs) as well as the site preference of ternary additions in an A 3 B intermetallic with L1 2 structure are studied, using a thermodynamic model. A survey of the results from a variety of ternary alloying additions to Ni 3 Al has shown that there is a conflict in the actual role which solid solution strengthening plays in the athermal increment of yield strength. For instance, a good quantitative agreement with linear concentration law is observed only in alloys with stoichiometric compositions but not in the general case of non-stoichiometric alloys. In the light of the possibility that micro-segregation could explain the experimental discrepancy, the author extends the binary solid solution strengthening theory to the ternary system in an L1 2 structure for the four real systems of Ni-Al-Si, Ni-Al-Ti, Ni-Al-Hf, and Ni-Al-V. It is found that ternary site preference plays an important role in the ternary solid solution strengthening theory with L1 2 structure. Good quantitative agreement was found between the calculated and experimentally measured strength for both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric alloys

  13. Monitoring ligand-dependent assembly of receptor ternary complexes in live cells by BRETFect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotnoir-White, David; El Ezzy, Mohamed; Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Rozendaal, Marieke; Bouvier, Michel; Gagnon, Etienne; Mader, Sylvie

    2018-03-13

    There is currently an unmet need for versatile techniques to monitor the assembly and dynamics of ternary complexes in live cells. Here we describe bioluminescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescence enhancement by combined transfer (BRETFect), a high-throughput technique that enables robust spectrometric detection of ternary protein complexes based on increased energy transfer from a luciferase to a fluorescent acceptor in the presence of a fluorescent intermediate. Its unique donor-intermediate-acceptor relay system is designed so that the acceptor can receive energy either directly from the donor or indirectly via the intermediate in a combined transfer, taking advantage of the entire luciferase emission spectrum. BRETFect was used to study the ligand-dependent cofactor interaction properties of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which form homo- or heterodimers whose distinctive regulatory properties are difficult to dissect using traditional methods. BRETFect uncovered the relative capacities of hetero- vs. homodimers to recruit receptor-specific cofactors and regulatory proteins, and to interact with common cofactors in the presence of receptor-specific ligands. BRETFect was also used to follow the assembly of ternary complexes between the V2R vasopressin receptor and two different intracellular effectors, illustrating its use for dissection of ternary protein-protein interactions engaged by G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that BRETFect represents a powerful and versatile technique to monitor the dynamics of ternary interactions within multimeric complexes in live cells.

  14. A new method to estimate the atomic volume of ternary intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, M.; Merlo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic volume of an A x B y C z ternary intermetallic compound can be calculated starting from volumes of some proper A-B, A-C and B-C binary phases. The three methods by Colinet, Muggianu and Kohler, originally used to estimate thermodynamic quantities, and a new method here proposed, were tested to derive volume data in eight systems containing 91 ternary phases with the known structure. The comparison between experimental and calculated volume values shows the best agreement both for the Kohler method and for the new proposed procedure. -- Graphical abstract: Synopsys: the volume of a ternary intermetallic compound can be calculated starting from volumes of some binary phases, selected by the methods of Colinet, Muggianu, Kohler and a new method proposed here. The so obtained values are compared with the experimental ones for eight ternary systems. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The application of some thermodinamic methods to a crystallochemical problem. → The prevision of the average atomic volume of ternary intermetallic phases. → The proposal of a new procedure to select the proper starting set of binary phases.

  15. A metallic solution model with adjustable parameter for describing ternary thermodynamic properties from its binary constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Qiu Guanzhou

    2007-01-01

    A metallic solution model with adjustable parameter k has been developed to predict thermodynamic properties of ternary systems from those of its constituent three binaries. In the present model, the excess Gibbs free energy for a ternary mixture is expressed as a weighted probability sum of those of binaries and the k value is determined based on an assumption that the ternary interaction generally strengthens the mixing effects for metallic solutions with weak interaction, making the Gibbs free energy of mixing of the ternary system more negative than that before considering the interaction. This point is never considered in the models currently reported, where the only difference in a geometrical definition of molar values of components is considered that do not involve thermodynamic principles but are completely empirical. The current model describes the results of experiments very well, and by adjusting the k value also agrees with those from models used widely in the literature. Three ternary systems, Mg-Cu-Ni, Zn-In-Cd, and Cd-Bi-Pb are recalculated to demonstrate the method of determining k and the precision of the model. The results of the calculations, especially those in Mg-Cu-Ni system, are better than those predicted by the current models in the literature

  16. Atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC ternary, and quaternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Artur; Aabloo, Alvo; Klintenberg, Mattias; Stocks, Malcolm; Caro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize some atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC multicomponent alloys. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo method combined with density functional theory calculations to study short-range order (SRO), atomic displacements, electronic density of states, and magnetic moments in equimolar ternary NiCrCo, and quaternary NiCrCoFe alloys. According to our study, the salient features for the ternary alloy are a negative SRO parameter between Ni–Cr and a positive between Cr–Cr pairs as well as a weakly magnetic state. For the quaternary alloy we predict negative SRO parameter for Ni–Cr and Ni–Fe pairs and positive for Cr–Cr and Fe–Fe pairs. Atomic displacements for both ternary and quaternary alloys are negligible. In contrast to the ternary, the quaternary alloy shows a complex magnetic structure. The electronic structure of the ternary and quaternary alloys shows differences near the Fermi energy between a random solid solution and the predicted structure with SRO. Despite that, the calculated EXAFS spectra does not show enough contrast to discriminate between random and ordered structures. The predicted SRO has an impact on point-defect energetics, electron–phonon coupling and thermodynamic functions and thus, SRO should not be neglected when studying properties of these two alloys

  17. Investigation of itraconazole ternary amorphous solid dispersions based on povidone and Carbopol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Meckel, Jordan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-30

    We investigate a ternary system that consists of itraconazole (ITZ) and two polymers: povidone K12 and Carbopol 907. The interactions between these two polymers and their effects on the properties of ternary ITZ amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are studied. These two polymers can form a water-insoluble complex in acidic aqueous media. The critical pH is determined to be 4.17. The weight percentage of Carbopol 907 in the interpolymer complex range from 59 to 70%, depending on the initial ratios between these two polymers in the starting solutions. This complexation is driven by a negative enthalpy change from the H-bonding between the two polymers and a positive entropy change from the freed water molecules. Due to the slow precipitation of the interpolymer complex in aqueous media, the attempt to prepare ternary ASD using solvent-controlled coprecipitation is not successful. Melt extrusion is identified to be the only viable method to prepare this ternary ASD. We find that interpolymer complex-based ASDs are physically less stable and demonstrate the poorest drug-release properties when compared to individual polymer-based binary ASDs. This study illustrates that the too strong interaction between polymers in ternary ASDs is detrimental to their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. First-principles study of ternary bcc alloys using special quasi-random structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao

    2009-01-01

    Using a combination of exhaustive enumeration and Monte Carlo simulated annealing, we have developed special quasi-random structures (SQSs) for ternary body-centered cubic (bcc) alloys with compositions of A 1 B 1 C 1 , A 2 B 1 C 1 , A 6 B 1 C 1 and A 2 B 3 C 3 , respectively. The structures possess local pair and multisite correlation functions that closely mimic those of the random bcc alloy. We employed the SQSs to predict the mixing enthalpies, nearest neighbor bond length distributions and electronic density of states of bcc Mo-Nb-Ta and Mo-Nb-V solid solutions. Our convergence tests indicate that even small-sized SQSs can give reliable results. Based on the SQS energetics, the predicting powers of the existing empirical ternary extrapolation models were assessed. The present results suggest that it is important to take into account the ternary interaction parameter in order to accurately describe the thermodynamic behaviors of ternary alloys. The proposed SQSs are quite general and can be applied to other ternary bcc alloys.

  19. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CeBiME), Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), CP 6192, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Freitas, Sonia Maria de, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2007-12-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models.

  20. Experimental and predicted refractive index properties in ternary mixtures of associated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechenyh, Vitaliy V.; Legros, Jean-Claude; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Measurements of refractive indices of 200 different aqueous ternary mixtures have been performed for two wave lengths. → Refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9. → Difference between experimental and calculated derivatives of refractive index with concentration is unsatisfactory large. - Abstract: Refractive indices of ternary mixtures formed by (water + ethanol + k-ethylene glycol) (when k is mono, di or tri) and (water + t-butanol + dimethyl sulfoxide) are presented over a wide range of mixture compositions. All measurements have been conducted at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using two light sources: one in the visible (λ = 670 nm) and the other in the infrared (λ = 925 nm) spectrum. The performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants are examined. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9% by using the thermodynamical properties of the pure components. The concentration derivatives of the refractive index are an important parameter, as they are required for different experimental techniques. These derivatives have been determined from the experimental data on refractive indices. However, applying mixing rules for calculation of the derivatives of the refractive indices with respect to concentrations does not provide satisfactory results in the case of ternary mixtures of associated liquids.

  1. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Freitas, Sonia Maria de

    2007-01-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models

  2. New Eyes on the Universe Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "New Eyes on the Universe -- Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them" gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Uni

  3. A novel double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel proposal of double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding ac converter. Modular power units are developed from reconfigured eight classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI has one additional bi-directional switching...... numerical simulation software's (Matlab/PLECS) developments. Further, the results confirm the good agreement to the developed theoretical background. Proposed converter suits the need of low-voltage/high-current applications such as ac tractions and `More-Electric Aircraft' propulsion systems....

  4. Internal oxidation of laminated ternary Ru–Ta–Zr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Lu, Tso-Shen

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Internal oxidation was observed in annealed and laminated Ru–Ta–Zr coatings. • The oxidized Ru–Ta–Zr coatings comprised three alternately stacked sublayers. • Correlated variations of O{sup 2-} and Zr{sup 4+} binding energies were verified in XPS spectra. - Abstract: Researchers have observed the internal oxidation phenomenon in binary alloy coatings when developing refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes by conducting annealing at high temperatures and in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coatings were assembled using cyclical gradient concentration deposition during cosputtering by employing a substrate holder rotating at a slow speed. The internally oxidized zone demonstrated a laminated structure, comprising alternating oxygen-rich and oxygen-deficient layers stacked in a general orientation. In the current study, Ru–Ta–Zr coatings were prepared with various stacking sequences during cosputtering. The Ru–Ta–Zr coatings were annealed at 600 °C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O{sub 2}–99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. A transmission electron microscope was used to examine the periods of the laminated layers and crystallinity of the annealed coatings. Depth profiles produced using an Auger electron spectroscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were used to certify the periodic variation of the related constituents and chemical states of the elements, respectively. The results indicate that the internally oxidized ternary coatings are stacked of Ru-, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-, and ZrO{sub 2}-dominant sublayers and that the stacking sequences of the sublayers affect the crystalline structure of the coatings. Zr is oxidized preferentially in the Ru–Ta–Zr coatings, increasing the surface hardness of the oxidized coatings.

  5. Deformation behaviour of a new magnesium ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, P.; Kaya, A. Arslan; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium based alloys are yet to fill a greater niche especially in the automotive and aeronautical industry. In fact, such alloys have a big weight saving potential, together with good damping characteristics. However, nowadays about 90% of Magnesium products are produced by casting, mainly using two alloy systems, namely Mg-Al-Zn (AZ91D) and Mg-Al (AM50, AM60). Now the emphasis, especially after having achieved considerable success in creep resistance and understanding of the deformation behaviour of Magnesium, has been shifted towards wrought alloys; AZ31, in this case, is the most popular. In this work a multi-element Magnesium alloy, developed to improve the deformation capacity of such a lightweight material, has been investigated and compared to a commercial AZ31B. The possibility of adopting such a multi-element Magnesium alloy for manufacturing components via unconventional sheet forming (such as superplastic forming, warm hydroforming, incremental forming) has been proved in the present work focusing the attention on the superplastic field. Free inflation tests were thus conducted at 450°C setting constant pressure to investigate the superplastic behaviour (in terms of dome height and strain rate sensitivity index) of both the multi-element Magnesium alloy (Mg-2Zn-Ce) and the commercial one (AZ31B). To enhance information on the thickness distribution and investigate the microstructure evolution, metallographic analyses on the samples used to carry out free inflation tests were also performed. The developed ternary alloy manifested quite a good deformation behaviour (high strain rate sensitivity index), even being tested in the as cast condition; in addition a limited grain coarsening was observed in the specimens after deformation.

  6. Electrochemical combustion of indigo at ternary oxide coated titanium anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The film of iridium and tin dioxides doped with antimony (IrO2-SnO2–Sb2O5 deposited on a Ti substrate (mesh obtained by Pechini method was used for the formation of ·OH radicals by water discharge. Detection of ·OH radicals was followed by the use of the N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (RNO as a spin trap. The electrode surface morphology and composition was characterized by SEM-EDS. The ternary oxide coating was used for the electrochemical combustion of indigo textile dye as a model organic compound in chloride medium. Bulk electrolyses were then carried out at different volumetric flow rates under galvanostatic conditions using a filter-press flow cell. The galvanostatic tests using RNO confirmed that Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 favor the hydroxyl radical formation at current densities between 5 and 7 mA cm-2, while at current density of 10 mA cm-2 the oxygen evolution reaction occurs. The indigo was totally decolorized and mineralized via reactive oxygen species, such as (·OH, H2O2, O3 and active chlorine formed in-situ at the Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 surface at volumetric flow rates between 0.1-0.4 L min-1 and at fixed current density of 7 mA cm-2. The mineralization of indigo carried out at 0.2 L min-1 achieved values of 100 %, with current efficiencies of 80 % and energy consumption of 1.78 KWh m-3.

  7. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  8. Twelve fundamental life histories evolving through allocation-dependent fecundity and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jacob; Brännström, Åke; Metz, Johan A J; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2018-03-01

    An organism's life history is closely interlinked with its allocation of energy between growth and reproduction at different life stages. Theoretical models have established that diminishing returns from reproductive investment promote strategies with simultaneous investment into growth and reproduction (indeterminate growth) over strategies with distinct phases of growth and reproduction (determinate growth). We extend this traditional, binary classification by showing that allocation-dependent fecundity and mortality rates allow for a large diversity of optimal allocation schedules. By analyzing a model of organisms that allocate energy between growth and reproduction, we find twelve types of optimal allocation schedules, differing qualitatively in how reproductive allocation increases with body mass. These twelve optimal allocation schedules include types with different combinations of continuous and discontinuous increase in reproduction allocation, in which phases of continuous increase can be decelerating or accelerating. We furthermore investigate how this variation influences growth curves and the expected maximum life span and body size. Our study thus reveals new links between eco-physiological constraints and life-history evolution and underscores how allocation-dependent fitness components may underlie biological diversity.

  9. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Jeremiah J; Earl, Josh; de Vries, Stefan P W; Ahmed, Azad; Hu, Fen Z; Bootsma, Hester J; Stol, Kim; Hermans, Peter W M; Wadowsky, Robert M; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hays, John P; Campagnari, Anthony A

    2011-01-26

    M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH), which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  10. A constitutional investigation of the Mo-Pd-Rh ternary system at 1100deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerler, R.; Pratt, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    Phase relations in the system Mo-Pd-Rh were studied at 1100deg C using conventionally melted and ultrarapidly solidified samples. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used for phase characterisation. The complete isothermal section at 1100deg C was established. The Mo bcc phase was found to have a very limited solid solution range whereas the ternary fcc solid solution originating on the Pd-Rh binary is the dominant phase in the system at this temperature. The centre of the isothermal is dominated by the ternary extension of the Mo-Rh hcp intermediate phase. The three phase (bcc+fcc+hcp) equilibrium region is located very near to the Mo-Pd binary system. No additional ternary intermediate phases were observed. The results are consistent with an isothermal section reported at higher temperatures. (orig.)

  11. H2SO4-HNO3-H2O ternary system in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, C. S.; Hamill, P.

    1974-01-01

    Estimation of the equilibrium vapor pressure over the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O to study the possibility of stratospheric aerosol formation involving HNO3. It is shown that the vapor pressures for the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O with weight composition around 70-80% H2SO4, 10-20% HNO3, 10-20% H2O at -50 C are below the order of 10 to the minus 8th mm Hg. It is concluded that there exists more than sufficient nitric acid and water vapor in the stratosphere to participate in ternary system aerosol formation at -50 C. Therefore, HNO3 should be present in stratospheric aerosols, provided that H2SO4 is also present.

  12. Thermodynamics and phase equilibria of ternary systems relevant to contact materials for compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, H.; Richter, K.; Micke, K.

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the stability of ohmic contacts to compound semiconductors, it is necessary to know the phase equilibria in the corresponding multi-component systems. We are currently studying the phase equilibria and thermophysical properties of several ternary systems which are of interest in view of the use of nickel, palladium and platinum as contact materials for GaSb and InSb compound semiconductors: Ga-Ni-Sb, In-Ni-Sb, Ga-Pd-Sb and Ga-Pt-Sb. Phase equilibria are investigated by thermal analyses, X-ray powder diffraction methods as well as electron microprobe analysis. Thermodynamic properties are derived from vapour pressure measurements using an isopiestic method. It is planned to combine all information on phase equilibria and thermochemistry for the ternary and the limiting binary systems to perform an optimization of the ternary systems by computer calculations using standard software. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Yb ternary system supported by first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase relationships of the ternary Al-Cu-Yb system have been assessed using a combination of CALPHAD method and first principles calculations. A self-consistent thermodynamic parameter was established based on the experimental and theoretical information. Most of the binary intermetallic phases, except Al3Yb, Al2Yb, Cu2Yb and Cu5Yb, were assumed to be zero solubility in the ternary system. Based on the experimental data, eight ternary intermetallic compounds were taken into consideration in this system. Among them, three were treated as line compounds with large homogeneity ranges for Al and Cu. The others were treated as stoichiometric compounds. The calculated phase diagrams were in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data.

  14. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ-NAM-2HP (1:1:1).

  15. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR, cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ–NAM–2HP (1:1:1.

  16. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Ni-Nb-V ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome; Zhang, Xianjie; Jiang, Hengxing; Shi, Zhan [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-09-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system at 1000 C and 1200 C were established using electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the investigation revealed that: (1) The Nb solubility in (Ni) and σ{sup '} phases was less than 10 at.%; (2) A ternary compound τ (NiNbV) was confirmed, in which V had a large solubility; (3) A new liquid region was evident at 1200 C, but was absent at 1000 C; (4) The lattice constants of Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7} phase decreased with increase in V content in the Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7}. The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system will contribute to its thermodynamic assessment.

  17. Refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures containing aliphatic alcohols at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures (2-propanol+2-butanol+ethanol and (chloroform+2-propanol+2-butanol were measured at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C, and atmospheric pressure. The results were used to calculate the refractive index deviations over the entire mole fraction range for the mixtures. The refractive index deviations for the ternary mixtures were further fitted to empirical correlations (Cibulka Nagata-Tamura, and Lopez et al to estimate the ternary fitting parameters. Standard deviations and average percentage deviations from the regression lines are shown. The best fit was obtained by the Nagata-Tamura empirical correlation. Some of the existing predictive equations for the refractive index deviations (Tsao-Smith, Köhler, and Colinet were tested.

  18. New ternary transition metal borides containing uranium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogl, P.; Delong, L.

    1983-01-01

    The new ternary actinide metal diborides U 2 MoB 6 , U 2 ReB 6 , U 2 OsB 6 , URuB 4 and UOsB 4 were prepared and found to crystallize with either the Y 2 ReB 6 or the ThMoB 4 type of structure. LuRuB 4 and LuOsB 4 crystallize with the YCrB 4 type of structure. In a ternary series of solid solutions YRh 3 Bsub(1-x) (0 0 C), boron was found to stabilize a Cu 3 Au type of structure. The superconductivity of the new uranium compounds and of a series of ternary transition metal borides was investigated; no superconductivity was observed for temperatures as low at 1.3-1.5 K. The cubic perovskite or filled Cu 3 Au structure is discussed as a type which is very unfavorable for the occurrence of superconductivity. (Auth.)

  19. Efficient Implementation of Ternary SDM Filters using State-of-the-Art FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayabuddin Memon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of a ternary FIR filter at varying OSR (Over Sampling Ratios. The sigma delta modulated ternary filter impulse responses obtained using Matlab at varying OSRs show that each doubling of OSR results in an increase of 10dB in the stopband attenuation. BT-FIR (Balanced Ternary FIR Filters at varying OSRs have been implemented in VHDL using an efficient adder tree organization to gather the partial products. Filters in both pipelined and non-pipelined modes were synthesized on a small number of representative commercial FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays devices. Both the filter taps and binary inputs use 2\\'s complement format. The synthesis results show the tradeoffs between hardware area and performance at varying OSRs. In pipelined mode, a 6MHz video stream can easily be handled at an OSR of 64, while occupying less than 8% of a Stratix-III device.

  20. PMGA and its application in area and power optimization for ternary FPRM circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Li Kangping; Zhang Huihong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research of population migration algorithms (PMAs), a population migration genetic algorithm (PMGA) is proposed, combining a PMA with a genetic algorithm. A scheme of area and power optimization for a ternary FPRM circuit is proposed by using the PMGA. Firstly, according to the ternary FPRM logic function expression, area and power estimation models are established. Secondly, the PMGA is used to search for the best area and power polarity. Finally, 10 MCNC Benchmark circuits are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the ternary FPRM circuits optimized by the PMGA saved 13.33% area and 20.00% power on average than the corresponding FPRM circuits optimized by a whole annealing genetic algorithm. (paper)

  1. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  2. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-05-16

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: {sup 3}He, {sup 11}Li, {sup 14}Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10{sup {minus}10} per fission. Results from the fissioning systems {sup 233}U (n{sub th}, f), {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f), {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th},f) {sup 241}Pu(n{sub th},f) and {sup 245}Cm(n{sub th},f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed.

  3. Phase Relations in Ternary Systems in the Subsolidus Region: Methods to Formulate Solid Solution Equations and to Find Particular Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Montan~o, Victor E.; Farías, Mario H.; Brown, Francisco; Mun~oz-Palma, Iliana C.; Cubillas, Fernando; Castillon-Barraza, Felipe F.

    2017-01-01

    A good understanding of ternary phase diagrams is required to advance and/or to reproduce experimental research in solid-state and materials chemistry. The aim of this paper is to describe the solutions to problems that appear when studying or determining ternary phase diagrams. A brief description of the principal features shown in phase diagrams…

  4. Formation and characterization of zein-propylene glycol alginate-surfactant ternary complexes: Effect of surfactant type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Wei, Yang; Zhan, Xinyu; Mao, Like; Gao, Yanxiang

    2018-08-30

    In this study, zein, propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and surfactant ternary complexes were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation method. Two types of surfactants (rhamnolipid and lecithin) were applied to generate zein-PGA-rhamnolipid (Z-P-R) and zein-PGA-lecithin (Z-P-L) ternary complexes, respectively. Results showed that the surfactant types significantly affected the properties of ternary complexes. The formation of ternary complexes was mainly due to the non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interactions among zein, PGA and surfactants. Moreover, the thermal stability of ternary complexes was enhanced with increasing the levels of both surfactants. Notably, ternary complex dispersions exhibited better stability against pH from 2 to 8. Furthermore, a compact network structure was observed in Z-P-R ternary complex, while Z-P-L ternary complex remained the spherical structure. These findings would provide new insights into the development of novel delivery system and expand the options, when zein-based complexes were utilized under different environment conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures of acetaldehyde with Versatic 9 and Veova 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeissi, S.; Florusse, L.J.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our earlier publication on the phase behavior of binary and ternary mixtures involving acetaldehyde, Versatic 10, and Veova 10, in this work we present bubble-point pressures of the binary and ternary systems of acetaldehyde, Versatic 9, and Veova 9. The measurements were carried

  6. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  7. A Novel Method for Detecting and Computing Univolatility Curves in Ternary Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakov, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Residue curve maps (RCMs) and univolatility curves are crucial tools for analysis and design of distillation processes. Even in the case of ternary mixtures, the topology of these maps is highly non-trivial. We propose a novel method allowing detection and computation of univolatility curves...... of the generalized univolatility and unidistribution curves in the three dimensional composition – temperature state space lead to a simple and efficient algorithm of computation of the univolatility curves. Two peculiar ternary systems, namely diethylamine – chloroform – methanol and hexane – benzene...

  8. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-05-11

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  9. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary polymer solutions with PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    concentration coexistence curves at fixed pressure and temperature. The algorithms automatically trace the entire liquid-liquid coexistence curves in steps by adjusting the step size, generating initial estimates, and subsequently solving the phase-equilibrium problem by a second-order method. The algorithms...... are used for investigating the correlative and predictive capabilities of the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. The investigation shows that the model correlates well experimental LLE data for binary as well as ternary systems but further predicts the behavior of the ternary systems with reasonably good...

  10. Data and analyses of phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daiman; Xu, Chengliang; Li, Changrong; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Raowen; Du, Zhenmin; Li, Junqin

    2018-02-01

    These data and analyses support the research article "Experimental study on phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system" Zhu et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include the experimental results of XRD, SEM and EPMA for the determination of the whole liquidus projection and the isothermal section at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb system. All the results enable the understanding of the constituent phases and the solidification processes of the as-cast alloys as well as the phase relations and the equilibrium regions at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system over the entire composition.

  11. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.; Fouda, M. E.; Naous, Rawan; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Eltawil, A. M.; Kurdahi, F.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  12. Mass spectrometric determination of the thermodynamic excess properties of ternary Fe-Co-Cr melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Harald; Tomiska, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry is used for the thermodynamic investigations on ternary Fe-Co-Cr melts over the entire range of composition. The thermodynamic mixing behavior has been determined by means of the 'digital intensity-ratio' (DIR) method. The ternary thermodynamically adapted power (TAP) series concept is used for the algebraic representation of the molar excess properties. The corresponding TAP parameters, and the values of the molar excess quantities Z E (T, x) (Z is the Gibbs energy G, heat of mixing H, entropy S) as well as the thermodynamic activities of all three constituents at 1950 K are presented

  13. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  14. Omnidirectional reflection in one-dimensional ternary photonic crystals and photonic heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqi [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Yang, Xiangbo, E-mail: 20001038@m.scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Chengyi Timon [School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Designing dielectric systems to create omnidirectional band gaps (OBGs) is an attractive topic in the field of photonic band gap (PBG) structures. In this Letter, we propose a new approach to create OBGs by ternary photonic heterostructures (TPHs) composed of three kinds of materials with different refractive indices and obtain the formulae of the structures of TPHs, i.e., those of the thicknesses of materials and the number of sub-ternary photonic crystals. It may provide a powerful technique for designing the structures being able to produce OBGs by use of usual materials, lowcost materials, and materials with low refractive indices, etc.

  15. Search for new ternary Al, Ga or In containing phases using information forecasting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, N.N.; Burkhanov, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Automated system of search for regularities in the formation of crystal phases and forecasting of new compounds with required properties, comprising data base on the properties of ternary inorganic compounds and cybernetic forecasting system, has been developed. General principles of operation of the developed information-forecasting system are considered. Efficiency of the system operation is shown, using as an example the search for new ternary compounds with aluminium, gallium and indium, crystallized in ZrNiAl, TiNiSi, ThCr 2 Si 2 , CaAl 2 Si 2 structural types. Results of the above-mentioned phases forecasting are shown

  16. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.

    2017-10-24

    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  17. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1988-04-27

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

  18. Liquid demixing and microstructure formation in ternary Al-Sn-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, D.; Groebner, J. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-07-25

    The complex features of the Al-Sn-Cu phase diagram, dominated by ternary liquid demixing, are revealed by a combination of thermodynamic modeling and experimental studies. Nine ternary alloys were selected to cover all essential features involving the liquidus surface and the invariant solidification reactions. These were analyzed by differential thermal analysis as well as microstructural and local chemical analysis of solidified microstructures. Three different monotectic invariant reactions occur in this system. Small changes in alloy composition may produce distinctly different microstructures with primary crystallization and secondary demixing or vice versa.

  19. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Xia, Chuan; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  20. Omnidirectional reflection in one-dimensional ternary photonic crystals and photonic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shiqi; Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Chengyi Timon

    2014-01-01

    Designing dielectric systems to create omnidirectional band gaps (OBGs) is an attractive topic in the field of photonic band gap (PBG) structures. In this Letter, we propose a new approach to create OBGs by ternary photonic heterostructures (TPHs) composed of three kinds of materials with different refractive indices and obtain the formulae of the structures of TPHs, i.e., those of the thicknesses of materials and the number of sub-ternary photonic crystals. It may provide a powerful technique for designing the structures being able to produce OBGs by use of usual materials, lowcost materials, and materials with low refractive indices, etc.

  1. All ternary permutation constraint satisfaction problems parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Van Iersel, Leo; Mnich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A ternary Permutation-CSP is specified by a subset Π of the symmetric group S3. An instance of such a problem consists of a set of variables V and a multiset of constraints, which are ordered triples of distinct variables of V. The objective is to find a linear ordering α of V that maximizes...... the number of triples whose rearrangement (under α) follows a permutation in Π. We prove that all ternary Permutation-CSPs parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables....

  2. Physical Properties Of Some Pd-Au-Ag Ternary Alloys: A Md Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical properties of palladium (Pd), gold (Au) and silver (Ag) and their ternary alloys in the following concentrations (Au 5 0Ag 2 5Pd 2 5, Au 4 0Ag 2 0Pd 4 0) are studied by using by using molecular dynamics with Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) potential. Cell constants, densities, enthalpies, elastic constants and heat capacities are investigated. Calculations are performed in the solid phase. Rafii-Tabar combination rules are used and it is showed that these combination rules are valid for ternary alloys also. Additionally, temperature dependence of mechanical properties of alloys are investigated.

  3. Possible Mechanisms of Ternary Fission in the 197Au+197 Au System at 15 AMeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Long, Tian; Xian, Li; Shi-Wei, Yan; Xi-Zhen, Wu; Zhu-Xia, Li

    2009-01-01

    Ternary fission in 197 Au+ 197 Au collisions at 15 A MeV is investigated by using the improved quantum molecular dynamical (ImQMD) model. The experimental mass distributions for each of the three fragments are reproduced for the first time without any freely adjusting parameters. The mechanisms of ternary fission in central and semi-central collisions are dynamically studied. In direct prolate ternary fission, two necks are found to be formed almost simultaneously and rupture sequentially in a very short time interval. Direct oblate ternary fission is a very rare fission event, in which three necks are formed and rupture simultaneously, forming three equally sized fragments along space-symmetric directions in the reaction plane. In sequential ternary fission a binary division is followed by another binary fission event after hundreds of fm/c. (nuclear physics)

  4. Constructing ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance in photo-generated cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwei, E-mail: vivizhg@yahoo.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China); Guo, Hanlin; Sun, Haiqing [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Zeng, Rongchang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized. • Flat band potential shift facilitates electron injection to the coupled metal. • Electrons and holes transfer in the hybrids promotes electron–hole separation. • Synergistic effects of the ternary components make the hybrids photo-chargeable. - Abstract: Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were constructed through a stepwise synthetic route. The hybrids exhibit remarkable enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance. The transfer of photo-excited carriers in the ternary composites facilitates the photo-induced electron-hole separation. Meanwhile, the flat band potential shift of the hybrids increases the inner electric field intensity that drives the photo-excited electron migration from the composites to the coupled metal. Furthermore, the ternary hybrids were found firstly to be photo-chargeable, which shows application potentials in photo-generated cathodic protection in dark.

  5. The twelve-flavor β-function and dilaton tests of the sextet scalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fodor Zoltan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss near-conformal gauge theories beyond the standard model (BSM where interesting results on the twelve-flavor β-function of massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3 color gauge group and dilaton tests of the light scalar with two massless fermions in the two-index symmetric tensor (sextet representation can be viewed as parts of the same BSM paradigm under investigation. The clear trend in the decreasing size of β-functions at fixed renormalized gauge coupling is interpreted as a first indicator how the conformal window (CW is approached in correlation with emergent near-conformal light scalars. BSM model building close to the CW will be influenced by differing expectations on the properties of the emergent light 0++ scalar either as a σ-particle of chiral symmetry breaking (ΧS B, or as a dilaton of scale symmetry breaking. The twelve-flavor β-function emerges as closest to the CW, perhaps near-conformal, or perhaps with an infrared fixed point (IRFP at some unexplored strong coupling inside the CW. It is premature to speculate on dilaton properties of the twelveflavor model since the near-conformal realization remains an open question. However, it is interesting and important to investigate dilaton tests of the light sextet scalar whose β-function is closest to the CW in the symmetry breaking phase and emerges as the leading candidate for dilaton tests of the light scalar. We report results from high precision analysis of the twelve-flavor β-function [1] refuting its published IRFP [2, 3]. We present our objections to recent claims [4, 5] for non-universal behavior of staggered fermions used in our analysis. We also report our first analysis of dilaton tests of the light 0++ scalar in the sextet model and comment on related post-conference developments. The dilaton test is the main thrust of this conference contribution including presentation #405 on the nf = 12 β-function and presentation #260 on dilaton

  6. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Twelve recommendations for integrating existing systematic reviews into new reviews: EPC guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Chou, Roger; Berkman, Nancy D; Newberry, Sydne J; Fu, Rongwei; Hartling, Lisa; Dryden, Donna; Butler, Mary; Foisy, Michelle; Anderson, Johanna; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Relevo, Rose; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Chang, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    As time and cost constraints in the conduct of systematic reviews increase, the need to consider the use of existing systematic reviews also increases. We developed guidance on the integration of systematic reviews into new reviews. A workgroup of methodologists from Evidence-based Practice Centers developed consensus-based recommendations. Discussions were informed by a literature scan and by interviews with organizations that conduct systematic reviews. Twelve recommendations were developed addressing selecting reviews, assessing risk of bias, qualitative and quantitative synthesis, and summarizing and assessing body of evidence. We provide preliminary guidance for an efficient and unbiased approach to integrating existing systematic reviews with primary studies in a new review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  9. Twelve tips for developing and delivering a massive open online course in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D; Henningsohn, Lars; DeRuiter, Marco C; de Jong, Peter G M; Reinders, Marlies E J

    2017-07-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a novel mode of online learning. They are typically based on higher education courses and can attract a high number of learners, often in the thousands. They are distinct from on-campus education and deliver the learning objectives through a series of short videos, recommended readings and discussion fora, alongside automated assessments. Within medical education the role of MOOCs remains unclear, with recent proposals including continuing professional development, interprofessional education or integration into campus-based blended learning curricula. In this twelve tips article, we aim to provide a framework for readers to use when developing, delivering and evaluating a MOOC within medical education based on the literature and our own experience. Practical advice is provided on how to design the appropriate curriculum, engage with learners on the platform, select suitable assessments, and comprehensively evaluate the impact of your course.

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides from Arctii Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2014-09-17

    Twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides (1-12), including two benzofuran-type neolignans, two 8-O-4' neolignans, two dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, and six tetrahydrofuranoid lignans, together with six known lignan glucosides (13-18), were isolated from the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as Arctii Fructus. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR, MS, IR, ORD, and UV) and on the basis of chemical evidence. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-12 were confirmed using rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), the circular dichroic (CD) exciton chirality method, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD spectrum analysis. All of the isolated compounds were tested for hepatoprotective effects against D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 hepatic cells. Compounds 1, 2, 7-12, and 17 showed significantly stronger hepatoprotective activity than the positive control bicyclol at a concentration of 1 × 10(-5) M.

  11. [Longitudinal genetic effects on mandibular position of female twins from six to twelve years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-feng; Peng, Jing

    2013-06-01

    To find the longitudinal genetic effects on mandibular position in mixed dentition. The sample used in this study consisted of lateral cephalograms of eighty-nine pairs of female twins in Beijing. With a mixed longitudinal method, the effective twins were 183 pairs(monozygous 110 pairs and dizygous 73 ones). The genetic and environmental effects on mandibular position were analyzed by statistical methods in female twins from six to twelve years old. Statistical comparisons revealed significant (Pchin is the most subjective to environment change, then the mandibular angle, and the condyle is the least. Using N and S as references, the environmental influence on heights showed different order from the most to least changeable: The mandibular angle, the condyle and the chin. In later stage of our observation, the mandibular morphology and growth type might be family inherited. For environmental influences plays important roles on mandibular position, these findings can be used in orthodontic treatment planning.

  12. Exploring Content Schemata Influence on L2 Reading: The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amizura Hanadi Mohd Radzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the aspects of content schemata in second language reading among diploma level students who were taking a reading course in Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis. In this qualitative case study, the researcher had selected two short stories that are categorized as content-familiar texts, i.e. The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid. Six participants were asked to write a 150-word entry response on the short story and a grading criteria was used to assess the participants’ level of comprehension. An in-depth interview was also conducted on each participant. The entry responses and the interview patterns were analyzed to determine whether content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text. This study discovered that content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text because the learners’ comprehension was facilitated by their background knowledge on the content-familiar texts.

  13. Development of twelve microsatellite loci in the red tree corals Primnoa resedaeformis and Primnoa pacifica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Cheryl L.; Springmann, Marcus J.; Shroades, Kelsey; Stone, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide microsatellite loci were developed from Roche 454 pyrosequencing data for the cold-water octocorals Primnoa resedaeformis and P. pacifica. Twelve of 98 primer sets tested consistently amplified in 30 P. resedaeformis samples from Baltimore Canyon (western North Atlantic Ocean) and in 24 P. pacifica samples (Shutter Ridge, eastern Gulf of Alaska). The loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (average 7.5 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 47 %). Levels of genetic diversity were sufficient to produce unique multi-locus genotypes and to distinguish species. These common species are long-lived (hundreds of years) and provide essential fish habitat (P. pacifica), yet populations are provided little protection from human activities. These loci will be used to determine regional patterns of population connectivity to inform effective marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  14. Twelve tips for teaching child development and disability to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    Child development is a marker of well-being in childhood and recognition of developmental delay allows timely investigation and intervention for children with developmental disabilities. Despite this, child development and disabilities are not given emphasis in the medical curriculum. This under representation of teaching combined with the stigma associated with disabilities contributes to the sub-optimal health care of people with disabilities. As well as, addressing the stigma of disability a medical undergraduate curriculum should include: the key concepts of child development; the clinical presentation of the most common developmental disabilities; developmental history taking and the infant neurodevelopmental examination. The following twelve tips provide practical advice about how to teach this knowledge and these skills during medical training.

  15. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Peter WM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. Results The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH, which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. Conclusions M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  16. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). College of Materials and Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome

    2017-08-15

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi, ZrNi{sub 5}, Zr{sub 14}Cu{sub 51}, and Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}, show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ{sub 3} (Zr{sub 31.1-30.7} . Cu{sub 28.5-40.3}Ni{sub 40.4-29.0}) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  17. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  18. Effect of Ni-Co Ternary Molten Salt Catalysts on Coal Catalytic Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Qi, Cong; Li, Liang; Li, Yimin; Li, Song

    2017-08-01

    In order to facilitate efficient and clean utilization of coal, a series of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystals are explored and the catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of Datong coal is investigated. The reaction mechanisms of coal are achieved by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a reactive kinetic model is constructed. The microcosmic structure and macerals are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The catalytic effects of ternary molten salt crystals at different stages of pyrolysis are analyzed. The experimental results show that Ni-Co ternary molten salt catalysts have the capability to bring down activation energy required by pyrolytic reactions at its initial phase. Also, the catalysts exert a preferable catalytic action on macromolecular structure decomposition and free radical polycondensation reactions. Furthermore, the high-temperature condensation polymerization is driven to decompose further with a faster reaction rate by the additions of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystal catalysts. According to pyrolysis kinetic research, the addition of catalysts can effectively decrease the activation energy needed in each phase of pyrolysis reaction.

  19. A simple urea-based route to ternary metal oxynitride nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, A.; Reshma, S.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Ternary metal oxynitrides are generally prepared by heating the corresponding metal oxides with ammonia for long durations at high temperatures. In order to find a simple route that avoids use of gaseous ammonia, we have employed urea as the nitriding agent. In this method, ternary metal oxynitrides are obtained by heating the corresponding metal carbonates and transition metal oxides with excess urea. By this route, ternary metal oxynitrides of the formulae MTaO 2 N (M=Ca, Sr or Ba), MNbO 2 N (M=Sr or Ba), LaTiO 2 N and SrMoO 3-x N x have been prepared successfully. The oxynitrides so obtained were generally in the form of nanoparticles, and were characterized by various physical techniques. - Graphical abstract: Nanoparticles of ternary metal oxynitrides can be synthesized by means of urea route. Given is the TEM image of the nanoparticles of CaTaO 2 N so obtained and the insets show the SAED pattern and HREM image of the nanoparticles

  20. Cyclodextrin based ternary system of modafinil: Effect of trimethyl chitosan and polyvinylpyrrolidone as complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parth; Agrawal, Y K; Sarvaiya, Jayrajsinh

    2016-03-01

    Modafinil is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and have a strong market presence in many countries. The drug is widely consumed for off-label uses and currently listed as a restricted drug. Modafinil has very low water solubility. To enhance the aqueous solubility of modafinil by the formation of a ternary complex with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and two hydrophilic polymers was the main objective of the present study. Pyrrolidone (PVP K30) and a water soluble chitosan derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC) were studied by solution state and solid state characterization methods for their discriminatory efficiency in solubility enhancement of modafinil. Phase solubility study depicted the highest complexation efficiency (2.22) of cyclodextrin derivative in the presence of TMC compared to the same in the presence of PVP K30 (0.08) and in the absence of any polymer (0.92). FT-IR analysis of binary and ternary complex expressed comparable contribution of both polymers in formation of inclusion complex. The thermal behaviour of binary and ternary complex, involving individual polymers disclosed the influence of TMC on polymorphism of the drug. DSC study revealed efficiency of TMC to prevent conversion of metastable polymorphic form to stable polymorphic form. Ternary complex, involving TMC enhanced water solubility of the drug 1.5 times more compared to the binary complex of the drug whereas PVP K30 reduced the Solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. First-principle studies of the ternary palladates CaPd3O4 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    devices [5]. Cahen et al [6] characterized single crystals of the ternary ... Wnuk et al [9] presented a chemical analysis of the. CaPd3O4 ..... [45] Ramu A T, Cassels L E, Hackman N H, Lu H, Zide J M O and Bowers J E 2010 J. Appl. Phys.

  2. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  3. Phase equilibria in the ternary In-Ni-Sn system at 700 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, C; Zemanova, A; Flandorfer, H; Kroupa, A; Ipser, H

    2013-04-01

    The phase equilibria of the ternary system In-Ni-Sn were investigated experimentally at 700 °C using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron micro probe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A corresponding isothermal section was established based on these results. This particular temperature was chosen because it allowed obtaining reliable results within reasonable time. The existence of the ternary phase InNi 6 Sn 5 was confirmed whereas the ternary compound In 2 NiSn, reported earlier in literature, was found to be part of a large solid solution field based on binary InNi. The ternary solubility of the binary phases was established, and continuous solid solutions were found between the isostructural phases Ni 3 Sn LT and InNi 3 as well as between Ni 3 Sn 2 HT and InNi 2 . In addition, this isothermal section could be well reproduced by CALPHAD modelling. The resulting calculated isotherm at 700 °C is presented, too, and compared with the experimental results.

  4. Volume dependence of T/sub c/ of Ternary A-15 Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamrai, V.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, lattice constant a, magnetic susceptibility /sub chi/, and critical field H/sub c/ 2 for many Nb 3 Al and V 3 Si-based ternary phases and Nb 3 SnH/sub x/. For V 3 Si-based ternary systems and Nb 3 SnH/sub x/ the density of states at the Fermi level N(epsilon/sub F/) sharply decreases with the concentration of the alloying element. The variation of N(epsilon/sub F/) in these ternary systems cannot be explained by the variation of a. In ternary phases Nb 3 (Al/sub 1-x/dY/sub x/), where Y can be Ge, Ga, Sb, or Se, a quite clear correlation is revealed between T/sub c/ and a. The dependence of T/sub c/ on V in these systems is due to the variation of the matrix element of the electron-phonon interaction 2 >

  5. Equilibrium thermodynamics of the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, A.M.W.; Bulte, A.M.W.; Naafs, E.M.; van Eeten, F.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The binary Flory-Huggins interaction parameters for the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water have been obtained from literature data, swelling values and melting point depression. Nylon 4,6 nylon 6 and a copolymer of nylon 4,6 and 6 were examined. The isothermal

  6. High-performance thermoelectric materials based on ternary TiO2/CNT/PANI composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Fuat; Li, Hui; Wang, Xizu; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2018-04-04

    In the present work, we report the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric materials using TiO2/CNT/PANI ternary composites. We showed that a conductivity of ∼2730 S cm-1 can be achieved for the binary CNT (70%)/PANI (30%) composite, which is the highest recorded value for the reported CNT/PANI composites. We further demonstrated that the Seebeck coefficient of CNT/PANI composites could be enhanced by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into the binary CNT/PANI composites, which could be attributed to lower carrier density and the energy scattering of low-energy carriers at the interfaces of TiO2/a-CNT and TiO2/PANI. The resulting TiO2/a-CNT/PANI ternary system exhibits a higher Seebeck coefficient and enhanced thermoelectric power. Further optimization of the thermoelectric power was achieved by water treatment and by tuning the processing temperature. A high thermoelectric power factor of 114.5 μW mK-2 was obtained for the ternary composite of 30% TiO2/70% (a-CNT (70%)/PANI (30%)), which is the highest reported value among the reported PANI based ternary composites. The improvement of thermoelectric performance by incorporation of TiO2 suggests a promising approach to enhance power factor of organic thermoelectric materials by judicial tuning of the carrier concentration and electrical conductivity.

  7. Protein-mediated efficient synergistic "antenna effect" in a ternary system in D₂O medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2012-08-16

    A ternary system consisting of a protein, catechin (either + or - epimer), and Tb(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 6.8) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect". Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in the binary complexes (protein with Tb(III) and (+)- or (-)-catechin with Tb(III)) and the ternary systems along with the molecular docking studies reveal that the efficient sensitization could be ascribed to the effective shielding of microenvironment of Tb(III) from O-H oscillator and increased Tb-C (+/-) interaction in the ternary systems in aqueous medium. The ternary system exhibits protein-mediated efficient antenna effect in D(2)O medium due to synergistic ET from both the lowest ππ* triplet state of Trp residue in protein and that of catechin apart from protection of the Tb(III) environment from matrix vibration. The simple system consisting of (+)- or (-)-catechin and Tb(III) in D(2)O buffer at pH 6.8 has been prescribed to be a useful biosensor.

  8. Comparative instrumental evaluation of efficacy and safety between a binary and a ternary system in chemexfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Ardigò, Marco; Corato, Cristina; De Paoli, Gianfranco; Berardesca, Enzo

    2017-09-20

    To instrumentally evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a new ternary system chemo exfoliating formulation (water-dimethyl isosorbide-acid) vs traditional binary systems (water and acid) where the acid is maintained in both the systems at the same concentration. Different peelings (binary system pyruvic acid and trichloroacetic acid-TCA, and ternary system pyruvic acid and TCA) were tested on the volar forearm of 20 volunteers of both sexes between 28 and 50 years old. The outcomes were evaluated at the baseline, 10 minutes, 24 hours, and 1 week after the peeling by means of noninvasive skin diagnosis techniques. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy was used for stratum corneum evaluation, transepidermal waterloss, and Corneometry for skin barrier and hydration, Laser Doppler velocimetry in association with colorimetry for irritation and erythema analysis. The instrumental data obtained showed that the efficacy and safety of the new ternary system peel compounds were significantly higher compared with the binary system formulations tested. The new formulation peels improved chemexfoliation and reduced complications such as irritation, redness, and postinflammatory pigmentation compared to the traditional aqueous solutions. The study showed that ternary system chemexfoliation, using a controlled delivery technology, was able to provide the same clinical effects in term of stratum corneum reduction with a significantly reduced barrier alteration, water loss, and irritation/erythema compared to traditional binary system peels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ordered CoSn-type ternary phases in Co3Sn3-xGex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allred, Jared M.; Jia, Shuang; Bremholm, Martin

    2012-01-01

    . By taking advantage of the chemical differences between the two crystallographically inequivalent Sn sites in the structure, we observe ordered ternary phases, nominally Co3SnGe2 and Co3Sn2Ge. The electron count and unit cell configuration remain unchanged from CoSn; these observations thus help to clarify...

  10. Binary and ternary recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in He-D2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glosik, J.; Korolov, I.; Plasil, R.; Kotrik, T.; Dohnal, P.; Novotny, O.; Varju, J.; Roucka, S.; Greene, Chris H.; Kokoouline, V.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study is reported about the recombination of D 3 + ions with electrons in a low-temperature plasma (200-300 K) consisting of He with a small admixture of D 2 . At several temperatures, the pressure dependence of the apparent binary recombination rate coefficient (α eff ) was measured over a broad range of helium pressures (200-2000 Pa). The binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients were obtained from measured pressure dependences of α eff . The binary recombination rate coefficient obtained α bin (300 K)=(2.7±0.9)x10 -8 cm 3 s -1 is in agreement with recent theory. The ternary recombination rate coefficient obtained is K He (300 K)=(1.8±0.6)x10 -25 cm 6 s -1 . In analogy with the recently described process of helium-assisted ternary recombination of H 3 + ions, it is suggested that the ternary helium-assisted recombination of D 3 + ions proceeds through the formation of a neutral long-lived highly excited Rydberg molecule D 3 followed by a collision with a He atom.

  11. Binary and ternary recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in He-D2 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosík, J.; Korolov, I.; Plašil, R.; Kotrík, T.; Dohnal, P.; Novotný, O.; Varju, J.; Roučka, Š.; Greene, Chris H.; Kokoouline, V.

    2009-10-01

    An experimental study is reported about the recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in a low-temperature plasma (200-300 K) consisting of He with a small admixture of D2 . At several temperatures, the pressure dependence of the apparent binary recombination rate coefficient (αeff) was measured over a broad range of helium pressures (200-2000 Pa). The binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients were obtained from measured pressure dependences of αeff . The binary recombination rate coefficient obtained αbin(300K)=(2.7±0.9)×10-8cm3s-1 is in agreement with recent theory. The ternary recombination rate coefficient obtained is KHe(300K)=(1.8±0.6)×10-25cm6s-1 . In analogy with the recently described process of helium-assisted ternary recombination of H3+ ions, it is suggested that the ternary helium-assisted recombination of D3+ ions proceeds through the formation of a neutral long-lived highly excited Rydberg molecule D3 followed by a collision with a He atom.

  12. Characterization of U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes on hematite: EXAFS and electrophoretic mobility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, John R.; Reitmeyer, Rebecca; Lenhart, John J.; Davis, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured U(VI) adsorption on hematite using EXAFS spectroscopy and electrophoresis under conditions relevant to surface waters and aquifers (0.01 to 10 μM dissolved uranium concentrations, in equilibrium with air, pH 4.5 to 8.5). Both techniques suggest the existence of anionic U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate that U(VI) is simultaneously coordinated to surface FeO6 octahedra and carbonate (or bicarbonate) ligands in bidentate fashions, leading to the conclusion that the ternary complexes have an inner-sphere metal bridging (hematite-U(VI)-carbonato) structure. Greater than or equal to 50% of adsorbed U(VI) was comprised of monomeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes, even at pH 4.5. Multimeric U(VI) species were observed at pH ≥ 6.5 and aqueous U(VI) concentrations approximately an order of magnitude more dilute than the solubility of crystalline β-UO2(OH)2. Based on structural constraints, these complexes were interpreted as dimeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. These results suggest that Fe-oxide-U(VI)-carbonato complexes are likely to be important transport-limiting species in oxic aquifers throughout a wide range of pH values.

  13. An improved ternary vector system for Agrobacterium-mediated rapid maize transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ajith; Bass, Steven H; Wu, Emily; Wang, Ning; McBride, Kevin E; Annaluru, Narayana; Miller, Michael; Hua, Mo; Jones, Todd J

    2018-05-01

    A simple and versatile ternary vector system that utilizes improved accessory plasmids for rapid maize transformation is described. This system facilitates high-throughput vector construction and plant transformation. The super binary plasmid pSB1 is a mainstay of maize transformation. However, the large size of the base vector makes it challenging to clone, the process of co-integration is cumbersome and inefficient, and some Agrobacterium strains are known to give rise to spontaneous mutants resistant to tetracycline. These limitations present substantial barriers to high throughput vector construction. Here we describe a smaller, simpler and versatile ternary vector system for maize transformation that utilizes improved accessory plasmids requiring no co-integration step. In addition, the newly described accessory plasmids have restored virulence genes found to be defective in pSB1, as well as added virulence genes. Testing of different configurations of the accessory plasmids in combination with T-DNA binary vector as ternary vectors nearly doubles both the raw transformation frequency and the number of transformation events of usable quality in difficult-to-transform maize inbreds. The newly described ternary vectors enabled the development of a rapid maize transformation method for elite inbreds. This vector system facilitated screening different origins of replication on the accessory plasmid and T-DNA vector, and four combinations were identified that have high (86-103%) raw transformation frequency in an elite maize inbred.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of ternary PtxPdyAuz fuel cell nanocatalyst growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brault, P.; Coutanceau, C.; C. Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of PEMFC cathodes based on ternary Pt70Pd15Au15 and Pt50Pd25Au25 nanocatalysts dispersed on carbon indicate systematic Au segregation from the particle bulk to the surface, leading to an Au layer coating the cluster surface and to the spontaneous formation of a Pt...

  15. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida ) in ternary Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Fac–mer equilibria; CuII-iminodiacetate-imidazole/benzimidazole ternary complexes; stability constants. 1. Introduction. Mixed ligand complexes of transition metal ions with amino acids, peptides or their derivatives or analogues, and heterocyclic N-bases can serve as model compounds of bioinorganic interests ...

  16. Ternary Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH ternary electrodes have been prepared. Different Ni:Cu and Ni:Co ratios were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at room temperature on carbon microfibers. Since Ni(OH)2 is notorious for poor cycling

  17. Phase relationships in the Er-Mn-Ti ternary system at 773 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingqi; Wang Xina; Tang Mengqi; Su Kunpeng; Yang Xiaomao; Li Chunhui; Li Xueqiang

    2009-01-01

    The Phase relationship in the Er-Mn-Ti ternary system at 773 K has been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction analysis with the aid of differential thermal analysis and optical microanalysis techniques in this work. The existence of eight binary compounds Mn 15 Ti 85, αMnTi, βMnTi, Mn 2 Ti, Mn 5 Ti, ErMn 12, Er 6 Mn 23 and ErMn 2 has been confirmed at 773 K in this system. The maximum solid solubility of Ti in Mn is about 8 at%Ti. The homogeneity range of Mn 2 Ti extends from about 31 at% to 39 at% Ti. The maximum solid solubility of Er in Mn 2 Ti phase is about less than 1 at% Er. No ternary compounds were found in this ternary system at 773K. At 773 K, the isothermal section of phase diagram of Er-Mn-Ti ternary system consists of 11 single-phase regions, 19 two-phase regions and 9 three-phase regions.

  18. Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…

  19. A nanoindentation study of magnetron co-sputtered nanocrystalline ternary nitride coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung W.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoindentation testing was used to determine the hardness, elastic modulus and plasticity parameter of three newly developed ternary nitride coatings with nano-sized grains. With decreasing nitrogen deposition pressure, grain diameter of the coatings decreases that leads to both higher nanohardness and elastic modulus with conservation of satisfactory values of plasticity characteristic.

  20. Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, S. T.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Jiang, C.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a

  1. Thermoelectric properties of ternary phases of thallium-tin-tellurium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dichi, E. [Equipe materiaux et sante, faculte de pharmacie, universite Paris XI, 5, rue J.B, EA 401, Clement 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)], E-mail: emma.dichi@cep.u-psud.fr; Sghaier, M. [Equipe materiaux et sante, faculte de pharmacie, universite Paris XI, 5, rue J.B, EA 401, Clement 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Kra, G. [Laboratoire de chimie minerale, universite de Cocody, 22, BP 582, Abidjan 22, Cote d' Ivoire (France)

    2008-06-30

    In this paper, we present the measurements of conductivity and of thermoelectric power. Measurements were taken for the temperature range of 100-330 K for the three ternary phases of Tl-Sn-Te system. The potential of these compounds as thermoelectric materials was studied.

  2. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of soft magnetic nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toparli, Cigdem [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany); Ebin, Burçak [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Nuclear Chemistry and Industrial Material Recycling, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Gürmen, Sebahattin, E-mail: gurmen@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    The present study focuses on the synthesis, microstructural and magnetic properties of ternary FeNiCo nanoparticles. Nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles were synthesized via hydrogen reduction assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in single step. The effect of precursor concentration on the morphology and the size of particles was investigated. The syntheses were performed at 800 °C. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the as-prepared products were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies. Scherer calculation revealed that crystallite size of the ternary particles ranged between 36 and 60 nm. SEM and TEM investigations showed that the particle size was strongly influenced by the precursor concentration and Fe, Ni, Co elemental composition of individual particles was homogeneous. Finally, the soft magnetic properties of the particles were observed to be a function of their size. - Highlights: • Ternary FeNiCo alloy nanocrystalline particles were synthesized in a single step. • Cubic crystalline structure and spherical morphology was observed by XRD, SEM and TEM investigations. • The analysis of magnetic properties indicates the soft magnetic features of particles.

  3. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Cu–Ni–Si ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Xiang, Shulin; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Rongpei; Wang, Cuiping, E-mail: wangcp@xmu.edu.cn

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Three isothermal sections of the Cu–Ni–Si system have been investigated. •The ternary compound τ{sub 1} and the liquid phase are confirmed at 1073 K. •The γ (Cu{sub 5}Si) and θ (Ni{sub 2}Si) phases can be stabilized at higher or lower temperatures. -- Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Cu–Ni–Si ternary system have been investigated experimentally by means of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis on equilibrated ternary alloys. Three isothermal sections at 1073, 1173 and 1273 K are determined in the whole composition range. The existence of liquid phase and the ternary compound τ{sub 1} is confirmed at 1073 K. The binary γ (Cu{sub 5}Si), γ (Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}), δ (Ni{sub 2}Si) and θ (Ni{sub 2}Si) phases exhibit a considerable solubility of a third element. In addition, the γ (Cu{sub 5}Si) and θ (Ni{sub 2}Si) phases can be stabilized by the addition of Ni and Cu, respectively.

  4. Dissolution and precipitation behavior of ternary solid dispersions of ezetimibe in biorelevant media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhayali, Amani; Tavellin, Staffan; Velaga, Sitaram

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different formulations and processes on inducing and maintaining the supersaturation of ternary solid dispersions of ezetimibe (EZ) in two biorelevant media fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and fasted-state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) at different temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) were investigated in this work. Ternary solid dispersions of EZ were prepared by adding polymer PVP-K30 and surfactant poloxamer 188 using melt-quenching and spray-drying methods. The resulting solid dispersions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), modulated DSC, powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. The dissolution of all the ternary solid dispersions was tested in vitro under non-sink conditions. All the prepared solid dispersions were amorphous in nature. In FaSSIF at 25 °C, the melt-quenched (MQ) solid dispersions of EZ were more soluble than the spray-dried (SD) solid dispersions and supersaturation was maintained. However, at 37 °C, rapid and variable precipitation behavior was observed for all the MQ and SD formulations. In FaSSGF, the melting method resulted in better solubility than the spray-drying method at both temperatures. Ternary solid dispersions show potential for improving solubility and supersaturation. However, powder dissolution experiments of these solid dispersions of EZ at 25 °C may not predict the supersaturation behavior at physiologically relevant temperatures.

  5. Properties of ternary NiFeW alloy coating by jet electrodeposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, ternary NiFeW alloy coatings were prepared by jet electrodeposition, and the effects of lord salt concentration, jet speed, current density and temperature on the properties of the coatings, including the composition, microhardness, surface morphology, structure and corrosion resistance, were investigated.

  6. Reaction kinetics, reaction products and compressive strength of ternary activators activated slag designed by Taguchi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.; Yu, Q.L.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the reaction kinetics, the reaction products and the compressive strength of slag activated by ternary activators, namely waterglass, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Nine mixtures are designed by the Taguchi method considering the factors of sodium carbonate content

  7. Synthesis and characterization of the ternary telluroargentate K4[Ag18Te11

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar; Dashjav, Enkhtsetseg; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The ternary potassium telluroargentate(I), K4[Ag18Te11], was prepared by solvothermal synthesis in ethylenediamine at 160 °C. It crystallizes in the cubic space group Fm3¯ m (no. 225) with the cell parameter a = 18.6589(6) Å. The crystal structure

  8. Sol-gel prepared active ternary oxide coating on titanium in cathodic protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a ternary oxide coating, on titanium, which consisted of TiO2, RuO2 and IrO2 in the molar ratio 0.6:0.3:0.1, calculated on the metal atom, were investigated for potential application for cathodic protection in a seawater environment. The oxide coatings on titanium were prepared by the sol gel procedure from a mixture of inorganic oxide sols, which were obtained by forced hydrolysis of metal chlorides. The morphology of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of activated titanium anodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and polarization measurements in a H2SO4- and NaCl-containing electrolyte, as well as in seawater sampled on the Adriatic coast in Tivat, Montenegro. The anode stability during operation in seawater was investigated by the galvanostatic accelerated corrosion stability test. The morphology and electrochemical characteristics of the ternary coating are compared to that of a sol-gel-prepared binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating. The activity of the ternary coating was similar to that of the binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating in the investigated solutions. However, the corrosion stability in seawater is found to be considerably greater for the ternary coating.

  9. Organic alloy systems suitable for the investigation of regular binary and ternary eutectic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, L.; Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2004-09-01

    Transparent organic alloys showing a plastic crystal phase were investigated experimentally using differential scanning calorimetry and directional solidification with respect to find a suitable model system for regular ternary eutectic growth. The temperature, enthalpy and entropy of phase transitions have been determined for a number of pure substances. A distinction of substances with and without plastic crystal phases was made from their entropy of melting. Binary phase diagrams were determined for selected plastic crystal alloys with the aim to identify eutectic reactions. Examples for lamellar and rod-like eutectic solidification microstructures in binary systems are given. The system (D)Camphor-Neopentylglycol-Succinonitrile is identified as a system that exhibits, among others, univariant and a nonvariant eutectic reaction. The ternary eutectic alloy close to the nonvariant eutectic composition solidifies with a partially faceted solid-liquid interface. However, by adding a small amount of Amino-Methyl-Propanediol (AMPD), the temperature of the nonvariant eutectic reaction and of the solid state transformation from plastic to crystalline state are shifted such, that regular eutectic growth with three distinct nonfaceted phases is observed in univariant eutectic reaction for the first time. The ternary phase diagram and examples for eutectic microstructures in the ternary and the quaternary eutectic alloy are given.

  10. Ternary logic implemented on a single dopant atom field effect silicon transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.; Mol, J.A.; Verduijn, J.; Lansbergen, G.P.; Rogge, S.; Levine, R.D.; Remacle, F.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an experimental proof of principle for a ternary multiplier realized in terms of the charge state of a single dopant atom embedded in a fin field effect transistor (Fin-FET). Robust reading of the logic output is made possible by using two channels to measure the current flowing through

  11. Ternary diffusion in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Du, Yong, E-mail: yongducalphad@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Xu, Honghui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Jin, Zhanpeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2013-07-25

    Highlights: •Interdiffusivities in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined. •The present results were compared with experimental data in boundary binary systems. •The present results were validated by thermodynamic constraints and Fick’s law. •The sign of ternary cross diffusivities was predicted in terms of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Utilizing six groups of bulk diffusion couples and with electron probe microanalysis technique, the composition dependence of ternary interdiffusion coefficients in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined by the Matano-Kirkaldy method. Using a three-dimensional representation, the obtained main ternary diffusion coefficients were found to be consistent with the experimental data in boundary binaries available in the literature. The reliability of the obtained interdiffusivities was further validated by thermodynamic constraints as well as by Fick’s second law applied to numerical simulation. The sign of the ternary cross diffusivities in fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys, which shows a noticeable effect on microstructure, was also successfully predicted in terms of thermodynamics.

  12. Ternary diffusion in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Xu, Honghui; Jin, Zhanpeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Interdiffusivities in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined. •The present results were compared with experimental data in boundary binary systems. •The present results were validated by thermodynamic constraints and Fick’s law. •The sign of ternary cross diffusivities was predicted in terms of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Utilizing six groups of bulk diffusion couples and with electron probe microanalysis technique, the composition dependence of ternary interdiffusion coefficients in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined by the Matano-Kirkaldy method. Using a three-dimensional representation, the obtained main ternary diffusion coefficients were found to be consistent with the experimental data in boundary binaries available in the literature. The reliability of the obtained interdiffusivities was further validated by thermodynamic constraints as well as by Fick’s second law applied to numerical simulation. The sign of the ternary cross diffusivities in fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys, which shows a noticeable effect on microstructure, was also successfully predicted in terms of thermodynamics

  13. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by including Wong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield ...

  14. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz; Steudtner, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  15. The effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in glycolipid/n-octane/water ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Irwana; Radiman, Shahidan; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Hashim, Rauzah

    2009-10-01

    Two novel glycolipids have been synthesized and their phase behaviour studied. They have been characterized using FT-IR, FAB and 13C NMR and 1H NMR to ensure the purity of novel glycolipids. The two glycolipids are distinguished based on the head group of glycolipids (monosaccharide/glucose and disaccharide/maltose). These two novel glycolipids have been used as surfactant to perform two phase diagrams. Phase behaviours that have been investigated are 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2-HDG)/n-octane/water ternary system and 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside (2-HDM)/n-octane/water ternary system. SAXS and polarizing optical microscope have been used to study the phase behaviours of these two surfactants in ternary phase diagram. Study of effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in ternary system is a strategy to derive the structure-property relationship. For comparison, 2-HDM and 2-HDG have been used as surfactant in the same ternary system. The phase diagram of 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside/n-octane/water ternary system exhibited a Lalpha phase at a higher concentration regime, followed with two phases and a micellar solution region in a lower concentration regime. The phase diagram of 2-HDG/water/n-octane ternary system shows hexagonal phase, cubic phase, rectangular ribbon phase, lamellar phase, cubic phase as the surfactant concentration increase.

  16. Mechanism of ternary breakup in the reaction 197Au+197Au at 15A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Junlong; Wu Xizhen; Li Zhuxia; Zhao Kai; Zhang Yingxun; Li Xian; Yan Shiwei

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of the ternary breakup of the very heavy system 197 Au+ 197 Au at an energy of 15A MeV has been studied by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculation results reproduce the characteristic features in ternary breakup events explored in a series of experiments; i.e., the masses of three fragments are comparable in size and the very fast, nearly collinear breakup of the colliding system is dominant in the ternary breakup events. Further, the evolution of the time scales of different ternary reaction modes and the behavior of mass distributions of three fragments with impact parameters are studied. The time evolution of the configurations of the composite reaction systems is also studied. We find that for most of the ternary breakup events with the features found in the experiments, the configuration of the composite system has two-preformed-neck shape. The study shows that those ternary breakup events having the characteristic features found in the experiments happen at relatively small impact parameter reactions, but not at peripheral reactions. The ternary breakup reaction at peripheral reactions belongs to binary breakup with a neck emission.

  17. Measurement and correlation of critical properties for binary mixtures and ternary mixtures containing gasoline additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lipu; Han, Kewei; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng; Yan, Fangyou

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A high-pressure view cell was used to measure the critical properties of mixtures. • Three binary mixtures’ and three ternary mixtures’ critical properties were reported. • The experimental data of each system covered the whole mole fraction range. • The critical properties of the ternary mixtures were predicted with the PR–WS model. • Empirical equations were used to correlate the experimental results. - Abstract: The critical properties of three binary mixtures and three ternary mixtures containing gasoline additives (including methanol + 1-propanol, heptane + ethanol, heptane + 1-propanol, methanol + 1-propanol + heptane, methanol + 1-propanol + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethanol + heptane + MTBE) were determined by a high-pressure cell. All the critical lines of binary mixtures belong to the type I described by Scott and van Konynenburg. The system of methanol + 1-propanol showed little non-ideal behavior due to their similar molecular structures. The heptane + ethanol and heptane + 1-propanol systems showed visible non-ideal behavior for their great differences in molecular structure. The Peng–Robinson equation of state combined with the Wong–Sandler mixing rule (PR–WS) was applied to correlate the critical properties of binary mixtures. The critical points of the three ternary mixtures were predicted by the PR–WS model with the binary interaction parameters using the procedure proposed by Heidemann and Khalil. The predicted critical temperatures were in good agreement with the experimental values, while the predicted critical pressures differed from the measured values. The experimental values of binary mixtures were fitted well with the Redlich–Kister equation. The critical properties of ternary mixtures were correlated with the Cibulka’s equation, and the critical surfaces were plotted using the Cibulka’s equations

  18. Reinvestigation of the Ce–Co–Al ternary system: Isothermal section at 973 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasri, N. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Gastebois, J. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pasturel, M., E-mail: mathieu.pasturel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Belgacem, B. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Péron, I.; Gouttefangeas, F. [Centre de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et microAnalyse, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Ben Hassen, R. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); and others

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The experimental isothermal section at 973 K of the Ce–Co–Al system is presented. • This section contains 5 ternary phases and 7 ternary extensions of pseudo-binaries. • DTA experiments are used to estimate the liquid areas. - Abstract: The Ce–Co–Al ternary phase diagram has been reinvestigated at 973 K by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and differential thermal analyses. It contains 5 ternary phases (CeCo{sub 2}Al{sub 8}, Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 6}Al{sub 19}, CeCoAl{sub 4}, Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 3}Al{sub 4} and CeCoAl) as well as 7 extensions in the ternary field of pseudo-binaries (CeAl{sub 2−x}Co{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.18; CeCo{sub 2−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.21; CeCo{sub 3−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.20; Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 7−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.73; Ce{sub 5}Co{sub 19−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.20; CeCo{sub 5−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.71 and Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 17−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 2.2). Two liquid areas are present at the Al and Ce-rich corners of this isothermal section.

  19. ENTIRELY AQUEOUS SOLUTION-GEL ROUTE FOR THE PREPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE, HAFNIUM CARBIDE AND THEIR TERNARY CARBIDE POWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changrui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An entirely aqueous solution-gel route has been developed for the synthesis of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide and their ternary carbide powders. Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O, malic acid (MA and ethylene glycol (EG were dissolved in water to form the aqueous zirconium carbide precursor. Afterwards, this aqueous precursor was gelled and transformed into zirconium carbide at a relatively low temperature (1200 °C for achieving an intimate mixing of the intermediate products. Hafnium and the ternary carbide powders were also synthesized via the same aqueous route. All the zirconium, hafnium and ternary carbide powders exhibited a particle size of ∼100 nm.

  20. Temperature dependence on mutual solubility of binary (methanol + limonene) mixture and (liquid + liquid) equilibria of ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuhiro; Li Xiaoli; Li Hengde

    2009-01-01

    Mutual solubility data of the binary (methanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures ranging from 288.15 K close to upper critical solution temperature, and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (tie-lines) of the (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K have been obtained. The experimental results have been represented accurately in terms of the extended and modified UNIQUAC models with binary parameters, compared with the UNIQUAC model. The temperature dependence of binary and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for the binary (methanol + limonene) and ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixtures could be calculated successfully using the extended and modified UNIQUAC model

  1. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  2. Twelve Monkeys, the Kassandra dilemma and innovation diffusion: transdisciplinary lessons for animal and environmental activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rutherford Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal activists and environmental activists believe that the world and its inhabitants face devastating consequences in the future if behaviour towards and the treatment of animals and the environment do not change. However, despite their predictions many people are not swayed to change their behaviour. This article suggests that these activists experience what is known as Kassandra’s dilemma; the conundrum of knowing what the future holds but being unable to prevent events from happening. Drawing on the film, Twelve Monkeys and Greek mythology this article explores this mythological dilemma and explains how this dilemma is a lived experience for activists. The article suggests that activists can resolve Kassandra’s dilemma by taking a transdisciplinary approach towards animal and environmental activism. Thus, in order to escape Kassandra’s dilemma the article suggests that animal and environmental activists require transdisciplinary knowledge; knowledge of the actual and potential harm done to animals and the environment and how this can be prevented as well as knowledge on how to successfully convey this knowledge to others. The article highlights innovation diffusion theory as an example of the type of transdisciplinary knowledge that could assist in escaping from Kassandra’s dilemma and in order to better advocate on behalf of animals and the environment.

  3. Risk of stress urinary incontinence twelve years after the first pregnancy and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktrup, Lars; Rortveit, Guri; Lose, Gunnar

    2006-08-01

    To estimate the impact of onset of stress urinary incontinence in first pregnancy or postpartum period, for the risk of symptoms 12 years after the first delivery. In a longitudinal cohort study, 241 women answered validated questions about stress urinary incontinence after first delivery and 12 years later. Twelve years after first delivery the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence was 42% (102 of 241). The 12-year incidence was 30% (44 of 146). The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence 12 years after first pregnancy and delivery was significantly higher (Ppregnancy (56%, 37 of 66) and in women with onset shortly after delivery (78%, 14 of 18) compared with those without initial symptoms (30%, 44 of 146). In 70 women who had onset of symptoms during first pregnancy or shortly after the delivery but remission 3 months postpartum, a total of 40 (57%) had stress urinary incontinence 12 years later. In 11 women with onset of symptoms during the first pregnancy or shortly after delivery but no remission 3 months postpartum, a total of 10 (91%) had stress urinary incontinence 12 years later. Cesarean during first delivery was significantly associated with a lower risk of incontinence. Other obstetric factors were not significantly associated with the risk of incontinence 12 years later. Patients who were overweight before their first pregnancy were at increased risk. Onset of stress urinary incontinence during first pregnancy or puerperal period carries an increased risk of long-lasting symptoms.

  4. High-energy, twelve-channel laser facility (DEFIN) for spherical irradiation of thermonuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Danilov, A.E.; Krokhin, O.N.; Kruglov, B.V.; Mikhailov, Yu.A.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Fedotov, S.I.; Fedorov, A.N.

    This paper describes a high-energy, twelve-channel laser facility (DELFIN) intended for high-temperature heating of thermonuclear targets with spherical symmetry. The facility includes a neodymium-glass laser with the ultimate radiation energy of 10 kJ, a pulse length of approximately 10 -10 to 10 -9 s, beam divergence of 5 x 10 -4 radians, a vacuum chamber in which laser radiation interacts with the plasma, and a system of diagnostic instrumentation for the observation of laser beam and plasma parameters. Described are the optical scheme and construction details of the laser facility. Presented is an analysis of focusing schemes for target irradiation and described is the focusing scheme of the DELFIN facility, which is capable of attaining a high degree of spherical symmetry in irradiating targets with maximum beam intensity at the target surface of approximately 10 15 W/cm 2 . This paper examines the most important problems connected with the physical investigations of thermonuclear laser plasma and the basic diagnostic problems involved in their solution

  5. The Stability of DSM Personality Disorders over Twelve to Eighteen Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, Gerald; Di, Chongzhi; Samuels, J F; Bienvenu, O J; Reti, I M; Costa, P; Eaton, William W; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background Stability of personality disorders is assumed in most nomenclatures; however, the evidence for this is limited and inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of DSM-III personality disorders in a community sample of eastern Baltimore residents unselected for treatment. Methods Two hundred ninety four participants were examined on two occasions by psychiatrists using the same standardized examination twelve to eighteen years apart. All the DSM-III criteria for personality disorders were assessed. Item-response analysis was adapted into two approaches to assess the agreement between the personality measures on the two occasions. The first approach estimated stability in the underlying disorder, correcting for error in trait measurement, and the second approach estimated stability in the measured disorder, without correcting for item unreliability. Results Five of the ten personality disorders exhibited moderate stability in individuals: antisocial, avoidant, borderline, histrionic, and schizotypal. Associated estimated ICCs for stability of underlying disorder over time ranged between approximately 0.4 and 0.7–0.8. A sixth disorder, OCPD, exhibited appreciable stability with estimated ICC of approximately 0.2–0.3. Dependent, narcissistic, paranoid, and schizoid disorders were not demonstrably stable. Conclusions The findings suggest that six of the DSM personality disorder constructs themselves are stable, but that specific traits within the DSM categories are both of lesser importance than the constructs themselves and require additional specification. PMID:19656527

  6. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. VIII. CATALOG OF TRANSIT TIMING MEASUREMENTS OF THE FIRST TWELVE QUARTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Nachmani, Gil; Holczer, Tomer; Sokol, Gil [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zucker, Shay [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welsh, William [Astronomy Department, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Following the works of Ford et al. and Steffen et al. we derived the transit timing of 1960 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) using the pre-search data conditioning light curves of the first twelve quarters of the Kepler data. For 721 KOIs with large enough signal-to-noise ratios, we obtained also the duration and depth of each transit. The results are presented as a catalog for the community to use. We derived a few statistics of our results that could be used to indicate significant variations. Including systems found by previous works, we have found 130 KOIs that showed highly significant times of transit variations (TTVs) and 13 that had short-period TTV modulations with small amplitudes. We consider two effects that could cause apparent periodic TTV—the finite sampling of the observations and the interference with the stellar activity, stellar spots in particular. We briefly discuss some statistical aspects of our detected TTVs. We show that the TTV period is correlated with the orbital period of the planet and with the TTV amplitude.

  7. [Courses in basic research methodology a valuable asset for clinicians. Twelve years' experiences in southern Sweden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Anders; Lindberg, Eva Pettersson; Henriksson, Karin

    2002-03-07

    At the Department of Community Medicine at Lund University we have given courses in basic research methodology since 1989. The course has yielded 20 points of university credit, the equivalent of one full-time semester of studies, and it has been run part-time, covering one and a half years. Our aim has been to provide a large number of physicians with basic training in research methods, and to stimulate the engagement of new scientific students from the whole Southern Health Care Region. During the first ten years, 138 general practitioners (20% of the GPs of the region) and 202 specialists completed our courses. Up till now, 19 GPs (14%) and 19 specialists (9%) have begun PhD studies. During the last two years, another 100 physicians from southern Sweden have attended our courses, as well as GPs from Zealand in Denmark. We have been developing our course in basic research methods during a twelve-year period, and it is now well established in our health care region. We feel that we have succeeded in reaching the two goals we had set up: to give a large number of physicians a fundamental knowledge of research methods and to recruit and increase the number of PhD students. We believe that medical research and development must flourish also outside the traditional university settings.

  8. Twelve Years of the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys : Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over twelve years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating longer since its Servicing Mission 4 repair than it had originally operated prior to its 2007 failure. Despite the accumulating radiation damage to the WFC CCDs during their long stay in low Earth orbit, ACS continues to be heavily exploited by the HST community as both a prime and a parallel detector. Conspicuous examples include the recently completed HST Multi-cycle Treasury programs, and the ongoing HST Frontier Fields (HFF) program.We review recent developments in ACS calibration that enable the continued high performance of this instrument, with particular attention the to the Wide Field Channel. Highlights include: 1) the refinement of the WFC geometric distortion solution and its time dependency; 2) the efficacy of both pixel-based and catalog-based corrections for the worsening WFC charge-transfer efficiency (CTE); 3) the extension of pixel-based CTE correction to the WFC 2K subarray mode; and 4) a novel "self-calibration" technique appropriate for large-number stacks of deep WFC exposures (such as the HFF targets) that provides superior reductions compared to the standard CALACS reduction pipeline.

  9. Transitioning HIV-Positive Adolescents to Adult Care: Lessons Learned From Twelve Adolescent Medicine Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda E; Philbin, Morgan M; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-01-01

    To maximize positive health outcomes for youth with HIV as they transition from youth to adult care, clinical staff need strategies and protocols to help youth maintain clinic engagement and medication adherence. Accordingly, this paper describe transition processes across twelve clinics within the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) to provide lessons learned and inform the development of transition protocols to improve health outcomes as youth shift from adolescent to adult HIV care. During a large multi-method Care Initiative program evaluation, three annual visits were completed at each site from 2010-2012 and conducted 174 semi-structured interviews with clinical and program staff (baseline n=64, year 1 n=56, year 2=54). The results underscore the value of adhering to recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) transition recommendations, including: developing formal transition protocols, preparing youth for transition, facilitating youth's connection to the adult clinic, and identifying necessary strategies for transition evaluation. Transitioning youth with HIV involves targeting individual-, provider-, and system-level factors. Acknowledging and addressing key barriers is essential for developing streamlined, comprehensive, and context-specific transition protocols. Adolescent and adult clinic involvement in transition is essential to reduce service fragmentation, provide coordinated and continuous care, and support individual and community level health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between clinical severity and type and degree of pectus excavatum in twelve brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Elham A; Hassan, Marwa H; Torad, Faisal A

    2018-05-18

    The aim of the study was to correlate the clinical severity of pectus excavatum with its type and degree based on objective radiographic evaluation. Twelve brachycephalic dogs were included. Grading of the clinical severity was done based on a 6-point grading score. Thoracic radiographs were used to calculate the frontosagittal and vertebral indices at the tenth thoracic vertebra and the vertebra overlying the excavatum. Correlation between the clinical severity score and frontosagittal and vertebral indices was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Typical pectus excavatum was recorded in the caudal sternum in seven dogs, with a mean clinical severity score of 1.7 ± 1.4, whereas in five dogs, atypical mid-sternal deviation was recorded with a mean clinical severity score of 3.8 ± 0.7. A strong correlation (r=0.7) was recorded between the clinical severity score and vertebral index in the atypical form, whereas a weak correlation (r=0.02) was recorded in the typical form (Pcorrelated (r=0.3) in the typical form of pectus excavatum, whereas it was strongly correlated (r=0.9) in the atypical form. Pectus excavatum in dogs is associated with compressive cardiopulmonary dysfunction, which depends mainly on the site/type of deviation rather than the degree of deviation.

  11. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  12. Whole-Proteome Analysis of Twelve Species of Alphaproteobacteria Links Four Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of whole-genome and whole-proteome sequences have been made available through advances in sequencing technology, and sequences of millions more organisms will become available in the coming years. This wealth of genetic information will provide numerous opportunities to enhance our understanding of these organisms including a greater understanding of relationships among species. Researchers have used 16S rRNA and other gene sequences to study the evolutionary origins of bacteria, but these strategies do not provide insight into the sharing of genes among bacteria via horizontal transfer. In this work we use an open source software program called pClust to cluster proteins from the complete proteomes of twelve species of Alphaproteobacteria and generate a dendrogram from the resulting orthologous protein clusters. We compare the results with dendrograms constructed using the 16S rRNA gene and multiple sequence alignment of seven housekeeping genes. Analysis of the whole proteomes of these pathogens grouped Rickettsia typhi with three other animal pathogens whereas conventional sequence analysis failed to group these pathogens together. We conclude that whole-proteome analysis can give insight into relationships among species beyond their phylogeny, perhaps reflecting the effects of horizontal gene transfer and potentially providing insight into the functions of shared genes by means of shared phenotypes.

  13. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  14. Estimation of admixture of twelve quark bag state in sup 4 He nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Mosallem, A M

    2002-01-01

    The p sup 4 He elastic scattering at the energy range from 0.695 to 393 GeV is analyzed in the framework of the Glauber theory. The Glauber amplitudes were evaluated using isospin-averaged nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and the sup 4 He wave function as a superposition of the Gaussian functions. The values of the calculated differential cross sections usually exceed the experimental ones. In order to overcome the discrepancy, it is assumed following to the paper by L. G. Dakno and N. N. Nikolaev that the ground state wave function of sup 4 He has an admixture of a twelve quark bag. Neglecting all transition amplitudes, the p - 12q bag scattering amplitude was chosen in a simple Gaussian form.The inclusion of the 12q bag leads to decreasing the p sup 4 He differential cross section and to a shift of the dip position to a large values of t what is needed for a successful description of the experimental data. While fitting the data it is found that the weight of the 12q bag state in the ground state of the sup 4 He ...

  15. What about Gender in Climate Change? Twelve Feminist Lessons from Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerneck

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation and mitigation are two key responses to climate change. In the global South they prompt many questions: what is the direction and degree of change needed? How can new climate change policies be aligned with existing development initiatives? How are core social relations such as gender understood and prioritized in relation to technical and other solutions? In search of synergies between adaptation, development and mitigation, this article asks a pertinent question for sub-Saharan small-scale agriculture in particular: what can adaptation and mitigation learn from development debates on social goal setting, institutional change and gender equality? From the perspective of sustainability science and feminist literature, three main findings emerge. First, as regards social goal setting, adaptation and mitigation should, like development, support the escape out of poverty, ill-health and food-insecurity. Second, as regards institutions, adaptation and mitigation should address how gender regulates access to, use of and control over resources in terms of labor, land and strategic decision-making power. Third, as regards gender equality, adaptation and mitigation should learn from how development in theory and practice has addressed gender, women, nature and the environment. At its core, the analysis contributes twelve salient themes that can significantly inform adaptation and mitigation in research, policy and practice, thus serving as inspiration for a critical debate on much needed synergetic trajectories.

  16. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  17. Peer teaching in medical education: twelve reasons to move from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven

    2007-09-01

    To provide an estimation of how often peer teaching is applied in medical education, based on reports in the literature and to summarize reasons that support the use of this form of teaching. We surveyed the 2006 medical education literature and categorised reports of peer teaching according to educational distance between students teaching and students taught, group size, and level of formality of the teaching. Subsequently, we analysed the rationales for applying peer teaching. Most reports were published abstracts in either Medical Education's annual feature 'Really Good Stuff' or the AMEE's annual conference proceedings. We identified twelve distinct reasons to apply peer teaching, including 'alleviating faculty teaching burden', 'providing role models for junior students', 'enhancing intrinsic motivation' and 'preparing physicians for their future role as educators'. Peer teaching appears to be practiced often, but many peer teaching reports do not become full length journal articles. We conclude that specifically 'near-peer teaching' appears beneficial for student teachers and learners as well as for the organisation. The analogy of the 'journeyman', as intermediate between 'apprentice' and 'master', with both learning and teaching tasks, is a valuable but yet under-recognized source of education in the medical education continuum.

  18. Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step recovery: a model based on social and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine recent findings associated with these disciplines that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying this change. Literature review and hypothesis development. Pertinent aspects of the neural impact of drugs of abuse are summarized. After this, research regarding specific brain sites, elucidated primarily by imaging techniques, is reviewed relative to the following: Mirroring and mentalizing are described in relation to experimentally modeled studies on empathy and mutuality, which may parallel the experiences of social interaction and influence on AA members. Integration and retrieval of memories acquired in a setting like AA are described, and are related to studies on storytelling, models of self-schema development, and value formation. A model for ascription to a Higher Power is presented. The phenomena associated with AA reflect greater complexity than the empirical studies on which this article is based, and certainly require further elucidation. Despite this substantial limitation in currently available findings, there is heuristic value in considering the relationship between the brain-based and clinical phenomena described here. There are opportunities for the study of neuroscientific correlates of Twelve-Step-based recovery, and these can potentially enhance our understanding of related clinical phenomena. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Isothermal section of the Er-Cu-Ga ternary system at 973 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgacem, B. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Pasturel, M., E-mail: mathieu.pasturel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Tougait, O. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Nouri, S. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Bekkachi, H. El; Peron, I. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Hassen, R. Ben [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Noeel, H. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2012-08-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The isothermal section at 973 K of the Er-Cu-Ga ternary phase diagram has been established for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight extensions of binary compounds in the ternary domain have been identified, as well as six ternary intermediate solid solutions characterized by an important Cu/Ga mutual substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of Er{sub 3}(Cu,Ga){sub 11} are reported for the first time and confirms the paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior of all the six intermediate intermetallics. - Abstract: Phase relations in the Er-Cu-Ga ternary system have been established at 973 K by means of powder X-ray diffraction complemented by energy dispersive spectroscopy coupled to scanning electron microscopy. The isothermal section of the phase diagram comprises eight extensions of binaries into the ternary system, ErCu{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 0.5), ErCu{sub 2-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 1.1), ErCu{sub 5-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 0.5), Er{sub 5}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 3-x} (x {<=} 0.60), Er{sub 3}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (x {<=} 0.24), ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} (x {<=} 0.10), ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (x {<=} 0.30) and ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 3-x} (x {<=} 0.35), as well as six ternary intermediate phases, ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (0.4 {<=} x {<=} 0.7), Er{sub 14}Cu{sub 51-x}Ga{sub x} (5.5 {<=} x {<=} 11.0), ErCu{sub 5-x}Ga{sub x} (0.8 {<=} x {<=} 2.3), Er{sub 2}Cu{sub 17-x}Ga{sub x} (4.9 {<=} x {<=} 8.0), ErCu{sub 12-x}Ga{sub x} (5.7 {<=} x {<=} 6.7) and Er{sub 3}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 11-x} (1.5 {<=} x {<=} 4.4), all deriving from binary structure-types.

  20. MnO2 Nanorods Intercalating Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Ternary Composites for Robust High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangqiang; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Lingling; Kan, Erjun; Zhang, Shaopeng; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua

    2014-04-01

    New ternary composites of MnO2 nanorods, polyaniline (PANI) and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by a two-step process. The 100 nm-long MnO2 nanorods with a diameter ~20 nm are conformably coated with PANI layers and fastened between GO layers. The MnO2 nanorods incorporated ternary composites electrode exhibits significantly increased specific capacitance than PANI/GO binary composite in supercapacitors. The ternary composite with 70% MnO2 exhibits a highest specific capacitance reaching 512 F/g and outstanding cycling performance, with ~97% capacitance retained over 5000 cycles. The ternary composite approach offers an effective solution to enhance the device performance of metal-oxide based supercapacitors for long cycling applications.

  1. Thermodynamic study of sodium-iron oxides. Part 2. Ternary phase diagram of the Na-Fe-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jintao; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

    2003-01-01

    Studies on ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been carried out from the thermodynamic point of view. Thermodynamic data of main ternary Na-Fe oxides Na 4 FeO 3 (s), Na 3 FeO 3 (s), Na 5 FeO 4 (s) and Na 8 Fe 2 O 7 (s) have been assessed. A user database has been created by reviewing literature data together with recent DSC and vapor pressure measurements by the present authors. New ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been constructed from room temperature to 1000K. Stable conditions of the ternary oxides at 800K were presented in predominance diagram as functions of oxygen pressure and sodium pressure

  2. Preparation of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol 6000 ternary system: characterization, in vitro and in vivo bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radia, Ourezki; Rogalska, Ewa; Moulay-Hassane, Guermouche

    2012-01-01

    Ternary complexes of meloxicam (ML), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were prepared from an equimolar (ML-βCD) and 10% of PEG. Characterization of the ternary complex was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The solubility of ML increased as a function of increasing the concentration of βCD and PEG 6000. Ternary system increased significantly ML solubility in water. Ternary complexes improved drug release compared with ML and ML-βCD. The oral bioavailability of ML-βCD-PEG was investigated by administration to rat and compared with ML and ML-βCD. The results confirmed that the oral bioavailability of ML was significantly improved by complexation with βCD in the presence of PEG.

  3. Direct femtosecond observation of charge carrier recombination in ternary semiconductor nanocrystals: The effect of composition and shelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya; Ahmed, Ghada H.; Alarousu, Erkki; Parida, Manas R.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-metal free ternary semiconductor nanocrystals are emerging as key materials in photoactive applications. However, the relative abundance of intra-bandgap defect states and lack of understanding of their origins within this class

  4. Novel ternary composites: Preparation, performance and application of ZnFe2O4/TiO2/polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanbi; Xiao, Qiushi; Li, Liangchao; Shen, Junhai; Hu, Diqiong

    2015-03-01

    A series of ZnFe2O4/TiO2/polyaniline ternary composites with excellent photocatalytic activity were successfully synthesized by chemical method. The phase composition, morphology, conductivity, electrical and magnetic performances of the as-samples were characterized by means of modern measurement technology. And the photocatalytic degradation activity tests for the samples were estimated using rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) as targeted pollutants. The results indicated that there existed some interactions between each component in the ternary composites, and the electrical conductivities and photocatalytic degradation activities of the ternary composites were improved due to the coating of polyaniline. Moreover, when the mass fraction of aniline was up to 50%, the ternary composite exhibited a great decontaminating (including photocatalytic degradation and adsorption) activity of on both MO and RhB and displayed an excellent reusability.

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of Taste Masked Famotidine Formulation Using Drug/β-cyclodextrin/Polymer Ternary Complexation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashok R.; Vavia, Pradeep R.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate potential of ternary complexation (comprising of drug, cyclodextrin and polymer) as an approach for taste masking. For this purpose famotidine with property of bitter taste was selected as a model drug. Improvement in taste masking capability of cyclodextrin towards famotidine was evaluated by formulating a ternary complex including hydrophilic polymer hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC 5 cps) as the third component. Phase solubility analy...

  6. Flexible and strong ternary blends of poly(vinyl chloride), poly(butylene adipate)and nanoparticle-plasticizers

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Bo; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Multiple property enhancement was achieved for ternary blends of PVC, poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) plasticizer and PBA-grafted nanofillers as compared to ternary blends with untreated nanofillers. The blends with surface modified halloysite, kaolin or silicon dioxide nanofillers all exhibited higher stress at break and higher strain at break as compared to the corresponding composites with untreated nanoparticles. The strain at break was similar or improved compared to binary PVC/PBA blends. ...

  7. Weight of preterm newborns during the first twelve weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Anchieta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal and prospective study was carried out at two state-operated maternity hospitals in Belo Horizonte during 1996 in order to assess the weight of preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns during the first twelve weeks of life. Two hundred and sixty appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm infants with birth weight <2500 g were evaluated weekly. The infants were divided into groups based on birth weight at 250-g intervals. Using weight means, somatic growth curves were constructed and adjusted to Count's model. Absolute (g/day and relative (g kg-1 day-1 velocity curves were obtained from a derivative of this model. The growth curve was characterized by weight loss during the 1st week (4-6 days ranging from 5.9 to 13.3% (the greater the percentage, the lower the birth weight, recovery of birth weight within 17 and 21 days, and increasingly higher rates of weight gain after the 3rd week. These rates were proportional to birth weight when expressed as g/day (the lowest and the highest birth weight neonates gained 15.9 and 30.1 g/day, respectively. However, if expressed as g kg-1 day-1, the rates were inversely proportional to birth weight (during the 3rd week, the lowest and the highest weight newborns gained 18.0 and 11.5 g kg-1 day-1, respectively. During the 12th week the rates were similar for all groups (7.5 to 10.2 g kg-1 day-1. The relative velocity accurately reflects weight gain of preterm infants who are appropriate for gestational age and, in the present study, it was inversely proportional to birth weight, with a peak during the 3rd week of life, and a homogeneous behavior during the 12th week for all weight groups.

  8. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, K. M.; Simonnet, A.; Fermi E/PO Team

    2013-04-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission’s science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: ● Higher Education: Fermi E/PO promotes STEM careers through the use of NASA data including research experiences for students and teachers (Global Telescope Network), education through STEM curriculum development projects (Cosmology curriculum) and through enrichment activities (Large Area Telescope simulator). ● Elementary and Secondary education: Fermi E/PO links the science objectives of the Fermi mission to well-tested, customer-focused and NASA-approved standards-aligned classroom materials (Black Hole Resources, Active Galaxy Education Unit and Pop-up book, TOPS guides, Supernova Education Unit). These materials have been distributed through (Educator Ambassador and on-line) teacher training workshops and through programs involving under-represented students (after-school clubs and Astro 4 Girls). ● Informal education and public outreach: Fermi E/PO engages the public in sharing the experience of exploration and discovery through high-leverage multi-media experiences (Black Holes planetarium and PBS NOVA shows), through popular websites (Gamma-ray Burst Skymap, Epo's Chronicles), social media (Facebook, MySpace), interactive web-based activities (Space Mysteries, Einstein@Home) and activities by

  9. Twelve-year history of late-life depression and subsequent feelings to God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Arjan W; Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; van der Horst, Marleen H L; Steunenberg, Bas; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Tilburg, Willem; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2014-11-01

    Growing evidence shows several possible relations between religiousness and late-life depression. Emotional aspects of religiousness such as facets of the perceived relationship with God can be crucial in this connection. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between the course of late-life depression and feelings about God and religious coping. Longitudinal survey study; naturalistic; 12-year follow-up. Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam; population-based, in three regions in The Netherlands. A subsample of 343 respondents (mean age: 77.2 years), including all respondents with high levels of depressive symptoms at any measurement cycle between 1992 and 2003 (assessed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule) and a random sample of nondepressed respondents who completed a postal questionnaire in 2005. Scales on God Image and Religious Coping. Twelve-year depression course trajectories serve as predicting variables and are specified according to recency and seriousness. Persistent and emergent depression are significantly associated with fear of God, feeling wronged by God, and negative religious coping. In terms of negative religious coping, significant associations were observed after adjustment for concurrent depression with a history of repeated minor depression and previous major depression. Late-life depression seems to maintain a pervasive relationship over time with affective aspects of religiousness. Religious feelings may parallel the symptoms of anhedonia or a dysphoric mood and could represent the experience of an existential void. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interventional effect of multiple LDR on splenocyte apoptosis and immunity on twelve-week diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Wang Zhicheng; Li Pengwu; Guo Wei; Zhao Hongguang; Liu Yang; Gong Shouliang; Guo Caixia

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of multiple low dose irradiation (LDR) on the apoptosis of splenocytes, immune factors and lymphocyte subgroups in twelve-week diabetes mellitus (DM), the experiment was carried out with control, DM and DM+LDR groups. The irradiation dose every time was 25, 50 and 75 mGy respectively, and the irradiated times were 15. At the eighth weekend after the DM rats were irradiated, the percentages of CD4 + , CD8 + T lymphocytes and TCR α β were detected by flowcytometry (FCM). The content of IL-2 in both serum and supernatant of cultured splenocytes were detected by ELISA. And the apoptotic rate of splenocytes was detected by FCM and TUNEL respectively. The result shows that as compared with that in the control, the body weight (BW) decreases both in the DM and the DM + LDR groups, particularly in the DM group. The blood glucose (BG) level in the DM+LDR groups is higher than that in the control, but lower than that in the DM group. As compared with those in the control, the percentages of TCR α β and CD4 + T cells, the content of IL-2 in serum and supernatant of cultured splenocytes, and the apoptotic rate of splenocytes in DM + LDR groups increase significantly. However, as compared with those in the DM group, the percentages of TCR α β, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and the splenocyte apoptotic rates in the DM+LDR groups decrease while the content of IL-2 and the ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells increase. It is obvious that the multiple LDR could regulate and weaken the loss of BW and increase of BG caused by DM, correct the imbalance of lymphocyte subgroups and immune factors, decrease the increment of splenocyte apoptosis resulted from DM. Multiple LDR could result in body protection. (authors)

  11. Indifference to pain syndrome in a twelve-year-old boy (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdadi T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: People vary greatly in their response to painful stimuli, from those with a low pain threshold to those with indifference to pain. However, insensitivity to pain is a rare disorder, characterized by the lack of usual subjective and objective responses to noxious stimuli. Patients who have congenital indifference to pain sustain painless injuries beginning in infancy, but have sensory responses that are otherwise normal on examination. Perception of passive movement, joint position, and vibration is normal in these patients, as are tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Case report: A twelve-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital for a painless deformity, degeneration in both knees and a neglected femoral neck fracture that was inappropriately painless. Further examination revealed normal sensory responses, perception of passive movement, joint position, vibration tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Spinal cord and brain MRI were normal as was the electromyography and nerve conduction velocity (EMG/NCV examination. There was no positive family history for this disorder. Conclusion: The deficits present in the different pain insensitivity syndromes provide insight into the complex anatomical and physiological nature of pain perception. Reports on pain asymbolia, in which pain is perceived but does not cause suffering, and related cortical conditions illustrate that there can be losses that independently involve either the sensory-discriminative component or the affective-motivational component of pain perception, thus highlighting their different anatomical localization. The paucity of experience with this entity and the resultant diagnostic problems, the severity of the associated disabling arthropathy and underscore the importance of this case report of indifference to pain.

  12. A survey of innovation through duplication in the reduced genomes of twelve parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D DeBarry

    Full Text Available We characterize the prevalence, distribution, divergence, and putative functions of detectable two-copy paralogs and segmental duplications in the Apicomplexa, a phylum of parasitic protists. Apicomplexans are mostly obligate intracellular parasites responsible for human and animal diseases (e.g. malaria and toxoplasmosis. Gene loss is a major force in the phylum. Genomes are small and protein-encoding gene repertoires are reduced. Despite this genomic streamlining, duplications and gene family amplifications are present. The potential for innovation introduced by duplications is of particular interest. We compared genomes of twelve apicomplexans across four lineages and used orthology and genome cartography to map distributions of duplications against genome architectures. Segmental duplications appear limited to five species. Where present, they correspond to regions enriched for multi-copy and species-specific genes, pointing toward roles in adaptation and innovation. We found a phylum-wide association of duplications with dynamic chromosome regions and syntenic breakpoints. Trends in the distribution of duplicated genes indicate that recent, species-specific duplicates are often tandem while most others have been dispersed by genome rearrangements. These trends show a relationship between genome architecture and gene duplication. Functional analysis reveals: proteases, which are vital to a parasitic lifecycle, to be prominent in putative recent duplications; a pair of paralogous genes in Toxoplasma gondii previously shown to produce the rate-limiting step in dopamine synthesis in mammalian cells, a possible link to the modification of host behavior; and phylum-wide differences in expression and subcellular localization, indicative of modes of divergence. We have uncovered trends in multiple modes of duplicate divergence including sequence, intron content, expression, subcellular localization, and functions of putative recent duplicates that

  13. Evaluation of ΔGsub(f) values for unstable compounds: a Fortran program for the calculation of ternary phase equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throop, G.J.; Rogl, P.; Rudy, E.

    1978-01-01

    A Fortran IV program was set up for the calculation of phase equilibria and tieline distributions in ternary systems of the type: transition metal-transition metal-nonmetal (interstitial type of solid solutions). The method offers the possibility of determining the thermodynamic values for unstable compounds through their influence upon ternary phase equilibria. The variation of the free enthalpy of formation of ternary solid solutions is calculated as a function of nonmetal content, thus describing the actual curvature of the phase boundaries. The integral and partial molar free enthalpies of formation of binary nonstoichiometric compounds and of phase solutions are expressed as analytical functions of the nonmetal content within their homogeneity range. The coefficient of these analytical expressions are obtained by the use either of the Wagner-Schottky vacancy model or polynomials second order in composition (parabolic approach). The free energy of formation, ΔGsub(f) has been calculated for the systems Ti-C, Zr-C, and Ta-C. Calculations of the ternary phase equilibria yielded the values for ΔGsub(f) for the unstable compounds Ti 2 C at 1500 0 C and Zr 2 C at 1775 0 C of -22.3 and 22.7 kcal g atom metal respectively. These values were used for the calculation of isothermal sections within the ternary systems Ti-Ta-C (at 1500 0 C) and Zr-Ta-C (at 1775 0 C). The ideal case of ternary phase solutions is extended to regular solutions. (author)

  14. Synthesis and application of a ternary composite of clay, saw-dust and peanut husks in heavy metal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungondori, Henry H; Mtetwa, Sandile; Tichagwa, Lilian; Katwire, David M; Nyamukamba, Pardon

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption of a multi-component system of ferrous, chromium, copper, nickel and lead on single, binary and ternary composites was studied. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ternary composite of clay, peanut husks (PH) and saw-dust (SD) exhibited a higher adsorption capacity than that of a binary system of clay and SD as well as a single component adsorbent of PH alone. The materials were used in their raw state without any chemical modifications. This was done to retain the cost effective aspect of the naturally occurring adsorbents. The adsorption capacities of the ternary composite for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ were 41.7 mg/g, 40.0 mg/g, 25.5 mg/g, 41.5 mg/g and 39.0 mg/g, respectively. It was found that the ternary composite exhibited excellent and enhanced adsorption capacity compared with both a binary and single adsorbent for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Cr 3+ . Characterization of the ternary composites was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Kinetic models and adsorption isotherms were also studied. The pseudo second order kinetic model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best described the adsorption mechanisms for the ternary composite towards each of the heavy metal ions.

  15. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  16. Separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ammon n.; Pack, Michael [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States); Phongikaroon, Spathorn [Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl) and strontium chloride (SrCl{sub 2}) from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8-5 mm/h) and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl{sub 2} separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  17. Stability of Naturally Relevant Ternary Phases in the Cu–Sn–S system in Contact with an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giaccherini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A relevant research effort is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of phases belonging to the ternary system Cu–Sn–S, mainly for their possible applications in semiconductor technology. Among all ternary phases, kuramite, Cu3SnS4, mohite, Cu2SnS3, and Cu4Sn7S16 have attracted the highest interest. Numerous studies were carried out claiming for the description of new phases in the ternary compositional field. In this study, we revise the existing literature on this ternary system, with a special focus on the phases stable in a temperature range at 25 °C. The only two ternary phases observed in nature are mohite and kuramite. Their occurrence is described as very rare. A numerical modelling of the stable solid phases in contact with a water solution was underwent to define stability relationships of the relevant phases of the system. The numerical modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams was carried out through the phreeqc software with the lnll.dat thermodynamic database. Owing to the complexity of this task, the subsystems Cu–O–H, Sn–O–H, Cu–S–O–H and Sn–S–O–H were firstly considered. The first Pourbaix diagram for the two naturally relevant ternary phases is then proposed.

  18. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Content of Twelve Bestselling US Principles of Economics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    How have authors of twelve bestselling introductory US textbooks in economics responded to the traumatizing financial crisis? In general the financial crisis is described with a couple of lines here and there or it is dealt with in boxes, separate sections, or specific isolated chapters. Some...

  19. Comparisons of High School Graduation Rates of Students with Disabilities and Their Peers in Twelve Southern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Theodore Scott; Manuel, Nancy; Stokes, Billy R.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared differences in diploma and graduation dropout rates among students with and without disabilities, analyzed differences in various graduation-types by disabilities, and offered recommendations to improve graduation rates through evidence-based practices. The geographic catchment area of this study was limited to twelve Southern…

  20. Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, S. T.

    2010-08-03

    Vegard’s law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume of an alloy can be determined from a linear interpolation of its constituent’s volumes. Deviations from this description occur such that volumes are both greater and smaller than the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a tendency, with the exception of AlxGa1−xAs, for the volume of the ternary alloys to be smaller than that determined from the linear interpolation of the volumes of the MAs and BAs binary alloys. Importantly, we establish a simple relationship linking the relative size of the group III atoms in the alloy and the predicted magnitude of the deviation from Vegard’s law.

  1. Ordering and site occupancy of ternary elements in Fe{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Thomas; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Ordered iron aluminides exhibit a number of advantageous properties, such as high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance and low cost. Therefore, iron aluminum based alloys are considered to replace in some cases high alloyed ferritic stainless steels, especially DO{sub 3} - ordered Fe{sub 3}Al. The mechanical properties and high-temperature stability can be optimized when ternary elements are added. In this study the site occupancy of ternary elements (4at.%V, 5at.%Cr, 5at.%Mn) has been investigated by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT). A special analysis algorithm allows resolving the atom layers for different measurement directions which enables determining site preferences. Additionally, comparing the succession of layers with simulations the binding energies of the participating elements can be estimated.

  2. Study of ternary and quaternary spontaneous fission of 252Cf with the NESSI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishchenko, V.G.; Jahnke, U.; Herbach, C.M.; Hilscher, D.

    2002-11-01

    Ternary and quaternary spontaneous decay of 252 Cf was studied with the NESSI detector, a combination of two 4π detectors for charged particles, neutrons and γ-rays. The applied method of particle identification by measuring the energies and relative time-of-flights of the decay products is shown to be very effective for the study of rare decay modes. The energy and angular distributions of the decay products, the associated neutron multiplicities, the total energy of the prompt γ-radiation as well as correlations between the various observables were measured for the first time in a single full-scale experiment. The characteristics of ternary fission known from previous investigations are confirmed in the frame of a methodically independent experiment. Preliminary estimates of the quaternary fission yield are presented. An attempt is made to determine the mechanism of quaternary fission. (orig.)

  3. A new hybrid double divisor ratio spectra method for the analysis of ternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Rasha M.; Maher, Hadir M.

    2008-10-01

    A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This method is based on convolution of the double divisor ratio spectra, obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture by a standard spectrum of two of the three compounds in the mixture, using combined trigonometric Fourier functions. The magnitude of the Fourier function coefficients, at either maximum or minimum points, is related to the concentration of each drug in the mixture. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was applied for the assay of a model mixture consisting of isoniazid (ISN), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PYZ) in synthetic mixtures, commercial tablets and human urine samples. The developed method was compared with the double divisor ratio spectra derivative method (DDRD) and derivative ratio spectra-zero-crossing method (DRSZ). Linearity, validation, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation are included in the text.

  4. On the ternary Ag – Cu – Ga system: Electromotive force measurement and thermodynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierlotka, Wojciech; Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Fitzner, Krzysztof; Handzlik, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The ternary silver–copper–gallium system found application as a solder material in jewel crafting and electronics, thus a phase diagram of this system seems to be important tool, which is necessary for a proper application of different alloys. The activity of gallium in liquid phase was determined by electromotive measurement technique and after that the equilibrium diagram of Ag – Cu – Ga was modeled based on available experimental data using Calphad approach. A set of Gibbs energies was found and used for calculation a phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of liquid phase. The experimental data was reproduced well by calculation. - Highlights: • For the first time activity of Ga in liquid Ag – Cu – Ga alloys was measured. • For the first time the ternary Ag – Cu – Ga system was thermodynamically modeled. • Modeled Ag – Cu – Ga system reproduces experimental data well

  5. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate based ionic liquids + thiophene + heptane}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Królikowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for 3 ionic liquid + thiophene + heptane systems. ► The influence of ionic liquid structure on phase diagrams is discussed. ► High selectivity for separation of heptane/thiophene is observed. - Abstract: Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for three systems containing ionic liquids {(4-(2-methoxyethyl)-4-methylmorpholinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate) + thiophene + heptane} have been determined at T = 298.15 K. All systems showed high solubility of thiophene in the ionic liquid and low solubility of heptane. The solute distribution coefficient and the selectivity were calculated for all systems. High values of selectivity were obtained. The experimental results have been correlated using NRTL model. The influence of ionic liquid structure on phase equilibria is discussed.

  6. Effect of ternary additions on the oxidation resistance of Ti5Si3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA

    1995-01-01

    Refractory intermetallic silicides are receiving increasing consideration for use as high temperature structural materials. Ti 5 Si 3 -based compositions are attractive due to their ability to incorporate a variety of interstitial ternary additions. These ternary additions present a unique opportunity to potentially tailor physical properties. Previous experimental work has shown that these additions significantly increase the otherwise poor oxidation resistance of undoped Ti 5 Si 3 above 700 C. Recent experimental work by the authors on the oxidation of small atom doped Ti 5 Si 3 is discussed. Interstitial additions of boron, carbon, and oxygen substantially improve the isothermal oxidation resistance of Ti 5 Si 3 at 1,000 C. In contrast, added nitrogen does not provide significant improvement. Even up to 1,306 C, interstitial oxygen imparts excellent oxidation resistance with a mass gain of 1.1 mg/cm 2 after 240 hours

  7. Integral enthalpy of mixing of the liquid ternary Au-Cu-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, S.; Li, Z.; Mikula, A.

    2008-01-01

    The integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary Au-Cu-Sn has been determined with a Calvet type calorimeter at 6 different cross sections at 1273 K. The substitutional solution model of Redlich-Kister-Muggianu was used for a least square fit of the experimental data in order to get an analytical expression for the integral enthalpy of mixing. The ternary extrapolation models of Kohler, Muggianu and Toop were used to calculate the integral enthalpy of mixing and to compare measured and extrapolated values. Additional calculations of the integral enthalpy of mixing using the Chou model have been performed. With the calculated data, the iso-enthalpy lines have been determined using the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model. A comparison of the data has been made

  8. Phase equilibria and critical phenomena in the cesium nitrate-water-diethylamine ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, K.K.; Kurskij, V.F.; Cherkasov, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Phase equilibria and critical events in ternary cesium nitrate-water-diethylamine system, where border binary liquid system is characterized by aliquation with lower critical temperature of solution (LCTS), have been investigated by visual-polythermal method in the 60-150 Deg C range. Interaction of cesium nitrate in the water-diethylamine system leads to lowering of its LCTS from 146.1 to 69.3 Deg C and decrease of mutual solubility. Distribution ratios of diethylamine between water and organic phases of monotectic equilibrium are calculated at different temperatures. Diethylamine salting out from aqueous solutions by cesium nitrates becomes stronger with rising temperature. Plotted isotherms of phase confirms generalized scheme of topological transformations of ternary systems phase diagrams: salt-binary solvent with salting out

  9. kW-level commercial Yb-doped aluminophosphosilicate ternary laser fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shihao; Zhan, Huan; Li, Yuwei; Liu, Shuang; Jiang, Jiali; Peng, Kun; Wang, Yuying; Ni, Li; Wang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Juan; Liu, Gang; Lu, Pengfei; Wang, Jianjun; Jing, Feng; Lin, Aoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Based on a master oscillator power amplifier configuration, laser performance of commercial Nufern-20/400-8M Ybdoped aluminophosphosilicate ternary laser fiber was investigated. Pumped by 976 nm laser diodes, 982 W laser output power was obtained with a slope efficiency of 84.9%. Spectrum of output was centered at 1066.56nm with 3dB bandwidth less than 0.32 nm, and the nonlinearity suppression ratio was more than 39dB. Beam quality of Mx2 and M2y were 1.55 and 1.75 at 982 W, respectively. The laser performance indicated that Nufern-20/400-8M Yb-doped aluminophosphosilicate ternary laser fiber is highly competitive for industry fiber laser use.

  10. Metastable Phase Separation and Concomitant Solute Redistribution of Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn Ternary Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Mei, Zhang; Wei-Li, Wang; Ying, Ruan; Bing-Bo, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn ternary alloys with lower Sn contents are usually assumed to display a peritectic-type solidification process under equilibrium condition. Here we show that liquid Fe 47.5 Cu 47.5 Sn 5 ternary alloy exhibits a metastable immiscibility gap in the undercooling range of 51–329 K (0.19T L ). Macroscopic phase separation occurs once undercooling exceeds 196 K and causes the formation of a floating Fe-rich zone and a descending Cu-rich zone. Solute redistribution induces the depletion of Sn concentration in the Fe-rich zone and its enrichment in the Cu-rich zone. The primary Fe phase grows dendritically and its growth velocity increases with undercooling until the appearance of notable macrosegregation, but will decrease if undercooling further increases beyond 236 K. The microsegregation degrees of both solutes in Fe and Cu phases vary only slightly with undercooling. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  11. Solving the Ternary Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Logic Gate Problem by Means of Adiabatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecar, Primoz; Mraz, Miha; Zimic, Nikolaj; Janez, Miha; Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2008-06-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are one of the most promising alternative platforms of the future. Recent years have witnessed the development of basic logic structures as well as more complex processing structures, however most in the realm of binary logic. On the grounds that future platforms should not disregard the advantages of multi-valued logic, Lebar Bajec et al. were the first to show that quantum-dot cellular automata can be used for the implementation of ternary logic as well. In their study the ternary AND and OR logic functions proved to be the most troublesome primitive to implement. This research presents a revised solution that is based on adiabatic switching.

  12. Probing the evaporation of ternary ethanol-methanol-water droplets by cavity enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Chris R; Homer, Chris J; Hopkins, Rebecca J; Reid, Jonathan P

    2007-10-21

    Cavity enhanced Raman scattering is used to characterise the evolving composition of ternary aerosol droplets containing methanol, ethanol and water during evaporation into a dry nitrogen atmosphere. Measurements made using non-linear stimulated Raman scattering from these ternary alcohol-water droplets allow the in situ determination of the concentration of the two alcohol components with high accuracy. The overlapping spontaneous Raman bands of the two alcohol components, arising from C-H stretching vibrational modes, are spectrally-resolved in stimulated Raman scattering measurements. We also demonstrate that the evaporation measurements are consistent with a quasi-steady state evaporation model, which can be used to interpret the evaporation dynamics occurring at a range of pressures at a particular evaporation time.

  13. Prediction of phase equilibria and thermal analysis in the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manasijevic, Dragan [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Mitovski, Aleksandra, E-mail: amitovski@tf.bor.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Minic, Dusko [University of Pristina, Faculty of Technical Sciences, 38220 Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia); Zivkovic, Dragana; Marjanovic, Sasa [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Todorovic, Radisa [Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Zeleni Bulevar 35, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Balanovic, Ljubisa [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia)

    2010-05-20

    The knowledge about phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system is of importance in development of copper-lead based bearing materials, soldering and in refining of copper and lead. In this work, the phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system was calculated by the CALPHAD method using binary thermodynamic parameters included in the COST 531 database. The results include liquidus projection, invariant equilibria and three vertical sections with molar ratio Cu:Pb = 1, Cu:Pb = 1:3 and Bi:Cu = 1. Alloys, with compositions along three predicted vertical sections, were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimentally determined phase transition temperatures were compared with calculated results and good mutual agreement was noticed.

  14. Prediction of phase equilibria and thermal analysis in the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manasijevic, Dragan; Mitovski, Aleksandra; Minic, Dusko; Zivkovic, Dragana; Marjanovic, Sasa; Todorovic, Radisa; Balanovic, Ljubisa

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge about phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system is of importance in development of copper-lead based bearing materials, soldering and in refining of copper and lead. In this work, the phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system was calculated by the CALPHAD method using binary thermodynamic parameters included in the COST 531 database. The results include liquidus projection, invariant equilibria and three vertical sections with molar ratio Cu:Pb = 1, Cu:Pb = 1:3 and Bi:Cu = 1. Alloys, with compositions along three predicted vertical sections, were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimentally determined phase transition temperatures were compared with calculated results and good mutual agreement was noticed.

  15. The influence of high shear mixing on ternary dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Mats; Schwarz, Eugen; Kobler, Mirjam; Hauptstein, Sabine; Steckel, Hartwig; Scherließ, Regina

    2017-12-20

    The blending process is a key step in the production of dry powder inhaler formulations, but only little is known about the influence of process parameters. This is especially true for high shear blending of ternary formulations. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the influence of high shear mixing process parameters (mixing time and rotation speed) on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of ternary mixtures when using budesonide as model drug, two different carrier materials and two different mixing orders. Prolonged mixing time and higher rotation speeds led to lower FPFs, possibly due to higher press-on forces acting on the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). In addition, a clear correlation between the energy consumption of the blender (the energy input into the blend) and the reduction of the FPF could be shown. Furthermore blending the carrier and the fines before adding the API was also found to be favorable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Residual characteristic properties of ternary blended steel fibre reinforced concrete subjected to sustained elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Deepa A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the behavior of ternary blended steel fibre reinforced concrete when subjected to 800 Deg.C and 1000 Deg.C for 3 hours. It has been found that the ternary blended steel fibre reinforced concrete containing (FA+GGBFS and (FA+MK offer higher resistance to sustained elevated temperatures upto 800 Deg.C, where as the blend containing (FA+SF does not offer any resistance at this temperature. The study reveals that the blend containing (FA+GGBFS and (FA+MK gives highest resistance at replacement levels of (10+20 and (15+15 respectively at sustained exposure to 800 Deg.C.

  17. The novel eutectic microstructures of Si-Mn-P ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yaping; Liu Xiangfa

    2010-01-01

    The microstructures of Si-Mn-P alloy manufactured by the technique of combining phosphorus transportation and alloy melting were investigated using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). The phase compositions were determined by energy spectrum and the varieties of eutectic morphologies were discussed. It is found that there is no ternary compound but Si, MnP and MnSi 1.75-x could appear when the Si-Mn-P alloy's composition is proper. Microstructure is greatly refined by rapid solidification technique and the amount of eutectic phases change with faster cooling rates. Moreover, primary Si or MnP are surrounded firstly by the binary eutectic (Si + MnP) and then the ternary eutectic (Si + MnSi 1.75-x + MnP) which also exhibit binary structures due to divorced eutectic determined by the particularity of some Si-Mn-P alloys.

  18. Carbonation of ternary cementitious concrete systems containing fly ash and silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eehab Ahmed Badreldin Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonation is quite a complex physical negative effect phenomenon on concrete especially in the ones containing ternary blends of Portland Cement, fly ash, and silica fume. Nine selected concrete mixtures were prepared with various water to cementitious materials’ ratios and various cementitious contents. The concrete mixtures were adapted in such a way to have the same workability and air content. The fresh concrete properties were kept near identical in slump, air content, and unit weight. The variation was in the hardened concrete mechanical properties of compression and tension strength. The carbonation phenomenon was studied for these mixes showing at which mixes of ternary cementitious content heavy carbonation attacks maybe produced. The main components of such mixes that do affect the carbonation process with time were presented.

  19. Surface tension of decane binary and ternary mixtures with eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Cao, A.I.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    -C24H50 and the ternary n-C10H22 + n-C20H42 + n-C24H50 were measured from 293.15 K (or above the solution melting temperature) up to 343.15 K. An average absolute deviation of 1.3% was obtained in comparison with pure component literature data. No mixture information for the reported systems was found......A tensiometer operating on the Wilhelmy plate method was employed to measure liquid-vapor interfacial tensions of three binary mixtures and one ternary mixture of decane with eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane. Tensions of binary mixtures n-C10H22 + n-C20H42, n-C10H22 + n-C22H46, and n-C10H22 + n...

  20. Memristor-based ternary content addressable memory (mTCAM) for data-intensive computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Le; Shin, Sangho; Steve Kang, Sung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    A memristor-based ternary content addressable memory (mTCAM) is presented. Each mTCAM cell, consisting of five transistors and two memristors to store and search for ternary data, is capable of remarkable nonvolatility and higher storage density than conventional CMOS-based TCAMs. Each memristor in the cell can be programmed individually such that high impedance is always present between searchlines to reduce static energy consumption. A unique two-step write scheme offers reliable and energy-efficient write operations. The search voltage is designed to ensure optimum sensing margins with the presence of variations in memristor devices. Simulations of the proposed mTCAM demonstrate functionalities in write and search modes, as well as a search delay of 2 ns and a search of 0.99 fJ/bit/search for a word width of 128 bits. (paper)

  1. Reflectance properties of one-dimensional metal-dielectric ternary photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, G. N., E-mail: gnpandey2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, AmityUniversity, Noida (U.P.) (India); Kumar, Narendra [Department of Physics (CASH), Modi University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajsthan (India); Thapa, Khem B. [Department of Physics, U I E T, ChhatrapatiShahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- (UP) (India); Ojha, S. P. [Department of Physics IIT, Banaras Hindu University (India)

    2016-05-06

    Metallic photonic crystal has a very important application in absorption enhancement in solar cells. It has been found that an ultra-thin metallic layer becomes transparent due to internal scattering of light through the each interface of the dielectric and metal surfaces. The metal has absorption due to their surface plasmon and the plasmon has important parameters for changing optical properties of the metal. We consider ternary metallic-dielectric photonic crystal (MDPC) for having large probabilities to change the optical properties of the MDPC and the photonic crystals may be changed by changing dimensionality, symmetry, lattice parameters, Filling fraction and effective refractive index refractive index contrast. In this present communication, we try to show that the photonic band gap in ternary metal-dielectric photonic crystal can be significantly enlarged when air dielectric constant is considered. All the theoretical analyses are made based on the transfer matrix method together with the Drude model of metal.

  2. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Nb-Si-Ta ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Cuiping; Yao, Jun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Zhan Shi; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Genome; Kang, Yongwang [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (China). Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Lab.

    2016-12-15

    The phase equilibria in the Nb-Si-Ta ternary system at 1 373 K, 1 473 K and 1 573 K were investigated by means of back-scattered electron imaging, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. The isothermal sections at 1 373 K, 1 473 K and 1 573 K consist of two three-phase regions and seven two-phase regions, without any ternary compounds. The compounds of NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2}, αNb{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and αTa{sub 5}Si{sub 3} form continuous solid solutions, respectively. The solubilities of Nb in Ta{sub 3}Si and Ta{sub 2}Si phases are extremely large, whereas the solubility of Si in the β(Nb, Ta) phase is relatively small.

  3. Different photoluminescent properties of binary and ternary europium chelates doped in PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongguo; Park, Seongtae; Jang, Kiwan; Zhang Wansong; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2003-01-01

    Two kinds of europium-β-diketone chelates, binary Eu(DBM) 3 and ternary Eu(DBM) 3 phen were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). These chelates show very different photoluminescent (PL) behaviors: the hypersensitive 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 emission bands of Eu(DBM) 3 phen change slightly with the molar ratios, while those of Eu(DBM) 3 change obviously and regularly with the molar ratios. The results of the luminescent lifetimes of 5 D 0 levels show that the binary chelate exists as two kinds of species in the doped systems, and the lifetimes and contents of each species change with the molar ratios, while the ternary chelate exists as one kind of species in the doped systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the binary chelate doped systems give some diffraction peaks that are different from those of pure chelate and change with the molar ratios, indicating new kinds of crystal structures formed, and consequently, the first coordination sphere of Eu 3+ ion changes; while those of the ternary chelate doped systems just show amorphous diffraction halos of the host, indicating that the ternary chelate exist in an amorphous state and disperse well in the host. The FTIR spectra of PMMA also change gradually with increasing the molar ratios of the doped two kinds of chelates, and the XRD patterns show that the amorphous halos of PMMA in the doped systems are different from those of pure PMMA and change with the molar ratios, too, suggesting the interaction between the guest and the host

  4. Superconductivity and specific heat measurements in V--Nb--Ta ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.Y.P.

    1977-01-01

    The correlation between the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ with electronic specific heat coefficient γ and Debye temperature theta/sub D/ in some isoelectronic ternary V--Nb--Ta alloys is investigated. It has been known that the variation of theta/sub D/ with concentration in both V--Nb and V--Ta systems is clearly of the same curvature as that of T/sub c/ and γ. In Ta--Nb alloys, however, over most of the concentration range theta/sub D/ seems to have a slight negative curvature while T/sub c/ and γ curve upwards. (But beyond approx. 80 at. % Nb theta/sub D/ rises rapidly to the pure Nb value.) By choosing alloys along a line connecting Ta and V 25 --Nb 75 which is close to the Nb--Ta side of the Gibb's triangle the extent to which the Nb--Ta type of behavior persists in this ternary system can be estimated. A model proposed by Miedema that takes into account the variation of properties caused by possible charge transfer among constituent atoms in an alloy has been found to apply almost quantitatively for nearly all binary alloy systems whose experimental data are available, including those for which Hopfield's method fails. A previous test of the extension of Miedema's empirical model into ternary alloys shows qualitatively correct behavior for intra-row Zr/sub x/Nb/sub 1-2x/Mo/sub x/ alloys. The good agreement between the predicted values of γ and T/sub c/ and the experimental values in the inter-row ternary V--Nb--Ta system studied here gives another and better test of the application of Miedema's model

  5. Regular Functions with Values in Ternary Number System on the Complex Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new modified basis i^ which is an association of two bases, e1 and e2. We give an expression of the form z=x0+ i ^z0-, where x0 is a real number and z0- is a complex number on three-dimensional real skew field. And we research the properties of regular functions with values in ternary field and reduced quaternions by Clifford analysis.

  6. DURABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE WITH TERNARY CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEM CONTAINING RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AND TIRE RUBBER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID MATOUQ ASSAS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All over the world billions of tires are being discarded and buried representing a serious ecological threat. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tires are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. This paper presents results about the properties and the durability of green concrete contains recycled concrete as a coarse aggregate with partial replacement of sand by tire rubber wastes for pavement use. Ternary cementious system, Silica fume, Fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust are used as partial replacement of cement by weight. Each one replaced 10% of cement weight to give a total replacement of 30%. The durability performance was assessed by means of water absorption, chloride ion permeability at 28 and 90 days, and resistance to sulphuric acid attack at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Also to the compression behaviors for the tested specimens at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were detected. The results show the existence of ternary cementitious system, silica fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust minimizes the strength loss associated to the use of rubber waste. In this way, up to 10% rubber content and 30% ternary cementious system an adequate strength class value (30 MPa, as required for a wide range of common structural uses, can be reached both through natural aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete. Results also show that, it is possible to use rubber waste up to 15% and still maintain a high resistance to acid attack. The mixes with 10%silica fume, 10% fly ash and 10% Cement Kiln Dust show a higher resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix independently of the rubber waste content. The mixes with rubber waste and ternary cementious system was a lower resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix.

  7. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  8. Corrosion and wear protective composition modulated alloy coatings based on ternary Ni-P-X alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, P.; Benzon, M. E.; Christoffersen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Scattered reporting in the litterature describes a number of ternary Ni-P-X alloyes (where X can be Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Re or W) with promising corrosin and wear protective performance. Based on a systematic study of Ni-P-X alloys it is the intention to produce coatings with improved corrosion...... and wear performance compared with conventional coatings like electroless nickel, hard chromioum and anodised aluminium....

  9. Electrochemical studies on electroless ternary and quaternary Ni-P based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaraju, J.N.; Selvi, V. Ezhil; Grips, V.K. William; Rajam, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The autocatalytic (electroless) deposition of Ni-P based alloys is a well-known commercial process that has found numerous applications because of their excellent anticorrosive, wear, magnetic, solderable properties, etc. It is a barrier coating, protecting the substrate by sealing it off from the corrosive environments, rather than by sacrificial action. The corrosion resistance varies with the phosphorus content of the deposit: relatively high for a high-phosphorus electroless nickel deposit but low for a low-phosphorus electroless nickel deposit. In the present investigation ternary Ni-W-P alloy films were prepared using alkaline citrate-based bath. Quaternary Ni-W-Cu-P films were deposited by the addition of 3 mM copper ions in ternary Ni-W-P bath. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated that all the deposits were nanocrystalline, i.e. 1.2, 2.1 and 6.0 nm, respectively, for binary, ternary and quaternary alloys. Corrosion resistance of the films was evaluated in 3.5% sodium chloride solution in non-deaerated and deaerated conditions by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance (EIS) methods. Lower corrosion current density values were obtained for the coatings tested in deaerated condition. EIS studies showed that higher charge transfer resistance values were obtained for binary Ni-P coatings compared to ternary or quaternary coatings. For all the coatings a gradual increase in the anodic current density had been observed beyond 740 mV. In deaerated condition all the reported coatings exhibited a narrow passive region and all the values of E p , E tp and i pass were very close showing no major changes in the electrochemical behavior. In the non-deaerated conditions no passivation behavior had been observed for all these coatings

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF TERNARY SYSTEM OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG IN VARIOUS HYDROPHILIC CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Shankaraiah MM; Venkatesh JS; Rangaraju D; C.Nagesh

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to experiment the solid dispersion of poorly water soluble drug fenbendazole as model drug. Fenbendazole is an Antihelmintic drug (BCS class 2).The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution of Fenbendazole by solid dispersions consisting of the drug, a polymeric carrier, Binary and ternary system were prepared by kneading method using hydrophilic polymers like polyvinylpyrrolidone K-25 (PVP K25), beta-cyclodextrin (BCD),mannitol and urea. The prepared form...

  11. Facial expression recognition based on improved local ternary pattern and stacked auto-encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Qiu, Weigen

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the robustness of facial expression recognition, we propose a method of facial expression recognition based on improved Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) combined with Stacked Auto-Encoder (SAE). This method uses the improved LTP extraction feature, and then uses the improved depth belief network as the detector and classifier to extract the LTP feature. The combination of LTP and improved deep belief network is realized in facial expression recognition. The recognition rate on CK+ databases has improved significantly.

  12. The development and experimental validation of a reduced ternary kinetic mechanism for the auto-ignition at HCCI conditions, proposing a global reaction path for ternary gasoline surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon; Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    To acquire a high amount of information of the behaviour of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) auto-ignition process, a reduced surrogate mechanism has been composed out of reduced n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene mechanisms, containing 62 reactions and 49 species. This mechanism has been validated numerically in a 0D HCCI engine code against more detailed mechanisms (inlet temperature varying from 290 to 500 K, the equivalence ratio from 0.2 to 0.7 and the compression ratio from 8 to 18) and experimentally against experimental shock tube and rapid compression machine data from the literature at pressures between 9 and 55 bar and temperatures between 700 and 1400 K for several fuels: the pure compounds n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene as well as binary and ternary mixtures of these compounds. For this validation, stoichiometric mixtures and mixtures with an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are used. The experimental validation is extended by comparing the surrogate mechanism to experimental data from an HCCI engine. A global reaction pathway is proposed for the auto-ignition of a surrogate gasoline, using the surrogate mechanism, in order to show the interactions that the three compounds can have with one another during the auto-ignition of a ternary mixture. (author)

  13. Ternary solution-processed organic solar cells incorporating 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianakis, Minas M.; Konios, Dimitrios; Petridis, Constantinos; Kakavelakis, George; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the study of ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) has attracted the efforts of the scientific community, leading to significantly higher performance due to the enhanced harvesting of incoming irradiation. Here, for the first time, and in order to promote this OSC architecture, we review the progress implemented by the application of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of blend bulk heterojunction ternary OSCs. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvements of the order of 40% compared to the reference binary devices, and PCEs in excess of 8% have been reported by incorporating graphene-based or other 2D materials as a third element inside the active layer. These OSCs combine the synergetic advantages of ternary devices and the superb properties of the 2D material family. In conclusion, the incorporation of the unique properties of graphene and other 2D materials inside the active layer opens up a very promising pathway in the design and construction of high-performance, simply fabricated and low- cost photovoltaic devices.

  14. On the decoding process in ternary error-correcting output codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia

    2010-01-01

    A common way to model multiclass classification problems is to design a set of binary classifiers and to combine them. Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) represent a successful framework to deal with these type of problems. Recent works in the ECOC framework showed significant performance improvements by means of new problem-dependent designs based on the ternary ECOC framework. The ternary framework contains a larger set of binary problems because of the use of a "do not care" symbol that allows us to ignore some classes by a given classifier. However, there are no proper studies that analyze the effect of the new symbol at the decoding step. In this paper, we present a taxonomy that embeds all binary and ternary ECOC decoding strategies into four groups. We show that the zero symbol introduces two kinds of biases that require redefinition of the decoding design. A new type of decoding measure is proposed, and two novel decoding strategies are defined. We evaluate the state-of-the-art coding and decoding strategies over a set of UCI Machine Learning Repository data sets and into a real traffic sign categorization problem. The experimental results show that, following the new decoding strategies, the performance of the ECOC design is significantly improved.

  15. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-Ni-Zr ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Key Laboratory of Materials Genome; Xiong, Huaping; Cheng, Yaoyong; Wu, Xin [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (China). Div. of Welding and Forging

    2016-10-15

    The phase equilibria of the Co-Ni-Zr ternary system at 1 000 C, 1 100 C and 1 200 C were experimentally investigated by means of back-scattered electron imaging, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on the equilibrated ternary alloys. In this study, no ternary compound is found. The (αCo, Ni) phase region extends from the Ni-rich corner to the Co-rich corner with small solubility of Zr at three sections. At 1 000 C and 1 100 C, Ni{sub 5}Zr, Co{sub 2}Zr and Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phases have large solid solution ranges, but Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phase disappears at 1 200 C. The Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2}, NiZr, Co{sub 11}Zr{sub 2}, Co{sub 23}Zr{sub 6} and CoZr phases exhibit nearly linear compounds in the studied sections, and have large composition ranges. Additionally, some differences in phase relationship exist among the above three isothermal sections.

  16. Comparative study of binary and ternary complexes of some rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhijani, S.D.; Sangal, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    Modified form of Irving and Rossotti's pH titration technique has been used to evaluate and compare the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes of Sc(III), Y(III), La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Sm(III) at 30 0 at an ionic strength of 0.2M NaClO 4 . For the study of ternary complexes, nitrilotriacetic acid has been used as a primary ligand and polyhydroxy phenols i.e. pyrocatechol (PYC), pyrogallol (PYG) and gallic acid (GA) as secondary ligands. The stability constants of the binary complexes were found to be more than those of the corresponding ternary complexes which can reasonably be explained on the basis of electrostatic force between primary complex (metal in the case of binary complex) and secondary ligand, and space available to accommodate the secondary ligand. The stability decreases with the increase in ionic radii, i.e. Sc(III)>Y(III)>Sm(III)>Nd(III)>Pr(III)>La(III). In terms of secondary ligand, it follows the order PYC>GA>PYG. Rare earths form only 1:1 binary complex, and 1:1:1 mixed ligand complex in all the cases. (author)

  17. Prediction of high-Tc conventional superconductivity in the ternary lithium borohydride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokail, Christian; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Boeri, Lilia

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the superconducting ternary lithium borohydride phase diagram at pressures of 0 and 200 GPa using methods for evolutionary crystal structure prediction and linear-response calculations for the electron-phonon coupling. Our calculations show that the ground state phase at ambient pressure, LiBH4, stays in the P n m a space group and remains a wide band-gap insulator at all pressures investigated. Other phases along the 1 :1 :x Li:B:H line are also insulating. However, a full search of the ternary phase diagram at 200 GPa revealed a metallic Li2BH6 phase, which is thermodynamically stable down to 100 GPa. This superhydride phase, crystallizing in a F m 3 ¯m space group, is characterized by sixfold hydrogen-coordinated boron atoms occupying the fcc sites of the unit cell. Due to strong hydrogen-boron bonding this phase displays a critical temperature of ˜100 K between 100 and 200 GPa. Our investigations confirm that ternary compounds used in hydrogen-storage applications should exhibit high-Tc conventional superconductivity in diamond anvil cell experiments, and suggest a viable route to optimize the superconducting behavior of high-pressure hydrides, exploiting metallic covalent bonds.

  18. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Chen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Qian, Yongzhong, E-mail: qyzcaas@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Xueping [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang2003@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  19. Ionic conductivity of ternary electrolyte containing sodium salt and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, Minato; Asai, Takahito; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary electrolyte containing NaBF 4 , polyether and ionic liquid has been prepared. ► The conductivity of the electrolytes has been evaluated toward content of ionic liquid. ► The conductivity shows maximum 1.2 mS cm −1 and is varied in relation to solution structure. - Abstract: For the development of novel non-aqueous sodium ion conductor with safety of sodium secondary cell, non-flammable ionic liquid is attractive as electrolyte component. A preliminary study has been carried out for the purpose of constructing sodium ion conducting electrolyte based on ionic liquid. The solubility of sodium salt such as NaBF 4 in ionic liquid is poor, thus the ternary electrolyte has been prepared where NaBF 4 with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) as coordination former is dissolved with ionic liquid diethyl methoxyethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMEBF 4 ). The maximum conductivity among the prepared solutions, ca. 1.2 mS cm −1 at 25 °C, was obtained when the molar ratio (ethylene oxide unit in PEGDME):NaBF 4 :DEMEBF 4 was 8:1:2. The relationship between the conductivity of the ternary electrolyte and its solution structure has been discussed.

  20. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment

  1. Enhanced fluidity liquid chromatography of inulin fructans using ternary solvent strength and selectivity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Raffeal; Olesik, Susan V

    2018-01-25

    The value of exploring selectivity and solvent strength ternary gradients in enhanced fluidity liquid chromatography (EFLC) is demonstrated for the separation of inulin-type fructans from chicory. Commercial binary pump systems for supercritical fluid chromatography only allow for the implementation of ternary solvent strength gradients which can be restrictive for the separation of polar polymeric analytes. In this work, a custom system was designed to extend the capability of EFLC to allow tuning of selectivity or solvent strength in ternary gradients. Gradient profiles were evaluated using the Berridge function (RF 1 ), normalized resolution product (NRP), and gradient peak capacity (P c ). Selectivity gradients provided the separation of more analytes over time. The RF 1 function showed favor to selectivity gradients with comparable P c to that of solvent strength gradients. NRP did not strongly correlate with P c or RF 1 score. EFLC with the hydrophilic interaction chromatography, HILIC, separation mode was successfully employed to separate up to 47 fructan analytes in less than 25 min using a selectivity gradient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam chemically cross-linked ternary blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Sudha, P N

    2013-03-15

    Chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam (CS/Ny6/PUF) ternary blend was prepared and chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Structural, thermal and morphological studies were performed for the prepared ternary blends. Characterizations of the ternary blends were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FTIR results showed that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds took place between CS, Ny6 and PUF. TGA and DSC studies reveal that the thermal stability of the blend is enhanced by glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Results of XRD indicated that the relative crystalline of pure CS film was reduced when the polymeric network was reticulated by glutaraldehyde. Finally, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the morphology of the blend is rough and heterogeneous, further it confirms the interaction between the functional groups of the blend components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid-state phase equilibria in the Fe-Pt-Pr ternary system at 1173 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jing; Gu Zhengfei; Cheng Gang; Zhou Huaiying

    2005-01-01

    The solid-state phase equilibria in the Fe-Pt-Pr ternary system at 1173 K (Pr ≤ 70%) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The 1173 K isothermal section consists of 13 single-phase regions, 22 two-phase regions and 10 three-phase regions. At 1173 K, we have observed that the maximum solid solubility of Pt in α-Fe is below 1.5 at.% and the solid solution region of Pt in γ-Fe is from 2 to 35 at.%; the maximum solid solubility of Fe in Pt is 18 at.%. The maximum solubility of Fe in PrPt 5 , PrPt 3 , PrPt 2 , Pr 3 Pt 4 , PrPt, Pr 3 Pt 2 and Pr 7 Pt 3 is below 1 at.%. The maximum solubility of Pr in α-(Fe, Pt), γ-(Fe, Pt), FePt, FePt 3 and (Pt, Fe) (the solid solution of Fe in Pt) is 6, 2, 4, 4.5 and 1.5 at.%, respectively. In this work, it is found that the phase Pr 3 Pt 4 does not exist in the ternary system. The binary compounds Fe 7 Pr and Fe 2 Pr and any new ternary compounds were not observed

  4. Phase equilibria of the Al-Pr-Zr ternary system at 773 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Jia [Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Zhan, Yongzhong, E-mail: zyzmatres@yahoo.com.c [Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Li, Chunliu [Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Du, Yong; Xu, Honghui; He, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2010-07-30

    The phase equilibria of the Al-Pr-Zr ternary system at 773 K have been investigated mainly by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The 14 binary compounds, i.e. AlZr{sub 3}, AlZr{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}Zr{sub 3}, Al{sub 3}Zr{sub 4}, AlZr, Al{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}Zr, Al{sub 3}Zr, {alpha}-Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3}, Al{sub 3}Pr, Al{sub 2}Pr, {beta}-AlPr, AlPr{sub 2} and {beta}-AlPr{sub 3} were confirmed. No binary compound was found in the Pr-Zr binary system. The result shows that the isothermal section of the Al-Pr-Zr ternary system at 773 K consists of 17 single-phase regions, 31 two-phase regions and 15 three-phase regions. All the intermediate compounds phases in this system have not a remarkable solid solution at 773 K. No ternary compound is found in this work.

  5. Phase equilibria of the Al-Pr-Zr ternary system at 773 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Jia; Zhan, Yongzhong; Li, Chunliu; Du, Yong; Xu, Honghui; He, Yuehui

    2010-01-01

    The phase equilibria of the Al-Pr-Zr ternary system at 773 K have been investigated mainly by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The 14 binary compounds, i.e. AlZr 3 , AlZr 2 , Al 2 Zr 3 , Al 3 Zr 4 , AlZr, Al 3 Zr 2 , Al 2 Zr, Al 3 Zr, α-Al 11 Pr 3 , Al 3 Pr, Al 2 Pr, β-AlPr, AlPr 2 and β-AlPr 3 were confirmed. No binary compound was found in the Pr-Zr binary system. The result shows that the isothermal section of the Al-Pr-Zr ternary system at 773 K consists of 17 single-phase regions, 31 two-phase regions and 15 three-phase regions. All the intermediate compounds phases in this system have not a remarkable solid solution at 773 K. No ternary compound is found in this work.

  6. Design and implementation of the modified signed digit multiplication routine on a ternary optical computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Wang, Xianchao; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    Multiplication with traditional electronic computers is faced with a low calculating accuracy and a long computation time delay. To overcome these problems, the modified signed digit (MSD) multiplication routine is established based on the MSD system and the carry-free adder. Also, its parallel algorithm and optimization techniques are studied in detail. With the help of a ternary optical computer's characteristics, the structured data processor is designed especially for the multiplication routine. Several ternary optical operators are constructed to perform M transformations and summations in parallel, which has accelerated the iterative process of multiplication. In particular, the routine allocates data bits of the ternary optical processor based on digits of multiplication input, so the accuracy of the calculation results can always satisfy the users. Finally, the routine is verified by simulation experiments, and the results are in full compliance with the expectations. Compared with an electronic computer, the MSD multiplication routine is not only good at dealing with large-value data and high-precision arithmetic, but also maintains lower power consumption and fewer calculating delays.

  7. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Yuan, Liu; Xia, Benzheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Zaiyu; Zhang, Yajie; Ma, Wei; Yan, Wei; Su, Wenming; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm 2 for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm 2 module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The isothermal section at 500 deg. C of the Gd-Tb-Ga ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.Q.; Jian, Y.X.; Ao, W.Q.; Zhuang, Y.H.; He, W.

    2006-01-01

    Phase equilibria in the Gd-Tb-Ga ternary system at 500 deg. C were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The binary compounds, Gd 5 Ga 3 , Gd 3 Ga 2 , GdGa, GdGa 2 , Tb 5 Ga 3 , TbGa, TbGa 2 and TbGa 3 have been confirmed at 500 deg. C. No ternary compound was found in this system. The isothermal section of this system at 500 deg. C was constructed. It is composed of 7 single-phase regions, 8 two-phase regions and 2 three-phase regions. Four ternary continuous solid solutions (Gd, Tb), (Gd, Tb) 5 Ga 3 , (Gd, Tb)Ga, (Gd, Tb)Ga 2 were formed in this isothermal section. The maximum solid solubilities of Ga in (Gd, Tb) at 500 deg. C is 5.0 at.%. The homogeneity range of (Gd, Tb)Ga 2 is from 20 to 33.3 at.% Ga in Gd-Ga side but limited in Tb-Ga side. The solid solubilities of Ga in the other phases cannot be detected. The Curie temperatures of the Gd 0.6 Tb 0.4-x Ga x alloys increase from 270 to 298 K as x increases from 0 to 0.03

  9. Experimental and thermodynamic investigation of Al-Cu-Nd ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, W.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jiang, Y. [Hunan Sushi Guangbo Testing Techniques Co. LTD, Changsha (China); Guo, Z.Y.; Zeng, L.J.; Tan, M.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Meggs, C. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Zhang, L.G., E-mail: ligangzhang@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: pdc@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2017-07-01

    The phase relationships in the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system at 673 K have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in backscattered electron imaging (BSE) modes. The existence of six ternary Stoichiometric compounds, namely τ{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Nd, τ{sub 2}-Al{sub 9}Cu{sub 8}Nd{sub 2}, τ{sub 3}-Al{sub 6}Cu{sub 7}Nd, τ{sub 4}-Al{sub 2.4}Cu{sub 8.6}Nd, τ{sub 5}-Al{sub 3}CuNd, τ{sub 6}-AlCuNd, have been confirmed. A complete thermodynamic description of the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system coupled with the CALPHAD method is obtained based on experimental results and first-principles calculations. The calculated phase equilibria were in agreement with the available experimental data. - Highlights: • Phase relationships in the Al-Cu-Nd system has been systematically investigated. • 9 three-phase regions and 4 two-phase regions are confirmed. • A complete thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Nd system is obtained. • Results of first-principle calculation consist with thermodynamic calculation.

  10. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2016-04-14

    Asymmetric supercapacitors provide a promising approach to fabricate capacitive energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. In this work, asymmetric supercapacitors with excellent performance have been fabricated using ternary (Ni, Co)0.85Se on carbon fabric as bind-free positive electrode and porous free-standing graphene films as negative electrode. Owing to their metal-like conductivity (~1.67×106 S m−1), significant electrochemical activity, and superhydrophilic nature, our nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid supercapacitors can afford impressive areal capacitance and stack capacitance of 529.3 mF cm−2 and 6330 mF cm−3 at 1 mA cm−2, respectively. More impressively, our optimized asymmetric device operating at 1.8 V delivers a very high stack energy density of 2.85 mWh cm−3 at a stack power density of 10.76 mW cm−3, as well as 85% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Even at a high stack power density of 1173 mW cm−3, this device still deliveries a stack energy density of 1.19 mWh cm−3, superior to most of the reported supercapacitors.

  11. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys: A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Mitlin, D. [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta and National Research Council Canada, National Institute for Nanotechnology, T6G 2V4, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [National Research Council Canada, SIMS, Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This study focused on hydrogen sorption properties of 1.5 {mu}m thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. The binary alloys are used to establish as baseline case for the ternary Mg-Al-Ti, Mg-Fe-Ti and Mg-Al-Fe compositions. We show that the ternary alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable over cycling for the Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. Even after 100 absorption/desorption cycles, no degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. For Mg-Al-Fe, the properties are clearly worse compared to the other ternary combinations. These differences are explained by considering the properties of all the different phases present during cycling in terms of their hydrogen affinity and catalytic activity. Based on these considerations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. (author)

  12. Microstructural evolution of ternary Ag33Cu42Ge25 eutectic alloy inside ultrasonic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic field with a frequency of 20 kHz is introduced into the solidification process of ternary Ag33Cu42Ge25 eutectic alloy from the sample bottom to its top. The ultrasound stimulates the nucleation of alloy melt and prevents its bulk undercooling. At low ultrasound power of 250 W, the primary ε2 phase in the whole alloy sample grows into non-faceted equiaxed grains, which differs to its faceted morphology of long strip under static condition. The pseudobinary (Ag+ε2 eutectic transits from dendrite shape grain composed of rod type eutectic to equiaxed chrysanthemus shape formed by lamellar structure. By contrast, the ultrasound produces no obvious variation in the morphology of ternary (Ag+Ge+ε2 eutectic except a coarsening effect. When ultrasound power rises to 500 W, divorced ternary (Ag+Ge+ε2 eutectic forms at the sample bottom. However, in the upper part, the ultrasonic energy weakens, and it only brings about prominent refining effect to primary ε2 phase. The microstructural evolution mechanism is investigated on the cavitation, acoustic streaming and acoustic attenuation.

  13. Study of scission shapes in spontaneous ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, P.; Schwalm, D.; Thirolf, P.; Goennenwein, F.; Hesse, M.

    1995-06-01

    A new kinematic study on the ternary fission of 252 Cf has been conducted by registering prompt neutrons and fission γ rays coincidence with light charged particles (LCP) and fission fragments. The aim is to investigate changes in fragment deformation energy between the binary and ternary fission modes from measured prompt neutron angular distributions and multiplicities, and to explore the influence of light particle emission on the energy distribution, multiplicity and angular anisotropy of γ rays emitted during fragment de-excitation. The experiment was performed at the MPI Heidelberg using the Darmstadt-Heidelberg crystal ball spectrometer as γ-ray and neutron detector. Fragments were identified by a double-E measurement with an angular sensitive twin ionization chamber (IC). Light charged particles from fission were measured by ΔE-E telescopes composed of ΔE ICs and silicon PIN diodes. The telescopes enable to identify various LCPs which are emitted much more rarely than ternary α particles. The parameters of the experiment and the method of data analysis are described and first results presented. (orig.)

  14. An electrochemical hydrogen meter for measuring hydrogen in sodium using a ternary electrolyte mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Sridharan, R; Nagaraj, S; Gnanasekaran, T; Periaswami, G

    2003-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for measuring hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium that is based on a ternary mixture of LiCl, CaCl sub 2 and CaHCl as the electrolyte has been developed. DSC experiments showed the eutectic temperature of this ternary system to be approx 725 K. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte indicated ionic conduction through a molten phase at approx 725 K. Two electrochemical hydrogen sensors were constructed using the ternary electrolyte of composition 70 mol% LiCl:16 mol% CaHCl:14 mol% CaCl sub 2 and tested at 723 K in a mini sodium loop and at hydrogen levels of 60-250 ppb in sodium. The sensors show linear response in this concentration range and are capable of detecting a change of 10 ppb hydrogen in sodium over a background level of 60 ppb. Identification of this electrolyte system and its use in a sensor for measuring hydrogen in sodium are described in this paper.

  15. Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: Twelve-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčević Mirjana

    2004-01-01

    basis of RF number and combination for genesis and development of CND in our sample, 74.7% of variability (development or risk may be accounted for angina pectoris (AP, 74.2% for DM+HTA, 70.0% for DM, 79.9% for HTA, 80.8% for myocardial infarction (Ml, and 85.8% of variability (development or risk for cerebrovascular insult (CVI. Twelve-week intervention resulted in reduction of HTA, HLP, glucose, and PC (p<0.001 levels as well as lower BMI and PA (p<0.5. To accomplish the aforementioned goals, continuous mutual activity of an individual, his/her family, health service and community is required, along with occasional evaluation of the obtained results.

  16. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimboka Sabas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8 of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0 in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4, n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s to 12.3% (2004. The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215 μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive. Particular attention is needed in improving quality control at production level and

  17. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the Er-H-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascaro, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work at CEA is being achieved in the framework of the development of an innovating concept including the neutronic solid burnable poison, such as erbium, inside the cladding of pressurized water reactors. These new claddings are constituted by a liner of a zirconium base alloy slightly enriched in erbium between two liners of industrial zirconium alloys. Into the reactor core, the water dissociates at the surface of the cladding. So it is interesting to evaluate the interactions between the hydrogen released and the Zr-Er alloy. To do so, the Er-H-Zr ternary system has to be determined such similarly to its associated binaries. This can be done by experimental determination and by thermodynamic modelling. Both techniques were used in this work. Er-Zr and H-Zr have already been studied experimentally and modelled, but the Er-H binary system is almost unknown. So, we studied it experimentally. Then, it has been modelled using the Calphad method. We obtain a new evaluation of the Er-H binary system with phases limits rather different than what has been proposed in the literature. In order to determine the phase limits and, the potential existence of a ternary compound in the Er-H-Zr ternary system, an experimental study has been carried out. An original technique has been used to obtain the chemical compositions: ERDA combined with RBS. In this study, we propose a new isothermal section at 350 C of the Er-H-Zr ternary system. About the modelling, the compatibility of the three modelled binaries has been checked in order to optimize the ternary system by the projection of the three binaries. The calculation obtained is in good agreement with the experimental isothermal section at 350 C determined in our work. Finally, uniaxial tensile test campaigns have been conducted to evaluate the impact of erbium and/or hydrogen on the mechanical properties of an industrial zirconium pure alloy. We evidenced a hardening effect of erbium and hydrogen but these effects are not

  18. On ternary species mixing and combustion in isotropic turbulence at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hong; Miller, Richard S.

    2004-05-01

    Effects of Soret and Dufour cross-diffusion, whereby both concentration and thermal diffusion occur in the presence of mass fraction, temperature, and pressure gradients, are investigated in the context of both binary and ternary species mixing and combustion in isotropic turbulence at large pressure. The compressible flow formulation is based on a cubic real-gas state equation, and includes generalized forms for heat and mass diffusion derived from nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation theory. A previously derived formulation of the generalized binary species heat and mass fluxes is first extended to the case of ternary species, and appropriate treatment of the thermal and mass diffusion factors is described. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are then conducted for both binary and ternary species mixing and combustion in stationary isotropic turbulence. Mean flow temperatures and pressures of =700 K and =45 atm are considered to ensure that all species mixtures remain in the supercritical state such that phase changes do not occur. DNS of ternary species systems undergoing both pure mixing and a simple chemical reaction of the form O2+N2→2NO are then conducted. It is shown that stationary scalar states previously observed for binary mixing persist for the ternary species problem as well; however, the production and magnitude of the scalar variance is found to be altered for the intermediate molecular weight species as compared to the binary species case. The intermediate molecular weight species produces a substantially smaller scalar variance than the remaining species for all flows considered. For combustion of nonstoichiometric mixtures, a binary species mixture, characterized by stationary scalar states, results at long times after the lean reactant is depleted. The form of this final scalar distribution is observed to be similar to that found in the binary flow situation. A series of lower resolution simulations for a variety of species is then

  19. Experimental and theoretical excess molar enthalpies of ternary and binary mixtures containing 2-Methoxy-2-Methylpropane, 1-propanol, heptane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mato, Marta M.; Cebreiro, Susana M.; Paz Andrade, María Inmaculada; Legido, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental enthalpies for the ternary system MTBE + propanol + heptane were measured. • No experimental ternary values were found in the currently available literature. • Experimental enthalpies for the binary system propanol + heptane were measured. • Excess molar enthalpies are positive over the whole range of composition. • The ternary contribution is also positive, and the representation is asymmetric. -- Abstract: Excess molar enthalpies, at the temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured for the ternary system {x 1 2-Methoxy-2-Methylpropane (MTBE) + x 2 1-propanol + (1 − x 1 − x 2 ) heptane}, over the whole composition range. Also, experimental data of excess molar enthalpy for the involved binary mixture {x 1-propanol + (1 − x) heptane} at the 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, are reported. We are not aware of any previous experimental measurement of excess enthalpy in the literature for the ternary system presented in this study. Values of the excess molar enthalpies were measured using a Calvet microcalorimeter. The ternary contribution to the excess enthalpy was correlated with the equation due to Morris et al. (1975) [15], and the equation proposed by Myers–Scott (1963) [14] was used to fitted the experimental binary mixture measured in this work. Additionally, the experimental results are compared with the estimations obtained by applying the group contribution model of UNIFAC, in the versions of Larsen et al. (1987) [16] and Gmehling et al. (1993) [17]. Several empirical expressions for estimating ternary properties from binary results were also tested

  20. Photophysical study of blue-light excitable ternary Eu(III) complexes and their encapsulation into polystyrene nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Räsänen, Markus, E-mail: mpvras@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Takalo, Harri [DHR Finland Oy, Innotrac Diagnostics, Biolinja 12, FIN-20750 Turku (Finland); Soukka, Tero [Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Haapakka, Keijo; Kankare, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    In this work, 14 ternary Eu(III) complexes were studied by means of spectroscopy. The studied Eu(III) complexes consisted of Lewis bases (4′-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine (L{sup 8}) or 1,10-phenanthroline (L{sup 9})) and differently substituted β-diketones. The ternary complexes with L{sup 8} show the excitation peak at 405 nm and the quantum yield even 76%. The brightest ternary complex at the 405 nm excitation was Eu(L{sup 3}){sub 3}L{sup 8} while Eu(L{sup 7}){sub 3}L{sup 8} (HL{sup 3}=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, HL{sup 7}=1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1,3-pentanedione) was found to be the brightest at the ligand-centred excitation maximum. The ternary complexes were studied mainly in toluene as the model environment for the polystyrene nanoparticle cavities. The complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles enabling their bioanalytical application in aqueous environment. The encapsulation of the complexes preserved, or even enhanced, their good photophysical features. - Highlights: • Ternary Eu{sup 3+} complexes with some β-diketone and substituted terpyridine were studied. • Ternary complexes with substituted terpyridine showed blue-light excitability. • Ternary complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of the complexes preserved their good photophysical features.

  1. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography consisting of twelve second-dimension columns for comprehensive analysis of intact proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangtao; Beckner, Matthew A; Lynch, Kyle B; Chen, Huang; Zhu, Zaifang; Yang, Yu; Chen, Apeng; Qiao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Shaorong; Lu, Joann J

    2018-05-15

    A comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCxLC) system consisting of twelve columns in the second dimension was developed for comprehensive analysis of intact proteins in complex biological samples. The system consisted of an ion-exchange column in the first dimension and the twelve reverse-phase columns in the second dimension; all thirteen columns were monolithic and prepared inside 250 µm i.d. capillaries. These columns were assembled together through the use of three valves and an innovative configuration. The effluent from the first dimension was continuously fractionated and sequentially transferred into the twelve second-dimension columns, while the second-dimension separations were carried out in a series of batches (six columns per batch). This LCxLC system was tested first using standard proteins followed by real-world samples from E. coli. Baseline separation was observed for eleven standard proteins and hundreds of peaks were observed for the real-world sample analysis. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography, often considered as an effective tool for mapping proteins, is seen as laborious and time-consuming when configured offline. Our online LCxLC system with increased second-dimension columns promises to provide a solution to overcome these hindrances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural and thermal characterization of ternary complexes of piroxicam and alanine with transition metals: Uranyl binary and ternary complexes of piroxicam. Spectroscopic characterization and properties of metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.

    2005-12-01

    Ternary Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO 2(II) complexes with piroxicam (Pir) drug (H 2L 1) and dl-alanine (Ala) (HL 2) and also the binary UO 2(II) complex with Pir were studied. The structures of the complexes were elucidated using elemental, IR, molar conductance, magnetic moment, diffused reflectance and thermal analyses. The UO 2(II) binary complex was isolated in 1:2 ratio with the formula [UO 2(H 2L) 2](NO 3) 2. The ternary complexes were isolated in 1:1:1 (M:H 2L 1:L 2) ratios. The solid complexes were isolated in the general formulae [M(H 2L)(L 2)(Cl) n(H 2O) m]· yH 2O (M = Fe(III) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 1), Co(II) ( n = 1, m = 1, y = 2) and Ni(II) ( n = 1, m = 1, y = 0)); [M(H 2L)(L 2)](X) z· yH 2O (M = Cu(II) (X = AcO, z = 1, y = 0), Zn(II) (X = AcO, z = 1, y = 3) and UO 2(II) (X = NO 3, z = 1, y = 2)). Pir behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine-N and carbonyl-O groups, while Ala behaves as a uninegatively bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the deprotonated carboxylate-O and amino-N. The magnetic and reflectance spectral data show that the complexes have octahedral geometry except Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have tetrahedral structures. The thermal decomposition of the complexes was discussed in relation to structure, and the thermodynamic parameters of the decomposition stages were evaluated.

  3. Insight Into the Role of PC71BM on Enhancing the Photovoltaic Performance of Ternary Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Fu, Yingying; Yan, Chi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Qingqing; Han, Yanchun; Xie, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-01

    The development of non-fullerene acceptor molecules have remarkably boosted power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) due to the improved spectral coverage and reduced energy loss. An introduction of fullerene molecules into the non-fullerene acceptor-based blend may further improve the photovoltaic performance of the resultant ternary PSCs. However, the underlying mechanism is still debatable. Herein, the ternary PSCs based on PBDB-T:ITIC:PC 71 BM blend were fabricated and its PCE was increased to 10.2% compared to 9.2% for the binary PBDB-T:ITIC devices and 8.1% for the PBDB-T:PC 71 BM PSCs. Systematic investigation was carried out to disclose the effect of PC 71 BM on the blend morphology and charge transport behavior. It is found that the PC 71 BM tends to intermix with the PBDB-T donor compared to the ITIC counterpart. A small amount of PC 71 BM in the ternary blend is helpful for ITIC to aggregate and form efficient electron-transport pathways. Accordingly, the electron mobility is increased and the density of electron traps is decreased in the ternary blend in comparison with the PBDB-T:ITIC blend. Finally, the suppressed bimolecular recombination and enhanced charge collection lead to high PCE for the ternary solar cells.

  4. Solid-state characterization and dissolution properties of meloxicam-moringa coagulant-PVP ternary solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noolkar, Suhail B; Jadhav, Namdeo R; Bhende, Santosh A; Killedar, Suresh G

    2013-06-01

    The effect of ternary solid dispersions of poor water-soluble NSAID meloxicam with moringa coagulant (obtained by salt extraction of moringa seeds) and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the in vitro dissolution properties has been investigated. Binary (meloxicam-moringa and meloxicam-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and ternary (meloxicam-moringa-PVP) systems were prepared by physical kneading and ball milling and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. The in vitro dissolution behavior of meloxicam from the different products was evaluated by means of United States Pharmacopeia type II dissolution apparatus. The results of solid-state studies indicated the presence of strong interactions between meloxicam, moringa, and PVP which were of totally amorphous nature. All ternary combinations were significantly more effective than the corresponding binary systems in improving the dissolution rate of meloxicam. The best performance in this respect was given by the ternary combination employing meloxicam-moringa-PVP ratio of [1:(3:1)] prepared by ball milling, with about six times increase in percent dissolution rate, whereas meloxicam-moringa (1:3) and meloxicam-PVP (1:4) prepared by ball milling improved dissolution of meloxicam by almost 3- and 2.5-folds, respectively. The achieved excellent dissolution enhancement of meloxicam in the ternary systems was attributed to the combined effects of impartation of hydrophilic characteristic by PVP, as well as to the synergistic interaction between moringa and PVP.

  5. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S.; Zupanic, F.

    2001-01-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (α Al , β Si , Al 3 Sm, Al 2 Si 2 Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → α Al + β Si + Al 2 Si 2 Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al 3 Sm → α Al + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → α Al + Al 2 Si 2 Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  6. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering; Zupanic, F. [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-09-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation ({alpha}{sub Al}, {beta}{sub Si}, Al{sub 3}Sm, Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + {beta}{sub Si} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al{sub 3}Sm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  7. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram in the Na2O-Na2O2-NaOH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Tendo, Masayuki; Aoto, Kazumi

    1997-10-01

    Generally, the phase diagrams are always used to understand the present state of compounds at certain temperature. In order to understand the corrosion behavior of structural material for FBR by main sodium compounds (Na 2 O, Na 2 O 2 and NaOH), it is very important to comprehend the phase diagrams of their compounds. However, only Na 2 O-NaOH pseudo-binary phase diagram had been investigated previously in this system. There is no study of other pseudo-binary or ternary phase diagrams in the Na 2 O-Na 2 O 2 -NaOH system. In this study, in order to clarify the present states of their compounds at certain temperatures, the pseudo-binary and ternary phase diagrams in the Na 2 O-Na 2 O 2 -NaOH system were prepared. A series of thermal analyses with binary and ternary component system has been carried out using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The liquidus temperature and ternary eutectic temperatures were confirmed by these measurements. The beneficial indications for constructing phase diagrams were obtained from these experiments. On the basis of these results, the interaction parameters between compounds which were utilized for the Thermo-Calc calculation were optimized. Thermo-Calc is one of thermodynamic calculation software. Consequently the accurate pseudo-binary and ternary phase diagrams were indicated using the optimized parameters. (author)

  8. Enhanced Dissolution of a Porous Carrier-Containing Ternary Amorphous Solid Dispersion System Prepared by a Hot Melt Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Masataka; Jermain, Scott V; Williams, Robert O

    2018-01-01

    The focus of our study was to employ a solvent-free, thermal process to evaluate the use of a porous carrier in a drug-polymer-porous carrier ternary formulation containing a high drug load (e.g., ≥50% w/w). The purpose of the study was to improve the dissolution properties of the biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug, indomethacin, in the ternary formulation. The effect that the selected polymer has on properties of the formulation was studied, and the formulation characteristics of hypromellose (AF15), copovidone (VA64), and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer was evaluated to understand differences in dissolution rates and drug adsorption onto the porous carrier. The ternary formulations were manufactured using a thermal technique that relied on heating and mixing, without the necessity of mechanical shear. All thermally processed granules that employed the porous carrier exhibited immediate release compared with crystalline indomethacin and physical mixtures. In addition, the ternary formulations maintained supersaturation compared with the binary formulations without polymer. The results of this study indicated that the thermally processed ternary formulations containing a porous carrier demonstrated a much improved dissolution profile in nonsink conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of ternary alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical property of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.Y.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, S.K.; Ra, T.Y.; Kim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical property at room temperature and at 1773 K of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloys were investigated in terms of compression and fracture toughness test. Mo and V were chosen as ternary alloying elements because of their high melting points, atomic sizes smaller than Nb. Both ternary alloying elements were found to have a significant role in modifying the microstructure from dispersed structure to eutectic-like structure in Nb solid solution/Nb 5 Si 3 intermetallic composites. The 0.2% offset yield strength at room temperature increased with increasing content of ternary elements in Nb solid solution and volume fraction of Nb 5 Si 3 . At 1773 K, Mo addition has a positive role in increasing the yield strength. On the other hand, V addition has a role in decreasing the yield strength. The fracture toughness of ternary alloys was superior to binary alloys. Details will be discussed in correlation with ternary alloying, volume fraction of constituent phase, and the microstructure. (orig.)

  10. Binary and ternary fission yields induced by 12C and 20Ne ions on 238U targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence for ternary fission of 250 Cf* and 258 No* compound nuclei has been found. Relative cross section data for nuclides with masses between 24 Na and 161 Tb have been determined for 12 C bombardments of natural uranium at laboratory energies of 122 MeV, 113 MeV and 105 MeV. Relative cross section data for 8 nuclides between 24 Na and 66 Ni were sought for 20 Ne bombardments of natural uranium at 150 MeV laboratory energies. The binary fission fragment mass distribution for 238 U( 12 C,f) was determined by analysis of fission fragment recoil collection foils using radiochemical techniques and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The results indicated the existence of a ternary fission branch similar to mass distributions obtained for He induced fission of Th, U, and Pu nuclei at intermediate energies. Comparison of the data with He induced ternary fission data obtained previously in this laboratory indicated an increase in the ternary fission probability with increasing Z 2 /A of the compound nucleus and with excitation energy. A shift of the binary-ternary fission product intersection point to lower mass numbers with increasing Z 2 /A and excitation energy of the compound nucleus was also observed. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  11. Robust tribo-mechanical and hot corrosion resistance of ultra-refractory Ta-Hf-C ternary alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yate, Luis; Coy, L Emerson; Aperador, Willian

    2017-06-08

    In this work we report the hot corrosion properties of binary and ternary films of the Ta-Hf-C system in V 2 O 5 -Na 2 SO 4 (50%wt.-50%wt.) molten salts at 700 °C deposited on AISI D3 steel substrates. Additionally, the mechanical and nanowear properties of the films were studied. The results show that the ternary alloys consist of solid solutions of the TaC and HfC binary carbides. The ternary alloy films have higher hardness and elastic recoveries, reaching 26.2 GPa and 87%, respectively, and lower nanowear when compared to the binary films. The corrosion rates of the ternary alloys have a superior behavior compared to the binary films, with corrosion rates as low as 0.058 μm/year. The combination and tunability of high hardness, elastic recovery, low nanowear and an excellent resistance to high temperature corrosion demonstrates the potential of the ternary Ta-Hf-C alloy films for applications in extreme conditions.

  12. Binary and ternary recombination of [image omitted] and [image omitted] ions with electrons in low temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosík, J.; Plašil, R.; Kotrík, T.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Hejduk, M.; Korolov, I.; Roučka, Š.; Kokoouline, V.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of recombination rate coefficients of binary and ternary recombination of ? and ? ions with electrons in a low temperature plasma are described. The experiments were carried out in the afterglow plasma in helium with a small admixture of Ar and parent gas (H2 or D2). For both ions a linear increase of measured apparent binary recombination rate coefficients (αeff) with increasing helium density was observed: αeff = αBIN + K He[He]. From the measured dependencies, we have obtained for both ions the binary (αBIN) and the ternary (K He) rate coefficients and their temperature dependence. For the description of observed ternary recombination a mechanism with two subsequent rate determining steps is proposed. In the first step, in ? + e- (or ? + e-) collision, a rotationally excited long-lived Rydberg molecule ? (or ? ) is formed. In the following step ? (or ? ) collides with a He atom of the buffer gas and this collision prevents autoionization of ? (or ? ). Lifetimes of the formed ? (or ? ) and corresponding ternary recombination rate coefficients have been calculated. The theoretical and measured binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients obtained for ? and ? ions are in good agreement.

  13. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-08-31

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures.

  14. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al x Ga 1−x N, In x Al 1−x N and In x Ga 1−x N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures

  15. Ternary nitrides for hydrogen storage: Li-B-N, Li-Al-N and Li-Ga-N systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmi, Henrietta W.; McGrady, G. Sean

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of hydrogen storage performance of ternary nitrides based on lithium and the Group 13 elements boron, aluminum and gallium. These were prepared by ball milling Li 3 N together with the appropriate Group 13 nitride-BN, AlN or GaN. Powder X-ray diffraction of the products revealed that the ternary nitrides obtained are not the known Li 3 BN 2 , Li 3 AlN 2 and Li 3 GaN 2 phases. At 260 deg. C and 30 bar hydrogen pressure, the Li-Al-N ternary system initially absorbed 3.7 wt.% hydrogen, although this is not fully reversible. We observed, for the first time, hydrogen uptake by a pristine ternary nitride of Li and Al synthesized from the binary nitrides of the metals. While the Li-Ga-N ternary system also stored a significant amount of hydrogen, the storage capacity for the Li-B-N system was near zero. The hydrogenation reaction is believed to be similar to that of Li 3 N, and the enthalpies of hydrogen absorption for Li-Al-N and Li-Ga-N provide evidence that AlN and GaN, as well as the ball milling process, play a significant role in altering the thermodynamics of Li 3 N

  16. Core@shell@shell structured carbon-based magnetic ternary nanohybrids: Synthesis and their enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Erqi; Qi, Xiaosi; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2018-05-01

    High encapsulation efficiency of core@shell@shell structured carbon-based magnetic ternary nanohybrids have been synthesized in high yield by chemical vapor deposition of acetylene directly over octahedral-shaped Fe2O3 nanoparticles. By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, Fe3O4@Fe3C@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Fe@Fe3C@CNTs ternary nanohybrids could be selectively produced. The optimal RL values for the as-prepared ternary nanohybrids could reach up to ca. -46.7, -52.7 and -29.5 dB, respectively. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the obtaiend ternary nanohybrids were proved to ascribe to the quarter-wavelength matching model. Moreover, the as-prepared Fe@Fe3C@CNTs ternary nanohybrids displayed remarkably enhanced EM wave absorption capabilities compared to Fe3O4@Fe3C@CNTs due to their excellent dielectric loss abilities, good complementarities between the dielectric loss and the magnetic loss, and high attenuation constant. Generally, this strategy can be extended to explore other categories of core@shell or core@shell@shell structured carbon-based nanohybrids, which is very beneficial to accelerate the advancements of high performance MAMs.

  17. Ternary system of dihydroartemisinin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and lecithin: simultaneous enhancement of drug solubility and stability in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Haiyan; Gu, Jingkai; Guo, Tao; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Xueju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously improve the solubility and stability of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in aqueous solutions by a ternary cyclodextrin system comprised of DHA, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and a third auxiliary substance. Solubility and phase solubility studies were carried out to evaluate the solubilizing efficiency of HP-β-CD in association with various auxiliary substances. Then, the solid binary (DHA-HP-β-CD or DHA-lecithin) and ternary systems were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and power X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The effect of the ternary system on the solubility, dissolution and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions was also investigated. As a result, the soybean lecithin was found to be the most promising third component in terms of solubility enhancement. For the solid characterization, the disappearance of the drug crystallinity indicated the formation of new solid phases, implicating the formation of the ternary system. The dissolution rate of the solid ternary system was much faster than that of the drug alone and binary systems. Importantly, compared with binary systems, the ternary system showed a significant improvement in the stability of DHA in Hank's balanced salt solutions (pH 7.4). The solubility and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions were simultaneously enhanced by the ternary system, which might be attributed to the possible formation of a ternary complex. For the ternary interactions, results of molecular docking studies further indicated that the lecithin covered the top of the wide rim of HP-β-CD and surrounded around the peroxide bridging of DHA, providing the possibility for the ternary complex formation. In summary, the ternary system prepared in our study, with simultaneous enhancement of DHA solubility and stability in aqueous solutions, might have an important pharmaceutical potential in the development of a better

  18. Molecular designing of novel ternary copolymers of donor-acceptor polymers using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Vinita; Bakhshi, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Alternate arrangement of donor acceptor moieties in the carbon backbone chain of an organic conjugated polymer is capable of inducing charge transfer and affects the electronic properties of the copolymer. Genetic algorithm along with simple NFC (negative factor counting) and IIM (inverse iteration method) has been used to optimize the properties of novel ternary copolymers based on polypyrrole PPy, polythiophene PTh and polyfuran PFu (as donor moieties) and containing >C=O and >C=CF 2 bridging units as acceptor moieties. - Abstract: An efficient designing route to novel ternary copolymers consisting of polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyfuran (PFu) is developed with the help of genetic algorithm. Using the band structure results obtained from ab initio crystal orbital (CO) calculations, the electronic structures and conduction properties of real ternary copolymers based on donor acceptor type polymers are investigated. The electron rich heterocyclic rings in the backbone chain of the copolymer are joined together by electron withdrawing groups Y, carbonyl group (>C=O) and difluoromethylene group (>C=CF 2 ) in an attempt to design the conducting polymer with lowest band gap. A comparative study of various electronic properties is presented. The effects of substitution on the behaviour and properties of the copolymers as well as on the density of states (DOS) are discussed. Band gap decreases as a result of substitution on the polymer backbone chain due to decrease in ionization potential and increase in electron affinity values. This is expected to enhance the intrinsic conductivity of the resulting copolymer. Use of alternate donor acceptor moieties within the repeat units should maximize the extended π conjugation.

  19. Ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites electrodes for high performance electrochemical storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manchal; Doong, Ruey-an; Kumar, Nagesh; Tseng, Tseung Yuen

    2017-10-01

    The combination of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxides (rGO) is an active electrode material for electrochemical storage devices. Herein, we have, for the first time, reported the fabrication of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites by using a rapid and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for high performance supercapacitor applications. The ZnO/rGO provides excellent electrical conductivity and good macro/mesopore structures, which can facilitate the rapid electrons and ions transport. The Au nanoparticles with particle sizes of 7-12 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the ZnO/rGO surface to enhance the electrochemical performance by retaining the capacitance at high current density. The Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites, prepared with the optimized rGO amount of 100 mg exhibit a high specific capacitance of 875 and 424 F g-1 at current densities of 1 and 20 A g-1, respectively, in 2 M KOH. In addition, the energy and power densities of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO can be up to 17.6-36.5 Wh kg-1 and 0.27-5.42 kW kg-1, respectively. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the excellence of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites as the active electrode materials for electrochemical pseudocapacitor performance and can open an avenue to fabricate metal/metal oxide/rGO nanocomposites for electrochemical storage devices with both high energy and power densities.

  20. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-09-01

    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.