WorldWideScience

Sample records for twelve specific congeners

  1. Congener-specific bioaccumulation of PCBs in different water bird species

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Gaby; Dietrich, Daniel R.; Schmid, Peter; Schlatter, Christian

    1997-01-01

    The bioaccumulation behaviour of single PCB congeners in three trophic levels of a food chain in an aquatic ecosystem was studied. Congener-specific biotransfer factors were calculated comparing PCB concentrations in tissues of 4 water bird species with the contents measured in their food source. The coplanar PCBs were of particular interest.The maximum concentrations of individual PCB congeners detected in mussels, fish and birds were 0.5, 4, and 26 μg/g extractable lipids, respectively. In ...

  2. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  3. Congener specificity in the accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in zucchini plants grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Wakai, Taketo; Gion, Keiko; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo

    2011-01-01

    Zucchini cultivars Cucurbita pepo subsp. ovifera cv. Patty Green and subsp. pepo cv. Gold Rush were cultivated hydroponically in a nutrient solution supplemented with a mixture of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Patty Green and Gold Rush showed low and high accumulation of these compounds in the aerial parts respectively. In both cultivars, the accumulation of each congener negatively depended on its hydrophobicity. This suggests that desorption and solubilization were partly responsible for congener specificity of accumulation, since this was not found in soil experiments. In contrast, no clear difference in accumulation in the roots was observed between the cultivars, whereas the translocation factors, which are indicators of efficient translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, differed among the congeners hydrophobicity-dependently. There were positive correlations between accumulation in the roots and the hydrophobicity of the polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in both cultivars. These results indicate that translocation was also partly responsible for the congener specificity and accumulation concentrations.

  4. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species' diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  5. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species` diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in Caspian terns than in the other species. Overall, PCBs in eggs of birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: A congener-specific meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiu-mei; Kim, Jun-young; Li, Yi-meng; Guo, Xue-mei; Chen, Xi; Yang, Qiao-yun; Li, Guang; Tang, Nai-jun

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is related to various risk factors, especially that the environmental and lifestyle factors account for major contribution at the rate of 70% to 95% over all. However, there still remains some controversy over the epidemiological evidence regarding the effects of environmental carcinogens on the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at full evaluation of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on breast cancer in a congener-specific fashion. Four online literature databases were systematically searched before 1st January 2015, for studies stating correlation between PCB congeners and breast cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies that were included in our analysis. Sixteen studies were included in our final meta-analysis after screening based on the priori inclusion criteria. Nine PCB congeners were reported by more than two studies and they were presented in detail. The pooled Odds Ratios (ORs) showed a significant increase in the risk of breast cancer in individuals with higher plasma/fat levels of PCB 99 (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.80), PCB 183 (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.95) and PCB 187 (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.39). Besides, the outcomes did not support a relationship between dioxin-like PCB congeners and the risk of breast cancer. The results of our meta-analysis imply that PCB 99, PCB 183 and PCB 187 would increase the risk of breast cancer. The mechanism of this increased risk may be by the induction of the CYP2B family in cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  7. Levels and congener specific profiles of PBDEs in human breast milk from China: implication on exposure sources and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Tsydenova, Oyuna V; Isobe, Tomohiko; Yu, Hongxia; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-11-01

    Fourteen PBDE congeners from mono- to deca-BDE were determined in breast milk of primiparous mothers from two locations in East China, i.e. Nanjing (n=9), an urban area, and Zhoushan (n=10), a semi rural coastal area. PBDEs were detected in all the human breast milk samples of the present study, indicating that general population in these two locations are widely exposed to these pollutants. Relatively higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in the milk of mothers from Nanjing than Zhoushan, suggesting the existence of significant sources of PBDEs in urban areas. PBDE levels in the present study were similar to those in European countries, but one or two orders of magnitude lower than in North America. Except for BDE-3, all congeners from di- to deca-BDE were detected in the samples of the present study. BDE-209, a congener considered to have less bioavailability, was detected in about 50% of the samples at concentrations higher than that of other congeners. Other higher brominated congeners, such as BDE-153, -197 and -207, were also prominent in the present study, which is different from the pattern generally observed in previous studies on human milk as well as biota samples. These results may indicate that the inhabitants of Nanjing and Zhoushan are exposed to location specific sources of PBDEs.

  8. Determination of toxaphene specific congeners in fish liver oil and feedingstuff using gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrand, Bruno; Venisseau, Anaïs; Marchand, Philippe; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2008-04-01

    A new method for the determination of nine toxaphene specific congeners in fish liver oil and feedingstuff has been developed. The samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction followed by a purification on silica and florisil columns. Identification and quantification were conducted using GC-(EI)-HRMS, and comparison with MS/MS detection was performed, using electron ionization and negative chemical ionization. Limits of detection were ranged from 0.01 to 0.22 microg kg(-1) (12% moisture) as required for feed samples. The calibration curves showed a good linearity for all congeners (R(2)>0.99). Repeatability was below 9% for all the congeners and recoveries were in-between 73 and 86%. This analytical method was applied to the quantification of thirteen real samples collected within national monitoring plans for further risk assessment.

  9. Novel double-congenic strain reveals effects of spontaneously hypertensive rat chromosome 2 on specific lipoprotein subfractions and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Ondrej; Sedová, Lucie; Liska, Frantisek; Krenová, Drahomíra; Prejzek, Vratislav; Kazdová, Ludmila; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimír

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a new, double-congenic rat strain BN-Lx.SHR2, which carries two distinct segments of chromosome 2 introgressed from the spontaneously hypertensive rat strain (SHR) into the genetic background of congenic strain BN-Lx, which was previously shown to express variety of metabolic syndrome features. In 16-wk-old male rats of BN-Lx and BN-Lx.SHR2 strains, we compared their glucose tolerance and triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in 20 lipoprotein subfractions and the lipoprotein particle sizes under conditions of feeding standard and high-sucrose diets. Introgression of two distinct SHR-derived chromosome 2 segments resulted in decreased adiposity together with aggravation of glucose intolerance in the double-congenic strain. The BN-Lx.SHR2 rats were more sensitive to sucrose-induced rise in triacylglycerolemia. Although the total cholesterol concentrations of the two strains were comparable after the standard diet and even lower in BN-Lx.SHR2 after sucrose feeding, detailed analysis revealed that under both dietary conditions, the double-congenic strain had significantly higher cholesterol concentrations in low-density lipoprotein fractions and lower high-density lipoprotein fractions. We established a new inbred model showing dyslipidemia and mild glucose intolerance without obesity, attributable to specific genomic regions. For the first time, the chromosome 2 segments of SHR origin are shown to influence other than blood pressure-related features of metabolic syndrome or to be involved in relevant nutrigenomic interactions.

  10. Phthalate esters and childhood asthma: A systematic review and congener-specific meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) has been associated with childhood asthma, but the congener-specific effects of PAEs on childhood asthma were unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze observational studies on the associations between specific effects of PAEs and the risk of childhood asthma. Relevant studies were identified by searching three databases up to October 20, 2016. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included observational studies that reported risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between phthalate exposure and the risk of childhood asthma. Fixed-effects models were generally applied to calculate pooled risk estimates. When heterogeneity was present, random-effects models were applied. A total of nine studies featuring 43 data points were included in our final meta-analyses. Results indicated that the benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) exposure had a significant association with the risk of childhood asthma. The Odd Ratios (ORs) were from 1.39 to 1.41 for different combination strategies. Subgroup analyses by different exposure period or samples used showed that prenatal exposure to BBzP had a stronger association with the risk of childhood asthma (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09-1.75), compared to those with postnatal exposure. Besides, the association was evident when the phthalate exposure was measured from dust samples. The OR for the associations between di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in dust and childhood asthma was 2.71 (95% CI = 1.39-5.28), and 2.08 (95% CI = 1.10-3.92) for BBzP. Our study suggested a positive association between DEHP and BBzP exposure and childhood asthma. Future studies are warranted to identify the underlying mechanisms of the association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence and congeners specific of polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from Southern Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; QIU Li-min; HE Jia; LIAO Yuan; LUO Yong-ming

    2007-01-01

    A total of 198 agricultural soil samples were collected from Zhangjiagang and Changshu in Southern Jiangsu for analysis of 13 polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)in order to assess the levels of pollution,sources,area distribution,and potential risk for the environment.All methods were rigorously tested and an adequate quality control was ensured.Only one site had no PCBs residues,and the highest total PCBs concentration in the surface soils was 32.83 ng/g.The average concentration in all the soil samples was 4.13ng/g.signaling low-level pollution.Tetra-,penta-,and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls were dominant speoes in soil samples,accounnng for more than 75%of ΣPCBs in the soil samples.PCB118 was the most abundant congener in all the samples.The PCB118 Was about 20%of ΣPCBs.The soil organic matter content showed only a weak correlation with the levels of all PCB congeners,in which a better correlation was noted for the more volatile lighter PCB congeners than for the heavier homologues.To a certain extent,the sources and land use seemed to influence the levels of PCBs.

  12. Congener-specific accumulation and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in spider crab food webs revealed by stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, N. [IFREMER, DCN-BE, Technopole Brest-Iroise, Pointe du Diable, 29280 Plouzane (France); LPTC-UMR 5472 CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33400 Talence (France)], E-mail: bodin.nathalie@caramail.com; Le Loc' h, F. [IRD, UR 070 RAP, Centre de Recherche Halieutique, Avenue Jean Monnet, B.P. 171, 34203 Sete Cedex (France); Caisey, X.; Le Guellec, A.-M.; Abarnou, A.; Loizeau, V. [IFREMER, DCN-BE, Technopole Brest-Iroise, Pointe du Diable, 29280 Plouzane (France); Latrouite, D. [IFREMER, DCB-STH, Technopole Brest-Iroise, Pointe du Diable, 29280 Plouzane (France)

    2008-01-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C) were analyzed in the spider crab (Maja brachydactyla) food web from the Iroise Sea (Western Brittany) and the Seine Bay (Eastern English Channel). PCB concentrations were all significantly higher in organisms from the Seine Bay than those from the Iroise Sea. PCB patterns were strongly related to the feeding mode of the species, and increased influence of higher chlorinated congeners was highlighted with trophic position of the organisms. PCB concentrations (lipid normalized) were significantly related to the isotopically derived trophic level (TL) in spider crab food webs. The highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were calculated for the congeners with 2,4,5-substitution, and were lower in the Seine Bay compared to the Iroise Sea. The confrontation of PCB and TL data also revealed biotransformation capacity of decapod crustaceans for specific congeners based on structure-activity relations. - The influence of feeding mode and trophic position on the fate of PCBs in spider crab food webs is discussed by using a stable isotopic approach.

  13. Congener Specific Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Human Blood Serum from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Krauthacker, Blanka; Reiner, Elsa

    2000-01-01

    A gas-chromatographic method on capillary columns is described for measuring concentrations of total PCBs and of six PCB congeners, PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-101, PCB-138, PCB-153 and PCB-180, in human blood serum. Recovery of compounds was evaluated, and the repeatability and reproducibility of the results tested on samples analysed on the same day and over a period of two years. The method was verified in an international AQA Study in three rounds of measurements. The method was applied for the a...

  14. Congener-specific analysis of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood collected from 195 pregnant women in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hori, Tsuguhide; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Yasutake, Daisuke; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-10-01

    We conducted a congener-specific analysis of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (non-dioxin-like PCBs) in blood collected between July 2002 and July 2004 from 195 pregnant women living in Sapporo City of Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which full congener concentrations of non-dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in the blood of pregnant women. Of the 195 pregnant women, 101 were primipara (mean: 28.8 years, median: 28.0 years) and 94 were multipara (mean: 32.3 years, median: 33.0 years). Among the 197 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners, 58 congeners were identified in the blood of pregnant women. The arithmetic mean total concentrations of 58 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners in the blood of primiparous and multiparous mothers in Sapporo City were 42.2-329.3 (mean: 114.5, median: 98.6) and 31.5-258.0 (mean: 100.3, median: 91.4)ngg(-1)lipid, respectively. The results show that the contamination of non-dioxin-like PCBs in the blood of women has decreased compared to past levels in other domestic areas, in which the subject age was similar to that in this study. The results of the present study indicate that current levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs in the blood of Japanese women and can be used as baseline data for future temporal trends. The sums of the ratios of the concentrations of hexaCBs and heptaCBs to the total concentrations of 58 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners in the blood of primiparous and multiparous mothers were 78.5% and 77.7%, respectively. The hexaCBs ratios in the blood of primiparous and multiparous mothers were 45.4% and 44.7%, respectively. HexaCB-153 among hexaCBs congeners, the most abundant congener in the blood of primiparous and multiparous mothers, contributed approximately 22.0% and 21.8% to the total concentrations of 58 non-dioxin-like PCBs congeners that were measured in the blood, respectively. Among the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners measured in the present study, hexaCB-138, heptaCB-170, hepta

  15. A selective historical review of congener-specific human tissue measurements as sensitive and specific biomarkers of exposure to dioxins and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A

    1998-04-01

    Estimating internal exposure or dose of dioxins and related chemicals such as dibenzofurans and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls is relatively straightforward in laboratory animals because a known dose is given and the amount absorbed can be measured. In wildlife, direct tissue measurement and measurement of environmental samples have both recently been used to estimate exposure. Until recently, human studies used only indirect indicators such as skin lesions to qualitatively estimate exposure to these chlorinated organic compounds. Environmental measurements have also sometimes been used to estimate human exposure. Dioxins in human tissue were not measured until the 1970s, when 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was measured in mothers' milk; congener-specific measurement of dioxins and dibenzofurans in tissues (blood, milk, and adipose tissue) of the general population and exposed workers was first performed in the United States in the 1980s. Measurement in a sensitive and specific fashion of the 17 toxic dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners currently found in human tissue from industrial countries began in the 1980s. The use of known chemical standards, capillary columns, high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has now become relatively common. GC-MS analysis of blood is currently accepted as the gold standard for estimating human exposure to dioxins. However, analyses are still costly and time consuming, and worldwide there are few qualified laboratories. There is currently a lack of knowledge concerning kinetics at higher and lower exposure levels for most of the toxic dioxin congeners and of levels in target tissues of concern.

  16. Congener-specific carbon isotopic analysis of technical PCB and PCN mixtures using two-dimensional gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Petrick, Gert; Gamo, Toshitaka; Falandysz, Jerzy; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2005-06-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotope fractionation is a useful method to study the sources and fate of anthropogenic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. To evaluate the utility of carbon isotopes, determination of isotopic ratios of 13C/12C in source materials, for example, technical PCB preparations, is needed. In this study, we determined delta13C values of 31 chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners in 18 technical PCB preparations and 15 chloronaphthalene (CN) congeners in 6 polychlorinated naphthalene preparations using two-dimensional gas chromatography-combustion furnace-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (2DGC-C-IRMS). Development of 2DGC-IRMS enabled improved resolution and sensitivity of compound-specific carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) of CB or CN congeners. Delta13C values of PCB congeners ranged from -34.4 (Delors) to -22.0/1000 (Sovol). Analogous PCB preparations with similar chlorine content, but different geographical origin, had different delta13C values. PCB preparations from Eastern European countries--Delors, Sovol, Trichlorodiphenyl, and Chlorofen--had distinct delta13C values. PCB mixtures showed increased 13C depletion with increasing chlorine content. Delta13C values for individual CB congeners varied depending on the degree of chlorination in technical mixtures. Delta13C values of CN congeners in Halowaxes ranged from -26.3 to -21.7/1000 and these values are within the ranges observed for PCBs. This study establishes the range of delta13C values in technical PCB and PCN preparations, which may prove to be useful in the determination of sources of these compounds in the environment. This is the first study to employ 2DGC-IRMS analysis of delta13C values in technical PCB and PCN preparations.

  17. Congener-specific metabolism and sequestration of dioxin-like compounds by cytochrome P450 1A induced in the liver of crows from Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Yoneda, K.; Hashimoto, T. [Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Jungle crow (JC; Corvus macrorhynchos) is a useful bioindicator for monitoring contaminants in urban areas, because this species is residential, occupies a same habitat as human, and feeds variety of foods including domestic waste and garbage. Therefore, JCs may accumulate environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), which are released by human activities. Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A is a responsive mechanism elicited by exposure to dioxinlike compounds including PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs. Toxicokinetic behavior of dioxin-like compounds in organisms is controlled by excretion, metabolism and absorption. These processes are, at least partly, dependent on CYP1A expression in addition to chemical structure and number of chlorine substitution of each congener. Low chlorinated congeners such as 2378-T{sub 4}CDD, 2378- T{sub 4}CDF, 12378-P{sub 5}CDD and 33'44'-PCB were easily metabolized by CYP1A1/2 in rat liver microsomes. PCDDs/DFs accumulate in hepatic tissue to a greater extent than adipose tissue in rats and mice. Recent study using transgenic CYP1A2 knockout mice demonstrated that CYP1A2 is responsible for the sequestration of 2378-T{sub 4}CDD and 23478-P{sub 5}CDF in hepatic tissue. Therefore, CYP1A is considered as a key factor responsible for toxicokinetics of dioxin-like compounds. However, there's no comprehensive data on the contribution of CYP1A to the toxicokinetics of dioxin-like congeners in wild populations. In this study, we investigated contamination levels of PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs in liver and breast muscle of JCs from Tokyo, Japan, and interactions of dioxin-like congeners with hepatic CYP to elucidate congener-specific toxicokinetics related to CYP expression in JC.

  18. Response to Ecological Risk Assessment Forum Request for Information on the Benefits of PCB Congener-Specific Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 2001, the Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) submitted a formal question to the Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) on the benefits of evaluating PCB congeners in environmental samples. This question was developed by ERAF members Bruce Duncan and Cla...

  19. Congener specific determination of toxaphene residues in fish liver oil using gas chromatography coupled to ion trap MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Fernández, M A; González, M J

    2005-10-01

    A new approach to the determination of six toxaphene congeners in edible stuff has been accomplished. The analytical procedure presented in this paper involves a single-step cleanup process prior to the analysis. A solution containing three (13)C labelled polychlorinated biphenyls was used as internal standard and tetrachloronaphtalene was used as injection standard. The analytical technique used was gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry detector in MS/MS mode. The parameters affecting the successive fragmentations were discussed and optimized. The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 49pg microl(-1). The toxaphene congeners were determined in two different fish liver oil pills sold in Spain as a supplementary vitamin support.

  20. Predicting the Congener-Specific Environmental Behaviour of Perfluorinated Acid Contaminants Using Semi-Empirical Computational Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Rayne; Kaya Forest; Ken J. Friesen

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are contaminants detected worldwide in a range of abiotic and biotic environmental matrices. The two major classes of PFAs include the perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), both of which are considered persistent and potentially bioaccumulative. Current research and regulatory efforts are focussed on the straight-chain members of each PFA class and homologue group, primarily because these congeners are the major componen...

  1. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and ...

  2. Congener-specific concentrations and carbon stable isotope ratios (delta13C) of two technical toxaphene products (Toxaphene and Melipax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Walter; Gleixner, Gerd; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Ruppe, Steffen; Stern, Gary A; Braekevelt, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this study we compared the contribution of individual congeners and the ratios of stable carbon isotopes of two technical toxaphene products. The former US-American product Toxaphene was from 1978 and the East-German product Melipax from 1979. Both technical products showed the known complexity in GC/ECD measurements. Contributions of 24 peaks to each of the technical products were determined by gas chromatography in combination high resolution electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-HRMS). The percentages of the compounds studied in the technical mixtures ranged from approximately 0.05% to approximately 2.5% but showed some individual differences. 2,2,5,5,8,9,9,10,10-nonachlorobornane (B9-1025 or P-62) was identified as a major congener in both mixtures. 2-Endo,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,10,10-octachlorobornane (B8-1413 or P26) and 2-endo,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10,10-nonachlorobornane (B9-1679 or P-50) were found at similar concentration in both technical products. Identical amounts of Melipax or Toxaphene were combusted to CO2 in an element analyzer and their delta13C values were determined relative to the international standard Vienna PeeDee belemnite (VPDB). The mean delta13C values of both products varied by 2.8% (determined at two different locations) which is roughly one order of magnitude more than the precision obtained in repetitive analyses of the individual products. Thus, both investigated products could be unequivocally distinguished by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). IRMS analyses may thus be a suitable tool for tracing back toxaphene residues in environmental and food samples to the one or both of the products.

  3. Congener-specific distribution and bioaccumulation of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments and bivalves of the Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xindong; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Haijun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Zhen; Yao, Ziwei; Chen, Jiping; Chen, Jingwen

    2014-02-15

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a new type of persistent organic pollutants that are of great environmental concern because of their wide distribution. In this study, surface sediments and bivalve samples were collected from the coastal area of the Bohai Sea in China. Total SCCP (ΣSCCP) concentrations in surface sediments and bivalves ranged from 97.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) to 1756.7 ng g(-1) dw and 476.4-3269.5 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. C10-CPs and C11-CPs were the predominant homologue groups in all sediments and bivalves. Specific congener composition analysis and correspondence analysis indicated that the local SCCP source mainly came from CP-42 and CP-52 products, and riverine input had an important function. The biota-sediment accumulation factors of ΣSCCPs for bivalves ranged from 1.08 to 1.61, and a significant correlation indicated that the SCCP congener with higher chlorination degree was more likely to be accumulated in bivalves.

  4. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  5. Congener-specific levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Batang, Zenon B.

    2016-08-01

    All 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast (Jeddah region) of Saudi Arabia were analyzed by isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The upper-bound total PCB (ΣPCB) levels in nine commonly consumed fish species from three areas were 0.2–82.5 ng/g wet weight (17–8450 ng/g lipid weight), which were at the lower end of reported global range and far below international tolerance limits (500–3000 ng/g ww). Dioxin-like congeners contributed up to 12.8% (mean 6.5%) to ΣPCB in tissue samples, with the total PCB toxic equivalencies (TEQs) at a tolerable range (0.05–2.6 pg TEQ/g ww or 2–238 pg TEQ/g lw) for all species. PCB profiles were dominated by moderately chlorinated homologs, mainly hexachlorobiphenyls, but less chlorinated congeners were also consistently elevated, notably in Siganus rivulatus (Area III) and Mugil cephalus (Area I). It remains to be ascertained if the latter were breakdown products or due to fresh inputs. The top congeners based on dominance by both occurrence and abundance were identified as potential markers of ΣPCB in fish tissue, which can be used for future selective biomonitoring in case of reasonable constraints on full congener approach.

  6. Congener-specific analysis of the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by aquatic organisms in the maximum turbidity zone of the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M M; Dodson, J J; Comba, M E; Kaiser, K L

    1990-11-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of the biota of the St. Lawrence estuary maximum turbidity zone (MTZ) was investigated. The species analyzed consist of zooplankton (mostly Neomysis americana), larval smelt (Osmerus mordax), juvenile smelt, juvenile tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) and adult smelt, tomcod and capelin (Mallotus villosus). A significant increase in total PCB contamination from zooplankton to all fish developmental stages indicates that the St. Lawrence MTZ is a site of significant PCB contamination. The total PCB contamination of adult smelt and tomcod sampled in the St. Lawrence MTZ was greater than the limit of 0.1 ppm set by the International Joint Commission for the protection of predators. For zooplankton, tomcod and capelin, significant correlations were found between lipid content and PCB contamination. The congener-specific analyses showed that the bioconcentration factor of the individual congeners varied with the species involved and with the molecular structure of the congener. It was found that the chlorine atoms in positions 2, 4 and 5 on at least one phenyl ring of the PCB molecule was a dominant factor causing accumulation of PCBs in aquatic organisms. The pattern of PCB congeners found in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) whale tissues is similar to the PCB pattern found in the St. Lawrence estuary MTZ biota.

  7. Functional roles and substrate specificities of twelve cytochromes P450 belonging to CYP52 family in n-alkane assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ishimaru, Chiaki; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2016-06-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica possesses twelve ALK genes, which encode cytochromes P450 in the CYP52 family. In this study, using a Y. lipolytica strain from which all twelve ALK genes had been deleted, strains individually expressing each of the ALK genes were constructed and their roles and substrate specificities were determined by observing their growth on n-alkanes and analyzing fatty acid metabolism. The results suggested that the twelve Alk proteins can be categorized into four groups based on their substrate specificity: Alk1p, Alk2p, Alk9p, and Alk10p, which have significant activities to hydroxylate n-alkanes; Alk4p, Alk5p, and Alk7p, which have significant activities to hydroxylate the ω-terminal end of dodecanoic acid; Alk3p and Alk6p, which have significant activities to hydroxylate both n-alkanes and dodecanoic acid; and Alk8p, Alk11p, and Alk12p, which showed faint or no activities to oxidize these substrates. The involvement of Alk proteins in the oxidation of fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes was also analyzed by measuring viability of the mutant deleted for twelve ALK genes in medium containing dodecanol and by observing growth on dodecanal of a mutant strain, in which twelve ALK genes were deleted along with four fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. It was suggested that ALK gene(s) is/are involved in the detoxification of dodecanol and the assimilation of dodecanal. These results imply that genes encoding CYP52-family P450s have undergone multiplication and diversification in Y. lipolytica for assimilation of various hydrophobic compounds.

  8. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  9. USING BASE-SPECIFIC SALMONELLA TESTER STRAINS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TYPES OF MUTATION INDUCED BY BENZIDINE AND BENZIDINE CONGENERS AFTER REDUCTIVE METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine HCl, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 3,3'- dimethoxybenzidine and benzidine congener-based dye trypan blue were mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TAl 00 only with metabolic activation. It was found that a hamster liver 89 ...

  10. Congener specific distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans in ambient air particulates (less than PM10 in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDFs are unintentionally formed during inefficient combustions and as a by-product. Due to their resistance to degradation and their toxic effect on health, PCDD/Fs are listed by the Stockholm Convention as persistent organic pollutants (POPs. Once released into the atmosphere, most of them are adsorbed to air particles and transported away from sources in atmosphere. India signed the Stockholm Convention India agreeing thereby to reduce and eliminate the use of POPs. The German agency for Technical Cooperation helped develop facilities for monitoring POPs at a national level in Delhi. This paper presents the data generated during a training assignment for Central Pollution Control Board officials at the German laboratory. Air borne particulate matter (congeners of PCDD/Fs. The concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs ranged between 1720-9010 fg m-3 (mean 5559 fg m-3 and their toxic equivalency values ranged from 67 to 460 fg I-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQ m-3, with an average of 239 fg I-TEQ m-3 which was lower than the ambient air standards. The dominant congeners were octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorinated dibenzo- p-furans, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin. The contributions of individual homologs for ΣPCDDs/Fs I-TEQ was in the order of OCDD (31%>HCDF (21%>hexachlorodibenzofurans (13%=OCDF (13%> HCDF (12% and other individual congeners contribute less than 5%. High chlorinated congeners contributed with more than 80% for ΣPCDD/Fs I-TEQ. Rough estimates of tolerable daily intake (TDI shows low health risk of exposure to ΣPCDD/Fs with inhalation of 0.098 pg I-TEQ kg1day1 for adult and 0.152 pg TEQ kg-1day-1 for children, which is much lower than World Health Organization

  11. Bioaccumulation of six PCB indicator congeners in a heavily polluted water reservoir in Eastern Slovakia: tissue-specific distribution in fish and their parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of six indicator PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in several organs and adipose tissue of a freshwater predatory fishes (European perch, northern pike, pike perch, wels catfish) as well as in nonpredators (common carp, freshwater bream, goldfish, white bream) and in acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii from the water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Eastern Slovakia), which is considered to be one of the most PCB-contaminated places in Europe. Concentration of PCBs was determined by capillary gas chromatography in samples from May to September 2009. The two-way main-effect ANOVA confirmed that feeding habits of fish (P kidney, brain, and adipose tissue of their host. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Data on PCB accumulation in perch infected with acanthocephalans demonstrated a decline of PCB values in all organs as well as in adipose tissue compared to noninfected fish. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Present results could indicate that some parasitic organisms may influence positively their hosts in PCB-contaminated environment.

  12. Knee kinematics and kinetics in former soccer players with a 16-year-old ACL injury – the effects of twelve weeks of knee-specific training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training of neuromuscular control has become increasingly important and plays a major role in rehabilitation of subjects with an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. Little is known, however, of the influence of this training on knee stiffness during loading. Increased knee stiffness occurs as a loading strategy of ACL-injured subjects and is associated with increased joint contact forces. Increased or altered joint loads contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine if knee stiffness, defined by changes in knee kinetics and kinematics of gait, step activity and cross-over hop could be reduced through a knee-specific 12-week training programme. Methods A 3-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON and a force plate (AMTI were used to calculate knee kinetics and kinematics before and after 12 weeks of knee-specific training in 12 males recruited from a cohort with ACL injury 16 years earlier. Twelve uninjured males matched for age, sex, BMI and activity level served as a reference group. Self-reported patient-relevant data were obtained by the KOOS questionnaire. Results There were no significant changes in knee stiffness during gait and step activity after training. For the cross-over hop, increased peak knee flexion during landing (from 44 to 48 degrees, p = 0.031 and increased internal knee extensor moment (1.28 to 1.55 Nm/kg, p = 0.017 were seen after training, indicating reduced knee stiffness. The KOOS sport and recreation score improved from 70 to 77 (p = 0.005 and was significantly correlated with the changes in knee flexion during landing for the cross-over hop (r = 0.6, p = 0.039. Conclusion Knee-specific training improved lower extremity kinetics and kinematics, indicating reduced knee stiffness during demanding hop activity. Self-reported sport and recreational function correlated positively with the biomechanical changes supporting a clinical importance of the

  13. Assimilation efficiency of PBDE congeners in Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Joseph P; Strickland, Stacy A; Hutchinson, Greg P; Van Gaest, Ahna L; Krupkin, Alex B; Ylitalo, Gina M; Arkoosh, Mary R

    2015-03-17

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are environmental contaminants that can accumulate in biota. PBDE accumulation in an organism depends on exposure, assimilation efficiency, and elimination/metabolism. Net assimilation efficiency represents the fraction of the contaminant that is retained in the organism after exposure. In the present study, congener-specific estimates of net PBDE assimilation efficiencies were calculated from dietary exposures of juvenile Chinook salmon. The fish were exposed to one to eight PBDE congeners up to 1500 ng total PBDEs/g food. Mean assimilation efficiencies varied from 0.32 to 0.50 for BDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154. The assimilation efficiency of BDE49 was significantly greater than 100%, suggesting biotransformation from higher brominated congeners. Whole body concentrations of BDE49 significantly increased with both exposure to increasing concentrations of BDE99 and decreasing fish lipid levels, implying lipid-influenced debromination of BDE99 to BDE49. Excluding BDE49, PBDE assimilation efficiency was not significantly related to the numbers of congeners in the diets, or congener hydrophobicity, but was greater in foods with higher lipid levels. Estimates of PBDE assimilation efficiency can be used in bioaccumulation models to assess threats from PBDE exposure to Chinook salmon health and recovery efforts, as well as to their predators.

  14. Development times and age-specific life table parameters of the native lady beetle species Coccinella novemnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its invasive congener Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Losey, John E

    2014-08-01

    To determine if differences in life history parameters contribute to native species exclusion, immature development times, larval survivorship, reproductive life history parameters, and age-specific life tables were determined for two populations (eastern United States and western United States) of ninespotted lady beetles (Coccinella novemnotata Herbst) and one population of sevenspotted lady beetles (Coccinella septempunctata L.). Developing larvae were provided an ad libitum diet of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) at a constant temperature of 25°C. The first and fourth larval stadia of C. novemnotata were significantly longer than that of C. septempunctata, as was their total development time from egg to newly eclosed adult. Stage-specific developmental mortality was low for both species and did not exceed 7% for the entire development period. The preoviposition period of the two C. novemnotata populations was significantly shorter (15-20%) than that of C. septempunctata. C. novemnotata from both locations laid significantly fewer total eggs than C. septempunctata (34-40% fewer) over the 31-d test period, and also fewer eggs per day (37-43% fewer). The net reproductive rate of the C. novemnotata populations was 42-50% lower than that of C. septempunctata as was C. novemnotata's intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm: 0.1716 and 0.1840 vs. 0.1959 for western and eastern C. novemnotata and C. septempunctata, respectively).

  15. The Twelve Promises of Alcoholics Anonymous: psychometric measure validation and mediational testing as a 12-step specific mechanism of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Greene, M Claire

    2013-12-01

    Empirical support for the recovery utility of 12-step mutual-help organizations (MHOs) has led to increased investigation of how such organizations confer benefit. The Twelve Promises of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) feature prominently in 12-step philosophy and culture and are one of the few documented explications of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral benefits that members might accrue. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a measure of AA's Twelve Promises and examined whether it mediated the effect of 12-step participation on abstinence. Young adults (N=302, M age 20.4 [1.6], range 18-25; 27% female; 95% White) enrolled in an addiction treatment effectiveness study completed assessments at intake and 3-, 6-, and 12-months post treatment including a 26-item, Twelve Promises Scale (TPS). Factor analyses examined the TPS' psychometrics and lagged mediational analyses tested the TPS as a mechanism of behavior change. Robust principal axis factoring extraction with Varimax rotation revealed a 2-factor solution explaining 45-58% of the variance across three administrations ("Psychological Wellbeing"=26-39%; "Freedom from Craving=17-21%); internal consistency was high (alpha=.83-.93). Both factors were found to increase in relation to greater 12-step participation, but significant mediation was found only for the Freedom from Craving factor explaining 21-34% of the effect of 12-step participation in increasing abstinence. The TPS shows potential as a conceptually relevant, and psychometrically sound measure and may be useful in helping elucidate the extent to which the Twelve Promises emerge as an independent benefit of 12-step participation and/or explain SUD remission and recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brown Norway chromosome 1 congenic reduces symptoms of renal disease in fatty Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Craig H; Slupsky, Carolyn; Griffey, Stephen M; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Min, Esther; Le, Anh; Fisler, Janis S; Hansen, Susan; Haj, Fawaz; Stern, Judith S

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a congenic rat with Brown Norway (BN) alleles on chromosome 1 reduces renal disease of 15-week old fatty Zucker rats (ZUC). Development of renal disease in fatty BN congenic and fatty ZUC rats from 9 through 28 weeks is now examined. Analysis of urine metabolites by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed a significantly increased urinary loss of glucose, myo-inositol, urea, creatine, and valine in ZUC. Food intake was lower in the BN congenic rats at weeks 9-24, but they weighed significantly more at 28 weeks compared with the ZUC group. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in ZUC than congenic and adiponectin levels were significantly lower in ZUC, but there was no significant genotype effect on Insulin levels. Glucose tolerance tests exhibited no significant differences between ZUC and congenic when values were normalized to basal glucose levels. Quantitative PCR on livers revealed evidence for higher gluconeogenesis in congenics than ZUC at 9 weeks. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine were more than 2-fold higher in 28-week ZUC. Twelve urine protein markers of glomerular, proximal and distal tubule disease were assayed at three ages. Several proteins that indicate glomerular and proximal tubular disease increased with age in both congenic and ZUC. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) level, a marker whose levels decrease with distal tubule disease, was significantly higher in congenics. Quantitative histology of 28 week old animals revealed the most significant genotype effect was for tubular dilation and intratubular protein. The congenic donor region is protective of kidney disease, and effects on Type 2 diabetes are likely limited to fasting glucose and adiponectin. The loss of urea together with a small increase of food intake in ZUC support the hypothesis that nitrogen balance is altered in ZUC from an early age.

  17. Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, William, E-mail: billyding888@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Chamberlain, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary' s Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States); Cunningham, James [Carson Urology, Carson City, Nevada (United States); Yang Lixi [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Tay, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary' s Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naieve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary's Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic

  18. Predicting sediment sorption coefficients for linear alkylbenzenesulfonate congeners from polyacrylate-water partition coefficients at different salinities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico Rico, A.; Droge, S.T.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the molecular structure and the salinity on the sorption of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) to marine sediment has been studied. The analysis of several individual LAS congeners in seawater and of one specific LAS congener at different dilutions of seawater wa

  19. The Twelve Hotel, Barna : Video

    OpenAIRE

    Irish Food Channel

    2014-01-01

    Fergus O'Halloran, Managing Director of The Twelve Hotel in Barna in County Galway, talks about his philosophy in running this unique boutique hotel. Reproduced with kind permission from John & Sally McKenna. 3.35 mins

  20. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  1. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  2. Comparison of PCB congener profiles in tissues of PCB-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania-Korwel, I.; Ludewig, G.; Robertson, L.W.; Lehmler, H.J. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Hornbuckle, K.C.; Peck, A. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Sulkowski, W.W. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Information on the congener-specific distribution of PCBs in tissues of laboratory animals after exposure to technical or environmental PCB mixtures is limited. Typically PCB levels and profiles from adipose tissue, liver, blood and occasionally brain are reported. In the work presented here 120 PCB congeners were extracted from 9 tissues of rats exposed to two different PCB mixtures. One mixture was Aroclor 1254, a well studied technical mixture. The second mixture was an environmental mixture obtained after extraction of soil contaminated with Chlorofen, a highly chlorinated Polish PCB mixture. The study was designed to investigate how different chlorination levels and the structure of PCB congeners affect their distribution and total concentration in selected tissues. Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis were employed to compare tissues of Aroclor and soil extract-treated animals.

  3. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  4. Bio- and chemical syntheses of mangiferin and congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehianeta, Teddy Stephen; Laval, Stéphane; Yu, Biao

    2016-09-10

    Mangiferin (2C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone) is a xanthone C-glycoside occurring in many plant species. Composed of a glucose unit C1→2 linked to a 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone aglycone, mangiferin exhibits a wide range of biological activities, which recently renewed its interest as a potential pharmacophore. Mangiferin is mainly isolated after extraction procedures from natural sources alongside with its isoforms isomangiferin, homomangiferin, and neomangiferin. However, enzymatic and chemical approaches have been developed to access these phytochemicals, which address the challenging construction of the C-glycosidic linkage. In addition, both approaches have been exploited to modify the aglycone and the sugar moiety in order to afford analogues with specific and improved pharmacological activities. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the biosynthesis and chemical synthesis of mangiferin and its congeners. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):445-458, 2016.

  5. Dechlorination of the dietary nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 62 and 50 into the octa-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 44 and 40 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntssen, M.H.G., E-mail: marc.berntssen@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Postbox 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Lundebye, A.-K.; Hop-Johannessen, L.; Lock, E.-J. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Postbox 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The relative feed-to-fish accumulation and possible biotransformation of the nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners currently included in EU-legislation (CHB-50 and -62) and the octa-chlorinated congeners recommended by the European Food Safety Authority to be included in future surveillance of fish samples (CHB-40, 41, and 44) were investigated in the present study. Model fish Danio rerio were fed either (a) diets spiked with a combination as well as the pure individual toxaphene congeners CHB-50 or 62 or (b) diets spiked with the combination of CHB N-Ary-Summation 50 + 62 and/or CHB N-Ary-Summation 40 + 41 + 44. In addition, seawater adapted Atlantic salmon smolts were fed technical toxaphene enriched feeds for 62 days. Zebrafish fed a diet containing CHB-50 and CHB-62 accumulated newly formed CHB-40 and 41 and CHB-44, respectively. The biomagnifications factors (BMF) of the toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon muscle from the feeds spiked with technical toxaphene were significantly correlated with their relative lipophilicity (expressed as log K{sub ow}). An exception was CHB-44 which had a higher BMF than could be expected from its specific log K{sub ow}, reflecting that CHB-44 is a metabolite formed under dietary exposure to CHB-62. This paper reports the in vivo dechlorination of nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners into octa-chlorinated congeners in feeding trials with a model fish (zebrafish) and an oily food fish (Atlantic salmon).

  6. Dechlorination of the dietary nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 62 and 50 into the octa-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 44 and 40 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntssen, M H G; Lundebye, A-K; Hop-Johannessen, L; Lock, E-J

    2012-05-15

    The relative feed-to-fish accumulation and possible biotransformation of the nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners currently included in EU-legislation (CHB-50 and -62) and the octa-chlorinated congeners recommended by the European Food Safety Authority to be included in future surveillance of fish samples (CHB-40, 41, and 44) were investigated in the present study. Model fish Danio rerio were fed either (a) diets spiked with a combination as well as the pure individual toxaphene congeners CHB-50 or 62 or (b) diets spiked with the combination of CHB ∑50+62 and/or CHB ∑40+41+44. In addition, seawater adapted Atlantic salmon smolts were fed technical toxaphene enriched feeds for 62 days. Zebrafish fed a diet containing CHB-50 and CHB-62 accumulated newly formed CHB-40&41 and CHB-44, respectively. The biomagnifications factors (BMF) of the toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon muscle from the feeds spiked with technical toxaphene were significantly correlated with their relative lipophilicity (expressed as logK(ow)). An exception was CHB-44 which had a higher BMF than could be expected from its specific logK(ow), reflecting that CHB-44 is a metabolite formed under dietary exposure to CHB-62. This paper reports the in vivo dechlorination of nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners into octa-chlorinated congeners in feeding trials with a model fish (zebrafish) and an oily food fish (Atlantic salmon).

  7. Combining ability of twelve maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacaro Elton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic progress depends on germplasm quality and breeding methods. Twelve maize populations and their crosses were evaluated to estimate combining ability and potential to be included as source populations in breeding programs. Plant height, point of insertion of the first ear, number of ears per plant, number of grains per ear, root and stalk lodging and grain yield were studied in two locations in Brazil, during the 1997/98 season. Genotype sum of squares was divided into general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. Results indicated the existence of genetic divergence for all traits analyzed, where additive effects were predominant. The high heterosis levels observed, mainly in Xanxerê, suggested the environmental influence on the manifestation of this genetic phenomenon. Populations revealed potential to be used in breeding programs; however, those more intensively submitted to selection could provide larger genetic progress, showing the importance of population improvement for the increment of the heterosis in maize.

  8. Micelles versus Ribbons: How Congeners Drive the Self-Assembly of Acidic Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasaiyan, Prabhu; Le Griel, Patrick; Roelants, Sophie; Redant, Emile; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Prevost, Sylvain; Prasad, B L V; Baccile, Niki

    2017-03-17

    Sophorolipids (SLs), a class of microbially derived biosurfactants, are reported by different research groups to have different self-assembled structures (either micelles or giant ribbons) under the same conditions. Here we explore the reasons behind these contradictory results and attribute these differences to the role of specific congeners that are present in minute quantities. We show that a sample composed of a majority of oleic acid (C18:1) sophorolipid in the presence of only 0.5 % (or more) of congeners with stearic acid (C18:0) or linoleic acid (C18:2) results in the formation of micelles that are stable over long periods of time. Conversely, the presence of only 10 to 15 % of congeners with a stearic acid chain gives fibrillar structures instead of micelles. To study the mechanisms responsible, oleic acid SLs devoid of any other congeners were prepared. Very interestingly, this sample can self-assemble into either micelles or fibers depending on minute modifications to the self-assembly conditions. The findings are supported by light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy under cryogenic conditions, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  10. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were analyzed in young of the year bluefish collected along the U.S. Atlantic coastline from...

  11. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  12. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  13. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  14. Hepatic Angiosarcoma: a Review of Twelve Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Xishan Hao

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS), a lethal disease, is the most common sarcoma arising in the liver. Little information about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and management of HAS has been reported. Increased familiarity with this disease will facilitate correct diagnosis and help to improve management of this condition in the future.The objective of this study was to describe cases of hepatic angiosarcoma and to discuss the etiologic, diagnostic, therapeutic features and prognosis of this tumor. This report not only serves to give more evidence of the relationship between hepatic angiosarcoma and carcinogenic exposure, but also demonstrates the key points in different methods of diagnosis and the optimal treatment of hepatic angiosarcoma.METHODS Twelve cases of hepatic angiosareoma were analyzed retrospectively, representing the different character in clinical presentations and laboratory computed tomographical scans; pathological data and treatment are described. Clinical and biologic follow-up was carried out for two years after surgical treatment.RESULTS There were nine men and three women varying in ages from 57 to 71 years with an average of 64.3 years. Ten patientshad a history of exposure to vinyl chloride or thorotrast. Mild or moderate abdominal pain and bloating, abdominal mass and fever were the common clinical presentations. Tumors were visualized by ultrasonography and CT scans in all patients. Biochemical profiles yielded variable results and proved to be of little value in detection or diagnosis. Surgical resection was feasible for each patient who was treated as follows: two wedge resections, six segementectomies and four bisegmentectomies. Five patients received Neoadjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively. The survival rate of those cases was poor. The maximum survival time was fourteen months. The mean survival time for this chemotherapeutic group was 11 months. The difference between the survival time of those treated with an operation

  15. Inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguchi, Kenji; Koike, Minako; Suwa, Yoshihide; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Mizutani, Yuki; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Akao, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    We examined the effect of whisky congeners, substances other than ethanol in whisky, on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Treatment with whisky congeners significantly blocked melanogenesis. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on melanogenesis is due to direct inhibition of tyrosinase activity and to suppression of tyrosinase protein levels.

  16. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  17. Enantioselective determination of chiral toxaphene congeners in laying hens and eggs using multidimensional high-resolution gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sobhy; Leupold, Guenter; Ismail, Ahmed; Parlar, Harun

    2005-09-07

    A total of 22 chiral toxaphene congeners were analyzed in organ tissues and eggs of laying hens after they had been fed with food spiked with technical toxaphene. For the analysis, multidimensional high-resolution gas chromatography using a chiral column coated with randomly silylated heptakis(O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin, electron capture detection, and valveless "live column switching" technique was applied. The analytical results were additionally confirmed with mass spectral data, recorded in electron-capture negative ionization mode with selected-ion monitoring mass spectrometry. During both the feeding period of the laying hens with toxaphene-contaminated food (38 weeks, accumulation phase) and the following subsiding period without toxaphenes (another 14 weeks, decontamination phase), organs (liver, kidney, skin/fat), blood, meat, and eggs of the hens served as model matrices for toxaphene uptake. The enantiomeric ratios (ERs) of congeners 26, 31, 32, 40, 41, 42(a+b), 44, 50, and 62--known as the most important components of technical toxaphene occurring in the environment--could be analytically determined. Significant differences were observed with respect to their initial racemic ratios. On the basis of their chemical structures, the metabolic pathways of some congeners could be explained. Astonishingly, some of the toxaphenes applied as racemates could merely be found as single enantiomers at the end of the feeding program, for example, congener 32 in blood and meat samples or congener 44, especially in organ tissues, which showed ERs of zero or infinity. The findings of this study impressively emphasize that it is essential to isolate and analyze individual toxaphene enantiomers in food and biota tissues to be capable of evaluating their toxicity and metabolization more specifically.

  18. Introducing DartMouse: The Mouse Speed Congenic Facility at Dartmouth Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, H.; Tomlinson, C.; Fiering, S.; Gorham, J.D.; Muirhead, K.

    2010-01-01

    CF-9 DartMouse™ is the Mouse Speed Congenic Facility at Dartmouth Medical School. Use of DartMouse allows for the rapid introgression of modified genes onto any inbred strain of mouse. Speed congenic strains of mice are achievable in 5 generations (1 to 1.5 years), versus 10 generations (∼3 years) required by conventional back-crossing. The application of DartMouse services saves both money and time for researchers using the laboratory mouse for any number of pre-clinical disease models. DartMouse is a complete service facility that works closely with clients at and outside of Dartmouth, helping to design appropriate breeding schemes to optimize back-crossing speed and efficiency. Clients supply mouse tail snips. DartMouse isolates genomic DNA, performs and analyzes complete genome-wide scans, and returns data in graphical and spreadsheet formats. DartMouse discusses results with clients and makes specific recommendations on breeder selection. DartMouse uses “SNP-Chip” technology on an Illumina BeadStation 500 Platform. Chips use a 377 SNP array covering the mouse genome with an average interval density of <7 cM. Turnaround time from receipt of tails to results is typically <2 weeks. One of DartMouse's most popular services is the “background check” in which the genetic background of supposedly fully back-crossed mice can be thoroughly assessed across all chromosomes. DartMouse was inaugurated in the summer of 2008, and received ARRA-funding in the fall of 2009. Our plans are to make DartMouse a regional and national core facility for the generation of speed congenic mice and for the verification of genetic background for conventionally back-crossed mice.

  19. Measurement of toxaphene congeners in pooled human serum collected in three U.S. cities using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, John R; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Maggio, Vincent L; Patterson, Donald G

    2004-05-01

    Because human toxaphene exposure data are largely lacking, we surveyed human serum pools collected from U.S. residents to determine the feasibility of measuring toxaphene in human samples and to determine whether additional analytical requirements were needed for routine measurement of toxaphene. We report a method for quantification of toxaphene congeners in human serum using a mixed-bed gradient solid-phase extraction and analysis using gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry with electron-impact ionization. In this method, we monitored low-mass fragment ions that were common to all 22 congeners. To verify the specific congeners detected, we further analyzed the extract using negative methane chemical ionization. We used this method to measure two specific congeners, Parlar 26 and 50, at concentrations ranging from about 3 to 30 pg/ml (0.7-7 ng/g lipid) in pooled human serum collected in Atlanta, Chicago, and Cincinnati. We identified several analytical parameters that must be strengthened to routinely measure toxaphene congeners in human samples.

  20. Twelve tips for peer observation of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zarrin Seema; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Carr, Sandra E

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines twelve tips for undertaking peer observation of teaching in medical education, using the peer review model and the experiences of the authors. An accurate understanding of teaching effectiveness is required by individuals, medical schools, and universities to evaluate the learning environment and to substantiate academic and institutional performance. Peer Observation of Teaching is one tool that provides rich, qualitative evidence for teachers, quite different from closed-ended student evaluations. When Peer Observation of Teaching is incorporated into university practice and culture, and is conducted in a mutually respectful and supportive way, it has the potential to facilitate reflective change and growth for teachers.

  1. Assessment of the toxic potential of PCB congener 81 (3,4,4[prime],5-tetrachlorobiphenyl) to fish in relation to other non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G.E.; Kiparissis, Y.; Metcalfe, C.D. (Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program)

    1994-09-01

    PCB congener 81 (3,4,4[prime],5-tetrachlorobiphenyl) has been detected in fish tissues from various sites in North America. The embryotoxicity of this compound to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the induction of hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined to assess the toxic potency of this compound relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and two other non-ortho-substituted PCB compounds, congener 77 (3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and congener 126 (3,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl). The TCDD toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) estimated for congener 81 from two end points in the medaka embryotoxicity assay were 0.0014 (from mortality data) and 0.006 (from swim bladder inflation data). The TEF estimated for congener 81 from data on AHH induction in rainbow trout was 0.004. All TEFs were greater than those estimated for congener 77 but were less than the TEFs estimated for congener 126. On the basis of these toxicity data, it is suggested that this congener may contribute significantly to the toxic burden of planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon in fish.

  2. [Analysis of toxaphene and its eight congeners in sediment and fish tissue by gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Wenjian

    2013-07-01

    Toxaphene quantification incorporating gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NCI-MS) offers improved sensitivity and specificity. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently released a GC/NCI-MS method (Method 8276) for the measurement of technical toxaphene and eight specific congeners (Hx-Sed, Hp-Sed, P26, P41, P40, P44, P50 and P62). However, there is still lack of a practical and complete analytical method including sample extraction, clean up, instrumental analysis, and data analysis. The goal of this work was to develop a ready-to-use method for the quantification of total toxaphene and the eight congeners. Sediment and salmon fish tissue were selected as sample matrices and extracted with methylene chloride using an accelerated solvent extraction system. The sample extracts were cleaned up with active copper powder or gel permeation chromatography, and finally silica/alumina combination column. Separation was performed on a DB-XLB column. GC/NCI-MS was operated under selected ion monitoring mode with an identical set of confirmation and quantitation ions for total toxaphene and the eight congeners. Oxygen reaction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was monitored by PCB204, an internal calibration standard, and the reaction level was kept below 1%. Average relative response factors were used in quantitation. Quantitation of total toxaphene employed the sum of all detectable (S/N > or = 3) 6-C1 to 10-Cl homolog peak areas, while the individual congeners were quantified followed the standard procedures for single analytes. Multi-point calibration solutions ranged from 0. 5 (5 for P62) to 500 microg/L for the individual congeners, and 50 to 500 microg/L for technical toxaphene, with the lowest calibration levels as lower limits of quantitation. Average congener recovery was (90.8 +/- 17.4)% (n =10) in spiked sediment with relative standard deviations of 5.4% - 12.8% (n =10), underscoring an excellently accurate and

  3. Microhabitat distribution of two Florida scrub endemic plants in comparison to their habitat-generalist congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Menges, Eric S; Denslow, J S

    2005-03-01

    Habitat-specialist species may be restricted to a narrower range of microhabitats than habitat-generalist species. We addressed this hypothesis by comparing microhabitats of two pairs of congeners that differ in habitat specificity and co-occur in one distinct habitat type, Florida rosemary scrub. We characterized microhabitats of rosemary scrub specialists, Polygonella basiramia and Lechea cernua, their habitat-generalist congeners, Polygonella robusta and Lechea deckertii, and random points in the rosemary scrub habitat. Plants of both habitat specialists occurred in microhabitats with significantly more bare sand than plants of habitat-generalist species and random points. Plants of all four species occurred in microhabitats that were farther from dominant shrubs, Ceratiola and Quercus spp., than random points. Seedlings of both habitat specialists grew larger in bare sand microhabitats, whereas ground lichens and litter did not affect seedling growth of the habitat generalists. As the time since fire increases, bare sand cover decreases, Ceratiola density increases, Quercus density remains constant, and shrubs become taller. Physical characteristics, such as soil temperature, soil carbon, and soil moisture, differ slightly with respect to microhabitat. Our results suggest that P. basiramia and L. cernua are specialized on bare sand microhabitats that characterize their preferred habitat, rosemary scrub. Microhabitat specialization may limit the distribution of these rare species.

  4. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  5. The Optimal Price Policy of Congener Software Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the viewpoint of market behavior to a certain softwaredevelopment company, it's very important to decide the suitable price to deploy its product. Especially face to the opponents who sale the congener product in the current market. According to the requirement of market economy and software engineering , accurate estimation of software price and its amount of sales are useful to a certain software provider to build a proper development project and software pro ducts' target parameters. Here we analysis the factors which affect the price of the congener software product in the same market, and calculate the weight of t hese factors to it's price on the current market. With the help of principles of the non-cooperative games, we built a model base on AHP methods. Use this model , we can get the optimal price to release our software product and the biggest turnover. At the end of this paper, we use a numerical example to explain how to use our model

  6. Twelve tips for getting your manuscript published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A

    2016-01-01

    The author shares twelve practical tips on how to navigate the process of getting a manuscript published. These tips, which apply to all fields of academic writing, advise that during the initial preparation phase authors should: (1) plan early to get it out the door; (2) address authorship and writing group expectations up front; (3) maintain control of the writing; (4) ensure complete reporting; (5) use electronic reference management software; (6) polish carefully before they submit; (7) select the right journal; and (8) follow journal instructions precisely. Rejection after the first submission is likely, and when this occurs authors should (9) get it back out the door quickly, but first (10) take seriously all reviewer and editor suggestions. Finally, when the invitation comes to revise and resubmit, authors should (11) respond carefully to every reviewer suggestion, even if they disagree, and (12) get input from others as they revise. The author also shares detailed suggestions on the creation of effective tables and figures, and on how to respond to reviewer critiques.

  7. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  8. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  9. Twelve tips on how to compile a medical educator's portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Claudia Lucy; Wilson, Anthony; Agius, Steven

    2017-09-17

    Medical education is an expanding area of specialist interest for medical professionals. Whilst most doctors will be familiar with the compilation of clinical portfolios for scrutiny of their clinical practice and provision of public accountability, teaching portfolios used specifically to gather and demonstrate medical education activity remain uncommon in many non-academic settings. For aspiring and early career medical educators in particular, their value should not be underestimated. Such a medical educator's portfolio (MEP) is a unique compendium of evidence that is invaluable for appraisal, revalidation, and promotion. It can stimulate and provide direction for professional development, and is a rich source for personal reflection and learning. We recommend that all new and aspiring medical educators prepare an MEP, and suggest twelve tips on how to skillfully compile one.

  10. Congenic mice: cutting tools for complex immune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogner, Ute C; Avner, Philip

    2003-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are, in general, under complex genetic control and subject to strong interactions between genetics and the environment. Greater knowledge of the underlying genetics will provide immunologists with a framework for study of the immune dysregulation that occurs in such diseases. Ascertaining the number of genes that are involved and their characterization have, however, proven to be difficult. Improved methods of genetic analysis and the availability of a draft sequence of the complete mouse genome have markedly improved the outlook for such research, and they have emphasized the advantages of mice as a model system. In this review, we provide an overview of the genetic analysis of autoimmune diseases and of the crucial role of congenic and consomic mouse strains in such research.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-100) induces mitochondrial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2013-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants are used in various consumer products to increase their resistance to fire and/or high temperatures. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are representatives of this class and among the most widely used congeners, and BDE-100 is produced on a large scale. There is a lack of toxicological data about these compounds, which has recently become a matter of concern to the scientific community. The mitochondria are recognized as the main energy-producing organelles, as well as playing a vital role in the maintenance of many cell functions. Therefore, mitochondria were used in the present work as an experimental model to evaluate the effects of the BDE-100 congeners at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM. The results showed that high concentrations of BDE-100 were able to induce mitochondrial alterations. It was observed that the substance had an affinity for the hydrophilic portion of the mitochondrial membrane, as monitored by ANS, inhibiting the glutamate + malate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and also inducing dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, deregulation of calcium homoeostasis and mitochondrial swelling, the latter being insensitive to cyclosporin A (CsA) but partially inhibited by Ruthenium Red and N-ethyl maleimide. In addition, a significant reduction in mitochondrial ATP content was found, but on the other hand, no oxidative stress was observed after exposure of the mitochondria to BDE-100. These results show the key role of mitochondria in the cytotoxicity induced by BDE-100.

  12. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar PCB congeners by egg injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Klein, P.N. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Environmental Science Center

    1995-12-31

    The utility of egg injection studies for predicting potential embryotoxicity of PCBs and TCDD compares favorably with feeding studies. The effects of PCB congeners 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-tetraCB (PCB 77), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentaCB (PCB 105), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCB (PCB 153) were examined on embryonic development in chickens (Gallus gallus), northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and common terns (Sterna hirundo) through hatching following air cell injections on day 4. The estimated LD{sub 50}s for these congeners in chickens were approximately 0.4 ppb, 2.6 ppb, 3326 ppb, and greater than 14,000 ppb, respectively; low effect levels (10--20% embryonic mortality) were 0.2 ppb, 1.2 ppb, 900 ppb, and 14,000 ppb respectively. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 126 was 48 ppb for bobwhite, 65 ppb for American kestrels, and 104 ppb for common terns. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 77 was 688 ppb for American kestrels. one or more hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase was assayed for each species. For PCB 126, the order of responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction was: chicken > common tern > American kestrel > bobwhite, with chicken being approximately 100 times more responsive than common tern. These values are compared to existing Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) including bioassay-derived ones.

  13. Half-life of each dioxin and PCB congener in the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isamura [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that dioxin and PCB congeners accumulate in the human body. For assessing their toxicological risk, it is important to know the half-life of each congener in the human body. This study summarizes the overall half-lives of congeners in humans as reported in the literature, and compares them with the half-lives due to fecal and sebum excretions, as estimated by data on the concentrations of congeners in feces and sebum in the literature. In addition, the overall half-lives of congeners for the general Japanese population were estimated from the data on dietary intakes and concentrations in the human body reported by the municipalities.

  14. Do settlement dynamics influence competitive interactions between an alien tunicate and its native congener?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchemousse, Sarah; Lévêque, Laurent; Viard, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    Variation in density of early stages, that is, larvae and juveniles, is a major determinant of the distribution and abundance of the adult population of most marine invertebrates. These early stages thus play a key role in competitive interactions, and, more specifically, in invasion dynamics when biologically similar native and non-native species (NNS) come into contact in the same habitat. We examined the settlement dynamics and settlement rate of two important members of the fouling community that are common on human-made infrastructures around the world: Ciona robusta (formerly known as Ciona intestinalis type A) and C. intestinalis (formerly known as C. intestinalis type B). In the western English Channel, the two species live in close syntopy following the recent introduction of C. robusta in the native European range of C. intestinalis. Using settlement panels replaced monthly over 2 years in four marinas (including one studied over 4 years) and species-diagnostic molecular markers to distinguish between juveniles of both species (N = 1,650), we documented similar settlement dynamics of both species, with two settlement periods within a calendar year. With one exception, settlement times were highly similar in the congeners. Although the NNS showed lower settlement density than that of the native congener, its juvenile recruitment was high during the second settlement period that occurs after the warm season, a pattern also observed in adult populations. Altogether, our results suggest that species' settlement dynamics do not lead to the dominance of one species over the other through space monopolization. In addition, we showed that changes over time are more pronounced in the NNS than in the native species. This is possibly due to a higher sensitivity of the NNS to changes of environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Environmental changes may thus eventually modify the strength of competitive interactions between the two species as

  15. Adenosine Amine Congener as a Cochlear Rescue Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan M. Vlajkovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that adenosine amine congener (ADAC, a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist, can ameliorate noise- and cisplatin-induced cochlear injury. Here we demonstrate the dose-dependent rescue effects of ADAC on noise-induced cochlear injury in a rat model and establish the time window for treatment. Methods. ADAC (25–300 μg/kg was administered intraperitoneally to Wistar rats (8–10 weeks old at intervals (6–72 hours after exposure to traumatic noise (8–16 kHz, 110 dB sound pressure level, 2 hours. Hearing sensitivity was assessed using auditory brainstem responses (ABR before and 12 days after noise exposure. Pharmacokinetic studies investigated ADAC concentrations in plasma after systemic (intravenous administration. Results. ADAC was most effective in the first 24 hours after noise exposure at doses >50 μg/kg, providing up to 21 dB protection (averaged across 8–28 kHz. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated a short (5 min half-life of ADAC in plasma after intravenous administration without detection of degradation products. Conclusion. Our data show that ADAC mitigates noise-induced hearing loss in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but further studies are required to establish its translation as a clinical otological treatment.

  16. Contrasting patterns of transgenerational plasticity in ecologically distinct congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sonia E; Barton, Kasey; Wilczek, Amity M

    2009-07-01

    Stressful parental environments can influence offspring size and development either adaptively or maladaptively, yet little is known about species' differences in this complex aspect of phenotypic plasticity. We performed a reciprocal split-brood experiment to compare transgenerational plasticity in response to drought stress in two closely related annual plant species. We raised inbred replicate parent plants of eight genotypes per species in dry vs. moist soil to generate offspring of each genetic line that differed only in parental environment, then monitored seedling development in both dry and moist conditions. Individuals of the two species expressed contrasting patterns of transgenerational plasticity for traits important to seedling drought tolerance. In Polygonum persicaria, a weedy generalist found in moist, dry, and variably dry sites, drought-stressed plants produced offspring with longer and more rapidly extending root systems and greater biomass when growing in dry soil. In contrast, in P. hydropiper, a non-weedy congener restricted to moist habitats, the offspring of drought-stressed parents had reduced root system development and seedling biomass in dry soil. In P. persicaria, transgenerational and immediate adaptive plasticity combined to produce drought-adapted seedling phenotypes. These results make clear that characteristic patterns of transgenerational plasticity can contribute to ecological diversity among species.

  17. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  18. Twelve tips for facilitating Millennials' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David H; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    The current, so-called "Millennial" generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. This generation of learners has also been molded by a unique set of cultural influences that are essential for medical educators to consider in all aspects of their teaching, including curriculum design, student assessment, and interactions between faculty and learners.  The following tips outline an approach to facilitating learning of our current generation of medical trainees.  The method is based on the available literature and the authors' experiences with Millennial Learners in medical training.  The 12 tips provide detailed approaches and specific strategies for understanding and engaging Millennial Learners and enhancing their learning.  With an increased understanding of the characteristics of the current generation of medical trainees, faculty will be better able to facilitate learning and optimize interactions with Millennial Learners.

  19. Modular methodology for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil as Aroclors and individual congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.R.; Grange, A.H.; Herron, N.R. [Lockheed Environmental Systems & Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    A comprehensive screening and confirmatory method was developed for monitoring polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), both as Aroclors and as individual congeners. This approach incorporates extraction, extract cleanup, and analysis modules designed to match cost, time, and data quality requirements. Soxhlet, sonication, supercritical fluid, and accelerated solvent extractions were evaluated. Carbon chromatographic cleanup procedures were used for separation of congeners on the basis of ortho substitutions, which permitted calculation of toxicity equivalents. Individual congener determinations, congener total histograms, and peak comparison techniques for Aroclor identification were elaborated by using high and low resolution mass spectrometric data. A screening procedure based on immunoassay using the Ohmicron PCB RaPID Assay{trademark} kit gave results comparable to those obtained by gas chromatography with electron capture detection in the range 0.40-230 ppm, when the appropriate Aroclor calibrator was used. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Use of herbarium data to evaluate weediness in five congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan-A, Ana M; Vibrans, Heike; Cacho, N Ivalú; Villaseñor, José L; Ortiz, Enrique; Gómez-G, Vinicio A

    2015-01-01

    It is often desirable to quantify a plant's relative weediness or synanthropy, that is, the degree to which a species associates with human-caused disturbance, in order to study and understand the biology, ecology and evolution of weeds and invasive plants. Herbarium specimens are among the most accessible and verifiable sources of data on distribution and habitat. However, the habitat distribution of species may not be reflected accurately by herbarium specimen data, due to well-known biases in plant collection. Here, we assess how well herbarium specimens reflect species' weediness, when compared with direct field surveys. We used five species of Melampodium (Asteraceae) and classified their degree of weediness with a modification of Nuorteva's synanthropy index, based on herbarium specimens. We then modelled the distribution of our focal species in Mexico using MaxEnt and identified a polygon of ∼3000 km(2) in the state of Nayarit, Mexico, where there was a high probability of finding all five species. Systematic field searches in the target area documented all visible populations of four species along major and minor roads. Then we, again, classified their degree of weediness with the synanthropy index, based now on field data, and compared. We found that herbarium data were an accurate predictor of a species' weediness relative to its congeners despite the well-documented skew of herbarium data towards natural areas, which our data reflected as well. So, herbarium data can be used to classify species' weediness relative to each other, but not in absolute terms, if the specimens were correctly identified and none of the species were subject to particular collection bias. This study is the first attempt to compare herbarium and field data on this subject and may be relevant for other types of investigations based on herbarium data. Our work also highlights the usefulness of distribution models based on herbarium specimens.

  1. A 25-Year Experience of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Somatostatin (Congeners) Analogs: From Symptom Control to Antineoplastic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Anthony, Lowell B

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay technology was utilized in the discovery of somatostatin and was quickly brought into therapeutics; however, it took the development of somatostatin congeners to solve its limitations of a short half-life. Therapeutic medical control of hyperhormonal states such as acromegaly, carcinoid syndrome and VIPoma significantly advanced from a nonspecific approach to one that specifically and effectively targeted the underlying pathophysiology. Clinical care was transformed from nonspecific symptom control to one of a significant improvement in not only quality of life, but also quantity of life. These data submitted to US and European regulatory authorities for approval included many investigative sites with no uniform protocol and multiple investigational new drugs, and have not been previously published. This review includes the original data demonstrating the transformational impact this class of agents had on specific disease subsets resulting in regulatory approval 25 years ago. Autoradiography techniques using somatostatin resulted in identifying, localizing and characterizing its receptor subtypes. Translating in vitro data to in vivo resulted in scintigraphic whole body and SPECT scans with (111)In-pentetreotide and was incorporated into standard clinical care 20 years ago. (68)Ga-octreotide congeners using PET scanning offers a major imaging advance. Peptide receptor radiotherapy has evolved over the last 2 decades and utilizes several therapeutic isotopes, including (90)Y and (177)Lu. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A GCMSD/ECD method for the simultaneous determination of toxaphene and toxaphene congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceachen, D Cameron; Cocks, Nigel

    2002-10-01

    The methodology presented combines mass selective detection technology for routine automated total toxaphene determinations with electron capture detection confirmation of congener results. Total toxaphene values were calculated using a custom developed series of data analysis macroinstructions (macros) that eliminate potential interferences and collate peak areas. These macros create multi-level calibration tables with results automatically corrected for surrogate and performance standards. It is possible to produce congener data that provides results from both detectors in one report from a single injection.

  3. Human liver morphine UDP-glucuronyl transferase enantioselectivity and inhibition by opioid congeners and oxazepam.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlström, A; Pacifici, G. M.; Lindström, B; Hammar, L.; Rane, A.

    1988-01-01

    1. Morphine uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UDP-GT) was studied in human liver microsomes. The (-)- and (+)-morphine enantiomers were used as substrates and inhibitors, such as oxazepam and various opioid congeners were employed to characterize the different glucuronidation pathways. The kinetics of the oxazepam inhibition were studied in the rat liver. 2. The overall glucuronidation of (+)-morphine was higher than that of (-)-morphine. The morphine congeners tested, potently inhi...

  4. Organic anion transporting polypeptides in the hepatic uptake of PBDE congeners in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacyniak, Erik [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); The University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois [Bristol Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ (United States); Guo, Grace L., E-mail: lguo@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2011-11-15

    BDE47, BDE99 and BDE153 are the predominant polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners detected in humans and can induce drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver. We have previously demonstrated that several human liver organic anion transporting polypeptides (humans: OATPs; rodents: Oatps) can transport PBDE congeners. Mice are commonly used to study the toxicity of chemicals like the PBDE congeners. However, the mechanism of the hepatic PBDE uptake in mice is not known. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that BDE47, BDE99, and BDE153 are substrates of mouse hepatic Oatps (Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1). We used Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells transiently expressing individual Oatps and quantified the uptake of BDE47, BDE99, and BDE153. Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners, whereas Oatp1a1 did transport none. Kinetic studies demonstrated that Oatp1a4 and Oatp1b2 transported BDE47 with the greatest affinity, followed by BDE99 and BDE153. In contrast, Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners with similar affinities. The importance of hepatic Oatps for the liver accumulation of BDE47 was confirmed using Oatp1a4-, and Oatp1b2-null mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE congeners are substrates of OATPs expressed in human hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice are commonly used to study the toxicity of chemicals like the PBDE congeners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo Oatp1a4 plays a minor and Oatp1b2 a major role in BDE47 liver accumulation.

  5. Thermolysis of Iso-Migrastatin and Its Congeners via [3,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangement: A New Route to the Synthesis of Migrastatin and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jianhua; Lim, Si-Kyu; Jiang, Hui; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Her, Yeng; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Thermolysis of iso-migrastatin (1) under neat heating conditions afforded migrastatin (1a). The reaction is proposed to proceed via a concerted [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement by which ring expansion is achieved regio- and enantio-specifically. The general applicability of this reaction was demonstrated with six additional iso-migrastatin congeners (3 – 8), providing a new route to the synthesis of migrastatin analogs (3a – 8a). PMID:17134292

  6. Production of WTC.ZI-zi rat congenic strain and its pathological and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, T; Yamasaki, K; Kondo, A; Nakajima, K; Yamada, M; Serikawa, T

    1998-04-01

    A new rat congenic strain, WTC.ZI-zi, was produced after eleven generations of backcrossing between ZI strain as a donor strain and WTC strain as an inbred partner. WTC.ZI-zi/zi homozygous rats generally exhibit more conspicuous body tremor and much earlier occurrence of flaccid paresis than the original ZI strain. The average life span of the congenic strain is approximately nine months, which is also much shorter than that of the original ZI strain. Pathological analysis of the central nervous system of the congenic strain revealed more aggravated vacuolation and hypomyelination than in the original ZI strain. Establishment of the genetic profile with microsatellite markers showed that the congenic strain was genetically almost identical to the WTC strain except for a small chromosome segment bearing the zitter gene. Analysis of markers in this region implied that the length of the donor segment was approximately 13.4 centimorgans which corresponded to 0.65% of the total genome. Thus, these results suggested that expressional alterations of zitter gene were due to replacement of the genetic background from the original ZI strain to the WTC strain. Furthermore, the WTC.ZI-zi congenic strain could provide a refined tool for the analysis of zitter mutation, because the congenic strain has a strict control strain, WTC, and the length of the donor chromosome is genetically defined.

  7. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  8. Analysis of "total toxaphene" and selected single congeners in biota by ion trap HRGC-EI-MS/MS using congener-optimized parent ion dissociations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopp, Sonja; Oehme, Michael; Chu, Fong Lam; Yeboah, Faustinus; Chan, Hing Man

    2002-06-15

    A method for the quantification of selected toxaphene congeners as well as "total toxaphene" was developed based on electron ionization (EI) tandem (MS/MS) ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) and a combination of fragment ion dissociations. Congeners were separated by high-resolution gas chromatography. Compared to conventional EI low-resolution MS, a 5-20-fold gain in sensitivity could be obtained for octa- or nonachlorinated compounds such as toxaphene #26 and #62 (according to Parlar nomenclature), allowing for their detection in the low picogram range in biota. In addition, response factors for important congeners such as #26, #32, #40/41, #42, #44, #50, and #62 deviated not more than a factor of 2, which is much less as compared to negative ion chemical ionization. This reduces the risk for systematic errors when determining total toxaphene on the basis of a limited number of reference compounds or the technical mixture. Furthermore, chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls did not interfere when applying the proposed MS/MS technique. The applicability of the method was tested by determining both total toxaphene and levels of selected congeners in six Arctic wildlife samples collected from Nunavut, Canada, as well as by repetitive analyses of the SRM 1588 certified reference material.

  9. Investigations on the sorption of a toxaphene model congener, the B7-1450, on marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Lebeuf, Michel; Gouteux, Bruno; Xie, Huixiang; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2008-04-01

    Sorption is a natural process that takes place in sediments or soils and changes the mobility and availability of hydrophobic organic compounds, such as toxaphene pesticide in the environment. The sorption of the 2-exo,3-endo,5-exo,8,9,10,10-heptachlorobornane (B7-1450), used as a model compound of the toxaphene heptachlorobornane congeners found in sediments, was investigated for the first time through a series of batch sorption experiments. The losses of B7-1450 due to adsorption onto glass walls and to evaporation occurring during analytical treatment steps were corrected. The study showed that these specific losses ranged from 2% to 3.5% for the glass walls adsorption and can be as high as 15% for the evaporation treatment. The sorption coefficients, K(d) and K(oc), of B7-1450 could be overestimated by >30%, particularly for low-concentration samples, if the losses were not corrected. Loss correction equations were established, validated and applied to determine sorption coefficients for the B7-1450 congener. The K(oc) values for B7-1450 determined over a gradient of concentrations ranged from 3.5x10(4) to 6.5x10(4)mlg(-1), revealing a strong affinity of B7-1450 for marine sediments.

  10. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Doi

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  11. The twelve dimensional super (2+2)-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Hewson, S F

    1996-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in twelve dimensions and present a covariant supersymmetric action for a brane with worldsheet signature (2,2), called a super (2+2)-brane, propagating in the osp(64,12) superspace. This superspace is explicitly constructed, and is trivial in the sense that the spinorial part is a trivial bundle over spacetime, unlike the twisted superspace of usual Poincare supersymmetry. For consistency, it is necessary to take a projection of the superspace. This is the same as the projection required for worldvolume supersymmetry. Upon compactification of this superspace, a torsion is naturally introduced and we produce the membrane and type IIB string actions in 11 and 10 dimensional Minkowski spacetimes. In addition, the compactification of the twelve dimensional supersymmetry algebra produces the correct algebras for these theories, including central charges. These considerations thus give the type IIB string and M-theory a single twelve dimensional origin.

  12. Alcoholics anonymous and other twelve-step programs in recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detar, D Todd

    2011-03-01

    Recovery is a new way of life for many patients; a life without substances to alter their moods but with a major change improving the physical, psychological, and emotional stability with improved overall health outcomes. The Twelve Steps of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are the foundation of the AA, describing both the necessary actions and the spiritual basis for the recovery program of the AA. The Twelve Steps of the AA provide a structure for which a patient with alcoholism may turn for an answer to their problem of alcohol use, abuse, or dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  14. Separation of 26 toxaphene congeners and measurement in air particulate matter SRMs compared to technical toxaphene SRM 3067.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Pol, Stacy S; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M

    2010-05-01

    Toxaphene is a complex technical mixture that has been found ubiquitously in the environment but has caused issues for analysis, especially of individual congeners. This paper reports the elution order of 26 major toxaphene congeners on three gas chromatographic columns. The three different stationary phases generally had similar elution orders for the toxaphene congeners, but fewer co-elutions occurred on a low-bleed, low-polarity column. These congeners (except for two that co-eluted and were not added to the calibration mixture) were examined in air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs), 1648a, 1649a, and 1649b as well as SRM 3067 toxaphene in methanol for assignment of reference values. SRM 3067 had mass fractions an order of magnitude greater than the air particulate SRMs, which ranged from 0.568 +/- 0.018 ng g(-1) dry mass (B9-2006 in SRM 1648a) to 12.9 +/- 0.20 ng g(-1) dry mass (B9-715 (P 58) in SRM 1649a). The three air particulate SRMs all had different mass fractions and proportions of congeners relative to the sum of the toxaphene congeners. SRM 3067 may be useful as a technical mixture toxaphene congener calibrant. SRMs 1648a and 1649b will serve as reference materials for the analysis of 21 (three congeners were not included due to values below the detection limit or a potential polychlorinated biphenyl co-elution) toxaphene congeners in atmospheric particulate samples.

  15. Levels and congener profiles of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in blue shark (Prionace glauca) liver from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Storelli, Arianna; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2011-01-01

    Liver of blue shark (Prionace glauca) specimens from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including coplanar congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PCBs were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs and PCDDs. The pattern of PCB congener concentrations in the hepatic tissue was dominated by higher chlorinated compounds. The specific profile of toxic PCDD/F congeners was characterized mainly by 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDD, followed by 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF. The total 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent (TEQs) was 149 pg g⁻¹ lipid wt. The profile of TEQ shows that PCDDs present the greatest risk to this species contributing to total toxicity with a percentage approximately of 60%, while the contribution of PCDFs and DL-PCBs is almost the same being 22.4% and 21.6%, respectively. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize the PCDD/Fs contamination levels not only in elasmobranch fish but in all Mediterranean marine biota. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single Targeted Exon Mutation Creates a True Congenic Mouse for Competitive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The C57BL/6-CD45.1STEM Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois E. Mercier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Defining the molecular regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs requires in vivo functional analyses. Competitive bone marrow transplants (BMTs compare control and test HSPCs to demonstrate the functional role of a genetic change or chemical perturbation. Competitive BMT is enabled by antibodies that specifically recognize hematopoietic cells from congenic mouse strains due to variants of the cell surface protein CD45, designated CD45.1 and CD45.2. The current congenic competitor strain, B6.SJL-Ptprca Pepcb/BoyJ (CD45.1, has a substantial inherent disadvantage in competition against the C57BL/6 (CD45.2 strain, confounding experimental interpretation. Despite backcrossing, the congenic interval over which the B6.SJL-Ptprca Pepcb/BoyJ strain differs is almost 40 Mb encoding ∼300 genes. Here, we demonstrate that a single amino acid change determines the CD45.1 epitope. Further, we report on the single targeted exon mutant (STEM mouse strain, CD45.1STEM, which is functionally equivalent to CD45.2 cells in competitive BMT. This strain will permit the precise definition of functional roles for candidate genes using in vivo HSPC assays.

  17. Multivariate toxicity profiles and QSAR modeling of non-dioxin-like PCBs--an investigation of in vitro screening data from ultra-pure congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Mia; Hamers, Timo; Machala, Miroslav; Fonnum, Frode; Stenius, Ulla; Lauy, Al-Anati; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Westerink, Remco H S; Fernandes, Elsa C Antunes; Andersson, Patrik L

    2011-11-01

    The non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) found in food and human samples have a complex spectrum of adverse effects, but lack a detailed risk assessment. The toxicity profiles of 21 carefully selected PCBs (19 NDL-PCBs) were identified by in vitro screening in 17 different assays on specific endpoints related to neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and tumor promotion. To ensure that the test results were not affected by polychlorinated dioxins, dibenzofurans or DL-PCB contaminants, the NDL-PCB congeners were thoroughly purified before testing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive general toxicity profiles from the in vitro screening data. The toxicity profiles indicated different structure-activity relationships (SAR) and distinct mechanisms of action. The analysis also indicated that the NDL-PCBs could be divided into two groups. The first group included generally smaller, ortho-substituted congeners, comprising PCB 28, 47, 51, 52, 53, 95, 100, 101, 104 and 136, with PCB 95, 101 and 136 as generally being most active. The second group comprising PCB 19, 74, 118, 122, 128, 138, 153, 170, 180 and 190 had lower biological activity in many of the assays, except for three endocrine-related assays. The most abundant congeners, PCB 138, 153, 170, 180 and 190, cluster in the second group, and thereby show similar SAR. Two quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models could be developed that added information to the SAR and could aid in risk assessments of NDL-PCBs. The QSAR models predicted a number of congeners as active and among these e.g., PCB 18, 25, 45 and 49 have been found in food or human samples.

  18. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Tiago Nunes da; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoret

  19. EFFORTS Technical annex for the twelve month progress report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Eriksen, Morten; Thomas christensen, Thomas Vennick;

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU during the second year of project activity. The report describes the work completed by DTU in general as well as on the active sub-tasks within materials properties, friction modelling and physical modelling, over the last twelve...

  20. Human Evolution in Science Textbooks from Twelve Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…

  1. Bibliography of Spanish Materials for Students, Grades Seven through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This annotated bibliography of Spanish materials for students in grades seven through twelve is divided into the following categories: (1) Art, Drama, Music, and Poetry; (2) Books in Series; (3) Culture; (4) Dictionaries and Encyclopedias; (5) Literature; (6) Mathematics; (7) Physical Education, Health, and Recreation; (8) Reading and Language…

  2. Development and validation of a congener-specific photodegradation model for polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, X.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Robrock, K.R.; Korytar, P.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.; Barofsky, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    With the phaseout of the manufacture of some polybrominated diphenyl ether ( PBDE) formulations, namely penta-brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) and octa-BDE, and the continued use of the deca-BDE formulation, it is important to be able to predict the photodegradation of the more highly brominated cong

  3. Congener specific distribution and health risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were primarily used in transformers and capacitors, lubricants, flame retardants, plasticizers, paint, carbonless papers, etc. These are capable of long-range atmospheric transport and have been designated as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention. Due to their characteristic properties, PCBs are found worldwide in all environmental matrices (including human and biota. Soils are usually considered to be the source as well as sink for environmental pollutants, with cumulative effects of long-range atmospheric transport and local sources. Around the world, comparatively higher concentrations of PCBs have been reported in urban soils than suburban or rural soils. Higher amount of PCBs in urban soils may cause toxicological health risks to urban residents through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. This paper presents the PCB distribution in soils from Delhi, India, and exposure risk estimates for human health through soil ingestion. The concentration of ΣPCBs ranged between 1.08-100.67 ng g–1 (mean 21.16 ng g–1±5.24 ng g–1, which was much lower than the Canadian soil quality guideline value of 1.3 mg/kg or 1300 ng g–1. Human health risk estimates through the soil ingestion pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD, incremental lifetime cancer risks and non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ. The LADD for Delhi adults and children was 3.02x10–8 mg kg–1 d–1 and 1.57x10–7 mg kg–1 d–1, respectively, which corresponds to toxic equivalent quotients (TEQ intake of 0.105 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1 (0.735 pg TEQ kg–1 week–1 and 0.543 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1 (3.801 pg TEQ kg–1 week–1, respectively. The estimated LADD for Delhi residents was lower than the acceptable intake values recommended by the World Health Organization (1 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1, the European Commission (14 pg TEQ kg–1;1 week–1 and by the Japanese government (4 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1. The probability of cancer risk ranges from 6.04x10–8 (ΣPCBs to 1.57x10–5 (ΣTEQ and 3.13x10–7 (ΣPCBs to 8.15x10–5 (ΣTEQ for adults and children, respectively, and was within acceptable ranges of 10–6 to 10–4. The non-carcinogenic risk in terms of health HQ was 0.105 and 0.330 for adults and children, respectively, which was lower than the acceptable limit of 1. The study found lower concentrations of PCBs than guideline values and low health risk estimates through the soil ingestion pathway within acceptable levels, indicating a minimum risk for Delhi residents.

  4. Congener specific distribution and health risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupander Kumar; Sanjay Kumar; Chandra Shekhar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were primarily used in transformers and capacitors, lubricants, flame retardants, plasticizers, paint, carbonless papers, etc. These are capable of long-range atmospheric transport and have been designated as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention. Due to their characteristic properties, PCBs are found worldwide in all environmental matrices (including human) and biota. Soils are usually considered to be the source as well as sink for enviro...

  5. Very mild disease phenotype of congenic CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu cystic fibrosis mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tóth (Balázs); M. Wilke (Martina); F. Stanke (Frauke); M. Dorsch (Martina); S. Jansen (Silke); D. Wedekind (Dirk); N. Charizopoulou (Nikoletta); A.G. Bot (Alice); M. Burmester (Marion); S. Leonhard-Marek (Sabine); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); H.J. Hedrich; G. Breves (Gerhard); B. Tümmler (Burkhard)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A major boost to cystic fibrosis disease research was given by the generation of various mouse models using gene targeting in embryonal stem cells. Moreover, the introduction of the same mutation on different inbred strains generating congenic strains facilitated the search f

  6. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  7. [Determination of seven toxaphene congeners in ginseng and milkvetch root by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaoqiong; Mao, Xiuhong; Miao, Shui; Jia, Zhengwei; Wang, Ke; Ji, Shen

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of representative toxaphene congeners in traditional Chinese herbal medicines was developed. Ginseng and Milkvetch Root were selected as the samples and seven toxaphene congeners were selected as the monitoring objects. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with cyclohexane-acetone (9:1, v/v), then cleaned-up by Florisil solid phase extraction with hexane as the eluent and the residues were detected by gas chromatography-electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The performance was demonstrated by the analysis of Ginseng and Milkvetch Root samples spiked with toxaphene congeners at three concentration levels of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 72.4% to 105% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.96%-10.4%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2-1.7 microg/kg. This method is sensitive and efficient in the aspect of extraction, and can be applied to monitor the residue of toxaphene congeners in Ginseng and Milkvetch Root.

  8. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF TWO LOTS OF AROCLOR 1254R: CONGENER ANALYSIS AND NEUROCHEMICAL ENDPOINTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely used in industry as heat transfer and dielectric fluids for transformers and capacitors1. PCBs were commercially produced as AroclorR mixtures in USA by the chlorination of biphenyl. Although all 209 congeners can be syn...

  9. Twelve Theses on Reactive Rules for the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect and react to events, is an essential functionality in many information systems. In particular, Web systems such as online marketplaces, adaptive (e.g., recommender) sys- tems, and Web services, react to events such as Web page updates or data posted to a server. This article investigates issues of relevance in designing high-level programming languages dedicated to reactivity on the Web. It presents twelve theses on features desira...

  10. Determination of polydimethylsiloxane–water partition coefficients for ten 1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene-related compounds and twelve polychlorinated biphenyls using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-water partition coefficients (Kpw) of ten DDT-related compounds were determined in pure water at 25 °C using commercial polydimethylsiloxane-coated optical fiber. Analyte concentrations were measured by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/full scan mass spectrometry (TD–GC/MSFS; fibers) and liquid injection-gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry (LI–GC/MSSIM; water). Equilibrium was approached from two directions (fiber uptake and depletion) as a means of assessing data concordance. Measured compound-specific log Kpw values ranged from 4.8 to 6.1 with an average difference in log Kpw between the two approaches of 0.05 log units (∼12% of Kpw). Comparison of the experimentally-determined log Kpw values with previously published data confirmed the consistency of the results and the reliability of the method. A second experiment was conducted with the same ten DDT-related compounds and twelve selected PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners under conditions characteristic of a coastal marine field site (viz., seawater, 11 °C) that is currently under investigation for DDT and PCB contamination. Equilibration at lower temperature and higher ionic strength resulted in an increase in log Kpw for the DDT-related compounds of 0.28–0.49 log units (61–101% of Kpw), depending on the analyte. The increase in Kpw would have the effect of reducing by approximately half the calculated freely dissolved pore-water concentrations (Cfree). This demonstrates the importance of determining partition coefficients under conditions as they exist in the field.

  11. Comparison of PBDE congener profiles and concentration levels in human specimens from China and the US and identification of human exposure sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to investigate the status of human exposure to PBDEs in China,available monitoring data in human specimens(including breast milk,serums,and blood) was collected from the general population as well as specific groups that are occupationally exposed.PBDEs exposure profiles and concentration levels were compared with their counterparts in the United States of America.It was found that PBDE burdens in general Chinese population are one order lower and have different congener profiles from that in the US,showing higher percentages of BDE-28 or BDE-153 in human specimens from China.Workers and residents in electronic wastes recycling regions or areas of commercial PBDE manufacturing have the highest PBDE exposure levels reported worldwide,which are close or higher than the exposure levels of the general population in the US. Highly brominated congeners,such as BDE-207 and 209,are among the major PBDE congeners,and BDE-209 has the highest percentage(above 50%) for all occupational populations studied.Principal components analysis(PCA) demonstrates that the exposure of the general population in the US is closely related to penta-BDE while the human burden in China is not.The PBDE in indoor air(gas phase) in the US is highly correlated with the PBDE burden in the general population in the US,indicating a major exposure pathway.For the occupationally exposed populations in China,the congener profiles are closely related to the commercial deca-BDE products.Examination of exposure profiles for general and occupational populations in China suggests that it is essential to include more highly brominated congeners,such as BDE-207 and 209,in future human exposure studies,in order to assess the real burdens and profiles of PBDEs exposure in China.Strict pollution prevention and occupational protection procedures are in need in China to avoid the PBDE contamination problem that has occurred in the US.

  12. Elimination Rates of Dioxin Congeners in Former Chlorophenol Workers from Midland, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James J.; Bodner, Kenneth M.; Wilken, Michael; Bodnar, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exposure reconstructions and risk assessments for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other dioxins rely on estimates of elimination rates. Limited data are available on elimination rates for congeners other than TCDD. Objectives: We estimated apparent elimination rates using a simple first-order one-compartment model for selected dioxin congeners based on repeated blood sampling in a previously studied population. Methods: Blood samples collected from 56 former chlorophenol workers in 2004–2005 and again in 2010 were analyzed for dioxin congeners. We calculated the apparent elimination half-life in each individual for each dioxin congener and examined factors potentially influencing elimination rates and the impact of estimated ongoing background exposures on rate estimates. Results: Mean concentrations of all dioxin congeners in the sampled participants declined between sampling times. Median apparent half-lives of elimination based on changes in estimated mass in the body were generally consistent with previous estimates and ranged from 6.8 years (1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) to 11.6 years (pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), with a composite half-life of 9.3 years for TCDD toxic equivalents. None of the factors examined, including age, smoking status, body mass index or change in body mass index, initial measured concentration, or chloracne diagnosis, was consistently associated with the estimated elimination rates in this population. Inclusion of plausible estimates of ongoing background exposures decreased apparent half-lives by approximately 10%. Available concentration-dependent toxicokinetic models for TCDD underpredicted observed elimination rates for concentrations dioxin compounds. PMID:23063871

  13. Developing a learning culture: twelve tips for individuals, teams and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Lynn; Pearson, David; Lucas, Beverley

    2006-06-01

    A culture of learning in providing health services and education for health professionals is a constant challenge for individuals, team and organizations. The importance of such a culture was highlighted by the findings of the Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry (2001). This was discussed in the context of the literature on the Learning Organization (Senge, 1990) at the 2004 Association of Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) conference, and reviewed a year later at the 2005 AMEE conference. This paper outlines twelve tips for educational and health service organizations in facilitating a culture of learning for their members and also offers specific advice to individual students and professionals.

  14. The twelve theses: a call to a new reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Shelby Spong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With every discovery emerging from the world of science over the last 500 years concerning the origins of the universe and of life itself, the traditional explanations offered by the Christian Church appeared to be more and more dated and irrelevant.  Christian leaders, unable to embrace the knowledge revolution seemed to believe  that the only way to save Christianity was not to disturb the old patterns either by listening to, much less by entertaining the new knowledge. I tried to articulate this challenge in a book entitled: Why Christianity Must Change or Die, published in 1998.  In that book I examined in detail the issues that I was convinced Christianity must address. Shortly after that book was published I reduced its content to twelve theses, which I attached in Luther-like fashion to the great doors on the Chapel of Mansfield College at Oxford University in the United Kingdom. I then mailed copies of those Twelve Theses to every acknowledged Christian leader of the world. It was an attempt to call them into a debate on the real issues that I was certain the Christian Church now faced.  I framed my twelve theses in the boldest, most provocative language possible, designed primarily to elicit response and debate. I welcome responses from Christians everywhere.  I claim no expertise or certainty in developing answers, but I am quite confident that I do understand the problems we are facing as Christians who are seeking to relate to the 21st century.

  15. Correlation between human maternal-fetal placental transfer and molecular weight of PCB and dioxin congeners/isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Context mediates antimicrobial efficacy of kinocidin congener peptide RP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannette Y Yount

    Full Text Available Structure-mechanism relationships are key determinants of host defense peptide efficacy. These relationships are influenced by anatomic, physiologic and microbiologic contexts. Structure-mechanism correlates were assessed for the synthetic peptide RP-1, modeled on microbicidal domains of platelet kinocidins. Antimicrobial efficacies and mechanisms of action against susceptible ((S or resistant ((R Salmonella typhimurium (ST, Staphylococcus aureus (SA, and Candida albicans (CA strain pairs were studied at pH 7.5 and 5.5. Although RP-1 was active against all study organisms, it exhibited greater efficacy against bacteria at pH 7.5, but greater efficacy against CA at pH 5.5. RP-1 de-energized SA and CA, but caused hyperpolarization of ST in both pH conditions. However, RP-1 permeabilized ST(S and CA strains at both pH, whereas permeabilization was modest for ST(R or SA strain at either pH. Biochemical analysis, molecular modeling, and FTIR spectroscopy data revealed that RP-1 has indistinguishable net charge and backbone trajectories at pH 5.5 and 7.5. Yet, concordant with organism-specific efficacy, surface plasmon resonance, and FTIR, molecular dynamics revealed modest helical order increases but greater RP-1 avidity and penetration of bacterial than eukaryotic lipid systems, particularly at pH 7.5. The present findings suggest that pH- and target-cell lipid contexts influence selective antimicrobial efficacy and mechanisms of RP-1 action. These findings offer new insights into selective antimicrobial efficacy and context-specificity of antimicrobial peptides in host defense, and support design strategies for potent anti-infective peptides with minimal concomitant cytotoxicity.

  17. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 by whisky congeners in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Nemoto, Asuka; Tanaka, Izumi; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Suwa, Yoshihide; Ishihara, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    It is expected that the production of the cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein in endothelial cells would reduce severity of vascular injuries, while phenolic compounds are known to induce HO-1 mRNA and protein in various cells. We investigated the activation of HO-1 by whisky, which contains various phenolic substances. The congeners of whisky stored from 4 to 18 y in oak barrels were shown to induce an increase of HO-1 protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, while those of freshly distilled whisky spirit exhibited no activity. To determine the compounds with potent HO-1-inducing activity among the whisky congeners, several chemicals that had been reported to exist in whisky or oak barrels were screened, and coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde showed the activity. Thus, compounds that emerged in whisky during barrel storage induced cytoprotective protein, HO-1, in human endothelial cells.

  18. Accumulation and depletion of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the housefly (musca domestica, L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)); Storr-Hansen, E. (National Environmental Research Inst., Soeborg (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in food chains and in the environment are dynamic complex mixtures and there is considerable interest in the disposition as well as toxicities of individual congeners. The persistence and biological activities of PCBs are intimately associated with microsomal monooxygenases. The house fly, Musca domestica (L.), has long been a standard organism for studies of pesticide toxicology and has an active and well-defined microsomal monooxygenase system. These oxidases in the fly can be induced by PCBs. It was considered of interest to provide data which may indicate whether or not the relatively large and mobile biomass of insects in general may play a role in the global disposition of PCBs. It was also of interest to determine if the house fly could serve as a model for determining the relative accumulation, elimination, and toxicities of individual PCB congeners.

  19. Germ-line reinsertions of AKR murine leukemia virus genomes in Akv-1 congenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, W P; Kozak, C A

    1980-08-01

    Congenic mouse strains NIH,Akv-1 and NIH,Akv-2 carry the two high ecotropic virus-inducing loci of the AKR mouse on the NIH Swiss genetic background. Progeny tests of animals in three separate congenic families show that both Avk-1 and Akv-2 are stably transmitted as classical mendelian loci in these mice. However, during the process of inbreeding, additional chromosomal viral loci were detected in several NIH.Akv-1 sublines. These loci appeared only in the progeny of virus-positive females. They segregate with mendelian ratios, are unlinked to markers on chromsome 7 near Akv-1, and are phenotypically expressed as high-virus-inducing loci. The generation of new loci for viurs induction, no doubt resulting from the rare germ-line reintegration of the endogenous ectropic provirus, represents a unique form of gene duplication and rearrangement.

  20. Comparative metabolism, covalent binding and toxicity of BHT congeners in rat liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M; Fujiwara, H; Thompson, D C

    2001-11-28

    The metabolism, covalent binding and hepatotoxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 4-methyl-2,6-di-t-butylphenol) and two congeners (E-BHT, 4-ethyl-2,6-di-t-butylphenol; I-BHT, 4-isopropyl-2,6-di-t-butylphenol) were compared using precision-cut liver slices prepared from phenobarbital (PB)-treated male Sprague-Dawley rats. At equimolar concentrations (1 mM) BHT was the most toxic of the three compounds, causing an 80% decrease in cell viability over a 6 h incubation period. E-BHT was intermediate in toxicity while the isopropyl derivative was relatively nontoxic. Intracellular glutathione levels decreased prior to the onset of cytotoxicity. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor metyrapone completely inhibited the toxicity of all three compounds. The rates of metabolism of the three compounds to glutathione conjugates were compared in both PB-treated microsomes and PB-induced liver slices. In both models, the rate of formation was greatest for BHT, followed by E-BHT and I-BHT. Synthetic quinone methides (QMs) were prepared from each parent phenol and the rates of reactivity with three nucleophiles (water, methanol and glutathione) were compared. With each nucleophile, BHTQM was the most reactive, while I-BHTQM was the least reactive. Finally, covalent binding to protein was assessed in two ways. First, alkylation of an isolated model protein (bovine insulin) was measured in a microsomal enzyme activation system by mass spectrometry. Incubations with BHT produced the greatest extent of protein alkylation, followed by E-BHT, while no alkylation was observed with I-BHT. In the second system, covalent binding to cellular protein was assessed in rat liver PB microsomes and tissue slices by Western blotting using an antibody specific for the tert-butylphenol portion of the compounds. Binding was greatest for BHT, intermediate for E-BHT and could not be detected for I-BHT. The alkylation pattern for E-BHT was strikingly similar to that of BHT, suggesting that both compounds

  1. Congenic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in Experimental Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A number of clinical trials are underway to test whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are effective in treating various diseases, including type 1 diabetes. Although this cell therapy holds great promise, the optimal source of MSCs has yet to be determined with respect to major histocompatibility complex matching. Here, we examine this question by testing the ability of congenic MSCs, obtained from the NOR mouse strain, to reverse recent-onset type 1 diabetes in NOD mice, as well a...

  2. Synthesis and antiprotozoal properties of pentamidine congeners bearing the benzofuran motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunov, Stanislav A; Bakunova, Svetlana M; Bridges, Arlene S; Wenzler, Tanja; Barszcz, Todd; Werbovetz, Karl A; Brun, Reto; Tidwell, Richard R

    2009-09-24

    Forty-eight cationically substituted pentamidine congeners possessing benzofuran rings were synthesized by a copper mediated heteroannulation of substituted o-iodophenols with phenyl acetylenes. Activities of compounds 1-48 against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Plasmodium falciparum, and Leishmania donovani and cytotoxicities for mammalian cells were influenced by the nature of cationic substituents, placement of the benzofuran fragment, and the length of the carbon linker between aromatic moieties. Several dications exhibited superior antiplasmodial and antileishmanial potencies compared to pentamidine.

  3. Congenic mice reveal genetic epistasis and overlapping disease loci for autoimmune diabetes and listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nancy; Elso, Colleen M; Mackin, Leanne; Mannering, Stuart I; Strugnell, Richard A; Wijburg, Odilia L; Brodnicki, Thomas C

    2014-08-01

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain serves as a genomic standard for assessing how allelic variation for insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) loci affects the development of autoimmune diabetes. We previously demonstrated that C57BL/6 (B6) mice harbor a more diabetogenic allele than NOD mice for the Idd14 locus when introduced onto the NOD genetic background. New congenic NOD mouse strains, harboring smaller B6-derived intervals on chromosome 13, now localize Idd14 to an ~18-Mb interval and reveal a new locus, Idd31. Notably, the B6 allele for Idd31 confers protection against diabetes, but only in the absence of the diabetogenic B6 allele for Idd14, indicating genetic epistasis between these two loci. Moreover, congenic mice that are more susceptible to diabetes are more resistant to Listeria monocytogenes infection. This result co-localizes Idd14 and Listr2, a resistance locus for listeriosis, to the same genomic interval and indicates that congenic NOD mice may also be useful for localizing resistance loci for infectious disease.

  4. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-02-01

    The ecological consequences of plant competition have frequently been tested, but the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions have gone largely unexplored. The study of species invasions can make an important contribution to this field of research by allowing us to watch ecological and evolutionary processes unfold as a novel species is integrated into a plant community. We explored the ecological and evolutionary impact of an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a closely related native congener, I. capensis and asked: (1) Does the presence of the invasive jewelweed alter the fitness of native jewelweed populations? (2) Does the invasive jewelweed affect the vegetative growth of the native congener? and (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the vegetative traits of the native congener? We used a greenhouse competition experiment, an invasive species removal field experiment, and a survey of natural populations. We show that when the invasive jewelweed is present, phenotypic selection favors native jewelweed individuals investing less in rapid upward growth and more in branching and fruiting potential through the production of nodes. This research demonstrates that invasive plants have the potential to greatly alter natural selection on native competitors. Studies investigating altered selection in invaded communities can reveal the potential evolutionary impact of invasive competitors, while deepening our understanding of the more general role of competition in driving plant evolution and permitting species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Analysis of six relevant toxaphene congeners in biological samples using ion trap MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, Bruno; Lebeuf, Michel; Trottier, Steve; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2002-10-01

    The quantification of six polychlorinated bornanes (CHBs) was studied using ion trap MS/MS. The significance of the selection of parent ions (Ip) and daughter ions (Id) on the detection of these toxaphene congeners was assessed in standard solution and biological samples. Our results indicate that different Ip and Id, selected at either low or high mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios, influence drastically the response factor of the CHBs and the chemical noise observed. For the octachlorinated toxaphene congeners (Parlar-26 (P-26), Parlar-40/41 (P-40/41), Parlar-44 (P-44)), the detection performance of the ion trap MS/MS is similar whether Ip and Id were chosen at low or high m/z ratios. However, the selection of Ip and Id at high m/z ratios clearly enhances the detection of the nonachlorinated toxaphene congeners (Parlar-50 (P-50), Parlar-62 (P-62)). The improved method, which selects Ip and Id at low m/z ratios for P-26, P-40/41 and P-44 and at high m/z ratios for P-50 and P-62, permitted to obtain low detection limits as well as repeatable and accurate results.

  6. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...

  7. Twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sebastian Charles Keith; Anderson, John Leeds

    2017-07-01

    Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty. As a result of SS' own experiences as a medical student with dyslexia, we have been researching and teaching on this topic for the past two years. Here, we present twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia. These are gathered from our personal experiences and research, discussions with other educators, and wider literature on the topic. This article aims to shed some light on dyslexia, and also to make practical suggestions. Teaching students with dyslexia should not be a daunting experience. Small changes to existing methods, at minor effort, can make a difference - for example, adding pastel colors to slide backgrounds or avoiding Serif fonts. These tips can help educators gain more insight into dyslexia and incorporate small, beneficial adaptations into their teaching.

  8. Antibacterial activities of extracts from twelve Centaurea species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeli Yener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Centaurea (Asteraceae have been used in traditional plant-based medicine. The methanol extracts of twelve Centaurea species, of which five are endemic to Turkey flora, were screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the microdilution method and the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC of the extracts were determined. C. cariensis subsp. microlepis exhibited an antimicrobial effect on all tested microorganisms. The extracts from eight Centaurea species (C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis, C. kotschyi var. kotschyi, C. solstitialis subsp. solstitialis, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei and C. virgata possessed antibacterial activity against several of the tested microorganisms.

  9. Spectroscopy of twelve Type Ia supernovae at intermediate redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Pain, R; Walton, N A; Amanullah, R; Astier, Pierre; Ellis, Richard S; Fabbro, S; Goobar, A; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Irwin, M J; McMahon, R M; Mendez, J M; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Sainton, G; Schahmaneche, K; Stanishev, V

    2005-01-01

    We present spectra of twelve Type Ia supernovae obtained in 1999 at the William Herschel Telescope and the Nordic Optical Telescope during a search for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) at intermediate redshift. The spectra range from z=0.178 to z=0.493, including five high signal-to-noise ratio SN Ia spectra in the still largely unexplored range 0.15 < z < 0.3. Most of the spectra were obtained before or around restframe B-band maximum light. None of them shows the peculiar spectral features found in low-redshift over- or under-luminous SN Ia. Expansion velocities of characteristic spectral absorption features such as SiII at 6355 angs., SII at 5640 angs. and CaII at 3945 angs. are found consistent with their low-z SN Ia counterparts.

  10. Coplanar PCB congeners increase uterine weight and frontal cortical dopamine in the developing rat: implications for developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegal, Richard F; Brosch, Karl O; Okoniewski, Richard J

    2005-07-01

    We show that developmental exposure of the laboratory rat to the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and the structurally similar congener 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PtCB) elevates dopamine (DA) concentrations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). To determine whether these coplanar congeners are estrogenic, and may thus contribute to the elevations in PFC DA, we measured uterine wet weight (UWW) in prepubertal rats exposed to TCB or PtCB. For comparison, additional animals were exposed to either the ortho-substituted congener 2,4,2',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (o-TCB) or 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB), a coplanar congener highly resistant to metabolism. Both TCB and PtCB increased UWW, but this effect was blocked after exposure to the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780. Neither o-TCB nor HCB altered UWW. These results demonstrate that certain coplanar PCB congeners and/or their metabolites, are estrogenic, and suggest that exposure during critical periods of neuronal development may increase central DA concentrations, and by inference, alter behavior.

  11. High levels of structural diversity observed in microcystins from Microcystis CAWBG11 and characterization of six new microcystin congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddick, Jonathan; Prinsep, Michèle R; Wood, Susanna A; Kaufononga, Sangata A F; Cary, Stephen Craig; Hamilton, David P

    2014-11-13

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria, which can be harmful to humans and animals when ingested. Differences in the coding of the non‑ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase enzyme complex responsible for microcystin production have resulted in more than 100 microcystin variants being reported to date. The microcystin diversity of Microcystis CAWBG11 was investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This revealed that CAWBG11 simultaneously produced 21 known microcystins and six new congeners: [Asp3] MC-RA, [Asp3] MC-RAba, [Asp3] MC-FA, [Asp3] MC-WA, MC-FAba and MC-FL. The new congeners were putatively characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and chemical derivatization. A survey of the microcystin congeners produced by 49 cyanobacterial strains documented in scientific literature showed that cyanobacteria generally produce four microcystin congeners, but strains which produce up to 47 microcystin congeners have been reported. Microcystis CAWBG11 (which produces at least 27 congeners) was positioned in the top ten percentile of the strains surveyed, and showed fluidity of the amino acids incorporated into both position two and position four.

  12. Levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Belgian foodstuffs--assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focant, J F; Eppe, G; Pirard, C; Massart, A C; André, J E; De Pauw, E

    2002-07-01

    Congener-specific analyses of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 4 non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs) were performed on 197 foodstuffs samples of animal origin from Belgium during years 2000 and 2001. All investigated matrices (except horse) present background levels lower than the Belgian non-commercialization value of 5 pg TEQ/g fat. Pork was the meat containing the lowest concentration of both PCDD/Fs and cPCBs. The mean background concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent in milk was 1.1 pg/g of fat, with a congener distribution typical of non-contaminated milk. The relative contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the PCDD/Fs TEQ was 85+/-7.9% for all investigated matrices. The cPCBs contribution to the total TEQ was 47+/-19.0% for products of terrestrial species and 69+/-20.0% for aquatic species. Once the contribution of cPCBs was added to the TEQ, few foodstuffs such as horse, sheep, beef, eggs and cheese presented levels above the future European guidelines that currently only include PCDD/Fs but will be re-evaluated later in order to include 'dioxin-like' PCBs. Based on levels measured in the samples, the estimation of the dietary intake was 65.3 pg WHO-TEQ/day for PCDD/Fs only (1.00 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person) and 132.9 pg WHO-TEQ/day if cPCBs were included (2.04 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person). Meat (mainly beef), dairy products, and fish each account for roughly one third of the intake.

  13. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Shanghai: implication for exposure route of higher brominated BDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengtao; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ren, Guofa; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk has been widely used as a bioindicator to assess the extent of human exposure to PBDEs via various exposure routes. In this study, 48 breast milk samples were collected from primiparous women in Shanghai city, and 14 PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -196, -197, -203, -206, -207, -208, and -209) were quantified using gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization-mass spectrometry. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 8.6 ng/g lipid weight, and ranged from 1.8 to 26.7 ng/g lipid weight. These concentration levels were similar to those reported in Europe and Asia, but one order of magnitude lower than those in North America. The congener profiles in this study exhibited a specific pattern in human milk found worldwide, BDE-153 and BDE-28 accounted for a relatively higher proportion of lower brominated BDEs (from tri- to hepta-BDEs), whereas higher brominated BDEs (from octa- to deca-BDEs) contributed more than 70% of the total PBDEs. The Spearman's correlation coefficient among higher brominated BDEs showed a positive relationship, and concentration levels of higher brominated BDEs were statistically different between office workers and housewives. Due to relatively higher proportion of PBDEs from octa- to deca-BDEs were detected, air inhalation and dust ingestion might be the major exposure routes of higher brominated BDEs. Further research is needed to clarify the major exposure route of higher brominated BDEs to humans.

  14. Cytokine response to the RSV antigen delivered by dendritic cell-directed vaccination in congenic chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucksová, Jitka; Plachý, Jiří; Staněk, Ondřej; Hejnar, Jiří; Kalina, Jiří; Benešová, Barbora; Trefil, Pavel

    2017-04-05

    Systems of antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells represent an important novel strategy in chicken vaccine development. In this study, we verified the ability of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) antigens fused with streptavidin to be targeted by specific biotinylated monoclonal antibody (anti-CD205) into dendritic cells and induce virus-specific protective immunity. The method was tested in four congenic lines of chickens that are either resistant or susceptible to the progressive growth of RSV-induced tumors. Our analyses confirmed that the biot-anti-CD205-SA-FITC complex was internalized by chicken splenocytes. In the cytokine expression profile, several significant differences were evident between RSV-challenged progressor and regressor chicken lines. A significant up-regulation of IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 expression was detected in immunized chickens of both regressor and progressor groups. Of these cytokines, IL-2 and IL-12 were most up-regulated 14 days post-challenge (dpc), while IL-15 and IL-18 were most up-regulated at 28 dpc. On the contrary, IL-10 expression was significantly down-regulated in all immunized groups of progressor chickens at 14 dpc. We detected significant up-regulation of IL-17 in the group of immunized progressors. LITAF down-regulation with iNOS up-regulation was especially observed in the progressor group of immunized chickens that developed large tumors. Based on the increased expression of cytokines specific for activated dendritic cells, we conclude that our system is able to induce partial stimulation of specific cell types involved in cell-mediated immunity.

  15. Passive air monitoring of PCBs and PCNs across East Asia: a comprehensive congener evaluation for source characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarh, Jonathan Nartey; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Habib, Ahsan; Nam, Jae-Jak; Lee, Jong-Sik; Li, Qilu; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive congener specific evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the atmosphere was conducted across East Asia in spring 2008, applying polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air sampler (PAS) as monitoring device. Mean concentrations derived for Japan, China and Korea were 184 ± 24, 1100 ± 118, and 156 ± 20 pg m(-3) for ∑(202) PCBs, and 9.5 ± 1.5, 61 ± 6, and 16 ± 2.4 pg m(-3) for ∑(63) PCNs, respectively. Relative to reported data from 2004, the present results suggest that air PCBs concentrations have not changed much in Japan and Korea, while it has increased by one order of magnitude in China. From principal component analysis, combustion emerged highly culpable in contemporary emissions of both PCBs and PCNs across the East Asian sub-region. Another factor derived as important to air PCBs was re-emissions/volatilization. Signals from PCBs formulations were also picked, but their general importance was virtually consigned to the re-emissions/volatilization tendencies. On the contrary, counterpart PCNs formulations did not appear to contribute much to air PCNs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimated PBDE and PBB Congeners in soil from an electronics waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-M; Yu, Y-J; Han, M; Yang, S-W; Li, Q; Yang, Y

    2009-12-01

    This study estimated PBDE and PBB congener emissions into the environment from three different e-waste disposal sites that consisted of rude broilers (RB), acid baths (AB) and end-up dumps (ED). Different PBDE and PBB congener profiles were analyzed, and some of their emission sources were discussed. For the examined sites, the levels of SigmaPBB and SigmaPBDE were highest at ED (SigmaPBB 1943.86 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 990.87 ng/g, dw), followed by RB (SigmaPBB 704.58 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 799.27 ng/g, dw) and finally AB (SigmaPBB 108.78 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 171.18 ng/g, dw). PBE-209 (AB 48.67 ng/g, 28.43%; RB 160.23 ng/g, 20.05%; ED 234.12 ng/g, 23.63%) and PBE-203 (AB 51.23 ng/g, 29.93%; RB 130.34 ng/g, 16.31%; ED 93.41 ng/g, 9.43%) exhibited the highest concentrations when compared to the other congeners. Furthermore, high levels of deca-BDE (BDE-209) were observed in AB (48.67 ng/g, 28.43%) and RB sites (160.23 ng/g, 20.05%), which was in accordance with the large amount of these materials in electronics products in China.

  17. Levels of toxaphene congeners in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G; Føreid, S; Skaare, J U; Jenssen, B M; Lydersen, C; Kovacs, K M

    2006-03-15

    This study reports concentrations of three pesticide toxaphene congeners (CHBs; CHB-26, -50 and -62) from the blubber of ten adult, male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway. The CHB congeners that occurred at the highest levels in the blubber of the white whales were, as expected, CHB-26 (4636+/-1992 (SD) ng/g l.w.) and CHB-50 (6579+/-2214 ng/g l.w.); CHB-62 (232+/-231 ng/g l.w.) was also present, but at much lower concentrations. The mean level of the sum of the three CHBs (SigmaCHBs = 11,447+/-4208 ng/g l.w.) in this study is more than twice the mean concentrations of the well-known organochlorine (OC) pollutants SigmaDDTs (sum of pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD) and SigmaPCBs (sum of 27 PCB congeners) previously reported from the same individual white whales. The concentrations of CHBs in white whales from Svalbard are at the high end of the range for concentrations of these compounds compared to other Arctic white whale populations. Additionally, the contribution of CHBs to the overall OC burden is larger in white whales from Svalbard compared with their counterparts from other areas in the Arctic. Male white whales from Svalbard have several orders of magnitude higher concentrations of SigmaCHBs compared to seals and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the same area. The high levels of CHBs in these whales, and their dominance in the OC pattern, suggests that white whales in Svalbard are exposed to high levels of this group of contaminants. Further studies are needed to investigate possible effects of CHBs and other OC contaminants on the white whale population in Svalbard.

  18. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of Cmax, tmax, area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β60) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also tmax (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (Cmax, tmax, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β60). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New GLC analysis of urushiol congeners in different plant parts of poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J C; Waller, C W; Billets, S; Elsohly, M A

    1978-04-01

    Methods are presented for the direct GLC analysis of the catechol C15 alkenyl side-chain congeners contained in the urushiol fraction of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and the C17 homologs of poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum). A number of liquid phases were investigated and demonstrated varying degrees of separation. The methods developed were applied to the analysis of the urushiol fractions obtained from different plant parts of poison ivy. The effects of extraction before and after drying demonstrated tht a larger percentage of urushiol was obtained when the fresh plant material was extracted with ethanol.

  20. Twelve novel Atm mutations identified in Chinese ataxia telangiectasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Yang, Lu; Wang, Jianchun; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Ying; Xia, Rongjun; Yuan, Xianhou; Yan, Mingshan

    2013-09-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized mainly by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, and immunodeficiency. This disease is caused by mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) gene. More than 500 Atm mutations that are responsible for A-T have been identified so far. However, there have been very few A-T cases reported in China, and only two Chinese A-T patients have undergone Atm gene analysis. In order to systemically investigate A-T in China and map their Atm mutation spectrum, we recruited eight Chinese A-T patients from six unrelated families nationwide. Using direct sequencing of genomic DNA and the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, we identified twelve pathogenic Atm mutations, including one missense, four nonsense, five frameshift, one splicing, and one large genomic deletion. All the Atm mutations we identified were novel, and no homozygous mutation and founder-effect mutation were found. These results suggest that Atm mutations in Chinese populations are diverse and distinct largely from those in other ethnic areas.

  1. Oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma in twelve dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B G; Jordan, R C; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-01-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a distinct histological subtype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), described in both dogs and man. In dogs, PSCC has long been considered a malignant oral tumour of very young animals, but it has recently been reported to occur in adult dogs as well. The aim of this study was to describe the major clinicopathological characteristics of canine oral PSCC (COPSCC). Twelve dogs diagnosed with COPSCC were included in this retrospective study (1990-2012). The majority (75%) of the dogs were >6 years of age (median age 9 years). All tumours were derived from the gingiva of dentate jaws, with 66.7% affecting the rostral aspects of the jaws. The gross appearance of the lesions varied, with one having an intraosseous component only. The majority (91.7%) of the tumours were advanced lesions (T2 and T3), but no local or distant metastases were noted. Microscopically, two patterns were seen: (1) invasion of bone forming a cup-shaped indentation in the bone or a deeply cavitating cyst within the bone (cavitating pattern), (2) histologically malignant growth, but lack of apparent bone invasion (non-cavitating pattern). The microscopical appearance corresponded to imaging findings in a majority of cases, with cavitating forms presenting with a cyst-like pattern of bone loss or an expansile mass on imaging and non-cavitating forms showing an infiltrative pattern of bone destruction on imaging. These features suggest two distinct biological behaviours of COPSCC.

  2. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  3. Twelve tips for designing and running longitudinal integrated clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel; Graves, Lisa; Berry, Sue; Myhre, Doug; Cummings, Beth-Ann; Konkin, Jill

    2013-12-01

    Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) involve learners spending an extended time in a clinical setting (or a variety of interlinked clinical settings) where their clinical learning opportunities are interwoven through continuities of patient contact and care, continuities of assessment and supervision, and continuities of clinical and cultural learning. Our twelve tips are grounded in the lived experiences of designing, implementing, maintaining, and evaluating LICs, and in the extant literature on LICs. We consider: general issues (anticipated benefits and challenges associated with starting and running an LIC); logistical issues (how long each longitudinal experience should last, where it will take place, the number of learners who can be accommodated); and integration issues (how the LIC interfaces with the rest of the program, and the need for evaluation that aligns with the dynamics of the LIC model). Although this paper is primarily aimed at those who are considering setting up an LIC in their own institutions or who are already running an LIC we also offer our recommendations as a reflection on the broader dynamics of medical education and on the priorities and issues we all face in designing and running educational programs.

  4. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  5. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Tiago Nunes

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoretical discussion. In particular, we study the nature of the bulk transition that separates a chirally broken phase at strong coupling from a chirally restored phase at weak coupling. When a non-improved action is used, a rapid crossover is observed at small bare quark masses. Our results confirm a first order nature for this transition, in agreement with previous results we obtained using an improved action. As shown in Ref.[1], when improvement of the action is used, the transition is preceded by a second rapid crossover at weaker coupling and an exotic phase emerges, where chiral symmetry is not yet broken. This can be explained [1] by the non hermiticity of the improved lattice Transfer matrix, arising from the c...

  6. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in surface soil from a background area in China: occurrence, distribution, and congener profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Zhang, Yuan; Miao, Yi; Ma, Ling-Ling; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2013-07-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are extremely complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with carbon chain lengths from C10 to C13 and chlorine content between 49 and 70%. SCCPs are under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCPs have been used extensively in industrial production, but little is known about the pollution level in soil environment in China. In this study, levels and distribution of SCCPs in soil samples from Chongming Island were analyzed. Concentrations of total SCCPs in soil samples ranged from 0.42 to 420 ng g(-1), with a median of 9.6 ng g(-1). The ubiquitous occurrence of SCCPs in Chongming Island implied that long-range atmospheric transport and soil-air exchange may be the most important pathways for SCCP contamination in the background area. The localized SCCP contamination could be derived from an unidentified source. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that C13- and C11-congeners were predominant in most soils and C10- and C12-congeners dominated in the remaining soils. Cl7- and Cl8-congeners were on the average the most dominant chlorine congeners in nearly all soils. Principal component analysis suggested that the separation of even and odd carbon chain congeners occurred during long-range atmospheric transport and aging in soil in the study area.

  7. Chemical fingerprinting and phylogenetic mapping of saponin congeners from three tropical holothurian sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondoc, Karen Grace V; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cruz, Lourdes J; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antonette

    2013-01-01

    Holothurians are sedentary marine organisms known to produce saponins (triterpene glycosides), secondary metabolites exhibiting a wide range of biological activities. In this paper, we investigated the saponin contents of semi-purified and membranolytic HPLC fractionated extracts from the body wall of three species of Holothuriidae as an attempt to examine its chemical diversity in relation to phylogenetic data. MALDI-FTICR MS and nano-HPLC-chip Q-TOF MS were used for mass profiling and isomer separation, respectively giving a unique chemical saponin fingerprint. Moreover, the methods used yield the highest number of congeners. However, saponin concentration, bioactivity and chemical diversity had no apparent relationship. MS fingerprint showed the presence of holothurinosides, which was observed for the first time in other Holothuria genera besides the basally positioned Holothuria forskali. This congener is proposed to be a primitive character that could be used for taxonomic purposes. The phylogenetic mapping also showed that the glycone part of the compound evolved from non-sulfated hexaosides to sulfated tetraosides, which have higher membranolytic activity and hydrophilicity, the two factors affecting the total ecological activity (i.e. chemical defense) of these compounds. This might be an adaptation to increase the fitness of the organism.

  8. SAR of Sponge-Inspired Hemibastadin Congeners Inhibiting Blue Mussel PhenolOxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Niemann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemibastadin derivatives, including the synthetically-derived 5,5′-dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB, are potent inhibitors of blue mussel phenoloxidase (PO, which is a key enzyme involved in the firm attachment of this invertebrate to substrates and, thus, a promising molecular target for anti-fouling research. For a systematic investigation of the enzyme inhibitory activity of hemibastadin derivatives, we have synthesized nine new congeners, which feature structural variations of the DBHB core structure. These structural modifications include, e.g., different halogen substituents present at the aromatic rings, different amine moieties linked to the (E-2-(hydroxyimino-3-(4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, the presence of free vs. substituted aromatic hydroxyl groups and a free vs. methylated oxime group. All compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity towards the target enzyme in vitro, and IC50 values were calculated. Derivatives, which structurally closely resemble sponge-derived hemibastadins, revealed superior enzyme inhibitory properties vs. congeners featuring structural moieties that are absent in the respective natural products. This study suggests that natural selection has yielded structurally-optimized antifouling compounds.

  9. Linking habitat use of Hudson River striped bass to accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Secor, D.H.; Zlokovitz, E.; Wales, S.Q.; Baker, J.E.

    2000-03-15

    Since 1976, the commercial striped bass fishery in the Hudson River (NY) has been closed due to total polychlorinated biphenyl (t-PCB) concentrations that exceed the US Food and Drug Administration's advisory level of 2 {micro}g/g-wet weight. Extensive monitoring of Hudson River striped bass demonstrated much more variability in t-PCB levels among individual striped bass than could be explained by their age, sex, or lipid contents. To investigate the possible role of differential habitat use among subpopulations of striped bass in controlling their PCB exposures, 70 fish collected throughout the Hudson River estuary and Long Island Sound in 1994--1995 were analyzed for PCB congeners, and their lifetime migration behaviors were estimated by otolith microchemistry. The mean salinity encountered during the fish's last growth season prior to capture was inversely correlated with the t-PCB body burden. Striped bass permanently residing in fresh and oligohaline portions of the estuary adjacent to known PCB sources had elevated t-PCB levels and congeneric patterns with higher proportions of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Conversely, fish spending the majority of their life in more saline waters of the estuary or migrating frequently throughout the salinity gradient contained lower PCB levels composed of more highly chlorinated congeners. The approach used in this study allows habitat use to be incorporated into exposure assessments for anadromous fish species such as striped bass.

  10. The Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Twelve Galloyl Glucosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve galloyl glucosides 1–12, showing diverse substitution patterns with two or three galloyl groups, were synthesized using commercially available, low-cost D-glucose and gallic acid as starting materials. Among them, three compounds, methyl 3,6-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (9, ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (11 and ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (12, are new compounds and other six, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1, 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2, 1,2-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (3, 1,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (4, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranose (6 and methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (10, were synthesized for the first time in the present study. In in vitro MTT assay, 1–12 inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60 and HeLa cells with inhibition rates ranging from 64.2% to 92.9% at 100 μg/mL, and their IC50 values were determined to be varied in 17.2–124.7 μM on the tested three human cancer cell lines. In addition, compounds 1–12 inhibited murine sarcoma S180 cells with inhibition rates ranging from 38.7% to 52.8% at 100 μg/mL in the in vitro MTT assay, and in vivo antitumor activity of 1 and 2 was also detected in murine sarcoma S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice using taxol as positive control.

  11. [Twelve years of working of Brazzaville cancer registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsondé Malanda, Judith; Nkoua Mbon, Jean Bernard; Bambara, Augustin Tozoula; Ibara, Gérard; Minga, Benoît; Nkoua Epala, Brice; Gombé Mbalawa, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The Brazzaville cancer registry was created in 1996 with the support of the International Agency Research against Cancer (IARC) which is located in Lyon, France. The Brazzaville cancer registry is a registry which is based on population which records new cancer cases occurring in Brazzaville by using Canreg 4.0 Software. Its aim is to supply useful information to fight against cancer to physicians and to decision makers. We conducted this study whose target was to determine the incidence of cancer in Brazzaville during twelve years, from January 1st, 1998 to December 31, 2009. During that period 6,048 new cancer cases were recorded: 3,377 women (55.8%), 2,384 men (39.4%), and 287 children (4.8%) from 0 to 14 years old with an annual average of 504 cases. Middle age to the patient's diagnosis was 49.5 years in female sex and 505.5 years old for male sex. The incidence rate of cancers in Brazzaville was 39.8 or 100.000 inhabitants per year and by sex we observed 49 to female sex and 35.2 for male sex. The first cancers localizations observed to women were in order of frequency: breast, cervix uterine, liver ovaries, hematopoietic system, to men : liver, prostate, hematopoietic system, colon and stomach; to children : retina, kidney, hematopoietic system, liver and bones. These rates are the basis to know the burden of cancer among all pathologies of Brazzaville and the achievement of a national cancer control program.

  12. Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome: report of twelve unrelated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lonlay, P; Benelli, C; Fouque, F; Ganguly, A; Aral, B; Dionisi-Vici, C; Touati, G; Heinrichs, C; Rabier, D; Kamoun, P; Robert, J J; Stanley, C; Saudubray, J M

    2001-09-01

    Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome has been reported as a cause of moderately severe hyperinsulinism with diffuse involvement of the pancreas. The disorder is caused by gain of function mutations in the GLUD1 gene, resulting in a decreased inhibitory effect of guanosine triphosphate on the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme. Twelve unrelated patients (six males, six females) with hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia syndrome have been investigated. The phenotypes were clinically heterogeneous, with neonatal and infancy-onset hypoglycemia and variable responsiveness to medical (diazoxide) and dietary (leucine-restricted diet) treatment. Hyperammonemia (90-200 micromol/L, normal carbamylglutamate administration. The patients had mean basal GDH activity (18.3 +/- 0.9 nmol/min/mg protein) not different from controls (17.9 +/- 1.8 nmol/min/mg protein) in cultured lymphoblasts. The sensitivity of GDH activity to inhibition by guanosine triphosphate was reduced in all patient lymphoblast cultures (IC(50), or concentrations required for 50% inhibition of GDH activity, ranging from 140 to 580 nM, compared with control IC(50) value of 83 +/- 1.0 nmol/L). The allosteric effect of ADP was within the normal range. The activating effect of leucine on GDH activity varied among the patients, with a significant decrease of sensitivity that was correlated with the negative clinical response to a leucine-restricted diet in plasma glucose levels in four patients. Molecular studies were performed in 11 patients. Heterozygous mutations were localized in the antenna region (four patients in exon 11, two patients in exon 12) as well as in the guanosine triphosphate binding site (two patients in exon 6, two patients in exon 7) of the GLUD1 gene. No mutation has been found in one patient after sequencing the exons 5-13 of the gene.

  13. Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Content of Twelve Bestselling US Principles of Economics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    How have authors of twelve bestselling introductory US textbooks in economics responded to the traumatizing financial crisis? In general the financial crisis is described with a couple of lines here and there or it is dealt with in boxes, separate sections, or specific isolated chapters. Some...... of the textbooks distinguish themselves by also having made some modest qualitative changes of content as a reaction to the financial crisis (especially Colander 2010 and Krugman and Wells 2013). Applying my general analysis of the changes being made already in the twelve textbooks seen as a whole, I discuss how...... any introductory textbook could integrate the financial crisis more adequately into the general presentation, thereby hopefully contributing to enhancing the interest of the students....

  15. Very mild disease phenotype of congenic CftrTgH(neoimHgu cystic fibrosis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard-Marek Sabine

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major boost to cystic fibrosis disease research was given by the generation of various mouse models using gene targeting in embryonal stem cells. Moreover, the introduction of the same mutation on different inbred strains generating congenic strains facilitated the search for modifier genes. From the original CftrTgH(neoimHgu mouse model with a divergent genetic background (129/Sv, C57BL/6, HsdOla:MF1 two inbred mutant mouse strains CF/1-CftrTgH(neoimHgu and CF/3-CftrTgH(neoimHgu had been generated using strict brother × sister mating. CF/1-CftrTgH(neoimHgu and CF/3-CftrTgH(neoimHgu mice were fertile and showed normal growth and lifespan. In this work the CftrTgH(neoimHgu insertional mutation was backcrossed from CF/3-CftrTgH(neoimHgu onto the inbred backgrounds C57BL/6J and DBA/2J generating congenic animals in order to clarify the differential impact of the Cftr mutation and the genetic background on the disease phenotype of the cystic fibrosis mutant mice. Clinical and electrophysiological features of the two congenic strains were compared with those of CF/1-CftrTgH(neoimHgu and CF/3-CftrTgH(neoimHgu and wild type controls. Results Under the standardized housing conditions of the animal facility, the four mouse strains CF/1-CftrTgH(neoimHgu, CF/3-CftrTgH(neoimHgu, D2.129P2(CF/3-CftrTgH(neoimHgu and B6.129P2(CF/3-CftrTgH(neoimHgu exhibited normal life expectancy. Growth of congenic cystic fibrosis mice was comparable with that of wild type controls. All mice but D2.129P2(CF/3-CftrTgH(neoimHgu females were fertile. Short circuit current measurements revealed characteristic response profiles of the HsdOla:MF1, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J backgrounds in nose, ileum and colon. All cystic fibrosis mouse lines showed the disease-typical hyperresponsiveness to amiloride in the respiratory epithelium. The mean chloride secretory responses to carbachol or forskolin were 15–100% of those of the cognate wild type control animals

  16. Reduction of thyroid hormone levels by methylsulfonyl metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yoshihisa; Shibahara, Tomoo; Kimura, Ryohei [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka (Japan); Haraguchi, Koichi; Masuda, Yoshito [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats received four consecutive intraperitoneal doses of four kinds of methylsulfonyl (MeSO{sub 2}) metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners: 3-MeSO{sub 2}-2,2`,3`,4`,5,6-hexachlorobiphenyl (3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB132); 3-MeSO{sub 2}-2,2`,3`,4`, 5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB141); 3-MeSO{sub 2}-2,2`,4`,5,5`,6-hexachlorobiphenyl (3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149) and 4-MeSO{sub 2}-2,2`,4`,5,5`,6-hexachlorobiphenyl (4-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149). The congeners were major MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs determined in human milk, liver and adipose tissue, and the aim was to determine their effect on thyroid hormone levels. All four tested MeSO{sub 2} metabolites (20 {mu}mol/kg once daily for 4 days) reduced serum total thyroxine levels by 22-44% at a much lower dose than phenobarbital (PB; 431 {mu}mol/kg once daily for 4 days) on days 2, 3, 4 and 7 after the final doses. Total triiodothyronine levels were reduced 37% by treatment with 4-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149 at day 7. A 30% increase in thyroid weight was produced by 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB141 treatment. Total cytochrome P450 content was increased by 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB132, 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB141 and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149, but not by 4-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149. Thus, it is likely that the 3-MeSO{sub 2}-hexachlorobiphenyls and 4-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149 could influence the thyroid hormone metabolism by different mechanism(s). The results show that tested 3- and 4-MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of PCB congeners reduce thyroid hormone levels much more than PB in rats. Our finding suggests that the metabolites may act as endocrine-disrupters. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 25 refs.

  17. Four new doramectin congeners with acaricidal and insecticidal activity from Streptomyces avermitilis NEAU1069.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Jing; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Ji-Dong; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Chen, Yi-Hua; Liu, Chong-Xi; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Four new doramectin congeners, 1-4, were isolated from Streptomyces avermitilis NEAU1069. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR as well as HR-ESI-MS, ESI-MS, UV, and IR, and comparison with literature data. All compounds exhibited noticeable acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Especially compound 2 was found to be the most potent pesticide of the compounds evaluated with the IC(50) values of 10.2, 65.1 and 124.4 μg/ml against adult two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch), two-spotted spider mite eggs, and Mythimna separata, respectively, which are comparable to those of commercial pesticide milbemycin A(3)/A(4) as positive reference.

  18. Rhizospere Redox Cycling and Implications for Rhizosphere Biotransformation of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggo, Richard E; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2013-08-01

    Theoretically, sequential cycles of dechlorination followed by aerobic bio-oxidation are desirable to achieve complete degradation of a mixture of higher and lower chlorinated PCBs. In this research, soil was artificially contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mixture and as single congeners, aged, and planted with two different plant species. Alternating redox cycles were created in the root zone of plants by flooding and draining the soil. Over 32 weeks, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and poplar (Populus deltoids x nigra DN34) planted systems that were exposed to alternate cycles of flooding performed better in reducing parent PCBs than planted systems that were not cycled (p<0.05). The cycled systems also had a higher mass of PCB transformation products than the uncycled systems. Multiple cycles were necessary to achieve significant differences between the cycled and uncycled treatments.

  19. Gateway synthesis of daphnane congeners and their protein kinase C affinities and cell-growth activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Paul A.; Buschmann, Nicole; Cardin, Nathan B.; Jones, Lisa R.; Kan, Cindy; Kee, Jung-Min; Kowalski, John A.; Longcore, Kate E.

    2011-08-01

    The daphnane diterpene orthoesters constitute a structurally fascinating family of natural products that exhibit a remarkable range of potent biological activities. Although partial activity information is available for some natural daphnanes, little information exists for non-natural congeners or on how changes in structure affect mode of action, function, potency or selectivity. A gateway strategy designed to provide general synthetic access to natural and non-natural daphnanes is described and utilized in the synthesis of two novel members of this class. In this study, a commercially available tartrate derivative was elaborated through a key late-stage diversification intermediate into B-ring yuanhuapin analogues to initiate exploration of the structure-function relationships of this class. Protein kinase C was identified as a cellular target for these agents, and their activity against human lung and leukaemia cell lines was evaluated. The natural product and a novel non-natural analogue exhibited significant potency, but the epimeric epoxide was essentially inactive.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel biaryl type α-noscapine congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchukonda, Naresh K; Naik, Pradeep K; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2014-12-15

    Natural α-noscapine, a known antitussive drug, is also now known to possess weak anticancer efficacy with relatively safe toxicity profile. In this study, we report synthesis and evaluation of novel biaryl type α-noscapine congeners designed by adding aryl unit to the tetrahydroisoquinoline part of natural α-noscapine core. Palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross coupling of 9-bromo α-noscapine with aryl boronic acids was employed using mild and inexpensive reagents to attain desired noscapinoids 5a-g in excellent yields. Screening anti-proliferative activity for new noscapinoids 5b-g, on human cancer cell lines resulted three compounds 5b, 5d and 5f as potent analogues, active against human breast epithelial (MCF-7), human cervix cancer (HeLa) and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cell lines.

  1. Spontaneous metastasis in congenic mice with transgenic breast cancer is unaffected by plasminogen gene ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almholt, Kasper; Juncker-Jensen, Anna; Lærum, Ole Didrik;

    2013-01-01

    , suggesting that there is a functional redundancy with other proteases. To explore this functional overlap in the transgenic MMTV-PyMT breast cancer metastasis model, we have combined Plg deficiency and a pharmacological metalloprotease inhibitor, which is known to reduce metastasis in this model, and has...... been shown to synergistically inhibit other tissue remodeling events in Plg-deficient mice. While metalloprotease inhibition dramatically reduced metastasis, we found no effect of Plg deficiency on metastasis, either independently or in combination with metalloprotease inhibition. We further show...... that Plg gene deficiency is of no significant consequence in this metastasis model, when analyzed in two different congenic strains: the FVB strain, and a F1 hybrid of the FVB and C57BL/6J strains. We suggest that the extensive backcrossing performed prior to our studies has eliminated the confounding...

  2. An Experiment in Humanistic Management within Community College District Twelve, Centralia/Olympia, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dale A.; Hurley, John A.

    Community College District Twelve, a multi-college district serving a two-county area in southwestern Washington, has attempted to incorporate at administrative levels many of the humanistic, process-oriented principles of management discussed by Maslow and Maccoby. A concept of the ideal leadership style for District Twelve guides the selection…

  3. Nasal bone shape is under complex epistatic genetic control in mouse interspecific recombinant congenic strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Burgio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic determinism of cranial morphology in the mouse is still largely unknown, despite the localization of putative QTLs and the identification of genes associated with Mendelian skull malformations. To approach the dissection of this multigenic control, we have used a set of interspecific recombinant congenic strains (IRCS produced between C57BL/6 and mice of the distant species Mus spretus (SEG/Pas. Each strain has inherited 1.3% of its genome from SEG/Pas under the form of few, small-sized, chromosomal segments. RESULTS: The shape of the nasal bone was studied using outline analysis combined with Fourier descriptors, and differential features were identified between IRCS BcG-66H and C57BL/6. An F2 cross between BcG-66H and C57BL/6 revealed that, out of the three SEG/Pas-derived chromosomal regions present in BcG-66H, two were involved. Segments on chromosomes 1 (∼32 Mb and 18 (∼13 Mb showed additive effect on nasal bone shape. The three chromosomal regions present in BcG-66H were isolated in congenic strains to study their individual effect. Epistatic interactions were assessed in bicongenic strains. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that, besides a strong individual effect, the QTL on chromosome 1 interacts with genes on chromosomes 13 and 18. This study demonstrates that nasal bone shape is under complex genetic control but can be efficiently dissected in the mouse using appropriate genetic tools and shape descriptors.

  4. HIGH RESOLUTION MODELLING OF PCB CONGENERS IN LAKE MICHIGAN USING THE LAKE MICHIGAN (LM3) CONTAMINANT MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan Level 3 (LM3) Model is a numerical model of Lake Michigan used to predict the fate and transport of 54 PCB congeners. The LM3 model segments Lake Michigan horizontally with a 5 x 5 km grid and vertically with 19 sigma layers for a total of 44,042 water column se...

  5. Analysis of major congeners of polybromobiphenyls and polybromodiphenyl ethers in office dust using high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefeni, Kebede K; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2012-05-01

    The study focused on analysis of polybromobiphenyls (PBBs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners in office dust obtained in Pretoria, South Africa. Of the 32 congeners considered for identification, (BB-1, 2, 4, 10, 15, 26, 29, 30, 31, 38, 49, 80, 103, 153, 155, 209 and BDE-3, 15, 17, 28, 47, 66, 77, 85, 99, 100, 126, 138, 153, 154, 183, 209) only BB-2, 4, 30, 153, 209 and BDE-47, 66, 85, 99, 153 and 209 congeners were detected. The sum of PBBs concentration detected in office dust ranged from congeners detected. Concentrations of PBDEs detected in this study are substantially lower than reported in office dust in developed countries.

  6. Increased susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis in female mice carrying congenic Cia40/Pregq2 fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljander, Maria; Andersson, Åsa Inga Maria; Holmdahl, Rikard;

    2008-01-01

    of the B10.Q strain. The major polymorphic candidate genes for the effects on CIA are Cd79b, Abca8a, and Map2k6. The congenic fragment also contains polymorphic genes that affect reproductive behavior and reproductive success. The Sox9 gene, known to influence sex reversal, is a candidate gene...... with another locus, denoted Pregq2, known to affect reproductive success. The present study was performed to evaluate the role of the Cia40 locus in congenic B10.Q mice and to identify possible polymorphic candidate genes, which may also be relevant in the context of RA. METHODS: Congenic B10.Q mice carrying...... an NFR/N fragment surrounding the Cia40/Pregq2 loci were created by 10 generations of backcrossing (N10). The congenic mice were investigated in the CIA model, and the incidence and severity of arthritis as well as the serum levels of anti-collagen II (CII) antibodies were recorded. RESULTS: Significant...

  7. Low-Chlorinated Non-Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Present in Blood and Breast Milk Induce Higher Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neutrophil Granulocytes than High-Chlorinated Congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Fonnum, Frode; Walaas, Sven Ivar; Bogen, Inger Lise

    2016-12-01

    Despite their ban several decades ago, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still pose a health threat to human beings due to their persistent and accumulative nature and continued presence in the environment. Non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs have earlier been found to have effects on the immune system, including human neutrophil granulocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between ortho-chlorinated NDL-PCBs with a low or high degree of chlorination in their capability to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neutrophil granulocytes in vitro. We used some of the congeners occurring at the highest levels in blood, breast milk and food: PCB 52 representing the low-chlorinated congeners and PCB 180 the high-chlorinated congeners. In addition, the extensively studied PCB 153 was included as a reference compound. ROS production was assessed with the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence and DCF fluorescence assays. The involvement of intracellular signalling mechanisms was investigated using different pharmacological substances. At high concentrations (10-20 μM), PCB 52 induced more ROS than PCB 153 and PCB 180. The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and/or ERK 5 signalling in PCB-induced ROS production was implicated through the reduction in ROS in the presence of the specific inhibitor U0126, whereas reduced ROS production after the use of SB203580 and SP600125 indicated the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, respectively. In addition, the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and the antioxidant vitamin E reduced the levels of ROS. The intracellular signalling mechanisms involved in ROS production in human neutrophil granulocytes appeared to be similar for PCB 52, PCB 153 and PCB 180. Based on the results from the present and previous studies, we conclude that for abundant ortho-chlorinated PCBs

  8. The impact of alcoholics anonymous on other substance abuse-related twelve-step programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the twelve-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery twelve-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug-dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addicted to alcohol. Future directions in twelve-step research are noted in closing.

  9. Emission estimation and congener-specific characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from various stationary and mobile sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Chi, E-mail: lcwang@csu.edu.t [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengching Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengching Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Jhy [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Centre, National Cheng Kung University, 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wei-Shan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengching Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.t [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengching Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengching Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    Here we show that combustion sources, including waste incinerators, metallurgical processes, power-heating systems and so on, are also important emitters of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to the atmosphere. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations in the stack flue gases of the combustion sources ranged from 8.07 to 469 ng/Nm{sup 3}. The sinter plants (24.7 mg/h), electric arc furnaces (EAFs) (11.3 mg/h) and power plants (50.8 mg/h) possessed the largest PBDE emission rates, which were several orders higher than those of the other reported sources. The occurrences of the PBDEs in the flue gases of the power plants and vehicles, as well as their PBDE concentrations statistically highly correlated with combustion-originated PCDD/Fs, revealing that PBDEs should be the products of combustion. The ranking of major PBDE emission sources in Taiwanese PBDE inventory for combustion sources was power plants (30.85 kg/year), vehicles (14.9 kg/year) and metallurgical processes (5.88 kg/year). - Combustion sources, including waste incinerators, metallurgical processes, power-heating systems and so on, are important PBDE emitters to the atmosphere.

  10. Twelve tips for effective body language for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrew J; Freed, Jason; Ricotta, Daniel; Farris, Grace; Smith, C Christopher

    2017-09-01

    A significant proportion of human communication is nonverbal. Although the fields of business and psychology have significant literature on effectively using body language in a variety of situations, there is limited literature on effective body language for medical educators. To provide 12 tips to highlight effective body language strategies and techniques for medical educators. The tips provided are based on our experiences and reflections as clinician-educators and the available literature. The 12 tips presented offer specific strategies to engage learners, balance learner participation, and bring energy and passion to teaching. Medical educators seeking to maximize their effectiveness would benefit from an understanding of how body language affects a learning environment and how body language techniques can be used to engage audiences, maintain attention, control challenging learners, and convey passion for a topic. Understanding and using body language effectively is an important instructional skill.

  11. Measurement and analysis of angular velocity variations of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatović, Ž. M.; Štavljanin, M. S.; Tomić, M. V.; Knežević, D. M.; Biočanin, S. Lj.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the procedures for measuring and analyzing the angular velocity variation of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft on its free end and on the power-output end. In addition, the paper deals with important aspects of the measurement of crankshaft torsional oscillations. The method is based on digital encoders placed at two distances, and one of them is a sensor not inserted directly on the shaft, i.e. a non-contact method with a toothed disc is used. The principle based on toothed disc is also used to measure the actual camshaft angular velocity of in-line compact high-pressure pump the engine is equipped with, and this paper aims to demonstrate the possibility of measuring the actual angular velocity of any rotating shaft in the engine, on which it is physically possible to mount a toothed disc. The method was created completely independently during long-range development and research tests of V46 family engines. This method is specific for its particular adaptability for use on larger engines with extensive vibrations and torsional oscillations. The main purpose of this paper is a practical contribution to all the more interesting research of the use of engine crankshaft angular velocity as a diagnostic tool for identifying the engine irregular running.

  12. Peer teaching in medical education: twelve reasons to move from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven

    2007-09-01

    To provide an estimation of how often peer teaching is applied in medical education, based on reports in the literature and to summarize reasons that support the use of this form of teaching. We surveyed the 2006 medical education literature and categorised reports of peer teaching according to educational distance between students teaching and students taught, group size, and level of formality of the teaching. Subsequently, we analysed the rationales for applying peer teaching. Most reports were published abstracts in either Medical Education's annual feature 'Really Good Stuff' or the AMEE's annual conference proceedings. We identified twelve distinct reasons to apply peer teaching, including 'alleviating faculty teaching burden', 'providing role models for junior students', 'enhancing intrinsic motivation' and 'preparing physicians for their future role as educators'. Peer teaching appears to be practiced often, but many peer teaching reports do not become full length journal articles. We conclude that specifically 'near-peer teaching' appears beneficial for student teachers and learners as well as for the organisation. The analogy of the 'journeyman', as intermediate between 'apprentice' and 'master', with both learning and teaching tasks, is a valuable but yet under-recognized source of education in the medical education continuum.

  13. Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step recovery: a model based on social and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine recent findings associated with these disciplines that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying this change. Literature review and hypothesis development. Pertinent aspects of the neural impact of drugs of abuse are summarized. After this, research regarding specific brain sites, elucidated primarily by imaging techniques, is reviewed relative to the following: Mirroring and mentalizing are described in relation to experimentally modeled studies on empathy and mutuality, which may parallel the experiences of social interaction and influence on AA members. Integration and retrieval of memories acquired in a setting like AA are described, and are related to studies on storytelling, models of self-schema development, and value formation. A model for ascription to a Higher Power is presented. The phenomena associated with AA reflect greater complexity than the empirical studies on which this article is based, and certainly require further elucidation. Despite this substantial limitation in currently available findings, there is heuristic value in considering the relationship between the brain-based and clinical phenomena described here. There are opportunities for the study of neuroscientific correlates of Twelve-Step-based recovery, and these can potentially enhance our understanding of related clinical phenomena. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF “TWELVE WELL-POINTS” IN EMERGENCY TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段功保

    2000-01-01

    In many years' clinical practice, I used blood-letting method of “Twelve Well-points” to treat emergencies as coma, syncope, acute infantile convulsion, wind-stroke syndrome, hysteria, epilepsy, etc. and have achieved immediate results.

  15. An invasive plant alters pollinator-mediated phenotypic selection on a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    • Recent studies suggest that invasive plants compete reproductively with native plants by reducing the quantity or quality of pollinator visits. Although these studies have revealed ecological consequences of pollinator-mediated competition between invasive and native plants, the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions remain largely unexplored.• We studied the ecological and evolutionary impact of pollinator-mediated competition with an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a co-occurring native congener, I. capensis. Using a pollinator choice experiment, a hand pollination experiment, and a selection analysis, we addressed the following questions: (1) Do native pollinators show preference for the invasive or native jewelweed, and do they move between the two species? (2) Does invasive jewelweed pollen inhibit seed production in the native plant? (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the native plant's floral traits?• The pollinator choice experiment showed that pollinators strongly preferred the invasive jewelweed. The hand pollination experiment demonstrated that invasive pollen inhibited seed production in the native plant. The selection analysis showed that the presence of the invasive jewelweed altered phenotypic selection on corolla height in the native plant.• Invasive plants have the potential to alter phenotypic selection on floral traits in native plant populations. If native plants can evolve in response to this altered selection pressure, the evolution of floral traits may play an important role in permitting long-term coexistence of native and invasive plants. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  16. Hybridization and reproductive isolation between diploid Erythronium mesochoreum and its tetraploid congener E. albidum (Liliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccaforte, Kathy; Russo, Sabrina E; Pilson, Diana

    2015-06-01

    Polyploidy has played an important role in angiosperm diversification, but how polyploidy contributes to reproductive isolation remains poorly understood. Most work has focused on postzygotic reproductive barriers, and the influence of ploidy differences on prezygotic barriers is understudied. To address these gaps, we quantified hybrid occurrence, interspecific self-compatibility differences, and the contributions of multiple pre- and postzygotic barriers to reproductive isolation between diploid Erythronium mesochoreum (Liliaceae) and its tetraploid congener Erythronium albidum. Reproductive isolation between the study species was nearly complete, and naturally occurring hybrids were infrequent and largely sterile. Although postzygotic barriers effected substantial reproductive isolation when considered in isolation, the study species' spatial distributions and pollinator assemblages overlapped little, such that interspecific pollen transfer is likely uncommon. We did not find evidence that E. albidum and E. mesochoreum differed in mating systems, indicating that self-incompatibility release may not have fostered speciation in this system. Ultimately, we demonstrate that E. albidum and E. mesochoreum are reproductively isolated by multiple, hierarchically-operating barriers, and we add to the currently limited number of studies demonstrating that early acting barriers such as pollinator-mediated isolation can be important for effecting and sustaining reproductive isolation in diploid-polyploid systems.

  17. Sorption behaviors of a persistent toxaphene congener on marine sediments under different physicochemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Lebeuf, Michel; Gouteux, Bruno; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Awaleh, Mohamed Osman

    2014-11-01

    Sorptive processes are important parameters affecting the mobility, availability and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as toxaphene, in aquatic systems. The sorption and desorption behaviors of the B7-1450, a stable toxaphene congener in environment, on marine sediment was studied under different temperature and salinity conditions to better understand the B-1450 distribution in estuarine systems. The data were fitted to different sorption models to characterize sorption behaviors by evaluating sorption coefficients and sequestrated fraction of B7-1450 on sediments. High carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (Koc) of the B7-1450 were observed with values ranging from 3.2×104 to 6.0×104 mL g(-1) under experimental conditions. The data showed an increase of B7-1450 sorption coefficients with the salinity and a decrease with temperature. These investigations indicate that B7-1450 is three times more sequestred on sediments in cold (2°C, 30 psu) than in warm marine conditions (20°C, 30 psu). These results suggest that the mobility and bioavailable of B7-1450 or other POPs from the sediments could be less important in cold marine comparatively in warm marine and warm freshwater media. As a result of climate changes, the warming of mid and high latitudes coastal waters could enhance the mobility of POPs.

  18. Synergistic Interactions of Eugenol-tosylate and Its Congeners with Fluconazole against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aijaz; Wani, Mohmmad Younus; Khan, Amber; Manzoor, Nikhat; Molepo, Julitha

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the antifungal properties of a monoterpene phenol "Eugenol" against different Candida strains and have observed that the addition of methyl group to eugenol drastically increased its antimicrobial potency. Based on the results and the importance of medicinal synthetic chemistry, we synthesized eugenol-tosylate and its congeners (E1-E6) and tested their antifungal activity against different clinical fluconazole (FLC)- susceptible and FLC- resistant C. albicans isolates alone and in combination with FLC by determining fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) and isobolograms calculated from microdilution assays. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results confirmed that all the tested C. albicans strains were variably susceptible to the semi-synthetic derivatives E1-E6, with MIC values ranging from 1-62 μg/ml. The test compounds in combination with FLC exhibited either synergy (36%), additive (41%) or indifferent (23%) interactions, however, no antagonistic interactions were observed. The MICs of FLC decreased 2-9 fold when used in combination with the test compounds. Like their precursor eugenol, all the derivatives showed significant impairment of ergosterol biosynthesis in all C. albicans strains coupled with down regulation of the important ergosterol biosynthesis pathway gene-ERG11. The results were further validated by docking studies, which revealed that the inhibitors snugly fitting the active site of the target enzyme, mimicking fluconazole, may well explain their excellent inhibitory activity. Our results suggest that these compounds have a great potential as antifungals, which can be used as chemosensitizing agents with the known antifungal drugs.

  19. Holographic quantitative structure-activity relationship for prediction of the toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs) might activate the AhR (aromatic hydrocarbon receptor) signal transduction,and thus might have an adverse effect on the health of humans and wildlife. Because of the limited experimental data,it is important and necessary to develop structure-based models for prediction of the toxicity of the compounds. In this study,a new molecular structure representation,molecular hologram,was employed to investigate the quantitative relationship between toxicity and molecular structures for 18 PBDEs. The model with the significant correlation and robustness (r2 = 0.991,q2LOO = 0.917) was developed. To verify the robustness and prediction capacity of the derived model,14 PBDEs were randomly selected from the database as the training set,while the rest were used as the test set. The results generated under the same modeling conditions as the optimal model are as follows:r2 = 0.988,q2LOO = 0.598,r2pred = 0.955,and RMSE (root-mean-square of errors) = 0.155,suggesting the excellent ability of the derived model to predict the toxicity of PBDEs. Furthermore,the structural features and molecular mechanism related to the toxicity of PBDEs were explored using HQSAR color coding.

  20. The hemodynamic effects of ibopamine, a dopamine congener, in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, C V; Ren, J H; Huss, P; Unverferth, D V

    1986-01-01

    Ten patients with congestive heart failure underwent noninvasive and invasive hemodynamic testing before and sequentially after the administration of ibopamine to determine the cardiovascular effects of this oral dopamine congener. Single doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg were administered to all patients and 5 repeated doses of 200 or 400 mg were studied in 8. Hemodynamic effects occurred as early as 30 minutes and lasted up to 4 hours after dosing. In general, ibopamine elicited statistically significant dose-related increases in cardiac output and reductions in the derived resistance of the systemic and pulmonary circulations. A biphasic response in central and peripheral pressures was observed; up to 1 hour after administration, ibopamine elevated mean right and left atrial pressures and pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures with a significant reduction of these measurements beyond 1 hour. It did not alter heart rate. Repeated doses qualitatively affected hemodynamics similar to the initial dose and did not appear to be accompanied by short-term tolerance. While oral ibopamine elicits some favorable hemodynamic effects in humans with cardiac failure, the biphasic hemodynamic response is generally undesirable in the majority of these patients.

  1. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A., E-mail: Marilyn.Brown@pubpolicy.gatech.ed [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  2. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  3. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  4. A survey of innovation through duplication in the reduced genomes of twelve parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D DeBarry

    Full Text Available We characterize the prevalence, distribution, divergence, and putative functions of detectable two-copy paralogs and segmental duplications in the Apicomplexa, a phylum of parasitic protists. Apicomplexans are mostly obligate intracellular parasites responsible for human and animal diseases (e.g. malaria and toxoplasmosis. Gene loss is a major force in the phylum. Genomes are small and protein-encoding gene repertoires are reduced. Despite this genomic streamlining, duplications and gene family amplifications are present. The potential for innovation introduced by duplications is of particular interest. We compared genomes of twelve apicomplexans across four lineages and used orthology and genome cartography to map distributions of duplications against genome architectures. Segmental duplications appear limited to five species. Where present, they correspond to regions enriched for multi-copy and species-specific genes, pointing toward roles in adaptation and innovation. We found a phylum-wide association of duplications with dynamic chromosome regions and syntenic breakpoints. Trends in the distribution of duplicated genes indicate that recent, species-specific duplicates are often tandem while most others have been dispersed by genome rearrangements. These trends show a relationship between genome architecture and gene duplication. Functional analysis reveals: proteases, which are vital to a parasitic lifecycle, to be prominent in putative recent duplications; a pair of paralogous genes in Toxoplasma gondii previously shown to produce the rate-limiting step in dopamine synthesis in mammalian cells, a possible link to the modification of host behavior; and phylum-wide differences in expression and subcellular localization, indicative of modes of divergence. We have uncovered trends in multiple modes of duplicate divergence including sequence, intron content, expression, subcellular localization, and functions of putative recent duplicates that

  5. Genetics of Bone Mineralization and Morphology in Inbred Mice: Analysis of the HcB/Dem Recombinant Congenic Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    data for parameters with skewed distil- 3- PONT BEND MODULUS butions. Results of this analysis are summarized in Table 2. Ir TT . We used these data to...the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. I Bone Miner Res 9:739- [be murine strength is achieved. 743. 1002 YERSHOV ET AL. 16. Demant P, Hart AA 1986...Recombinant congenic strains--a 37. Linder E, Schork N 1994 Genetic dissection of complex traits. new tool for analyzing genetic traits determined by more than

  6. Determining indicator toxaphene congeners in soil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Lidan; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-01-01

    Toxaphene, which is a broad spectrum chlorinated pesticide, is a complex mixture of several hundred congeners, mainly polychlorinated bornanes. Quantifying toxaphene in environmental samples is difficult because of its complexity, and because each congener has a different response factor. Toxaphene chromatograms acquired using one-dimensional gas chromatography (1DGC) show that this technique cannot be used to separate all of the toxaphene congeners. We developed and validated a sensitive and quantitative method for determining three indicator toxaphene congeners in soil using an isotope dilution/comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC × GC-MS). The samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction, and then the extracts were purified using silica gel columns. (13)C₁₀-labeled Parlar 26 and 50 were used as internal standards and (13)C₁₀-labeled Parlar 62 was used as an injection standard. The sample extraction and purification treatments and the GC × GC-MS parameters were optimized. Subsequently the samples were determined by GC × GC-MS. The limits of detection for Parlar 26, 50, and 62 were 0.6 pg/g, 0.4 pg/g, and 1.0 pg/g (S/N=3), respectively, and the calibration curves had good linear correlations between 50 and 1000 μg/L (r(2)>0.99). Comprehensive two-dimensional GC gave substantial improvements over one-dimensional GC in the toxaphene analysis. We analyzed soil samples containing trace quantities of toxaphene to demonstrate that the developed method could be used to analyze toxaphene in environmental samples.

  7. A divergent approach to the synthesis of simplexides and congeners via a late-stage olefin cross-metathesis reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiakun; Li, Wei; Yu, Biao

    2013-08-14

    Simplexides constitute a unique group of immunosuppressive glycolipids that demonstrate antiproliferative activities against activated T-cell lymphocytes via a unique non-cytotoxic inhibition. To investigate the structure-activity relationship of the varied long-chain secondary alcohols on simplexides, we developed an efficient and divergent route to the synthesis of simplexides and congeners, taking advantage of a late-stage olefin cross-metathesis reaction.

  8. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl source attribution in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, using multivariate similarity among congener profiles in sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacela, Dave; Beltman, Douglas J; Lipton, Joshua

    2002-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations measured in 1,189 sediment samples from Green Bay (MI/WI, USA), Lake Michigan (MI/WI, USA), and the Fox River (WI, USA) were analyzed statistically to evaluate whether PCB congener profiles in outer Green Bay are more similar to those observed in inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan. Similarities among PCB profiles were assessed with complementary multivariate analysis techniques: Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and classification trees. The PCA indicated that profiles in outer Green Bay are distinct from those of inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan but are more similar to those of inner Green Bay. The outer bay profiles are dissimilar to profiles that would result from a simple process of mixing contaminated sediments from the inner bay with Lake Michigan sediments and, therefore, support the conclusion that contaminants in outer Green Bay come from discharges of the Fox River. Several classification trees based on small sets of congener proportions defined simple rules that consistently distinguished the regional profiles. Application of these rules to classify the outer bay samples suggests that the profiles of less than 7% of outer bay samples are similar to Lake Michigan profiles. These results are interpreted with respect to physical transport and chemical weathering processes that may account for the observed differences.

  10. Isolation of pure enantiomers of Toxaphene congeners via hydrochlorination and chlorination of Pinene and composition of Soviet polychloropinene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, V.; Trukhin, A.; Kruchkov, F.; Kiprianova, A.; Miltsov, S. [Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Kallenborn, R. [NILU, Kjeller (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Toxaphene is an insecticidal mixture, produced by the controlled photochlorination of camphene1. In the USSR similar insecticide - Polychloropinene was produced by chlorination of {alpha}-pinene with AIBN (azobisisobutyronitrile) as initiator. Natural camphene occurs in different essential oils in (+)-form as well as (-)-form. Production of artificial camphene starts from natural {alpha}-pinene, which is also chiral. All noted types of camphene are used for toxaphene synthesis by different manufacturers. Some congeners in selected samples of technical Toxaphene were shown to have small deviations from racemic distribution. Nevertheless, there is no information about any enantiomerically pure congeners of toxaphene. The amount of Polychloropinene produced in the USSR is estimated to be 160 thousand tons, which is a significant contribution into the total global production. Unfortunately, there is no traceable sample of Soviet Polychloropinene available. In the present work we report on the preparation of artificial model Polychloropinene mixtures with different content of chlorine in an attempt to find the difference between Toxaphene and Soviet Polychloropinene. Another goal of our research project is to prepare pure enantiomers of important Toxaphene congeners, to establish their configuration and thus to provide more opportunities to enantiomerspecific environmental analysis of Toxaphene residues.

  11. Validation of Simple Sequence Length Polymorphism Regions of Commonly Used Mouse Strains for Marker Assisted Speed Congenics Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marker assisted speed congenics technique is commonly used to facilitate backcrossing of mouse strains in nearly half the time it normally takes otherwise. Traditionally, the technique is performed by analyzing PCR amplified regions of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP markers between the recipient and donor strains: offspring with the highest number of markers showing the recipient genome across all chromosomes is chosen for the next generation. Although there are well-defined panels of SSLP makers established between certain pairs of mice strains, they are incomplete for most strains. The availability of well-established marker sets for speed congenic screens would enable the scientific community to transfer mutations across strain backgrounds. In this study, we tested the suitability of over 400 SSLP marker sets among 10 mouse strains commonly used for generating genetically engineered models. The panel of markers presented here can readily identify the specified strains and will be quite useful in marker assisted speed congenic screens. Moreover, unlike newer single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array methods which require sophisticated equipment, the SSLP markers panel described here only uses PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified products; therefore it can be performed in most research laboratories.

  12. Distribution and uptake of key polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Brenda J; Macdonald, Tara A; Macdonald, Robie W; Ross, Peter S

    2014-10-01

    As part of a broader study of budgets, transport, and bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, matching samples of sediment and bulk benthos were collected near two marine sewage outfalls, two large urban harbours, and background areas. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We present data for those congeners that fell within the top six rankings by concentration (23 PCBs and 10 PBDEs) within at least one of the environmental media measured in other studies (air, water, sediments, benthos, pelagic biota). Multifactor regression analyses incorporating sediment characteristics (total organic carbon, fines) predicted uptake (r (2) = 0.74 to 0.98, p supply food and sediments with PCB concentrations similar to ambient sediments. However, organic enrichment of sediments near outfalls clearly enhanced PCB uptake by benthos, probably due to greatly increased biomass turnover near these sources. Data suggest there to be an initial reservoir of PCBs in newly settled juvenile benthos, which is much less evident for PBDEs. This is likely a consequence of the ecosystem-wide distribution of legacy PCBs but not the more current-use PBDEs. Congener-uptake patterns were dependent on source and input dynamics, feeding methods, and contaminant metabolism or debromination, particularly of deca-BDE.

  13. Anti-plasmodial and anti-leishmanial activity of conformationally restricted pentamidine congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tien L; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Donkor, Isaac O; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L

    2006-08-01

    A library of 52 pentamidine congeners in which the flexible pentyldioxy linker in pentamidine was replaced with various restricted linkers was tested for in-vitro activity against two Plasmodium falciparum strains and Leishmania donovani. The tested compounds were generally more effective against P. falciparum than L. donovani. The most active compounds against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6, Sierra Leone) and -resistant (W2, Indochina) strains of P. falciparum were bisbenzamidines linked with a 1,4-piperazinediyl or 1, 4-homopiperazinediyl moiety, with IC50 values (50% inhibitory concentration, inhibiting parasite growth by 50% in relation to drug-free control) as low as 7 nM based on the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. Seven piperazine-linked bisbenzamidines substituted at the amidinium nitrogens with a linear alkyl group of 3-6 carbons (22, 25, 27, 31) or cycloalkyl group of 4, 6 or 7 carbons (26, 32, 34) were more potent (IC50pentamidine as anti-plasmodial agents. The most active anti-leishmanial agents were 4,4'-[1,4-phenylenebis(methyleneoxy)]bisbenzenecarboximidamide (2, IC50 approximately 0.290 microM) and 1,4-bis[4-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl] piperazine (44, IC50 approximately 0.410 microM), which were 10- and 7-fold more potent than pentamidine (IC50 approximately 2.90 microM). Several of the more active anti-plasmodial agents (e.g. 2, 31, 33, 36-38) were also potent anti-leishmanial agents, indicating broad antiprotozoal properties. However, a number of analogues that showed potent anti-plasmodial activity (1, 18, 21, 22, 25-28, 32, 43, 45) were not significantly active against the Leishmania parasite. This indicates differential modes of anti-plasmodial and anti-leishmanial actions for this class of compounds. These compounds provide important structure-activity relationship data for the design of improved chemotherapeutic agents against parasitic infections.

  14. Chapter Twelve

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  15. Acute Toxicities of the Saxitoxin Congeners Gonyautoxin 5, Gonyautoxin 6, Decarbamoyl Gonyautoxin 2&3, Decarbamoyl Neosaxitoxin, C-1&2 and C-3&4 to Mice by Various Routes of Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I. Selwood

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required. These are expressed as “Toxicity Equivalence Factors” (TEFs. At present, TEFs are largely based on relative specific activities following intraperitoneal injection in a mouse bioassay rather than on acute toxicity determinations. A more relevant parameter for comparison would be median lethal doses via oral administration, since this is the route through which humans are exposed to PSTs. In the present study, the median lethal doses of gonyautoxin 5, gonyautoxin 6, decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin and of equilibrium mixtures of decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2&3, C1&2 and C3&4 by oral administration to mice have been determined and compared with toxicities via intraperitoneal injection. The results indicate that the TEFs of several of these substances require revision in order to more accurately reflect the risk these toxins present to human health.

  16. Acute Toxicities of the Saxitoxin Congeners Gonyautoxin 5, Gonyautoxin 6, Decarbamoyl Gonyautoxin 2&3, Decarbamoyl Neosaxitoxin, C-1&2 and C-3&4 to Mice by Various Routes of Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwood, Andrew I; Waugh, Craig; Harwood, David T; Rhodes, Lesley L; Reeve, John; Sim, Jim; Munday, Rex

    2017-02-21

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required. These are expressed as "Toxicity Equivalence Factors" (TEFs). At present, TEFs are largely based on relative specific activities following intraperitoneal injection in a mouse bioassay rather than on acute toxicity determinations. A more relevant parameter for comparison would be median lethal doses via oral administration, since this is the route through which humans are exposed to PSTs. In the present study, the median lethal doses of gonyautoxin 5, gonyautoxin 6, decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin and of equilibrium mixtures of decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2&3, C1&2 and C3&4 by oral administration to mice have been determined and compared with toxicities via intraperitoneal injection. The results indicate that the TEFs of several of these substances require revision in order to more accurately reflect the risk these toxins present to human health.

  17. Generation of congenic mouse strains by introducing the virus-resistant genes, Mx1 and Oas1b, of feral mouse-derived inbred strain MSM/Ms into the common strain C57BL/6J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritoh, Kanako; Yamauchi, Hideto; Asano, Atsushi; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo; Isoda, Norikazu; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Nobuya; Agui, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    Mx1 (Myxovirus resistance protein) and Oaslb (Oligoadenylate synthetase-1), induced by type 1 interferon (IFN), play a role in early antiviral innate immunity by inhibiting the replication of viruses. In mice, Mx1 and Oas1b confer resistance to the infection of orthomyxoviruses including influenza viruses and flaviviruses including West Nile viruses, respectively. Laboratory mice have been used to study the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these virus infections; however, it is possible that they are not a suitable model system to study these viruses, since most of the inbred laboratory mouse strains lack both genes. It has been reported that feral mouse-derived inbred strains show resistance to the infection of these viruses due to the presence of intact both genes. In this study, we generated congenic strains in which the Mx or Oas locus of the MSM/Ms (MSM) mouce was introduced to the most widely used mouse strain, C57BL/6J (B6). B6.MSM-Mx mice showed resistance to the infection of influenza virus but not of West Nile virus. On the other hand, B6.MSM-Oas mice showed resistance to the infection of West Nile virus but not of influenza virus. Our results indicate that Mx1 and Oaslb show highly antiviral specificity in mice possessing the same genetic background. Therefore, these congenic mice are useful for not only infection study but also investigation of host defense mechanism to these viruses.

  18. Time trends and congener profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in Baltic herring off the coast of Finland during 1978-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, R; Hallikainen, A; Rantakokko, P; Ruokojärvi, P; Vuorinen, P J; Parmanne, R; Verta, M; Mannio, J; Kiviranta, H

    2014-11-01

    In Finland, consumption of Baltic fatty fish may lead to high exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which might have hazardous health effects. Monitoring of POPs in Baltic fish enables the health authorities to keep dietary advice on fish consumption up to date. In this study, which is a compilation of analytical data from earlier studies, time trends and congener profiles of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic herring are reported. Altogether 344 samples of Baltic herring from 1978-2009 were collected across the Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory with high resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry. During the 31-year period, PCDD/F and PCB concentrations decreased on approximately 80%, from approximately 20 to 5 pg/g fw, expressed as WHO2005 TEQ. The PBDE concentrations experienced a 4-10 fold increase during late 1980s-early 1990s, and declined to 1978s levels of approximately 2 ng/g fw by 2009. The current concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in Baltic herring are relatively low, and mostly below EU maximum accepted levels, and are expected to continue decreasing. In the future, it may be possible to re-evaluate the consumption restrictions for this specific Baltic fatty fish.

  19. Coronaridine congeners inhibit human α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by interacting with luminal and non-luminal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Hugo R; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Jozwiak, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the interaction of coronaridine congeners with human (h) α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), structural and functional approaches were used. The Ca(2+) influx results established that coronaridine congeners noncompetitively inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with the following potency (IC50's in μM) sequence: (-)-ibogamine (0.62±0.23)∼(+)-catharanthine (0.68±0.10)>(-)-ibogaine (0.95±0.10)>(±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC] (1.47±0.21)>(-)-voacangine (2.28±0.33)>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine (2.62±0.57 μM)∼(±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine (2.81±0.54)>(-)-noribogaine (6.82±0.78). A good linear correlation (r(2)=0.771) between the calculated IC50 values and their polar surface area was found, suggesting that this is an important structural feature for its activity. The radioligand competition results indicate that (±)-18-MC and (-)-ibogaine partially inhibit [(3)H]imipramine binding by an allosteric mechanism. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and in silico mutation results suggest that protonated (-)-18-MC binds to luminal [i.e., β4-Phe255 (phenylalanine/valine ring; position 13'), and α3-Leu250 and β4-Leu251 (leucine ring; position 9')], non-luminal, and intersubunit sites. The pharmacophore model suggests that nitrogens from the ibogamine core as well as methylamino, hydroxyl, and methoxyl moieties at position 18 form hydrogen bonds. Collectively our data indicate that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs by blocking the ion channel's lumen and probably by additional negative allosteric mechanisms by interacting with a series of non-luminal sites.

  20. Congenic mice provide evidence for a genetic locus that modulates spontaneous arthritis caused by deficiency of IL-1RA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Cao

    Full Text Available To understand the role of genetic factors involved in the development of spontaneous arthritis in mice deficient in IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL_1RA, we have identified a genomic region containing a major quantitative trait locus (QTL for this disease. The QTL is on chromosome 1 and appears to be the strongest genetic region regulating arthritis. To confirm the importance of the QTL and to identify potential candidate genes within it, we conducted speed congenic breeding to transfer the QTL region from DBA/1 mice that are resistant to spontaneous arthritis into BALB/c(-/- which are susceptible. Genetic markers along every chromosome were used to assist in the selection of progeny in each generation to backcross to BALB/c(-/-. By the 6th generation we determined that all of the chromosomes in the progeny were of BALB/c origin with the exception of portions of chromosome 1. At this stage we intercrossed selected mice to produce homozygous strains containing the genomic background of BALB/c(-/- except for the QTL region on chromosome 1, which was from DBA/1. We were able to establish two congenic strains with overlapping DBA/1 DNA segments. These strains were observed for the development of spontaneous arthritis. Both congenic strains were relatively resistant to spontaneous arthritis and had delayed onset and reduced severity of disease. The gene/s that regulates this major QTL would appear to be located in the region of the QTL that is shared by both strains. The common transferred region is between D1Mit110 and D1Mit209 on chromosome 1. We evaluated this region for candidate genes and have identified a limited number of candidates. Confirmation of the identity and precise role of the candidates will require additional study.

  1. Sex, BMI and age in addition to dietary intakes influence blood concentrations and congener profiles of dioxins and PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Helle K; Kvalem, Helen E; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Brantsaeter, Anne L; Alexander, Jan; Päpke, Olaf; Liane, Veronica H; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to i) characterize dietary polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin exposure in consumers of fish from the PCB contaminated Lake Mjøsa in Norway ii) examine the influence of demographic factors on blood concentrations and congener composition of dioxins and PCBs, iii) characterize dietary sources and possible exposures above tolerable intake. Blood samples were analysed for dioxin-like (dl) compounds (PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs) and non-dl-PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Dietary exposures were calculated using food frequency questionnaires (n=64). Men had higher median intake of dl-compounds than women (1.2 and 0.85 pg TEQ/kg bw/day), but similar blood concentrations (23.3 and 25.8, pg TEQ/g lipid weight (lw)). For non-dl-PCBs, intakes (6.5 and 4.5 ng/kg bw/day) and blood concentrations (381 and 224 ng/g lw) were higher in men than in women. Blood concentrations correlated with dietary intakes in men only. Increasing BMI and age elevated blood concentrations mainly in women. Men and women had different blood congener profiles, with a higher share of PCB-126 in women, despite similar dietary congener profiles. Eleven participants exceeded the tolerable intake for dl-compounds. Fish from Lake Mjøsa was the main dietary source. The higher influence of BMI and age for women than for men may have implications for risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Isolation and characterization of twelve microsatellite loci for the Japanese Devilray (Mobula japanica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Galvan-Magana, Felipe; Bernardi, Giacomo; Croll, Donald A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellites loci were characterized for Mobula japanica (Japanese Devilray) using an enrichment protocol. All but two loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium or null-alleles for a sample of 40 individuals from two populations. The num

  3. 17 CFR 210.3-06 - Financial statements covering a period of nine to twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975... to twelve months. Except with respect to registered investment companies, the filing of...

  4. Twelve new species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira Da; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-05-09

    Twelve species of Triplocania, seven based on male and female specimens and five based on male specimens, are here described and illustrated; nine species are Brazilian, three are Ecuadorian, and one of the latter is shared with Peru. Comments on sexes known and distribution of the species are included.

  5. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  6. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among students of ... Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. ... having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use ...

  7. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  8. A novel double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel proposal of double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding ac converter. Modular power units are developed from reconfigured eight classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI has one additional bi-directional switching ...

  9. Gradient HPLC separation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from its metabolites and biological congeners: role of tetrahydrofuran in the chromatographic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, András; Horváth, Péter; Szász, György; Veress, Gábor

    2009-08-01

    A three-step gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the separation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate ester (DHEA-S), its three C7-oxidized metabolites (7alphaOH-DHEA, 7betaOH-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA), and its biosynthetic congeners (androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, pregnenolone). This new method allows the quantitative characterization of DHEA metabolism and biosynthetic transformation under given physiological, pathological, or therapeutically influenced circumstances. Tetrahydrofuran probably acts as a proton acceptor coadsorbent, while isopropanol behaves as a proton donor during the separation of testosterone, estradiol, and the stereoisomers of 7-OH-DHEA.

  10. Isolation of a Genomic Region Affecting Most Components of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chromosome-16 Congenic Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Šedová

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent human disease with substantial genomic and environmental components. Previous studies indicate the presence of significant genetic determinants of several features of metabolic syndrome on rat chromosome 16 (RNO16 and the syntenic regions of human genome. We derived the SHR.BN16 congenic strain by introgression of a limited RNO16 region from the Brown Norway congenic strain (BN-Lx into the genomic background of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR strain. We compared the morphometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic profiles of adult male SHR and SHR.BN16 rats. We also compared in silico the DNA sequences for the differential segment in the BN-Lx and SHR parental strains. SHR.BN16 congenic rats had significantly lower weight, decreased concentrations of total triglycerides and cholesterol, and improved glucose tolerance compared with SHR rats. The concentrations of insulin, free fatty acids, and adiponectin were comparable between the two strains. SHR.BN16 rats had significantly lower systolic (18-28 mmHg difference and diastolic (10-15 mmHg difference blood pressure throughout the experiment (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.001. The differential segment spans approximately 22 Mb of the telomeric part of the short arm of RNO16. The in silico analyses revealed over 1200 DNA variants between the BN-Lx and SHR genomes in the SHR.BN16 differential segment, 44 of which lead to missense mutations, and only eight of which (in Asb14, Il17rd, Itih1, Syt15, Ercc6, RGD1564958, Tmem161a, and Gatad2a genes are predicted to be damaging to the protein product. Furthermore, a number of genes within the RNO16 differential segment associated with metabolic syndrome components in human studies showed polymorphisms between SHR and BN-Lx (including Lpl, Nrg3, Pbx4, Cilp2, and Stab1. Our novel congenic rat model demonstrates that a limited genomic region on RNO16 in the SHR significantly affects many of the features of metabolic

  11. Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: Twelve-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčević Mirjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors (RF of chronic noncontiguous diseases (CND are mutual and cannot be observed individually since there is an inter-reaction (interaction of RF in various combinations, what makes so-called personality risk profile for development of particular disease. Almost all CND belong to the group of preventable diseases, because their course may be influenced and changed through RF modification and reduction. Bad habits also contribute to CND incidence. CND prevention is the first priority of primary health care physicians. The main objective of our study was to detect RF in patients during everyday activities of general practitioner, to estimate the risk of CND within the existing RF combination, to show the results of 12-week active monitoring of population with RF of CND, and with already present CND; while the secondary goal was to assess how much population is interested in active collaboration as well as to evaluate the qualification of general medicine teams for work based on defined methodology. The study was multicentric, prospective and interventional. The study included 2086 subjects, aged from 25-64 years, and it was carried out in 17 health centers throughout Serbia in the period January-April 2002. The subjects were selected by method of open clinical experiment. Thereafter, 12-week medical intervention was initiated involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment. The first control was scheduled after 8, and the second after 12 months of intervention. Congruence χ2 test, ANOVA for repeated measurements and Logistic regression were used for statistical data processing. Out of a total of 2086 subjects, the following proportion of them reported specific diagnosis in their medical histories: 77% of them reported arterial hypertension (HTA, 68% - increased body mass (BMI>27Kg/m2, 66% - hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP, 34% - diabetes mellitus (DM, 56% - inadequate physical activity (PA, and 23% - cigarette smoking (CS. On the

  12. [Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: twelve-week prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapcević, Mirjana; Vuković, Mira

    2004-01-01

    Risk factors (RF) of chronic noncontiguous diseases (CND) are mutual and cannot be observed individually since there is an inter-reaction (interaction of RF in various combinations), what makes so-called personality risk profile for development of particular disease. Almost all CND belong to the group of preventable diseases, because their course may be influenced and changed through RF modification and reduction. Bad habits also contribute to CND incidence. CND prevention is the first priority of primary health care physicians. The main objective of our study was to detect RF in patients during everyday activities of general practitioner, to estimate the risk of CND within the existing RF combination, to show the results of 12-week active monitoring of population with RF of CND, and with already present CND; while the secondary goal was to assess how much population is interested in active collaboration as well as to evaluate the qualification of general medicine teams for work based on defined methodology. The study was multicentric, prospective and interventional. The study included 2086 subjects, aged from 25-64 years, and it was carried out in 17 health centers throughout Serbia in the period January-April 2002. The subjects were selected by method of open clinical experiment. Thereafter, 12-week medical intervention was initiated involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment. The first control was scheduled after 8, and the second after 12 months of intervention. Congruence chi2 test, ANOVA for repeated measurements and Logistic regression were used for statistical data processing. Out of a total of 2086 subjects, the following proportion of them reported specific diagnosis in their medical histories: 77% of them reported arterial hypertension (HTA), 68%--increased body mass (BMI > or = 27Kg/m2), 66%--hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), 34%--diabetes mellitus (DM), 56%--inadequate physical activity (PA), and 23%--cigarette smoking (CS). On the basis of

  13. Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: evolvement of distributions 1950–2010 studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lammel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants expected to decline in abiotic environmental media in response to decreasing primary emissions since the 1970s. A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with embedded dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry and air-surface exchange processes with soils, vegetation and the cryosphere is used to study the transport and fate of four PCB congeners covering a range of 3–7 chlorine atoms.

    The change of the geographic distribution of the PCB mixture reflects the sources and sinks' evolvement over time. Globally, secondary emissions (re-volatilisation from surfaces are on the long term increasingly gaining importance over primary emissions. Secondary emissions are most important for the congeners with 5–6 chlorine atoms. Correspondingly, the levels of these congeners are predicted to decrease slowest. Changes in congener mixture composition (fractionation are characterized both geographically and temporally. In high latitudes enrichment of the lighter, less persistent congeners and more delayed decreasing levels in response to decreasing emissions are found. The delivery of the contaminants to high latitudes is predicted to be more efficient than previously suggested. The results suggest furthermore that the effectiveness of emission control measures may significantly vary among substances. The trends of decline of organic contaminant levels in the abiotic environmental media do not only vary with latitude (slow in high latitudes, but do also show longitudinal gradients.

  14. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 1. Bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics of individual congeners and their debrominated metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munschy, C., E-mail: cmunschy@ifremer.f [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C.; Olivier, N. [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Gastineau, O.; Le Bayon, N.; Buchet, V. [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Adaptation, Reproduction and Nutrition of marine fish, BP 70, 29280 Plouzane (France)

    2011-01-15

    The uptake and elimination of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, then depurated over a five-month period. The results show that all of the studied PBDEs accumulate in fish tissues, including the higher brominated congener BDE-209. Several additional PBDE congeners were identified in the tissues of exposed fish, revealing PBDE transformation, mainly via debromination. The identified congeners originating from PBDE debromination include BDE-49 and BDE-202 and a series of unidentified tetra-, penta-, and hepta- BDEs. Contaminant assimilation efficiencies (AEs) were related to their hydrophobicity (log K{sub ow}) and influenced by PBDE biotransformation. Metabolism via debromination appears to be a major degradation route of PBDEs in juvenile sole in comparison to biotransformation into hydroxylated metabolites. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food accumulate PBDEs, including the higher brominated congeners, and have a debromination capacity.

  15. Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surficial sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material in Lake Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sander D; Landrum, Peter F; Van Hoof, Patricia L; Eadie, Brian J

    2008-02-01

    A unique time series of surface sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) samples were collected at a 45-m deep site off Grand Haven (MI, USA) over a 14-month period. Both concentrations and congener distributions remained constant for the sediments, although there were seasonal and interannual variability in the other matrices. Trapped settling material and suspended particulate material PCB concentrations were substantially lower (~50%) in 1997 than in the samples from December 1997 through July 1998. The cause could not be determined from the data collected, but there were some very large storms during the winter-spring period of 1998, resulting in major sediment resuspension throughout the southern basin. Observed seasonal variation in PCB concentration and congener distribution on particles likely was due to the changes in particle composition. These include particle size and the source of particles (such as the amount of resuspended sediment in trapped settling material), and the role of diagenesis of the organic matter on particles.

  16. Efficacy of Marek's disease vaccines in Mhc heterozygous chickens: Mhc congenic x inbred line F1 matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that Mhc (B) heterozygous chickens differ in efficacy of response to several Marek's disease (MD) vaccines. Four types of B2 heterozygotes, in addition to B2B2 homozygotes, were developed by crossing 15.B congenic males to inbred line 7(1) (B2B2) hens. The five types of F1 chicks were intermingled in isolators and vaccinated with one of four types of MD vaccine before inoculation with the very virulent Md5 strain of MD herpesvirus. The F1 chickens differ in development of protective immunity following MD vaccination from two perspectives. First, chickens of a particular Mhc genotype were protected better by some vaccines than others. Second, individual vaccine preparations protected some Mhc genotypes more effectively. We conclude that some MD vaccines are more appropriate than others for certain B-haplotypes when chickens are heterozygous for the Mhc. The value of using Mhc-congenic x inbred line F1 animals for studies concerning the influence of the Mhc on vaccinal immunity is discussed.

  17. Combined effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls congeners in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, I. [Environmental Science Bureau, Ottawa (Canada); Valli, V.E. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana (United States)

    2004-09-15

    There has been considerable interest in conducting toxicity studies on mixtures since this approach represents realistic human exposure and would provide a better model to predict the health impacts of environmental chemicals. However, risk assessment of the chemicals is largely based on the toxicity data of individual compounds by assuming simple additive effects of these compounds. This practice has been accepted by regulatory agencies provided that the concentrations of chemicals are extremely low, and there are no interactions. The existence of interactions among the chemicals co-administered to test animals may under or over estimate the effects of a mixture if the simple additive rule is applied. Previously, we demonstrated an antagonistic effect in rats when tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was co-administered with polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). The hepatic microsomal EROD, MROD and UDPGT activities of TCDD were decreased when co-administered with PCB congeners. To further explore the combined effects of these pollutants, we examined and report results on tissue residue levels of TCDD and histopathological changes in target organs of rats exposed to TCDD, PCBs and mixtures of both.

  18. Twelve positions in a β-lactamase that can expand its substrate spectrum with a single amino acid substitution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojeong Yi

    Full Text Available The continuous evolution of β-lactamases resulting in bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is a major concern in public health, and yet the underlying molecular basis or the pattern of such evolution is largely unknown. We investigated the mechanics of the substrate fspectrum expansion of the class A β-lactamase using PenA of Burkholderia thailandensis as a model. By analyzing 516 mutated enzymes that acquired the ceftazidime-hydrolyzing activity, we found twelve positions with single amino acid substitutions (altogether twenty-nine different substitutions, co-localized at the active-site pocket area. The ceftazidime MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration levels and the relative frequency in the occurrence of substitutions did not correlate well with each other, and the latter appeared be largely influenced by the intrinsic mutational biases present in bacteria. Simulation studies suggested that all substitutions caused a congruent effect, expanding the space in a conserved structure called the omega loop, which in turn increased flexibility at the active site. A second phase of selection, in which the mutants were placed under increased antibiotic pressure, did not result in a second mutation in the coding region, but a mutation that increased gene expression arose in the promoter. This result suggests that the twelve amino acid positions and their specific substitutions in PenA may represent a comprehensive repertoire of the enzyme's adaptability to a new substrate. These mapped substitutions represent a comprehensive set of general mechanical paths to substrate spectrum expansion in class A β-lactamases that all share a functional evolutionary mechanism using common conserved residues.

  19. Variable immune cell frequencies in peripheral blood of LEW.1AR1-iddm rats over time compared to other congenic LEW strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, T; Jörns, A; Hedrich, H-J; Lenzen, S; Wedekind, D

    2014-01-01

    The LEW.1AR1-iddm rat is an animal model of human type 1 diabetes (T1D), which arose through a spontaneous mutation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-congenic background strain LEW.1AR1. The LEW.1AR1-iddm rat is characterized by two phenotypes: diabetes development with a diabetes incidence of 60% and a variable T cell frequency in peripheral blood. In this study the immune cell repertoire of LEW.1AR1-iddm rats was analysed over time from days 30 to 90 of life and compared to the background strain LEW.1AR1 and the LEW rat strain as well as the LEW.1WR1 rat strain. The LEW.1AR1-iddm rats are characterized by a high variability of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell frequencies in peripheral blood over time, and the frequency is unique for each animal. The variability within the frequencies resulted in changes of the CD4+ : CD8+ T cell ratio. The other three rat strains studied were characterized by a stable but nevertheless strain-specific T cell frequency resulting in a specific CD4+ : CD8+ T cell ratio. The frequency of natural killer (NK) cells and B cells in LEW.1AR1-iddm rats was increased, with a higher variability compared to the other strains. Only monocytes showed no differences in frequency and variability between all strains studied. These variabilities of immune cell frequencies in the LEW.1AR1-iddm rats might lead to imbalances between autoreactive and regulatory T cells in peripheral blood as a prerequisite for diabetes development. PMID:24628466

  20. Anatomical studies on twelve clones of Camellia species with reference to their taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies of leaf and stem of twelve clones of Camellia were investigated. Cross sections of the stem of all the clones exhibited a typical pattern of arrangement of tissues characteristics of woody plants. Two types of idioblastic sclereids were found in the medullary parenchyma of the taxa studied. While astrosclereids werepresent in 10 of the twelve clones, the vesciculose sclereids were found only in the four clones belonging to C. sinensis. Leaves of the clones show variations in the number of palisade layers. Astro sclereids, brachy sclereids, and dendritic forms were observed in the leaves, their distribution varying in the different clones. A few other micromorphological features are also recorded. Our study forms a basis for answering uncertainties in taxonomic revision in the genus Camellia.

  1. Descriptions of twelve new species of ochyroceratids (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae) from mainland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupérré, Nadine

    2015-05-12

    Twelve new species in three different genera from the spider family Ochyroceratidae are described from mainland Ecuador: Speocera bioforestae sp. n., Speocera violacea sp. n., Speocera musgo sp. n., Ochyrocera rinocerotos sp. n., Ochyrocera callaina sp. n., Ochyrocera italoi sp. n., Ochyrocera minotaure sp. n., Ochyrocera losrios sp. n., Ochyrocera zabaleta sp. n., Ochyrocera otonga sp. n., Ochyrocera cashcatotoras sp. n. and Psiloochyrocera tortilis sp. n. Speocera machadoi Gertsch 1977 is transferred to Ochyrocera.

  2. A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2003-12-13

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  3. Premarital Sex in the Last Twelve Months and Its Predictors among Students of Wollega University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Tesfaye; Chala, Dereje; Adeba, Emiru

    2016-07-01

    Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega University. A cross-sectional survey using pretested, structured questionnaire was conducted on a total of 704 regular undergraduate students of Wollega University from February to March, 2014. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit study participants. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were performed using SPSS version 20 to assess predictors of premarital sex. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Wollega University youths who had premarital sex in the last twelve months were 28.4%; 55.5% of them did not use condom during last sex while 31.3% engaged in multiple sex. Being male [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)(95% Confidence Interval(CI))=2.7(1.58-4.75)], age 20-24 years [AOR(95%CI)=2.8(1.13-7.20)], training on how to use condom [AOR(95%CI)=1.7(1.17-2.46)], being tested for HIV [AOR(95%CI)=2.3(1.48-3.53)], using social media frequently [AOR(95%CI)=1.8(1.14-2.88)], having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use [AOR (95%CI)=2.2(1.31-3.56)] were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the last twelve months. Nearly one-third of regular undergraduate students of the university were engaged in premarital sex in the last twelve months. Being male, using social media frequently and alcohol use were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the stated period. Thus, higher institutions have to deliver abstinence messages alongside information about self-protection.

  4. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincaré symmetry in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Pasqua, A; Zumino, B; Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  5. Comparative gene expression profiling in two congenic mouse strains following Bordetella pertussis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demant Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to Bordetella pertussis infection varies widely. These differences can partly be explained by genetic host factors. HcB-28 mice are more resistant to B. pertussis infection than C3H mice, which could partially be ascribed to the B. pertussis susceptibility locus-1 (Bps1 on chromosome 12. The presence of C57BL/10 genome on this locus instead of C3H genome resulted in a decreased number of bacteria in the lung. To further elucidate the role of host genetic factors, in particular in the Bps1 locus, in B. pertussis infection, and to identify candidate genes within in this region, we compared expression profiles in the lungs of the C3H and HcB-28 mouse strains following B. pertussis inoculation. Twelve and a half percent of the genomes of these mice are from a different genetic background. Results Upon B. pertussis inoculation 2,353 genes were differentially expressed in the lungs of both mouse strains. Two hundred and six genes were differentially expressed between the two mouse strains, but, remarkably, none of these were up- or down-regulated upon B. pertussis infection. Of these 206 genes, 17 were located in the Bps1 region. Eight of these genes, which showed a strong difference in gene expression between the two mouse strains, map to the immunoglobulin heavy chain complex (Igh. Conclusion Gene expression changes upon B. pertussis infection are highly identical between the two mouse strains despite the differences in the course of B. pertussis infection. Because the genes that were differentially regulated between the mouse strains only showed differences in expression before infection, it appears likely that such intrinsic differences in gene regulation are involved in determining differences in susceptibility to B. pertussis infection. Alternatively, such genetic differences in susceptibility may be explained by genes that are not differentially regulated between these two mouse strains. Genes in the Igh

  6. Novel analytical approach for brominated flame retardants based on the use of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with emphasis in highly brominated congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, Tania; Sales, Carlos; Gómara, Belén; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Beltrán, Joaquim; Herrero, Laura; González, María José; Hernández, Félix

    2015-10-06

    The analysis of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly relies on the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using quadrupole, triple quadrupole, ion trap, and magnetic sector analyzers. However, these brominated contaminants are examples of compounds for which a soft and robust ionization technique might be favorable since they show high fragmentation in EI and low specificity in ECNI. In addition, the low limits of quantification (0.01 ng/g) required by European Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on the monitoring of traces of BFRs in food put stress on the use of highly sensitive techniques/methods. In this work, a new approach for the extremely sensitive determination of BFRs taking profit of the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) combined with GC and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer is proposed. The objective was to explore the potential of this approach for the BFRs determination in samples at pg/g levels, taking marine samples and a cream sample as a model. Ionization and fragmentation behavior of 14 PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two novel BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), in the GC-APCI-MS system has been investigated. The formation of highly abundant (quasi) molecular ion was the main advantage observed in relation to EI. Thus, a notable improvement in sensitivity and specificity was observed when using it as precursor ion in tandem MS. The improved detectability (LODs < 10 fg) achieved when using APCI compared to EI has been demonstrated, which is especially relevant for highly brominated congeners. Analysis of samples from an intercomparison exercise and samples from the marine field showed the potential of this approach for the reliable identification and quantification at very low

  7. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils.

  8. Different Responses of an Invasive Clonal Plant Wedelia trilobata and its Native Congener to Gibberellin: Implications for Biological Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhi-Cong; Fu, Wei; Qi, Shan-Shan; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Wan, Ling-Yun; Huang, Ping; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-02-01

    The invasive clonal plant Wedelia trilobata contains higher levels of ent-kaurane diterpenes, which are precursors of gibberellins (GAs), and higher rates of clonal growth than its native congener W. chinensis in invaded habitats. We hypothesized that the higher levels of endogenous GAs facilitate greater ramet growth in W. trilobata compared with W. chinensis. We quantified endogenous levels of GA1+3 in the two species and compared their growth responses to the changes of endogenous and exogenous GA3 by using short-term and long-term hydroponics experiments. After a period of homogeneous cultivation, levels of endogenous GA1+3 were higher in W. trilobata than in W. chinensis. The reduction of endogenous GAs repressed the emergence of adventitious roots and the growth of W. trilobata in the initial cultivation stage, and inhibited its shoot elongation and biomass. Levels of endogenous GA1+3 were positively correlated with the length of shoots and adventitious roots of W. trilobata. Adventitious roots of W. trilobata also emerged earlier and grew faster when treated with exogenous GA3. In contrast, exogenous GA3 treatment inhibited the length of adventitious roots in W. chinensis, and levels of endogenous GA1+3 did not correlate with shoot or adventitious root length. Our study suggests that GAs accelerate the rapid clonal growth of W. trilobata, more than that of its native congener W. chinensis, illustrating the relationship between plant hormones and the clonal growth of invasive plants. These findings are important for understanding the mechanisms associated with the invasiveness of clonal plants and their potential management.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals.

  10. (+)Lysergic acid diethylamide, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a potent serotonin 5HT1C receptor agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, K.D.; Breeding, M.; Sanders-Bush, E. (Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Activation of central serotonin 5HT2 receptors is believed to be the primary mechanism whereby lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other hallucinogens induce psychoactive effects. This hypothesis is based on extensive radioligand binding and electrophysiological and behavioral studies in laboratory animals. However, the pharmacological profiles of 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptors are similar, making it difficult to distinguish between effects due to activation of one or the other receptor. For this reason, it was of interest to investigate the interaction of LSD with 5HT1C receptors. Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat choroid plexus was used as a direct measure of 5HT1C receptor activation. (+)LSD potently stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in intact choroid plexus and in cultures of choroid plexus epithelial cells, with EC50 values of 9 and 26 nM, respectively. The effect of (+)LSD in both systems was blocked by 5HT receptor antagonists with an order of activity consistent with interaction at 5HT1C receptors. Neither (+)-2-bromo-LSD nor lisuride, two nonhallucinogenic congeners of LSD, were able to stimulate 5HT1C receptors in cultured cells or intact choroid plexus. In contrast, lisuride, like (+)LSD, is a partial agonist at 5HT2 receptors in cerebral cortex slices and in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with 5HT2 receptor cDNA. The present finding that (+)LSD, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a 5HT1C receptor agonist suggests a possible role for these receptors in mediating the psychoactive effects of LSD.

  11. Dopamine-dependent behavior in adult rats after perinatal exposure to purity-controlled polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB52 and PCB180).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Heikkinen, Päivi; Andersson, Patrik L; van der Ven, Leo T M; Viluksela, Matti

    2014-01-03

    Since knowledge about toxic effects of non-dioxinlike (NDL) PCBs is fragmentary, regulatory panels have concluded that risk assessment of these congeners is hampered or impossible. As the dopaminergic system is one of the main targets in PCB-related neurotoxic effects after developmental exposure, we selected catalepsy induced by the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol to characterize effects of the NDL congeners PCB52 and PCB180 in adult offspring from exposed rat dams. Rat dams were treated with PCB congeners by gavage using six dose levels (total doses: PCB52 - 0, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 3000 mg/kg body wt.; PCB180 - 0, 10, 30, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg body wt.) to allow benchmark dose analysis of the results. Testing of adult offspring (starting at 180 days of age) for catalepsy induced by injection with haloperidol revealed slightly prolonged latencies to movement onset in female offspring exposed to PCB52. Exposure to PCB180 resulted in more pronounced effects, with generally reduced latencies in male offspring. These results indicate reduced dopaminergic activity after PCB52 exposure, whereas the outcome for PCB180 may be related to increased extracellular dopamine as reported in the literature.Benchmark dose analyses revealed that both PCB congeners exerted effects mainly at moderate exposure levels. Together, these results underline the importance of effects on the dopaminergic system as indicated by studies in human females after occupational PCB exposure.

  12. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  13. CD8+ T cells are crucial for the ability of congenic normal mice to reject highly immunogenic sarcomas induced in nude mice with 3-methylcholanthrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M; Svane, I M; Engel, A M;

    2000-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify the selection pressures put upon a growing tumour by CD8+ T cells. To this end tumours induced with 3-methylcholanthrene in T cell-deficient nude mice and in congenic T cell-competent nu/+ mice were transplanted to nu/+ recipients. The rejection rate of the sarcomas...

  14. Phenomenological and Spectroscopic Analysis on the Effects of Sediment Ageing and Organic Carbon on the Fate of a PCB Congener Spiked to Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the full cycle transport and fate of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener spiked to sediment to empirically and spectroscopically investigate the effects of sediment ageing and organic carbon on the adsorption, desorption, and reaction of the PCB. Caesar ...

  15. Definition of a Twelve-Point Polygonal SAA Boundaryfor the GLAST Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; /UC, Santa Cruz /SLAC

    2007-08-29

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), set to launch in early 2008, detects gamma rays within a huge energy range of 100 MeV - 300 GeV. Background cosmic radiation interferes with such detection resulting in confusion over distinguishing cosmic from gamma rays encountered. This quandary is resolved by encasing GLAST's Large Area Telescope (LAT) with an Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD), a device which identifies and vetoes charged particles. The ACD accomplishes this through plastic scintillator tiles; when cosmic rays strike, photons produced induce currents in Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) attached to these tiles. However, as GLAST orbits Earth at altitudes {approx}550km and latitudes between -26 degree and 26 degree, it will confront the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region of high particle flux caused by trapped radiation in the geomagnetic field. Since the SAA flux would degrade the sensitivity of the ACD's PMTs over time, a determined boundary enclosing this region need be attained, signaling when to lower the voltage on the PMTs as a protective measure. The operational constraints on such a boundary require a convex SAA polygon with twelve edges, whose area is minimal ensuring GLAST has maximum observation time. The AP8 and PSB97 models describing the behavior of trapped radiation were used in analyzing the SAA and defining a convex SAA boundary of twelve sides. The smallest possible boundary was found to cover 14.58% of GLAST's observation time. Further analysis of defining a boundary safety margin to account for inaccuracies in the models reveals if the total SAA hull area is increased by {approx}20%, the loss of total observational area is < 5%. These twelve coordinates defining the SAA flux region are ready for implementation by the GLAST satellite.

  16. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-07-08

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.

  17. New Eyes on the Universe Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "New Eyes on the Universe -- Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them" gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Uni

  18. DETECTION OF CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN TWELVE PRIMARY GASTRIC CANCERS BY DIRECT CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS AND FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Direct chromosome analysis and FISH were performed on twelve primary gastric carcinomas. Two of them had simple chromosome changes: 48,XX, +8, +20, and 49, XY, +2, +8, +9, and the others had complicated chromosome changes, which includes much more numerical and structural chromosome aberrations. Frequent structural changes in the complicated types involved chromosome 7, 3, 1, 5 and 12 etc. The del 7q was noted in eight cases. The del (3p) and del (1p) were noted in six and five cases, respectively. The results provide some important clues for isolation of the genes related to gastric cancer.

  19. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenda [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); He, Kaiyu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berthiller, Franz [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Tulln (Austria); Adam, Gerhard [Dept. of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko [Food and Life Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa Pref., 252-5201 (Japan); Watanabe, Maiko [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Krantis, Anthony [Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa (Canada); Durst, Tony [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Ottawa (Canada); Zhang, Haibin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in the young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, from several nursery habitats along the US Atlantic coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dockum, Bruce W

    2013-12-15

    Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were examined by using high resolution gas chromatography-low resolution electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) in 414 samples of young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) collected from a total of 29 nursery habitats along the US Atlantic coastline from Massachusetts to Florida. Of the 26 target PBDE congeners, BDE-47 (4 Br), BDE-100 (5 Br), BDE-49 (4 Br), BDE-99 (5 Br), and BDE-154 (6 Br) were the five most frequently detected congeners in the order of decreasing importance. The sum of the concentrations of five major PBDE congeners, referred to as ΣPBDEs, varied between estuaries and also among samples from a given estuary. ΣPBDEs were lowest in YOY bluefish from Vineyard Sound, Nantucket Sound, Great Bay, Delaware Bay, Lynnhaven Bay, Cape Lookout, and Crescent Beach, with maximum ΣPBDE concentrations below 10 ng/g wet weight. ΣPBDEs in three bluefish samples from Stamford Harbor were detected at relatively high to unusually high concentrations of 69.1, 205, and 561 ng/g wet weight. ΣPBDE values for other Stamford Harbor bluefish were generally low. Highest PBDE concentrations were detected in the vicinity of industrial and urban locations within the New York-New Jersey metropolitan complex. Among them, bluefish from Newark Bay were generally the most contaminated with an average ΣPBDE value of 56.6 ± 30.8 ng/g wet weight. ΣPBDEs in bluefish from Newark Bay were numerically greater than ΣPBDEs in bluefish from all locations, however these differences were not statistically significant. Modest to good correlations between ΣPBDEs and lipids were observed for YOY bluefish from Buzzards Bay, Upper New Bedford Harbor, Lower New Bedford Harbor, Outer New Bedford Harbor, Providence Harbor, Housatonic River, Norwalk Harbor, Little Neck Bay, Newark Bay, Sandy Hook Bay, Great Bay, Delaware Bay, Patuxent River and Crescent Beach. Poor correlations between ΣPBDE and lipids were

  1. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  2. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  3. Approximate analytic method for high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashkovyaka, M. A.; Zaslavskii, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an approach to the study of the evolution of high-apogee twelve-hour orbits of artificial Earth's satellites. We describe parameters of the motion model used for the artificial Earth's satellite such that the principal gravitational perturbations of the Moon and Sun, nonsphericity of the Earth, and perturbations from the light pressure force are approximately taken into account. To solve the system of averaged equations describing the evolution of the orbit parameters of an artificial satellite, we use both numeric and analytic methods. To select initial parameters of the twelve-hour orbit, we assume that the path of the satellite along the surface of the Earth is stable. Results obtained by the analytic method and by the numerical integration of the evolving system are compared. For intervals of several years, we obtain estimates of oscillation periods and amplitudes for orbital elements. To verify the results and estimate the precision of the method, we use the numerical integration of rigorous (not averaged) equations of motion of the artificial satellite: they take into account forces acting on the satellite substantially more completely and precisely. The described method can be applied not only to the investigation of orbit evolutions of artificial satellites of the Earth; it can be applied to the investigation of the orbit evolution for other planets of the Solar system provided that the corresponding research problem will arise in the future and the considered special class of resonance orbits of satellites will be used for that purpose.

  4. Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K. B.; Ma, Y.; Tan, X. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Liu, G.; Li, Z. L.; Chen, J. M.; Xia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Global surface temperature change is one of the most important aspects in global climate change research. In this study, in order to overcome shortcomings of traditional observation methods in meteorology, a new method is proposed to calculate global mean surface temperature based on remote sensing data. We found that (1) the global mean surface temperature was close to 14.35 °C from 2001 to 2012, and the warmest and coldest surface temperatures of the global in the recent twelve years occurred in 2005 and 2008, respectively; (2) the warmest and coldest surface temperatures on the global land surface occurred in 2005 and 2001, respectively, and on the global ocean surface in 2010 and 2008, respectively; and (3) in recent twelve years, although most regions (especially the Southern Hemisphere) are warming, global warming is yet controversial because it is cooling in the central and eastern regions of Pacific Ocean, northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean, northern regions of China, Mongolia, southern regions of Russia, western regions of Canada and America, the eastern and northern regions of Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. The analysis of daily and seasonal temperature change indicates that the temperature change is mainly caused by the variation of orbit of celestial body. A big data model based on orbit position and gravitational-magmatic change of celestial body with the solar or the galactic system should be built and taken into account for climate and ecosystems change at a large spatial-temporal scale.

  5. 5S rDNA characterization in twelve Sciaenidae fish species (Teleostei, Perciformes: depicting gene diversity and molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the genetic data on the Sciaenidae fish family, the present study had the purpose to characterize PCR-generated 5S rDNA repeats of twelve species of this group through PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis analysis. The results showed the occurrence of at least two different 5S rDNA size classes in all the species. Moreover, 5S rDNA repeats of one of the studied species - Isopisthus parvipinnis - were cloned and subjected to nucleotide sequencing and Southern blot membrane hybridization analyses, which permitted to confirm the existence of two major 5S rDNA classes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of different 5S rDNA repeats of I. parvipinnis lead to their separation into two major clusters. These results may reflect the high dynamism that rules the evolution rate of 5S rDNA repeats. The obtained data suggest that 5S rDNA can be useful in genetic analyses to identify species-specific markers and determine relationships among species of the Sciaenidae group.

  6. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  7. Long-range atmospheric transport of three toxaphene congeners across Europe. Modeling by chained single-box FATEMOD program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasivirta, Jaakko; Sinkkonen, Seija; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Kryuchkov, Fedor; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Laihia, Katri; Valkonen, Arto; Lahtinen, Manu

    2009-03-01

    Since toxaphene (polychlorocamphene, polychloropinene, or strobane) mixtures were applied for massive insecticide use in the 1960s to replace the use of DDT, some of their congeners have been found at high latitudes far away from the usage areas. Especially polychlorinated bornanes have demonstrated dominating congeners transported by air up to the Arctic areas. Environmental fate modeling has been applied to monitor this phenomenon using parallel zones of atmosphere around the globe as interconnected environments. These zones, shown in many meteorological maps, however, may not be the best way to configure atmospheric transport in air trajectories. The latter could also be covered by connecting a chain of simple model boxes. We aim to study this alternative approach by modeling the trajectory chain using catchment boxes of our FATEMOD model. Polychlorobornanes analyzed in biota of the Barents Sea offered one case to study this modeling alternative, while toxaphene has been and partly still is used massively at southern East Europe and around rivers flowing to the Aral Sea. Pure model substances of three polychlorobornanes (toxaphene congeners P26, P50, and P62) were synthesized, their environmentally important thermal properties measured by differential scanning calorimetry, as evaluated from literature data, and their temperature dependences estimated by the QSPR programs VPLEST, WATSOLU, and TDLKOW. The evaluated property parameters were used to model their atmospheric long-range transport from toxaphene heavy usage areas in Ukraine and Aral/SyrDarja/AmuDarja region areas, through East Europe and Northern Norway (Finnmarken) to the Barents Sea. The time period used for the emission model was June 1997. Usual weather conditions in June were applied in the model, which was constructed by chaining FATEMOD model boxes of the catchment's areas along assumed maximal air flow trajectories. Analysis of the three chlorobornanes in toxaphene mixtures function as a basis

  8. Mechanisms of action in integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment versus twelve-step facilitation for substance-dependent adults with comorbid major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Tate, Susan R; McQuaid, John R; Cummins, Kevin; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A

    2007-09-01

    In a population of veterans with co-occurring substance use disorders and concomitant major depressive disorder, the current study compared mechanisms of change and therapeutic effects relevant to both disorders between integrated, dual disorder-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) and twelve-step facilitation (TSF). Veterans (N = 148) were given standard pharmacotherapy for depression and were randomly assigned to receive 24 weeks of either TSF or ICBT. Process measures were selected to quantify (1) changes in self-efficacy in ICBT, (2) changes in ability to terminate negative affect in ICBT, (3) twelve-step affiliation (TSA) in TSF, and (4) changes in social support in both conditions. Measures of depression and substance use were administered to all participants before treatment, during treatment, and at the end of treatment. Self-efficacy increased among both TSF and ICBT participants during treatment, whereas self-reported ability to regulate negative affect did not change. Consistent with predictions, TSF participants increased community TSA during treatment, whereas those receiving ICBT reduced TSA. Changes in self-efficacy and TSA were associated with improvement in substance use outcomes at the end of treatment. Hypothesized changes in social support were not supported. Both ICBT and TSF produce improvements in self-efficacy, and these changes are related to substance use outcomes for depressed substance abusers. In TSF, intervention-specific changes in TSA occur during the course of treatment and are related to substance use outcomes.

  9. Development of toxic equivalency factors for PCB congeners and the assessment of TCDD and PCB mixtures in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Giesy, John P.; Crawford, Robert A.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gooch, Jay W.; Denison, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between mammalian and piscine 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, based on induction of CYP1A enzyme activity, catalytic protein, and mRNA. Rainbow trout administered a single i.p. injection of TCDD had an average (±SD) ED50 of 0.91 ± 0.14 μg TCDD/kg for induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Ortho-substituted PCB congeners 2,3,3′,4,4′-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105), 2,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 2,3,3′4,4′5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB !56), and 2,2′3,4,4′,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 138) did not induce CYP1A activity in rainbow trout. Only three non-ortho-substituted PCBs, i.e., 3,3′4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), and 3,3′4,4′5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) induced CYP1A enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA. The ED50s for induction of EROD activity were calculated as 134, 5.82, and 93.7 μg/kg for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. The TCDD-TEFs based on EROD activity were 0.0006, 0.0014, and 0.0003 for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. Binary mixtures of TCDD and three PCBs were also evaluated. Based on EROD activity and CYP1A protein, mixtures of TCDD and PCB 77 were slightly greater than additive. Mixtures of TCDD-PCB 156 and TCDD-PCB 126 were slightly less than additive. Results from these studies indicate that mammal-derived TEFs will underestimate the potency of planar chlorinated hydrocarbon mixtures to induce the CYP1A catalytic activity in rainbow trout. Also, while interactions among PCB congeners and TCDD were somewhat equivocal, they did not greatly differ from predicted additive responses.

  10. Twelve novel HGD gene variants identified in 99 alkaptonuria patients: focus on 'black bone disease' in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Martina; Radvanszky, Jan; Kadasi, Ludevit; Ascher, David B; Pires, Douglas E V; Blundell, Tom L; Porfirio, Berardino; Mannoni, Alessandro; Santucci, Annalisa; Milucci, Lia; Sestini, Silvia; Biolcati, Gianfranco; Sorge, Fiammetta; Aurizi, Caterina; Aquaron, Robert; Alsbou, Mohammed; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Ramadevi, Kanakasabapathi; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Gallagher, James A; van Kan, Christa; Hall, Anthony K; Olsson, Birgitta; Sireau, Nicolas; Ayoob, Hana; Timmis, Oliver G; Sang, Kim-Hanh Le Quan; Genovese, Federica; Imrich, Richard; Rovensky, Jozef; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Bharadwaj, Shruthi K; Spiegel, Ronen; Zatkova, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene leading to the deficiency of HGD enzyme activity. The DevelopAKUre project is underway to test nitisinone as a specific treatment to counteract this derangement of the phenylalanine-tyrosine catabolic pathway. We analysed DNA of 40 AKU patients enrolled for SONIA1, the first study in DevelopAKUre, and of 59 other AKU patients sent to our laboratory for molecular diagnostics. We identified 12 novel DNA variants: one was identified in patients from Brazil (c.557T>A), Slovakia (c.500C>T) and France (c.440T>C), three in patients from India (c.469+6T>C, c.650-85A>G, c.158G>A), and six in patients from Italy (c.742A>G, c.614G>A, c.1057A>C, c.752G>A, c.119A>C, c.926G>T). Thus, the total number of potential AKU-causing variants found in 380 patients reported in the HGD mutation database is now 129. Using mCSM and DUET, computational approaches based on the protein 3D structure, the novel missense variants are predicted to affect the activity of the enzyme by three mechanisms: decrease of stability of individual protomers, disruption of protomer-protomer interactions or modification of residues in the region of the active site. We also present an overview of AKU in Italy, where so far about 60 AKU cases are known and DNA analysis has been reported for 34 of them. In this rather small group, 26 different HGD variants affecting function were described, indicating rather high heterogeneity. Twelve of these variants seem to be specific for Italy.

  11. Twelve novel HGD gene variants identified in 99 alkaptonuria patients: focus on ‘black bone disease' in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Martina; Radvanszky, Jan; Kadasi, Ludevit; Ascher, David B; Pires, Douglas E V; Blundell, Tom L; Porfirio, Berardino; Mannoni, Alessandro; Santucci, Annalisa; Milucci, Lia; Sestini, Silvia; Biolcati, Gianfranco; Sorge, Fiammetta; Aurizi, Caterina; Aquaron, Robert; Alsbou, Mohammed; Marques Lourenço, Charles; Ramadevi, Kanakasabapathi; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Gallagher, James A; van Kan, Christa; Hall, Anthony K; Olsson, Birgitta; Sireau, Nicolas; Ayoob, Hana; Timmis, Oliver G; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Genovese, Federica; Imrich, Richard; Rovensky, Jozef; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Bharadwaj, Shruthi K; Spiegel, Ronen; Zatkova, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene leading to the deficiency of HGD enzyme activity. The DevelopAKUre project is underway to test nitisinone as a specific treatment to counteract this derangement of the phenylalanine-tyrosine catabolic pathway. We analysed DNA of 40 AKU patients enrolled for SONIA1, the first study in DevelopAKUre, and of 59 other AKU patients sent to our laboratory for molecular diagnostics. We identified 12 novel DNA variants: one was identified in patients from Brazil (c.557T>A), Slovakia (c.500C>T) and France (c.440T>C), three in patients from India (c.469+6T>C, c.650–85A>G, c.158G>A), and six in patients from Italy (c.742A>G, c.614G>A, c.1057A>C, c.752G>A, c.119A>C, c.926G>T). Thus, the total number of potential AKU-causing variants found in 380 patients reported in the HGD mutation database is now 129. Using mCSM and DUET, computational approaches based on the protein 3D structure, the novel missense variants are predicted to affect the activity of the enzyme by three mechanisms: decrease of stability of individual protomers, disruption of protomer-protomer interactions or modification of residues in the region of the active site. We also present an overview of AKU in Italy, where so far about 60 AKU cases are known and DNA analysis has been reported for 34 of them. In this rather small group, 26 different HGD variants affecting function were described, indicating rather high heterogeneity. Twelve of these variants seem to be specific for Italy. PMID:25804398

  12. The YUMM lines: a series of congenic mouse melanoma cell lines with defined genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeth, Katrina; Wang, Jake Xiao; Micevic, Goran; Damsky, William; Bosenberg, Marcus W

    2016-09-01

    The remarkable success of immune therapies emphasizes the need for immune-competent cancer models. Elegant genetically engineered mouse models of a variety of cancers have been established, but their effective use is limited by cost and difficulties in rapidly generating experimental data. Some mouse cancer cell lines are transplantable to immunocompetent host mice and have been utilized extensively to study cancer immunology. Here, we describe the Yale University Mouse Melanoma (YUMM) lines, a comprehensive system of mouse melanoma cell lines that are syngeneic to C57BL/6, have well-defined human-relevant driver mutations, and are genomically stable. This will be a useful tool for the study of tumor immunology and genotype-specific cancer biology.

  13. Exploring Content Schemata Influence on L2 Reading: The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amizura Hanadi Mohd Radzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the aspects of content schemata in second language reading among diploma level students who were taking a reading course in Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis. In this qualitative case study, the researcher had selected two short stories that are categorized as content-familiar texts, i.e. The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid. Six participants were asked to write a 150-word entry response on the short story and a grading criteria was used to assess the participants’ level of comprehension. An in-depth interview was also conducted on each participant. The entry responses and the interview patterns were analyzed to determine whether content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text. This study discovered that content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text because the learners’ comprehension was facilitated by their background knowledge on the content-familiar texts.

  14. Development and characterization of twelve microsatellite markers for Porphyra linearis Greville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena; Paulino, Cristina; Serrão, Ester A

    2017-02-01

    The genus Porphyra (and its sister genus Pyropia) contains important red algal species that are cultivated and/or harvested for human consumption, sustaining a billion-dollar aquaculture industry. A vast amount of research has been focused on species of this genus, including studies on genetics and genomics among other areas. Twelve novel microsatellite markers were developed here for Porphyra linearis. Markers were characterized using 32 individuals collected from four natural populations of P. linearis with total heterozygosity varying from 0.098 to 0.916. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 18. All markers showed cross amplification with Porphyra umbilicalis and/or Porphyra dioica. These polymorphic microsatellite markers are useful for investigating population genetic diversity and differentiation in P. linearis and may become useful for other genetic research on the reproductive biology of this important species.

  15. Proteomic characterization of human milk whey proteins during a twelve-month lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Human milk is a rich source of bioactive proteins that support the early growth and development of the newborn. Although the major components of the protein fraction in human milk have been studied, the expression and relative abundance of minor components have received limited attention. We examined the expression of low-abundance proteins in the whey fraction of human milk and their dynamic changes over a twelve-month lactation period. The low-abundance proteins were enriched by ProteoMiner beads, and protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred and fifteen proteins were identified, thirty-eight of which have not been previously reported in human colostrum or milk. We also for the first time described differences in protein patterns among the low-abundance proteins during lactation. These results enhance our knowledge about the complexity of the human milk proteome, which constitutes part of the advantages to the breast-fed infant.

  16. Fate of the conformal fixed point with twelve massless fermions and SU(3) gauge group

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Zoltan; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him

    2016-01-01

    We report new results on the conformal properties of an important strongly coupled gauge theory, a building block of composite Higgs models beyond the Standard Model. With twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group, an infrared fixed point of the $\\beta$-function was recently reported in the theory (Cheng:2014jba) with uncertainty in the location of the critical gauge coupling inside the narrow $[ 6.0

  17. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cominsky, Lynn; Simonnet, Aurore; Education, the Fermi

    2013-01-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission's science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: Higher Education; Elementary and Secondary Education; Informal Education and Public Outreach.

  18. Twelve tips for developing and delivering a massive open online course in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D; Henningsohn, Lars; DeRuiter, Marco C; de Jong, Peter G M; Reinders, Marlies E J

    2017-07-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a novel mode of online learning. They are typically based on higher education courses and can attract a high number of learners, often in the thousands. They are distinct from on-campus education and deliver the learning objectives through a series of short videos, recommended readings and discussion fora, alongside automated assessments. Within medical education the role of MOOCs remains unclear, with recent proposals including continuing professional development, interprofessional education or integration into campus-based blended learning curricula. In this twelve tips article, we aim to provide a framework for readers to use when developing, delivering and evaluating a MOOC within medical education based on the literature and our own experience. Practical advice is provided on how to design the appropriate curriculum, engage with learners on the platform, select suitable assessments, and comprehensively evaluate the impact of your course.

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides from Arctii Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2014-09-17

    Twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides (1-12), including two benzofuran-type neolignans, two 8-O-4' neolignans, two dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, and six tetrahydrofuranoid lignans, together with six known lignan glucosides (13-18), were isolated from the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as Arctii Fructus. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR, MS, IR, ORD, and UV) and on the basis of chemical evidence. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-12 were confirmed using rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), the circular dichroic (CD) exciton chirality method, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD spectrum analysis. All of the isolated compounds were tested for hepatoprotective effects against D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 hepatic cells. Compounds 1, 2, 7-12, and 17 showed significantly stronger hepatoprotective activity than the positive control bicyclol at a concentration of 1 × 10(-5) M.

  20. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  1. Variation in the strength of reproductive interference from an alien congener to a native species in Taraxacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Kanaoka, Masahiro M; Takakura, Ko-Ichi; Nishida, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive interference (RI) may be a contributing factor to the displacement of native species by an alien congener, and RI strength has been shown theoretically to affect distributional relationships between species. Thus, variations in RI strength from alien to native species result in different consequences of invasions and efforts to conserve native species, but the variations have seldom been examined empirically. We therefore investigated RI strength variations from the alien species Taraxacum officinale and its hybrids to eight populations of native dandelions, four T. japonicum populations and two populations each of two subspecies of T. platycarpum. We examined the association between alien relative abundance and native seed set in field surveys, and we also performed hand-pollination experiments to investigate directly the sensitivity of native flowers to alien pollen. We found that the effect of alien relative abundance on native seed set of even the same native species could differ greatly in different regions, and that the sensitivity of native flowers to alien pollen was also dependent on region. Our results, together with those of previous studies, show that RI from the alien to the native species is strong in regions where the alien species outnumbers the native species and marginal where it does not; this result suggests that alien RI can critically affect distributional relationships between native and alien species. Our study highlights the importance of performing additional empirical investigations of RI strength variation and of giving due attention to alien RI in efforts to conserve regional native biodiversity.

  2. The potential for genetic assimilation of a native dandelion species, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), by the exotic congener T. officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Marcus T

    2004-05-01

    Exotic plant species can threaten closely related native congeners through asymmetric hybridization and subsequent backcrossing, the process known as genetic assimilation. I explore the initial stages of this process in Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), the native alpine dandelion, and the invasive apomict T. officinale. In central Colorado, seven T. ceratophorum populations all occur in sympatry with T. officinale. In one large population on Pennsylvania Mountain, surveys further revealed that flowering phenologies and visiting insect taxa overlap almost completely for both Taraxacum species. Together these results indicated that heterospecific pollen transfer is likely. Crossing experiments showed that T. ceratophorum is an obligate outcrosser, and interspecific hand pollinations resulted in 37.3% seed set. However, molecular analysis of the F1 offspring indicated that only 33.2% of germinating seeds were hybrids; the remainder were selfed offspring produced from a breakdown in self-incompatibility (the mentor effect). Although the mentor effect helps reduce the production of hybrids, the asymmetrical direction of hybridization creates the potential for genetic assimilation of T. ceratophorum by T. officinale.

  3. Carnitine congener mildronate protects against stress- and haloperidol-induced impairment in memory and brain protein expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitnere, Ulrika; Dzirkale, Zane; Isajevs, Sergejs; Rumaks, Juris; Svirskis, Simons; Klusa, Vija

    2014-12-15

    The present study investigates the efficacy of mildronate, a carnitine congener, to protect stress and haloperidol-induced impairment of memory in rats and the expression of brain protein biomarkers involved in synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acetylcholine esterase and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Two amnesia models were used: 2h immobilization stress and 3-week haloperidol treatment. Stress caused memory impairment in the passive avoidance test and induced a significant 2-fold BDNF elevation in hippocampal and striatal tissues that was completely inhibited by mildronate. Mildronate decreased the level of GAD67 (but not acetylcholine esterase) expression by stress. Haloperidol decrease by a third hippocampal BDNF and acetylcholine esterase (but not GAD67) expression, which was normalized by mildronate; it also reversed the haloperidol-induced memory impairment in Barnes test. The results suggest the usefulness of mildronate as protector against neuronal disturbances caused by stress or haloperidol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Peter WM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. Results The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH, which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. Conclusions M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  5. Total Bee Dependence on One Flower Species Despite Available Congeners of Similar Floral Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Varo, Juan P.; Ortiz-Sánchez, F. Javier; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Extreme specialization is a common phenomenon in antagonistic biotic interactions but it is quite rare in mutualistic ones. Indeed, bee specialization on a single flower species (monolecty) is a questioned fact. Here, we provide multiple lines of evidence on true monolecty in a solitary bee (Flavipanurgus venustus, Andrenidae), which is consistent across space (18 sites in SW Iberian Peninsula) and time (three years) despite the presence of closely related congeneric plant species whose flowers are morphologically similar. The host flower (Cistus crispus, Cistaceae) is in turn a supergeneralist, visited by at least 85 insect species. We uncover ultraviolet light reflectance as a distinctive visual cue of the host flower, which can be a key mechanism because bee specialization has an innate basis to recognize specific signals. Moreover, we hypothesized that a total dependence on an ephemeral resource (i.e. one flower species) must lead to spatiotemporal matching with it. Accordingly, we prove that the bee’s flight phenology is synchronized with the blooming period of the host flower, and that the densities of bee populations mirror the local densities of the host flower. This case supports the ‘predictable plethora’ hypothesis, that is, that host-specialization in bees is fostered by plant species providing predictably abundant floral resources. Our findings, along with available phylogenetic information on the genus Cistus, suggest the importance of historical processes and cognitive constraints as drivers of specialization in bee-plant interactions. PMID:27658205

  6. Hepatic in vitro toxicity assessment of PBDE congeners BDE47, BDE153 and BDE154 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Softeland, Liv, E-mail: lso@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Petersen, Kjell [Computational Biology Unit, Bergen Centre for Computational Science, Uni Research AS, Thormohlensgt 55, N5008 Bergen (Norway); Stavrum, Anne-Kristin [Dept of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wu, Terence [Yale University W.M. Keck Biotechnology Resource, 300 George St., Room G001, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Olsvik, Pal A. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    The brominated flame retardant congeners BDE47, BDE153 and BDE154 are among the congeners accumulating to the highest degree in fish. In order to gain knowledge about the toxicological effects of PBDEs in fish, microarray-based transcriptomic and 2D-DIGE/MALDI-TOF/TOF proteomic approaches were used to screen for effects in primary Atlantic salmon hepatocytes exposed to these congeners alone or in combination (PBDE-MIX). A small set of stress related transcripts and proteins were differentially expressed in the PBDE exposed hepatocytes. The PBDE-MIX, and BDE153 to a lesser degree, seems to have induced metabolic disturbances by affecting several pathways related to glucose homeostasis. Further, effects on cell cycle control and proliferation signal pathways in PBDE-MIX-exposed hepatocytes clearly suggest that the PBDE exposure affected cell proliferation processes. CYP1A was 7.41- and 7.37-fold up-regulated in hepatocytes exposed to BDE47 and PBDE-MIX, respectively, and was the only biotransformation pathway affected by the PBDE exposure. The factorial design and PLS regression analyses of the effect of the PBDE-MIX indicated that BDE47 contributed the most to the observed CYP1A response, suggesting that this congener should be incorporated in the toxic equivalent (TEQ) concept in future risk assessment of dioxin-like chemicals. Additionally, a significant up-regulation of the ER-responsive genes VTG and ZP3 was observed in cells exposed to BDE47 and PBDE-MIX. Further analyses suggested that BDE47 and BDE154 have an estrogenic effect in male fish. The data also suggested an antagonistic interaction between BDE153 and BDE154. In conclusion, this study shows that PBDEs can affect several biological systems in Atlantic salmon cells, and demonstrates the need for more studies on the simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures to identify combined effects of chemicals.

  7. Correcting the gas and particle partitioning of PCDD/F congeners in the flue gas of an iron ore sinter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Jeng-How; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2012-03-30

    This study was aimed at developing an approach for correcting the gas and particle partitioning of PCDD/F congeners for samples collected from the flue gas of an iron ore sinter plant. An iron ore sinter plant equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (EP) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) was selected. Flue gas samples were collected at EP inlet, EP outlet and SCR outlet. Both particle- and gas-phase PCDD/Fs were analyzed for each collected sample. PCDD/F contents in EP ashes (EP(ash)) were also analyzed and used to correct the gas and particle partitioning of PCDD/F congeners of the collected flue gas samples. Results show that PCDD/Fs in the flue gas were dominated by the gas-phase. Before correction, the removal efficiencies for the gas- and particle-phase PCDD/Fs for EP were -58.1% and 64.3%, respectively, and SCR were 39.4% and 83.9%, respectively. The above results were conflict with the expected results for both EP and SCR indicating the need for correcting the gas and particle partitioning of PCDD/F congeners for all collected flue gas samples. After correction, the removal efficiencies become more reasonable for EP (=4.22% and 97.7%, respectively), and SCR (=54.7% and 62.0%, respectively). The above results confirm the effectiveness of the approach developed by this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Levels, congener profile and inventory of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment from the Songhua River in the vicinity of cement plant, China: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Song; Fu, Qiang; Li, Yi-Fan; Li, Wen-Long; Li, Tian-Xiao; Wang, Min; Xing, Zhen-Xiang; Zhang, Lu-Ji

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the contamination levels, homologue, and congener profiles and evaluated the residue inventory of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment of the Songhua River in the vicinity of cement plant. The total concentration of detected 35 PCB congeners ranged from 1.12 to 2.19 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment, with a mean value of 1.56 ng/g dw, and the concentration of PCBs decreased in the following order: the downstream > cement plant > upstream. The results of total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized PCB concentrations indicate that the sediments have low potential ecological risk in this area. The study results on homologue and congener of PCBs show that the emissions from cement production could be the major sources of PCBs in sediment, and the low-chlorinated PCBs will be exchanged among air, water, and sediment with increasing temperature during summer and flow to downstream with water during the wet season. The spatial density and total burden of PCBs in the surface sediments were 17.2 ng/cm(2) and 1.2 kg, respectively. To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the pollution characteristics of unintentionally produced PCB emissions from cement industry by means of monitoring sediment samples.

  9. Concentrations and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood plasma from Hong Kong: implications for sources and exposure route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Guan-Min; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Du, Jun; Man, Yu-Bon; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-10-15

    There was limited information about bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in humans of the general population of Hong Kong. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine concentrations and congener profiles of PBDEs in blood plasma from Hong Kong, evaluate their sources and correlations with other organobrominated compounds, and investigate exposure routes from fish and dust. Concentrations of ∑PBDE22 ranged from 0.56 to 92 ng g(-1), lipid weight (lw), with a median of 5.4 ng g(-1). BDE-47 was the dominant congener, accounting for 26% of ∑PBDE22. Concentrations of PBDE congeners in market fish were significantly (r(2)=0.89, pPBDEs. Furthermore, our data revealed a spatial distribution and terrestrial source of BDE-28 for local people. Results of the present study, which was the first systematic study to investigate concentrations of PBDEs in blood of Hong Kong people, provides useful information to which future measurements can be compared.

  10. Long-range atmospheric transport of PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs to the central and eastern Mediterranean and changes of PCB and PBDE congener patterns in summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Marie D.; Heil, Angelika; Kukučka, Petr; Kuta, Jan; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Lammel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The central and eastern Mediterranean is a receptor area for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted in western, central and eastern Europe, particularly during summer. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, DDXs, PBDEs, penta- and hexachlorobenzene were measured during a ship-borne survey in the summer of 2010. The concentration of PCBs (sum of 7 congeners) was 3.61 (2.08-7.72) pg m-3, of which 6.7% was associated with the particulate phase. The mean concentration of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDE and DDD, was 2.60 (0.46-7.60) pg m-3 (particulate mass fraction θ = 0.097), of penta- and hexachlorobenzene 0.22 (PBDEs (sum of 8 congeners) 7.31 (2.80-19.89) pg m-3. The air masses studied had been transported mostly across central Europe, some crossing western Europe. The observed changes of PCB congener patterns along transport routes are in agreement with the perception that the reaction with the OH radical is dominating PCB atmospheric lifetime, and indicate an overestimation of the second order gas-phase reaction rate coefficient of PCB153 with OH by structure-activity relationship.

  11. Tissue distribution of HCH and DDT congeners and human health risk associated with consumption of fish collected from Kabul River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Nawab, Javed; Qamar, Zahir; Khan, Anwarzeb

    2016-03-01

    Distribution of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) congeners in tissues of four different fish species and their associated potential health risks to local consumers are presented in this paper. The average ∑(HCHs+DDTs) concentration in Glyptothorax punjabensis (214ngg(-1) wet weight (ww)) (carnivores) was found higher than Tor putitora (155ngg(-1) ww) (herbivores). The distribution of ∑(HCHs+DDTs) in all fish tissues was found in order of liver>muscle>stomach>gills. The profile of congeners (β-HCH/∑HCH from 0.29-0.47) indicated that all selected fish species were contaminated with HCH because of its recent usage in the study area. Furthermore, DDT profile ((DDE+DDD)/∑DDT from 0.61-0.78) showed that fish contamination with DDT originated from past usage and long-time degradation mechanism. The average estimated daily dietary intake of ∑HCHs (15.0ngkg(-1) day(-1)) was higher than ∑DDTs (12.5ngkg(-1) day(-1)) by the local consumers via fish consumption. On the basis of both 50th and 95th percentile exposure levels, the carcinogenic hazard ratios for DDT and its congeners were exceeded one (safe limit) for all fish species, indicating a great potential cancer risk for local consumers with life time consumption of contaminated fish collected from Kabul River.

  12. Influence of turkey herpesvirus vaccination on the B-haplotype effect on Marek's disease resistance in 15.B-congenic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1992-01-01

    Eight recently developed 15.B congenic lines of chickens were tested for Marek's disease (MD) resistance by intra-abdominal injection of cell-associated preparations of MD virus of a virulent strain (JM), a very virulent strain (Md5), or Md5 after vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) strain FC126. Chickens of the 15.N congenic line (B15B21 or B21B21) were very resistant to JM-induced MD, in contrast to chickens homozygous for the B-haplotypes 2, 5, 12, 13, 15, or 19. After Md5 infection, more than 88% of the chickens in all of the congenic lines developed MD. However, when chickens were vaccinated with HVT before being inoculated with Md5, the B5 and B12 homozygotes were more resistant to MD than were the B2, B13, or B19 homozygotes, and B15 and B21 homozygotes had intermediate resistance. B5B5 and B2B5 F2 chicks inoculated with HVT and Md5 had a lower prevalence of MD than B2B2 sibs. These results demonstrate that a protocol involving HVT vaccination of chicks followed by infection with very virulent MD virus will allow the detection of B-haplotypes determining MD resistance, some of which are not detectable in unvaccinated chicks challenged with virulent MD.

  13. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially-viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect on emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palashpriya eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL and di-rhamnolipid (DRL congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67 was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration (CMC value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography (TLC analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affect the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In consistent, rhamnolipids of IMP67 reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting the potential of biosurfactant as antibiotics synergist.

  14. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  15. Twelve-year cyclic surging episode at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, M.; Abe, T.; Sakakibara, D.

    2015-12-01

    Surge-type glaciers exhibit several-fold to orders-of-magnitude speed-up during the short active phase, resulting in km-scale terminus advance. Although there are many surge-type glaciers near the border of Alaska and the Yukon, the generation mechanisms remain uncertain because of limited and few continuous observations. To better understand the surge dynamics and predict the next event, it is essential to examine the entire surge cycles. Here we use Landsat optical imageries to reveal the long-term evolutions, and report three surging episodes at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada. Using the Landsat images, we found three surging events in 1989, 2001, and 2013. In the 2001 event, the surface speed significantly increased by up to 4.5 m/d; during the quiescent phases it was ~0.5 m/d at the terminus. While the duration of active phase is about 4~5 and 2~3 year in the 2001 and 2013 events, the period in the 1989 event is unclear because of the lack of high temporal resolution data. Remarkably, the surging area is limited to the ~20-km section from the terminus instead of the entire glacier. Moreover, we examined the terminus area changes from 1975 to 2014. Although the area has been secularly decreasing probably due to the tread of global warming, it has also revealed four significant fluctuations during the nearly forty years. Comparing the speed and the area changes, the three speed-up events correspond to the terminus area fluctuations with a few time lags. It turns out that the surge event has been quite regularly repeating every twelve years. Although the behavior is rather similar to that in Svalbard glaciers in terms of maximum speed and unclear initiation season, the recurrence interval is much shorter than other nearby surges. Considering that the surge events seem to have initiated around significantly narrower area than upstream, the strong valley constriction may control the regularity as well as the twelve-year recurrence time.

  16. Contamination levels and congener distribution of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in buffalo's milk from Caserta province (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Neugebauer, Frank; Cavallo, Stefania; Gallo, Pasquale; Colarusso, Germana; Baldi, Loredana; Iovane, Giuseppe; Serpe, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    An extraordinary plan of official control was carried out in 2008 in Campania (Italy) with the aim to monitor polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) levels in buffalo milk and to detect the contaminated farms, most of which are located in Caserta province. For these companies has been ordered seizure and execution of additional analyses has been requested in farms falling in the nearness, within a distance of 3km, for a total of 304 farms examined. Moreover, all non-compliant farms were subjected to a periodic sampling in order to monitor trends in the levels of contamination. In this paper the distribution and the concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs in 460 samples of buffalo milk collected in the province of Caserta (Italy) are presented. The range of WHO-TEQ values for the PCDD/Fs in milk was 0.17pgTEQg(-1)fat and 87.0pgTEQg(-1)fat with a mean value 3.63pgTEQg(-1)fat and medium value 2.25pgTEQg(-1)fat. The concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the analysed samples ranged from 0.21pgTEQg(-1)fat to 15.9pgTEQg(-1)fat and the WHO-TEQ values of sum of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs ranged from 0.45pgTEQg(-1)fat to 103.0pgTEQg(-1)fat. The geo-referencing analysis allowed to individuate a restricted area of the region object of the present study where is located the majority of the non-compliant farms. The study of the congeners distribution has finally suggested that the likely cause of contamination is to be attributed to the illegal burning of waste. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Four out of eight genes in a mouse chromosome 7 congenic donor region are candidate obesity genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahan, Kari A.; Fisler, Janis S.

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified a region of mouse chromosome 7 that influences body fat mass in F2 littermates of congenic × background intercrosses. Current analyses revealed that alleles in the donor region of the subcongenic B6.C-D7Mit318 (318) promoted a twofold increase in adiposity in homozygous lines of 318 compared with background C57BL/6ByJ (B6By) mice. Parent-of-origin effects were discounted through cross-fostering studies and an F1 reciprocal cross. Mapping of the donor region revealed that it has a maximal size of 2.8 Mb (minimum 1.8 Mb) and contains a maximum of eight protein coding genes. Quantitative PCR in whole brain, liver, and gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) revealed differential expression between genotypes for three genes in females and two genes in males. Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B (St8sia2) showed reduced 318 mRNA levels in brain for females and males and in GWAT for females only. Both sexes of 318 mice had reduced Repulsive guidance molecule-a (Rgma) expression in GWAT. In brain, Family with sequence similarity 174 member b (Fam174b) had increased expression in 318 females, whereas Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (Chd2-2) had reduced expression in 318 males. No donor region genes were differentially expressed in liver. Sequence analysis of coding exons for all genes in the 318 donor region revealed only one single nucleotide polymorphism that produced a nonsynonymous missense mutation, Gln7Pro, in Fam174b. Our findings highlight the difficulty of using expression and sequence to identify quantitative trait genes underlying obesity even in small genomic regions. PMID:21730028

  18. Occurrence of an invasive coral in the southwest Atlantic and comparison with a congener suggest potential niche expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Júnior, Lélis A; Neves, Danilo M; Barbosa, Newton P U; Moulton, Timothy P; Creed, Joel C

    2015-06-01

    Tubastraea tagusensis, a coral native to the Galapagos Archipelago, has successfully established and invaded the Brazilian coast where it modifies native tropical rocky shore and coral reef communities. In order to understand the processes underlying the establishment of T. tagusensis, we tested whether Maxent, a tool for species distribution modeling, based on the native range of T. tagusensis correctly forecasted the invasion range of this species in Brazil. The Maxent algorithm was unable to predict the Brazilian coast as a suitable environment for the establishment of T. tagusensis. A comparison between these models and a principal component analysis (PCA) allowed us to examine the environmental dissimilarity between the two occupied regions (native and invaded) and to assess the species' occupied niche breadth. According to the PCA results, lower levels of chlorophyll-a and nitrate on the Atlantic coast segregate the Brazilian and Galapagos environments, implying that T. tagusensis may have expanded its realized niche during the invasion process. We tested the possible realized niche expansion in T. tagusensis by assuming that Tubastraea spp. have similar fundamental niches, which was supported by exploring the environmental space of T. coccinea, a tropical-cosmopolitan congener of T. tagusensis. We believe that the usage of Maxent should be treated with caution, especially when applied to biological invasion (or climate change) scenarios where the target species has a highly localized native (original) distribution, which may represent only a small portion of its fundamental niche, and therefore a violation of a SDM assumption.

  19. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, J K; Archer, J C

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991 the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service's Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during the 2008-2010 PDPs. A subset of 202 samples was analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). The average pattern of the individual PCDD/F congener concentrations in the catfish was rather unique in that it had almost no measurable amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), but all PCDDs were present. This pattern was more dominant in the domestically produced catfish products than in the imported products (China/Taiwan). Comparison of the pattern to known sources of PCDD/Fs showed strong similarities to the pattern of PCDD/Fs found in kaolin clays which have often been used as anti-caking agents in animal feeds. To investigate whether catfish feeds may be the source of the PCDD/Fs found in the catfish, archived catfish feed data from a US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) database were examined. In 61 out of 112 feed samples, the PCDD concentrations were 50 times higher than the PCDF concentrations and resembled the pattern found in the catfish products and in clays mined in the south-eastern United States. Although the source of PCDD/Fs in domestically marketed catfish products cannot be definitively established, mined clay products used in feeds should be considered a likely source and, given the wide concentration range of PCDD/Fs that has been found in clays, a critical control point for PCDD/Fs entrance to the food supply.

  20. Four out of eight genes in a mouse chromosome 7 congenic donor region are candidate obesity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahan, Kari A; Fisler, Janis S; Warden, Craig H

    2011-09-22

    We previously identified a region of mouse chromosome 7 that influences body fat mass in F2 littermates of congenic × background intercrosses. Current analyses revealed that alleles in the donor region of the subcongenic B6.C-D7Mit318 (318) promoted a twofold increase in adiposity in homozygous lines of 318 compared with background C57BL/6ByJ (B6By) mice. Parent-of-origin effects were discounted through cross-fostering studies and an F1 reciprocal cross. Mapping of the donor region revealed that it has a maximal size of 2.8 Mb (minimum 1.8 Mb) and contains a maximum of eight protein coding genes. Quantitative PCR in whole brain, liver, and gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) revealed differential expression between genotypes for three genes in females and two genes in males. Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B (St8sia2) showed reduced 318 mRNA levels in brain for females and males and in GWAT for females only. Both sexes of 318 mice had reduced Repulsive guidance molecule-a (Rgma) expression in GWAT. In brain, Family with sequence similarity 174 member b (Fam174b) had increased expression in 318 females, whereas Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (Chd2-2) had reduced expression in 318 males. No donor region genes were differentially expressed in liver. Sequence analysis of coding exons for all genes in the 318 donor region revealed only one single nucleotide polymorphism that produced a nonsynonymous missense mutation, Gln7Pro, in Fam174b. Our findings highlight the difficulty of using expression and sequence to identify quantitative trait genes underlying obesity even in small genomic regions.

  1. Margalef revisited: A new phytoplankton mandala incorporating twelve dimensions, including nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve response or effects traits, or environmental characteristics, related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing. The new mandala serves to highlight the differences and trade-offs between traits and/or environmental conditions, and illustrates some traits tend to track each other, a concept that may be helpful in trait-based modeling approaches and in understanding environmental factors associated with harmful algal blooms. It is hoped that this new mandala captures some of our recent insight into phytoplankton physiology and functional traits, and has contemporary relevance in light of anthropogenic changes in nutrient form and ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Margalef revisited: A new phytoplankton mandala incorporating twelve dimensions, including nutrient ratios and forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve traits or environmental characteristics related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing. The new mandala serves to highlight the differences and trade-offs between traits and/or environmental conditions, and illustrates some traits tend to track each other, a concept that may be helpful in trait-based modeling approaches. It is hoped that this new mandala captures some of our recent insight into phytoplankton physiology and functional traits, and has contemporary relevance in light of anthropogenic changes in nutrient form and ratio.

  3. Evolution and potential function of fibrinogen-like domains across twelve Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middha Sumit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibrinogen-like (FBG domain consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, which has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen β and γ chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs containing one or more FBG domains are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this gene family in Drosophila, we analyzed FREPs in twelve Drosophila species. Results Using the genome data from 12 Drosophila species, we identified FBG domains in each species. The results show that the gene numbers in each species vary from 14 genes up to 43 genes. Using sequence profile analysis, we found that FBG domains have high sequence similarity and are highly conserved throughout. By comparison of structure and sequence conservation, some of the FBG domains in Drosophila melanogaster are predicted to function in recognition of carbohydrates and their derivatives on the surface of microorganisms in innate immunity. Conclusion Sequence and structural analyses show that FREP family across 12 Drosophila species contains conserved FBG domains. Expansion of the FREP families in Drosophila is mainly accounted by a major expansion of FBG domains.

  4. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

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    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  5. Validation of Twelve Small Kepler Transiting Planets in the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Caldwell, Douglas A; Twicken, Joseph D; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Henze, Christopher E; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard T; Jenkins, Jon M; Muirhead, Philip S; Newton, Elisabeth R; Petigura, Erik A; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J; Crepp, Justin R; Everett, Mark E; Horch, Elliott P; Howard, Andrew W; Kolbl, Rea; Marcy, Geoffrey W; McCauliff, Sean; Quintana, Elisa V

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of twelve candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For eleven of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false po...

  6. Access to oral health services in children under twelve years of age in Peru, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hernández-Vásquez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the patterns of dental health services access in children under twelve years of age in Peru. Data from 25,285 children under 12 years who participated in the Demographic and Family Health Survey of 2014 were reviewed. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed to project the proportions of children with access to dental health services, according to national regions, type of health service and urban or rural place of residence. The results show that of the total sample, 26.7% had access to dental health services in the last six months, 39.6% belonged to the age group 0-4 years, 40.6% lived in the Andean region and 58.3% lived in urban areas. The regions of Huancavelica, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Lima and Pasco had the highest percentages of access nationwide. In conclusion, there is low access to dental health services in the population under 12 years of age in Peru. The spatial distribution of access to dental health services allows regions to be identified and grouped according to similar access patterns, in order to better focus public health actions.

  7. Synergy between Seeking Safety and Twelve-Step Affiliation on Substance Use Outcomes for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Saavedra, Lissette M.; Hien, Denise A.; Campbell, Aimee N.; Wu, Elwin; Ruglass, Lesia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Recovery Management paradigm provides a conceptual framework for the examination of joint impact of a focal treatment and post-treatment service utilization on substance abuse treatment outcomes. We test this framework by examining the interactive effects of a treatment for comorbid PTSD and substance use, Seeking Safety, and post-treatment Twelve-Step Affiliation (TSA) on alcohol and cocaine use. Method Data from 353 women in a six-site, randomized controlled effectiveness trial within the NIDA Clinical Trials Network were analyzed under latent class pattern mixture modeling. LCPMM was used to model variation in Seeking Safety by TSA interaction effects on alcohol and cocaine use. Results Significant reductions in alcohol use among women in Seeking Safety (compared to Health Education) were observed; women in the Seeking Safety condition who followed up with TSA had the greatest reductions over time in alcohol use. Reductions in cocaine use over time were also observed but did not differ between treatment conditions nor were there interactions with post-treatment TSA. Conclusions Findings advance understanding of the complexities for treatment and continuing recovery processes for women with PTSD and SUDs, and further support the chronic disease model of addiction. PMID:23558158

  8. Coréia aguda na gravidez Acute chorea in pregnancy: comments on twelve consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados doze casos de coréia aguda observados entre 150.000 gestantes (1/12.500. A maioria dos surtos ocorreu no segundo trimestre da primeira gravidez. A duração média dos sintomas foi de três meses, não tendo sido registrado caso algum de óbito materno. Todos os partos foram espontâneos e normais. Houve apenas um óbito fetal conseqüente a choque hemorrágico. São tecidas considerações a propósito dos aspectos clínico, laboratorial e prognóstico da coréia gravídica, sendo focalizado mais pormenorizadamente o problema fisiopatogênico dessa afecção.Twelve consecutive cases of acute chorea occurring among 150.000 pregnant women (1/12.500 are reported. Most of the cases occurred from the fourth do the sixth month of the first pregnancy. The average duration of the symptoms was of three months and no one case of maternal death was verified in the group. The deliveries were spontaneous and normal in all the patients. Only one case of fetal death occurred in consequence of a hemorragic shock. Comments are made on the clinical, laboratorial and prognostic features of chorea gravidarum, being particulary focused the physiopathogenic problem of this condtion.

  9. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. VIII. CATALOG OF TRANSIT TIMING MEASUREMENTS OF THE FIRST TWELVE QUARTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Nachmani, Gil; Holczer, Tomer; Sokol, Gil [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zucker, Shay [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welsh, William [Astronomy Department, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Following the works of Ford et al. and Steffen et al. we derived the transit timing of 1960 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) using the pre-search data conditioning light curves of the first twelve quarters of the Kepler data. For 721 KOIs with large enough signal-to-noise ratios, we obtained also the duration and depth of each transit. The results are presented as a catalog for the community to use. We derived a few statistics of our results that could be used to indicate significant variations. Including systems found by previous works, we have found 130 KOIs that showed highly significant times of transit variations (TTVs) and 13 that had short-period TTV modulations with small amplitudes. We consider two effects that could cause apparent periodic TTV—the finite sampling of the observations and the interference with the stellar activity, stellar spots in particular. We briefly discuss some statistical aspects of our detected TTVs. We show that the TTV period is correlated with the orbital period of the planet and with the TTV amplitude.

  10. Heterochromatic banding patterns on chromosomes of twelve weevil species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria; Lachowska, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    The C-banding patterns of twelve weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species: with a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises seven species (Apionidae: Holotrichapion pisi; Curculionidae: Phyllobius urticae, Ph. pyri, Ph. maculicornis, Tanymecus palliatus, Larinodontes turbinatus, Cionus tuberculosus). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus in interphase are visible, afterwards in mitotic and meiotic prophase appearing as dark dots. The absence of C-bands does not indicate a lack of heterochromatin but heterochromatic regions are sometimes so small that the condensation is not visible during the cell cycle. The second group comprises five species (Otiorhynchus niger, O. morio, Polydrusus corruscus, Barypeithes chevrolati, Nedyus quadrimaculatus) which possess much larger heteropicnotic parts of chromosomes visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have paracentromeric C-bands on autosomes and the sex chromosome X, except for Otiorhynchus niger, which also has an intercalary bands on one pair of autososomes. All the species examined differ in the size of segments of constitutive heterochromatin. The y heterochromosome is dot-like and wholly euchromatic in all the studied species.

  11. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

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    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  12. The SLUGGS Survey: Kinematics for over 2500 Globular Clusters in Twelve Early-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Vincenzo; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Brodie, Jean P; Spitler, Lee R; Strader, Jay; Foster, Caroline; Arnold, Jacob A; Benson, Andrew; Blom, Christina; Hargis, Jonathan R; Rhode, Katherine L; Usher, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We present a spectro-photometric survey of 2522 extragalactic globular clusters (GCs) around twelve early-type galaxies, nine of which have not been published previously. Combining space-based and multi-colour wide field ground-based imaging, with spectra from the Keck DEIMOS instrument, we obtain an average of 160 GC radial velocities per galaxy, with a high velocity precision of 15 km/s per GC. After studying the photometric properties of the GC systems, such as their spatial and colour distributions, we focus on the kinematics of metal-poor (blue) and metal-rich (red) GC subpopulations to an average distance of ~8 effective radii from the galaxy centre. Our results show that for some systems the bimodality in GC colour is also present in GC kinematics. The kinematics of the red GC subpopulations are strongly coupled with the host galaxy stellar kinematics. The blue GC subpopulations are more dominated by random motions, especially in the outer regions, and decoupled from the red GCs. Peculiar GC kinematic ...

  13. Whole-Proteome Analysis of Twelve Species of Alphaproteobacteria Links Four Pathogens

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    Yunyun Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of whole-genome and whole-proteome sequences have been made available through advances in sequencing technology, and sequences of millions more organisms will become available in the coming years. This wealth of genetic information will provide numerous opportunities to enhance our understanding of these organisms including a greater understanding of relationships among species. Researchers have used 16S rRNA and other gene sequences to study the evolutionary origins of bacteria, but these strategies do not provide insight into the sharing of genes among bacteria via horizontal transfer. In this work we use an open source software program called pClust to cluster proteins from the complete proteomes of twelve species of Alphaproteobacteria and generate a dendrogram from the resulting orthologous protein clusters. We compare the results with dendrograms constructed using the 16S rRNA gene and multiple sequence alignment of seven housekeeping genes. Analysis of the whole proteomes of these pathogens grouped Rickettsia typhi with three other animal pathogens whereas conventional sequence analysis failed to group these pathogens together. We conclude that whole-proteome analysis can give insight into relationships among species beyond their phylogeny, perhaps reflecting the effects of horizontal gene transfer and potentially providing insight into the functions of shared genes by means of shared phenotypes.

  14. INCIDENCE AND SURVIVAL OF LIPOLYTIC ORGANISMS MONITORED FOR TWELVE MONTHS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER AND RECEIVING STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale Odeyemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and survival of lipolytic organisms in domestic wastewater and receiving stream were monitored over 12 months. The average total bacterial count in the wastewater samples reduced in April and November by 24.2% and 41.6% respectively. There was also a reduction of 42.3% and 60.1% in the load in the receiving stream in August and July. Subsequently, at 5m downstream from the entry of the wastewater the microbial load reduced in March (19.2% and June (19.2%. However, the occurrence of coliforms was more affected in the months of May (53% to July (87.2%. At 5m and 10m downstream the coliform population reduced by 27.9% and 30.1% respectively. Of the twelve (12 bacterial isolates obtained at the exit of the wastewater into the receiving stream, only four (4 were found to possess lipolytic activity. These include the species of Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus. There was no significant difference in the amount of nutrients found in the domestic wastewater and receiving stream during the months. This paper also discusses the implication of disposing large amounts of wastewater effluents into the receiving water and the need to remedy and minimize the overall impact of such pollution on the environment.

  15. Interaction and cooperative effort among scientific societies. Twelve years of COSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Nazario; Andradas, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of knowledge and technology in recent decades has brought profound changes in science policy, not only in the countries but also in the supranational organizations. It has been necessary, therefore, to adapt the scientific institutions to new models in order to achieve a greater and better communication between them and the political counterparts responsible for defining the general framework of relations between science and society. The Federationon of Scientific Societies of Spain (COSCE, Confederación de Sociedades Científicas de España) was founded in October 2003 to respond to the urgent need to interact with the political institutions and foster a better orientation in the process of making decisions about the science policy. Currently COSCE consists of over 70 Spanish scientific societies and more than 40,000 scientists. During its twelve years of active life, COSCE has developed an intense work of awareness of the real situation of science in Spain by launching several initiatives (some of which have joined other organizations) or by joining initiatives proposed from other groups related to science both at the Spanish level and at the European and non-European scenarios. [Int Microbiol 18(4): 245-251 (2015)].

  16. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  17. Differences in antimicrobial activity of chlorine against twelve most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan C; Sullivan, Tarah S; Shah, Devendra H

    2017-06-01

    Chlorine is the most widely used carcass sanitizer in poultry processing in the USA. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of organic matter on the susceptibility of twelve most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) to chlorine. To mimic the microenvironment of the water used for immersion chilling, we manipulated organic matter contamination levels in pre-chilled (pH∼6, T∼4 °C) chlorinated (50 ppm) water using varying concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) of chicken-meat-extract (CME) produced from frozen chicken carcasses. This CME-based in vitro model was challenged with ∼1 × 10(5) CFUs of each MPPST isolate and the bacterial survival was tested at 5, 30, 60 and 90 min post-challenge. In this model, the decimal reduction time (D90-values) of each MPPST was linearly correlated with the concentration of CME. Significant inter-serotype differences in the D90-values were observed. The results show that the pH, concentration of total- and free-chlorine were also linearly correlated with the presence of CME in a concentration-dependent manner. The findings of this study indicate that the serotype and the levels of organic matter contamination significantly influence Salmonella survival and that both variables should be included in models that predict effectiveness of chlorine treatment in immersion chilling.

  18. Deathly silence and apocalyptic noise: Observations on the soundscape of the Book of the Twelve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Schart

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reading of the Book of the Twelve (used interchangeably with �Twelve� and �Book� for convenience that concentrates on the sound that is included in the description of the world of the text. Three onomatopoeic devices are singled out. First, the mourning cry h�y is considered. This interjection is used differently in several of the writings: in Amos (5:18; 6:1 the prophet cries out in compassion with the addressees. By contrast, in Nahum 3:1 and Habakkuk 2:6�19, h�y is uttered in a mood of mockery. In Zechariah 2:10 a third, joyful h�y is used. It appears that the different usages cohere nicely with the overall structure of the Book of the Twelve. Secondly, the interjection has likewise shows different usages. In Amos 6:10 and 8:3, it simulates the last breath of Israelites dying when the land is devastated. By contrast, in Habakkuk 2:20, Zephaniah 1:7 and Zechariah 2:17, the addressees are directed to be silent before YHWH. This command should be perceived as an act of reverence. Again, the sequence of the occurrences coheres with the overall structure of the Book of the Twelve. Of special relevance is that the last three instances build a frame around the Babylonian exile, which lies between Zephaniah and Haggai. The third example is the phrase ham�n�m, ham�n�m in Joel 4:14. The author employs an irregular double plural to construe this place as the loudest spot (�apocalyptic noise� within the Twelve.Setu sa go tiba le modumo wa aphokhaliptiki: Ditemogo ka medumo ya Puku ya ba LesomepediPampiri ye e �i�inya go balwa ga Puku ya ba Lesomepedi (yeo e ka nogo bit�wa �Lesomepedi� goba �Puku� go bebofat�a ditaba ka go gatelela modumo wo o lego ka gare ga tlhaloso ya lefase la go tswala dingwalo t�e. Ditsela t�e tharo t�a onomathopoiki di bewa pepeneng. La mathomo, go �et�wa sello sa mahloko sa h?y. Lelahlelwa le le �omi�wa ka go fapana mo dingwalong t�e mmalwa: go Amosi

  19. Fate of the conformal fixed point with twelve massless fermions and SU(3) gauge group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him

    2016-11-01

    We report new results on the conformal properties of an important strongly coupled gauge theory, a building block of composite Higgs models beyond the Standard Model. With twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group, an infrared fixed point (IRFP) of the β -function was recently reported in the theory [A. Cheng, A. Hasenfratz, Y. Liu, G. Petropoulos, and D. Schaich, J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2014) 137] with uncertainty in the location of the critical gauge coupling inside the narrow [6.0 fixed point and scale invariance in the theory with model-building implications. Using the exact same renormalization scheme as the previous study, we show that no fixed point of the β -function exists in the reported interval. Our findings eliminate the only seemingly credible evidence for conformal fixed point and scale invariance in the Nf=12 model whose infrared properties remain unresolved. The implications of the recently completed 5-loop QCD β -function for arbitrary flavor number are discussed with respect to our work.

  20. Twelve tips for creating trigger images for problem-based learning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2007-03-01

    A trigger is the starting point of problem-based learning (PBL) cases. It is usually in the form of 5-6 text lines that provide the key information about the main character (usually the patient), including 3-4 of patient's presenting problems. In addition to the trigger text, most programs using PBL include a visual trigger. This might be in the form of a single image, a series of images, a video clip, a cartoon, or even one of the patient's investigation results (e.g. chest X-ray, pathology report, or urine sample analysis). The main educational objectives of the trigger image are as follows: (1) to introduce the patient to the students; (2) to enhance students' observation skills; (3) to provide them with new information to add to the cues obtained from the trigger text; and (4) to stimulate students to ask questions as they develop their enquiry plan. When planned and delivered effectively, trigger images should be engaging and stimulate group discussion. Understanding the educational objectives of using trigger images and choosing appropriate images are the keys for constructing successful PBL cases. These twelve tips highlight the key steps in the successful creation of trigger images.

  1. Human health risk assessment, congener specific analysis and spatial distribution pattern of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) through rice crop from selected districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Mehvish; Qadir, Abdul; Mahmood, Adeel; Mehmood, Andleeb; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Yousaf, Zubaida; Jamil, Nadia; Shaikh, Irfan Ahmed; Ali, Habib; Zhang, Gan

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the screening level risk assessment of OCPs in rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw (n=20) and rice grains (n=20), samples were collected from different districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs' levels (ng g(-1)) in rice straw and grains ranged from 3.63 to 39.40, 2.72 to 49.89, respectively. DDTs were found predominant over the other detected OCP isomers followed by HCH and heptachlor. Results of one way ANOVA reflected no significant difference for OCPs' levels among sampling sites, except heptachlor for rice grains. ∑OCPs' concentration in rice straw samples was exceeding the minimal residual levels (MRLs) (Australian and Japanese). Results of dietary intake and risk assessment suggested that rice straw is not safe for animals to consume as fodder. Human health was suggested to have some carcinogenic risks by consumption of rice grains, however, no considerable hazardous risk (non-carcinogenic) to human health was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Comparability Of Survey Results Through Ex-Post Harmonisation A Case Study With Twelve European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    that reflect behavioural differences rather than methodological ones, in the context of the COST Action SHANTI (Survey Harmonisation with New Technologies Improvement, TUD0804) an ex-post harmonisation approach was developed using microdata from twelve European NTS’s. The paper presents both concept and basic...

  3. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, K. M.; Simonnet, A.; Fermi E/PO Team

    2013-04-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission’s science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: ● Higher Education: Fermi E/PO promotes STEM careers through the use of NASA data including research experiences for students and teachers (Global Telescope Network), education through STEM curriculum development projects (Cosmology curriculum) and through enrichment activities (Large Area Telescope simulator). ● Elementary and Secondary education: Fermi E/PO links the science objectives of the Fermi mission to well-tested, customer-focused and NASA-approved standards-aligned classroom materials (Black Hole Resources, Active Galaxy Education Unit and Pop-up book, TOPS guides, Supernova Education Unit). These materials have been distributed through (Educator Ambassador and on-line) teacher training workshops and through programs involving under-represented students (after-school clubs and Astro 4 Girls). ● Informal education and public outreach: Fermi E/PO engages the public in sharing the experience of exploration and discovery through high-leverage multi-media experiences (Black Holes planetarium and PBS NOVA shows), through popular websites (Gamma-ray Burst Skymap, Epo's Chronicles), social media (Facebook, MySpace), interactive web-based activities (Space Mysteries, Einstein@Home) and activities by

  4. Relative peripheral refraction in children: twelve-month changes in eyes with different ametropias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsui-Tsui; Cho, Pauline

    2013-05-01

    To determine the peripheral refraction of children with different types of ametropias and to evaluate the relationship between central refractive changes, baseline relative peripheral refraction (RPR) and changes in RPR over a 12-month monitoring period. Cycloplegic central and peripheral refraction were performed biannually on the right eyes of children aged 6-9 for 12 months, using an open-view autorefractor. Peripheral refraction were measured along 10°, 20° and 30° from central fixation in both nasal and temporal fields. Refractive data were transposed into M, J0 and J45 vectors for analyses. RPR was determined by subtracting the central measurement from each peripheral measurement. Hyperopic eyes showed relative peripheral myopia while myopic eyes had relative hyperopia across the central 60° horizontal field at baseline. Emmetropic eyes had relative myopia within but showed relative hyperopia beyond the central 30° field. However, there was no significant correlation between central refractive changes and baseline RPR or between changes in central refraction and RPR over twelve months in any refractive groups. Correlations between changes in PR and central myopic shift were found mainly in the nasal field in different groups. In the subgroup analysis on the initially emmetropic and the initially myopic groups, the subgroups with faster myopic progression did not have significantly different RPR from the subgroups with slower progression. The RPR pattern of the initially emmetropic and the initially myopic groups became more asymmetric at the end of the study period with a larger increase in relative hyperopia in the temporal field. RPR patterns were different among hyperopic, emmetropic and myopic eyes. However, baseline RPR and changes in RPR cannot predict changes in central refraction over time. Our results did not provide evidence to support the hypothesis of RPR as a causative factor for myopic central refractive changes in children. Ophthalmic

  5. Computational study of the structural and vibrational properties of ten and twelve vertex closo-carboranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, A.; Deleuze, M.S.; Francois, J.-P

    2003-01-01

    Calculations using ab initio Hartree-Fock and Density Functional theories, the latter employing the B3LYP functional, in combination with a number of large standard basis sets ranging from 6-31G** to cc-pVDZ, have been performed on a series of ten and twelve vertex closo-carborane isomer species. Results obtained for optimized structural parameters and molecular properties are presented for 1,2-, 1,6- and 1,10-C{sub 2}B{sub 8}H{sub 10} and 1,2-, 1,7- and 1,12-C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12} and compared, where possible, with both earlier theoretical data and experiment. Irrespective of the model chemistry chosen, the para-isomer in each class of carborane cluster is found to be the most stable species, corresponding to a structure in which the cage carbon atoms are positioned at diametrically opposed ends of the respective polyhedron. Boron-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen bond lengths are found to change little on going from isomers of one particular cage size to another, supporting analogous conclusions previously established for small closo-carborane cages possessing five, six and seven vertices. The calculated vibrational spectra of the isomers of both decacarborane and dodecacarborane are seen to be similar to each other and reflect a high degree of rigidity within each cluster. Key polyhedral skeletal breathing modes along with characteristic boron-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen stretching frequencies are identified in the spectra and compared with experiment. Thermochemical data relating to each species are also analyzed.

  6. Indifference to pain syndrome in a twelve-year-old boy (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdadi T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: People vary greatly in their response to painful stimuli, from those with a low pain threshold to those with indifference to pain. However, insensitivity to pain is a rare disorder, characterized by the lack of usual subjective and objective responses to noxious stimuli. Patients who have congenital indifference to pain sustain painless injuries beginning in infancy, but have sensory responses that are otherwise normal on examination. Perception of passive movement, joint position, and vibration is normal in these patients, as are tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Case report: A twelve-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital for a painless deformity, degeneration in both knees and a neglected femoral neck fracture that was inappropriately painless. Further examination revealed normal sensory responses, perception of passive movement, joint position, vibration tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Spinal cord and brain MRI were normal as was the electromyography and nerve conduction velocity (EMG/NCV examination. There was no positive family history for this disorder. Conclusion: The deficits present in the different pain insensitivity syndromes provide insight into the complex anatomical and physiological nature of pain perception. Reports on pain asymbolia, in which pain is perceived but does not cause suffering, and related cortical conditions illustrate that there can be losses that independently involve either the sensory-discriminative component or the affective-motivational component of pain perception, thus highlighting their different anatomical localization. The paucity of experience with this entity and the resultant diagnostic problems, the severity of the associated disabling arthropathy and underscore the importance of this case report of indifference to pain.

  7. Removal of trace level amounts of twelve sulfonamides from drinking water by UV-activated peroxymonosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changzheng; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Lei; Han, Qi; Lin, Kuangfei; Lu, Shuguang; Zhang, Dong; Cao, Guomin

    2016-12-01

    Trace levels of residual antibiotics in drinking water may threaten public health and become a serious problem in modern society. In this work, we investigated the degradation of twelve sulfonamides (SAs) at environmentally relevant trace level concentrations by three different methods: ultraviolet (UV) photolysis, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation, and UV-activated PMS (UV/PMS). Sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxydiazine, and sulfadimethoxine were be effectively removed by direct UV photolysis and PMS oxidation. However, sulfanilamide, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, and sulfachloropyridazine were not completely degraded, despite prolonging the UV irradiation time to 30min or increasing the PMS concentration to 5.0mg·L(-1). UV/PMS provided more thorough elimination of SAs, as demonstrated by the complete removal of 200ng·L(-1) of all SAs within 5min at an initial PMS concentration of 1.0mg·L(-1). UV/PMS promoted SA decomposition more efficiently than UV photolysis or PMS oxidation alone. Bicarbonate concentration and pH had a negligible effect on SA degradation by UV/PMS. However, humic acid retarded the process. Removal of 200ng·L(-1) of each SA from a sample of sand-filtered effluent from a drinking water treatment plant (DWTPs) was quickly and completely achieved by UV/PMS. Meanwhile, about 41% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was eliminated. Scavenging experiments showed that sulfate radical (SO4(-)) was the predominant species involved in the degradation. It is concluded that UV/PMS is a rapid and efficient method for removing trace-level SAs from drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterizing gene-gene interactions in a statistical epistasis network of twelve candidate genes for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rishika; Hu, Ting; Moore, Jason H; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have reemphasized the importance of epistasis, or gene-gene interactions, as a contributing factor to the unexplained heritability of obesity. Network-based methods such as statistical epistasis networks (SEN), present an intuitive framework to address the computational challenge of studying pairwise interactions between thousands of genetic variants. In this study, we aimed to analyze pairwise interactions that are associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) between SNPs from twelve genes robustly associated with obesity (BDNF, ETV5, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, MC4R, MTCH2, NEGR1, SEC16B, SH2B1, and TMEM18). We used information gain measures to identify all SNP-SNP interactions among and between these genes that were related to obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) within the Framingham Heart Study Cohort; interactions exceeding a certain threshold were used to build an SEN. We also quantified whether interactions tend to occur more between SNPs from the same gene (dyadicity) or between SNPs from different genes (heterophilicity). We identified a highly connected SEN of 709 SNPs and 1241 SNP-SNP interactions. Combining the SEN framework with dyadicity and heterophilicity analyses, we found 1 dyadic gene (TMEM18, P-value = 0.047) and 3 heterophilic genes (KCTD15, P-value = 0.045; SH2B1, P-value = 0.003; and TMEM18, P-value = 0.001). We also identified a lncRNA SNP (rs4358154) as a key node within the SEN using multiple network measures. This study presents an analytical framework to characterize the global landscape of genetic interactions from genome-wide arrays and also to discover nodes of potential biological significance within the identified network.

  9. Thermal environment in eight low-energy and twelve conventional Finnish houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Erkki; Salmi, Kari; Holopainen, Rauno; Pasanen, Pertti; Reijula, Kari

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the thermal environment of eight recently built low-energy houses and twelve conventional Finnish houses. We monitored living room, bedroom and outdoor air temperatures and room air relative humidity from June 2012 to September 2013. Perceived thermal environment was evaluated using a questionnaire survey during the heating, cooling and interim seasons. We compared the measured and perceived thermal environments of the low-energy and conventional houses. The mean air temperature was 22.8 °C (21.9-23.8 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 23.3 °C (21.4-26.5 °C) in the conventional houses during the summer (1. June 2013-31. August 2013). In the winter (1. December 2012-28. February 2013), the mean air temperature was 21.3 °C (19.8-22.5 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 21.6 °C (18.1-26.4 °C) in the conventional houses. The variation of the air temperature was less in the low-energy houses than that in the conventional houses. In addition, the occupants were on average slightly more satisfied with the indoor environment in the low-energy houses. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean air temperature and relative humidity of the low-energy and conventional houses. Our measurements and surveys showed that a good thermal environment can be achieved in both types of houses.

  10. Phytochemical screening of twelve species of phytoplankton isolated from Arabian Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the phytochemicals in twelve species of marine phytoplankton. Methods: Total phenolic content of methanol extract was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content of the methanol extarct was determined by aluminium chloride method. Chlorophylls, β-carotene and astaxanthin were estimated by acetone extraction method. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenyl-hydrazine method. Phycobiliproteins such as allophycocyanin, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in the aqueous extracts were determined. Results: Total phenolics varied from 5.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW in Phormidium corium (P. corium to 17.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW in Oscillatoria fremyii (O. fremyii. Total flavonoids ranged between 0.74 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW in P. corium and 9.87 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW in Nannochloropsis oceanica. Chlorophyll-a pigment was high in Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans (15.51 mg/g DW and low in P. corium (1.08 mg/g DW. Chlorophyll-c ranged between 0.07 mg/g DW in Nannochloropsis oceanica and 4.62 mg/g DW in C. calcitrans. High contents of β-carotene and astaxanthin were found in C. calcitrans and low in P. corium which ranged from 0.33 to 10.03 mg/g DW and 0.18 to 3.85 mg/g DW, respectively. Vitamin C content varied from 0.50 mg/g DW in C. calcitrans to 1.51 mg/g DW in Phormidium tenue. O. fremyii showed highest total phycobiliproteins of 317.05 mg/g DW. High contents of allophycocyanin and phycocyanin were found in O. fremyii, whereas high contents of phycoerythrin were found in Oscillatoria sancta. All the three phycobiliproteins were low in Chroococcus turgidus. Conclusions: Marine phytoplankton are one of the natural sources providing novel biologically active compounds with potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Dose-response assessment using the benchmark dose approach of changes in hepatic EROD activity for individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattore, E.; Fanelli, R. [' ' Mario Negri' ' Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan (Italy); Chu, I. [Safe Environments Programme, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sand, S.; Haakansson, H. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Falk-Filippson, A. [Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The benchmark dose (BMD) approach was proposed as an alternative to the no-observedadverse- effect-level (NOAEL) or the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) as point of departure (POD) for extrapolation of data from animal studies to the low dose human exposure situation. In the risk assessment process using the NOAEL/LOAEL parameter, the reference dose (RfD) or the admissible daily intake (ADI) is obtained by dividing the NOAEL/LOAEL value by uncertainty factors. The uncertainty factors are incorporated in order to take into account variability in the sensitivity of different species, inter-individual differences in sensitivity within the human population, and variability in experimental data. In the BMD approach a dose-response curve is fitted to experimental data (Figure 1) and the BMD is calculated from the equation of the curve as the dose corresponding to a predetermined change in the response defined as the benchmark response (BMR). The 95% lower confidence bound of the BMD, usually referred to as BMDL, can be used as the POD in the extrapolation process to get a RfD or an ADI. The advantages of using the BMD approach are many. First, all the experimental data are utilized to construct the doseresponse curve; second, the variability and uncertainty are taken into account by incorporating standard deviations of means; and third, it represents a single methodology for cancer and noncancer endpoints. In this study the BMD methodology was applied to evaluate dose-response data of seven chlorinated biphenyl (CB) congeners (Table 1), some of which are dioxin-like while others are not. The data were obtained from subchronic dietary exposure studies in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Elevation in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was selected as biological response because it is known to be an endpoint sensitive to the exposure of dioxin-like PCBs. Since this response is not an adverse effect per se, in this paper we will refer to the no

  12. Effects of carnitine and its congeners on eicosanoid discharge from rat cells: implications for release of TNFα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. Garrelds

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available THE acyl carrier coenzyme A (CoA is involved in fatty acid metabolism. The carnitine/CoA ratio is of particular importance in regulating the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. Also CoA has a role in the formation and breakdown of products from both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of the precursor arachidonic acid. In the present study the effect of 4 days feeding of 300 mg/kg/day of L-carnitine, acetyl Lcarnitine and propionyl L-carnitine on the basal and calcium ionophore (A23187 stimulated release of arachidonic acid metabolites from rat carrageenin elicited peritoneal cells was investigated. There were two series of experiments carried out. In the first, the harvested peritoneal cell population consisted of less than 90% macrophages and additional polymorphonuclear (PMN leucocytes. The basal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 was stimulated by all treatments. The A23187 stimulated release of 6-keto-PGF1α and LTB4 was increased by all three compounds. The 6-keto-PGF1α:TxB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α:LTB4 ratios were increased by carnitine treatment. These results suggested that carnitine could modify the macrophage component of an inflammatory site in vivo. In the second series of experiments the harvested cell population was highly purified (>95% macrophages and none of the compounds fed to the rats caused a change of either eicosanoid or TNFα formation. Moreover the 6-keto-PGF1α:TxB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α:LTB4 ratios were not enhanced by any of the compounds tested. It is conceivable that in the first series the increased ratios 6-keto-PGF1α:TxB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α:LTB4 reflected the effect of carnitine or its congeners on PMN leucocytes rather than on macrophages.

  13. Expression of S100A8 correlates with inflammatory lung disease in congenic mice deficient of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keet Mary

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF patients is dominated by chronic inflammation with an early and inappropriate influx of neutrophils causing airway destruction. Congenic C57BL/6 CF mice develop lung inflammatory disease similar to that of patients. In contrast, lungs of congenic BALB/c CF mice remain unaffected. The basis of the neutrophil influx to the airways of CF patients and C57BL/6 mice, and its precipitating factor(s (spontaneous or infection induced remains unclear. Methods The lungs of 20-day old congenic C57BL/6 (before any overt signs of inflammation and BALB/c CF mouse lines maintained in sterile environments were investigated for distinctions in the neutrophil chemokines S100A8 and S100A9 by quantitative RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization, that were then correlated to neutrophil numbers. Results The lungs of C57BL/6 CF mice had spontaneous and significant elevation of both neutrophil chemokines S100A8 and S100A9 and a corresponding increase in neutrophils, in the absence of detectable pathogens. In contrast, BALB/c CF mouse lungs maintained under identical conditions, had similar elevations of S100A9 expression and resident neutrophil numbers, but diverged in having normal levels of S100A8. Conclusion The results indicate early and spontaneous lung inflammation in CF mice, whose progression corresponds to increased expression of both S100A8 and S100A9, but not S100A9 alone. Moreover, since both C57BL/6 and BALB/c CF lungs were maintained under identical conditions and had similar elevations in S100A9 and neutrophils, the higher S100A8 expression in the former (or suppression in latter is a result of secondary genetic influences rather than environment or differential infection.

  14. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in primipara breast milk from Shenzhen and exposure risk for breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Gang; Sun, Xiao Wei; Ai, Hua

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed at revealing the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from primipara in Shenzhen (China), and estimating daily intake of PBDEs for breast-fed infants. Concentrations of 7 PBDEs were measured in 60 breast milk samples by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS (high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry). The intake of PBDEs for breast-fed infants was estimated based on the infant's daily milk consumption. The range of total concentration of 7 PBDEs congeners in samples was 2.6-188.6 ng g(-1) lipid (mean: 14.8 ng g(-1) lipid; median: 7.2 ng g(-1) lipid). The mean estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast-fed infants ranged from 9.9 to 335.9 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) per day (mean: 52.5 ng kg(-1) bw per day; median: 28.6 ng kg(-1) bw per day). The levels of PBDEs body burden in the recruited mothers of Shenzhen were higher than those reported previously for the general population from other areas in China. No significant correlations were found between the body burden of PBDEs and the mothers' age, pre-pregnancy BMI, dietary habits, duration of residence in Shenzhen, weight and length of the newborns. BDE-47 and BDE-153 were major PBDE congeners in milk samples, while the congeners of BDE-183 and BDE-28 were also high in Shenzhen. The situation may be attributed to the special economic pattern including electronic production in Shenzhen in the past three decades. Continuous surveillance on PBDEs levels in human milk is needed in order to accurately evaluate the environmental impact of PBDEs to human health in Shenzhen.

  15. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent

  16. Very mild disease phenotype of congenic CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu cystic fibrosis mice

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhard-Marek Sabine; Burmester Marion; Bot Alice; Charizopoulou Nikoletta; Wedekind Dirk; Jansen Silke; Dorsch Martina; Stanke Frauke; Wilke Martina; Tóth Balázs (1985-); de Jonge Hugo R; Hedrich Hans-Jürgen; Breves Gerhard; Tümmler Burkhard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A major boost to cystic fibrosis disease research was given by the generation of various mouse models using gene targeting in embryonal stem cells. Moreover, the introduction of the same mutation on different inbred strains generating congenic strains facilitated the search for modifier genes. From the original CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu mouse model with a divergent genetic background (129/Sv, C57BL/6, HsdOla:MF1) two inbred mutant mouse strains CF/1-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu and CF/3-Cftr...

  17. Phytochemical screening of twelve species of phytoplankton isolated from Arabian Sea coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushanth Vishwanath Rai; Madaiah Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the phytochemicals in twelve species of marine phytoplankton. Methods: Total phenolic content of methanol extract was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content of the methanol extarct was determined by aluminium chloride method. Chlorophylls,β-carotene and astaxanthin were estimated by acetone extraction method. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenyl-hydrazine method. Phycobiliproteins such as allophycocyanin, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in the aqueous extracts were determined. Results: Total phenolics varied from 5.41 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) in Phormidium corium (P. corium) to 17.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW inOscillatoria fremyii(O. fremyii). Total flavonoids ranged between 0.74 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW inP. corium and 9.87 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW inNannochloropsis oceanica. Chlorophyll-a pigment was high inChaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans)(15.51 mg/g DW) and low inP. corium (1.08 mg/g DW). Chlorophyll-c ranged between 0.07 mg/g DW inNannochloropsis oceanica and 4.62 mg/g DW inC. calcitrans. High contents ofβ-carotene and astaxanthin were found inC. calcitrans and low inP. corium which ranged from 0.33 to 10.03 mg/g DW and 0.18 to 3.85 mg/g DW, respectively. Vitamin C content varied from 0.50 mg/g DW inC. calcitrans to 1.51 mg/g DW inPhormidium tenue.O. fremyii showed highest total phycobiliproteins of 317.05 mg/g DW. High contents of allophycocyanin and phycocyanin were found inO. fremyii, whereas high contents of phycoerythrin were found inOscillatoria sancta. All the three phycobiliproteins were low inChroococcus turgidus. Conclusions: Marine phytoplankton are one of the natural sources providing novel biologically active compounds with potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  18. Nutrient Contents per Serving of Twelve Varieties of Cooked Rice Marketed in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jordan imports rice from different countries without any quality preferences. Twelve varieties of cooked rice marketed in Jordan were analyzed. The content per serving of these varieties were computed for energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron and phosphorous. The protein content per serving found to range from 0.49 g for La Cigala rice to 6.2 g for Harvest rice. The fat content for all rice brands was less than 0.37 g per serving. The energy content ranged from 172.12 g/serving for Basmati rice to 212.25 g/serving for Sun White rice. Generally, all rice varieties contain significant amounts of minerals per serving. Ruzzana found to contain the highest level of calcium (38.2 mg/serving and Amber the lowest calcium content (6.7 mg/serving. Magnesium content found to range from 5.7 mg/serving for Royal Umberella rice to 16.3 mg/serving for Ruzzana rice. Consumption of one serving of Harvest cooked rice will cover 13.5% of the daily requirement of protein for females and 11.1% for males. Manganese content of one serving of Harvest, Sun White, Abu bent and La Cigala will cover 22.2% of the daily requirements for females and 14.7% for males, while consumption of one of Basmati, Sos rice or Amber will cover only 11.1% and 8.75 of requirement for females and males respectively. Planning a healthful diet is not a simple task. Dietary Reference Intake planning and assessing the diets of individuals or groups of healthy individuals according to their stage of life and sex. Food choice is a function of many factors, including personal preferences, habits, ethnic heritage and tradition. Dietary guidelines for Americans, consider whole grain products like rice are among the food groups that form the basis of a healthy diet. Including rice as part of a healthy, balanced diet can be linked to overall healthier eating patterns. Rice eaters are more likely to eat a diet consistent with the 2005 Dietary

  19. Experiencing a constructivist museum exhibit: A case study of twelve children and their families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Martha Anne Leech

    2002-04-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Research Council have called for the creation of a scientifically literate populace and introduced science standards and guidelines to direct this process. Science education in traditional school settings plays a key role in reaching this goal, but individuals over their lifetimes will have more exposure to science ideas through informal science experiences such as visits to museums and through diverse media sources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role museums play in this journey to science literacy. This qualitative collective case study examined the experience of 12 children and their families in a children's museum as they interacted with an exhibit designed along the tenets of constructivist theory to introduce children to ideas of science. Twelve children and their families were videotaped interacting with a model of a watershed that included the stream, surrounding land, gravel, and dam building and erosion abatement manipulatives. Children were interviewed to ascertain their stream-related ideas and conceptual understanding prior to and after using the exhibit. Parents completed demographic and post-exhibit experience questionnaires. Two museum staff members who played key roles in the development of the exhibit and surrounding gallery were also interviewed. Individual and cross-case analyses were done to describe the experience of each child and family, and to elucidate the commonalities of these experiences to describe the phenomenon of using a constructivist-based science exhibit. Results of the study indicate (1) the type of experience children and families had at the exhibit depended on child and parent interactions and roles each assumed, and (2) experience with the exhibit encouraged children to think more deeply about water topics, past experiences, and ideas they had previously constructed. Implications of this research include (1) parents should engage children

  20. A Classification Scheme for Adult Education. Education Libraries Bulletin, Supplement Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Monica A., Comp.

    This classification scheme, based on the 'facet formula' theory of Ranganathan, is designed primarily for the library of the National Institute of Adult Education in London, England. Kinds of persons being educated (educands), methods and problems of education, specific countries, specific organizations, and forms in which the information is…

  1. RUGBY GAME-RELATED STATISTICS THAT DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN WINNING AND LOSING TEAMS IN IRB AND SUPER TWELVE CLOSE GAMES

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    Luis Vaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to identify the Rugby game- related statistics that discriminated between winning and losing teams in IRB and S12 close games. Archival data reported to game-related statistics from 120 IRB games and 204 Super Twelve games played between 2003 and 2006. Afterwards, a cluster analysis was conducted to establish, according to game final score differences, three different match groups. Only the close games group was selected for further analysis (IRB n = 64 under 15 points difference and Super Twelve n = 95 under 11 points difference. An analysis to the structure coefficients (SC obtained through a discriminant analysis allowed to identify the most powerful game-related statistics in discriminating between winning and losing teams. The discriminant functions were statistically significant for Super Twelve games (Chi-square = 33.8, p < 0.01, but not for IRB games (Chi- square = 9.4, p = n.s.. In the first case, winners and losers were discriminated by possessions kicked (SC = 0.48, tackles made (SC = 0.45, rucks and pass (SC = -0.40, passes completed (SC = 0. 39, mauls won (SC = -0.36, turnovers won (SC = -0.33, kicks to touch (SC = 0.32 and errors made (SC = -0.32. The minus sign denotes higher values in losing teams. Rugby game-related statistics were able to discriminate between winners and losers in Super Twelve close games and suggest that a kicking based game supported by an effective defensive structure is more likely to win matches than a possession based one

  2. Breeding system and spatial isolation from congeners strongly constrain seed set in an insect-pollinated apomictic tree: Sorbus subcuneata (Rosaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamston, Tracey J.; Wilson, Robert J.; de Vere, Natasha; Rich, Tim C. G.; Stevens, Jamie R.; Cresswell, James E.

    2017-01-01

    In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S. admonitor. We confirmed that S. subcuneata is an obligate pseudogamous apomict, but open-pollinated flowers rarely produced seed (flower-to-seed conversion < 1%) even though they rapidly accumulated pollen on their stigmas. Manual heterospecific pollination by S. admonitor resulted in a high flower-to-seed conversion rate (65%), however, we estimate that the ratio of self: heterospecific pollination in open-pollinated flowers was at least 22:1. Despite the efficacy of heterospecific pollination, the contribution of S. admonitor trees to paternity in seed from open-pollinated flowers of S. subcuneata decreased rapidly with the spatial separation between paternal and maternal trees. Conservation efforts aimed at maintaining species with this breeding system must therefore manage the congeners in tandem which will also maintain the potential for rare heterospecific fertilisation that typically cause rapid diversification in these lineages. PMID:28338049

  3. Effect of mono-ortho and di-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on leopard frog survival and sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Mariana Beatriz; Karasov, William H

    2008-02-01

    We tested the effect of mono-ortho and di-ortho PCB congeners on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) hatching success, survival and sexual development. Embryos and tadpoles were exposed to two levels (0.5 and 50 microg/l) of two PCBs. PCBs 101 and 70 were selected because they were present in amphibians collected in the Fox River-Green Bay ecosystem and they have the theoretical structural requirements to be able to bind to the estrogen receptor and mediate estrogenic responses. The exposure of leopard frog embryos and tadpoles to PCB 70 and 101 did not significantly affect hatchability, survival, deformities or growth. There were significant departures from the expected 50:50 sex ratio in tadpoles/froglets exposed to PCB 101 and PCB 70. In all the cases of significant departure, the bias was towards higher number of females. Decrease in the proportion of male gonads and increase in the proportion of intersex gonads were observed with increasing PCB tissue concentrations. The effects of PCB congeners on sexual differentiation occur at concentrations higher than observed in frogs in the Fox River/Green Bay ecosystem.

  4. IL-10 Production Is Critical for Sustaining the Expansion of CD5+ B and NKT Cells and Restraining Autoantibody Production in Congenic Lupus-Prone Mice.

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    Yuriy Baglaenko

    Full Text Available The development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus is mediated by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. To decipher the genetics that contribute to pathogenesis and the production of pathogenic autoantibodies, our lab has focused on the generation of congenic lupus-prone mice derived from the New Zealand Black (NZB strain. Previous work has shown that an NZB-derived chromosome 4 interval spanning 32 to 151 Mb led to expansion of CD5+ B and Natural Killer T (NKT cells, and could suppress autoimmunity when crossed with a lupus-prone mouse strain. Subsequently, it was shown that CD5+ B cells but not NKT cells derived from these mice could suppress the development of pro-inflammatory T cells. In this paper, we aimed to further resolve the genetics that leads to expansion of these two innate-like populations through the creation of additional sub-congenic mice and to characterize the role of IL-10 in the suppression of autoimmunity through the generation of IL-10 knockout mice. We show that expansion of CD5+ B cells and NKT cells localizes to a chromosome 4 interval spanning 91 to 123 Mb, which is distinct from the region that mediates the majority of the suppressive phenotype. We also demonstrate that IL-10 is critical to restraining autoantibody production and surprisingly plays a vital role in supporting the expansion of innate-like populations.

  5. Drought tolerance in the alpine dandelion, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), its exotic congener T. officinale, and interspecific hybrids under natural and experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Marcus T; Galen, Candace

    2005-08-01

    We compared water relations and adaptations to drought stress in native and invasive exotic dandelions, Taraxacum ceratophorum and T. officinale. Photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), and water use efficiency (WUE; carbon gained/water lost) were measured for the two species under extreme drought in the alpine tundra of Colorado, USA. We also subjected both species and F(1) hybrids to a dry-down experiment to determine how relative physiological performance varied with water availability. Photosynthesis and transpiration in the field were low and did not differ between Taraxacum congeners; however, native T. ceratophorum had higher WUE than T. officinale. After 6 days of greenhouse drought, photosynthesis and transpiration were reduced in T. officinale compared to T. ceratophorum. Taraxacum ceratophorum maintained high WUE under control and drought treatments. Conversely, WUE in T. officinale was highly plastic between watered (low WUE) and dry-down (high WUE) treatments. Hybrids did not exhibit heterosis; instead, they were similar to T. officinale in A and E and intermediate to the parental species in WUE. Overall, results suggest that native dandelions are more drought tolerant than invasive congeners or their hybrids, but have less plasticity in WUE. Arid habitats and occasional drought in mesic sites may provide native dandelions with refugia from negative interactions with invasives.

  6. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in cow's milk collected in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Cavallo, S; Serpe, F P; D'Ambrosio, R; Gallo, P; Colarusso, G; Pellicanò, R; Baldi, L; Guarino, A; Serpe, L

    2009-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and certain dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are a family of chemically-related lipophilic compounds characterized by similar toxicity. Due to their properties they are universally distributed in the environment and classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). From most of studies carried out to evaluate human dietary intake, milk and dairy products result as a major contributors of PCDD/Fs uptake. Of course the main source of milk contamination is animal feeds. Lactating ruminants, cows included, transfer these compounds to the food chain by ingestion of contaminated vegetables or soil. Their resistance to degradation and a high lipophilicity means that PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs may be accumulated into fat tissues from which they are transferred to milk during lactation period. Seventy-nine cows milk samples, collected in the monitoring plan 2008, were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Eleven milk samples were non-compliant corresponding to five breeding livestock located in Caserta province. The distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs congeners in these samples was examined in order to determine the likely sources of dioxins. The results show that the congener profile is characterized by a prevalence of PCDFs in respect of PCDDs, that represents the typical pattern of thermal origin contamination.

  7. The establishment of preliminary safety threshold values for cyanobacteria based on periodic variations in different microcystin congeners in Lake Chaohu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lixia; Feng, Muhua; Liu, Feifei; Xu, Xiangen; Ke, Fan; Chen, Xiangchao; Li, Wenchao

    2015-04-01

    As harmful cyanobacterial proliferation threatens the safety of drinking water supplies worldwide, it is essential to establish a safety threshold (ST) for cyanobacteria to control cyanobacterial density effectively in water sources. For this purpose, cyanobacterial abundance, microcystin (MC) production, and environmental parameters were monitored monthly from September 2011 to August 2012 in one drinking water source of Lake Chaohu. The cyanobacterial density ranged from 1400 to 220 000 cells per mL with the succession of two dominant species Microcystis and Dolichospermum, which was determined by water temperature and nutrient loading. The MC concentrations were correlated significantly with the cyanobacterial density and they varied between 0.28 and 8.86 μg L(-1). Therefore, the characteristics of MC cell quotas were classified according to four stages of the development of cyanobacteria, namely: recruitment, multiplication, decline and dormancy. The ST for cyanobacteria was established for different periods based on the MC cell quota and its guideline wherein three commonly monitored MC congeners (MC-LR, -RR and -YR) were considered in the present study. Its reliability was verified in the water source using the data collected between June 2013 and May 2014. The results highlighted the necessity to classify the ST-values in different periods referring to the main MC congeners rather than MC-LR, which will facilitate the management and control of toxic cyanobacterial proliferation in drinking water sources.

  8. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of tactile startle response in recombinant congenic strains of mice:QTL mapping and comparison with acoustic PPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam Torkamanzehi; Patricia Boksa; Ridha Joober

    2008-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a psychophysiological measure of sensorimotor gating believed to be cross-modal between different sensory systems.We analyzed the tactile startle response (TSR) and PPI of TSR (tPPD,using light as a prepulse stimulus,in the mouse strains A/J and C57BL/6J and 36 recombinant congenic strains derived from them.Parental strains were significantly different for TSR,but were comparable for tPPI.Among the congenic strains,variation for TSR was significant in both genetic backgrounds,but that of tPPI was significant only for the C57BL/6J background.Provisional mapping for loci modulating TSR and tPPI was carded out.Using mapping data from our previous study on acoustic startle responses (ASR) and PPI of ASR (aPPI),no common markers for aPPI and tPPI were identified.However,some markers were significantly associated with both ASR and TSIL at least in one genetic background.These results indicate cross-modal genetic regulation for the startle response but not for PPI,in these mouse strains.

  9. Radicular anatomy of twelve representatives of the Catasetinae subtribe (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae

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    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root structure of the Brazilian genera belonging to the Catasetinae subtribe is poorly known, we describe the roots of twelve representatives from this subtribe. For anatomical analysis, the roots were fixed in FAA 50, preserved in ethanol 70% and sectioned at its medium region using razor blades. The sections were stained with 0.05% astra blue and safranin and mounted in glycerin. For the identification of starch we used Lugol's solution; for lignin, floroglucin chloridric; for lipids, Sudan III, and for flavanoids, potassium hydroxide. The relevant aspects were registered using a digital camera joined with an Olympus microspope (BX51 model. The structural similarities of all roots support the placement of the subtribe Catasetinae into the monophyletic tribe Cymbidieae. Some root features are restricted to one or two taxa and can be useful in the systematics of the subtribe. For example, the occurrence of flavonoidic crystals characterizes the genera Catasetum and Cychnodes, and the number of the velamen layers and the shape of the epivelamen cells are useful to confirm the taxonomic position of Clowesia amazonica. The presence of velamen and flavonoidic crystals was interpreted as an adaptation to the epiphytic habit.Considerando que a estrutura das raízes de gêneros brasileiros pertencentes à subtribo Catasetinae é pouco conhecida, descrevemos as raízes de doze representantes desta subtribo. Para análise anatômica, as raízes foram fixadas em FAA 50, preservadas em álcool 70% e seccionadas na sua região média usando lâminas de barbear. Os cortes foram corados com astra blue e Safrablau 0,05% e montados em glicerina. Para a identificação do amido, utilizou-se a solução de Lugol; da lignina, floroglucina clorídrica, dos lipídios, Sudan III e dos flavonóides, hidróxido de potássio. Os aspectos relevantes foram registrados usando câmera digital acoplada a um microscópio Olympus (modelo BX51. As semelhan

  10. Dillapiol and Apiol as specific inhibitors of the biosynthesis of aflatoxin G1 in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Rezaee, Mohammad-Bagher; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2007-09-01

    Dillapiol was isolated from the essential oil of dill as a specific inhibitor of aflatoxin G1 production. It inhibited aflatoxin G1 production by Aspergillus parasiticus with an IC50 value of 0.15 microM without inhibiting aflatoxin B1 production or fungal growth. Apiol and myristicin, congeners of dillapiol, showed similar activity with IC50 values of 0.24 and 3.5 microM, respectively.

  11. Distribution of selected PCB congeners in the Babcock Street sewer district: a multimedia approach to identify PCB sources in combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharging to the Buffalo River, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, B G; Irvine, K N; Kannan, K; Pragatheeswaran, V; Sajwan, K S

    1997-08-01

    To evaluate sources of PCBs in combined sewer overflows (CSOs) to the Buffalo River, New York, combined sewage, sanitary flow, atmospheric wet and dry depositions, and street dust samples were collected from the Babcock Street sewer district and analyzed. Total PCB concentrations (sum of the PCB congeners quantitated) in particulate and dissolved phases of sanitary flow were 101-269 ng g-1 dry weight and 50% of the total PCB load in street dust samples. PCB congener composition in the particulate phase of CSOs reflects the congener pattern of the street dusts. In this context, it can be suggested that the local contaminated street dusts are one of the potential sources of PCBs in CSOs, which is a source of PCBs to the Buffalo River.

  12. Twelve tips for maximizing the effectiveness of game-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Borman-Shoap, Emily C; Eppich, Walter J

    2015-01-01

    Game-based learning (GBL) in medical education is emerging as a valid alternative to traditional teaching methods. Well-designed GBL sessions use non-threatening competition to capitalize on heightened learner arousal, allowing for high-level engagement and dynamic group discussion. While many templates for specific educational games have been published, little has been written on strategies for educators to create their own or how to use them with maximal effectiveness. These 12 tips provide specific recommendations for the successful design and implementation of GBL sessions in medical education based on a review of the literature and insight from experienced designers.

  13. Educating Adult Learners: Twelve Tips for Teaching Business Professionals. Reflection on Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisamore, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Dayle; Alexander, Evangeline; White, Dana Leann

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide specific suggestions for teaching adult business professionals. The suggestions we present are based on our combined experiences as instructors of business professionals who have returned to school for continuing education and as adult learners ourselves. In this article, we discuss the unique characteristics…

  14. Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Specific phobias Treatment More information on specific phobias A specific ... targeted psychotherapy. Return to top More information on Specific phobias Explore other publications and websites Phobias (Copyright © American ...

  15. Comparing twelve-lead electrocardiography with close-to-heart patch based electrocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ingeborg Helbech; Hoppe, Karsten; Gjerde, Anna

    2015-01-01

    and the standard 12-lead ECG signals aVR and V2, respectively. Deriving the 12-lead ECG from the PEM leads through linear transforms on a subject-specific basis yield CC values ranging from 0.78 to 0.96 between measured and derived leads. The corresponding CC values for the PEM ECG leads range from 0.88 to 0...

  16. Ocular hypotensive effect, preservation of visual fields, and safety of adding dorzolamide to prostaglandin therapy for twelve months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Inoue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1,3, Mieko Masumoto1,3, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita2, On behalf of the Ochanomizu Ophthalmology Study Group31Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ochanomizu Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively evaluate the safety, hypotensive effect, and preservation of visual fields of dorzolamide when added to latanoprost.Subjects and methods: This study included 46 patients (46 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma who had been treated with latanoprost. Dorzolamide (1% was added to latanoprost, and the intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored before and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean deviation shown by Humphrey perimetry was compared before and after twelve months of treatment. Adverse reactions were monitored over the 12-month study period.Results: The mean baseline IOP was 17.2 ± 3.0 mmHg while those after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment were 14.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, 14.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, and 14.6 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (P < 0.0001, 1-ß(power = 0.9999571. The absolute reduction of IOP and the percent reduction were similar after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. The mean deviation on Humphrey perimetry was similar before and after twelve months of treatment. Three patients discontinued dorzolamide therapy due to elevation of IOP and one patient discontinued it because of adverse reactions.Conclusion: Dorzolamide is safe and effective when used for twelve months as add-on therapy to latanoprost for open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: dorzolamide, primary open-angle glaucoma, latanoprost 

  17. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  18. The myrmicine ant genus Metapone Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a global taxonomic review with descriptions of twelve new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert W; Alpert, Gary D

    2016-04-26

    The 28 known species of Metapone are monographed and illustrated. Twelve are described as new: M. africana, Gabon; M. balinensis, Bali, Indonesia; M. enigmatica, northeast New Guinea; M. hoelldobleri, northeast Queensland, Australia; M. javana, Java, Indonesia; M. manni, Viti Levu, Fiji; M. mathinnae, Flinders Island, Tasmania, Australia; M. philwardi, northeast New Guinea; M. salomonis, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands; M. tecklini, northeast Queensland; M. titan, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea; M. wallaceana, Lombok, Indonesia; spp.n. New synonymies include M. greeni Forel = M. johni Karavaiev (Sri Lanka) syn.n, and M. jacobsoni Crawley (Sumatra) = M. nicobarensis Tiwari & Jonathan (Great Nicobar Island) syn.n.

  19. Complex suicide by ethanol intoxication and inhalation of fire fumes in an old lady: interdisciplinary elucidation including post-mortem analysis of congener alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, L; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Bohnert, M; Auwärter, V; Pollak, S

    2011-06-15

    An 88-year-old woman committed suicide by drinking a toxic amount of highly concentrated alcohol and setting two rooms of her flat on fire. As there was not enough oxygen, the fire went out, however. At autopsy, no thermal lesions were found on the body, but soot depositions in the airways and a COHb value of 14% pointed to the inhalation of fire fumes. The ethanol concentration in femoral blood was 6.62 per mille. The gastric mucosa was fixed by the ingested alcohol and showed hardly any autolytic changes despite a post-mortem interval of five days. Congener analysis of the gastric contents and the femoral blood indicated the uptake of a fruit distillate or its foreshot.

  20. Gas-phase and particle-phase PCDD/F congener distributions in the flue gas from an iron ore sintering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Ye, Meng; Wang, Xue; Liu, Wen; Zhu, Tingyu

    2017-04-01

    The activated carbon injection-circulating fluidized bed (ACI-CFB)-bag filter coupling technique was studied in an iron ore sintering plant. For comparison, the removal efficiencies under the conditions without or with ACI technology were both evaluated. It was found that the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) removal efficiency for total international toxic equivalence quantity (I-TEQ) concentration was improved from 91.61% to 97.36% when ACI was employed, revealing that ACI was very conducive to further controlling the PCDD/F emissions. Detailed congener distributions of PCDD/Fs in the gas-phase and particle-phase of the Inlet and Outlet samples were determined. Additionally, the PCDD/F distribution for the Fly ash-with ACI sample of was also studied. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Estimation of Aqueous Solubility (-lgSw) of All Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners by Density Functional Theory and Position of Cl Substitution (NPCS) Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiao-Yan; GE Zhi-Gang; WANG Zun-Yao; XU Jiao

    2007-01-01

    Optimization calculations of 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. It was found that there is significant correlation between the Cl substitution position and some structural parameters. Consequently, Cl substitution positions were taken as theoretical descriptors to establish a novel QSPR model for predicting -lgSw of all PCB congeners. The model achieved in this work contains four variables, of which r2 = 0.9527, q2 = 0.9490 and SD = 0.25 with large t values. In addition, the variation inflation factors (VIFs) of variables in this model are all less than 5.0, suggesting high accuracy of the -lgSw predicting model. And the results of cross-validation test and method validation also show that the model exhibits optimum stability and better predictive capability than that from the AM1 method.

  2. Cytogenetic studies in twelve patients with primary myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, N; Krulik, M; de Gramont, A; Sirinelli, A; Brissaud, P; Dray, C; Audebert, A A; Debray, J

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome studies on bone marrow and/or peripheral blood cells without phytohemagglutinin were performed on 12 patients with primary myelofibrosis with myeloid meta-plasia (PMMM) between 1980 and 1984. Abnormal clones were found in six patients (50%). In five cases the abnormal clone involved the long arm of chromosome #7, two of which also had partial trisomy of chromosome #1 and trisomy of 9. Additional abnormalities involving chromosomes #3, #5, #11, #13, #15, and #21 were each found once. Review of the literature showed few studies on the cytogenetics of PMMM. No specific chromosomal pattern can be established; however, abnormalities described are nonrandom.

  3. The invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides was suppressed more intensively than its native congener by a native generalist: implications for the biotic resistance hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shufeng; Yu, Dan; Liu, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies on preferences of native herbivores for native or exotic plants have tested both the enemy release hypothesis and the biotic resistance hypothesis and have reported inconsistent results. The different levels of resistance of native and exotic plants to native herbivores could resolve this controversy, but little attention has been paid to this issue. In this study, we investigated population performance, photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, and the constitutive and induced resistances of the successful invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, and its native congener, Alternanthera sessilis, in the presence of three population densities of the grasshopper, Atractomorpha sinensis. When the grasshopper was absent, leaf biomass, total biomass, photosynthesis, and leaf nitrogen concentration of A. philoxeroides were higher than those of A. sessilis. However, the morphological and physiological performances of A. philoxeroides were all decreased more intensively than A. sessilis after herbivory by grasshoppers. Especially as the concentrations of constitutive lignin and cellulose in leaf of A. philoxeroides were higher than A. sessilis, A. philoxeroides exhibited increased leaf lignin concentration to reduce its palatability only at severe herbivore load, whereas, leaf lignin, cellulose, and polyphenolic concentrations of A. sessilis all increased with increasing herbivory pressure, and cellulose and polyphenolic concentrations were higher in A. sessilis than in A. philoxeroides after herbivory. Our study indicated that the capability of the invasive plant to respond to native insect damage was lower than the native plant, and the invasive plant was suppressed more intensively than its native congener by the native insect. Our results support the biotic resistance hypothesis and suggest that native herbivores can constrain the abundance and reduce the adverse effects of invasive species.

  4. Effects of in ovo exposure to PCBs (coplanar congener, kanechlor mixture, hydroxylated metabolite) on the developing cell-mediated immunity in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, J.; Matsuda, M.; Kawano, M.; Wakimoto, T. [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Kashima, Y. [Dept. of Hygiene, Yokohama City Univ. School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are wide spread environmental contaminants and known to cause various adverse effects on health of human and wildlife. Immune system is one of the several targets for toxic effects of PCBs and its normal balance is often disrupted by the exposure of the compounds. For example, PCBs may induce immune suppression and result in increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections, or conversely, excessive immune enhancement may cause adverse outcomes including as autoimmune disease and anergy. Therefore immune function is regarded as one of an important endpoint in toxicological risk assessment. There are a number of studies shown that neonatal organisms perinatally exposed to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as PCBs have severer effects on their immune system than adult. Dioxins and coplanar PCB congeners, structurally planar PHAHs are known to have high affinity for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have the strongest affinity among such compounds and these are considered to act on immune system through AhR. On the other hand, such as non-planar PCB congeners with low affinity for AhR, which are abundantly contained in commercial PCB preparations have non-additive (antagonistic) effects on immune function. Prenatal exposure of TCDD to rodent induced abnormal lymphoid development in the thymus and thymus-dependent immune functions were remarkably disturbed. Although several experimental studies in mammals have been carried out on the developmental immunotoxicity of PCBs, there are still limited information available on avian species. Thus in this study, prenatal exposure to low level of PCBs and the effects on the developing immune system were investigated with chicken as a model animal of avian species, especially it is focused on the cell-mediated immune function.

  5. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel, E-mail: molinajm@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Amaya, Esperanza [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Grimaldi, Marina [INSERM, U896, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpellier I, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Balaguer, Patrick [INSERM, U896, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpellier I, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Olea, Nicolás [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hERα agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hERβ versus hERα assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hERα, hERβ, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  6. In vitro toxicity profiling of ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and their relative toxic contribution to PCB mixtures in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; Cenijn, Peter H; Pencikova, Katerina; Palkova, Lenka; Simeckova, Pavlina; Vondracek, Jan; Andersson, Patrik L; Stenberg, Mia; Machala, Miroslav

    2011-05-01

    The toxic equivalency concept used for the risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is based on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of coplanar dioxin-like (DL) PCBs. Most PCBs in the environment, however, are non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs that cannot adopt a coplanar structure required for AhR activation. For NDL-PCBs, no generally accepted risk concept is available because their toxicity is insufficiently characterized. Here, we systematically determined in vitro toxicity profiles for 24 PCBs regarding 10 different mechanisms of action. Prior to testing, NDL-PCB standards were purified to remove traces of DL compounds. All NDL-PCBs antagonized androgen receptor activation and inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Lower chlorinated NDL-PCBs were weak estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, whereas higher chlorinated NDL-PCBs were weak ER antagonists. Several NDL-PCBs inhibited estradiol-sulfotransferase activity and bound to transthyretin (TTR) but with much weaker potencies than reported for hydroxylated PCB metabolites. AhR-mediated expression of uridine-glucuronyl transferase isozyme UGT1A6 was induced by DL-PCBs only. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the toxicity profiles yielded three separate clusters of NDL-PCBs and a fourth cluster of reference DL-PCBs. Due to small differences in relative potency among congeners, the highly abundant indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 also contributed most to the antiandrogenic, (anti)estrogenic, antithyroidal, tumor-promoting, and neurotoxic potencies calculated for PCB mixtures reported in human samples, whereas the most potent AhR-activating DL-PCB-126 contributed at maximum 0.2% to any of these calculated potencies. PCB-168 is recommended as an additional indicator congener, given its relatively high abundance and antiandrogenic, TTR-binding, and GJIC-inhibiting potencies.

  7. The Effect o f Twelve - Week Recreation Act i v ities on the Anxiety Level of Female Pri soners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye B AŞARAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available T h e a i m o f t h e s t u d y w a s to examine the effect of twelve - weeks recreation activities on the trait anxiety level of female prisoners in the prisons. The sampling of this study consists of 45 female prisoners who are in the Open Prison in Kandira, 22 of whom are in the experimental group and 23 of whom are in the control group. Different activities, such as music, dance, meditatio n, sportive activities, movies and videos, fun and entertainment activities and competitions, were performed one and half hours a day and two days a week. This lasted for twelve weeks. The data were collected by pre - tests and post - tests that were given bo th at the beginning and at the end of this program. Personal information form and Spielberger anxiety inventory were used as the data collecting tool. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha was calculated as ,873. The data were analysed with SPSS Win dows 18 programme. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon test were conducted. A si gnificant statistical correlation was determined between the prisoners’ pre - tests and post - tests scores in the experimental group (p <0.05. A s c o n c l u s i o n , a positive impact on trait anxiety levels of prisoners w a s f o u n d a f t e r 12 weeks o f recreational activities.

  8. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-04-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve.

  9. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey.

  10. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-04-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve.

  11. Barley husk carbon as the fiber coating for the solid-phase microextraction of twelve pesticides in vegetables prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Dong, Wenhuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2017-03-31

    In this work, a barley husk biomaterial was successfully carbonized by hydrothermal method. The carbon had a high specific surface area and good stability. It was coated onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique to prepare a solid-phase microextraction fiber for the extraction of trace levels of twelve pesticides (tsumacide, fenobucarb, indoxacarb, diethofencarb, thimet, terbufos, malathion, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, buprofezin, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam) from vegetable samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) detection. The main experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity was observed in the range of 0.2-75.0μgkg(-1) for tomato samples, and 0.3-60.0μgkg(-1) for cucumber samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9959 to 0.9983. The limits of detection of the method were 0.01-0.05μgkg(-1) for tomato samples, and 0.03-0.10μgkg(-1) for cucumber samples. The recoveries of the analytes for the method from spiked samples were in the range of 76%-104%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 12%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A class III archaeological survey of twelve region wide fencing upgrade locations in Eagle, Grand, Gunnison, Jackson, Moffat, Pitkin, and Routt counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Department of Transportation proposes to upgrade existing right-of-way fencing along roadways at twelve separate locations in northwestern Colorado. To...

  13. Sixty-twelve = Seventy-two? A cross-linguistic comparison of children's number transcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-09-01

    We compared French- and English-speaking fifth-grade (10-year-old) children's performance in number transcoding. Whereas English two-digit number names follow the decimal structure (base 10), the structure of French two-digit number words over 60 follow a vigesimal structure (base 20). Children undertook two number transcoding tasks. While children were generally successful at the tasks, English-speaking children significantly outperformed French-speaking children for numbers following a vigesimal structure in French compared to a decimal structure in English (i.e., numbers >60). Our findings show that verbal number name structures influence children's performance in numerical tasks, even though fifth-grade children have well passed the initial stage of acquiring transcoding skills for two-digit numbers. These findings highlight the importance of language specificities in children's number transcoding. Statement of contribution What is already known? Previous research reports that language influences number processing in young children. Number transcoding performances can be conditioned by the linguistic structure of number words. What does this study add? Our results show how the structure of French vigesimal number words impacts number transcoding. They demonstrate that these language influences also affect children who already master basic number competencies.

  14. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Elena; Lecumberri, Pablo; Pagola, Miguel; Gómez, Marisol; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M

    2012-06-21

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical (18)F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools.

  15. The Extension of The Twelve-Point Sphere Theorem for a Tetrahedron%四面体的十二点二次曲面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇志; 王东生

    2012-01-01

    垂心四面体中四条高的垂足,四个面的重心及从各顶点与四面体的垂心连线的三等分点,共十二个点共球.试图把垂心改为四面体内的任意点,相应地把四条高线改换为过该点与每个顶点连线的共点直线组时,则将把垂心四面体的十二点球有趣地推广为四面体的十二点二次曲面.%The four feet of four altitudes for an orthocenter tetrahedron, the centers of gravity of the four faces, the trisection of the line segments from the orthocenter to four summits, total twelve points lie on same sphere, which is known as twelve-point sphere. If the orthocenter can be changed into any point within a tetrahedron in this paper, and corresponding the four perpendiculars also can be changed into the four lines segment passing through the given point to the summits of the tetrahedron, the twelve-point sphere can be changed into twelve-point quadric surface. Twelve point sphere of an orthocenter tetrahedron can be generalized to the twelve-point quadratic surface of a tetrahedron.

  16. Twelve year interannual and seasonal variability of stream carbon export from a boreal peatland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J. A.; Larsson, A.; Wallin, M. B.; Nilsson, M. B.; Laudon, H.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding stream carbon export dynamics is needed to accurately predict how the carbon balance of peatland catchments will respond to climatic and environmental change. We used a 12 year record (2003-2014) of continuous streamflow and manual spot measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), methane (CH4), and organic carbon quality (carbon-specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm per dissolved organic carbon) to assess interannual and seasonal variability in stream carbon export for a peatland catchment (70% mire and 30% forest cover) in northern Sweden. Mean annual total carbon export for the 12 year period was 12.2 gCm-2 yr-1, but individual years ranged between 6 and 18 gCm-2 yr-1. TOC, which was primarily composed of dissolved organic carbon (>99%), was the dominant form of carbon being exported, comprising 63% to 79% of total annual exports, and DIC contributed between 19% and 33%. CH4 made up less than 5% of total export. When compared to previously published annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the studied peatland system, stream carbon export typically accounted for 12 to 50% of NEE for most years. However, in 2006 stream carbon export accounted for 63 to 90% (estimated uncertainty range) of NEE due to a dry summer which suppressed NEE, followed by a wet autumn that resulted in considerable stream export. Runoff exerted a primary control on stream carbon export from this catchment; however, our findings suggest that seasonal variations in biologic and hydrologic processes responsible for production and transport of carbon within the peatland were secondary influences on stream carbon export. Consideration of these seasonal dynamics is needed when predicting stream carbon export response to environmental change.

  17. Twelve-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Susanne; Brähler, Elmar; Faller, Hermann; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Boehncke, Anna; Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Richard, Matthias; Sehner, Susanne; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Mehnert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Psychological problems are common in cancer patients. For the purpose of planning psycho-oncological interventions and services tailored to the specific needs of different cancer patient populations, it is necessary to know to what extent psychological problems meet the criteria of mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in cancer patients. A representative sample of patients with different tumour entities and tumour stages (n = 2,141) in outpatient, inpatient and rehabilitation settings underwent the standardized computer-assisted Composite International Diagnostic Interview for mental disorders adapted for cancer patients (CIDI-O). The overall 12-month prevalence for any mental disorder was 39.4% (95% CI: 37.3-41.5), that for anxiety disorders was 15.8% (95% CI: 14.4-17.4), 12.5% (95% CI: 11.3-14.0) for mood disorders, 9.5% (95% CI: 8.3-10.9) for somatoform disorders, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.2-8.5) for nicotine dependence, 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0-4.6) for disorders due to general medical condition, and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.7-1.6) for alcohol abuse or dependence. Lifetime prevalence for any mental disorder was 56.3% (95% CI 54.1-58.6), that for anxiety disorders was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.3-25.9), 20.5% (95% CI: 18.9-22.3) for mood disorders, 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3-21.7) for somatoform disorders, 18.2% (95% CI: 16.6-20.0) for nicotine dependence, 6.4% (95% CI: 5.4-7.6) for alcohol abuse or dependence, 4.6% (95% CI: 3.8-5.6) for disorders due to general medical condition, and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.6) for eating disorders. Mental disorders are highly prevalent in cancer patients, indicating the need for provision of continuous psycho-oncological support from inpatient to outpatient care, leading to an appropriate allocation of direct personnel and other resources. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Birth, growth and progresses through the last twelve years of a regional scale landslide warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Riccardo; Segoni, Samuele; Rosi, Ascanio; Lagomarsino, Daniela; Catani, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    recordings and landslides occurred) and to use them to define more robust relationships between rainfalls and landslide triggering, with the final aim to increase the forecasting effectiveness of the warning system. The updated rainfall and landslide database were used to periodically perform a quantitative validation and to analyze the errors affecting the system forecasts. The errors characterization was used to implement a continuous process of updating and modification of SIGMA, that included: - Main model upgrades (generalization from a pilot test site to the whole Emilia Romagna region; calibration against well documented landslide events to define specific σ levels for each territorial units; definition of different alert levels according to the number of expected - Ordinary updates (periodically, the new landslide and rainfall data were used to re-calibrate the thresholds, taking into account a more robust sample). - Model tuning (set up of the optimal version of the decisional algorithm, including different definitions of "long" and "short" periods; selection of the optimal reference rain gauge for each Territorial Unit; modification of the boundaries of some territorial - Additional features (definition of a module that takes into account the effect of snow melt and snow accumulation; coupling with a landslide susceptibility model to improve the spatial accuracy of the model). - Various performance tests (including the comparison with alternate versions of SIGMA or with thresholds based on rainfall intensity and duration). This process has led to an evolution of the warning system and to a documented improvement of its forecasting effectiveness. Landslide forecasting at regional scale is a very complex task, but as time passes by and with the systematic gathering of new substantial data and the continuous progresses of research, uncertainties can be progressively reduced and a warning system can be set that increases its performances and reliability with time.

  19. Twelve reasons to refuse the nuclear in the MDP; Douze raisons pour refuser le nucleaire dans le MDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonduelle, A

    2000-07-01

    The author presents twelve reasons which show that the nuclear energy has not a place in the MDP Mechanism of Clean Development: a main loophole for the developed countries, the doubtful ''additionality'' of the nuclear, the treaty ratification is more difficult with the nuclear, the domestic energy conservation is more efficient in Europe than the nuclear development, the nuclear white elephants facing the South debts, the technology transfers are doubtful, the developing countries and the sustainable development policies are evicted from the MDP, some options are more powerful in the South, the reactors and transport networks size are unsuited, the absence of democratic control, the nuclear proliferation, the nuclear safety and the wastes. (A.L.B.)

  20. 气相色谱-负化学电离质谱法测定沉积物和鱼肉中毒杀芬的8个同类物及其总含量%Analysis of toxaphene and its eight congeners in sediment and fish tissue by gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳文剑

    2013-01-01

    Toxaphene quantification incorporating gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NCI-MS) offers improved sensitivity and specificity.The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently released a GC/NCI-MS method (Method 8276) for the measurement of technical toxaphene and eight specific congeners (Hx-Sed,Hp-Sed,P26,P41,P40,P44,P50 and P62).However,there is still lack of a practical and complete analytical method including sample extraction,clean up,instrumental analysis,and data analysis.The goal of this work was to develop a ready-to-use method for the quantification of total toxaphene and the eight congeners.Sediment and salmon fish tissue were selected as sample matrices and extracted with methylene chloride using an accelerated solvent extraction system.The sample extracts were cleaned up with active copper powder or gel permeation chromatography,and finally silica/alumina combination column.Separation was performed on a DB-XLB column.GC/NCI-MS was operated under selected ion monitoring mode with an identical set of confirmation and quantitation ions for total toxaphene and the eight congeners.Oxygen reaction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was monitored by PCB204,an internal calibration standard,and the reaction level was kept below 1%.Average relative response factors were used in quantitation.Quantitation of total toxaphene employed the sum of all detectable (S/N ≥ 3) 6-Cl to 10-Cl homolog peak areas,while the individual congeners were quantified followed the standard procedures for single analytes.Multi-point calibration solutions ranged from 0.5 (5 for P62) to 500 μg/L for the individual congeners,and 50 to 500 μg/L for technical toxaphene,with the lowest calibration levels as lower limits of quantitation.Average congener recovery was (90.8 ± 17.4)% (n =10) in spiked sediment with relative standard deviations of 5.4%-12.8% (n =10),underscoring an excellently accurate and precise method.The method was

  1. Mapping of a chromosome 12 region associated with airway hyperresponsiveness in a recombinant congenic mouse strain and selection of potential candidate genes by expression and sequence variation analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Kanagaratham

    Full Text Available In a previous study we determined that BcA86 mice, a strain belonging to a panel of AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains, have an airway responsiveness phenotype resembling mice from the airway hyperresponsive A/J strain. The majority of the BcA86 genome is however from the hyporesponsive C57BL/6J strain. The aim of this study was to identify candidate regions and genes associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR by quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis using the BcA86 strain. Airway responsiveness of 205 F2 mice generated from backcrossing BcA86 strain to C57BL/6J strain was measured and used for QTL analysis to identify genomic regions in linkage with AHR. Consomic mice for the QTL containing chromosomes were phenotyped to study the contribution of each chromosome to lung responsiveness. Candidate genes within the QTL were selected based on expression differences in mRNA from whole lungs, and the presence of coding non-synonymous mutations that were predicted to have a functional effect by amino acid substitution prediction tools. One QTL for AHR was identified on Chromosome 12 with its 95% confidence interval ranging from 54.6 to 82.6 Mbp and a maximum LOD score of 5.11 (p = 3.68 × 10(-3. We confirmed that the genotype of mouse Chromosome 12 is an important determinant of lung responsiveness using a Chromosome 12 substitution strain. Mice with an A/J Chromosome 12 on a C57BL/6J background have an AHR phenotype similar to hyperresponsive strains A/J and BcA86. Within the QTL, genes with deleterious coding variants, such as Foxa1, and genes with expression differences, such as Mettl21d and Snapc1, were selected as possible candidates for the AHR phenotype. Overall, through QTL analysis of a recombinant congenic strain, microarray analysis and coding variant analysis we identified Chromosome 12 and three potential candidate genes to be in linkage with airway responsiveness.

  2. HLA compatibility assessment and management of highly sensitized patients under the new kidney allocation system (KAS): A 2016 status report from twelve HLA laboratories across the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, M; Phelan, D; Noreen, H; Marcus, N; Klingman, L; Gebel, H M

    2017-01-01

    Twelve HLA laboratories were surveyed to assess the methods and operational issues involved to define highly sensitized patients and to assess HLA compatibility under the new kidney allocation system (KAS) in the U.S. All laboratories used single antigen bead assays both pre- and post-KAS to define both broad and allele-specific HLA antibodies. The methods and threshold used to list HLA unacceptable antigens in UNet for virtual crossmatch (vXM) and the criteria used for determining HLA compatibility varied among laboratories. Laboratories reported several limitations of the current assays including the accuracy of quantifiable antibody fluorescence values, inadequate coverage of common alleles on the bead panels, and challenges in calibrating the vXM. The new KAS has resulted in a significant surge of deceased donor organ offers requiring vXM evaluation under tight time constraints. In the post-KAS period, eight of twelve laboratories (67%) indicated that their center did not proceed to transplant based on vXM without a prospective lymphocyte crossmatch. In conclusion, HLA laboratories play a critical role in deceased donor allocation for highly sensitized patients under the new KAS. Significant opportunities exist to improve the methods used in the assessment of HLA compatibility to safely transplant highly sensitized patients.

  3. Specificity of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ

    1996-01-01

    In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a

  4. Cadmium effects on transcriptional expression of rhlB/rhlC genes and congener distribution of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa IGB83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Julia W; Zhang, Lin; Veres-Schalnat, Tracey A; Chandler, Kevin B; Neilson, Charlotte H; Crispin, Jennifer D; Pemberton, Jeanne E; Maier, Raina M

    2010-10-01

    While variable production of the biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been shown to be dependent on growth conditions, no research has evaluated potential relationships between rhamnolipid production and the presence of heavy metals. The current investigation evaluates the influence of Cd(2+) on rhamnolipid synthesis. Cultures grown in the presence of 0.45 and 0.89 mM Cd(2+) were monitored for rhlB/rhlC expression, rhamnolipid yield, and the ratio of monorhamnolipid (RL1) and dirhamnolipid (RL2) produced. Results show a Cd-induced enhancement of rhlB expression in mid-stationary phase (53 h). In addition, sustained production of rhamnolipid through late stationary growth phase (96 h) was observed for Cd-amended cultures, unlike Cd-free control cultures that ceased rhamnolipid production by mid-stationary growth phase. Most significant was an observed increase in the ratio of RL2 to RL1 congeners produced by cultures grown in the presence of Cd(2+). Previous results have shown that the complexation constant for RL2-Cd is several orders of magnitude larger than that of RL1-Cd thus the preferential production of RL2 in the presence of Cd(2+) impacts its bioavailability and toxicity both for the cell and in the surrounding environment.

  5. Inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsukane, Mariko; Koike, Minako; Nakamura, Chizu; Ohguchi, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Akao, Yukihiro; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Nukaya, Haruo; Suwa, Yoshihide

    2010-06-23

    Whisky is matured in oak casks. Many nonvolatile substances (whisky congeners, WC) seep from the oak cask during the maturing process. In this study, three antiallergic agents (syringaldehyde, SA; lyoniresinol, Lyo; and ellagic acid, EA) were isolated from WC. Treatment with SA, Lyo, and EA reduced the elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and intracellular ROS production caused by FcepsilonRI activation. The inhibitions of the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and intracellular ROS production by SA and Lyo were mainly due to the suppression of the NADPH oxidase activity and scavenging of the produced radical, respectively. On the other hand, EA inactivated spleen tyrosine kinase and led to the inhibition of the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, it was found that WC strongly inhibited IgE binding to the FcepsilonRIalpha chain, whereas SA, Lyo, and EA did not indicate this inhibitory effect. These results suggest that WC inhibits allergic reactions through multiple mechanisms. To disclose the in vivo effects of WC, SA, Lyo, and EA, these compounds were administered to type I allergic model mice, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction was measured. These compounds remarkably suppressed the PCA reaction. Taken together, these findings suggest that WC seemed to be beneficial to ameliorate allergic reactions.

  6. Identification of the Gasa3 and Gasa4 autoimmune gastritis susceptibility genes using congenic mice and partitioned, segregative and interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, P A; Wilson, W E; Esteban, L M; Jordan, M A; Hawke, C G; van Driel, I R; Baxter, A G

    2001-12-01

    BALB/c mice thymectomized on their third day of life develop a high incidence of experimental autoimmune gastritis (EAG) which closely resembles human chronic atrophic (type A, autoimmune) gastritis. Linkage analysis of (BALB/cCrSlcxC57BL/6)F2 mice previously demonstrated that the Gasa1 and Gasa2 genes on distal Chromosome (Chr) 4 have major effects on the development of EAG in this murine model, while other loci displayed a trend towards linkage. Here, we implemented partitioned chi(2)-analysis in order to develop a better understanding of the genotypes contributing to susceptibility and resistance at each linkage region. This approach revealed that linkage of Gasa1 and Gasa2 to EAG was due to codominant and recessive BALB/cCrSlc alleles, respectively. To identify additional EAG susceptibility genes, separate linkage studies were performed on Gasa1 heterozygotes and Gasa2 C57BL/6 homozygotes plus heterozygotes so as to minimize the effects of these disease genes. The enhanced sensitivity of these analyses confirmed the existence of a third EAG susceptibility gene (designated Gasa3) on Chr 6. Epistatic interactions between the Gasa2 EAG susceptibility gene and the H2 were also identified, and the presence of an H2-linked susceptibility gene (Gasa4) confirmed by analysis of H2 congenic mice.

  7. Differential effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist adenosine amine congener on renal, femoral and carotid vascular conductance in preterm fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C; Tummers, Leonie; Jensen, Ellen C; Barrett, Carolyn J; Malpas, Simon C; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2008-11-01

    1. Adenosine A(1) receptor activation is critical for endogenous neuroprotection from hypoxia-ischaemia, raising the possibility that treatment with A(1) receptor agonists may be an effective physiological protection strategy for vulnerable preterm infants. However, the A(1) receptor can mediate unwanted systemic effects, including vasoconstriction of the afferent glomerular arteriole. There is limited information on whether this occurs at doses that improve cerebral perfusion in the immature brain. 2. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether infusion of the selective A(1) receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC) is associated with reduced renal perfusion in chronically instrumented preterm (0.7 gestation) fetal sheep. In the present study, ADAC was given in successive doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 15.0 microg, 45 min apart. 3. Treatment with ADAC was associated with a marked reduction in renal vascular conductance (and blood flow), whereas carotid conductance was increased and there was no significant effect on femoral conductance. In contrast with the stable effects of increasing ADAC dose on vascular conductance, there was a significant dose-related fall in fetal heart rate and blood pressure. 4. In conclusion, these short-term data support the concern that A(1) receptor agonist infusion can selectively impair renal perfusion, even at low doses.

  8. Distribution and congener profiles of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in indoor/outdoor glass window surface films and their film-air partitioning in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a group of n-alkanes with carbon chain length of 10-13. In this work, paired indoor/outdoor samples of organic films on window glass surfaces from urban buildings in Beijing, China, were collected to measure the concentrations and congener distributions of SCCPs. The total SCCP levels ranged from 337 ng/m(2) to 114 μg/m(2), with total organic carbon (TOC) normalized concentrations of 365 μg/m(2)-365 mg/m(2). Overall, the concentrations of SCCPs on the interior films were higher than the concentrations on the exterior films, suggesting an important indoor environmental exposure of SCCPs to the general public. A significant linear relationship was found between the SCCP concentrations and TOC, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.34 (p < 0.01). A film-air partitioning model suggests that the indoor gas-phase SCCPs are related to their corresponding window film levels.

  9. Accumulation of microcystin congeners in different aquatic plants and crops--a case study from lake Amatitlán, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Oliva, Claudia Suseth; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Block, Tobias; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) fate in natural environments can lead to its transfer into aquatic organisms, e.g. aquatic plants. Moreover, lakes in several countries sustain agriculture activities posing a serious health threat for the public. The case of Lake Amatitlán in Guatemala, was addressed to better understand MCs accumulation of four aquatic plants (Polygonum portoricensis, Eichhornia crassipes, Typha sp. and Hydrilla verticillata) coexisting with Microcystis aeruginosa blooms. These findings were further corroborated with an uptake/accumulation laboratory study. Finally crop products (Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum) irrigated with lake water were also evaluated for MCs. The obtained results suggest that Lake Amatitlán is highly contaminated with MCs (intra- and extracellular 1931 and 90 µg/L, respectively). In fruits of S. lycopersicum and C. annuum a concentration of 1.16 and 1.03 µg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively could be detected. All four aquatic plants showed a high MCs uptake capacity based on obtained bioconcentration factors (BCF) 165, 18, 16 and 11, respectively. These results were further corroborated in a laboratory study with 30 percent of total MCs taken up by H. verticillata within just 7 days. Additionally it was evidenced that all plants accumulated more MC-LR than other MCs congeners. Monitoring of crop products irrigated with lake water needs further consideration.

  10. Changes in lipids over twelve months after initiating protease inhibitor therapy among persons treated for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protease inhibitors are known to alter the lipid profiles in subjects treated for HIV/AIDS. However, the magnitude of this effect on plasma lipoproteins and lipids has not been adequately quantified. Objective To estimate the changes in plasma lipoproteins and triglycerides occurring within 12 months of initiating PI-based antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS afflicted subjects. Methods We included all antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected persons treated at St-Paul's Hospital, British Columbia, Canada, who initiated therapy with protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV drugs between August 1996 and January 2002 and who had at least one plasma lipid measurement. Longitudinal associations between medication use and plasma lipids were estimated using mixed effects models that accounted for repeated measures on the same subjects and were adjusted for age, sex, time dependent CD4+ T-cell count, and time dependent cumulative use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and adherence. The cumulative number of prescriptions filled for PIs was considered time dependent. We estimated the changes in the 12 months following any initiation of a PI based regimen. Results A total of 679 eligible subjects were dispensed nucleoside analogues and PI at the initiation of therapy. Over a median 47 months of follow-up (interquartile range (IQR: 29–62, subjects had a median of 3 (IQR: 1–6 blood lipid measurements. Twelve months after treatment initiation of PI use, there was an estimated 20% (95% confidence interval: 17% – 24% increase in total cholesterol and 22% (12% – 33% increase in triglycerides. Conclusions Twelve months after treatment initiation with PIs, statistically significant increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed in HIV-infected patients under conditions of standard treatment. Our results contribute to the growing body of evidence implicating PIs in the development of blood lipid

  11. Determination of the degradation mechanism for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners using mechanically alloyed magnesium/palladium in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, Robert William

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that can be found today throughout the world in soils and sediments, lakes and rivers, and flora and fauna. PCBs have percolated throughout the food chain, so that almost every human being has a detectable amount of the contaminant within their blood stream. Existing remediation methods include incineration, dredging and landfilling, and microbial degradation, but all of these methods have drawbacks that limit their effectiveness as treatment options. Recently, the use of zero-valent metals as a means of reductive dechlorination has been explored. Using a combination of zerovalent magnesium and catalytic palladium, a successful bimetallic system capable of degrading PCBs has been created and optimized. Determining the mechanism for the reductive dechlorination has proven to be an arduous task, but experimental evidence has suggested three possible radical-type mechanisms for the use Mg/Pd specifically in methanol (as compared to aqueous systems). These possible mechanisms differ in the type of hydrogen species that replaces the chlorine atom on the PCB. Thermodynamic information has also aided in narrowing down which of the suggested pathways is most likely. It appears likely that the hydrogen involved in the dechlorination has the form of a "hydride-like" radical, which is a form of electron-rich atomic hydrogen. According to the literature, Pd catalysts create this species within the first few subsurface layers of the palladium in the presence of molecular hydrogen. Further work will be necessary to confirm that the "hydride-like" radical is actually the species involved in the dechlorination.

  12. Description, host range and distribution of a new Macrodiplosis species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) that induces leaf-margin fold galls on deciduous Quercus (Fagaceae) with comparative notes on Palaearctic congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wanggyu; Yukawa, Junichi; Harris, Keith M; Minami, Tsuneo; Matsuo, Kazunori; Skrzypczyńska, Małgorzata

    2014-06-20

    A gall midge that induces upwardly folded leaf-margin galls on Quercus serrata, Q. mongolica and Q. dentata (Fagaceae) in Japan and South Korea is described as Macrodiplosis selenis sp. n. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). M. selenis is distinguished from Palaearctic congeners by a combination of morphological characters. Genetic differences supported the result of morphological comparison and indicated that M. selenis is closely related to the European M. roboris, whose gall is similar to that of M. selenis.

  13. Exposure to the three structurally different PCB congeners (PCB 118, 153, and 126) results in decreased protein expression and altered steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoen, Nina Hårdnes; Fowler, Paul A; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven; Krogenæs, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), synthetic, persistent organic pollutants (POP), are detected ubiquitously, in water, soil, air, and sediments, as well as in animals and humans. PCB are associated with range of adverse health effects, such as interference with the immune system and nervous system, reproductive abnormalities, fetotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption. Our objective was to determine the effects of three structurally different PCB congeners, PCB118, PCB 126, and PCB 153, each at two concentrations, on the steroidogenic capacity and proteome of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line cultures (H295R) . After 48 h of exposure, cell viability was monitored and estradiol, testosterone, cortisol and progesterone secretion measured to quantify steroidogenic capacity of the cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteome alterations in H295R cells in response to the PCB. Exposure to PCB 118 increased estradiol and cortisol secretion, while exposure to PCB 153 elevated estradiol secretion. PCB 126 was the most potent congener, increasing estradiol, cortisol, and progesterone secretion in exposed H295R cells. Seventy-three of the 711 spots analyzed showed a significant difference in normalized spot volumes between controls (vehicle only) and at least one exposure group. Fourteen of these protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Exposure to three PCB congeners with different chemical structure perturbed steroidogenesis and protein expression in the H295R in vitro model. This study represents an initial analysis of the effects on proteins and hormones in the H295R cell model, and additional studies are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the pathways disturbed by PCB congeners in H295R cells. Overall, alterations in protein regulation and steroid hormone synthesis suggest that exposure to PCB disturbs several cellular processes, including

  14. Uptake of radionuclide thorium by twelve native plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils from south part of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xun, E-mail: m13836295186@163.com

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Screen dominant plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils. • Quantify the content of {sup 232}Th of soil samples from uranium mill tailings. • Quantify the transfer factor, bioconcentration factor and phytoremediation factor. • Screen out the plant species capable of remediating radionuclide contaminated soils. • Guide the reuse of study area in future. - Abstract: The concentrations of thorium ({sup 232}Th) in soil from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. The results showed that all the soil samples were acidic and the concentrations of {sup 232}Th in all the soil samples were more than the natural radionuclide content in soil of China. Through the field investigation, twelve kinds of dominant plants were discovered. The total quantity of {sup 232}Th in the whole plant is highest in rice flat sedge. We also found that Miscanthus floridulus has the greatest transfer factor (TF) for {sup 232}Th, rice flat sedge has the greatest bioconcentration factor (BF) for {sup 232}Th. At the mean time, M. floridulus has the greatest phytoremediation factor (PF) for {sup 232}Th. On the basis of the above conclusions and the definition for hyperaccumulator, rice flat sedge and M. floridulus could be the candidates of phytoremediation for radionuclide {sup 232}Th in the soil.

  15. Videofluoroscopy of the oral phase of swallowing in eight to twelve years old children with dental malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Patricia; Costa, Milton Melciades

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the oral phase of swallowing in individuals with dental malocclusion and to generate data that would contribute to the rehabilitation of those patients. The study was based on the evaluation of the swallowing system through videofluoroscopy on thirty-four children of both genders, aged eight to twelve years old who present with Angle Class II and III dental malocclusions. Thirteen children of similar age and gender presenting normal dental occlusion formed the control group. The results indicated that the oral phase of swallowing is different between individuals with normal occlusion and malocclusion. Dental occlusion types Angle Class II and III did not present a swallowing pattern, independently of the amount of liquid ingested. The swallowing appeared effective in the oral phase of individuals with dental malocclusion, even though adaptations were identified. The outcome, in the absence of a single pattern and the efficiency of the adapted swallowing demonstrates, first a need for additional research investigating orofacial myofunctional treatment for patients with malocclusion and second how such analyses should focus on contributing positively to the rehabilitation of these patients.

  16. Advanced LIGO Two-Stage Twelve-Axis Vibration Isolation and Positioning Platform. Part 2: Experimental Investigation and Tests Results

    CERN Document Server

    Matichard, Fabrice; Mason, Kenneth; Mittleman, Richard; Abbott, Benjamin; Abbott, Samuel; Allwine, Eric; Barnum, Samuel; Birch, Jeremy; Biscans, Sebastien; Clark, Daniel; Coyne, Dennis; DeBra, Dan; DeRosa, Ryan; Foley, Stephany; Fritschel, Peter; Giaime, Joseph A; Gray, Corey; Grabeel, Gregory; Hanson, Joe; Hillard, Michael; Kissel, Jeffrey; Kucharczyk, Christopher; Roux, Adrien Le; Lhuillier, Vincent; Macinnis, Myron; OReilly, Brian; Ottaway, David; Paris, Hugo; Puma, Michael; Radkins, Hugh; Ramet, Celine; Robinson, Mitchell; Ruet, Laurent; Sareen, Pradeep; Shoemaker, Daivid; Stein, Andy; Thomas, Jeremy; Vargas, Michael; Warner, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the past seven years of experimental investigation and testing done on the two-stage twelve-axis vibration isolation platform for Advanced LIGO gravity waves observatories. This five-ton two-and-half-meter wide system supports more than a 1000 kg of very sensitive equipment. It provides positioning capability and seismic isolation in all directions of translation and rotation. To meet the very stringent requirements of Advanced LIGO, the system must provide more than three orders of magnitude of isolation over a very large bandwidth. It must bring the motion below 10^(-11) m/(Hz)^0.5 at 1 Hz and 10^(-12) m/(Hz)^0.5 at 10 Hz. A prototype of this system has been built in 2006. It has been extensively tested and analyzed during the following two years. This paper shows how the experimental results obtained with the prototype were used to engineer the final design. It highlights how the engineering solutions implemented not only improved the isolation performance but also greatl...

  17. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz;

    2004-01-01

    : There was no significant difference in mean adjusted growth rates between the 2 groups: 84.0 mm/year in the FP group versus 86.4 mm/year in the SCG group (difference FP-SCG: -2.4 mm/year; 95% confidence interval: -6.6 to 1.8). Growth comparisons were independent of age, gender, previous use of steroid, or whether measured......, exacerbations, and requirements for oral steroid treatment and more symptom-free days and days without use of rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months of treatment with inhaled FP (100 microg twice daily) in preschool children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheeze has no effect on growth and no other......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the 12-month safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate (FP) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in children aged 1 to 3 years with mild to moderate recurrent wheeze. METHODS: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label multicenter study of 625 children...

  18. A First Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genetic Diversity and Drug-Resistance Patterns in Twelve Caribbean Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Millet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of some French-speaking islands, data on tuberculosis (TB in the Caribbean are scarce. In this study, we report a first assessment of genetic diversity of a convenience sample of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains received from twelve Caribbean territories by spoligotyping and describe their drug-resistance patterns. Of the 480 isolates, 40 (8.3% isolates showed resistance to at least one anti-TB drug. The proportion of drug-resistant strains was significantly higher in The Bahamas (21.4%; P=0.02, and Guyana (27.5%; P<0.0001, while it was significantly lower in Jamaica (2.4%; P=0.03 than in other countries of the present study. Regarding genetic diversity, 104 distinct spoligotype patterns were observed: 49 corresponded to clustered strains (2 to 93 strains per cluster, while 55 remained unclustered among which 16 patterns were not reported previously. Combining the study results with regional data retrieved from the international SITVIT2 database underlined a connection between frequency of certain M. tuberculosis phylogenetic lineages and the language spoken, suggesting historical (colonial and ongoing links (trade, tourism, and migratory flows with European countries with which they shared a common past.

  19. Measuring performance in off-patent drug markets: a methodological framework and empirical evidence from twelve EU Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavos, Panos

    2014-11-01

    This paper develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies post-patent expiry or after loss of exclusivity in non-tendering settings, comprising five indicators (generic availability, time delay to and speed of generic entry, number of generic competitors, price developments, and generic volume share evolution) and proposes a series of metrics to evaluate performance. The paper subsequently tests this framework across twelve EU Member States (MS) by using IMS data on 101 patent expired molecules over the 1998-2010 period. Results indicate that significant variation exists in generic market entry, price competition and generic penetration across the study countries. Size of a geographical market is not a predictor of generic market entry intensity or price decline. Regardless of geographic or product market size, many off patent molecules lack generic competitors two years after loss of exclusivity. The ranges in each of the five proposed indicators suggest, first, that there are numerous factors--including institutional ones--contributing to the success of generic entry, price decline and market penetration and, second, MS should seek a combination of supply and demand-side policies in order to maximise cost-savings from generics. Overall, there seems to be considerable potential for faster generic entry, uptake and greater generic competition, particularly for molecules at the lower end of the market.

  20. Chemical Abundances in Twelve Red Giants of the Large Magellanic Cloud from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, V V; Cunha, K; Plez, B; Lambert, D L; Pilachowski, C A; Barbuy, B; Melendez, J; Balachandran, S C; Bessell, M S; Geisler, D; Hesser, J E; Winge, C

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution infrared spectra (R=50,000) have been obtained for twelve red-giant members of the LMC with the Gemini South 8.3-meter telescope plus Phoenix spectrometer. Quantitative chemical abundances of carbon-12, carbon-13, nitrogen-14, and oxygen-16 were derived from molecular lines of CO, CN, and OH, while sodium, scandium, titanium, and iron abundances were derived from neutral atomic lines. The LMC giants have masses from about 1 to 4 solar masses and span a metallicity range from [Fe/H]= -1.1 to -0.3. The program red giants all show evidence of first dredge-up mixing, with low 12C/13C ratios, and low 12C correlated with high 14N abundances. Comparisons of the oxygen-to-iron ratios in the LMC and the Galaxy indicate that the trend of [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in the LMC falls about 0.2 dex below the Galactic trend. Such an offset can be modeled as due to an overall lower rate of supernovae per unit mass in the LMC relative to the Galaxy, as well as a slightly lower ratio of supernovae of type II to super...

  1. Reprint of: Long-range atmospheric transport of PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs to the central and eastern Mediterranean and changes of PCB and PBDE congener patterns in summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Marie D.; Heil, Angelika; Kukučka, Petr; Kuta, Jan; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Lammel, Gerhard

    2015-11-01

    The central and eastern Mediterranean is a receptor area for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted in western, central and eastern Europe, particularly during summer. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, DDXs, PBDEs, penta- and hexachlorobenzene were measured during a ship-borne survey in the summer of 2010. The concentration of PCBs (sum of 7 congeners) was 3.61 (2.08-7.72) pg m-3, of which 6.7% was associated with the particulate phase. The mean concentration of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDE and DDD, was 2.60 (0.46-7.60) pg m-3 (particulate mass fraction θ = 0.097), of penta- and hexachlorobenzene 0.22 (PBDEs (sum of 8 congeners) 7.31 (2.80-19.89) pg m-3. The air masses studied had been transported mostly across central Europe, some crossing western Europe. The observed changes of PCB congener patterns along transport routes are in agreement with the perception that the reaction with the OH radical is dominating PCB atmospheric lifetime, and indicate an overestimation of the second order gas-phase reaction rate coefficient of PCB153 with OH by structure-activity relationship.

  2. GeXP多重PCR技术同时检测12种常见呼吸道病毒%A GeXP based Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Twelve Human Respiratory Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 毛乃颖; 秦萌; 胡秀梅; 杨梦婕; 王淼; 张晨; 许文波; 马学军

    2011-01-01

    本研究建立了一种基于GeXP多重基因表达遗传分析系统的多重RT-PCR检测方法,该方法可以同时检测12种呼吸道病毒,包括流感病毒A型和B型、季节性H1N1、副流感病毒1~3型、人鼻病毒、人偏肺病毒、腺病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒A型和B型、人博卡病毒.针对病原体保守区序列设计12种病毒的特异性引物,分别用已验证的阳性标本为模板检验多重体系的特异性.多重检测体系在103拷贝/μL水平可同时检测到12种病毒.另检测24份临床标本,以real-time RT-PCR为参考标准,进一步验证检测体系.结果表明,这种基于GeXP系统的新方法灵敏度高、特异性强,可以快速同时检测12种常见呼吸道病毒.%A GeXP based multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed to simultaneously detect twelve different respiratory viruses types/subtypes including influenza A virus, influenza B virus, influenza A virus sHlNl, parainfluenza virus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 2, parainfluenza virus type 3 , human rhinovi-rus, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus A, respiratory syncytial virus B and human bocavirus. Twelve sets of specific primers were designed based on the conserved sequences of available respiratory-virus sequence database The specificity of the multiplex system was examined by positive specimens confirmed previously. The sensitivity to detect twelve respiratory viruses simultaneously was 103 copies/μL. Twenty four clinical specimens were further detected by this novel assay and the results were compared with that of the real-time RT-PCR. These results showed that this novel assay based on GeXP is a fast, sensitive, and high throughput test for the detection of respiratory virus infections.

  3. Insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in a new congenic strain of Fatty Liver Shionogi (FLS) mice with the Lep(ob) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Setsuko; Kishimoto, Yoshio; Hirasawa, Tsutomu; Makino, Susumu; Inagaki, Shuichiro

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine the influence of obesity on metabolic disorder and liver pathogenesis of the Fatty Liver Shionogi (FLS) mouse, which develops hereditary fatty liver and spontaneous liver tumors, we established a new congenic strain named FLS-Lep(ob). The Lep(ob) gene of the C57BL/6JWakShi (B6)-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mouse was transferred into the genome of the FLS mouse, by backcross mating. FLS-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice were maintained by intercrossing between Lep(ob)-heterozygous littermates. The FLS-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice of both sexes developed remarkable hyperphagia, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. At 12 weeks of age, glucosuria was detected in all male and female FLS-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice. Biochemical examination demonstrated that the FLS-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice have severe hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. The livers of FLS-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice showed microvesicular steatosis and deposition of large lipid droplets in hepatocytes throughout the lobules. The steatohepatitis-like lesions including the multifocal mononuclear cell infiltration and clusters of foamy cells were observed earlier in FLS-Lep(ob)/ Lep(ob) mice than in FLS mice. B6-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice did not show hepatic inflammatory change. Furthermore, FLS-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice developed multiple hepatic tumors including hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas following steatohepatitis. In conclusion, the FLS-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice developed steatohepatitis and hepatic tumors following hepatic steatosis. The FLS-Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mouse with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus might be a useful animal model for human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

  4. Congenic mice provide in vivo evidence for a genetic locus that modulates intrinsic transforming growth factor β1-mediated signaling and bone acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Aditi; Larson, Emily A; Carlos, Amy S; Belknap, John K; Rotwein, Peter; Klein, Robert F

    2012-06-01

    Osteoporosis, the most common skeletal disorder, is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fragility fractures. BMD is the best clinical predictor of future osteoporotic fracture risk, but is a complex trait controlled by multiple environmental and genetic determinants with individually modest effects. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is a powerful method for identifying chromosomal regions encompassing genes involved in shaping complex phenotypes, such as BMD. Here we have applied QTL analysis to male and female genetically-heterogeneous F(2) mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains, and have identified 11 loci contributing to femoral BMD. Further analysis of a QTL on mouse chromosome 7 following the generation of reciprocal congenic strains has allowed us to determine that the high BMD trait, which tracks with the DBA/2 chromosome and exerts equivalent effects on male and female mice, is manifested by enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and by increased growth of metatarsal bones in short-term primary culture. An insertion/deletion DNA polymorphism in Ltbp4 exon 12 that causes the in-frame removal of 12 codons in the DBA/2-derived gene maps within 0.6 Mb of the marker most tightly linked to the QTL. LTBP4, one of four paralogous mouse proteins that modify the bioavailability of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of growth factors, is expressed in differentiating MSC-derived osteoblasts and in long bones, and reduced responsiveness to TGF-β1 is observed in MSCs of mice homozygous for the DBA/2 chromosome 7. Taken together, our results identify a potential genetic and biochemical relationship between decreased TGF-β1-mediated signaling and enhanced femoral BMD that may be regulated by a variant LTBP4 molecule. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Large-scale introduction of the Indo-Pacific damselfish Abudefduf vaigiensis into Hawai'i promotes genetic swamping of the endemic congener A. abdominalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Richard R; Gaither, Michelle R; Kimokeo, Bethany; Stanton, Frank G; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    Hybridization in the ocean was once considered rare, a process prohibited by the rapid evolution of intrinsic reproductive barriers in a high-dispersal medium. However, recent genetic surveys have prompted a reappraisal of marine hybridization as an important demographic and evolutionary process. The Hawaiian Archipelago offers an unusual case history in this arena, due to the recent arrival of the widely distributed Indo-Pacific sergeant (Abudefduf vaigiensis), which is hybridizing with the endemic congener, A. abdominalis. Surveys of mtDNA and three nuclear loci across Hawai'i (N = 396, Abudefduf abdominalis and N = 314, A. vaigiensis) reveal that hybridization is significantly higher in the human-perturbed southeast archipelago (19.8%), tapering off to 5.9% in the pristine northwest archipelago. While densities of the two species varied throughout Hawai'i, hybridization was highest in regions with similar species densities, contradicting the generalization that the rarity of one species promotes interspecific mating. Our finding of later generation hybrids throughout the archipelago invokes the possibility of genetic swamping of the endemic species. Exaptation, an adaptation with unintended consequences, may explain these findings: the endemic species has transient yellow coloration during reproduction, whereas the introduced species has yellow coloration continuously as adults, in effect a permanent signal of reproductive receptivity. Haplotype diversity is higher in Hawaiian A. vaigiensis than in our samples from the native range, indicating large-scale colonization almost certainly facilitated by the historically recent surge of marine debris. In this chain of events, marine debris promotes colonization, exaptation promotes hybridization, and introgression invokes the possible collapse of an endemic species.

  6. Chemically Induced Oncogenesis in the Peripheral Nervous System Is Suppressed in Congenic BDIX.BDIV-Mss1 and -Mss7 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Koelsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are highly aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas with a poor prognosis that arise either in the context of neurofibromatosis 1 or sporadically. Inbred BDIX and BDIV rat strains highly susceptible and resistant, respectively, to the development of ethylnitrosourea-induced MPNST enable us to identify, by using methods not applicable in humans, variant alleles involved in the pathways underlying individual MPNST risk. On the basis of a genome-wide association analysis using reciprocal intercrosses of BDIX and BDIV, BDIV alleles of two loci on chromosome 10, Mss1 and Mss7, were predicted to lower the risk of MPNST, the latter locus with a female bias. In this study we confirm the two nonoverlapping loci by exposing two congenic strains, BDIX.BDIV-Mss1 (Mss1 and BDIX.BDIV-Mss7 (Mss7, each carrying a BDIV genomic segment spanning the respective locus, to ethylnitrosourea. Compared with BDIX rats, the rate of MPNST is reduced 6.2-fold and 2.0-fold for Mss1 and Mss7 rats of both sexes, respectively. Although a moderate gain of survival time (30−50 days is seen in Mss1 rats of both sexes and Mss7 males, Mss7 females survive 134 days longer than BDIX females. BDIV alleles at Mss7 obviously cause a markedly increased intrastrain sex difference regarding survival time in Mss7 compared with BDIX rats. Fine mapping will lead to the identification of allelic variants modulating rat MPNST risk and subsequently to their human counterparts. This is of particular relevance, because so far neither gene nor anonymous sequence variants have been identified that influence the risk of human sporadic Schwann cell malignancy.

  7. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwon Heo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17 of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m−3 and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m−3, respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m−3 and 274.2 pg·m−3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11 was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1 and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°. The slope (m values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies was the dominant source for PCBs.

  8. Critical review of soil contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs); concentrations, sources and congener profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas J; Ball, Andrew S; Clarke, Bradley O

    2017-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a broad array of polymeric materials such as plastics, foams, resins and adhesives to inhibit the spread of fires since the 1970s. The widespread environmental contamination and well documented toxic effects of PBDEs have led to bans and voluntary withdrawals in many jurisdictions. Replacement novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) have, however, exhibited many of the same toxic characteristics as PBDEs and appear to share similar environmental fate. This paper presents a critical review of the scientific literature regarding PBDE and NBFR contamination of surface soils internationally, with the secondary objective of identifying probable pollution sources. An evaluation of NBFR distribution in soil was also conducted to assess the suitability of the newer compounds as replacements for PBDEs, with respect to their land contamination potential. Principle production of PBDEs and NBFRs and their consequent use in secondary polymer manufacture appear to be processes with strong potential to contaminate surrounding soils. Evidence suggests that PBDEs and NBFRs are also released from flame retarded products during disposal via landfill, dumping, incineration and recycling. While the land application of sewage sludge represents another major pathway of soil contamination it is not considered in this review as it is extensively covered elsewhere. Both PBDEs and NBFRs were commonly detected at background locations including Antarctica and northern polar regions. PBDE congener profiles in soil were broadly representative of the major constituents in Penta-, Octa- and Deca-BDE commercial mixtures and related to predicted market place demand. BDE-209 dominated soil profiles, followed by BDE-99 and BDE-47. Although further research is required to gain baseline data on NBFRs in soil, the current state of scientific literature suggests that NBFRs pose a similar risk to land contamination as PBDEs. Copyright © 2017

  9. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Zolman, Eric; Schwacke, Lori; Maruya, Keith A

    2009-07-01

    Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78.6 +/- 32.4 microg/g lipid) and toxaphene (11.7 +/- 9.3 microg/g lipid) were significantly higher in dolphins sampled in the TBRE than in dolphins stranded near Savannah (GA, USA) 80 to 100 km to the north. Levels of OCPs were several-fold lower than levels of PCBs; moreover, PCBs comprised 81 and 67% of the total POP burden in TBRE and non-TBRE dolphins, respectively. Analyses with GC-ECNI-MS revealed that 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a), a major component in technical toxaphene and a major residue congener in local estuarine fish species, was the most abundant chlorobornane in both sets of blubber samples. Mean total POP concentrations (sum of PCBs, OCPs, and toxaphene) approached 100 microg/g lipid for the TBRE animals, well above published total PCB thresholds at which immunosuppresion and/or reproductive anomalies are thought to occur. These results indicate extended utilization of the highly contaminated TBRE as habitat for a group of coastal estuarine dolphins, and they further suggest that these animals may be at risk because of elevated POP concentrations.

  10. 12 Daghem: Beskrivning av uppfostringsklimat och sociala relationer (Twelve Day Care Centers: A Multisite Comparison of Day-Care Climate and Social Relations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Bodil; Hedin, Anna

    Twelve day care centers in a Swedish commune were systematically observed. Centers were selected on the basis of responses to a questionnaire on attitudes about upbringing which was answered by all the personnel at the 104 day care centers in the commune. Four of the selected centers represented a so-called "present-focused" upbringing…

  11. Dual-resolution Raman spectroscopy for measurements of temperature and twelve species in hydrocarbon–air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Barlow, Robert S.

    2016-07-12

    This study introduces dual-resolution Raman spectroscopy as a novel diagnostics approach for measurements of temperature and species in flames where multiple hydrocarbons are present. Simultaneous measurement of multiple hydrocarbons is challenging because their vibrational Raman spectra in the C–H stretch region are closely overlapped and are not well known over the range of temperature encountered in flames. Overlap between the hydrocarbon spectra is mitigated by adding a second spectrometer, with a higher dispersion grating, to collect the Raman spectra in the C–H stretch region. A dual-resolution Raman spectroscopy instrument has been developed and optimized for measurements of major species (N2, O2, H2O, CO2, CO, H2, DME) and major combustion intermediates (CH4, CH2O, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6) in DME–air flames. The temperature dependences of the hydrocarbon Raman spectra over fixed spectral regions have been determined through a series of measurements in laminar Bunsen-burner flames, and have been used to extend a library of previously acquired Raman spectra up to flame temperature. The paper presents the first Raman measurements of up to twelve species in hydrocarbon flames, and the first quantitative Raman measurements of formaldehyde in flames. Lastly, the accuracy and precision of the instrument are determined from measurements in laminar flames and the applicability of the instrument to turbulent DME–air flames is discussed.

  12. [Effect of broken black tea on the formation of dental enamel and the contents of twelve kinds of chemical elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Yao, Zhigang; Yi, Juan; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Jie; Yuan, Huabing

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of broken black tea with slightly hyper-normal fluoride content which was near the level of people tea-drinking habits on enamel morphological structure and its content of chemical elements. Thirty six rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: one was control group and another two groups fed with broken black tea infusion with F- content of 8.2 mg/l and 16.4 mg/l, respectively. After 360 days, collected 144 teeth, observed their morphological structure by electron micrograph, Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and also analyzed concentrations of several chemical elements in tooth by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Chronic dental fluorosis in rats was induced by treatment with broken black tea with slightly hyper-normal fluoride content. Hyper-calcification and hypo-calcification appeared in enamel of those teeth from both broken black tea treated groups in dose-dependent manner. Twelve kinds of chemical elements, such as Ca, Mg, P, Al, Cl were examined. The contents of Ca, P, Mg were reduced and that of Al and Cl were increased significantly. Compared with control group, the levels of Si, S, Fe were lower in those teeth from treated group (broken black tea with the F- content of 8.2 mg/l), while higher in those teeth from treated group (broken black tea with the F- content of 16.4 mg/l). Long-term drinking broken black tea with hyper-normal fluoride content could cause chronic dental fluorosis, and its injury in enamel was related with Hyper-calcification and hypo-calcification mainly. Those changes of several chemical elements level in enamel, such as Ca, P, Al, Cl, were suggested that these chemical elements have influences on the development and mineralization of enamel.

  13. Monitoring field susceptibility to imidacloprid in the cat flea: a world-first initiative twelve years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Steven; Blagburn, Byron; Coleman, Glen; Davis, Wendell; Denholm, Ian; Field, Chris; Hostetler, Joe; Mencke, Norbert; Rees, Robert; Rust, Michael; Schroeder, Iris; Tetzner, Kathrin; Williamson, Martin

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, an international surveillance initiative was established, utilising a validated larval development inhibition assay to track the susceptibility of cat flea isolates to imidacloprid. In 2009, an Australian node was incorporated into the programme, joining laboratories in the United States and Europe. Field isolates of Ctenocephalides felis eggs were submitted to participating laboratories and, where egg quantity and quality was sufficient, were placed in the imidacloprid discriminating dose bioassay for evaluation. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 2,307 cat flea isolates were received across all sites; 1,685 submissions (73 %) were suitable for placement into the bioassay. In the Northern Hemisphere, isolate submission rate was influenced by season, with highest numbers submitted between June and October. In Australia, pets with flea infestations could be sourced year-round, and submission rate was largely influenced by programme factors and not climate. A total of 1,367 valid assays were performed between 2002 and 2012 (assay validity data was not recorded in 2001); adult flea emergence 5 % or greater at 3 ppm imidacloprid was observed in 38 of these assays (2.8 %). For these isolates that reached the threshold for further investigation, re-conduct of the assay using either a repeat challenge dose of 3 ppm of imidacloprid or a dose response probit analysis confirmed their susceptibility to imidacloprid. From 2009 to 2012, the Australian node performed valid assays on 97 field isolates from a total of 136 submissions, with no adult emergence observed at the 3-ppm imidacloprid discriminating dose. In addition to reviewing the data generated by this twelve-year initiative, this paper discusses lessons learned from the coordination and evolution of a complex project across geographically dispersed laboratories on three continents.

  14. Specific Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sandhya

    The investigation reported in this volume attempts to clarify some issues relating to the existence, nature, and causes of specific dyslexia. Based on an extended study of 98 boys of at least average intelligence with severe reading and spelling problems, the report provides detailed data relating to their developmental and perinatal histories,…

  15. A retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at twelve health facilities in four districts in Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascalina Chanda-Kapata; Emmanuel Chanda; Freddie Masaninga; Annette Habluetzel; Felix Masiye; Ibrahima Soce Fall

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the appropriateness of malaria case management at health facility level in four districts in Zambia. Methods: This study was a retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at health facilities in four districts conveniently sampled to represent both urban and rural settings in different epidemiological zones and health facility coverage. The review period was from January to December 2008. The sample included twelve lower level health facilities from four districts. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to identify characteristics which affected the quality of case management.Results:Out of 4891 suspected malaria cases recorded at the 12 health facilities, more than 80% of the patients had a temperature taken to establish their fever status. About 67% (CI95 66.1-68.7) were tested for parasitemia by either rapid diagnostic test or microscopy, whereas the remaining 22.5% (CI95 21.3.1-23.7) were not subjected to any malaria test. Of the 2247 malaria cases reported (complicated and uncomplicated), 71% were parasitologically confirmed while 29% were clinically diagnosed (unconfirmed). About 56% (CI95 53.9-58.1) of the malaria cases reported were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 35% (CI95 33.1-37.0) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, 8% (CI95 6.9-9.2) with quinine and 1% did not receive any anti-malarial. Approximately 30% of patients WHO were found negative for malaria parasites were still prescribed an anti-malarial, contrary to the guidelines. There were marked inter-district variations in the proportion of patients in WHOm a diagnostic tool was used, and in the choice of anti-malarials for the treatment of malaria confirmed cases. Association between health worker characteristics and quality of case malaria management showed that nurses performed better than environmental health technicians and clinical officers on the decision whether to use the rapid diagnostic test or not. Gender, in service training on malaria

  16. Effect of nutrient availability on the uptake of PCB congener 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by a diatom (Stephanodiscus minutulus) and transfer to a zooplankton (Daphnia pulicaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Scott G; Price, David J; Birge, Wesley J; Kilham, Susan S

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the importance of nutrient status of a diatom (Stephanodiscus minutulus) to the uptake of PCB congener #54 (2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and the subsequent transfer of PCB to a pelagic grazing zooplankton (Daphnia pulicaria). The algae, which were grown under different nutrient treatments, were then fed to a zooplankton to examine the subsequent food chain transfer of PCB. Algal cultures were grown for at least 2 weeks in a steady state condition in (1) non-limiting, (2) low-Si, (3) low-N or (4) low-P media. Steady state algal cultures were dosed with 0.2 microg L(-1) PCB and were sampled for PCB uptake after 24h. D. pulicaria were allowed to graze on these same cultures for 48 h before being analyzed for PCB body burdens. Low-Si (68% or 0.135 microg L(-1) of PCB) and low-P cultures (62%) had significantly higher percentage uptake of total PCB than the non-limiting (55%) or low-N (52%) treatments. When these values were divided by biochemical or elemental parameters, PCB per lipids (microg microg(-1)) had one of the lowest coefficients of variation (CV) across the four treatments, indicating their importance in PCB uptake. When equal biovolumes of the four different treatment cultures were fed to zooplankton, both the low-N (13.9 ng PCB mg wet weight(-1)) and the low-P (9.6 ng PCB mg wet weight(-1)) grazing D. pulicaria had significantly higher PCB per wet weight than the low-Si (5.6 ng PCB mg wet weight(-1)) and non-limited (2.6 ng PCB mg wet weight(-1)) grazing D. pulicaria. There were no significant differences between algal nutrient treatments in PCB per wet weight of zooplankton grazing on clean algal food in PCB contaminated media. This study indicates that uptake of PCB by phytoplankton can be significantly altered by nutrient availability which subsequently affects transfer to zooplankton, potentially through such responses as grazing rate and lipid assimilation.

  17. Discussion the Theory of "Shi's Twelve Word Life Cultivation Skill"%“施氏十二字养生功”的基础理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志俊; 王世伟; 施杞; 叶秀兰; 唐占英

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨施氏十二字养生功理论渊源及作用原理.方法:通过发掘古代医学文献对导引的论述并结合现代医学理论来探讨施氏十二字养生功的作用机理.结果:施氏十二字养生功是在中医传统导引理论指导下通过长期的临床实践创建的养生功,对以颈椎病为主的骨退行性病变引起的疼痛不适等有良好疗效.结论:施氏十二字养生功是防治颈椎病有效方法之一.%Objective: Discussion the origin of "Shi's twelve word life cultivation skill " theory and principle. Methods: To explore the ancient medical literature through the discussion on the guidance and combined with modern medical theory of health work Discussion the theory of "Shi's twelve word life cultivation skill" and it's mechanism. Results: "Shi's twelve word life cultivation skill" is guided in the theory of traditional Chinese medicine under the guidance of clinical practice through long-term work to create the health of the cervical degenerative bone disease mainly caused such pain and discomfort have a good effect. Conclusion: "Shi's twelve-word life-cultivation skill" is an effective method for prevention and treatment of cervical spondylosis.

  18. Flies from L.A., The Sequel: A further twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) from the BioSCAN Project in Los Angeles (California, USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartop, Emily; Brown, Brian; Disney,R. Henry

    2016-01-01

    Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) are described: M. baileyae, M. friedrichae, M. gonzalezorum, M. joanneae, M. losangelensis, M. phyllissunae, M. p...

  19. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  20. Ultra pressure liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry determination of twelve halobenzoquinones at ng/L levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Wei; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Zhao, Yuli; Li, Xing-Fang

    2013-05-01

    We report here the characterization of twelve halobenzoquinones (HBQs) using electrospray ionization (ESI) high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The high resolution negative ESI spectra of the twelve HBQs formed two parent ions, [M + H(+) + 2e(-)], and the radical M(-•). The intensities of these two parent ions are dependent on their chemical structures and on instrumental parameters such as the source temperature and flow rate. The characteristic ions of the HBQs were used to develop an ultra pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. At the UPLC flow rate (400 μL/min) and under the optimized ESI conditions, eleven HBQs showed the stable and abundant transitions [M + H(+) + 2e(-)] → X(-) (X(-) representing Cl(-), Br(-), or I(-)), while dibromo-dimethyl-benzoquinone (DBDMBQ) showed only the transition of M(-•) → Br(-). The UPLC efficiently separates all HBQs including some HBQ isomers, while the MS/MS offers exquisite limits of detection (LODs) at subng/mL levels for all HBQs except DBDMBQ. Combined with solid phase extraction (SPE), the method LOD is down to ng/L. The results from analysis of authentic samples demonstrated that the SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method is reliable, fast, and sensitive for the identification and quantification of the twelve HBQs in drinking water.

  1. Blood-letting punctures at twelve Jing-Well points of the hand can treat cerebral ischemia in a similar manner to mannitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Lu; Zelin Chen; Yi Guo; Liang Gao; Liyuan Jiang; Zhongzheng Li; Jianqiao Fang

    2013-01-01

    A rat model of middle cerebral artery permanent occlusion was established using the modified Longa method. Successfully established model animals were treated by blood-letting puncture at twelve Jing-Well points of the hand, and/or by injecting mannitol into the caudal vein twice daily. Brain tissue was collected at 24, 48 and 72 hours after modeling, and blood was collected through the retinal vein before Evans blue was injected, approximately 1 hour prior to harvesting of brain tissue. Results showed that Evans blue leakage into brain tissue and serum nitric oxide synthase activity were significantly increased in model rats. Treatment with blood-letting punctures at twelve Jing-Well points of the hand and/or injection of mannitol into the caudal vein reduced the amount of Evans blue leakage into the brain tissue and serum nitric oxide synthase activity to varying degrees. There was no significant difference between single treatment and combined treatment. Experimental findings indicate that blood-letting punctures at twelve Jing-Well points of the hand can decrease blood-brain barrier permeability and serum nitric oxide synthase activity in rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion, and its effect is similar to that of mannitol injection alone and Jing-Well points plus mannitol injection.

  2. Effect of Blood-letting Puncture at Twelve Well-Points of Hand on Consciousness and Heart Rate in Patients with Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yi; Wang Xiuyun; Xu Tangping; Dai Zhihua; Li Yunchen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of blood-letting puncture at Twelve Well-Points of Hand on consciousness and heart rate in patients with early apoplexy. Method: Under observation were patients with disturbance of consciousness within 3 days after the apoplectic seizure. The patients were divided into a large injury team, a moderate injury team and a mild injury team. Each team was again randomly divided into a puncture group and a control group, with routine treatment in both groups but bloodletting puncture only in the puncture group. Quantitative changes in consciousness, blood pressure and heart rate of the patients were observed. Result: Blood-letting puncture at Twelve Well-Points of Hand can improve the consciousness and raise the systolic pressure in patients of the mild injury team, and accelerate the heart rate in all the patients in the puncture group. Conclusion: Blood-letting puncture at Twelve Well-Points of Hand can improve the consciousness of patients with brain injury in small area.

  3. A Comparison of the Twelve Core Values of Thai People Defined by the Head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) Found in Thai Private and Public University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngammuk, Patariya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the twelve core values of Thai people found in Thai university students. The twelve values consist of the following attributes: 1.Upholding the nation, the religions and the Monarchy 2. Being honest, sacrificial and patient with positive attitude for the common good of the public 3. Being grateful to the parents,…

  4. Review of the Spirobolida on Madagascar, with descriptions of twelve new genera, including three genera of 'fire millipedes' (Diplopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wesener

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new genera and 37 new species of Spirobolida are described: Corallobolus cruentus gen. n., sp. n., Sanguinobolus maculosus gen. n., sp. n., Colossobolus semicyclus gen. n., sp. n., C. oblongopedus sp. n., C. giganteus sp. n., C. minor sp. n., C. litoralis sp. n., C. aculeatus sp. n., C. pseudoaculeatus sp. n., Zehntnerobolus gen. n., Flagellobolus pauliani gen. n., sp. n., Riotintobolus mandenensis gen. n., sp. n., R. minutus sp. n., R. aridus sp. n., R. anomalus sp. n., Pseudocentrobolus aureus gen. n., sp. n., P. vohibasiensis sp. n., Granitobolus endemicus gen. n., sp. n., G. andohahelensis sp. n., Caprobolus andringitra gen. n., sp. n., Alluviobolus laticlavius gen. n., sp. n., A. tsimelahy sp. n., A. antanosy sp. n., Ostinobolus rufus gen. n., sp. n., O. stellaris sp. n., O. montanus sp. n., O. subterraneus sp. n., and Hylekobolus brachiosauroides gen. n., sp. n., H. rufus sp. n., H. griseus sp. n., H. albicollaris sp. n., H. goodmani sp. n., H. montanus sp. n., H. analavelona sp. n., H. latifrons sp. n., H. andasibensis sp. n., H. marojejy sp. n., H. anjanaharibe sp. n. All genera and species are endemic to Madagascar. Hylekobolus belongs to the family Spirobolellidae, while all other Malagasy genera of Spirobolida belong to the Pachybolidae. Among them, only Zehntnerobolus gen. n. is based on a previously described species: Spirobolus rubripes de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897, whereas the remaining 11 new genera altogether contain (a total of 37 new species. Three of the new genera are large-bodied “fire millipedes” (>100 mm long with striking red/black colour patterns. The new discoveries increase the number of endemic Malagasy genera of Spirobolida more than fivefold (from 3 to 15. The number of endemic species recorded from Madagascar has more than doubled (to 61. Body length of the new species varies greatly (between 23 and 170 mm. Keys to all Malagasy Spirobolida families, genera, as well as the newly described species

  5. Specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided.

  6. Complex Syntax Acquisition: A Longitudinal Case Study of a Child with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuele, Melanie C.; Dykes, Julianna C.

    2005-01-01

    Although there is extensive documentation of the morphological limitations of children with specific language impairment (SLI), few studies have reported on complex syntax acquisition in children with SLI. This case study examined the development of complex syntax in a child with SLI between 3 and 7 years. Twelve conversational samples were…

  7. Immune responses and immigration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T lymphocytes in patients with tuberculous pleuritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the immune responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(M.tb)-specific T lymphocy between the peripheral blood and pleural effusion in patients with tuberculous pleurisy.Methods Twelve initially treated cases of tuberculous pleurisy who were hospitalized in Wuxi No.5 People’s Hospital from Oct 2012 to Apr 2013

  8. 辽河口海域短链氯化石蜡污染特征及生物富集%Congener specific distribution and bioaccumulation of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Liao estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 马新东; 国文; 赵元凤; 吕景才; 王震; 姚子伟

    2014-01-01

    短链氯化石蜡(SCCPs)是《斯德哥尔摩公约》拟增列的一类新型持久性有机污染物.本文研究了辽河口海域沉积物和生物样品中SCCPs的含量水平、组成模式、污染来源及生物/沉积物富集因子.结果表明,沉积物中∑SCCPs的浓度为64.9~1683.4 ng/g dw(均值为419.7),生物体中∑SCCPs浓度为1.55~11.9μg/g dw(均值为6.14);沉积物和生物体同系物碳链长度主要以碳10和碳11为主,两者相对含量之和分别为69.5%和84.0%,氯原子数主要以C15,C16和C17为主,三者相对含量之和分别为84.5%和90.8%;辽河口SCCPs主要污染来源为CP-42和CP-52产品的生产及使用,而河流输入是SCCPs主要来源途径之一;∑SCCPs的BSAF平均值为2.34,该值大于1表明软体类动物对SCCPs具有明显的生物富集性;BSAF值与氯原子数呈显著性负相关(P<0.05),表明底栖类动物与鱼类的富集行为受理化性质和摄食途径影响差异较大.

  9. The evaluation of dioxin and dioxin-like contaminants in selected food samples obtained from the Belgian market: comparison of TEQ measurements obtained through the CALUX bioassay with congener specific chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeters, Greet; Goyvaerts, Marie Pierre; Ooms, Daniëlla; Van Cleuvenbergen, Rudy

    2004-03-01

    A limited number of different foods were analysed for dioxin-like compounds by the CALUX bioassay which is an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay measuring chemical activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Sixty-two milk samples were obtained from a surveillance campaign, 34 meat samples and 34 fishery products were purchased from the Belgian market. Bio-analytical and chemo-analytical dioxin toxicity equivalents (TEQ) values of the same milk samples were compared. Spearman's Rank correlation coefficients of 0.72, 0.67, 0.73 were obtained respectively between CALUX-TEQ and PCDD/F-TEQ, DL-PCB-TEQ and PCDD/F+DL-PCB-TEQ. The bioassay limit of detection was 0.1 pg TEQ from 1 g animal lipid, the limit of quantification was 0.4 pg TEQ. The repeatability of the CALUX bioassay (variability of butter fat samples analysed in the same run) showed a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10%, intra laboratory reproducibility based on independent runs of the same butter fat samples showed more variation (CV of 26% for samples above 2 pg TEQ/g lipid). All milk samples with a chemical TEQ value above the current limit value in Belgium showed an elevated CALUX-TEQ concentration, above 6 pg TEQ/g lipid. No false negative results were obtained. Based on the good correlation between CALUX-TEQ and chemically measured TEQ levels, the CALUX bioassay can be recommended as a screening tool for routine measurement of potentially toxic PHAHs in milk samples. Chemical analyses could then largely be restricted to positive samples, in order to identify the nature and to quantify the concentration of the chemicals that give the positive signal. Meat samples showed lower CALUX-TEQ values per gram lipid compared to fish samples. The fish samples showed a wider range of CALUX-TEQ values than the meat samples.

  10. Cellular and molecular characteristics of transformed T cells from an antigen-specific T-cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, A M; Holm, B; Geisler, C

    1990-01-01

    the transformation event was poly-, oligo-, or monoclonal. The results indicate that the T lymphoma has no chromosome abnormalities, contains no tumour-inducing virus, can induce clone-specific immunity, and is oligoclonal with respect to TcR V alpha and V beta expression. The nature of the transformation event...... and clinical application of vaccination against T lymphomas is discussed. In addition, the expressed TcR V alpha and V beta repertoire of Con A T blasts was apparently not affected by the Igh-l or the MHC haplotype, as investigated in Igh-l and MHC congeneic C57Bl mice....

  11. (+)-Larreatricin hydroxylase, an enantio-specific polyphenol oxidase from the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Man-Ho; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Helms, Gregory L; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Eichinger, Dietmar; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2003-09-16

    An enantio-specific polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was purified approximately 1,700-fold to apparent homogeneity from the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), and its encoding gene was cloned. The posttranslationally processed PPO ( approximately 43 kDa) has a central role in the biosynthesis of the creosote bush 8-8' linked lignans, whose representatives, such as nordihydroguaiaretic acid and its congeners, have potent antiviral, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. The PPO primarily engenders the enantio-specific conversion of (+)-larreatricin into (+)-3'-hydroxylarreatricin, with the regiochemistry of catalysis being unambiguously established by different NMR spectroscopic analyses; the corresponding (-)-enantiomer did not serve as a substrate. This enantio-specificity for a PPO, a representative of a widespread class of enzymes, provides additional insight into their actual physiological roles that hitherto have been difficult to determine.

  12. Studies on Predation of Phrynocaria congener and Scymnussp. on Cornegenapsyllasinica%2种天敌瓢虫对龙眼角颊木虱的捕食作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱良妙; 占志雄

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the control effects of natural enemies on pests in Longan orchards, the predation of Phrynocaria congener and Scymnus sp. on the Cornegenapsylla sinica were studied in laboratory. The results showed that the functional responses of the two predatory ladybirds on C. sinica were of Holling’s II. The capitia of C. sinica preyed by the two predatory ladybirds were both increased with the increase of prey density. With the increasing of age of C. sinica, the searching rate of the predatory ladybirds decreased, and its handling time became longer. Comparison of the two predatory ladybirds, the P. congener performed the higher searching rate and the shorter handling time. Given a certain number of the same age of C. sinica, the feeding capitia of P. congener was larger than Scymnus sp. did.%为研究天敌对龙眼害虫的控制作用,以龙眼角颊木虱为研究对象,在实验室研究红星盘瓢虫和小毛瓢虫对龙眼角颊木虱的捕食功能反应。结果表明,2种天敌瓢虫对龙眼角颊木虱的捕食功能反应模型均属HollingⅡ型,对猎物的捕食量(Na)都是随着猎物密度(N)的增加而增加,而对猎物的捕食量(Na)和寻找效率(a)均随着龙眼角颊木虱虫龄的增加而降低,处理时间(Th)延长;红星盘瓢虫的寻找效率大于小毛瓢虫,处置时间则更短,在同一虫态既定猎物密度下,红星盘瓢虫的捕食量显著大于小毛瓢虫。

  13. On the Relationship Between Belief and Acceptance of Evolution as Goals of Evolution Education. Twelve Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.; Siegel, Harvey

    2016-08-01

    The issue of the proper goals of science education and science teacher education have been a focus of the science education and philosophy of science communities in recent years. More particularly, the issue of whether belief/acceptance of evolution and/or understanding are the appropriate goals for evolution educators and the issue of the precise nature of the distinctions among the terms knowledge, understanding, belief, and acceptance have received increasing attention in the 12 years since we first published our views on these subjects. During that time, our own views about these issues have evolved, and this article presents a reconsideration of both these distinctions and the propriety of these goals. In particular, the present paper continues our discussion of the nature of belief as it relates to science education, and more specifically to evolution education. We extend that work to consider the import of the distinction between belief and acceptance.

  14. Increased strength of the scapular stabilizer and lumbar muscles after twelve weeks of Pilates training using the Reformer machine: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m(2)) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm(2)). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of dietary crude protein on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum biochemical indexes of Lueyang black-boned chickens from seven to twelve weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess dietary crude protein (CP concentration for optimum growth performance and carcass characteristics of Lueyang black-boned chicken. In total, six hundred 42-day-old Lueyang black-boned chicks were randomly assigned to five treatments, each with six replicate pens with ten males and ten females. The birds fed experimental diets with different levels of protein concentration of 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 g kg-1 from seven to twelve weeks of age respectively. On day of 84, weight gain, feed intake, and feed:gain ratio were measured, and two chickens (one male and one female close to the average weight of all birds in each treatment were selected from each pen and sacrificed to evaluate carcass traits and selected serum biochemical indexes. Dietary CP concentration did not have any significant influence on feed intake (p>0.05. The birds fed the diet with 180 or 160 g kg-1 CP concentration exhibited greater (p<0.05 growth rate, better feed conversion ratio, relative breast weight and albumin concentration in serum than that of those fed other dietary CP concentrations. According to the results of regression analysis, the CP requirements of Lueyang black-boned chicken from seven to twelve weeks of age for optimal weight gain and feed:gain ratio were 174 and 170 g kg-1, respectively.

  16. Characterization, mode of action, and efficacy of twelve silica-based acaricides against poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Johanna; Berk, Jutta; Suhl, Johanna; Schrader, Lars; Kaufhold, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Hafez, Hafez Mohammed; Ulrichs, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Poultry red mite infestation still is an unsolved problem in poultry farms. Legal regulations, residue risks, and resistances limit chemical control of mites. Alternatives to chemical acaricides for control of poultry red mite are silica-based products, which have as a main constituent silicon dioxide. The acaricidal effect is attributed to sorptive properties of the particles, which result in the mite's death by desiccation. In the present study, the acaricidal efficacy of 12 products containing natural or synthetic silica, 9 in powder form, and 3 for liquid application was tested under laboratory conditions. Mite mortality was measured at several intervals and the mean lethal time (LT₅₀) determined by Probit analysis after Abbott's correction. The LT₅₀ values of the products significantly differed (Tukey's HSD p < 0.05). LT₅₀ values of powdery formulations ranged from 5.1 to 18.7 h and overlapped with those of the fluid ones which ranged from 5.5 to 12.7 h. In order to explain the differences in efficacy of the tested silica products, further characterizations were carried out. X-ray fluorescence, specific surface, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and water absorption capacity (WAC) were measured. Furthermore, electron microscopy was conducted and different products compared. Silicon dioxide content (ranging from 65 to 89% for powders and 57 to 80% for fluids) had no significant impact on efficacy, while specific surface and CEC (2.4-23.2 mEq 100(-1) g(-1) for powders and 18-30.8 mEq 100(-1) g(-1)) were positively and WAC (1.3-4.4 wt% for powders and 3.3-4.8 wt% for fluids) negatively related to the acaricidal efficacy. Influence of these parameters on acaricidal efficacy was significant according to the results of a stepwise regression analysis (p < 0.01).

  17. Increased litter size and super-ovulation rate in congenic C57BL mice carrying a polymorphic fragment of NFR/N origin at the Fecq4 locus of chromosome 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljander, Maria; Andersson, Åsa Inga Maria; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2009-01-01

    By analysing N2 mice from a cross between the inbred C57BL strain B10.Q and the NMRI-related NFR/N strain, we recently identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing litter size. This locus is now denoted Fecq4, and it is present on the murine chromosome 9. In the present paper, we....... In addition, embryos containing the Fecq4 fragment were easy to cultivate in vitro, resulting in a higher yield of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage. We propose that B10.Q.NFR/N-Fecq4 congenic mice may be used to improve breeding or super-ovulation rate in different types of genetically modified mice (on...

  18. Strengthening organizational performance through accreditation research-a framework for twelve interrelated studies: the ACCREDIT project study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Service accreditation is a structured process of recognising and promoting performance and adherence to standards. Typically, accreditation agencies either receive standards from an authorized body or develop new and upgrade existing standards through research and expert views. They then apply standards, criteria and performance indicators, testing their effects, and monitoring compliance with them. The accreditation process has been widely adopted. The international investments in accreditation are considerable. However, reliable evidence of its efficiency or effectiveness in achieving organizational improvements is sparse and the value of accreditation in cost-benefit terms has yet to be demonstrated. Although some evidence suggests that accreditation promotes the improvement and standardization of care, there have been calls to strengthen its research base. In response, the ACCREDIT (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork project has been established to evaluate the effectiveness of Australian accreditation in achieving its goals. ACCREDIT is a partnership of key researchers, policymakers and agencies. Findings We present the framework for our studies in accreditation. Four specific aims of the ACCREDIT project, which will direct our findings, are to: (i evaluate current accreditation processes; (ii analyse the costs and benefits of accreditation; (iii improve future accreditation via evidence; and (iv develop and apply new standards of consumer involvement in accreditation. These will be addressed through 12 interrelated studies designed to examine specific issues identified as a high priority. Novel techniques, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, and randomized designs relevant for health-care research have been developed. These methods allow us to circumvent the fragmented and incommensurate findings that can be generated in small

  19. Strengthening organizational performance through accreditation research-a framework for twelve interrelated studies: the ACCREDIT project study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Johanna; Johnston, Brian; Clark, Stephen; Brandon, Mark; Banks, Margaret; Hughes, Clifford; Greenfield, David; Pawsey, Marjorie; Corbett, Angus; Georgiou, Andrew; Callen, Joanne; Ovretveit, John; Pope, Catherine; Suñol, Rosa; Shaw, Charles; Debono, Deborah; Westbrook, Mary; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max

    2011-10-09

    Service accreditation is a structured process of recognising and promoting performance and adherence to standards. Typically, accreditation agencies either receive standards from an authorized body or develop new and upgrade existing standards through research and expert views. They then apply standards, criteria and performance indicators, testing their effects, and monitoring compliance with them. The accreditation process has been widely adopted. The international investments in accreditation are considerable. However, reliable evidence of its efficiency or effectiveness in achieving organizational improvements is sparse and the value of accreditation in cost-benefit terms has yet to be demonstrated. Although some evidence suggests that accreditation promotes the improvement and standardization of care, there have been calls to strengthen its research base.In response, the ACCREDIT (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) project has been established to evaluate the effectiveness of Australian accreditation in achieving its goals. ACCREDIT is a partnership of key researchers, policymakers and agencies. We present the framework for our studies in accreditation. Four specific aims of the ACCREDIT project, which will direct our findings, are to: (i) evaluate current accreditation processes; (ii) analyse the costs and benefits of accreditation; (iii) improve future accreditation via evidence; and (iv) develop and apply new standards of consumer involvement in accreditation. These will be addressed through 12 interrelated studies designed to examine specific issues identified as a high priority. Novel techniques, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, and randomized designs relevant for health-care research have been developed. These methods allow us to circumvent the fragmented and incommensurate findings that can be generated in small-scale, project-based studies. The overall

  20. Perinatal exposure to dioxins perturbs learning performance of the rat in a dose-specific fashion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojo, R.; Rieko, H.; Masaki, K.; Junzo, Y.; Chiharu, T. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins (chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners and related compounds including coplanar PCBs) are transferred transplacentally and lactationally from mothers to the developing brain of offspring. Maternal exposure to dioxins are suspected to cause adverse effects on the advanced brain function of offspring, because Previous studies indicate that the most toxic dioxin congener, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), affected the advanced brain function of rats, even when mothers had been exposed to a relatively low level of dioxins that would not affect themselves. In coplanar PCBs, which are dioxin-like, toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are based on similar toxicity to TCDD and on a common mechanism of action, mediated by the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, non-coplanar PCBs, which are considered to be non-dioxin-like PCBs, also show adverse effects on the learning and memory functions of offspring. In the present study, we hypothesize that coplanar PCBs have two types of toxicities, one is the similar to TCDD and the other is the specific toxicity of PCB itself. To address this hypothesis, effects of maternal exposure to one of the coplanar PCBs, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126, 1997 WHO TEF = 0.1), on learning and behavioural performance of rats assessed by schedule-controlled operant behavior (SCOB) were examined and compared to TCDD.

  1. Differences in the action of lower and higher chlorinated polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners on estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line viability and apoptosis, and its correlation with Ahr and CYP1A1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L; Barć, Justyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-07-29

    There are data showing that exposition to PCNs mixture increased incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory neoplasms, but data regarding incidence of hormone-dependent cancer so far not shown. The objective was to determine if exposure to single lower and higher chlorinated PCN congeners is associated with altered proliferation and apoptosis of estrogen dependent breast cancer cells, and whether such effects are related to induction of AhR and CYP1A1 protein expression. MCF-7 cells were exposed to PCN 34, 39, 42, 46, 48, 52, 53, 54, 66, 67, 70, 71, 73 and 74 at concentrations of 100-10,000pg/ml. We evaluated the action of these PCN congeners on cell proliferation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-8,-9 activity. AhR and CYP1A1 protein expression and CYP1A1 activity was evaluated at a concentration of 1000pg/ml. An opposite action of tri- to tetraCNs than of penta-to heptaCNs on cell proliferation and apoptosis was evident. Tetra PCNs increased cell proliferation, but had no effect on DNA fragmentation nor caspase activity. Fast induction of CYP1A1 protein expression under the influence of lower chlorinated PCNs suggests faster metabolism and a possible stimulatory action of locally formed metabolites on cell proliferation. None of the higher chlorinated PCNs affected cell proliferation but all higher chlorinated PCNs increased caspase-8 activity, and hexa PCNs also increased caspase-9 activity. The rapid activation of the Ah receptor and CYP1A1 protein expression by higher chlorinated PCNs point to their toxicity; however, it is not sufficient for potential carcinogenicity. Action of lower chlorinated naphthalenes metabolites should be explored.

  2. Twelve new Demospongiae (Porifera) from Chilean fjords, with remarks upon sponge-derived biogeographic compartments in the SE Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Desqueyroux-Faúndez, Ruth; Carvalho, Mariana De Souza; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Willenz, Philippe

    2013-12-02

    This article reports on 12 new species originating from the Chilean fjords region, namely Clathria (Microciona) mytilifila sp. nov., Haliclona (Reniera) caduca sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) ciruela sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) copihuensis sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) verenae sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) yepayek sp. nov., Myxilla (Burtonanchora) araucana sp. nov., Neopodospongia tupecomareni sp. nov., Oceanapia guaiteca sp. nov., Oceanapia spinisphaera sp. nov., Suberites cranium sp. nov. and Tethya melinka sp. nov. The material studied was collected between 5 and 30 m depth at latitudes comprised between 42º and 50ºS, and is part of a large collection of Chilean sponges gathered by an international team in a series of expeditions. Identification keys are provided for SE Pacific Suberites and Latrunculia, and the known species of Myxilla (Burtonanchora) and Neopodospongia. A trans-Pacific link to the New Zealand fauna was retrieved for the latter genus. Distribution ranges apparent from the materials studied here are judged too preliminary to allow any inference on biotic boundaries in the SE Pacific. A revision of earlier assertions about these biogeographic units and their boundaries concluded that very little support remains other than for existence of a Magellanic fauna. This is in part a consequence of revising the taxonomy of sponge species originally deemed to underpin these areas. Specifically, the former proposal of a Central to Southern Chile biogeographic unit (33-56ºS) has been markedly undone. 

  3. Gender-specific metabolic responses in gonad of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as a class of brominated flame-retardants. As a congener of PBDEs, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE 47) is the most toxic congener to animals. In this study, we applied metabolomics to characterize the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to BDE 47 for 30 days. Results indicated the apparent gender-specific responses in M. galloprovincialis with BDE 47 exposures (1 and 10 μg/L) at metabolite level. Basically, BDE 47 induced disruption in osmotic regulation and altered energy metabolism in mussels, via differential metabolic pathways. In addition, the hormesis phenomenon was observed in both male and female mussel samples exposed the two concentrations of BDE 47, indicated by the contrarily altered metabolites from two BDE 47 treatments (1 and 10 μg/L), respectively. Overall, this study confirmed the gender-specific responses to BDE 47 exposures in mussels and suggested the gender differences should be considered in marine ecotoxicology.

  4. Robotic surgical telepathology between the Iron Mountain and Milwaukee Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers: a twelve year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce E; Choi, Hongyung; Recla, Daniel L; Kerr, Sarah E; Wagenman, Benjamin L

    2009-11-01

    Since mid-1996 we have operated a diagnostic robotic telepathology (TP) system at the Iron Mountain, Michigan, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) from the Milwaukee, Wisconsin VAMC, located some 220 miles away. No on-site pathologist is present in Iron Mountain. Instead, an experienced, well-trained pathologist assistant, under direction of pathologists located in Milwaukee, is responsible for tissue grossing and sectioning. The pathologist assistant places slides onto the stage of the robotic microscope, which is then controlled by pathologists in Milwaukee. Each case read by TP is subsequently read by light microscopy (LM) by the same pathologist. Three distinct phases of TP have been recognized. Our experience during Phase I (mid-1996 through early 1999) has been published previously. During Phase II (early 1999 through mid-2004), one of the two senior telepathologists in Phase I retired and three junior pathologists were hired. During Phase III (mid-2004 though June 2008), two new junior pathologists were hired and ASAP Imaging (Apollo Telemedicine, Inc., Falls Church, VA) was implemented. The number of TP case opportunities in Phases I, II and III was 2,200; 5,841 and 3,512; respectively resulting in a total of 11,553. A total of 1,834 cases were deferred to LM for a variety of reasons. The number of TP diagnoses rendered in Phases I, II and III was 2,144; 4,636 and 2,939; respectively, for a total of 9,719. The major discordance rates in Phases I, II and III were 0.33%, 0.45% and 0.20%, respectively with an overall rate of 0.35%. Pathologist-specific discordance rates were not significantly different and ranged from a low of 0.12% to a high of 0.77%, while case deferral rates were significantly different (P Iron Mountain clinicians have expressed great satisfaction with the services provided by their off-site pathologist colleagues.

  5. Twelve years of succession on sandy substrates in a post-mining landscape: a Markov chain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasch, Annett; Tischew, Sabine; Bruelheide, Helge

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge of succession rates and pathways is crucial for devising restoration strategies for highly disturbed ecosystems such as surface-mined land. As these processes have often only been described in qualitative terms, we used Markov models to quantify transitions between successional stages. However, Markov models are often considered not attractive for some reasons, such as model assumptions (e.g., stationarity in space and time, or the high expenditure of time required to estimate successional transitions in the field). Here we present a solution for converting multivariate ecological time series into transition matrices and demonstrate the applicability of this approach for a data set that resulted from monitoring the succession of sandy dry grassland in a post-mining landscape. We analyzed five transition matrices, four one-step matrices referring to specific periods of transition (1995-1998, 1998-2001, 2001-2004, 2004-2007), and one matrix for the whole study period (stationary model, 1995-2007). Finally, the stationary model was enhanced to a partly time-variable model. Applying the stationary and the time-variable models, we started a prediction well outside our calibration period, beginning with 100% bare soil in 1974 as the known start of the succession, and generated the coverage of 12 predefined vegetation types in three-year intervals. Transitions among vegetation types changed significantly in space and over time. While the probability of colonization was almost constant over time, the replacement rate tended to increase, indicating that the speed of succession accelerated with time or fluctuations became stronger. The predictions of both models agreed surprisingly well with the vegetation data observed more than two decades later. This shows that our dry grassland succession in a post-mining landscape can be adequately described by comparably simple types of Markov models, although some model assumptions have not been fulfilled and within

  6. Inconel 718十二角头螺栓制造工艺技术研究%Study on Manufacturing Technology for Inconel 718 Twelve-Point Bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉凤; 刘风雷; 庄宝潼

    2015-01-01

    The material and structure features of Inconel 718 twelve-point bolt are introduced, and key manufacturing technologies, such as hot heading, heat treatment, warm rolling, etc. are analyzed, and optimal technological parameters are obtained. Dimensional in-spection and qualiifcation tests are carried out. The results show that technology designing is rational..%介绍了Inconel 718十二角头螺栓的材料和结构特点,分析了关键制造加工技术,如热镦锻、热处理、滚压螺纹等,确定了合理的工艺参数,并对研制件的尺寸和性能进行了评估,结果表明工艺技术设计合理。

  7. Molecular phylogenetic systematics of twelve species of Acipenseriformes based on mtDNA ND4L -ND4 gene sequence analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张四明; 张亚平; 郑向忠; 陈永久; 邓怀; 汪登强; 危起伟; 张云武; 聂龙; 吴清江

    2000-01-01

    Acipenseriformes is an endangered primitive fish group, which occupies a special place in the history of ideas concerning fish evolution, even in vertebrate evolution. However, the classification and evolution of the fishes have been debated. The mitochondrial DMA (mtDNA) ND4L and partial A7D4 genes were first sequenced in twelve species of the order Acipenseriformes, including endemic Chinese species. The following points were drawn from DNA sequences analysis: (i) the two species of Huso can be ascribed to Acipenser; (ii) A. dabryanus is the mostly closely related to A. sinensis, and most likely the landlocked form of A. sinensis; (iii) genus Acipenser in trans-Pacific region might have a common origin; (iv) mtDNA ND4L and ND4 genes are the ideal genetic markers for phylogenetic analysis of the order Acipenseriformes.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic systematics of twelve species of Acipenseriformes based on mtDNA ND4L -ND4 gene sequence analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Acipenseriformes is an endangered primitive fish group, which occupies a special place in the history of ideas concerning fish evolution, even in vertebrate evolution. However, the classification and evolution of the fishes have been debated. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ND4L and partial ND4 genes were first sequenced in twelve species of the order Acipenseriformes, including endemic Chinese species. The following points were drawn from DNA sequences analysis: (i) the two species of Huso can be ascribed to Acipenser; (ii) A. dabryanus is the mostly closely related to A. sinensis, and most likely the landlocked form of A. sinensis; (iii) genus Acipenser in trans-Pacific region might have a common origin; (iv) mtDNA ND4L and ND4 genes are the ideal genetic markers for phylogenetic analysis of the order Acipenseriformes.

  9. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ndunguru

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production.

  10. Age Distribution of Influenza Like Illness Cases during Post-Pandemic A(H3N2): Comparison with the Twelve Previous Seasons, in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbelin, Clément; Souty, Cécile; Pelat, Camille; Hanslik, Thomas; Sarazin, Marianne; Blanchon, Thierry; Falchi, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    In France, the 2011–2012 influenza epidemic was characterized by the circulation of antigenically drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses and by an increased disease severity and mortality among the elderly, with respect to the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks. Whether the epidemiology of influenza in France differed between the 2011–2012 epidemic and the previous outbreaks is unclear. Here, we analyse the age distribution of influenza like illness (ILI) cases attended in general practice during the 2011–2012 epidemic, and compare it with that of the twelve previous epidemic seasons. Influenza like illness data were obtained through a nationwide surveillance system based on sentinel general practitioners. Vaccine effectiveness was also estimated. The estimated number of ILI cases attended in general practice during the 2011–2012 was lower than that of the past twelve epidemics. The age distribution was characteristic of previous A(H3N2)-dominated outbreaks: school-age children were relatively spared compared to epidemics (co-)dominated by A(H1N1) and/or B viruses (including the 2009 pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks), while the proportion of adults over 30 year-old was higher. The estimated vaccine effectiveness (54%, 95% CI (48, 60)) was in the lower range for A(H3N2) epidemics. In conclusion, the age distribution of ILI cases attended in general practice seems to be not different between the A(H3N2) pre-pandemic and post-pandemic epidemics. Future researches including a more important number of ILI epidemics and confirmed virological data of influenza and other respiratory pathogens are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:23755294

  11. Multivariate toxicity profiles and QSAR modeling of non-dioxin-like PCBs – An investigation of in vitro screening data from ultra-pure congeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenberg, M.; Hamers, T.; Machala, M.; Fonnum, F.; Stenius, U.; Lauye, A.A.; Duursen, van M.B.M.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Andersson, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    The non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) found in food and human samples have a complex spectrum of adverse effects, but lack a detailed risk assessment. The toxicity profiles of 21 carefully selected PCBs (19 NDL-PCBs) were identified by in vitro screening in 17 different assays on specific endpoints re

  12. Multivariate toxicity profiles and QSAR modeling of non-dioxin-like PCBs – An investigation of in vitro screening data from ultra-pure congeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenberg, M.; Hamers, T.; Machala, M.; Fonnum, F.; Stenius, U.; Lauye, A.A.; Duursen, van M.B.M.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Andersson, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    The non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) found in food and human samples have a complex spectrum of adverse effects, but lack a detailed risk assessment. The toxicity profiles of 21 carefully selected PCBs (19 NDL-PCBs) were identified by in vitro screening in 17 different assays on specific endpoints

  13. Allele specific expression in worker reproduction genes in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harindra E. Amarasinghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methylation has previously been associated with allele specific expression in ants. Recently, we found methylation is important in worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here we searched for allele specific expression in twelve genes associated with worker reproduction in bees. We found allele specific expression in Ecdysone 20 monooxygenase and IMP-L2-like. Although we were unable to confirm a genetic or epigenetic cause for this allele specific expression, the expression patterns of the two genes match those predicted for imprinted genes.

  14. Twelve lectures on structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Preumont, André

    2013-01-01

    This text addresses the modeling of vibrating systems with the perspective of finding the model of minimum complexity which accounts for the physics of the phenomena at play. The first half of the book (Ch.1-6) deals with the dynamics of discrete and continuous mechanical systems; the classical approach emphasizes the use of Lagrange's equations. The second half of the book (Ch.7-12) deals with more advanced topics, rarely encountered in the existing literature: seismic excitation, random vibration (including fatigue), rotor dynamics, vibration isolation and dynamic vibration absorbers; the final chapter is an introduction to active control of vibrations. The first part of this text may be used as a one semester course for 3rd year students in Mechanical, Aerospace or Civil Engineering. The second part of the text is intended for graduate classes. A set of problems is provided at the end of every chapter. The author has a 35 years experience in various aspects of Structural dynamics, both in industry (nuclea...

  15. Family Textbooks Twelve Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.

    2009-01-01

    In 1996 the author conducted an intensive study of twenty current family textbooks published in the United States, the results of which appeared in an academic journal article and a nonacademic report in 1997. The study included practical "functionalist" marriage and family textbooks and more academic sociology of the family books; these…

  16. The Twelve Days of Shengdan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; JETT

    2008-01-01

    On the first day of Christmas,China gaveto me A bird that can say ni hao A partridge in a pear tree has nothing on a caged bird that will greet me in Chinese as I pass by—although I worry that one day I’ll try to engage the bird in conversation and find out it speaks better Chinese than I do.

  17. Myositis specific autoantibodies : specificity and clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The sera of about half of the patients with myositis contain autoantibodies that are specific for this group of diseases compared to other inflammatory connective tissue disorders. In a recent study we showed that these myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are also specific for myositis as compar

  18. Myositis specific autoantibodies : specificity and clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The sera of about half of the patients with myositis contain autoantibodies that are specific for this group of diseases compared to other inflammatory connective tissue disorders. In a recent study we showed that these myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are also specific for myositis as compar

  19. Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Trematoda: Transversotrematidae) from inshore fishes of Australia: description of a new species and significant range extensions for three congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Diggles, Ben K; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the 'Transversotrema licinum clade' and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed.

  20. Evaluation of twelve maize (Zea mays L. cultivars for silage Avaliação de doze cultivares de milho (Zea mays L. para silagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celina Jorge Leme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of different maize cultivars for ensiling of the plant. Twelve maize cultivar were analyzed in a completely randomized block design, with three block, twelve treatments and three replication. The plot with three lines of six meters long and spacing of 0.8 m were used in all trials. The cycle of the plants of the planting to harvest varied from 105 to 114 days. The height average differed among (P 0.05 for ear by plant number (0.9 to 1.1, dry matter (33.2 to 38.2 %, ether extract (1.9 to 2.5 % and neutral detergent fiber (49.1 to 56.2 %. The dry matter production differed (P O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características agronômicas e químico-bromatológica de diferentes cultivares de milho para ensilagem. Foram avaliados doze cultivares de milho em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com três blocos, 12 tratamentos e três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por três linhas de seis metros de comprimento e espaçamento de 0,8 m entre linhas. O ciclo das plantas, do plantio à colheita, variou de 105 a 114 dias. A altura média diferiu entre os cultivares (P 0,05 entre os cultivares para número de espigas por planta (0,9 a 1,1, teores de matéria seca (33,2 a 38,2 %, de extrato etéreo (1,9 a 2,5 % e de fibra em detergente neutro (49,1 a 56,2 %. A produção de matéria seca diferiu (P < 0,05 entre o cultivar TORK (20,6 t/ha e os cultivares CD-302 (16,4 t/ha e TRAKTOR (15,7 t/ha. O AGN-3150 apresentou o menor teor de fibra em detergente ácido (24,2 % e maior digestibilidade (80,7 %. Todas as cultivares apresentaram características agronômicas e qualitativas adequadas para produção de silagem, destacando-se os cultivares TORK e AGN-3150.

  1. The clinical efficacy of Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste containing a special grade of silica and Colgate Total Toothpaste for controlling breath odor twelve hours after toothbrushing: a single-use clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naresh C; Galustians, H Jack; Qaqish, Jimmy; Galustians, Ana; Petrone, Margaret E; Rustogi, Kedar N; Zhang, Yun Po; DeVizio, William; Volpe, Anthony R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study, conducted in harmony with American Dental Association guidelines, was to compare a new dentifrice formulation variant of Colgate Total Toothpaste containing a special grade of silica (Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste) to the commercially available, ADA-Accepted and clinically proven Colgate Total Toothpaste for controlling breath odor twelve hours after brushing the teeth. Breath odor was evaluated by a panel of three examiners using a nine-point hedonic scale. Following a baseline evaluation of breath odor, prospective study subjects who scored above the threshold value for unpleasant breath odor were stratified by score and randomized into two treatment groups. Subjects were provided with a soft-bristled toothbrush, and brushed their teeth thoroughly in their regular and customary manner with their assigned dentifrice. Subjects refrained from dental hygiene, breath mints or mounthrinses for the next twelve hours, after which they were again evaluated for breath odor. Eighty-three (83) adult male and female subjects from the Mississauga, Ontario, Canada area participated in the study. At twelve hours after brushing their teeth, subjects in both dentifrice treatment groups presented mean breath odor scores which were statistically significantly lower than the mean scores observed at baseline. Importantly, there was no statistical difference between the two dentifrices of the mean twelve-hour breath odor scores. The mean twelve-hour breath scores for the Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste group and the Colgate Total Toothpaste group were 4.89 and 4.67, respectively, which are within the range of values corresponding to pleasant breath odor. Thus, the results of this double-blind clinical study, conducted according to a protocol which had been approved by the Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Dental Association, support the conclusion that Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste and Colgate

  2. 试述十二律结合四气理论防治五脏疾病%Prevention and Treatment of Five Zang-organs Diseases with Twelve Temperaments Combining with Siqi Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺海辉; 雷磊; 吴子明

    2013-01-01

    The study and treatment of the music therapy is very popular in Europe and America. While the Chi-nese traditional music therapy is still in the stage of excavation, both the theory and clinical practice are waiting for exploration and development. Through the formation of twelve temperaments and twelve temperaments system, this article discussed the twelve temperaments which reflect the yin and yang of twelve months, and the five in-ternal organs reflect the yin and yang of the four season . The author thinks that the twelve temperaments can pre-vent and treat diseases of five zang-organs, and puts forward the train of thought of prevention and treatment of five zang-organs diseases with twelve temperaments combining with Siqi theory.%目前音乐疗法在欧美的研究和治疗应用非常普遍,而我国中医音乐疗法还处于挖掘整理阶段,无论是基础理论还是临床实践都有待进一步的探索和发展。本文通过论述十二律的形成和十二律吕制度表明十二律反映十二月阴阳,以及五脏通应自然界四时阴阳,认为十二律能够防治五脏疾病,并提出十二律结合四气防治疾病的思路。

  3. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: a twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Keeling, A; Paice, E

    2004-08-18

    The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.

  4. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neve Ombra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical by 50% (EC50. The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  5. Efficacy of disulfiram and Twelve Step Facilitation in cocaine-dependent individuals maintained on methadone: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Shi, Julia M.; Eagan, Dorothy; Ball, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cocaine use remains a major problem within methadone maintenance programs. Disulfiram’s efficacy in reducing cocaine use has been demonstrated in several trials, but its relative efficacy among individuals who use versus abstain from alcohol remains unclear Treatment approaches which seek to enhance substance users’ involvement in self-help activities (Twelve Step Facilitation, TSF) have been associated with better outcomes among alcohol and cocaine users, but have rarely been evaluated among methadone-maintained cocaine-opioid users. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo controlled, double blind (for medication condition), factorial (2×2) trial with 4 treatment conditions: Disulfiram plus TSF, disulfiram plus standard counseling only, placebo plus TSF, and placebo plus standard counseling in the context of a community-based methadone maintenance program. Participants (N=112) received either disulfiram (250 mg/d) or placebo in conjunction with daily methadone maintenance. Results Assignment to TSF was associated with less cocaine use throughout treatment and a higher number of cocaine-negative urines. While there were no significant main effects of disulfiram versus placebo, individuals without an alcohol use disorder demonstrated greater reductions in cocaine use over time when assigned to disulfiram. Conclusions TSF appears feasible in this methadone maintenance program and was associated with modest reductions in cocaine use, an often intractable problem in this setting. Support for the efficacy of disulfiram was weaker, as it appeared effective only for those without a current alcohol use disorder for this sample. PMID:22695473

  6. Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Wiener, P; Pong Wong, R; Dunner, S

    2014-07-01

    Current customers' demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n - 3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers' acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality.

  7. Twelve weeks of BodyBalance® training improved balance and functional task performance in middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson, Mark R McKean, Brendan J Burkett School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance® training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years.Participants and methods: A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15 or continued with their normal activities (n=13.Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038, 30-second chair stand (P=0.037, and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017. There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life.Conclusion: Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults. Keywords: postural control, yoga, tai chi, center of pressure, exercise

  8. Theory of the “New Music” Expressionism Based on Schoenberg’ s Twelve-Tone Music%论“新音乐”的表现主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林健丹

    2014-01-01

    The Western music of the 20th century, due to the social change, the influence of the economic recovery and cultural ideological trend, produced extremely complex and changeful music form and cultural form.This article, through the innovation of the 20th century Western new music composing techniques, taking Schoenberg and expressionist music representative of twelve-tone music as an example, discusses the“new music” under the influence of the ideological trend of expressionist music, as well as the“tradition” in the leading position of expressionist music.%20世纪的西方音乐,由于受到社会变动、经济复苏和文化思潮的影响,产生了极其复杂多变的音乐形式和文化形态。本文将借20世纪西方新音乐作曲技法的创新,并以表现主义音乐代表人物勋伯格的十二音音乐为例进行分析,论述了“新音乐”思潮影响下的表现主义音乐,以及“反传统”思想在表现主义音乐中的主导地位。

  9. Discussion on the Rhetoric of Libretto in Twelve Muqam%浅谈《十二木卡姆》唱词的修辞性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芸

    2015-01-01

    木卡姆语言的佳妙,除了配合歌腔旋律的演唱外,还表现出了其驾驭文字的艺术手法。论文从不同木卡姆剧本中搜寻出最常用的修辞格,并例举若干例子分别说明这些修辞格在作品中的作用及其相关的问题,试图从修辞立场来研读木卡姆语言的艺术成果。%Twelve Muqam’s libretto showed the writing art, excepting with the song melody singing cavity. We searched most commonly used figures of speech from the script of a different Maqam, and cited a number of examples to illustrate the role of rhetorical devices in his works and their associated problems. We will try to study Muqam language art achievements from from the perspective of rhetoric.

  10. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  11. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombra, Maria Neve; d'Acierno, Antonio; Nazzaro, Filomena; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Maione, Mena; Fratianni, Florinda

    2016-01-01

    Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA) ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 50% (EC50). The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  12. Challenge of goodness: twelve humanitarian proposals based on the experience of 1991-1995 wars in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S

    1998-03-01

    Based on the 1991-1995 war experience of peoples of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, I made twelve proposals regarding the following aspects of health, humanitarian work, and human rights: 1. Broadening of the WHO definition of health by including spiritual well-being (absence of hatred) in it, 2. Inclusion of the term genocide into the Index Medicus (MeSH), 3. Establishment of concepts of prevention of hate, 4. Right to a home, 5. Right of civilians to participate in defense and renewal, 6. Right to deliberation from enslavement and right to find out the fate of missing persons, 7. Global hospital, 8. Monitoring of prisoner-of-war camps, 9. Refugee camps, 10. Providing of care for the abandoned - a new category of people suffering in war, 11. Introduction of the Helping Hand concept, 12. Organization of the Red Cross Forum after the cessation of hostilities. The fundamental objective was to establish the legitimacy of honesty in practice, regulative social mechanisms, and science.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. DFT and Position of Cl Substitution (PCS) Methods Studies on n-Octanol/water Partition Coefficients (lgKow) and Aqueous Solubility (-lgSw) of All PCDD Congeners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Optimized calculations of 75 PCDDs and their parent DD were carded out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level by density functional theory (DFT) method. The structural parameters were obtained and significant correlation between the Cl substitution position and some structural parameters was found. Consequently, the number of Cl substitution positions was taken as theoretical descriptors to establish two novel QSPR models for predicting lgKow and -lgSw of all PCDD congeners. The two models achieved in this work contain two variables (Nα and Nβ), of which r = 0.9312, 0.9965 and SD = 0.27, 0.12 respectively, and t values are all large. The variation inflation factors (VIF) of variables in the two models herein are both less than 5.0, suggesting high accuracy of the lgKow and -lgSw predicting models, and the results of cross-validation test also show that the two models exhibit optimum stability and good predictive power. By comparison, the correlation and predictive ability of the present work are more advantageous than those obtained using semi-empirical AM1 and GC-RI methods.

  15. Toxaphene analysis in Great Lakes fish: a comparison of GC-EI/MS/MS and GC-ECNI-MS, individual congener standard and technical mixture for quantification of toxaphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Crimmins, Bernard S; Hopke, Philip K; Pagano, James J; Milligan, Michael S; Holsen, Thomas M

    2009-09-01

    Toxaphene is considered to be a problematic organochlorine pollutant because of its bioaccumulation potential and persistence in aquatic environments. In this study, whole lake trout and walleye composites were used to evaluate two analytical techniques for total toxaphene and selected congener analysis. The efficacy of using gas chromatography electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS/MS) and electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) were compared. Although the sensitivity using GC-ECNI-MS was approximately five times greater than GC-EI/MS/MS, the latter provided more consistent inter-Parlar relative response factors (RRF). When using technical calibration mixtures, these results suggest a more accurate total toxaphene measurement was obtained using the GC-EI/MS/MS method. Total toxaphene concentrations in lake trout composites from both methods were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.985) with the MS/MS concentrations approximately half of those determined by ECNI, suggesting systematic high bias in toxaphene concentrations when measured using GC-ECNI.

  16. Tumorigenesis in the multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse: redundancy of negative regulators and specificity of modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, R B; Katzung, D S; Hoff, P D; Moser, A R; Cole, C E; Lubet, R A; Donehower, L A; Jacoby, R F; Dove, W F

    2000-03-28

    The interaction between mutations in the tumor-suppressor genes Apc and p53 was studied in congenic mouse strains to minimize the influence of polymorphic modifiers. The multiplicity and invasiveness of intestinal adenomas of Apc(Min/+) (Min) mice was enhanced by deficiency for p53. In addition, the occurrence of desmoid fibromas was strongly enhanced by p53 deficiency. The genetic modifier Mom1 and the pharmacological agents piroxicam and difluoromethylornithine each reduced intestinal adenoma multiplicity in the absence of p53 function. Mom1 showed no influence on the development of desmoid fibromas, whereas the combination of piroxicam and difluoromethylornithine exerted a moderate effect. The ensemble of tumor suppressors and modifiers of a neoplastic process can be usefully analyzed in respect to tissue specificity and synergy.

  17. Geographic specificity of Aroclor 1268 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary, Georgia (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulster, Erin L; Maruya, Keith A

    2008-04-15

    Coastal marine resources are at risk from anthropogenic contaminants, including legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with half-lives of decades or more. To determine if polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures can be used to distinguish among local populations of inshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the southeastern U.S. coast, blubber from free-ranging and stranded animals were collected along the Georgia coast in 2004 and analyzed for PCB congeners using gas chromatography with electron capture and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD and GC-NCI-MS). Mean total PCB concentrations (77+/-34 microg/g lipid) were more than 10 fold higher and congener distributions were highly enriched in Cl(7)-Cl(10) homologs in free-ranging animals from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary (TBRE) compared with strandings samples from Savannah area estuaries 90 km to the north. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the Aroclor 1268 signature associated with TBRE animals was distinct from that observed in Savannah area animals, and also from those in animals biopsied in other southeastern U.S estuaries. Moreover, PCB signatures in dolphin blubber closely resembled those in local preferred prey fish species, strengthening the hypothesis that inshore T. truncatus populations exhibit long-term fidelity to specific estuaries and making them excellent sentinels for assessing the impact of stressors on coastal ecosystem health.

  18. Accumulation, tissue-specific distribution and debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, E. van den [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: evi.vandensteen@ua.ac.be; Covaci, A. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Jaspers, V.L.B. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, T. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, S. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, M. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Pinxten, R. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2007-07-15

    In this study we investigated the accumulation, tissue-specific distribution and possible debromination of BDE 209 in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling, using silastic implants as a method of exposure. BDE 209 accumulated in the blood of the exposed starlings to a mean peak concentration of 16 {+-} 4.1 ng/ml on day 10. After this peak, there was a decline to 3.3 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml blood at the end of the exposure period of 76 days, which suggests elimination of BDE 209. In the exposed group, the muscle concentrations (461 ng/g lipid weight [lw], 430 ng/g lw) were about twofold those in liver (269 ng/g lw, 237 ng/g lw). In addition to BDE 209, other PBDE congeners, particularly octa- and nonaBDEs, were also present in the muscle and liver, suggesting bioformation from BDE 209. To our knowledge, these results are the first indications for the debromination of BDE 209 in birds. - BDE 209 accumulates in the blood and tissues of a terrestrial bird species, the European starling, and can be debrominated to lower PBDE congeners.

  19. Geographic specificity of Aroclor 1268 in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary, Georgia (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulster, Erin L. [Marine Sciences Department, Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia, 31404 (United States); Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia, 31411 (United States)], E-mail: epulster@mote.org; Maruya, Keith A. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia, 31411 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Coastal marine resources are at risk from anthropogenic contaminants, including legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with half-lives of decades or more. To determine if polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures can be used to distinguish among local populations of inshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the southeastern U.S. coast, blubber from free-ranging and stranded animals were collected along the Georgia coast in 2004 and analyzed for PCB congeners using gas chromatography with electron capture and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECD and GC-NCI-MS). Mean total PCB concentrations (77 {+-} 34 {mu}g/g lipid) were more than 10 fold higher and congener distributions were highly enriched in Cl{sub 7}-Cl{sub 10} homologs in free-ranging animals from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary (TBRE) compared with strandings samples from Savannah area estuaries 90 km to the north. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the Aroclor 1268 signature associated with TBRE animals was distinct from that observed in Savannah area animals, and also from those in animals biopsied in other southeastern U.S estuaries. Moreover, PCB signatures in dolphin blubber closely resembled those in local preferred prey fish species, strengthening the hypothesis that inshore T. truncatus populations exhibit long-term fidelity to specific estuaries and making them excellent sentinels for assessing the impact of stressors on coastal ecosystem health.

  20. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da, E-mail: chen@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Hale, Robert C. [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Watts, Bryan D. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Mojica, Elizabeth K. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for SIGMAPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  1. Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in south Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hooft Pim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. Whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern African fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. Genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in South Africa which uncovered the presence of Rattus tanezumi, a South-East Asian endemic not previously known to occur in Africa, provided the impetus for expanded studies on all invasive Rattus species present. Results To this end, intensified sampling at 28 South African localities and at one site in Swaziland, identified 149 Rattus specimens. Cytochrome b gene sequencing revealed the presence of two R. tanezumi, seven Rattus rattus and five Rattus norvegicus haplotypes in south Africa. Phylogenetic results were consistent with a single, recent R. tanezumi introduction and indicated that R. norvegicus and R. rattus probably became established following at least two and three independent introductions, respectively. Intra- and inter-specific diversity was highest in informal human settlements, with all three species occurring at a single metropolitan township site. Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus each occurred sympatrically with Rattus tanezumi at one and five sites, respectively. Karyotyping of selected R. rattus and R. tanezumi individuals identified diploid numbers consistent with those reported previously for these cryptic species. Ordination of bioclimatic variables and MaxEnt ecological niche modelling confirmed that the bioclimatic niche occupied by R. tanezumi in south Africa was distinct from that occupied in its naturalised range in south-east Asia suggesting that factors other than climate may influence the distribution of this species. Conclusions This study has highlighted the value of genetic typing for detecting cryptic invasive species, providing

  2. Cubitene: an irregular twelve-membered-ring diterpene from a termite soldier. [1,5-dimethyl-8,10-bis(isopropenyl)cyclododeca-1,5-diene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, G.D. (International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya); Wiemer, D.F.; Meinwald, J.; Clardy, J.

    1978-04-12

    Cubitene was isolated from the hexane extract of C. umbratus soldier heads by chromatography over Florisil followed by preparative GLC. High resolution mass spectroscopy indicated the formula of cubitene to be C/sub 20/H/sub 32/. Mass spectra of catalytically hydrogenated cubitene products showed peaks at m/rho 279, consistent with their formulation as substituted cycloalkanes of the composition C/sub 20/H/sub 40/. Cubitene is therefore a monocyclic hydrocarbon with four centers of unsaturation. the /sup 1/H NMR spectral data revealed the presence of two 1,1-disubstituted double bonds, and two additional olefinic protons. Four methyl groups attached to double bonds are also observed. The /sup 13/C NMR spectrum indicated the presence of two tribsubstituted double bonds. Fortunately, cubitene could be obtained in crystalline form (mp 34.5-35/sup 0/C) from cold methanol, allowing a single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallized in the monoclinic crystal class. Lattice parameters were: a = 15.963 (5), b = 6.799 (2), c = 17.038 (5) A; theta = 96.99 (2)/sup 0/. Evidence shows cubitene to be 1,5-dimethyl-8,10-bis(isopropenyl)cyclododeca-1,5-diene, a structure in which one isoprene unit is irregularly joined to three others. It appears to be the first example of a diterpene hydrocarbon based on a twelve-membered carbocyclic ring. Its biosynthesis poses interesting problems. Two possible biosynthetic routes are suggested. An even more basic question remains....whether termite soldiers synthesize cubitene at all, or whether they simply sequester it (or a closely related precursor) from their food.

  3. Sex-specific effects on spatial learning and memory, and sex-independent effects on blood pressure of a <3.3 Mbp rat chromosome 2 QTL region in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have consistently found that hypertension is associated with poor cognitive performance. We hypothesize that a putative causal mechanism underlying this association is due to genetic loci affecting both blood pressure and cognition. Consistent with this notion, we reported several blood pressure (BP quantitative trait loci (QTLs that co-localized with navigational performance (Nav-QTLs influencing spatial learning and memory in Dahl rats. The present study investigates a chromosome 2 region harboring BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. We developed two congenic strains, S.R2A and S.R2B introgressing Dahl R-chromosome 2 segments into Dahl S chromosome 2 region spanning BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. Radiotelemetric blood pressure analysis identified only S.R2A congenic rats with lower systolic blood pressure (females: -26.0 mmHg, P = 0.003; males: -30.9 mmHg, P<1×10(-5, diastolic blood pressure (females: -21.2 mmHg, P = 0.01; males: -25.7 mmHg, P<1×10(-5, and mean arterial pressure (females: -23.9 mmHg, P = 0.004; males: -28.0 mmHg, P<1×10(-5 compared with corresponding Dahl S controls, confirming the presence of BP-f4 QTL on rat chromosome 2. The S.R2B congenic segment did not affect blood pressure. Testing of S.R2A, S.R2B, and Dahl S male rats in the Morris water maze (MWM task revealed significantly decreased spatial navigation performance in S.R2A male congenic rats when compared with Dahl S male controls (P<0.05. The S.R2B congenic segment did not affect performance of the MWM task in males. The S.R2A female rats did not differ in spatial navigation when compared with Dahl S female controls, indicating that the Nav-8 effect on spatial navigation is male-specific. Our results suggest the existence of a single QTL on chromosome 2 176.6-179.9 Mbp region which affects blood pressure in both males and females and cognition solely in males.

  4. Assays of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the recombinant guinea pig aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was examined for assay of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with PCB126 (toxic equivalency factor; TEF: 0.1) and PCB169 (TEF: 0.03), the GUS activity of the whole plants was increased significantly. After treatment with PCB80 (TEF: 0), the GUS activity was nearly the same level as that treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control. After exposure to a 1:1 mixture of PCB126 and PCB169, the GUS activity was increased additively. However, after exposure to a mixture of PCB126 and PCB80, the GUS activity was lower than that of the treatment with PCB126 alone. Thus, PCB80 seemed to be an antagonist towards AhR. When the transgenic plants were treated with each of the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb together with PCB126, Cd and Pb increased the PCB126-induced GUS activity. On the other hand, Fe, Cu and Zn did not affect the PCB126-induced GUS activity. In the presence of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B) and the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the PCB126-induced GUS activity was increased, but the Cd-assisted PCB126-induced GUS activity was not affected. Thus, MEL-B and BSA seemed to increase uptake and transport of PCB126, respectively.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg(-1))>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg(-1))>nearby highways (1.7ngg(-1))>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg(-1)). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ26PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)

  6. Establishment of a polychlorinated biphenyl-dechlorinating microbial consortium, specific for doubly flanked chlorines, in a defined, sediment-free medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Sowers, K.R.; May, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    Estuarine sediment from Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, was used as inoculum for the development of an anaerobic enrichment culture that specifically dechlorinates doubly flanked chlorines (i.e., chlorines bound to carbon that are flanked on both sides by other chlorine-carbon bonds) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dechlorination was restricted to the para chlorine in cultures enriched with 10 mM fumarate, 50 ppm (173 {micro}M) 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and no sediment. Initially the rate of dechlorination decreased upon the removal of sediment from the medium. However, the dechlorinating activity was sustainable, and following sequential transfer in a defined, sediment-free estuarine medium, the activity increased to levels near that observed with sediment. The culture was nonmethanogenic, and molybdate, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, and streptomycin inhibited dechlorination activity; bromethanesulfonate and vancomycin did not. Addition of 17 PCB congeners indicated that the culture specifically removes double flanked chlorines, preferably in the para position, and does not attack ortho chlorines. This is the first microbial consortium shown to para or meta dechlorinate a PCB congener in a defined sediment-free medium. It is the second PCB-dechlorinating enrichment culture to be sustained in the absence of sediment, but its dechlorinating capabilities are entirely different from those of the other sediment-free PCB-dechlorinating culture, an ortho-dechlorinating consortium, and do not match any previously published Aroclor-dechlorinating patterns.

  7. Levels of nutrients in the leaves of twelve genotypes of grape Teores foliares de nutrientes em doze genótipos de videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almy Junior Cordeiro de Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the levels of mineral nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo and B of twelve genotypes of grapevine: 'Italy', 'Ruby' , 'Patricia', 'Isabel', 'Redglobe', 'Roberta', 'Kyoho', 'Roman', 'Rosalinda', 'Moscatel de Hamburgo’,' 'Niagara Rosada' and 'UVF 01' in the North of Rio de Janeiro State. The plants were pruinned and fertilized (organic and mineral. The leaf blades were analyzed in two periods of the reproductive cycle of the vine: in full bloom and the beginning of berry ripening (veraison. In this characterization, it was concluded that the leaves reflected the nutritional status of the vine genotypes. The genotypes did not show levels of N below normal, with most genotypes showing normal levels. Neither genotype showed below normal levels of K and P. All genotypes showed levels of Ca below the normal range for all seasons and Mg in the normal range. All genotypes showed normal levels of B.O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de caracterizar o teor de nutrientes minerais: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo e B de doze genótipos de videira: ‘Itália’, ‘Rubi’, ‘Patrícia’, ‘Isabel’, ‘Redglobe’, ‘Roberta’, ‘Kyoho’, ‘Romana’, ‘Rosalinda’, ‘Moscatel de Hamburgo’, ‘Niágara Rosada’ e ‘UVF 01’ na região Norte Fluminense. Realizou-se a poda, seguida de adubação convencional e orgânica e análise do limbo foliar em duas épocas do ciclo reprodutivo da videira: no pleno florescimento e início da maturação das bagas (“veraison”. Nessa caracterização, concluiu-se que o limbo foliar coletado refletiu bem o estado nutricional dos genótipos de videira. Os genótipos não apresentaram níveis de N abaixo do normal, sendo a maioria dos genótipos apresentaram níveis normais. Nenhum genótipo apresentou níveis abaixo do normal de K e P. Todos os genótipos apresentaram níveis de Ca abaixo da faixa normal para as duas épocas amostradas e n

  8. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna B Gillen

    Full Text Available We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session.Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2 performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9 or MICT (n = 10 for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6. SIT involved 3x20-second 'all-out' cycle sprints (~500W interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W. Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W.Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both. Insulin sensitivity index (CSI, determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002 and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10-4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013 (p<0.05. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001. The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99, CSI (p = 0.63 and CS (p = 0.97.Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment.

  9. Electric-dipole-coupled H2O@C60 dimer: Translation-rotation eigenstates from twelve-dimensional quantum calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter M.; Bačić, Zlatko

    2017-02-01

    We report on variational solutions to the twelve-dimensional (12D) Schrödinger equation appertaining to the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of H2O@C60 dimer, associated with the quantized "rattling" motions of the two encapsulated H2O molecules. Both H2O and C60 moieties are treated as rigid and the cage-cage geometry is taken to be fixed. We consider the TR eigenstates of H2O@C60 monomers in the dimer to be coupled by the electric dipole-dipole interaction between water moieties and develop expressions for computing the matrix elements of that interaction in a dimer basis composed of products of monomer 6D TR eigenstates reported by us recently [P. M. Felker and Z. Bačić, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 201101 (2016)]. We use these expressions to compute TR Hamiltonian matrices of H2O@C60 dimer for two values of the water dipole moment and for various dimer geometries. 12D TR eigenstates of the dimer are then obtained by filter diagonalization. The results reveal two classes of eigenstates, distinguished by the leading order (first or second) at which dipole-dipole coupling contributes to them. The two types of eigenstates differ in the general magnitude of their dipole-induced energy shifts and in the dependence of those shifts on the value of the water dipole moment and on the distance between the H2O@C60 monomers. The dimer results are also found to be markedly insensitive to any change in the orientations of the C60 cages. Finally, the results lend some support for the interpretation that electric dipole-dipole coupling is at least partially responsible for the apparent reduced-symmetry environment experienced by H2O in the powder samples of H2O@C60 [K. S. K. Goh et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 21330 (2014)], but only if the water dipole is taken to have a magnitude close to that of free water. The methodology developed in the paper is transferable directly to the calculation of TR eigenstates of larger H2O@C60 assemblies, that will be required for more

  10. Blood Pressure, Sleep Quality and Fatigue in Shift Working Police Officers: Effects of a Twelve Hour Roster System on Cardiovascular and Sleep Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymen L. Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Police officers have been reported to exhibit a high incidence of pathologies, which present prematurely in an otherwise healthy population. Shift work has also been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and sleep disorders, attributable to its propensity for circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, contention exists as to whether shift work has a direct effect upon blood pressure (BP regulation. Methods: This cross-sectional study sought to determine changes in BP and associations with the overall sleep quality and fatigue in 206 general duties police officers (n = 140 males of the New South Wales Police Force in Australia. The subjects’ BP was assessed before and after their twelve hour shift, during which time they also completed the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI and fatigue severity (FSS were found to predominate in the sample (69% and 51% respectively. Although there was no change in BP for male participants, female officers’ systolic blood pressure (SBP was found to increase significantly across the shift (p < 0.001, but with no change found in females’ diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Finally, higher pre and post-shift SBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.25, p = 0.001, respectively and DBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.26, p = 0.001, respectively were significantly correlated with lower FSS scores after accounting for age, waist-hip ratio and lifestyle risk factors. Conclusions: Based on these preliminary findings, there was a significant increase in SBP of female police officers after shift work, while BP and fatigue levels in all police officers were strongly related. Moreover, the predominating poor sleep quality and impact of fatigue in this sample remain a concern. Further research is required to ensure the physiological welfare of police officers, while strategies

  11. Ultra-low microcurrent in the management of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic wounds: report of twelve cases and discussion of mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bok Y; Al-Waili, Noori; Stubbs, Dean; Wendell, Keith; Butler, Glenn; Al-Waili, Thia; Al-Waili, Ali

    2009-12-06

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. The low levels of antioxidants accompanied by raised levels of markers of free radical damage play a major role in delaying wound healing. Ultra-low microcurrent presumably has an antioxidant effect, and it was shown to accelerate wound healing. The purpose of the study is to investigate the efficacy of ultra-low microcurrent delivered by the Electro Pressure Regeneration Therapy (EPRT) device (EPRT Technologies-USA, Simi Valley, CA) in the management of diabetes, hypertension and chronic wounds. The EPRT device is an electrical device that sends a pulsating stream of electrons in a relatively low concentration throughout the body. The device is noninvasive and delivers electrical currents that mimic the endogenous electric energy of the human body. It is a rechargeable battery-operated device that delivers a direct current (maximum of 3 milliAmperes) of one polarity for 11.5 minutes, which then switched to the opposite polarity for another 11.5 minutes. The resulting cycle time is approximately 23min or 0.000732 Hz and delivers a square wave bipolar current with a voltage ranging from 5V up to a maximum of 40 V. The device produces a current range of 3 mA down to 100 nA. Twelve patients with long standing diabetes, hypertension and unhealed wounds were treated with EPRT. The patients were treated approximately for 3.5 h/day/5 days a week. Assessment of ulcer was based on scale used by National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Consensus Development Conference. Patients were followed-up with daily measurement of blood pressure and blood glucose level, and their requirement for medications was recorded. Treatment continued from 2-4 months according to their response. Results showed that diabetes mellitus and hypertension were well controlled after using this device, and their wounds were markedly healed (30-100%). The patients

  12. Ultra-low microcurrent in the management of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic wounds: Report of twelve cases and discussion of mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bok Y. Lee, Noori AL-Waili, Dean Stubbs, Keith Wendell, Glenn Butler, Thia AL-Waili, Ali AL-Waili

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. The low levels of antioxidants accompanied by raised levels of markers of free radical damage play a major role in delaying wound healing. Ultra-low microcurrent presumably has an antioxidant effect, and it was shown to accelerate wound healing. The purpose of the study is to investigate the efficacy of ultra-low microcurrent delivered by the Electro Pressure Regeneration Therapy (EPRT device (EPRT Technologies-USA, Simi Valley, CA in the management of diabetes, hypertension and chronic wounds. The EPRT device is an electrical device that sends a pulsating stream of electrons in a relatively low concentration throughout the body. The device is noninvasive and delivers electrical currents that mimic the endogenous electric energy of the human body. It is a rechargeable battery-operated device that delivers a direct current (maximum of 3 milliAmperes of one polarity for 11.5 minutes, which then switched to the opposite polarity for another 11.5 minutes. The resulting cycle time is approximately 23min or 0.000732 Hz and delivers a square wave bipolar current with a voltage ranging from 5V up to a maximum of 40 V. The device produces a current range of 3 mA down to 100 nA. Twelve patients with long standing diabetes, hypertension and unhealed wounds were treated with EPRT. The patients were treated approximately for 3.5 h/day/5 days a week. Assessment of ulcer was based on scale used by National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Consensus Development Conference. Patients were followed-up with daily measurement of blood pressure and blood glucose level, and their requirement for medications was recorded. Treatment continued from 2-4 months according to their response. Results showed that diabetes mellitus and hypertension were well controlled after using this device, and their wounds were markedly healed (30

  13. Congenıtal cutis laxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Gürkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A case report is presenting about a rarely appering disease cutis laxa named also as Dermatomegaly and Generalise Elastosis. As it appears congenitally also seems with the accompaniment of infection, inflamation, collagen tissue diseases, hypersensitivity reactions and treatment with D- penicillamine.

  14. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  15. Phobia - simple/specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anxiety disorder - phobia ... Specific phobias are a type of anxiety disorder in which a person may feel extremely anxious or has a ... when exposed to the object of fear. Specific phobias are a common mental disorder. Common phobias include ...

  16. Cu6S4 cluster based twelve-connected face-centered cubic and Cu19I4S12 cluster based fourteen-connected body-centered cubic topological coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng-Ming; Fang, Rui-Qin; Wu, Hai-Shun; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2008-09-15

    Hydrothermal reaction of Cu(MeCO2)2, (4-pyridylthio)acetic acid and NH4SCN resulted in a twelve-connected face-centered cubic topological metal-organic framework [Cu3(pdt)2(CN)] (pdt = pyridinethiolate) in which Cu6S4 clusters act as twelve-connected nodes and pyridine rings and cyanides act as connectors. As an extension, an unprecedented fourteen-connected body-centered cubic coordination polymer [Cu19I4(pdt)12(SH)3] has been synthesized by three methods, in which nanosized chiral Cu19I4S12 clusters act as fourteen-connected nodes and triple pyridine rings and hydrosulfides act as connectors. The in situ S-C(sp(3)), S-C(sp(2)), and S-C(sp) cleavage reactions have been observed in the work.

  17. A new species of Heteronybelinia (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from Sympterygia bonapartii (Rajidae), Nemadactylus bergi (Cheilodactylidae) and Raneya brasiliensis (Ophidiidae) in the south-western Atlantic, with comments on host specificity of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoret, A; Ivanov, V A

    2013-12-01

    Adults and plerocercoids of a new species of Heteronybelinia (Trypanorhyncha, Tentaculariidae) were recovered from the skate Sympterygia bonapartii (Rajiformes: Rajidae) and two species of teleosts, Raneya brasiliensis (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae) and Nemadactylus bergi (Perciformes: Cheilodactylidae), respectively. Heteronybelinia mattisi n. sp. differs from its congeners in its possession of a tentacular armature consisting of hooks with slight differences in size and shape on opposite surfaces of the tentacle (uncinate with rounded bases on the bothrial surface and uncinate with elongate bases on the antibothrial surface), without a characteristic basal armature, hooks increasing in size toward the tip of the tentacles, and pars bothrialis slightly overlapping with bulbs. The description of Heteronybelinia is emended regarding the distribution of testes to include species without postovarian testes (H. palliata and H. mattisi), and without testes anterior to cirrus sac on the poral side (H. robusta and H. mattisi). Host data are summarized for all 15 valid species of Heteronybelinia. Host specificity of adults and plerocercoids of Heteronybelinia is variable among species, the adults being more host specific than the plerocercoids. With the exception of H. mattisi, the definitive hosts of all species of Heteronybelinia for which adults are known include carcharhiniform sharks. Heteronybelinia mattisi seems to have oioxenous specificity for its definitive batoid host, S. bonapartii, and to be more specific for the intermediate hosts than most of its congeners.

  18. The SIFT Code Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The specification of Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) consists of two parts, the specifications of the SIFT models and the specifications of the SIFT PASCAL program which actually implements the SIFT system. The code specifications are the last of a hierarchy of models describing the operation of the SIFT system and are related to the SIFT models as well as the PASCAL program. These Specifications serve to link the SIFT models to the running program. The specifications are very large and detailed and closely follow the form and organization of the PASCAL code. In addition to describing each of the components of the SIFT code, the code specifications describe the assumptions of the upper SIFT models which are required to actually prove that the code will work as specified. These constraints are imposed primarily on the schedule tables.

  19. Variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L.. I - Comportamento de 12 variedades procedentes da Holanda, Alemanha e Suécia Behavior of twelve potato varieties from European sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatadas experiências com 12 variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., recebidas da Holanda (Prinslander, Irene, Froma e Barima, Alemanha (Merkur, Sabina, Linda e Concordia e Suécia Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran e Jätte-Bintje. Essas experiências, em número de seis, das quais três no chamado período "da sêca" (março-julho e três no "das águas" (setembro-janeiro, foram executadas nas localidades de Campinas, Louveira o Capão Bonito, no Estado de São Paulo. Ficou evidenciado o seguinte: a dado o bom estado de brotação dos tubérculos, as porcentagens de falhas no plantio "da sêca" foram baixas; já no plantio "das águas", as variedades de brotação lenta, como "Voran" e "Sabina", falharam muito; b "Prinslander" e "Konsuragis" resistiram bem à sêca prolongada, e "Barima" o "Linda" mostraram ser muito sensíveis; c "Linda", "Voran" e "Merkur", principalmente a primeira destas, apresentaram boa resistência a Phytophthora infestans, e "Jätte-Bintje" foi muito suscetível; "Voran", "Irene", "Prinslander" e "Barima" não ofereceram resistência a Alternaria solani; d "Merkur" e "Konsuragis" foram as mais produtivas para as duas épocas de plantio, sendo que "nas águas", "Eigenheimer", "Barima", "Concordia" e Jätte-Bintje", também produziram bem. Outros aspectos relacionados com variedades foram estudados.Twelve potato varieties imported from Holland (Prinslander, Irene, Froma, and Barima, Germany (Merkur, Sabina, Linda, and Concordia, and Sweden (Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran, and Jätte-Bintje were compared in six experiments carried out at three different localities in the state of São Paulo (Campinas, Louveira, and Capão Bonito. The experiments were planted twice a year, once during the so-called dry season (March lo July, and another time during the rainy season (September to March. The following results were obtained: a plantings made in the dry season had a good stand, whereas this was

  20. Prevalencia de caries en una población escolar de doce años Prevalence of caries in an school population of twelve year-old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Tapias Ledesma

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de caries en una población escolar de 12 años y factores asociados a la misma. Población y métodos: Se ha efectuado un estudio transversal en 452 escolares de 12 años edad de Móstoles. Para determinar el estado dental se ha efectuado una exploración odontológica siguiendo los criterios de la OMS. Medimos la prevalencia de caries en dentición temporal y permanente, así como los índices de caries en dentición temporal (cod, cos y en dentición permanente (CAOD, CAOS, también medimos el índice SiC, calcularemos los intervalos de confianza al 95%. Utilizamos el programa estadístico SPSS V 13 para realizar todos los cálculos estadísticos y epidemiológicos necesarios del estudio. Resultados: La prevalencia en dentición permanente es del 28,8% (IC 95%: 26,94-31,06. El índice CAOD es del 0,61 (IC 95%: 0,48-0,73 y el índice cod 0,33 (IC 95%: 0,24-0,42. El índice SiC es de 1,82 (IC 95%: 1,55-2,09. Como conclusión podemos resaltar que prevalencia de caries en la población de 12 años de Móstoles ha disminuido. Un 71% de los escolares esta libre de caries en dentición permanente.The objective of study is to know the prevalence of dental caries in schoolchildren 12 year-old and associated factors. Population and Methods: A cross sectional observational study has been carried out in 542 twelve year old schoolchildren in Móstoles. We conducted a dental exploration using the World Health Organization criteria. We then measure the caries prevalence permanent and deciduas and the dmt, dmts, DMFT, DMFS index and its confidence limits at 95%. We used programs SPPS V.13 to carry out all the statistic calculations of the study. Results: The caries prevalence in permanent teeth is 28,8% (IC95%: 26,94-31,06. The DMTF index is 0,61 (IC 95%: 0,48-0,73 and the dmt index is 0,33 (IC 95%: 0,24-0,42. SiC index is 1,82 (IC 95%: 1,55-2,09. In conclusion, the caries prevalence in the 12 year old

  1. Developmental expression of insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-IIR) in congenic mouse embryonic lungs: correlation between IGF-IIR mRNA and protein levels and heterochronic lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, M; Chen, H; Rich, K A; Jaskoll, T

    1996-06-01

    Embryonic lung maturation in the H-2 congenic pair, B10.A and B10, proceeds at different rates. The dependence of this heterochronic development on maternal haplotype suggests the involvement of a parentally imprinted gene. Since B10.A (H-2a) and B10 (H-2b) mice are genetically identical except for a 3-18 cM region of chromosome 17 that includes the H-2 complex, we sought a promising candidate gene(s) involved in regulating the rate of lung development from genes encoded in this region. The best candidate is the gene encoding the type II insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IIR), whose ligand is the growth factor IGF-II. Only the maternal copy of this gene is expressed in postimplantation embryos. This receptor does not appear to transduce mitogenic signals; instead, IGF-IIR appears to regulate the levels of its ligand available to the growth-promoting type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR). Using in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrate that IGF-IIR mRNA and protein are localized throughout the pulmonary mesenchyme, as well as in branching epithelia of the pseudoglandular and canalicular stages. We also examined the levels of IGF-IIR mRNA and protein expression by RNase protection assay and ligand blotting during the embryonic period of lung development in B10.A and B10 mice, and found that there is a highly significant positive correlation of IGF-IIR levels with progressive development in both strains. Further, slower-developing B10.A lungs contain significantly higher levels of IGF-IIR mRNA and protein than the more rapidly developing B10 lungs. These results suggest that haplotype-dependent elevation of IGF-IIR levels reduces the available concentration of IGF-II, resulting in a decreased rate of morphogenesis in B10.A mice. Heterochronic lung maturation, then, appears consequent to variable extracellular levels of this important growth factor. These results may be of clinical importance to predicting susceptibility to Respiratory

  2. 同时蒸馏萃取/气质联用分析12种常见蜂花粉的挥发性成分%Analysisof Volatiles in Twelve Common Species of Bee Pollen by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Combined with Simultaneous Distillation and Solvent Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开; 邢辰; 胡君荣; 孙培龙; 叶兴乾

    2012-01-01

    目的:对市场上常见的12种蜂花粉品种进行挥发性成分分析与比较.方法:采用同时蒸馏萃取和气-质联用法测定蜂花粉中的挥发性成分.结果:共鉴定出74种挥发性化学成分,其中相对共有成分41种,相对特有成分33种,主要由烷烃类、烯炔烃类、醛酮类、醇类、脂类、芳香烃类、酚类和羧酸类等物质组成,且不同花粉品种中挥发性成分的组成与含量间差异较大,荞麦、葵花、荷花、玫瑰、五味子和蚕豆花粉中分别含有较显著的特征性成分.结论:蜂花粉的挥发性成分具有一定的品种特异性,且基本不含食用、日用香精中禁用物质和农药残留,食用安全性相对较高.%Objective: To determine and analyze the volatile compounds of twelve common species of bee pollen. Methods: The volatile compounds in twelve common species of bee pollen were analyzed and compared by GC-MS combined with simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction (SDE). Results: A total of 74 volatile components were determined in samples, including of 41 relatively common components and 33 relatively specific components. The analyzed compounds were mainly composed of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, lipids, benzenes, phenols and carboxylic acids, et al., and pollen samples had quite different profiles. Relevant specific ingredients were characterized in pollen of Fagopyrum esculentum L, Helumthus annuus L, Nelumbo nwifera Gaertn, Rosa rugosa, Schisandra chinensis, and Vicia faba L Conclusion; The volatile compounds tends to be species-specific. A relative food safety of bee pollen was indicated, as prohibited substances in daily used essences and pesticide residues were nearly inexistence in pollen volatiles.

  3. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....... workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...

  4. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  5. Lidar base specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications.

  6. Alliteration and rhyme skills in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedott, Paula Renata; Cáceres-Assenço, Ana Manhani; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2017-03-30

    this study investigated and compared the performance of school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers typically developing language in alliteration and rhyme tests. The study also aimed to evaluate the influence of semantic and phonological distractors on both tests. twelve school-aged children with SLI (study group - SG) and 48 peers typically developing language (control group - CG) aged 7 to 9 years. All of them were on 2nd or 3rd grade and presented hearing thresholds within normal limits and appropriate nonverbal intellectual performance. The experimental assessment consisted in alliteration and rhyme tests with semantic and/or phonological distractors. intragroup analysis showed that both groups presented lower performance in rhyme than alliteration activities (CG planguage impairment. School-aged children with SLI attested that they analyze phonological awareness stimuli in a more general way, leading them to overlook relevant segmental aspects. These data reinforce the need for early intervention of these abilities in this population.

  7. Improved technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  8. 气相色谱-串联质谱法测定人参和黄芪中7种毒杀芬残留量%Determination of seven toxaphene congeners in Ginseng and Milkvetch Root by gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田绍琼; 毛秀红; 苗水; 郏征伟; 王柯; 季申

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of representative toxaphene congeners in traditional Chinese herbal medicines was developed. Ginseng and Milkvetch Root were selected as the samples and seven toxaphene congeners were sele