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Sample records for tuva central asia

  1. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  2. The timing of ostrich existence in Central Asia: AMS 14C age of eggshells from Mongolia and southern Siberia (a pilot study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurochkin, Evgeny N.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Antoshchenko-Olenev, Igor V.; Zabelin, Vladimir I.; Krivonogov, Sergey K.; Nohrina, Tatiana I.; Lbova, Ludmila V.; Burr, G.S.; Cruz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Asiatic ostrich in Central Asia in the later Cenozoic time is well-documented; nevertheless, a few direct age determinations existed until recently. We performed AMS 14 C dating of ostrich eggshells found in Mongolia, Transbaikal, and Tuva. It shows that ostriches existed throughout the second part of Late Pleistocene, until the Late Glacial time (ca. 13,000-10,100 BP). It seems that Asiatic ostrich went extinct in Central Asia just before or even in the Holocene.

  3. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  4. The 1917 Revolution in Tuva

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    Vladimir G. Dazishen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on both archival and previously published documents, this article examines the issue of impact that Russia’s revolution of 1917 had on contemporary events in Tuva. Tuva acceded to the USSR in 1944, many years after the Bolshevik revolution and the rise of the Soviet state. However, we postulate that the “Soviet history” of Tuva, just like that of Russia, started in 1917. Soviet historiography prioritized the Great October Socialist revolution, but the events of 1917 began in February. The course of February revolution in Tannu Tuva Uriankhai did not automatically lead to the victory of the Bolsheviks and the establishment of the Soviet power. In spring and summer 1917, revolutionary change in Tuva was largely peaceful and constructive. Supported by the whole Russian population of Tuva, members of the Socialist Revolutionary Party formed the new local government and coopted representatives of Tuvan principalities as partners of the new Russian power. Bolshevik ideas, howsoever high the popularity of their supporters in Tuva might have been, did not find massive endorsement in the region. Consequently, Uriankhai saw no “dual power” (dvoevlastiie in 1917, and the victory of communists in Russia did not mean that the power should transfer to them in Tuva as well. One of the most complex issues of the revolution in the region was incorporating the political system of Tuva into that of the Russian Republic. The complications of the “Uriankhai issue” and the rise of Tuvan separatism did not lead to interethnic conflicts, and the use of force to settle the burning issues was not deemed mandatory. On the whole, both the revolutionary events of 1917 and the vocal presence of all Russian political forces in the region pointed towards the future accession of Tuva into the Russian Republic. Our study made use of sources from the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire in Moscow, as well as regional archives of Tuva, Novosibirsk

  5. Central Asia in Asia: Charting growing trans-regional linkages

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    Nicola P. Contessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the so-called ‘Asian Century’ unfolds, Central Asian countries are increasingly directing their foreign relations eastward. Meanwhile, Asian states are equally turning to Central Asia in their search for energy resources and new markets. This dual dynamic is giving rise to closer and deeper ties in three key areas. As far as infrastructures are concerned, various Asian powers have adopted Silk Road policies that see Central Asia as a fundamental transit route for their long-haul connectivity projects. In the field of trade, Central Asia's exchanges with other Asian countries have been growing steadily since the 1990s, in some cases even coming to rival, in comparative terms, exchanges with the West. Lastly, in terms of multilateralism, Central Asia is increasingly enmeshed in a web of overlapping institutions with a strong Asian identity, coexisting with the region's Western institutional references. The article then problematizes this emerging pattern by sketching out some of the possible ramifications that could stem from the sustainment and consolidation of these trends for the international order and the global balance of power.

  6. Russian Language in the Central Asia Region

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    Ksenia Petrovna Borishpolets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available He article is devoted to the role of the Russian language in Central Asia and its development perspectives in the context of the Eurasian integration processes. Russian language has a long historical tradition in Central Asia and hasn't lost its importance even at the background of two waves of "derussification" that took place after 1991. Notwithstanding the decrease of the status, it keeps substantial public significance. During last two decades only in Turkmenistan we are witnessing the decrease in spreading of the Russian language among title population of the Central Asia region. Its positions as an active communication channel is secured not only by the social tradition, but also by the competitiveness of the Russian language education, advantages of the bilingual business, requirements of the labor migrants, HR interests and by some other pragmatic thoughts, which role within the context of Eurasian economic integration will increase. Despite the difficulties, it is too early to speak about the decrease of the Russian language in the Central Asia region. It is more likely that the institutes itself that maintain it and promoting it are at the low ebb. New scales and forms of practical work that is interested not only for Russia, but also Central Asia countries are required. Pressure on the resources of the Russian language increases the possibility of ethnic conflicts and strengthens the positions of political radicalism in Central Asia region.

  7. Central Asia | Page 105 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asie centrale. Read more about Sécurité hydrique dans les régions périurbaines de l'Asie du Sud - adaptation aux changements climatiques et urbanisation. Language French. Read more about Innovations for Inclusive Knowledge-based Economies in Asia - Phase II. Language English. Read more about L'innovation au ...

  8. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Central Asia's raging waters the prospects of water conflict in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, William B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in Central Asia. The thesis analyzes the three most recent political eras of Central Asia, Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and independence, utilizing indicators of water tensions including: water quality, water quantity, the management of water for multiple uses, the political divisions and geopolitical setting, state institutions and national water ethos. Although water is not likely to be the sole cause of a majo...

  10. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  11. Penerapan Business Continuity Pada Bank Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Keefe Darius

    2017-01-01

    Banks are financial institutions that have a major impact on the economic system and can affect people's lives. Hence, regulators concerned in organizing business continuity of the banking industries. PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. (BCA) represents businesses in the banking sector that can not escape from the natural and man threats which can interfere the bank's business. This case study presents a glimpse of how the business continuity run in BCA. Moreover, business continuity in banking can n...

  12. Representation of Central Asia and Traveling Self in Vambery’s Travels in Central Asia

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    Ahmad Gholi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the nineteenth century Arminius Vambery, an anglophile travel writer, in the guise of a mendicant dervish with a group of Tartar pilgrims departs to secluded and sealed Central Asia. After six months travel in the Khanates of Central Asia, he undertakes a journey to England where he offers his observations to the Royal Geographical Society and publishes his travelogue, Travel in Central Asia. Despite its literary merits and connection with British imperialism, the travelogue has not been scrutinized separately by the scholars of travel writing. To fill the gap, this article by drawing on the theories of post-structuralism: Orientalism and Postcolonialism, endeavors to unveil the political agenda behind the travel writer’s representation of his travelees, destination, and his own traveling self. Additionally, it argues that the travel writer in dialogue with other Western travel writers to deterritorialize his traversed region or justify the prospective presence of Britain in Central Asia, represents his journey destination as the locus of barbarity, a region under the grip of despotic rulers, as well as an area with frozen time, while to exhibit his Eurocentrism, he portrays his traveling subject as the a suffering hero and a benign traveler.

  13. Rusia, China, India y Asia Central

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    Stephen Blank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La próxima entrada de India en la Organización de Cooperación de Shanghái puede ser importante para Delhi pero no puede deshacer el factor crítico de que China se está convirtiendo cada vez más en el actor extranjero más relevante en Asia Central y que Rusia está dependiendo de China hasta el punto de que su Ministerio de Defensa ha buscado formalmente una alianza con China en contra del terrorismo, «las revoluciones de colores» y los Estados Unidos. China está ganando en la competición por la influencia sobre Asia Central, India apenas es competitiva allí y Rusia está perdiendo terreno paulatinamente, principalmente debido a sus propios fracasos para acrecentar su capacidad económica-política, incluso antes de invadir Ucrania. Las consecuencias de esa jugada tan solo han acelerado el proceso de su creciente dependencia de China.

  14. US POLICY TOWARDS CENTRAL ASIA UNDER TRUMP

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    Lance Alred

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available U.S. policy faces numerous challenges in Central Asia, such as the decreasing U.S. military and economic resources in the region; Russian and Chinese hostility to a long-term U.S. military presence in Eurasia; restrictions on religious and other freedoms due partly to counterterrorism concerns; limited U.S. involvement in the region compared to other external players (like Japan as well as Russia and China; an undeveloped U.S. policy regarding regional multinational institutions; and the indifference and ignorance of U.S. business toward regional commercial opportunities beyond the energy sector. However, advocates of “America First” in the Trump administration do not see these threats as sufficiently serious to garner U.S. military intervention beyond occasional training, equipping, and intelligence sharing. Terrorism, drug trafficking, economic isolation, and human rights restrictions in Central Asia do not present an immediate existential threat to the United States, sowing ambivalence over the future of U.S. foreign policy in the region.

  15. Central Asia in the Iranian geopolitical imagination

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    Edward Wastnidge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.

  16. The world of children in the capital of Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Kisel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The architectural specifics of the city of Kyzyl, capital of the Republic of Tuva (Russian Federation, have so far been understudied. This also concerns children’s playgrounds. Our article aims to analyze their specific features as objects of urban architecture, sculpture and sociocultural anthropology. Tuvans do not have a tradition for setting apart plots of land for children’s games. The construction of playgrounds in Tuva began after its accession to the USSR in 1944 by borrowing the already existing Soviet construction standards. In the absence of a railway linking Tuva to the rest of the USSR, playsets were made on the spot, of wood as the most easily available material. After the collapse of the USSR, centralized control over the federal education system, including institutions for children, weakened. Not only municipal agencies, but individuals as well could now get involved in urban improvement. A number of distinctively picturesque playgrounds appeared in the city in the 1990s and early 2000s, giving rise to a set of specific subjects of decorative sculpture featuring a plethora of ethnic imagery: wrestlers, cloth ornaments, folklore characters, Buddhist symbols, etc. Besides volunteer groups of amateur artists and builders, professional stonemasons also worked on playgrounds, utilizing the techniques of both monumental art and small outdoor statuary. In 2003 the federal Cabinet adopted a new state standard, which set clear demands for equipping children’s playgrounds. Outdoor sport facilities and playsets could now be constructed only by certified companies. This led to a change in aesthetics and a new set of imagery, where transport and machinery featured prominently. At the moment, Kyzyl still has a number of playgrounds with decorative structure, although they are clearly doomed. This understandable and irreversible change will nevertheless deprive the capital of Tuva of one of its most interesting and expressive

  17. The Ancient Tatar States in Central Asia

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    S.G. Klyashtorny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the earliest stages of the history of the Tatars. The origins of the Tatars are traced from the collapse of both the Han Empire and the Empire of Xiongnu and are considered during the subsequent periods preceding the emergence of the empire of Genghis Khan. The author argues that the Tatar state appeared long before the Mongol era, providing information on the resettlement of the Tatars in the 9th and 10th centuries, which explains why a century later the Mongols, who occupied the same space, were called the “Tatars” in the Turkic and Muslim environment, as well as in China. This Turkic desig­nation of the Mongols took root not only in Central Asia and the Middle East but also in Russia and Western Europe.

  18. Aridity of Central Asia through the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Zhou, H.; Rodda, C.; Joswiak, D.; Takeuchi, N.; Fujita, K.; Kurbatov, A.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics of aridity in Central Asia for over the past 12,000 years has been analyzed using deep ice core records recovered from the Siberian Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers. An analysis of aridity in the 20-21 centuries based on the long-term meteorological observations complements the paleo- climate reconstruction. The goal of our research is to examine an aridity (at low and high temperatures) in Central Asia as a complex of characteristics including air temperature-precipitation relationship (Koppen, 1918, Geiger, 1961, Mezencev, 1973), intensity of dust loading and biomass burning. The stable isotope ratio, soluble ionic and insoluble particulate geochemical components and oxalate preserved in ice were considered in relation to climatic and environmental changes; and to determine the main aerosol sources using ground- and upper-level meteorological data. Multivariate statistical methods were employed for examination of the main geo-chemical components responsible for the preserved aridity variability. Insoluble particle concentrations preserved in the ice core were affected mainly by precipitation regimes and wind speed. Concentration of all size particles was found to be negatively correlated with monthly temperatures indicating low temperatures during the dry particle deposition. Two abrupt depletions in stable isotope records, i.e., Younger Dryas and Centurial Sever Drought (CSD), occurred during cold, dry, windy periods of intensified dust storms in large desert areas. When climate became colder and drier, the Central Asian deserts extended, wind speeds increased loading mineral dust to atmosphere, which formed inversion while the convection processes and precipitation occurrence were limited. Warmer and wetter conditions are associated with less dust loading that occurred during the Holocene climate optimum, medieval warm and modern warm periods. The sudden climate transitions are accompanied by the most intensifying mineral dust loading. From the

  19. Central Asia, Euro-centrism and Colonialism

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    Nargis T. Nurulla-Khodzhaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article should not be dismissed as yet another attempt to construct a renewed round ofrevisionism in history. On the contrary, it aims to explore the possibility of scaling down the dominant Eurocentric epistemology that served as a basis for a stereotypical frame of knowledge about Central Asia. The majority of researchers of the region do not deem the need to review the scale of contradictory clashes created by the notion of Eurocentrism. The latter is reflected in numerous articles about the frozen (and sadly deadlock dilemma on why and how were the lands of Tajiks, Uzbeks and Kazakhs divided. By publishing conventional analyses on the region's "clumsy separation", experts illustrate their subaltern, narrowly framed by the colonial world, knowledge and hence, remain as gravestones of the Eurocentric methodology. In the process of such explication, the most important role is allocated to the modern culture, which encouraged the formation of the paradox, represented to us via the paraphrased Soviet aphorism: modernity and coloniality are twin brothers. The initiation of the process of decolonizing the mind within the five republics of the region is possible. One of the solutions involves recognizing the integrity of the pluralist-cycled culture and philosophy of the region. The proposed act will allow shrinking the focus on the knowledge within the limited national units and frames (thus, lessening the degree of'fetishism of the national identity', and rather creating conditions for designing the "bridge", linking different cultures, ideologies and institutional spaces in Central Asia, as a transnational intellectual matrix. The aforementioned theory will provide a basis and structure for empirical facts, and, therefore, drive the researchers from merely constituting to critically thinking, and consequently, inspire to come upon new approaches and fields of study, connecting them with the existing, colonial experiences. It is

  20. RESOURCES OF MUSICAL EDUCATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

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    Feza TANSUĞ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay also gives an idea of recent research trends and topics in music education in Central Asia. It consists of five parts including teaching music history, teaching epics, teaching songs and instrumental music, teaching traditional instruments, and dictionaries and language resources. Because of the extraordinary increase in the number of books published recently, a careful selection has been made in order to keep the references section to an acceptable length. Hence, the bibliography does not embody all of the works of a single author on the topic. This essay covers books and textbooks dealing with the music of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic—two neighboring countries with strong common historical roots and closely related musical traditions. In addition to reviewing textbooks published in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic, this article includes some relevant works by Russian authors. However, the extensive body of works authored by Central Asian scholars abroad was excluded from this essay. It contains references only in Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Russian languages.

  1. Tuvan-Mongolian relations and links under the People’s Republic of Tuva

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    Lubov K. Hertek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the links and relations between Tuva and Mongolia during the two decades of People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Although some aspects of these relations have been studied by a number of Russian, Mongolian and Chinese scholars, they have so far failed to outline their general tendencies. In this article, we aim to study the Tuvan-Mongolian relations in the PRT period in the light of new archival materials, which will help us trace the main stages of their development and characterize the specific features of each stage. The first stage (1921-1925 opens with the establishment of Tuvan statehood and its non-recognition by Mongolia. Tuvan lamas and noyons retained their links to the highest-profile Mongolian clergy and the rulers of Mongolian aimags in the borderlands. The second stage (1926–1929 begins with the changes in leadership of both states, which led to PRT being officially recognized by the Mongolian People’s Republic. The recognition was followed by signing a Treaty of Friendship between the two states and the restoration of cultural links, given that traditional culture and the Mongolian written language still prevailed in Tuva. We have reconstructed a full list of Tuvan diplomatic envoys in Mongolia and Mongolian envoys in Tuva. The third stage (1930–1944 was marked by the victory of the political left in both Tuva and Mongolia. The new leaders of both states had been educated in Moscow, in Communist University of the Toilers of the East. This helped establish what was deemed ‘truly revolutionary mutual relations’ and build up an interparty network. Indirectly, it also helped enhance economic, trade and cultural links. Our study was based, among other sources, on archival documents from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies, and some published sources from the Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ archive

  2. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through

  3. Connections between Central Asia and Mediaeval Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Heršak

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the development of Croat visions of self-origin, especially in relation to the Central Asian or Central Eurasian world. Located on the southern rim of the Pannonia plain, which constitutes a type of continuity of the great Eurasian steppe, the area of Croatia has many times in the past been exposed to diverse incursions of nomadic peoples from the East. True, the oldest expansions from the East in the context of initial Indo-Europeanisation (i.e. effects on the aeneolithic Vučedol culture, etc. cannot yet be included in such a scheme. The “Scythian-Cimmerian phenomenon” in the early Iron Age marks the first appearance of this model in regard to the Croatian area. Towards the end of historical Antiquity, Yazygs and other Sarmatians arrived from the East, and later the movement of the Huns created the stereotype through which contemporaries envisioned the following incursions of Bulgars and Avars, closed connected to the Slavic migrations, the arrival of the Hungarians and later the Tatar-Mongol invasion. Although essentially different, the subsequent Ottoman Turk expansion – which was to have significant ramifications for Croatia – also constituted an aspect of the total picture of relations with Asia. At the beginning of the Ottoman invasion, the old phrase dating from the Mediaeval Crusades, antemurale Christianitatis, was applied to Croatia. This had double significance. On the one hand it confirmed ties with the Western Christendom, but on the other hand the very term antemurale (“forewall, bulwark” implies an external position, hence a certain conceptual shift of Croatia toward the Orient. In the next part of the paper, the authors examine various legends pertaining to Croat origins. The oldest were registered by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI Porphyrogenitus. This included the account of the invitation made by the emperor Heraclius to the Croats and the story of the arrival of the Croats under the

  4. Overview of geology and tectonic evolution of the Baikal-Tuva area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkochub, Dmitry; Donskaya, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    This chapter provides the results of geological investigations of the main tectonic units of the Baikal-Tuva region (southwestern part of Siberia) during the last decades: the ancient Siberian craton and adjacent areas of the Central Asian Orogenic belt. In the framework of these main units we describe small-scale blocks (terranes) with focus on details of their inner structure and evolution through time. As well as describing the geology and tectonics of the area studied, we give an overview of underwater sediments, neotectonics, and some phenomena of history and development of the Baikal, Khubsugul, Chargytai, and Tore-Chol Lakes basins of the Baikal-Tuva region. It is suggested that these lakes' evolution was controlled by neotectonic processes, modern seismic activity, and global climate changes.

  5. Causes of early Holocene desertification in arid central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian

  6. Central Asia | Page 160 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... et l'introduction de cultures à rendement élevé, les agriculteurs punjabi se sont ... Although it occupies just 1.5% of India's land mass, Punjab now grows more ...

  7. Central Asia | Page 104 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Démarginalisation des travailleurs pauvres par le droit. Language French. Read more about Legal Empowerment of the Working Poor. Language English. Read more about Water Security in Periurban South Asia : Adapting to Climate Change and Urbanization. Language English.

  8. Central Asia | Page 177 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is the outcome of the collaborative PANdora research and development ... $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the world's poorest countries. ... role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  9. Central Asia | Page 100 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Soutenir des politiques d'alimentation plus saine en Asie du Sud-Est. Language French. Read more about Supporting Healthier Food Policies in Southeast Asia. Language English. Read more about Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy. Language English ...

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for the Obama Administration in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Asia. Specifically, the 19th century vision of an integrated network of rail lines connecting the former Soviet and Tsarist empires, Iran, India...rear to Afghanistan. In this fashion we would help Central Asia meet the challenges of ex- tremism, of economic decline due to the global eco- nomic...Callwell ( Victorian England’s leading theorist of small wars) wrote, “theory cannot be accepted as conclusive when practice points the other way.”28

  11. Internal and external dynamics of regional cooperation in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzokhid Rakhimov

    2010-07-01

    Challenges of the 21-century require a broader partnership and cooperation. Future prospects of multilateral regional and international cooperation in Central Asia will depend on correlations of national, regional and global interests. It is necessary first of all strong dialogs between Central Asian republics itself. Central Asian geopolitical, economic and security challenges are connected and solution could come jointly. Future regional cooperation, strong international partnership would promote more stability, economic reforms and democratization to region and beyond.

  12. Asia Central en la política exterior rusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas rusas hacia Asia Central han estado condicionadas por la herencia histórica anterior a la disolución de la URSS, pero también por los cambios en el sistema internacional y en la propia Rusia acaecidos desde entonces. ¿En qué medida la actuación de Rusia ha sido coherente y estable, basada en una estrategia para Asia Central fundamentada en los intereses nacionales? En este artículo examinamos los fundamentos de la política exterior rusa en relación con Asia Central, dividiéndola en tres apartados: político, económico y de seguridad.

  13. Unlocking India’s Strategic Potential in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    war. Nearly 4 decades since, Islamabad has struggled to ensure do- mestic security amid militant attacks, some of which bear the hallmarks of...see Huasheng, pp. 131-138. 79. Jagannath P. Panda , “India’s New Look at Central Asia Policy: A Strategic Review,” in Laruelle, Huchet, et al., pp...Central Asia,” in Dash, p. 8. 99. Peyrouse, Monsoon, p. 197. 100. Stobdan, pp. 48-54. 101. Panda , p. 116. 102. Kavalski, pp. 102-103. 98 103. Peyrouse

  14. The New Great Game in Muslim Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    and maci]ine tools, petrol - chemicals, agro-processing and textiles. ’’~ 14 THE NEW GREAT GAME IN MUSLIM CENTRAL ASIA Kazakhstan is well endowed...Algeria, Tunisia , and Morocco---are keeping a wary eye. But at the popular level, this pan-Islmnism has the potential to attract a considerable amount of

  15. Monetary policy efficiency in the economies of Central Asia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Isakova, Asel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 11-12 (2008), s. 525-553 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary policy * Central Asia * dollarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1147_str_525_553_-_isakova.pdf

  16. Artemisia communities in arid zones of Uzbekistan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov A. Kapustina; Montserrat Torrell; Joan Valles

    2001-01-01

    Central Asia, and particularly the former Soviet Middle Asian countries, with more than 180 taxa (45 endemics), is one of the centers of origin and speciation of the genus Artemisia L. (Asteraceae, Anthemideae). Several species of this genus, mainly belonging to subgenus Seriphidium (Besser) Rouy, are shrubs that dominate the landscape and form large communities in...

  17. Environmental Aesthetics, Social Engagement and Aesthetic Experiences in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the Youth Theatre for Peace (YTP) project in relation to environmental aesthetics and engaged participatory practices towards tolerance building in Central Asia. My main argument is that cultural histories of storytelling, "manas" (an oral and now literary Kyrgyz epic) and trickster tales incorporate ideas and…

  18. The Islamic factor on the territory of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central Asia belong mainly to Turkish speaking area, thus the Islamic religion and culture. Islam began to spread across this territory through new cultural contacts around 700 AD as a result of conquest, distant trade and missionary activities. Tendencies of Russia and Turkey towards Central Asia are increasing the danger of the conflict outbreak in the critical areas of the region. From the early 2000s until now, Central Asia has become much more divided interethnically than it was during the Soviet period. At the end of 1970s the establishment of new Islamic Movements began. The most active movements today are: Hizb Ut-Tahrir, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan. Extremism and radicalism are the most active, but also the smallest part of the Islamic movement in the whole world, including Central Asia. These movements have different tactics that are manifested in the form of various methods and means used for achieving objectives.

  19. Factoring Central Asia into China's Afghanistan policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Dhaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China's footprints in Afghanistan are vied by many, both, friends and rivals as it cautiously reveals its geostrategic goals. It would like to emulate the African and Central Asian success story in Afghanistan as well, which is not terra incognito. Afghanistan has been the fulcrum of geopolitical balance of power during the Cold war days. China's Afghanistan policy (CAP is marked by its insecurities of terrorism, extremism and separatism in Xinjiang province. It has heavily invested in procuring Central Asian energy resources. Both, the concerns go well in formulation of CAP. However, the presence of the US and Russia make the scenario competitive, where its ‘Peaceful Rise’ may be contested. Besides, China sees South Asian Region as its new Geoeconomic Frontier. All these concerns get factored into CAP. It remains to be seen what options partake in CAP, as China prepares for durable presence in Afghanistan in the long run.

  20. CHINA’S STRATEGY OF ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U.S.recently launched strategy of rebalancing to Asia worsens the atmosphere forChina’s energy security and increases the risks for energy transportation from Africa and theMiddle East. The diversification of energy sources is a reasonable strategic choice, so the importance of the Eurasian continent forChinaincreases. Central Asia does not play anymore a supporting role in the agenda ofChina’s energy security strategy. It is rather becoming a region of major strategic importance.

  1. Climate variations of Central Asia on orbital to millennial timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Spötl, Christoph; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Sinha, Ashish; Wassenburg, Jasper A; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis; Li, Xianglei; Yi, Liang; Peng, Youbing; Lv, Yanbin; Zhang, Pingzhong; Votintseva, Antonina; Loginov, Vadim; Ning, Youfeng; Kathayat, Gayatri; Edwards, R Lawrence

    2016-11-11

    The extent to which climate variability in Central Asia is causally linked to large-scale changes in the Asian monsoon on varying timescales remains a longstanding question. Here we present precisely dated high-resolution speleothem oxygen-carbon isotope and trace element records of Central Asia's hydroclimate variability from Tonnel'naya cave, Uzbekistan, and Kesang cave, western China. On orbital timescales, the supra-regional climate variance, inferred from our oxygen isotope records, exhibits a precessional rhythm, punctuated by millennial-scale abrupt climate events, suggesting a close coupling with the Asian monsoon. However, the local hydroclimatic variability at both cave sites, inferred from carbon isotope and trace element records, shows climate variations that are distinctly different from their supra-regional modes. Particularly, hydroclimatic changes in both Tonnel'naya and Kesang areas during the Holocene lag behind the supra-regional climate variability by several thousand years. These observations may reconcile the apparent out-of-phase hydroclimatic variability, inferred from the Holocene lake proxy records, between Westerly Central Asia and Monsoon Asia.

  2. Soft Power in Central Asia: Actors and Its Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article considers theoretical aspects of soft power concept and its use by various actors in Central Asia. It is noted that scholars as well as practitioners are paying insufficient attention to such key concepts position J. Nye, as an attraction. As a result the efficiency of the use of soft power is significantly reduced. It also shows that the attractiveness is not a universal characteristic. For this reason, attractiveness and hence soft power of different actors are different and aimed at different segments of the population. These differences lead to competition of actors, but they do not reduce interaction in the region to zero-sum game. Specific forms and directions of the soft power of Russia, the U.S., the EU and China in Central Asia are discussed. The article emphasizes that the Central Asian states are not just recipients of soft power of external actors, but also themselves form behavioral strategies that are attractive to others.

  3. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  4. Women’s world in contemporary Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa V. Anzhiganova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethnodemographic and ethnosocial position of ethnic Tuvan women in Tuva. Our analysis makes use of the concept of ‘women’s world’ which is actively used by researchers in the current state of increasing gender asymmetry. We treat ‘women’s world’ as a holistic worldview of women united by single values, attitudes and practices of living. The contemporary shift in traditional male and female roles leads to blurring the boundaries between male and female functions and responsibilities. The crisis of family values has been brought about by the market economy and the overall social and economic situation in the country. In contemporary society women find themselves involved in public life, which limits her abilities in the sphere of family relations and marriage. To analyze the values, attitudes and practices which are important for Tuvan women, we have held an opinion poll of 250 women respondents in Tuva in spring 2015. Tuvan society has always viewed family as the supreme value, and still does. When choosing a partner (which a woman is free to decide for herself, Tuvan women look for a caring, understanding, kind, educate, loving partner, with no pernicious addictions. Three is the ideal number of children in the family, although most families have only 1 or 2. Women of elder generations would typically have a bigger number of children. Younger generations are known for high divorce rate. One of the most important reasons for divorce is the urgent need for satisfying the family’s material needs. A contemporary Tuvan woman combines in her social position both traditional and new functions, trying to uphold the values of family life, high level of welfare and the opportunity for self-actualization. Due to this combination, Tuvan society has a relatively high (if compared to other regions level of reproductive goals, which means that a large part of respondents plans to have many children. However, the unstable

  5. Central Asia earthquake catalogue from ancient time to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya N. Mikhailova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the seismic catalogue compiled for Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. The catalogue from 2000 B.C. to 2009 A.D. is composed by 33,034 earthquakes in the MLH magnitude (magnitude by surface waves on horizontal components widely used in practice of the former USSR countries range from 1.5 to 8.3. The catalogue includes both macroseimic and instrumental constrained data, with about 32,793 earthquake after 1900 A.D. The main sources and procedure used to compile the catalogues are discussed, and the comparison with the ISC-GEM catalogue presented. Magnitude of completeness analysis shows that the catalogue is complete down to magnitude 4 from 1959 and to magnitude 7 from 1873, whereas the obtained regional b value is 0.805.

  6. Analyzing phenological changes with remote sensing data in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L; Guo, H; Zhang, L; Li, X; Kuenzer, C; Klein, I

    2014-01-01

    Based on NOAA/AVHRR NDVI biweekly time-series data, the start and end of the growing season of Central Asia from 1982 to 2006 were estimated. Trend analysis results indicate an earlier green-up and a later dormancy over the entire area during the study period. For seven main vegetation types, the largest advance of greenup onset (0.597 days/year) occurs in cropland and the longest delay of dormancy (1.109 days/year) in open shrubland. The smallest advance (0.164 days/year) occurs in evergreen needleleaf forest and delay (0.443 days/year) in crop/natural vegetation mosaic. These results imply enhanced vegetation activity in the Central Asia region over last decades

  7. Central Asia in a globalizing world: current trends and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ziadullaev, Nabi

    2006-01-01

    On the threshold of the 21st century, the strategic importance of the new sovereign states of Central Asia, endowed with huge oil, gas, uranium, gold and other mineral reserves, sharply increased. The newly formed states sought to become independent from Russia and to develop political and economic contacts with other countries on a parity basis. In a short period, they established diplomatic relations with most countries of the world, became members of the United Nations and other internatio...

  8. Generational Politics: Narratives of Power in Central Asia's Visual Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Khudonazar, Anaita

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the visual representation of generational politics as it changed during Imperial, Soviet and Post Soviet periods. It argues that the most important shift in visual representation of power relations between generations in Central Asia took place in the late 1920s when a group of cultural producers, which this dissertation introduces as Transsoveticus, entered the Soviet art and film industries. This dissertation demonstrates ways in which these artists and filmmak...

  9. CWRD: ICT in Education: Central and West Asia Executive

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents and analyzes the major conclusions of research conducted in Central and West Asia in 2006 through 2011 to ascertain the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) investments on education. It presents a critical overview of the effectiveness of ICT policies and strategies in basic education in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with shorter studies on Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, and Pakistan. Among its many impo...

  10. Old Believers in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century and under People’s Republic of Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita P. Tatarinseva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the specifics of culture and everyday life of the Old Believers’ (staroobryadtsy community in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as under the People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Our study was based on research in the general history and culture of Old Belief in Russian and Siberia, as well as on the documents from the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.   Old Believers who settled in Tuva (Uryankhaisky Krai in late 19th – early 20th century accounted for about a third of all Russian settlers. For the first two decades, their situation in the region was relatively favorable. For them, Tuva was a faraway region that suited well their isolationist lifestyle. It was the Promised Land, the Belovodye which ‘Antichrist’s henchmen’ (Russian government officials could not reach. In the natural abundance of Tuva they saw a country where every hard-working Christian could become master of his own household. Although settling in the new land with its often adverse conditions for farming could prove difficult, Old Believers managed to adapt to the new climate and build good relations with the local powers which rarely intervened into their lives. Alongside with farming and cattle breeding, Old Believers were involved in hunting, fishing, crafts and trade. Their situation, however, worsened when the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT in the 1930s accelerated the Socialist reforms and implemented an anti-religious policy. Those Old Believers who refused to change their lifestyle due to religious considerations (i.e., evaded military conscription, etc., as well as clergy and monks, were given prison sentences that they had to serve outside Tuva. Old Believers protested against censuses, introduction of mandatory passports, universal education (at schools where atheism was an official policy, etc. Many families tried to find ’salvation’ by fleeing deep

  11. Oil sector developments: Russia, Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The level of resource development in Russia, Azerbaijan and in the countries of Central Asia was discussed. The resources of crude oil and natural gas in the area are considered more than sufficient to support any reasonable expansion for the foreseeable future and this should mean higher exportable surpluses. The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in the emergence of 15 sovereign and independent nations, collectively known as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The end of the cold war opened the CIS's oil sector to foreign investors. However, access to these markets has been blocked by the physical isolation of Azerbaijan and Central Asia. According to forecasters, by the year 2005, the annual oil production of the CIS shall reach 7.9 million barrels per day, approximately 11.3 per cent higher than in 1996. Natural gas production is expected to increase by about 30 per cent to 900 billion cubic meters per year. Western capital will be key to the future of resource development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. It was suggested that by 2010, the exportable oil from the Caspian Sea and Central Asia will represent 3 to 4 per cent of world oil supply. This projection emphasizes the fact that this new oil would be in addition to, and not in place of oil from the Persian Gulf. Some of the economic and political problems that have had a delaying effect on the development of pipelines through these regions were also reviewed

  12. The Russian State, Lenin and the Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Korhzokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian nations faced a challenge of state-building objectives after the collapse of the USSR. However, it was a complicated task, because those nations were parts of the Russian and, lately, the Soviet state. State-building objectives include the creation of new historical narrative. Central Asia is now experiencing the process that is called "national novel" in the Western European historiography. Central Asian national variants of historical narratives serve as a conceptual basis for the writing of school and university textbooks. The introduction of ideological constructs through the education system is carried out everywhere. However, it is important to note that inevitable ideological indoctrination should not undermine scientific essence of textbooks. Politics of nation formation and the preservation of its identity is implemented and fostered by states carefully as well as clumsy. There is no doubt that there is an inevitable and practical need for constructing "national novel" in the new states. But historical politics should not ignore some of the methodological and at the same time mental traps that exist in the field of studying the history of the peoples of Central Asia in the period of the Russian Empire.

  13. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  14. Central Asia's Raging Waters: The Prospects of Water Conflict in Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, William B

    2007-01-01

    .... The thesis analyzes these three political eras of Central Asian history using indicators of water conflict, including water quality, water quantity, water management for multiple uses, political...

  15. Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Spoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

  16. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  17. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-01-01

    In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed,...

  18. Rare earth element and rare metal inventory of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tucker, Robert D.; Renaud, Karine; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2018-03-06

    Rare earth elements (REE), with their unique physical and chemical properties, are an essential part of modern living. REE have enabled development and manufacture of high-performance materials, processes, and electronic technologies commonly used today in computing and communications, clean energy and transportation, medical treatment and health care, glass and ceramics, aerospace and defense, and metallurgy and chemical refining. Central Asia is an emerging REE and rare metals (RM) producing region. A newly compiled inventory of REE-RM-bearing mineral occurrences and delineation of areas-of-interest indicate this region may have considerable undiscovered resources.

  19. Pages of history of dance culture in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir K. Biche-ool

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available History of formation, development and a current state of the Tuva dance is considered in the article. The creative characteristic is given to the ballet masters, teachers, those actors who have devoted their lives to the Tuvan dance.

  20. The economy of the soviet Tuva: achievements, challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Begzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Soviet period (1944-1991, the economy of Tuva was rapidly developing. Massive state investment helped create enterprises and whole branches of industry, which in turn outlined the areas of economy Tuva could specialize in. Indicators of regional economic development were higher than the national average. The industrial infrastructure created over the period, including transport, power engineering and technologies, has been since used for several decades without major renovations. However, the smooth function of the regional economy could be guaranteed only under directive planning and stringent control over prices, flows of resources, goods and other assets of planned Socialist economy. Together with other specific features of its economy, this made the economy of the region highly volatile. A breakdown of both economic achievements of the Soviet Tuva and the problems it faced will help us learn the lessons to be accounted for while developing new long-term development programs. Although the programmatic documents adopted in early 2000s (such as the Strategy of social and economic development of the Republic of Tuva to the year 2020, passed in 2007 have not yet expired, the economic situation and the configuration of the main economic actors have seriously changed, which calls for a radical overhaul of the long-term strategy of social and economic development. Some problems which have been around since the Soviet times have grown more acute, while others were replaced by their opposites. The revenue section of the region’s consolidated budget, just as it was in the Soviet period, cannot fully provide the required social expenditures. At the same time, the majority of Soviet mechanisms of economic development are now totally dysfunctional, which calls for the use of new organizational and financial instruments. The article was based on the data from official statistical collections of the Republic of Tuva, and the information found in

  1. Ethnic groups in Tuva and their adaptation to market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina F. Balakina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studying the issue of how ethnic groups in Tuva adapt to contemporary social and economic transformations is of special importance at the moment due to the fact that Tuva is an ethnically heterogeneous region, and also because the issue of such adaptation has not been sufficiently studied so far. The ethnic and cultural profile of the population of a certain region is also important for assessing the prospects of its development. In order to study the whole scope of techniques, pace and scale of ethnic groups’ adaptation to the transforming environment, the authors of this article launched and led two public opinion polls (2010 and 2014. A representative sample of 400 residents of Tuva of working age was polled by means of a questionnaire. The analysis of the data thus obtained shows that the adaptation patterns in various ethnic groups (primarily Tuvans and Russians are different. An additional obstacle ethnic Russians face is that they have to adapt to both new socioeconomic situation and new ethnopolitical reality. While basic value orientations of ethnic Russians and Tuvans are quite similar, in the issues of equality and social mobility Russians, including the younger generation, still feel more disadvantaged than Tuvans. Low confidence in the future cripples their self-esteem, especially concerning career prospects and social mobility. Ethnic Tuvans feel more confident in their future due to their trust in kinship and territorial networks. Nevertheless, the overall adaptation level remains rather low, with a marked prevalence of paternalist expectations and passive outlook. In general, it is quite clear that the level of adaptation to the realities of the new economy does not match the requirements of the region’s social and economic development. The degree of frustration and deprivation among the population of Tuva is still high. Opinion polls show a rise of pro-migration mood: while Russians aim to move out of the region, ethnic

  2. The Water Efficiency Paradox, a study of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merks, Joreen; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern in the semi-arid areas of Central Asia. Water savings and efficiency improvement programs are promoted as a possibility to save the Aral Sea. The Aral Seas lost 92% of its volume between 1960 and 2009. Projects on rehabilitating the Aral Sea and increasing the efficiency of water use in the irrigation sector are, however, not making progress. In Central Asia, 90% of the water withdrawal is allocated to agriculture. Irrigation efficiency programs often disregard the downstream connectivity of the water flow path. Not all water being applied is consumed by crop evapotranspiration and in fact an equally great portion of water returns back into the river basin system and is reused downstream. This cascade effect implies that results in one location can induce a scarcity of water in another location. The cascade effect in the Syr Darya has been studied by means of the Aral Sea Basin Management Model (ASBMM) designed by SIC-ICWC and remote sensing data produced by UNESCO-IHE. We will demonstrate the impact of increasing irrigation efficiency locally on the overall water consumption in the basin. We will show that efficiency increases with larger areas, and that there are caps to the maximum efficiency at basin scale. Increasing efficiency is thus not self-evident. Classical solutions on promoting increase of efficiency and water savings are therefore outdated and misleads stakeholders. We will look into the misconceptions and challenges in the communication between researchers and policy makers regarding increasing efficiency.

  3. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V A [Siberian State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: GAIvanova@ksc.krasn.r [National Institute of Aerospace, Resident at NASA Langley Research Center, MS 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  4. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A; Ivanov, V A; Soja, A J

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  5. "A Crucial Sphere for Our Security": Russia in Central Asia after 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Opdahl, Ingerid M.

    2005-01-01

    After 11 September 2001, Russia entered into a strategic alignment with the United States and the West in the war against terrorism, and the alignment included Russian support for a Western military presence in Central Asia. At the same time, Russian policy in Central Asia focused on military and security cooperation, and Russian or Russian-led military bases were established in the region. This study investigates the Russian response to the appearance ofWestern bases in Central Asia....

  6. The Security Implications of Water: Prospects for Instability or Cooperation in South and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    and import enough fuels for its winter needs.” And,The World Bank, “ Water Energy Nexus in Central Asia: Improving Regional Cooperation in the Syr...94 “ Water Energy Nexus in Central Asia: Improving Regional Cooperation in the Syr Darya Basin,” World Bank Report...10. 95 All statistics are attributed from Water Energy Nexus in Central Asia: Improving Regional Cooperation in the Syr Darya Basin,” World Bank

  7. What caused the cool summer over northern Central Asia, East Asia and central North America during 2009?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyung-Ja; Chu, Jung-Eun; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Hameed, Saji N; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Cool and wet weather conditions hit northern Central Asia, East Asia and central North America during the 2009 summer in concert with a strong jet stream and a prominent meandering upper-level circulation in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes despite the fact that the year 2009 is the fifth warmest year globally in the modern record. It is found that the conspicuous atmospheric variability in the entire Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the summer of 2009 was caused by a combination of teleconnections associated with significant tropical thermal forcings, strong polar forcing, and interaction between high-frequency weather events and climate anomalies. The strong negative circumglobal teleconnection pattern associated with the deficient Indian summer monsoon rainfall and developing El Niño condition was the major contributor to the cool and wet summer in June. On the other hand, the July weather conditions were attributable to the high-latitude impact of the unprecedented negative Arctic Oscillation, together with the Rossby wave response to the subtropical heating generated by convective activities over the Western North Pacific summer monsoon region. It is also noted that enhanced storm track activity and frequent cold surges from high-latitudes may have played a role in the cool and wet summer over the regions of interest. (letter)

  8. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  9. Will climate change exacerbate water stress in Central Asia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegfried, Tobias; Bernauer, Thomas; Guiennet, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    the Soviet Union collapsed. Will climate change exacerbate water stress and thus conflicts? We have developed a coupled climate, land-ice and rainfall-runoff model for the Syr Darya to quantify impacts and show that climatic changes are likely to have consequences on runoff seasonality due to earlier snow......-melt. This will increase water stress in unregulated catchments because less water will be available for irrigation in the summer months. Threats from geohazards, above all glacier lake outbursts, are likely to increase as well. The area at highest risk is the densely populated, agriculturally productive, and politically......Millions of people in the geopolitically important region of Central Asia depend on water from snow- and glacier-melt driven international rivers, most of all the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. The riparian countries of these rivers have experienced recurring water allocation conflicts ever since...

  10. HIV continuum of care in Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, R S; Rice, B; Rüütel, K; Delpech, V; Attawell, K A; Hales, D K; Velasco, C; Amato-Gauci, A J; Pharris, A; Tavoschi, L; Noori, T

    2017-08-01

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) supports countries to monitor progress in their response to the HIV epidemic. In line with these monitoring responsibilities, we assess how, and to what extent, the continuum of care is being measured across countries. The ECDC sent out questionnaires to 55 countries in Europe and Central Asia in 2014. Nominated country representatives were questioned on how they defined and measured six elements of the continuum. We present our results using three previously described frameworks [breakpoints; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets; diagnosis and treatment quadrant]. Forty countries provided data for at least one element of the continuum. Countries reported most frequently on the number of people diagnosed with HIV infection (37; 93%), and on the number in receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (35; 88%). There was little consensus across countries in their approach to defining linkage to, and retention in, care. The most common breakpoint (>19% reduction between two adjacent elements) related to the estimated number of people living with HIV who were diagnosed (18 of 23; 78%). We present continuum data from multiple countries that provide both a snapshot of care provision and a baseline against which changes over time in care provision across Europe and Central Asia may be measured. To better inform HIV testing and treatment programmes, standard data collection approaches and definitions across the HIV continuum of care are needed. If countries wish to ensure an unbroken HIV continuum of care, people living with HIV need to be diagnosed promptly, and ART needs to be offered to all those diagnosed. © 2017 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  11. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  12. Cult places in cultural landscapes of Buryatia and Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Mongush

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Article narrates the cult places as integral components of cultural landscapes. It reviews the territories of the Republic of Buryatia and the Republic of Tuva with their various landscapes bearing the heritage of traditional cultures. The special attention is paid to the cult places and attributes having spiritual and religious value for local communities. Potential of their employment as objects for religious and pilgrimage tourism.

  13. Relations of Central Asia with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Collective Security Treaty Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2017-01-01

    Comparing the influence of and relationship of Central Asia with the major regional bodies, the SCO is an advantageous organization for the economic development of Central Asia, since it is an opportune podium for doing business, especially with China, with a guarantee that Moscow nor Beijing will

  14. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  15. Trans-Continental Transport of Air Pollution from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, I.; Chen, B.; Carmichael, G.; Solomon, P.; Sofiev, M.; Sitnov, S.; Rubinstein, K.; Maximenkov, L.; Artamonova, M.; Pogarski, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the frames of ISTC project #3715 for an overview of the year evolution of aerosol in Central Asia the analysis of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was producing. Monitoring of AOT was making on the base of AOT satellite observation by MODIS devices, located on board of the Terra and Aqua satellites. The region was 34-51 N, and 54-96 E for the year 2007. The analysis revealed that AOT in the region is characterized by pronounced annual pace with the rapid growth of AOT winter, spring peak (τ ~ 0,4), the slow decline of ALO spring to autumn and autumn minimum (τ ~ 0,2). In August a weak secondary maximum of AOT took place. In mid-June and in the first decade of July and August in the region had increased the value of AOT, accompanied by significant increase in AOT volatility. In particular, 8 and 9 August, the average for the region AOT exceeded 0.6. Diagnosis of aerosol emissions was based on an analysis of the spatial and temporal changes of AOT field. Obviously, the spatial scale of data and data discretization in time determines the emissions of power can be diagnosed. The spatial AOT distribution shows that aerosol plumes from the area of the Aral Sea in 2007 were carried out mainly by southeastern and eastern fronts. In the region, there are two major sources of aerosol emissions: one of them located in the south of the Aral Sea and the Kara-Kum desert, and a second, more powerful - over Taklamakan desert. Particularly, data were obtained on the dust storms occurrence of December 15, 2007 in the southern Aral Sea region. In order to detect its influence on the Kyrgyzstan stations dust measurements, simulations of the dust plume from the area of Aral Sea were produced by SILAM model of Finnish Meteorological Institute. Two sets of runs have been performed: forward simulations for estimation of the area affected by the dust elevated by the wind during the storm from the area of Aral Sea. The model has evaluated 5-day dispersion of the plume. The second run

  16. Developing a Dust Emission Procedure for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longlei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne mineral dust is thought to have a significant influence on the climate through absorbing and scattering both shortwave and longwave radiations and affecting cloud microphysical processes. However, a knowledge of long-term dust emissions is limited from both temporal and spatial perspectives. Here, we have developed a quantitative climatology: the column-integrated mass of the dust aerosol loading in Central Asia by incorporating the dust module (DuMo into the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem model and accounting for regional climate and Land-Cover and Land-Use Changes for the 1950-2010 period in April. This data set is lowly to moderately correlated (0.22-0.48 with the satellite Aerosol Optical Depth in April of the 2000s and lowly correlated (0.02-0.11 with the Absorbing Aerosol Index in April of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. The total dust loading is approximately 207.85 Mton per month in April during the recent decade (2000-2014 over dust source regions. Although only the month of April was simulated, results suggest that trends and magnitudes are captured well, using the WRF-Chem-DuMo.

  17. LOS INTERESES DE CHINA EN ASIA CENTRAL, BELT AND ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available China´s interests in Central Asia were propelled, with the launching of the initiative “One Belt, One Road”, renamed as “The Belt and Road Initiative”, better known as the New Silk Road. Thanks to the infrastructure investment China will become interconnected with other regions of the world, breaking up its secular isolation and will send its products to the global market more easily by land and sea. One principal question in this revolutionary change has to do with China´s hypothetical second intentions of geopolitical influence on the countries affected by the new routes (countries of transit or final destination. The article tries to answer the following questions: Does the People's Republic of China aim only to revive its internal labour market, reduce its industrial overcapacity and boost its exports? Is globalization coming to an end or is it entering a new phase of interconnectivity? How does this affect the relations between Russia and China in the Asian region?

  18. PLACING INDIA IN THE EMERGING REGIONAL DYNAMICS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Singh Roy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to examine India’s initiatives in the region in the context of the emerging regional geo-strategic landscape. With an aim to enhance political, economic and strategic ties, India’s policy towards the region has moved from ‘Look North’ to ‘Connect North’. Notably, the full membership of SCO offers India greater synergies to play a more active role in the region. India is, thus, all set to build more meaningful partnerships with the region in the context of new geo-political changes shaping Central Asia. More importantly, the region is seeking India to play a more active role. It is argued that the beginning of a new era of cooperation initiated by PM Modi can only be sustained if New Delhi continues to implement its various agreements and commitments. While building stronger bilateral ties with the region is important, working closely in the regional groupings will also help address regional economic and security challenges

  19. Central Asia | Page 87 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing the Technology in South Asia. Language English. Read more about La nanotechnologie en Asie du Sud : renforcement des capacités et encadrement des technologies. Language French. Read more about La situation de la femme à ...

  20. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah Di Pt. Bank Central Asia (Bca Tbk Cabang Undaan Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Belinda Rahmawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of Quality of Service Characteristics on Customer Satisfaction in the PT. Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch Surabaya Undaan. The sampling in this study using stratified sampling (Stratified Random Sampling. Analysis techniques that are used are double linear regression. The calculation result shows that the quality of services simultaneous effect on customer satisfaction in PT. Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch Surabaya Undaaan. The quality of services that include variables Responsiveness, Tangibles, Empathy, Assurance, and Reliability in a partial effect on customer satisfaction in PT. Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch Surabaya undaaan.

  1. Soil salinization in different natural zones of intermontane depressions in Tuva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernousenko, G. I.; Kurbatskaya, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    Soil salinization features in semidesert, dry steppe, and chernozemic steppe zones within intermontane depressions in the central part of the Tuva Republic are discussed. Chernozems, chestnut soils, and brown desert-steppe soils of these zones are usually nonsaline. However, salinization of these zonal soils is possible in the case of the presence of salt-bearing parent materials (usually, the derivatives of Devonian deposits). In different natural zones of the intermontane depressions, salt-affected soils are mainly allocated to endorheic lake basins, where they are formed in places of discharge of mineral groundwater, and to river valleys. The composition and content of salts in the natural waters are dictated by the local hydrogeological conditions. The total content of dissolved solids in lake water varies from 1 to 370 g/L; the water is usually of the sulfate-chloride or chloride-sulfate salinity type; in some cases, soda-sulfate water is present. Soil salinity around the lakes is usually of the chloride-sulfate-sodium type; gypsum is often present in the profiles. Chloride salinization rarely predominates in this part of Tuva, because chlorides are easily leached off from the mainly coarse-textured soils. In some cases, the predominance of magnesium over sodium is observed in the composition of dissolved salts, which may be indicative of the cryogenic transformation of soil salts. Soda-saline soils are present in all the considered natural zones on minor areas. It is hardly possible to make unambiguous statements about the dominance of the particular type of salinity in the given natural zones. Zonal salinity patterns are weakly expressed in salinization of hydromorphic soils. However, a tendency for more frequent occurrence of soda-saline soils in steppe landscapes and chloride-sulfate salinization (often, with participation of gypsum) in the dry steppe and semidesert landscapes is observed.

  2. Communist Party Organs and Non-governmental Organizations in People’s Republic of Tuva during Great Patriotic war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldyn-ool K. Kanzay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main directions, forms and methods of work used by Revolutionary Party organs and non-governmental organizations of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT which helped ensure the participation of Tuvans in the Great Patriotic war of the USSR (WWII. To describe the forms and types of support the people of Tuva gave to the Soviet Union in its fight against the Nazi invaders, the author provides facts, statistics and quotations from Tuvan statesmen. These pieces of data come from both academically published sources and those found in the Central State Archives of the Republic of Tuva. The steps and measures initiated by the Revolutionary Party include the program of wartime rebuilding of the economy (adopted at the 2nd plenum of the Central Committee of Tuvan National Revolutionary Party (CC TNRP, June 26, 1941; plans of mass production of skis and warm clothes for the Red Army, of an increase in livestock and crop field areas, of enhancing competitive work and introducing ‘shock work’ practices (adopted at 3rd Plenum of CC TNRP, December 22, 1941; the resolution on the readiness to enlist Tuvan youth in the Red Army, adopted by the 3rd session of the PRT’s Small Khural, February 17, 1942; the joint order by the Cabinet of Ministers of PRT and the CC TNRP to set up a system of war training for the citizens of PRT and a national militia, adopted in July 1942; etc. The war years gave rise to a lot of grassroots initiatives of supporting the USSR, the most massive and fruitful among them being the movement to raise the money for the USSR’s Defense Fund. Donations included money transfers, providing spoils of the chase and livestock to the collective farms of Ukraine, and wheat and millet, to the Defense Fund. Among the donors were schools, Revolutionary Youth cells and private individuals. Mobilization in Tuva was accompanied by dedicated everyday organizational, explanatory and agitational work of the organs of the

  3. SEM in Central Asia: A Look at Professional Needs in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmareva, Larissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Private tuition-dependent universities in Central Asia compete for fee-paying students not only within the country and the region, but also internationally--in the CIS, East Asia, Europe, and the United States. In the universities where state financial support is limited or unavailable, steady student enrollment is the key to budget, development,…

  4. On the geological roots of some toponyms in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Mongush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Apt folk names for mountains and ranges, notable locations, streams, rivers and lakes have long been of interest for travelers and researchers. Tuva is no exception to that: among those who wrote on its toponymics are P. Krylov, S.I. Vainshtein, A.K. Sibilev, B.K. Ondar, etc. The article deals with a number of Tuvan toponyms which are relevant to the studies of geology and geomorphology. We believe this should become one of the directions for future research. The name of area and town in western Tuva – Ak-Dovurak – comes from the monomineralic aggregates of magnesite (magnesium carbonate, MgCo3, which is white in colour. The names of such rivers as the Ak-Sug and Ak-Hem (Todzha kozhuun (raion, the Ak (Barun-Hemchik kozhuun and Lake Ak-Hol (Mongun-Taiga kozhuun reflect the character of these waterways which take their waters from the melting snow patches in the highlands. Metaphorically speaking, the name ‘ak-Sug’ refers to the waters of heavenly origin, as opposed to the ‘kara-sug’ – earthly or underground waters. Aldyn-Uurgai (lit. ‘gold mine’, an arjaan (spring in Erzin kozhuun, took its name from the placer gold deposit near the arjaan. Dus Dag (‘the salt mountain’ is located about 15 km north from Lake Ubsu Nur and is known for a deposit of halite. Overall, in this article we look at the history of 22 toponyms, including the Dustug-Hem (‘salt river’, a right-bank tributary of the Shui; Dustug (‘salt’, a small mount in Todzha; the Izig-Sug (‘hot water’, an arjaan; the Kyzyl-Hem (‘red river’, a river in the east of Tuva; the river Kyzyl-Tashtyg (‘with red stones’; Mount Ottuk-Dash (‘tinderbox’ in Ulug-Hem kozhuun; Ush-Beldyr (‘a confluence of three rivers’, an area and arjaan in the east of Tuva; and the Charash-Tash (‘beautiful stone’, a mountain range on the left bank of the river Maganattyg, a right-bank tributary of the River Shui in Bai-Taiga kozhuun.

  5. Rheumatologic services in Central Asian countries: current state of development of rheumatology in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omurzakova, Nazgul A; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Saatova, Guli M; Shukurova, Surayo M; Mirzakhanova, Mavliuda I; Kydyralieva, Ryskul B; Jumagulova, Aynagul S; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Seisenbaev, Askar Sh; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Rheumatologic and public health services of Central Asia's republics have suffered hugely as a result of social and economic declines following the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and transition of these republics to market economies. Between 1990 and 2000 there was a mass outflow of highly skilled rheumatologists and teachers and researchers in rheumatology to countries abroad, leading to significant deprivation of rheumatological service in Central Asian countries. During this time, there was continued growth of various rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatic fever, and musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. The medical and social burden of RDs imposed on society was strongly underestimated until recent times. There is an urgent need to define the epidemiology of RDs and their impact on the quality of life of people afflicted by these conditions, and to improve the diagnostics and treatment of these conditions.

  6. “Old Believers in Tuva: a retrospect and contemporary situation”: a new collection of articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita P. Tatarinseva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In late 2015 Lambert Academic published a book co-authored by two scholars from Tuva – M.P. Tatarintseva (TIGPI and A.A. Storozhenko (TGU and titled “Old Believers in Tuva: a retrospect and contemporary situation”. This collection of articles examines the history of Old Believers’ resettlement from various regions of Russia to Tuva, their accommodation, everyday life and interaction with local clerical and secular authorities, and the specific details of this ethnoconfessional subculture within the Russian population of Siberia. Arranged in a logical order, the articles unfurl the history of Old Believers in Tuva and shed light on their current situation and transformations they have undergone throughout the century and a half of their life in Tuva. Scholars consider Old Believers one of the most conservative ethnoconfessional groups. As permanent residents of Tuva, the authors have first-hand knowledge of the everyday life of contemporary Old Believer community. Nevertheless, in their research they try to devote their attention to both the rich history of Old Believers in Tuva and to the current state of this ethnoconfessional group. The preface to the book explains the motives for writing it and the authors’ attitude to their subject.

  7. Retraction and expansion of flock mobility in central asia: costs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retraction and expansion of flock mobility in central asia: costs and consequences. Carol Kerven, Ilya Ilych Alimaev, Roy Behnke, Grant Davidson, Leen Franchois, Nurlan Malmakov, Erik Mathijs, Aidos Smailov, Sayat Temirbekov, Iain Wright ...

  8. Central Asia Temperature and Precipitation Data, 1879-2003, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides temperature and precipitation data from 298 meteorological stations in the Northern Tien Shan and Pamir Mountain Ranges of Central Asia,...

  9. Evolution, opportunity and challenges of transboundary water and energy problems in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lidan; Zhou, Haiwei; Xia, Ziqiang; Huang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy. Based on the analysis of water and energy distribution characteristics in Central Asia as well as demand characteristics of different countries, the complexity of local transboundary water problems was explored by reviewing corresponding historical problems of involved countries, correlated energy issues, and the evolution of inter-country water-energy cooperation. With references to experiences and lessons of five countries, contradictions, opportunities, challenges and strategies for transboundary water-energy cooperation between China and Central Asia were discussed under the promotion of the Silk Road Economic Belt construction based on current cooperation conditions.

  10. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Methods Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed – the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) – to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. Results The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and

  11. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia: 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Flaxman, Seth R; Keeffe, Jill; Leasher, Janet; Naidoo, Kovin; Pesudovs, Konrad; Price, Holly; Vijaya, Lingam; White, Richard A; Wong, Tien Y; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R; Bourne, Rupert R A

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns and trends of vision impairment and its causes from 1990 to 2010 in Central and South Asia. Based on the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 and ongoing literature searches, we examined prevalence and causes of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity Central Asia, the estimated age-standardised prevalence of blindness decreased from 0.4% (95% CI 0.3% to 0.6%) to 0.2% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.3%) and of MSVI from 3.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 4.7%) to 1.9% (95% CI 1.2% to 3.2%), and in South Asia blindness decreased from 1.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 2.1%) to 1.1% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.3%) and MSVI from 8.9% (95% CI 6.9% to 10.9%) to 6.4% (95% CI 5.2% to 8.2%). In 2010, 135 000 (95% CI 99,000 to 194,000) people were blind in Central Asia and 10,600,000 (95% CI 8,397,000 to 12,500,000) people in South Asia. MSVI was present in 1,178,000 (95% CI 772,000 to 2,243,000) people in the Central Asia, and in 71,600,000 (95% CI 57,600,000 to 92,600,000) people in South Asia. Women were generally more often affected than men. The leading causes of blindness (cataract) and MSVI (undercorrected refractive error) did not change from 1990 to 2010. The prevalence of blindness and MSVI in South Asia is still three times higher than in Central Asia and globally, with women generally more often affected than women. In both regions, cataract and undercorrected refractive error were major causes of blindness and MSVI.

  12. Central Asia | Page 21 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about STI for Development in Asia : a Platform for Information Sharing and Learning. Language English. Read more about Toward an Innovation-led Development Path in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Vers un développement axé sur l'innovation aux Philippines.

  13. Central Asia | Page 41 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Élaboration de politiques efficaces pour le financement de l'innovation en Asie. Language French. Read more about Toward Effective Policies for Innovation Financing in Asia. Language English. Read more about Toward Improved Market Access for ASEAN Agricultural Commodities.

  14. Research on trend of warm-humid climate in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhi; Peng, Dailiang; Wen, Jingyi; Cai, Zhanqing; Wang, Tiantian; Hu, Yuekai; Ma, Yaxin; Xu, Junfeng

    2017-07-01

    Central Asia is a typical arid area, which is sensitive and vulnerable part of climate changes, at the same time, Central Asia is the Silk Road Economic Belt of the core district, the warm-humid climate change will affect the production and economic development of neighboring countries. The average annual precipitation, average anneal temperature and evapotranspiration are the important indexes to weigh the climate change. In this paper, the annual precipitation, annual average temperature and evapotranspiration data of every pixel point in Central Asia are analyzed by using long-time series remote sensing data to analyze the trend of warm and humid conditions. Finally, using the model to analyzed the distribution of warm-dry trend, the warm-wet trend, the cold-dry trend and the cold-wet trend in Central Asia and Xinjiang area. The results showed that most of the regions of Central Asia were warm-humid and warm-dry trends, but only a small number of regions showed warm-dry and cold-dry trends. It is of great significance to study the climatic change discipline and guarantee the ecological safety and improve the ability to cope with climate change in the region. It also provide scientific basis for the formulation of regional climate change program. The first section in your paper

  15. Prospects for a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ) as an approach to nuclear nonproliferation with special reference to Central Asia . 20 More specifically, it describes the evolution of a NWFZ in the region, the potential benefits of a zone, the principal obstacles in the path of its implementation, and the practical steps that need to be taken if a NWFZ in Central Asia is to be realized. The paper concludes that a NWFZ in Central Asia, as with prior NWFZ, would likely lead to advances in the application of an important nonproliferation approach. One innovative aspect of the zone in Central Asia might be its treatment of environmental issues. Although it will not be a simple process to rally support from all of the P-5 states for a new NWFZ, all countries of Central Asia - as well as global community of nations - should profit from creation of a zone which reinforces the international nonproliferation regime improves prospects for political and economic stability in a region of growing importance

  16. Ethnic entrepreneurship without migration: the cases of Tuva and Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana P. Tyukhtenyeva

    2018-06-01

    When compared to ethnic entrepreneurs who migrate out of their region, their two counterparts in Tuva and Kalmykia find themselves in a much more advantageous social environment. Their projects follow within the course of ever intensifying national rebirth, but have to grapple with economic difficulties typical for agrarian regions which rely on animal farming. Also important for the success of the business is the personality factor, which comprises a whole host of identities – ethnocultural, gender, local, civic, and others, all of them informing the activity of the person. A drive towards variety is a common feature among ethnic entrepreneurs, which allows them to diversify their businesses. The very ethnicity of an entrepreneur can be seen as an asset, since it can improve their competitiveness.

  17. Oil and the geopolitics of Central Asia: A "new 'great game'"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sati, Saud M.

    The nineteenth century rivalry between the Russian Empire and Great Britain over Central Asia, known as the "great game," was triggered by the quest for power and dominance. This study revisits Sir Halford Mackinder's thesis, which viewed the "heartland," consisting of Russia and Central Asia, as being crucial for international politics. It also discusses the influence of Mackinder's ideas on twentieth century geopolitical thinking. The study also examines the common assumption that the new "great game" in Central Asia is evolving around the exploitation of energy resources, and analyzes the consequences of this new factor for the geopolitical significance of the region. The landlocked nature of the Central Asian countries makes it necessary for them to rely on their neighbors for the export of oil and gas to international markets. Thus, the political and economic interests of Russia, Iran, and Turkey motivate them to compete with each other for export routes through their territories. This study also shows that the estimates of Central Asian proven oil reserves are characterized by considerable ambiguity. Estimates vary from seven to twenty-two billion barrels. Despite the fact that these proven oil reserves are limited compared to those of other regions, such as the Middle East, continued exploration is compatible with the Western strategy of energy resource diversification. Another primary aim of American involvement is to prevent the reintegration of Central Asia into the Russian federation and to block Chinese influence in Central Asia. This study reveals that realities in today's Central Asia are different from those of the nineteenth century. Central Asia now consists of independent countries; the competing powers have changed, with the exception of Russia; and oil has emerged as a new factor. However, the perpetual quest for power and dominance that marked the historical "great game" is still at work in the last decade of the twentieth century. Finally, the

  18. New Records To The Vascular Flora Of Kazakhstan (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel Aleksandr L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents distributional data for seven species new for the flora of Kazakhstan: Atriplex gardneri var. aptera (A. Nelson S. L. Welsh. & Crompton, Cardamine hirsuta L., Carduus acanthoides L., Galega orientalis Lam., Silene cserei Baumg., Didymophysa fedtschenkoana Regel and Acinos arvensis (Lam. Dandy. Didymophysa fedtschenkoana is a native element in the Kazakh flora; the other species should be treated as alien, expansively spreading or invasive in this part of Asia. A list of localities of the species in Kazakhstan and their habitat preferences are presented.

  19. Regional integration in Central Asia: From knowing-that to knowing-how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulugbek Azizov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines regional integration in Central Asia in the context of two types of knowledge, that is, knowing-that and knowing-how. While knowing-that prioritizes representational (i.e. “talking” practices of actors to explain region-building processes, knowing-how focuses on non-representational (i.e. “doing” practices. The article demonstrates that the orthodox scholars, who deal with the region of Central Asia, mostly employ knowing-that to explain region-building processes. The article criticizes knowing-that, assuming that this type of knowledge limits our understanding with regard to how regions get their boundaries and symbolism in the era of globalization and standardization of sectoral activities. Thus the article develops and introduces an alternative knowing-how framework to better understand the region-building processes in Central Asia and beyond it.

  20. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  1. From Central Asia to South Africa: In Search of Inspiration in Rock Art Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozwadowski Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the story of discovering South African rock art as an inspiration for research in completely different part of the globe, namely in Central Asia and Siberia. It refers to those aspect of African research which proved to importantly develop the understanding of rock art in Asia. Several aspects are addressed. First, it points to importance of rethinking of relationship between art, myth and ethnography, which in South Africa additionally resulted in reconsidering the ontology of rock images and the very idea of reading of rock art. From the latter viewpoint particularly inspiring appeared the idea of three-dimensionality of rock art ‘text’. The second issue of South African ‘origin,’ which notably inspired research all over the world, concerns a new theorizing of shamanism. The paper then discusses how and to what extent this new theory add to the research on the rock art in Siberia and Central Asia.

  2. Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This document explores some of the examples of peatland restoration under different circumstances around the World in order to present an overview of the variety of benefits and inspiring ways in which peatland restoration can be delivered, and so avoid serious and costly consequences for society. Richard Lindsay wrote the Asia and Americas sections of this edited publication.

  3. Agroforestry for landscape restoration and livelihood development in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U. Djanibekov; Klara Dzhakypbekova; James Chamberlain; Horst Weyerhaeuser; Robert Zomer; G. Villamor; J. Xu

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how the adoption of agroforestry for ecosystem and livelihood improvement in Central Asian countries can be enhanced. First, it describes how previous and current developments lead to changing environmental conditions, and how these changing conditions consequently affected the welfare of people. Environmental issues on a global level, such as...

  4. Subjective Well-being Across the Lifespan in Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jan Michael; Levin, Victoria; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Integrated Values Survey (IVS), the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS), and the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we analyse the relation between age and subjective well-being in the World Bank’s Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region and compare it to that in Western......-cohort variation....

  5. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J.P.; Shafer, M.M.; Schauer, J.J.; Solomon, P.A.; Saide, P.E.; Spak, S.N.; Cheng, Y.F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J.T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather

  6. Impact of Desiccation of Aral Sea on the Regional Climate of Central Asia Using WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Huang, Huei-Ping; Zavialov, Peter; Khan, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impacts of the desiccation of the Aral Sea and large-scale climate change on the regional climate of Central Asia in the post-1960 era. A series of climate downscaling experiments for the 1960's and 2000's decades were performed using the Weather Research and Forecast model at 12-km horizontal resolution. To quantify the impacts of the changing surface boundary condition, a set of simulations with an identical lateral boundary condition but different extents of the Aral Sea were performed. It was found that the desiccation of the Aral Sea leads to more snow (and less rain) as desiccated winter surface is relatively much colder than water surface. In summer, desiccation led to substantial warming over the Aral Sea. These impacts were largely confined to within the area covered by the former Aral Sea and its immediate vicinity, although desiccation of the Sea also led to minor cooling over the greater Central Asia in winter. A contrasting set of simulations with an identical surface boundary condition but different lateral boundary conditions produced more identifiable changes in regional climate over the greater Central Asia which was characterized by a warming trend in both winter and summer. Simulations also showed that while the desiccation of the Aral Sea has significant impacts on the local climate over the Sea, the climate over the greater Central Asia on inter-decadal time scale was more strongly influenced by the continental or global-scale climate change on that time scale.

  7. Mechanisms Of Formation And Development Of Mahalla Centers In Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sereeva Guljazira

    2015-01-01

    this article is devoted to the architecture of mahalla where mechanism of its historical formation and evolution planning solutions structural composition are analyzed. In addition an attempt has been made to cover the activity of mahalla neighborhood team in family lifestyle of Central Asias nations from historical and ethnographic viewpoint. Recommendations on increasing the opportunities for efficient use of populated areas.

  8. Mechanisms Of Formation And Development Of Mahalla Centers In Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sereeva Guljazira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to the architecture of mahalla where mechanism of its historical formation and evolution planning solutions structural composition are analyzed. In addition an attempt has been made to cover the activity of mahalla neighborhood team in family lifestyle of Central Asias nations from historical and ethnographic viewpoint. Recommendations on increasing the opportunities for efficient use of populated areas.

  9. Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, October 2017 : Migration and Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Public concerns in Europe and Central Asia over the recent sharp increase in asylum seekers and undocumented migrants seem to reflect a broader anxiety about reduced job security, caused by technological developments and internationalization of production and work. Policy reforms should help both migrants and non-migrants cope with increased and unavoidable flexibility in labor markets.

  10. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  11. Structur e and Functioning of Micr obial Community of Mineral Springs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namsaraev B.B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial mats of dif ferent types of springs in Central Asia (Zabaikalye and Mongolia are described. The species diversity of mat-formed phototrophic bacteria was determined. The rates of microbial destruction processes (sulfate reduction and methane formation were measured. An important role of bacteria and algae in the formation of mineral water composition was shown.

  12. Central Asia’s Shrinking Connectivity Gap: Implications for U.S. Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    regional integration and protectionism often centered around a number of economic poles represented by established and rising powers like Brazil , Russia...Central Asia, with major investments in construction, food production, hotel management, financial servic- es, energy, information technology (IT), and

  13. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  14. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  15. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news sources…

  16. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  17. River flow regime and snow cover of the Pamir Alay (Central Asia) in a changing climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevallier, P.; Pouyaud, B.; Mojaisky, M.; Bolgov, M.; Olsson, O.; Bauer, M.; Froebrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers, main tributaries of the Amu Darya River in the mountainous region of the Pamir Alay, play an important role in the water resources of the Aral Sea basin (Central Asia). In this region, the glaciers and snow cover significantly influence the water cycle and flow regime,

  18. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  19. NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article explores the roots and current state of religious extremism in Central Asia, as well as investigates its connections with the global salafi movement. It evaluates attempts of the regional players and external stakeholders to address the existing threats, and provides recommendations for their advancement.

  20. Russia's projects and investments in Central Asia: the oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paramonov, Vladimir; Strokov, Aleksei

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, Russia's projects and investments in the Central Asian oil and gas industry were mainly concentrated in Kazakhstan, while its interest in other states of the region were minimal. When Vladimir Putin became Russian president in 2000 and the price of hydrocarbons steadily rose, Central Asia's importance abruptly increased. This caused the Russian Federation and Russian oil and gas companies to drastically step up their activity not only in Kazakhstan, but also in Turkmenistan and ...

  1. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stankiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.

  2. Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Mañé

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

  3. Diversity of the Mountain Flora of Central Asia with Emphasis on Alkaloid-Producing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimjan Tayjanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of Central Asia with 70 large and small mountain ranges represent species-rich plant biodiversity hotspots. Major mountains include Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Tien Shan, Pamir-Alai and Kopet Dag. Because a range of altitudinal belts exists, the region is characterized by high biological diversity at ecosystem, species and population levels. In addition, the contact between Asian and Mediterranean flora in Central Asia has created unique plant communities. More than 8100 plant species have been recorded for the territory of Central Asia; about 5000–6000 of them grow in the mountains. The aim of this review is to summarize all the available data from 1930 to date on alkaloid-containing plants of the Central Asian mountains. In Saur 301 of a total of 661 species, in Tarbagatai 487 out of 1195, in Dzungarian Alatau 699 out of 1080, in Tien Shan 1177 out of 3251, in Pamir-Alai 1165 out of 3422 and in Kopet Dag 438 out of 1942 species produce alkaloids. The review also tabulates the individual alkaloids which were detected in the plants from the Central Asian mountains. Quite a large number of the mountain plants produce neurotoxic and cytotoxic alkaloids, indicating that a strong chemical defense is needed under the adverse environmental conditions of these mountains with presumably high pressure from herbivores.

  4. The Navruz Project: Cooperative transboundary monitoring data sharing and modeling of water resources in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, Howard David; Barber, David S.; Solodukhin, V.; Khazekhber, S.; Pozniak, V.; Vasiliev, I.; Alekhina, V.; Djuraev, Akram; Radyuk, R.; Suozzi, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase I of the project was initiated in 2000 with 15 sampling points in each of the four countries with sample analysis performed for over 100 parameters. Phase II of the project began in 2003 and expanded sampling to include at least 30 points in each country in an effort to characterize ''hot spots'' and to identify sources. Phase III of the project began in 2006 and will integrate decision support modeling with the existing monitoring. Overall, the project addresses four main goals: to create collaboration among Central Asian scientists and countries; to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and nonproliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, and agricultural activities, as well as radioactive contamination from a legacy of uranium mining and related activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia.

  5. Murgabskaya Oblast, a promising gas region of Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanniyazov, K.N.; Abdyyev, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Gas fields of the Murgabskiy region are multiple-bed. The industrial gas content is associated with the sandy-terrigenous formations of the Shatlyk productive level of the lower Goterivskiy stage. The gas formation is anticlinal, occasionally floating. A map is compiled for the dispersal of the Shatlyk level which isolates the lithological composition, thickness, zones of dispersal of sandstone, etc. A description is provided for the map plan of the Shatlyk level. Alternation of sandy-argillaceous and carbonate rocks created favorable prerequisites for the development in the deposits of the Neocomian of lithological-physical pairs of ''collectors-mantles'', the basis for trap formation in structures and zones of lithological substitution. Within the Murgabskiy region, the greatest outlook for discovering new gas fields is confined to the Shatlyk level. It is associated with the central part of the Murgabskiy Basin where major deposits have already been discovered. A group of structures in the eastern submersion of the Kopetdag trough at the junction of the Murgabskiy Basin is important. The structures at the junction of East Kopetdag and the Murgabskiy Basin may be promising. The outlook for possible gas is associated with deposits of the lower cretaceous and Sharaplinksiy level. The main task must be comprehensive in investigation of the suprasaline apt-Neocomian and Kimmeridgian-Tithonian deposits as possible multiple-bed gas and oil containing masses.

  6. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service

  7. Beyond the drug-terror nexus: drug trafficking and state-crime relations in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Danieli, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has transformed into a key hub along the Afghan opiates trafficking routes. Around 30 percent of the heroin manufactured in Afghanistan is estimated to be smuggled through Central Asian republics in its way to booming drug markets in Russia and Eastern Europe. Building upon available evidence and extensive fieldwork research, the article seeks to confute mainstream analyses which emphasize connections between criminal and terrorist networks. The focus is on conducive factors for the establishment of drug routes in Central Asia, the characteristics of drug related networks, and the nature of political-criminal relations across the region. It is argued that in all five Central Asia republics strategic partnerships have formed between drug traffickers and state actors around the exploitation of drug rents and that mafias' influence on politics is stronger in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the region's poorest countries. By moving the focus from narco-terror to the state-crime connections, the article provides a critical insight into political economy issues surrounding a complex and multifaceted phenomenon such as the drug trade. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Navruz experiment. Cooperative monitoring for radionuclides and metals in Central Asia transboundary rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.S.; Betsill, J.D.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Passell, H.D.; Yuldashev, B.; Salikhbaev, U.; Djuraev, A.; Vasiliev, I.; Solodukhin, V.

    2005-01-01

    In March of 2000, scientists from four nuclear physics research institutes in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and the U.S. Sandia National Laboratories embarked on a three-year cooperative transboundary river monitoring experiment. The experiment, named Navruz (meaning 'new beginning'), uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: (1) to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; (2) to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and (3) to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, agricultural uses, and radioactive and metals contamination from a legacy of uranium mining, industry, and other activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia. Moreover, the method of enabling scientists from bordering countries to study a transboundary problem, can lead to a greater scientific understanding, consensus on necessary mitigation steps, and ultimately the political resolution of the issue. The project scope, approach, and preliminary results are presented. (author)

  9. Measuring Corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia : A Critique of the Cross-Country Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Knack, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses corruption levels and trends among countries in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) based on data from several sources that are both widely used and cover most or all countries in the region. Data from firm surveys tend to show improvement in most types of administrative corruption, but little change in "state capture" in the region. Broader, subjective corruption indicators tend to show somewhat greater improvement in ECA than in non-ECA coun...

  10. Constrained Magnetostratigraphic Dating of a Continental Middle Miocene Section in the Arid Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Verestek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Neogene succession of the Aktau Mountains in the Ili Basin, southeast Kazakhstan, is a terrestrial archive well suited for researching the role of Central Asia in Miocene climate evolution. We present an integrated approach for dating the well-exposed Bastau Formation, based on magnetostratigraphy and constraints from cyclostratigraphy and biostratigraphy. Stepwise demagnetization yielded characteristic remanence directions that are consistent with those expected for the Miocene in Central Asia. The reddish-colored alluvial floodplain deposits and gray lacustrine deposits show partly complex magnetic behavior with magnetite and hematite as the main magnetic carriers, with variable demagnetization behavior and non-dipolar normal and reverse polarity directions. The observed magnetic properties are best explained by depositional variability and magneto-mineralogical alteration effects of both dissolution and neo-formation of magnetite, including significant secondary magnetization. The mean of reverse polarity directions is flatter than the expected Middle Miocene Earth magnetic field, which is an indicator for the existence of inclination shallowing that supports a primary origin. Detailed rock magnetic analyses are used to analyze the nature of the characteristic remanent magnetization and to discriminate primary and secondary remanence directions in order to obtain a reliable magnetostratigraphic result. The proposed age of 15.3–13.9 Ma for the Bastau Formation corresponds to the known biostratigraphic setting, matches with typical sedimentation rates of foreland basins in Central Asia, and coincides with spectral analysis of geochemical proxies of that section. The resulting age model serves as a robust framework for paleoclimate reconstruction of Neogene climate dynamics in Central Asia.

  11. Social media, cyber-dissent, and constraints on online political communication in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Brian; Freedman, Eric; Blom, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Recent world events have demonstrated that the Internet-and social media tools in particular-are increasingly useful for political organizing, not merely frivolous virtual spaces for youthful publics to connect socially. Rather, social media is touted as "the crucible in which repressed civil societies can revive and develop." For the people of Central Asia-where free expression is curtailed and news outlets are under official or non-state, non-official government censorship-information and c...

  12. Spatiotemporal evolution of Reaumuria (Tamaricaceae) in Central Asia: insights from molecular biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingli Zhang; Xiaoli Hao; Stewart C. Sanderson; Byalt V. Vyacheslav; Alexander P. Sukhorukov; Xia Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Reaumuria is an arid adapted genus with a distribution center in Central Asia; its evolution and dispersal is investigated in this paper. Eighteen species of Reaumuria and nine species of two other genera in the Tamaricaceae, Tamarix and Myricaria, were sampled, and four markers ITS, rps16, psbB-psbH, and trnL-trnF were sequenced. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree is...

  13. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia – status and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Chen; W. Li; G. Fang; Z. Li

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeli...

  14. Energy Globalization: Oil Geopolitics in Central Asia Big Race for the Caspian Oil

    OpenAIRE

    VOLKOVA, JANINA

    2007-01-01

    The research aims to show causal relations between recent global change in geopolitics towards energy resources, its effect on foreign policies of Russia, the USA and China; as well as the role of oil factor in their rivalry, development of the newly formed Central Asian (the Caspian region) states-donors and international relations in general . Globalization, geopolitics, oil factor, Russia, the USA, China, the Caspian Sea, international relations, Asia

  15. Measuring Financial Performance in Infrastructure: An Application to Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Ebinger, Jane O.

    2006-01-01

    Unintentional implicit subsidies (hidden costs) to public utilities can be considered an illegitimate claim on public resources. This paper examines the role and sources of hidden costs in the energy and water sectors in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. It reviews available data and introduces a model-the Hidden Costs Calculator-that can be used to quantify the burden on governments of infrastructure policy and implementation decisions. This simple-to-apply model provides insight int...

  16. China’s Strategy Toward South and Central Asia: An Empty Fortress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    new states as well as the post-communist governments in Russia and Mongolia. By the mid-1990s, these efforts began to bear fruit, with the... Panda , “India’s Approach to Central Asia: Strategic Intent and Geo-political Calculus,” China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2009, pp...extremely slow to bear fruit (see Chapter Three for details). Nevertheless, Beijing is keen to diversify its energy sources and supply routes

  17. Wastewater reuse in central Asia: implications for the design of pond systems

    OpenAIRE

    Heaven, S.; Banks, C.J.; Pak, L.N.; Rspaev, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the potential of waste stabilisation ponds to provide water for reuse in extreme continental climates such as those of central Asia, where precipitation is low and summer evaporation rates are high. A simple model is used to predict water availability, BOD and faecal coliform removal for different configurations and operating regimes. The results show a significant proportion of flows could be saved for irrigation or river and aquifer replenishment: if current standard desi...

  18. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

  19. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia, discussing the limitations of the available models and extrapolating these to future challenges and directions. After reviewing recent efforts, we conclude that the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate change are the unreliable and incomplete data sets and the lack of understanding of the hydrological regimes of glacierized catchments of central Asia. Runoff trends indicate a complex response to changes in climate. For future variation of water resources, it is essential to quantify the responses of hydrologic processes to both climate change and shrinking glaciers in glacierized catchments, and scientific focus should be on reducing uncertainties linked to these processes.

  20. Purbo Baldanzhapov’s unpublished manuscript "Tuva under the yoke of the Manchu invaders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria A. Vasilenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the characteristics for the manuscript "Tuva under the yoke of the Manchu invaders” by the prominent Buryat scientist  P.B. Baldanzhapov (approximate creation time – late 1940’s–early 1950’s.

  1. EXCHANGE RATE PASS-THROUGH INTO IMPORT PRICES:EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Moldasheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the degree of exchange rate pass-through (ERPT intoimport prices for Central Asiacountries over period 1995q11-2012q11 years.The additional study was done for Kazakhstan to determine the impact ofmoney regulating policy into short-run and long-run ERPT. The study ofERPT was done by employing cointegration analysis across five central Asiacountries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.The paper analyzes three opportunities ofthe transmission of the export costinto ERPT using production price indices(PPI of three major trading partnersof Central Asia countries: PPI of Russia, PPI of Turkey and PPI of China.In case with PPI of Russia the resultsshowed, that ERPT is extended beyondof 1 for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.Incomplete ERPT is indicated forTajikistan and Turkmenistan, and zero ERPT is indicated for Uzbekistan. Incase with PPI of Turkey, the elasticitiesof extent ERPT intoimport prices aremore higher then in case with PPI ofRussia, and elasticities for all CentralAsia countries are negative and significant. In case with PPI of China,incomplete ERPT is indicated for all Central Asia countries, except theKyrgyzstan, which has extended ERPT. In all cases this study showed thesignificance of ERPT, except only two cases for Kazakhstan and Tajikistanwith PPI of China. Also interesting, those elasticities ofERPT with PPI ofChina are lower comparing with othercases. In the special study of moneyregulation policy only for Kazakhstan theshort-run and long-run elasticities ofERPT are incomplete with PPI of Russia and PPI of Turkey, and they areextended with PPI of China.

  2. The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Remotely-sensed Vegetation Phenology in Central Asia in the 1982-2011 Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohovič, Roman; Dobrovolný, Petr; Klein, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 49 (2016), s. 279-299 ISSN 2279-7254 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Phenology * vegetation dynamics * NDVI * GIMMS * Central Asia * SOS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2016

  3. Soviet diplomats and Comintern representatives in People’s Republic of Tuva in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Mollerov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study of the role Soviet diplomats and representatives of the Communist International (Comintern played in the Soviet-Tuvan relations during the first decade after the emergence of the young Tuvan state – People’s Republic of Tuva (1920s. From representing the interests of a small military mission, the Soviet diplomatic office in Tuva evolved into a full-scale embassy of the Soviet state. Its history clearly falls into two stages: from early 1920s to 1927 Soviet mission members largely abstained from interfering into PRT’s internal issues, but subsequently they started actively promoting the left wing of Tuvan People Revolutionary Party, which contributed to its accession to power. The Soviet state began to act as PRT’s patron on the international arena. This policy of support and custody was in accordance with Article 2 of PRT’s constitution. Using documentary sources, this article traces the appointments and transfers of a number of Soviet diplomatic officers and consuls (F.G. Falsky (Falkovsky, I.A. Chichayev, F.F. Razumov, A.G. Starkov, as well as Comintern representatives (I.G. Safyanov, B. Tsivenzhapov, V. Borovikov, A.M. Amur-Sanan, S.A. Natsov, V. Machavariani, V.A. Bogdanov. In the duopoly of consuls and Comintern representatives, the former dominated at the earlier stages, but after the defeat of Chinese communists in 1927 the Soviet leaders thought that Socialist transformations in Mongolia in Tuva should be sped up. The article makes use of archival sources from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI, and the Research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.

  4. The Geopolitics of Central Asia after the Annexation of Crimea in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razma Ainis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The annexation of Crimea accomplished by Russia in 2014 is the event that stands out sharply in the context of post-Cold War international relations: it was the first time after the end of WWII in Europe that a part of the territory of a sovereign state was forcefully annexed. This means that the re-drawing of borders and revisionism are back in international relations as the principles and ways of policy making. It would be plausible to assume that the consequences of an event of such scale would be noticeable not only in its direct neighborhood but as well in more distant, though geopolitically sensitive contexts. The article explores the impact that Russia‘s Crimea campaign has had on the geopolitics of Central Asia and what consequences could be deemed plausible in the future. It is assumed that, due to the annexation of Crimea, international relations started polarizing around the two centers of power: the West and Russia. This trend brings the mentality of strategic confrontation back into international relations. The polarization seemingly becomes a geopolitical factor, which influences the power dynamics in Central Asia in its cultural-informational, military and economic aspects. From the cultural-informational perspective, the polarization is incompatible with the provisions of multivector foreign policies, and pursued by the Central Asian states; therefore, they attempt to neutralize the trend by withholding from taking clear-cut positions with regard to the Ukrainian events. Such a stance, however, does not provide for hedging against military threats, which are perceived as rather real in Central Asia because of the Russian modus operandi in Ukraine, as well as due to the seemingly catalyzing impact of current Russian policies on the local separatist forces and radical Islamic groups. Apprehension about a replication of a Crimean scenario as well as the asymmetric character of military threat may push the Central Asian states to

  5. Similar speleothem δ18O signals indicating diverging climate variations in inland central Asia and monsoonal south Asia during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liya; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution and precisely dated speleothem oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from Asia have provided key evidence for past monsoonal changes. It is found that δ18O records of stalagmites from Kesang Cave (42°52'N, 81°45'E, Xinjiang, China) in inland central Asia were very similar to those from Qunf Cave (17°10'N, 54°18'E, southern Oman) in South Asia, shifting from light to heavy throughout the Holocene, which was regarded as a signal that strong Asian summer monsoon (ASM) may have intruded into the Kesang Cave site and/or adjacent areas in inland central Asia to produce heavy rainfall during the high insolation times (e.g. the early Holocene). However, this is in contrast to conclusions based on other Holocene proxy records and modeling simulations, showing a persistent wetting trend in arid central Asia during the Holocene with a dryer condition in the early Holocene and the wettest condition in the late Holocene. With an analysis of model-proxy data comparison, we revealed a possible physical mechanism responsible for the Holocene evolution of moisture/precipitation in Asian summer monsoon (ASM)-dominated regions and that in the inland central Asia. It is revealed that a recurrent circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) pattern in the summertime mid-latitude circulation of the Northern Hemisphere was closely related to the ASM and the climate of inland central Asia, acting as a bridge linking the ASM to insolation, high-latitude forcing (North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST)), and low-latitude forcing (tropical Ocean SST). Also, the CGT influence speleothem δ18O values in South Asia via its effect on the amount of precipitation. In addition, the moisture source from the Indian Ocean is associated with relatively high δ18O values compared with that from the North Atlantic Ocean, leading to increased precipitation δ18O values. Hence, the CGT has probably been the key factor responsible for the in-phase relationship in speleothem δ18O values (Kesang Cave

  6. A 320 Year Ice-Core Record of Atmospheric Hg Pollution in the Altai, Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrikh, Stella; Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2017-10-17

    Anthropogenic emissions of the toxic heavy metal mercury (Hg) have substantially increased atmospheric Hg levels during the 20th century compared to preindustrial times. However, on a regional scale, atmospheric Hg concentration or deposition trends vary to such an extent during the industrial period that the consequences of recent Asian emissions on atmospheric Hg levels are still unclear. Here we present a 320 year Hg deposition history for Central Asia, based on a continuous high-resolution ice-core Hg record from the Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai, covering the time period 1680-2001. Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes start rising above background levels at the beginning of the 19th century due to emissions from gold/silver mining and Hg production. A steep increase occurs after the 1940s culminating during the 1970s, at the same time as the maximum Hg use in consumer products in Europe and North America. After a distinct decrease in the 1980s, Hg levels in the 1990s and beginning of the 2000s return to their maximum values, which we attribute to increased Hg emissions from Asia. Thus, rising Hg emissions from coal combustion and artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Asian countries determine recent atmospheric Hg levels in Central Asia, counteracting emission reductions due to control measures in Europe and North America.

  7. Contemporary Youth Identity in the Republic of Tuva, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Zeahan Leung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth of ethnic Tuvan heritage within the Tuvan Republic (part of the Russian Federation aged 6 to 24 represent a dynamic force which has been shaped by two factors. One is the ancient Turkic heritage of Tuvan culture. Contemporary Tuvans, including youth, display both Russian and Tuvan nationalist feelings, admire martial culture and explore their cultural uniqueness. They hold in high esteem contact sports, especially martial arts such as sambo or judo. Tuvan athletes successfully compete for Russia at international events, including the Olympics. The current Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation is half-Tuvan and extremely popular in the republic, where people see him as nothing short of a national hero. At the same time, young multi-lingual Tuvans, who also speak Russian, and, with access to foreign language education, Korean and English, are being influenced by mediums and through technologies that are international like never before. A special focus is made on the impact of East Asian pop-culture, specifically that of South Korea. Tuva is located in Asia’s geographical center, and is a place where for many centuries Tibetan Buddhism coexisted with Shamanism. Thus, Tuvans strongly identify themselves with Asian culture. They tend to believe in metempsychosis and often tell those who take interest in Tuvan culture that they were Tuvans in their past lives. In their view, Tuvan language has preserved the features of “original” Turkic. These and many other ideas and beliefs show that historical facts and myths are closely intertwined within Tuvan identity. Studying and speaking foreign languages helps prioritize the positive outlook in Tuvan youth, who eagerly study both English and Eastern languages.   In working with Tuvan youth, I was able to teach through games and informal conversation. I was able to meet community leaders who use language to foster lasting change in children’s perception of themselves, as an attempt to

  8. Multilevel stigma as a barrier to HIV testing in Central Asia: a context quantified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Alex; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-10-01

    Central Asia is experiencing one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world, with some areas' infection rates doubling yearly since 2000. This study examines the impact of multilevel stigma (individual, family, and community) on uptake of HIV testing and receipt of HIV testing results among women in Central Asia. The sample consists of 38,884 ever-married, Central Asian women between the ages of 15 and 49. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), HIV stigma variables at the individual, family, and community levels were used to assess the significance of differences in HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results among participants while adjusting for possible confounding factors, such as age, wealth, and education. MLM results indicate that HIV stigma is significantly associated with decreased HIV testing uptake at the individual, family, and community levels and with a decrease in receipt at the community level. A one standard deviation increase in individual, family, and community level composite stigma score was associated with a respective 49 %, 59 %, and 94 % (p hinder HIV testing uptake and at the community level to hinder receipt. These findings have important interventions implications to improve uptake of HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results.

  9. Tree Shelterbelts as an Element to Improve Water Resource Management in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Thevs

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, agriculture, notably irrigated agriculture, is the largest water consumer. Currently, flood and furrow irrigation are the dominant irrigation methods in Central Asia, in particular in the post-Soviet countries. Against the background of current and increasing competition for water—e.g., through reduced river runoffs in the course of climate change—water consumption of agriculture needs to be reduced. On the field plot level, improved irrigation technologies, like drip irrigation or plastic mulch, can reduce water consumption substantially. Alternatively, tree lines as wind breaks (shelterbelts also can reduce crop water consumption, as shown by research from many drylands around the world. As previous research has concentrated on crop water consumption and not on tree water consumption, this paper brings the two together, in order to approach a more holistic picture, in how far shelterbelt systems, including the trees, may have the potential to save water or not. Crop water consumption was assessed through the Penman–Monteith approach for corn, wheat, potato, barley, and pear under open field conditions and under an assumed influence of a tree shelterbelt. Tree water consumption was investigated through sap flow measurements. Crop water consumption was reduced by 10–12% under influence of a shelterbelt compared to open field conditions. When water consumption of shelterbelts was added, a slight reduction of water consumption of the whole crop-shelterbelt system was found for corn, potato, and pear under the assumption 25 ha (500 × 500 m field sizes. Under an assumption of 4 ha (200 × 200 m field size, water consumption of the whole crop-shelterbelt system was higher for all crops investigated except for pear. The results suggest that shelterbelts may play a role in improving water resource management in Central Asia in the context of water demanding crops, like corn or cotton. In further research, other effects of

  10. Water Resources of Tajikistan and Water Use Issues in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mukhabbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the formation and use of water resources in Tajikistan. The natural and geographic conditions as well as distribution of water resources across the economic regions are analyzed. It is stressed that after breakup of the Soviet Union the water use issues in Central Asia have acquired the dimensions of the interstate economic and political problems. Demographic growth, activation of desertification, global warming make most relevant the issue of equitable redistribution of water resources as the most valuable resource for economy.

  11. The Qing and Russia in Central Asia : A Comparative Study of Motives for Political Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Løvold, Thomas Ohren

    2009-01-01

    The Peoples Republic of China’s Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, or eastern Central Asia, is an area that has recently seen large scale ethnic unrest, as the native Uygurs have protested violently against Chinese domination in the region. This thesis is a discussion of the background for why Xinjiang today is under Chinese rule. To and a half centuries ago, in 1755-59, the Manchu Qing dynasty (1636-1911) conquered Xinjiang and incorporated it into their state, and this conquest contributed s...

  12. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  13. Khwarezmian Army of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu during the Mongol Invasion of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Timokhin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the features of formation and functioning of the Khwarezmian army of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu during the period of the Mongol conquest of Central Asia. In addition to a detailed analysis of a military clash between the Mongol and Khwarezmian armies, the author determines the size and ethnic composition of the Jalal ad-Din’s army. The article considers the reflection by the Arab-Persian sources both of the military confrontation between Khwarezmians and Mongols and of the Khwarezmian army itself. The author defines the amount of information on this subject contained in the sources.

  14. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges

  15. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed

  16. Building a Higher Education Area in Central Asia: challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Katherine Isaacs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, for a variety of reasons, higher education has begun to be considered much more frequently than previously in terms of ‘regions’, or ‘macro-regions’. Although for decades countries sharing some characteristics, or perceived as geographically or culturally closely related to each other, have promoted forms of cooperation between their higher education institutions (with varying degrees of success, it is now widely accepted that to ‘count’ on the world stage, it is useful for single countries, and especially for smaller countries, to work together with a view to making their systems better able to interact and hopefully to promote, increase and make visible their merits. Of course, in higher education as in many other fields, the regions or macro-regions are not defined once and for all, but are the result of stronger or weaker ad hoc groupings which take into account different factors in different contexts. Central Asia is one such potential region: it does not have unquestioned boundaries, but like other macro-regions, and more so than most, it can be understood and constructed in different ways. A current shared understanding of ‘Central Asia’ is that it is formed by the 4 ex-Soviet Republics of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, plus Kazakhstan. Over the last decade the possibility of building a Higher Education Area in those five republics has been explored, and a large-scale project which uses Tuning methodology to this end is under way. This project, called TuCAHEA (“Towards a Central Asian Higher Education Area: Tuning Structures and Building Quality Culture”, has already elaborated a Central Asian list of Generic Competences and eight Subject Area Groups have formulated their Reference Points and Guidelines. The five Ministries of the five countries have signed a Communiqué indicating their intention to collaborate more closely; a pilot student mobility scheme is soon

  17. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  18. The collection of Tuvan stamps (1926–1943 in the National Museum of the Republic of Tuva and the prospects of philately in Tuva

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    Kaadyr-ool A. Bicheldey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stamps of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT, 1921-1944 as indicia and as items of collectors’ interest, are universally renowned, and as such have been the subject of a good deal of research. These works contain more than a mere story of Tuvan stamps – they provide a lot of useful information on Tuva, its history, including the history of postal service in the region. This article describes the collection of indicia (more than 500 pieces dated 1926-1943 and preserved at Aldan Maadyr National Museum of Tuva. On the basis of this analysis we have formulated the current problems and prospects of philately in the region. The stamp collection in the National Museum fills 4 albums of various sizes and a number of envelopes with 1-72 stamps in each. The compilers of 2 albums attempted to systematize stamps by issue date, but this work is far from complete. There is no definitive collection of Tuvan stamps to act as a model for others, regardless of the quality of the stamps preserved. The rest of the stamps in the museum collection is in unsorted state. Overall, the degree of preservation can be tentatively described as average. Given the great interest of scholars and collectors, Tuvan stamps are relatively little studies. The overall bulk of material on the uses of stamps in Tuva lacks an overarching study. We have summed up the main research problems that call for in-depth research, including studying Tuvan stamps as pieces of art, the financial and economic viability of issuing stamps in PRT, the official documentations licensing the issue, full catalogization of all existing issues, the study of individual stamps, etc. Especially urgent is the issue of propagating knowledge of history of Tuvan postal service as a precondition for collecting and preserving PRT stamps. Archives of many Tuvan families may contain unique stamps, rare envelopes or postcards – but few of their owners recognize the full value of what they have. This puts unique

  19. Movements and landscape use of Eastern Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Bragin, Evgeny A.; Sharpe, Peter B.; Garcelon, David K.; Bartoszuk, Kordian; Katzner, Todd E.

    2018-01-01

    Capsule: We describe ecological factors associated with movements of a globally declining raptor species, the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca.Aims: To describe the movements, habitat associations and resource selection of Eastern Imperial Eagles marked in Central Asia.Methods: We used global positioning system (GPS) data sent via satellite telemetry devices deployed on Eastern Imperial Eagles captured in Kazakhstan to calculate distances travelled and to associate habitat and weather variables with eagle locations collected throughout the annual cycle. We also used resource selection models to evaluate habitat use of tracked birds during autumn migration. Separately, we used wing-tagging recovery data to broaden our understanding of wintering locations of eagles.Results: Eagles tagged in Kazakhstan wintered in most countries on the Arabian Peninsula, as well as Iran and India. The adult eagle we tracked travelled more efficiently than did the four pre-adults. During autumn migration, telemetered eagles used a mixture of vegetation types, but during winter and summer, they primarily used bare and sparsely vegetated areas. Finally, telemetered birds used orographic updrafts to subsidize their autumn migration flight, but they relied on thermal updrafts during spring migration.Conclusion: Our study is the first to use GPS telemetry to describe year-round movements and habitat associations of Eastern Imperial Eagles in Central Asia. Our findings provide insight into the ecology of this vulnerable raptor species that can contribute to conservation efforts on its behalf.

  20. Energy investment and trade opportunities emerging in Central Asia, Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, J.P.; Abbasovich, T.U.; Tonkopy, M.S.; Jumabekovich, O.A.; Qiu Daxiong

    1998-01-01

    Cooperation in the business of oil and natural gas among governments of Central Asia and Northwest China could help the countries overcome obstacles to development of their vast petroleum resources. The most important obstacle facing these countries is also the one most widely discussed: limited infrastructure for transporting energy. But there are other problems holding back oil and gas development. They include poor communications infrastructure, unstable government structures, political conflict, payments difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. For countries analyzed in a recent Asian Development Bank (ADB) study of economic cooperation in the region--Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Xinjiang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (Xinjiang PRC)--oil and gas are the most abundant and valuable natural resources. While Central Asia is poised to become a major world supplier of energy, especially oil and gas, countries in the region emphasize energy self-sufficiency at the expense of developing new trading linkages. Governments thus tend to ignore the benefits of regional cooperation and remain reluctant to commit to area-wide trade and other forms of cooperation. The paper discusses oil and gas sectors; major energy trends, including restructuring, foreign investment, and energy diversification; opportunities for cooperation; impediments to cooperation; and models of cooperation

  1. Monitoring lake level changes by altimetry in the arid region of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Liao, J. J.; Shen, G. Z.; Zhang, X. L.

    2017-07-01

    The study of lake level changes in arid region of Central Asia not only has important significance for the management and sustainable development of inland water resources, but also provides the basis for further study on the response of lakes to climate change and human activities. Therefore, in this paper, eleven typical lakes in Central Asia were observed. The lake edges were obtained through image interpretation using the quasi-synchronous MODIS image, and then water level information with long period (2002-2015) was acquired using ENVISAT/RA-2 and Cryosat-2 satellite borne radar altimeter data. The results show that these 11 lakes all have obvious seasonal changes of water level in a year with a high peak at different month. During 2002 - 2015, their water levels present decreased trend generally except Sarygamysh Lake, Alakol Lake and North Aral Sea. The alpine lakes are most stables, while open lakes’ levels change the most violently and closed lakes change diversely among different lakes.

  2. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition at Two Sites in an Arid Environment of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaihui; Liu, Xuejun; Song, Wei; Chang, Yunhua; Hu, Yukun; Tian, Changyan

    2013-01-01

    Arid areas play a significant role in the global nitrogen cycle. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen (N) species were monitored at one urban (SDS) and one suburban (TFS) site at Urumqi in a semi-arid region of central Asia. Atmospheric concentrations of NH3, NO2, HNO3, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4 (+) and pNO3 (-)) concentrations and NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations in precipitation showed large monthly variations and averaged 7.1, 26.6, 2.4, 6.6, 2.7 µg N m(-3) and 1.3, 1.0 mg N L(-1) at both SDS and TFS. Nitrogen dry deposition fluxes were 40.7 and 36.0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) while wet deposition of N fluxes were 6.0 and 8.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) at SDS and TFS, respectively. Total N deposition averaged 45.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)at both sites. Our results indicate that N dry deposition has been a major part of total N deposition (83.8% on average) in an arid region of central Asia. Such high N deposition implies heavy environmental pollution and an important nutrient resource in arid regions.

  3. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies

  4. Information Security in the Countries of Central Asia: the Case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarifa Allahveran Asadova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of the creation and development of the overall concept of information security, the current state of the information security, as well as the appropriate legal and regulatory framework in the countries of Central Asia on the example of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Introductory part of the article analyzes and provides a brief overview of the development of information and communication technologies. Particular attention is given to information security concepts in the framework of international valuation standards. The author investigates and lists the main sources of global information security threats, as well as explaining the history of the creation of a geopolitical term - Central Asia. In the main part of the article on the example of Kazakhstan one of the leading Central Asian countries, highlights issues of formation and development of the concept of information security, provides a brief overview of the history of development of information and communication technologies in the country. In this part the author conducts a detailed analysis of the legislation and the concept of the state with respect to the issue of information security, in the investigation highlights the major key issues of information security in the Republic of Kazakhstan. It also analyzes the development strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030 (the "Kazakhstan-2030" Strategy, provides a brief overview of the state of laws and programs in the field of information security in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In conclusion, the author comes to the conclusion that today Kazakhstan is just beginning to form their own information security protection mechanisms and leads appropriate recommendations to achieve the objectives of the state.

  5. A comparison of different interpolation methods for wind data in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Katja; Samimi, Cyrus

    2017-04-01

    For the assessment of the global climate change and its consequences, the results of computer based climate models are of central importance. The quality of these results and the validity of the derived forecasts are strongly determined by the quality of the underlying climate data. However, in many parts of the world high resolution data are not available. This is particularly true for many regions in Central Asia, where the density of climatological stations has often to be described as thinned out. Due to this insufficient data base the use of statistical methods to improve the resolution of existing climate data is of crucial importance. Only this can provide a substantial data base for a well-founded analysis of past climate changes as well as for a reliable forecast of future climate developments for the particular region. The study presented here shows a comparison of different interpolation methods for the wind components u and v for a region in Central Asia with a pronounced topography. The aim of the study is to find out whether there is an optimal interpolation method which can equally be applied for all pressure levels or if different interpolation methods have to be applied for each pressure level. The European reanalysis data Era-Interim for the years 1989 - 2015 are used as input data for the pressure levels of 850 hPa, 500 hPa and 200 hPa. In order to improve the input data, two different interpolation procedures were applied: On the one hand pure interpolation methods were used, such as inverse distance weighting and ordinary kriging. On the other hand machine learning algorithms, generalized additive models and regression kriging were applied, considering additional influencing factors, e.g. geopotential and topography. As a result it can be concluded that regression kriging provides the best results for all pressure levels, followed by support vector machine, neural networks and ordinary kriging. Inverse distance weighting showed the worst

  6. Monitoring the HIV continuum of care in key populations across Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A E; Attawell, K; Hales, D; Rice, B D; Pharris, A; Supervie, V; Van Beckhoven, D; Delpech, V C; An der Heiden, M; Marcus, U; Maly, M; Noori, T

    2018-05-08

    The aim of the study was to measure and compare national continuum of HIV care estimates in Europe and Central Asia in three key subpopulations: men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and migrants. Responses to a 2016 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) survey of 55 European and Central Asian countries were used to describe continuums of HIV care for the subpopulations. Data were analysed using three frameworks: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets; breakpoint analysis identifying reductions between adjacent continuum stages; quadrant analysis categorizing countries using 90% cut-offs for continuum stages. Overall, 29 of 48 countries reported national data for all HIV continuum stages (numbers living with HIV, diagnosed, receiving treatment and virally suppressed). Six countries reported all stages for MSM, seven for PWID and two for migrants. Thirty-one countries did not report data for MSM (34 for PWID and 41 for migrants). In countries that provided key-population data, overall, 63%, 40% and 41% of MSM, PWID and migrants living with HIV were virally suppressed, respectively (compared with 68%, 65% and 68% nationally, for countries reporting key-population data). Variation was observed between countries, with higher outcomes in subpopulations in Western Europe compared with Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Few reporting countries can produce the continuum of HIV care for the three key populations. Where data are available, differences exist in outcomes between the general and key populations. While MSM broadly mirror national outcomes (in the West), PWID and migrants experience poorer treatment and viral suppression. Countries must develop continuum measures for key populations to identify and address inequalities. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  7. Linking the Agricultural Production and Climate Change in Central Asia: 1991-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarskii, V.; Shemyakina, O.; Sokolik, I. N.

    2016-12-01

    We present results of the impact of climate change on the agricultural output in Central Asia (CA) since 1991. While profit-maximizing farmers in the market based economies would be expected to change their cropping patterns fairly fast in response to climate change, we do not expect that to happen in the CA region that was for a long time driven by Soviet production plans with a limited room for personal choice. We explore the relationship between the agricultural productivity (measured by the actual output) and the variations in average monthly temperatures during growing seasons and precipitation. The climate data for Central Asia are generated using the Weather Research (WRF) Model for 1985-2012. We make use of data on air temperature on 2m height, C, and total precipitation. The data on the agricultural production comes from the State Statistical Agencies of the three Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Data on agricultural production for Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not available from online government sources. We model the agricultural production as a function of annual realization of weather in a specific region. This economic approach includes converting daily temperature into degree days, which represents heating units. The two key weather variables are a measure of heat (degree days) and total precipitation in the growing season, April 1st to October 30th. Preliminary regression results estimated for Kazakhstan, indicate that degree days during growing season is negatively and total precipitation is positively associated with the agricultural output. Both coefficients are not statistically significant. Further analysis will include data from other countries and also by the region.

  8. Present and past denudation rates in the central Tianshan (Central Asia): impact of the Quaternary glaciations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreau, J.; Puchol, N.; Blard, P.; Braucher, R.; Leanni, L.; Bourles, D. L.; Graveleau, F.; Dominguez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Denudation controls the mass transfer from the uplifting highlands to the lowlands basin. It impacts the isostatic compensation and hence tectonics, the rheology and may drives the Earth climate through its potential impact on atmospheric CO2. Denudation is therefore a key factor governing the evolution of the Earth's surface. Quantitative records of past denudation rates over geological time scales are thus of major importance to untangle the complex interactions between tectonics, climate and surface processes. This is particularly true at the Plio-pleistocene transition where the onset of Quaternary glaciations may have enhanced worldwide denudation rates. The Tianshan stands out as a key area to better address these problems. This range owes its impressive present high topography to the recent deformation due to the India-Asia collision and is moreover sandwiched between two large intracontinental endorheic basins where the total material eroded from the uplifting range may be deciphered from the sedimentary archive. Moreover, here, potential changes in the sediment volume are insensitive to global sea-level variations. Accurate reconstruction of past denudation rate require well-dated sedimentary archives. Over past decades, several magnetostratigraphic studies were carried out in the piedmonts, where remarkable sedimentary sections are exposed in deep rivers entrenchment which expose the thick conglomeratic Xiyu formation, initially assigned to be Plio-pleistocene in age. This led several authors to conclude that, in this region, the sediment fluxes rapidly increaseed at the onset of glaciations. However, absolute magnetostratigraphic dating unambiguously show that this formation is highly diachronous and, therefore, can't owe its origin to a climate change. Given the strong lateral facies variations, reconstruction of past denudation rates from the sedimentary archive require detailed chronostratigraphy and a knowledge of the basin geometry, both almost

  9. An improbable partnership: Spanish and Kazakh efforts to bring Central Asia to the fore of European politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licinia Simao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute sobre el potencial de la actual Presidencia española del Consejo de la UE y la Presidencia kazaja de la OSCE para coordinar esfuerzos en convertir a Asia Central en un área de interés más prominente para la política europea. Aporta un análisis de los intereses y de las principales áreas de interacción de las dos organizaciones en Asia Central y propone una reflexión sobre el impacto que tan improbable asociación podría tener en cambiar las perspectivas mutuas y en desarrollar una visión a largo plazo para la UE y la OSCE en Asia Central.

  10. Afghanistan in the whirlwind of US-Russia rivalry in Central Asia

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    Yahia Baiza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Afghanistan has been the political and military focal points of the United States (US and Russia (formerly the Soviet Union for over a half a century. Initially, from the 1950s through to the 1970s, the superpowers competed for influence through educational, economic and technical development projects. They used their international development aid as a strategic tool to penetrate the country’s political elite circles to create a space for their political and strategic influence. The nature of development aid then changed to a series of proxy military conflicts throughout the 1980s, which also changed the fate of Afghanistan from that of a developing to that of a conflict country. The current US occupation of Afghanistan (October 2001-present is the latest in the cycle of conflict and rivalry between the US and Russia in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Against this background, this article presents an analysis of how (i the US and Russia create a context and a situation in which they develop, advance, and implement their political and military discourses and strategic concepts, intending to influence each other’s areas of strategic interests; (ii the different components of conflicts and violence are interconnected with one another; and (iii their rivalry for strategic influence in Afghanistan and the broader region of Central Asia triggered a cycle of conflict and a series of continuing proxy wars in Afghanistan. This article applies Johan Galtung’s theories of conflicts as the broader theoretical framework. The developed framework combines Galtung’s three theories of conflict, namely the ABC triangle of conflict, triangle of violence and triangle of peace strategy (Galtung, 1967, 1996. The findings of this article demonstrate that both the US and Russia fight each other in Afghanistan as well as in the wider Central Asia region by supporting and maintaining their satellite countries and periphery elites in power and negotiate each other

  11. Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15

  12. Political and Legal Bases of Foreign Policy Activity of the European Union in the Region of Central Asia

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    Turdimurat M. Tursunmuratov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the European Union’s foreign policy in Central Asia. He indicates the basic tendencies of development of the EU cooperation with the countries of Central Asian region. Further, the author analyzes the implementation of joint projects within the framework adopted by the Partnership Agreements. Based on a critical analysis, the researcher highlights a number of constraints to effective development of relations between the EU and Central Asian states. He carries out a structural analysis of conceptual documents of the European Union for the development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Central Asian countries in the region. Scientific novelty of this work lies in the systematization of stages in the evolution of relations between the European Union and the countries of Central Asia. The author divides the formation of cooperation into four main stages. The first stage of the relations between the EU and the countries of Central Asia includes conceptual framework of the legal regulatory structure of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The second stage is characterized by the realization of a number of joint projects in the field of transport communications, democratic transformations, regional security and stability. The third stage of the relations is determined by acquiring of special geographical significance of the region of Central Asia resulting from the engagement of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan in 2001. The fourth stage has begun in 2015 with the adoption of the EU Strategy for a New Partnership with Central Asia for 2017-2021. These studies serve as a basis for developing some important proposals and recommendations for the improvement of the effectiveness of cooperation between the parties.

  13. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing

  14. A striking new genus and species of troglobitic Campodeidae (Diplura from Central Asia

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    Alberto Sendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A striking new genus and species of Campodeidae (Diplura, Turkmenocampa mirabilis Sendra & Stoev, gen.n., sp.n., found in Kaptarhana cave in Eastern Turkmenistan is described. This represents the first record of Diplura from Central Asia and also the first terrestrial troglobiont found in Turkmenistan. The new taxon shows several unique characters such as the lack of crests on the telotarsus, the presence of a side-shoot process and the shape of barbs on the ventral side of the laminar telotarsal processes hitherto unknown in other members of this family. Although T. mirabilis is tentatively placed in the subfamily Plusiocampinae, its true affinities remain uncertain. The new finding provides further support to the importance of Kaptarhana as a refuge for a number of endemic invertebrates.

  15. Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects

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    Mohammad-Reza Djalili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

  16. NPP-VIIRS DNB-based reallocating subpopulations to mercury in Urumqi city cluster, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Feng, X. B.; Dai, W.; Li, P.; Ju, C. Y.; Bao, Z. D.; Han, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and update assignment of population-related environmental matters onto fine grid cells in oasis cities of arid areas remains challenging. We present the approach based on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) -Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) to reallocate population onto a regular finer surface. The number of potential population to the mercury were reallocated onto 0.1x0.1 km reference grid in Urumqi city cluster of China’s Xinjiang, central Asia. The result of Monte Carlo modelling indicated that the range of 0.5 to 2.4 million people was reliable. The study highlights that the NPP-VIIRS DNB-based multi-layered, dasymetric, spatial method enhances our abilities to remotely estimate the distribution and size of target population at the street-level scale and has the potential to transform control strategies for epidemiology, public policy and other socioeconomic fields.

  17. THE ROLE OF POLYPLOIDY IN ADAPTATION AND SETTLING OF STEPPE SHRUBS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Ekimova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers for some species of Central Asia steppe shrubs are given: Rhamnus erythroxylon Pall. (Rhamnaceae, Caragana buriatica Peschk. (Fabaceae, Amygdalus pedunculata Pall., Armeniaca sibirica (L. Lam. (Rosaceae, Atraphaxis pungens (Bieb. Jaub. et Spach. and A. frutescens (L. C. Koch (Polygonaceae. Chromosome numbers of some species were determined for the first time. Comparative analysis of adaptive properties of polyploid and diploid species has been conducted. It was established that natural polyploids are more adaptive to existence in extreme conditions. They possess by high potential for survival and characterized by more high level of intraspecific polymorphism, abundant flowering and fruitification, ability of propagate both generative and vegetative means, high seed germination.

  18. Hydrological Modeling of Highly Glacierized Basins (Andes, Alps, and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Omani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to simulate five glacierized river basins that are global in coverage and vary in climate. The river basins included the Narayani (Nepal, Vakhsh (Central Asia, Rhone (Switzerland, Mendoza (Central Andes, Argentina, and Central Dry Andes (Chile, with a total area of 85,000 km2. A modified SWAT snow algorithm was applied in order to consider spatial variation of associated snowmelt/accumulation by elevation band across each subbasin. In previous studies, melt rates varied as a function of elevation because of an air temperature gradient while the snow parameters were constant throughout the entire basin. A major improvement of the new snow algorithm is the separation of the glaciers from seasonal snow based on their characteristics. Two SWAT snow algorithms were evaluated in simulation of monthly runoff from the glaciered watersheds: (1 the snow parameters are lumped (constant throughout the entire basin and (2 the snow parameters are spatially variable based on elevation bands of a subbasin (modified snow algorithm. Applying the distributed SWAT snow algorithm improved the model performance in simulation of monthly runoff with snow-glacial regime, so that mean RSR decreased to 0.49 from 0.55 and NSE increased to 0.75 from 0.69. Improvement of model performance was negligible in simulations of monthly runoff from the basins with a monsoon runoff regime.

  19. A Study on International Multimodal Transport Networks from Korea to Central Asia: Focus on Secondhand Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, high-income countries use multimodal transportation to export large quantities of secondhand vehicles to low-income countries. Secondhand vehicle export has shown its highest growth in recent years, especially in Korea. The problem of transporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asia is becoming an important issue, but few researchers are interested in it. The objective of this research is to determine the optimal transport network for exporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by combining experts’ opinions and real data from existing transport networks. The fuzzy Delphi method was applied to obtain factors to evaluate alternative multimodal transport networks for moving secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by judgment from experts. The analysis shows that among the five factors (total cost, total time, reliability, security, and transportation capability, total cost is the most considerable factor, followed by reliability, transportation capability, total time, and security. Additionally, in the mainly three multimodal transport networks, the sea+Trans-China Railway route is ranked first, followed by the sea+Trans-Siberian Railway and sea+truck routes.

  20. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  1. Exacerbated grassland degradation and desertification in Central Asia during 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geli; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Yuting; Qin, Yuanwei; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Fang; Ding, Mingjun; Thomas, Richard J

    2018-03-01

    Grassland degradation and desertification is a complex process, including both state conversion (e.g., grasslands to deserts) and gradual within-state change (e.g., greenness dynamics). Existing studies hardly separated the two components and analyzed it as a whole based on time series vegetation index data, which cannot provide a clear and comprehensive picture for grassland degradation and desertification. Here we propose an integrated assessment strategy, by considering both state conversion and within-state change of grasslands, to investigate grassland degradation and desertification process in Central Asia. First, annual maps of grasslands and sparsely vegetated land were generated to track the state conversions between them. The results showed increasing grasslands were converted to sparsely vegetated lands from 2000 to 2014, with the desertification region concentrating in the latitude range of 43-48° N. A frequency analysis of grassland vs. sparsely vegetated land classification in the last 15 yr allowed a recognition of persistent desert zone (PDZ), persistent grassland zone (PGZ), and transitional zone (TZ). The TZ was identified in southern Kazakhstan as one hotspot that was unstable and vulnerable to desertification. Furthermore, the trend analysis of Enhanced Vegetation Index during thermal growing season (EVI TGS ) was investigated in individual zones using linear regression and Mann-Kendall approaches. An overall degradation across the area was found; moreover, the second desertification hotspot was identified in northern Kazakhstan with significant decreasing in EVI TGS , which was located in PGZ. Finally, attribution analyses of grassland degradation and desertification were conducted by considering precipitation, temperature, and three different drought indices. We found persistent droughts were the main factor for grassland degradation and desertification in Central Asia. Considering both state conversion and gradual within-state change

  2. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise efficiency, create

  3. Norwegian support in development of regulations of radioactive waste management in central Asia-threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid; Strand, Per; Kim, Alexander; Mirsaidov, Ulmas; Tolongutov, Baigabyl

    2011-01-01

    In Central Asia (CA) the radioactive waste comes mainly from uranium mining and milling, nuclear weapon testing and nuclear power development and other ionizing sources. This waste was produced, to a greater extent, by the military-industrial complex and the uranium and non-uranium industry, and, to a lesser extent, by the nuclear industry and in the process of use of isotope products. Exploitation and mining of uranium and thorium deposits produce a large amount of solid and liquid radioactive waste, as well volatile contaminants which need a proper management. In Central Asia the wastes are mainly stored at the surface in large piles and represent a long-term potential health and environmental hazard. The process of remediating legacy sites of the past and reducing the threats is now getting under way, with the design and implementation of remediation activities, partly with international support. However, there is a significant lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring etc., as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. Accordingly, the objective of the proposed project is to assist the relevant regulatory authorities in Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan to develop national robust and adequate regulations and procedures, taking into account the international guidance and Norwegian experience with regulatory support projects in Russia. Specific expected results in the project period include: a threat assessment report identifying priority areas for regulatory development, based on the status of current regulatory documents and the hazard presented by the different sites and facilities; development of national radioactive waste management strategies in each country; development of an enhanced regulatory framework for supervision of nuclear matters, and an enhanced safety culture

  4. P and S wave Coda Calibration in Central Asia and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Mayeda, K.; Gok, R.; Barno, J.; Roman-Nieves, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    Empirically derived coda source spectra provide unbiased, absolute moment magnitude (Mw) estimates for events that are normally too small for accurate long-period waveform modeling. In this study, we obtain coda-derived source spectra using data from Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan networks - KN and KR, and Tajikistan - TJ) and South Korea (Korea Meteorological Administration, KMA). We used a recently developed coda calibration module of Seismic WaveForm Tool (SWFT). Seismic activities during this recording period include the recent Gyeongju earthquake of Mw=5.3 and its aftershocks, two nuclear explosions from 2009 and 2013 in North Korea, and a small number of construction and mining-related explosions. For calibration, we calculated synthetic coda envelopes for both P and S waves based on a simple analytic expression that fits the observed narrowband filtered envelopes using the method outlined in Mayeda et al. (2003). To provide an absolute scale of the resulting source spectra, path and site corrections are applied using independent spectral constraints (e.g., Mw and stress drop) from three Kyrgyzstan events and the largest events of the Gyeongju sequence in Central Asia and South Korea, respectively. In spite of major tectonic differences, stable source spectra were obtained in both regions. We validated the resulting spectra by comparing the ratio of raw envelopes and source spectra from calibrated envelopes. Spectral shapes of earthquakes and explosions show different patterns in both regions. We also find (1) the source spectra derived from S-coda is more robust than that from the P-coda at low frequencies; (2) unlike earthquake events, the source spectra of explosions have a large disagreement between P and S waves; and (3) similarity is observed between 2016 Gyeongju and 2011 Virginia earthquake sequence in the eastern U.S.

  5. Inter-Comparison of High-Resolution Satellite Precipitation Products over Central Asia

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    Hao Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the spatial error structures of eight precipitation estimates derived from four different satellite retrieval algorithms including TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA, Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH, Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN. All the original satellite and bias-corrected products of each algorithm (3B42RTV7 and 3B42V7, CMORPH_RAW and CMORPH_CRT, GSMaP_MVK and GSMaP_Gauge, PERSIANN_RAW and PERSIANN_CDR are evaluated against ground-based Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE over Central Asia for the period of 2004 to 2006. The analyses show that all products except PERSIANN exhibit overestimation over Aral Sea and its surrounding areas. The bias-correction improves the quality of the original satellite TMPA products and GSMaP significantly but slightly in CMORPH and PERSIANN over Central Asia. 3B42RTV7 overestimates precipitation significantly with large Relative Bias (RB (128.17% while GSMaP_Gauge shows consistent high correlation coefficient (CC (>0.8 but RB fluctuates between −57.95% and 112.63%. The PERSIANN_CDR outperforms other products in winter with the highest CC (0.67. Both the satellite-only and gauge adjusted products have particularly poor performance in detecting rainfall events in terms of lower POD (less than 65%, CSI (less than 45% and relatively high FAR (more than 35%.

  6. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  7. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  8. Influences of deglaciation on the river run-off in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Glazyrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers form a great deal of runoff of rivers in Central Asia. It is clear that amount of melted water directly depends on total area of glaciers in the river basins – their glaciation. It is well known that at present the area quickly reduces. The complete inventory of glaciers was performed in former Soviet Union in the middle of last century. Airphoto images were used as a basis for our calculations. The inventory was repeated later for several river basins using airphoto- and space images. Unfortunately only three inventories is performed in several river basins for the last half of XX century. Amount of water, coming to a river network from glaciers, can be divided into two parts. The first is usual annual melting. It exists under stationary glaciation condition. The second, being part of the first, is caused by reduction of the glaciation volume. It can be negative in some years when glaciers volume is increasing as a result of favorable meteorological conditions. In these cases the part of water containing in seasonal snow cover does not go to river network. Two components of the glacial feeding were calculated for six rivers located in various regions of Central Asia. It is shown that present day glaciers reduction does not lead to disastrous consequences for river run-off. It leads only to the changes of annual distribution in the run-off. The results should be considered as preliminary because of low accuracy of hydrometeorolological data and number of admissions during calculation.

  9. The quest for the oil and gas infrastructure protection in central Asia : time bombs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs

    2006-03-15

    The growing economies of China and India have increased global anxieties over dwindling fossil fuel resources. Regional countries in central Asia have advocated for more extensive strategic partnerships within the oil and gas industry as insurance against the pressures of more powerful nations. However, non-traditional threats such as terrorism raise serious questions about critical oil and gas infrastructure protection in central Asia. This paper assessed the vulnerability and threats inherent in protecting the critical oil and gas infrastructure of Central Asia, with a specific focus on Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and the region of Xinjiang in China. An-depth analysis of the development strategies, terrorist threats, and water issues confronted by Central Asian powers was conducted to demonstrate their vulnerability. The analysis was then used to consider options available for managing oil and gas infrastructure in the regions. It was observed that different perceptions and technological difficulties have made cooperation on critical oil and gas infrastructure protection less important than national sovereignty and domestic stability. It was concluded that a low-key approach to homeland security and oil and gas infrastructure may be the best strategy for Central Asia and China. 44 refs.

  10. Molecular investigations of the bat tick Argas vespertilionis (Ixodida: Argasidae) and Babesia vesperuginis (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) reflect "bat connection" between Central Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Szőke, Krisztina; Görföl, Tamás; Földvári, Gábor; Tu, Vuong Tan; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; Sándor, Attila D; Estók, Péter; Epis, Sara; Boldogh, Sándor; Kováts, Dávid; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2017-05-01

    Argas vespertilionis is a geographically widespread haematophagous ectoparasite species of bats in the Old World, with a suspected role in the transmission of Babesia vesperuginis. The aims of the present study were (1) to molecularly screen A. vespertilionis larvae (collected in Europe, Africa and Asia) for the presence of piroplasms, and (2) to analyze mitochondrial markers of A. vespertilionis larvae from Central Asia (Xinjiang Province, Northwestern China) in a phylogeographical context. Out of the 193 DNA extracts from 321 A. vespertilionis larvae, 12 contained piroplasm DNA (10 from Hungary, two from China). Sequencing showed the exclusive presence of B. vesperuginis, with 100% sequence identity between samples from Hungary and China. In addition, A. vespertilionis cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (cox1) and 16S rRNA gene sequences had 99.1-99.2 and 99.5-100% similarities, respectively, between Hungary and China. Accordingly, in the phylogenetic analyses A. vespertilionis from China clustered with haplotypes from Europe, and (with high support) outside the group formed by haplotypes from Southeast Asia. This is the first molecular evidence on the occurrence of B. vesperuginis in Asia. Bat ticks from hosts in Vespertilionidae contained only the DNA of B. vesperuginis (in contrast with what was reported on bat ticks from Rhinolophidae and Miniopteridae). Molecular taxonomic analyses of A. vespertilionis and B. vesperuginis suggest a genetic link of bat parasites between Central Europe and Central Asia, which is epidemiologically relevant in the context of any pathogens associated with bats.

  11. PENGARUH HUBUNGAN KERJA, PENGALAMAN KERJA DAN MOTIVASI KERJA TERHADAP KINERJA KARYAWAN BANK CENTRAL ASIA (BCA CABANG BOROBUDUR, MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laniwidyanti - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   This study analyzed effects of working relationship, working experience and working motivation toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, either simultaneously or partially, as well as the dominant effect toward performance of the employees. This study was conducted in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, including : KCP Lawang, KCP Singosari, KCP Blimbing, KCP Tumpang, with the number of sample 109 persons comprising of 17 managers and 92 employees to identify the effect of working relationship, working experience and working motivation toward the employees’ performance, therefore multiple regression analysis was applied. Results of the study concluded that : (1 The result of the study simultaneously indicated that the variables of the study, working relationship, working experience, and working motivation have significant effect toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, (2 The result of the study partially indicated that the respective variables including working relationship, working experience, and working motivation has significant effect toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang. Among the variables, the dominant one is the variable of working motivation.   Keywords: working relationship, working experience, motivation

  12. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  13. Retreating or standing: Responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid eastern central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Xiang Zhang; Ming-Li Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2013-01-01

    The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively...

  14. People’s Republic of China and Federal Republic of Germany in current international relations in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Tsvyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of the current Sino-German relations in the context of world politics and dynamics of international relations as exemplified by the Central Asia region. Basic problems and prospects for cooperation between China and Germany in this region, as well as possible ways of cooperation of the SCO and the EU are under consideration.

  15. The strategic interests of the USA, Russia and Сhina in the central Asia at the present stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to develop and analyze the strategic concerns of key geopolitical actors in the Central Asian region. The author comes to the conclusion that the specialty of the Central Asia is a beneficial geopolitical location and great amount of nature resources that makes the region an object of world powers’ geopolitical interests. The main actors in the CA are the USA, China and Russia, which have influence on political processes inside the region, realizing their own strategies.

  16. Integrated spatiotemporal characterization of dust sources and outbreaks in Central and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmenova, Kremena T.

    The potential of atmospheric dust aerosols to modify the Earth's environment and climate has been recognized for some time. However, predicting the diverse impact of dust has several significant challenges. One is to quantify the complex spatial and temporal variability of dust burden in the atmosphere. Another is to quantify the fraction of dust originating from human-made sources. This thesis focuses on the spatiotemporal characterization of sources and dust outbreaks in Central and East Asia by integrating ground-based data, satellite multisensor observations, and modeling. A new regional dust modeling system capable of operating over a span of scales was developed. The modeling system consists of a dust module DuMo, which incorporates several dust emission schemes of different complexity, and the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model MM5, which offers a variety of physical parameterizations and flexible nesting capability. The modeling system was used to perform for the first time a comprehensive study of the timing, duration, and intensity of individual dust events in Central and East Asia. Determining the uncertainties caused by the choice of model physics, especially the boundary layer parameterization, and the dust production scheme was the focus of our study. Implications to assessments of the anthropogenic dust fraction in these regions were also addressed. Focusing on Spring 2001, an analysis of routine surface meteorological observations and satellite multi-sensor data was carried out in conjunction with modeling to determine the extent to which integrated data set can be used to characterize the spatiotemporal distribution of dust plumes at a range of temporal scales, addressing the active dust sources in China and Mongolia, mid-range transport and trans-Pacific, long-range transport of dust outbreaks on a case-by-case basis. This work demonstrates that adequate and consistent characterization of individual dust events is central to establishing a reliable

  17. Elements of traditional Tuvan cosmology in the state emblem of the People’s Republic of Tuva, 1935-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Boris B. Mongush

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the constituent elements of the state emblem of the People’s Republic of Tuva (in its 1935/1939 version). We view state emblems as a special type of historical source where constituent emblems and elements are, in fact, reflections of a certain worldview. Emblems of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT) originally were full of Buddhist religious symbolism, but in the course of time it switched over to representing the dominance of the Soviet heraldic symbolism. Among the...

  18. The rise of author-performed song in Tuva (1921–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Yu. Suzukey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of author-performed song in Tuva, the history of which begins when the People’s Republic of Tuva was declared in 1921. This crucial moment in the history of the region, which bore a strong influence of the October Revolution in Russia and of the following years of social change, had a profound impact on songwriting in the 1920s. The songs expressed gratitude to the October Revolution, Lenin and the Russian people for helping Tuvans get rid of the socially oppressive system (“The Glorious International”, “Freedom from Torment”, “The Great River”, “The Emergency Session of the Khural”, “No More Oppression”, etc.. New songs glorified such iconic features of new life as the first schools, the birth of national literature and the new system of writing, the change in attitude to women, the rise of the new generation of authors, the construction of a new automobile road, etc. In the 1930s further socioeconomic transformation gave rise to songs like “I Am a Kolkhoz Member”; “The Tractor Driver”, “The Propagandist”, “The Beautiful Soviet Land”, etc. By the end of the 1930s Tuva got its first amateur composers and author-performed songs. The arrival of theater, dance and music professionals from the USSR at the beginning of the 1940s at the bequest of PRT’s government led to a sea change in professionalization of Tuvan performing arts. In 1951 A. Chyrgal-ool became the first Tuvan student to join a conservatoire in Kazan which he graduated from in 1957. His works composed in 1950s marked a new stage in the rise of professional music in the region. Thus Tuvan song art featured almost the same trends and developments as most other ethnic groups in the Soviet Union.

  19. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S.

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise

  20. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  1. The Inylchek Glacier in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Insight on Surface Kinematics from Optical Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nobakht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain chains of Central Asia host a large number of glaciated areas that provide critical water supplies to the semi-arid populated foothills and lowlands of this region. Spatio-temporal variations of glacier flows are a key indicator of the impact of climate change on water resources as the glaciers react sensitively to climate. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery is an efficient method for studying ice-velocity fields on mountain glaciers. In this study, temporal and spatial changes in surface velocity associated with the Inylchek glacier in Kyrgyzstan are investigated. We present a detailed map for the kinematics of the Inylchek glacier obtained by cross-correlation analysis of Landsat images, acquired between 2000 and 2011, and a set of ASTER images covering the time period between 2001 and 2007. Our results indicate a high-velocity region in the elevated part of the glacier, moving up to a rate of about 0.5 m/day. Time series analysis of optical data reveals some annual variations in the mean surface velocity of the Inylchek during 2000–2011. In particular, our findings suggest an opposite trend between periods of the northward glacial flow in Proletarskyi and Zvezdochka glacier, and the rate of westward motion observed for the main stream of the Inylchek.

  2. CORRUPTION, POVERTY AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE:EASTERN EUROPEAND CENTRAL ASIA CASE

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    Mustafa Ildırar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption, defined as “the misuse of public power for private benefit.” TheWorld Bank describes corruption as one of the greatest obstacles to economic andsocial development. It undermines development by distortingthe rule of law andweakening the institutional foundation on which economic performance depends.In pastdecades, many theoretical and empirical studies have presented corruptionhinders investment, reduces economicgrowth, restricts trade, distorts governmentexpenditures and strengthens the underground economy. In addition,they haveshown a strong connection between corruption and poverty and incomeinequality. On the other hand,theliterature on corruption points to the conclusionthat corruption by itself does not lead to poverty. Rather,corruption has directconsequences on economic and governance factors, intermediaries that in turn producepoverty. Although corruption is seen inmany countries in the world, it ishigher and widespread in developingcountries. This study investigates relationbetween corruption, poverty, and economic performance by using apanelconsisting of countries in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia countries. It wasshown that corruptionaffected directly economic performance and low economicperformance leads to poverty. Additionally, resultsimply that rules againstcorruption could affect economic growth indirectly through their impact on thelevel ofc orruption.

  3. Characterizing the anthropogenic signature in the LCLU dynamics in the Central Asia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarskii, V.; Sokolik, I. N.; de Beurs, K.; Shiklomanov, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have been changing the LCLU dynamics over time through the world. In the Central Asia region, these changes have been especially pronounced due to the political and economic transformation. We present a detailed analysis, focusing on identifying and quantifying the anthropogenic signature in the water and land use across the region. We have characterized the anthropogenic dust emission by combining the modeling and observations. The model is a fully coupled model called WRF-Chem-DuMo that takes explicitly into account the vegetation treatment in modeling the dust emission. We have reconstructed the anthropogenic dust sources in the region, such as the retreat of the Aral Sea, changes in agricultural fields, etc. In addition, we characterize the anthropogenic water use dynamics, including the changes in the water use for the agricultural production. Furthermore, we perform an analysis to identify the anthropogenic signature in the NDVI pattern. The NDVI were analyzed in conjunction with the meteorological fields that were simulated at the high special resolution using the WRF model. Meteorological fields of precipitation and temperature were used for the correlation analysis to separate the natural vs. anthropogenic changes. In this manner, we were able to identify the regions that have been affected by human activities. We will present the quantitative assessment of the anthropogenic changes. The diverse consequences for the economy of the region, as well as, the environment will be addressed.

  4. Bridging Glaciological and Hydrological Trends in the Pamir Mountains, Central Asia

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    Malte Knoche

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With respect to meteorological changes and glacier evolution, the southern Pamir Mountains are a transition zone between the Pamirs, Hindu Kush and Karakoram, which are water towers of Central Asia. In this study, we compare runoff and climate trends in multiple time periods with glacial changes reported in the literature. Recent glacier evolution in the Southern Pamirs and its contribution to river runoff are studied in detail. Uncertainties of estimating glacier retreat contribution to runoff are addressed. Runoff trends in the Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakoram region appear to be a strong proxy for glacier evolution because they exhibit the same spatial pattern as glacial change. There is an anomaly in the North-West Pamirs and Northern Karakoram, showing decreasing runoff trends. In the opposite way, there is a glacier and hydrological change experienced in the Southern Pamirs and Hindu Kush. The prevailing hypothesis for the Karakoram Anomaly, decreasing summer temperatures along with increasing precipitation rates, seems to be valid for the North-Western Pamirs, as well. In the Southern Pamirs, temperature trends have been rising since 1950. Here, the unique water cycle of exclusively winter precipitation does not protect glaciers from accelerated retreat. Snow cover is preset to melt within the seasonal water cycle, due to much lower precipitation amounts falling on glaciers. Therefore, a probable increase in westerly precipitation in both regions causes glacier mass gain in the Northern Pamirs and rising river flows in the Southern Pamirs.

  5. Runoff variations in Lake Balkhash Basin, Central Asia, 1779-2015, inferred from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyushkina, Irina P.; Meko, D. M.; Macklin, M. G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Mukhamadiev, N. S.; Konovalov, V. G.; Ashikbaev, N. Z.; Sagitov, A. O.

    2018-01-01

    Long highly-resolved proxies for runoff are in high demand for hydrological forecasts and water management in arid Central Asia. An accurate (R2 = 0.53) reconstruction of October-September discharge of the Ili River in Kazakhstan, 1779-2015, is developed from moisture-sensitive tree rings of spruce sampled in the Tian Shan Mountains. The fivefold extension of the gauged discharge record represents the variability of runoff in the Lake Balkhash Basin for the last 235 years. The reconstruction shows a 40 year long interval of low discharge preceded a recent high peak in the first decade of the 2000s followed by a decline to more recent levels of discharge not seen since the start of the gauged record. Most reconstructed flow extremes (± 2σ) occur outside the instrumental record (1936-2015) and predate the start of large dam construction (1969). Decadal variability of the Ili discharge corresponds well with hydrological records of other Eurasian internal drainages modeled with tree rings. Spectral analysis identifies variance peaks (highest near 42 year) consistent with main hemispheric oscillations of the Eurasian climatic system. Seasonal comparison of the Ili discharge with sea-level-pressure and geopotential height data suggests periods of high flow likely result from the increased contribution of snow to runoff associated with the interaction of Arctic air circulation with the Siberian High-Pressure System and North Atlantic Oscillation.

  6. Managing the water-energy-food nexus: Opportunities in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Shokhrukh-Mirzo; Amer, Saud A.; Ward, Frank A.

    2018-02-01

    This article examines impacts of infrastructure development and climate variability on economic outcomes for the Amu Darya Basin in Central Asia. It aims to identify the most economically productive mix of expanded reservoir storage for economic benefit sharing to occur, in which economic welfare of all riparians is improved. Policies examined include four combinations of storage infrastructure for each of two climate futures. An empirical optimization model is developed and applied to identify opportunities for improving the welfare of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan. The analysis 1) characterizes politically constrained and economically optimized water-use patterns for these combinations of expanded reservoir storage capacity, 2) describes Pareto-Improving packages of expanded storage capacity that could raise economic welfare for all four riparians, and accounts for impacts for each of two climate scenarios. Results indicate that a combination of targeted water storage infrastructure and efficient water allocation could produce outcomes for which the discounted net present value of benefits are favorable for each riparian. Results identify a framework to provide economic motivation for all riparians to cooperate through development of water storage infrastructure. Our findings illustrate the principle that development of water infrastructure can expand the negotiation space by which all communities can gain economic benefits in the face of limited water supply. Still, despite our optimistic findings, patient and deliberate negotiation will be required to transform potential improvements into actual gains.

  7. Russian and Chinese Policies of Soft Power in the Central Asia (the Case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The policy of “soft power” has lost some of its power in the Russian foreign policy, but continues to dominate in the minds of researchers. There are a lot of scientific and journalistic articles on this subject. The notion has already become a kind of trend, not only in the field of international relations and in the field of political science. The key criterion for determining the impact of “soft power” is “attraction”, that is how the subject can woo the object in order to have some influence on it. Both Russia and China have a set of instruments of “soft power”, which in varying degrees, allow them to influence the objects, including the countries of Central Asia, especially Kazakhstan. Due to the fact that the KR unofficially became the leader of the region, its example can be most clearly trace the desire of Russia and China to become the most attractive partner for Kazakhstan. The study is based on the Comparative Approach, which allows not only to identify the characteristics of the “soft power” of Russia and China, but to compare their effectiveness. The activities of the two countries is analyzed through the prism of tools used in the region of “soft power”, including investment, educational, scientific and cultural programs.

  8. Creation of zone free nuclear weapon (ZFNW) in the Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrisov, E.A.; Eleukenov, D.Sh.

    1997-01-01

    Issues on non-proliferation of mass demolition weapons are of special importance for people of Kazakhstan. The whole damage brought to nature and people's health by nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) is not revealed yet. Kazakhstan contributed much to the matter of nuclear disarmament. More than six years ago for the first time in the world by RK President's resolution an operating nuclear test site closed. Kazakhstan was the first to fulfill obligations in accordance with Lisbon protocol. Kazakhstan liquidated the fourth nuclear potential in the world. It's time to undertake further steps in the field of non-proliferation. One of such steps is the creation of a ZFNW in the central Asia. The idea of ZFNW creation is being acknowledged more and more during last 30 years. All the four present zones include more than 100 countries. If the Antarctic Region is taken into account the zones cover more than 50% of dry land. Regional ZFNWs attract attention as a means of reflecting and rewarding general valuers in the sphere of nuclear disarmament and armament control. Such zones help tj narrow geographical sphere of military nuclear activity and to strengthen non-proliferation regime. The importance of ZFNW in the process of strengthening global and regional peace and safety is confirmed by the documents of Conference for countries joined the agreement on non-proliferation (AN) of 1995 and the first meeting of the Organizing Committee for Conference of 2000

  9. Conservation Agriculture for combating land degradation in Central Asia: a synthesis

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    J.P.A. Lamers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reviews scientific findings on agricultural systems, associated land degradation and selected remedies such as Conservation Agricultural (CA practices to counterbalance these. In particular, this review addresses the research findings onCA practices conducted in the rainfed and irrigated systems in Central Asia. The arid and semi-arid croplands in this region are vulnerable to different types of soil and environmental degradation, and particularly to degradation caused by intensive tillage, irrigation water mismanagement, and cropping practices, especially in the Aral Sea Basin. Overall, the evidence shows that various CA elements, such as permanent beds, seems to be technically suitable for the major cropping systems and despite the heterogeneous conditions in the region. CA practices can contribute to combating on-going land degradation. No-till seeding along with the maintenance of a permanent soil coverage e.g. by residue retention, reduces wind and water erosion, increases water infiltration and storage which can reduce crop water stress, improve soil quality and increase soil organic matter. Further, CA practices can lead to similar or even higher crop yields while reducing production resource needs and costs considerably, including fuel, seeds, agrochemicals, water and labour. Nevertheless, the growing research evidence on the productivity, economic and environmental benefits that can be harnessed with CA, still is from a limited number of studies and hence more research at local scale is needed.

  10. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation.

  11. Role of Russia in development of intra-regional integration process between countries of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureddin Kayumovich Kayumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of partnership of Central Asia countries is described. Prosperity of each of these countries for natural resources is analyzed. Is highlighted that the countries of region complete each other in the context of resources. In order to resist a negative influence of globalization, countries of a region should become integrated using complementarity of their economic potentials. The countries of region derived from the USSR productions united into the single technological and transport net. Meanwhile, there were more disintegration processes in the last years. China placed into the region very big investments. Chinese capital is being placed in Tajikistan, for example, into energetic, road building, agriculture. Position of Russia in the region is feeble. Critically is evaluated economic cooperation of the region with non-CIS states. Leader of integration in the region can become Russia. It is reasonable to use Russia for the organization of links. The positiveinfluence of policy of tsarist Russia on theregion in theforetimeis underlined. External and internal factors of disintegration in the region are analyzed. It is supposed to create within the SCO a research fund for solving scientific problems of an international character

  12. Center or periphery? The system of public administration in Tuva in the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Салимаа Сергеевна Ховалыг

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with formation and development of the government power system and the management in Tuva in the 19-20th centuries. The state apparatus, the hierarchy of ranks and degrees of distinction of the state posts of Tuva are examined. The creation problems of the organization of the power of Russia in the region are analyzed in this article. In connection with it, in the beginning of the 20th century Tuva was accepted as a protectorate of Russia.

  13. The Russian-Soviet legacies in reshaping the national territories in Central Asia: A catastrophic case of Tajikistan

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    Zubaidullo Ubaidulloev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In every period of history many parts and territories of the world divide and get a new shape. There are lots of such examples. One clear example is the so-called ‘Grate Game’ and division of Central Asia by the British and Russian Empires. In general, Central Asian region has been under Russian influence for more than 150 years. Today in the 21st century Central Asia once again is facing a new ‘Great Game’, but this time with new and non-traditional powers in the region like the U.S. and China, which challenge the influence of region's traditional power – Russia. This paper tries to touch upon the situation and the tragic fate of Tajiks during the Russian-Soviet empires within the different political entities, administrations and territories. It analyzes the impact of Russian and Soviet legacies and territorial policies on Tajiks and Tajikistan. According to the findings of this paper, most of the previous Western and other foreign authors occasionally and briefly opine about this topic, especially about the catastrophic impact of the Russian and Soviet territorial legacies to the Tajik nation, in their work mainly focusing on the history of Central Asia. The paper draws together the main conclusions of relevant literature and tries to fill the gap within the body of existing literature and understandings concerning the topic.

  14. A Study to Promote a Collaboration of R and D for Nuclear Energy Technology Development between Korea and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Si Pyo; Kim, Cheol Jung; Yoo, Bung Duk; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Myung Ho; Kim, Kyung Pyo

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this research work is to promote the cooperation in the field of nuclear related works with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan which are main countries in the central Asia. To make a basis on exchanging researchers, a staff in KAERI had visited INP NNC RK, touring research reactors, and make a discussion with the staffs in INP. With this, there is a efforts to make an arrangement between KAERI and NNC RK, signing will be made in near futures. To understand the level of nuclear technology in Uzbekistan, Dr. Rho had made a trip to INP. He visited the Gamma-radiation facility, a research reactor. In Nov. 2005, the chairman of Science Academy visited Korea to discuss the future cooperation in the field of peaceful use of the nuclear energy. By doing so, Korea will make an effort to cooperate with countries in the Central Asia.

  15. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  16. A Study to Promote a Collaboration of R and D for Nuclear Energy Technology Development between Korea and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Si Pyo; Kim, Cheol Jung; Yoo, Bung Duk; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Myung Ho; Kim, Kyung Pyo

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this research work is to promote the cooperation in the field of nuclear related works with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan which are main countries in the central Asia. To make a basis on exchanging researchers, a staff in KAERI had visited INP NNC RK, touring research reactors, and make a discussion with the staffs in INP. With this, there is a efforts to make an arrangement between KAERI and NNC RK, signing will be made in near futures. To understand the level of nuclear technology in Uzbekistan, Dr. Rho had made a trip to INP. He visited the Gamma-radiation facility, a research reactor. In Nov. 2005, the chairman of Science Academy visited Korea to discuss the future cooperation in the field of peaceful use of the nuclear energy. By doing so, Korea will make an effort to cooperate with countries in the Central Asia

  17. Discourse of political archetypes in international relations of the post soviet states of the Central Asia (statement of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алексей Алексеевич Клинцов

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the author considers the problem of discourse of political archetypes in international relations of the post Soviet states of the Central Asia. In author's opinion, political archetypes as historically developed fundamental bases of ethnic consciousness render essential influence on modern diplomacy of the countries of the given region. That is why they require serious and profound studying by domestic and foreign political science.

  18. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of Yersinia pestis by MLVA: insights into the worldwide expansion of Central Asia plague foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU, Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA

  19. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and ...

  20. Politics, economy and energy of Central Asia countries. Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and others; Chuo Asia shokoku no seiji keizai to energy. Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan wo chushin ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the present politics, economy and problems of Central Asian countries such as Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and others. The presidents of five Central Asian countries are old communists except one country, and these countries are governed undemocratically by state power of presidents. The outline of national security in Central Asia is basically composed of the collective security treaty and each treaty between each country and Russia. Central Asian countries can`t maintain their own armed forces because of financial trouble, depending on Russia. The following can be pointed out as racial problems: overseas Russians lived in old republics of USSR, unstable race structure of Kazakhstan, Tadzhikistan problem, nationalism problem in Uzbekistan, independent movement of minority races, and expansion movement of self-government right. In the old USSR era, the economy of each country depended on the subsidy from Moscow, and such condition continued up to 1993 after their independence, while remarkable reduction of the economy of every country is found since 1994. 75 refs., 12 tabs.

  1. The Role of Identity, Ethnic Stereotypesand Acculturation Strategies in the Adaptation of Migrantsfrom Central Asia in the Moscow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyapina V.N.,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the study of the of impact ethnic, religious, civil and Russian identities, ethnic stereotypes on the strategies of acculturation and on the adaptation of migrants from Central Asia in the Moscow region. Representatives of two ethnic groupsparticipated in the research: 105 Uzbeks and 96 Tajiks (N= 201. The methods of the study included the scales of acculturation strategies, ethnic and national identities from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project questionnaire. The results of path analysis in AMOS program showed that integration and assimilation are the most successful strategies for migrants from Central Asia: integration contributed to self-esteem, while assimilation promoted life satisfaction. Integration is basically determined by ethnic and Russian identities, whereas assimilation is determined mostly by identification with the country of origin and by Russian identity as well as by the negative impact of ethnic identity. Separation and marginalization do not contribute to self-esteem of the migrants; however, positive heterostereotype of the Russians and Russian national identity prevent the migrants from choosing separation and marginalization. The choice of strategy is largely affected by religious identity. Expressed religious identity has a negative impact on the socio-cultural adaptation of the migrants from Central Asia in the Moscow region.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Malekzadeh, Reza; Hainaut, Pierre; Dar, Nazir Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar; Zargar, Showkat Ahmad; Lone, M Muqbool; Martel-Planche, Ghyslaine; Villar, Stéphanie; Mounawar, Mounia; Saidi, Farrokh

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) shows geographic variations in incidence, with high incidences (>50/10 5 person-years) in central Asia, including North Eastern Iran (Golestan) and Northern India (Kashmir). In contrast to Western countries, smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for ESCC in central Asia. In lung adenocarcinoma, activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are frequent in tumors of never smokers of Asian origin, predicting therapeutic sensitivity to Egfr-targeting drugs. In this study 152 cases of histologically confirmed ESCC from Iran (Tehran and Golestan Province) and North India (Kashmir Valley) have been analyzed for EGFR mutation by direct sequencing of exons 18–21. Egfr protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 34 samples from Tehran and HER2 mutations were analyzed in 54 cases from Kashmir. A total of 14 (9.2%) EGFR variations were detected, including seven variations in exons. Among those, four (2.6%) were already documented in lung cancers, two were reported as polymorphisms and one was a potentially new activating mutation. All but one variation in introns were previously identified as polymorphisms. Over-expression of Egfr was detected in 22/34 (65%) of tested cases whereas no HER2 mutation was found in 54 cases from Kashmir. Overall, EGFR mutations appear to be a rare event in ESCC in high incidence areas of central Asia, although a very small proportion of cases may harbor mutations predicting sensitivity to anti-Egfr drugs

  3. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  4. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Improved Algorithm of SCS-CN Model Parameters in Typical Inland River Basin in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin J.; Ding, Jian L.; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Wen Q.

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall-runoff relationship is the most important factor for hydrological structures, social and economic development on the background of global warmer, especially in arid regions. The aim of this paper is find the suitable method to simulate the runoff in arid area. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) is the most popular and widely applied model for direct runoff estimation. In this paper, we will focus on Wen-quan Basin in source regions of Boertala River. It is a typical valley of inland in Central Asia. First time to use the 16m resolution remote sensing image about high-definition earth observation satellite “Gaofen-1” to provide a high degree accuracy data for land use classification determine the curve number. Use surface temperature/vegetation index (TS/VI) construct 2D scatter plot combine with the soil moisture absorption balance principle calculate the moisture-holding capacity of soil. Using original and parameter algorithm improved SCS-CN model respectively to simulation the runoff. The simulation results show that the improved model is better than original model. Both of them in calibration and validation periods Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency were 0.79, 0.71 and 0.66,038. And relative error were3%, 12% and 17%, 27%. It shows that the simulation accuracy should be further improved and using remote sensing information technology to improve the basic geographic data for the hydrological model has the following advantages: 1) Remote sensing data having a planar characteristic, comprehensive and representative. 2) To get around the bottleneck about lack of data, provide reference to simulation the runoff in similar basin conditions and data-lacking regions.

  6. Environmental Drivers of NDVI-Based Vegetation Phenology in Central Asia

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    Jahan Kariyeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the application and use of geospatial data, this study aimed to detect and characterize some of the key environmental drivers contributing to landscape-scale vegetation response patterns in Central Asia. The objectives of the study were to identify the variables driving the year-to-year vegetation dynamics in three regional landscapes (desert, steppe, and mountainous; and to determine if the identified environmental drivers can be used to explain the spatial-temporal variability of these spatio-temporal dynamics over time. It was posed that patterns of change in terrestrial phenology, derived from the 8 km bi-weekly time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellites (1981–2008, can be explained through a multi-scale analysis of a suite of environmental drivers. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses and address the objectives of the study. The annually computed phenological response variables or pheno-metricstime (season start, season length, and an NDVI-based productivity metric were modeled as a function of ten environmental factors relating to soil, topography, and climate. Each of the three studied regional landscapes was shown to be governed by a distinctive suite of environmental drivers. The phenological responses of the steppe landscapes were affected by the year-to-year variation in temperature regimes. The phenology of the mountainous landscapes was influenced primarily by the elevation gradient. The phenological responses of desert landscapes were demonstrated to have the greatest variability over time and seemed to be affected by soil carbon content and year-to-year variation of both temperature regimes and winter precipitation patterns. Amounts and scales of observed phenological variability over time (measured through coefficient of variation for each pheno-metrictime in each of the regional

  7. Lithospheric controls on crustal reactivation and intraplate mountain building in the Gobi Corridor, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D.

    2017-12-01

    This talk will review the Permian-Recent tectonic history of the Gobi Corridor region which includes the actively deforming Gobi Altai-Altai, Eastern Tien Shan, Beishan and North Tibetan foreland. Since terrane amalgamation in the Permian, Gobi Corridor crust has been repeatedly reactivated by Triassic-Jurassic contraction/transpression, Late Cretaceous extension and Late Cenozoic transpression. The tectonic history of the region suggests the following basic principle for intraplate continental regions: non-cratonized continental interior terrane collages are susceptible to repeated intraplate reactivation events, driven by either post-orogenic collapse and/or compressional stresses derived from distant plate boundary convergence. Thus, important related questions are: 1) what lithospheric pre-conditions favor intraplate crustal reactivation in the Gobi Corridor (simple answer: crustal thinning, thermal weakening, strong buttressing cratons), 2) what are the controls on the kinematics of deformation and style of mountain building in the Gobi-Altai-Altai, Beishan and North Tibetan margin (simple answer: many factors, but especially angular relationship between SHmax and `crustal grain'), 3) how does knowledge of the array of Quaternary faults and the historical earthquake record influence our understanding of modern earthquake hazards in continental intraplate regions (answer: extrapolation of derived fault slip rates and recurrence interval determinations are problematic), 4) what important lessons can we learn from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic history of Central Asia that is applicable to the tectonic evolution of all intraplate continental regions (simple answer: ancient intraplate deformation events may be subtly expressed in the rock record and only revealed by low-temperature thermochronometers, preserved orogen-derived sedimentary sequences, fault zone evidence for younger brittle reactivation, and recognition of a younger class of cross-cutting tectonic

  8. Higher assimilation than respiration sensitivity to drought for a desert ecosystem in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Daxing; Otieno, Dennis; Huang, Yuqing; Wang, Quan

    2017-12-31

    Responses of ecosystem assimilation and respiration to global climate change vary considerably among terrestrial ecosystems constrained by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, net CO 2 exchange between ecosystem and atmosphere (NEE) was measured over a 4-year period (2013-2016) using eddy covariance technology in a desert ecosystem in Central Asia. Ecosystem assimilation (gross primary production, GPP) and respiration (R eco ) were derived from NEE by fitting light response curves to NEE data based on day- and nighttime data, and their responses to soil water content (SWC) and evaporative fraction (EF) were assessed during the growing season. Results indicated that both GPP and R eco linearly decreased with declining SWC, with the sensitivity of GPP to SWC being 3.8 times higher than that of R eco during the entire growing season. As a result, ecosystem CO 2 sequestration capacity decreased from 4.00μmolm -2 s -1 to 1.00μmolm -2 s -1 , with increasing soil drought . On a seasonal scale, significant correlation between GPP and SWC was only found in spring while that between R eco and SWC was found in all growing seasons with the sensitivity increasing steadily from spring to autumn. EF had a low correlation with SWC, GPP and R eco (R 2 =0.03, 0.02, 0.05, respectively), indicating that EF was not a good proxy for soil drought and energy partitioning was not tightly coupled to ecosystem carbon exchanges in this desert ecosystem. The study deepens our knowledge of ecosystem carbon exchange and its response to drought as well as its coupling with ecosystem energy partitioning in an extreme dry desert. The information is critical for better assessing carbon sequestration capacity in dryland, and for understanding its feedback to climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Fight against the Forced Labor and the Human Trafficking in Central Asia

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    Leonid Yu. Gusev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the combat of forced labor and human trafficking in Central Asia. It is noted that this problem has emerged since the early 90s, when these countries got the independence, due to the difficult economic situation, activity of extremist organizations. It is pointed out that the victims of trafficking may be men, women and children, but in most cases they are young women and girls who are sexually exploited. It is shown by the examples of each of the countries of the region, what is being done to counter this terrible phenomenon. The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan established the Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Human Trafficking. The commission, in cooperation with international organizations doing some work to inform the public, the search for victims of sexual business, return and rehabilitation of these persons. In Kazakhstan, according to the new law it has become easier to initiate criminal proceedings concerning labor slavery. In addition, a temporary accommodation center for victims of human trafficking «Komek» was created. In Kyrgyzstan, a working group on the development of 3 of the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (2011-2015 under the auspices of the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Migration of the Kyrgyz Republic was created. In Uzbekistan, the law «on combating human trafficking» came into force. In addition, a Republican Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Human Trafficking was created. The law defines the powers of public authorities directly involved in the activities in this direction. In Turkmenistan, the government prohibits all forms of trafficking of persons in accordance with Article 129 of the Criminal Code, adopted in May 2010 and entered into force in July 2010. It provides for penalties ranging from 4 to 25 years in prison. These penalties sufficiently stringent and commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. At

  10. Projected Changes in the Annual Cycle of Precipitation over Central Asia by CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Future changes in the annual cycle of the precipitation in central Asia (CA) were estimated based on the historical and Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments from 25 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) observations, the historical (1979-1999) experiments showed that most models can capture the migration of rainfall centers, but remarkable discrepancies exist in the location and intensity of rainfall centers between simulations and observations. Considering the skill scores of precipitation and pattern correlations of circulations, which are closely related to the precipitation for each month, for the 25 models, the four best models (e.g., CanESM2, CMCC-CMS, MIROC5 and MPI-ESM-LR) with relatively good performance were selected. The four models' ensemble mean indicated that the migration and location of the precipitation centers were better reproduced, except the intensity of the centers was overestimated, compared with the result that only considered precipitation. Based on the four best models' ensemble mean under RCP8.5 scenarios, precipitation was projected to increase dramatically over most of the CA region in the boreal cold seasons (November, December, January, February, March, April and May) with the maximum in December in the end of twenty-first century (2079-2099), and several positive centers were located in the Pamirs Plateau and the Tianshan Mountains. By contrast, the precipitation changes were weak in the boreal warm seasons (June, July, August, September and October), with a wet center located in the northern Himalayas. Furthermore, there remain some uncertainties in the projected precipitation regions and periods obtained by comparing models' ensemble results of this paper and the results of previous studies. These uncertainties should be investigated in future work.

  11. Comparison of different wind data interpolation methods for a region with complex terrain in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Katja; Samimi, Cyrus

    2018-01-01

    While climatological data of high spatial resolution are largely available in most developed countries, the network of climatological stations in many other regions of the world still constitutes large gaps. Especially for those regions, interpolation methods are important tools to fill these gaps and to improve the data base indispensible for climatological research. Over the last years, new hybrid methods of machine learning and geostatistics have been developed which provide innovative prospects in spatial predictive modelling. This study will focus on evaluating the performance of 12 different interpolation methods for the wind components \\overrightarrow{u} and \\overrightarrow{v} in a mountainous region of Central Asia. Thereby, a special focus will be on applying new hybrid methods on spatial interpolation of wind data. This study is the first evaluating and comparing the performance of several of these hybrid methods. The overall aim of this study is to determine whether an optimal interpolation method exists, which can equally be applied for all pressure levels, or whether different interpolation methods have to be used for the different pressure levels. Deterministic (inverse distance weighting) and geostatistical interpolation methods (ordinary kriging) were explored, which take into account only the initial values of \\overrightarrow{u} and \\overrightarrow{v} . In addition, more complex methods (generalized additive model, support vector machine and neural networks as single methods and as hybrid methods as well as regression-kriging) that consider additional variables were applied. The analysis of the error indices revealed that regression-kriging provided the most accurate interpolation results for both wind components and all pressure heights. At 200 and 500 hPa, regression-kriging is followed by the different kinds of neural networks and support vector machines and for 850 hPa it is followed by the different types of support vector machine and

  12. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE CRUST AND UPPER MANTLE FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH ASIA

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    V. N. Senachin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the density of both the crust and mantle is one of the topical problems in modern geophysics. Gravity modeling in combination with seismic tomography is an important tool for detecting density inhomogeneities in the crust and mantle, which can cause stresses and thus significantly impact the regional tectonics [Pogorelov, Baranov, 2010], especially in zones wherein continental margins actively interact with subducting oceanic plates and the entire depth of the tectonosphere is subject to stresses. Associated processes lead to considerable horizontal and vertical stresses that often cause catastrophic events on a global scale. The challenge of studying the global tectonic processes in the Earth’s tectonosphere can be addressed by gravity modeling in combination with seismic surveying.Data from previous studies. I.L. Nersesov et al. [1975] pioneered in calculating the spatial pattern of mantle density inhomogeneities in Central Asia. Although the accuracy of their estimations was not high due to the limited database, their study yielded significant results considering the structure of the crust. Numerous subsequent geophysical projects have researched the crust to a level sufficient to develop regional models, that can give quite adequate information on the depths of external and internal boundaries of the crust and suggest the distribution patterns of seismic velocities and density values. With reference to such data, mantle density inhomogeneities can be studied with higher accuracy.This paper reports on the estimations of gravity anomalies in the crust and upper mantle in Central and South Asia. The study region represents the full range of crust thicknesses and ages, as well a variety of crust formation types [Christensen, Mooney, 1995]. We used the 3D gravity modeling software package 3SGravity developed by Senachin [2015a, 2015b] that considers the spherical shape of the Earth's surface, and estimated gravitional anomalies using

  13. Seasonal snow cover regime and historical change in Central Asia from 1986 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Aizen, Elena; Aizen, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    A series of statistics describing seasonal Snow Cover Extent and timing in Central Asia (CA) have been derived from AVHRR satellite images for the time period from 1986 to 2008. Analysis of long term mean snow cover statistics shows that the area weighted mean of long term Snow Covering Days (SCD) for the whole CA is 95.2 ± 65.7 days. High elevation mountainous areas above 3000 m in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir, which account for about 2.8% of total area in CA, have SCD > 240 days. Deserts (Karakorum Desert, Taklamakan Desert, Kumtag Desert) and rain shadow areas of major mountains, accounting for 27.0% of total area in CA, have SCD in the range of 0-30 days. Factors affecting snow cover distribution have been analyzed using simple linear regression and segmented regression. For plain regions and windward regions, the SCD rate is + 5.9 days/100 m, while for leeward regions, the rate jumps from + 0.7 days/100 m to + 10.0 days/100 m at about 2335 m. Latitude affects the SCD, especially in plain regions with insignificant change of elevation, with rates of 9-10 days/degree from south to north. The Mann-Kendal test and the Theil-Sen regression methods have been applied to analyze the spatial heterogeneous trends of change of SCD, Snow Cover Onset Date (SCOD), and Snow Cover Melt Date (SCMD). Area weighed mean SCD in the whole CA does not exhibit significant trend of change from 1986 to 2008. Increase of SCD was observed in the northeastern Kazakh Steppe. Low elevation areas below 2000 m in Central Tien Shan and Eastern Tien Shan, as well as mid-elevation areas from 1000 m to 3000 m in Western Tien Shan, Pamiro-Alai and Western Pamir, also experienced increase of SCD, associated with both earlier SCOD and later SCMD. Decrease of SCD was observed in mountainous areas of Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir, and vast areas in plains surrounding the Aral Sea.

  14. Characteristics and composition of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, central Thailand during BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.183°N, 102.565°E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 ± 64 Mm-1; absorption: 15 ± 8 Mm-1; PM10 concentration: 33 ± 17 μg m-3), and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 ± 3.6 μg m-3; EC: 2.0 ± 2.3 μg m-3) and secondary species (SO42-: 6.4 ± 3.7 μg m-3, NH4+: 2.2 ± 1.3 μg m-3). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 ± 0.33 μg m-3). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 ± 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

  15. Asthenospheric counterflows beneath the moving lithosphere of Central and East Asia in the past 90 Ma: volcanic and tomographic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasskazov, Sergei; Chuvashova, Irina; Kozhevnikov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Asthenospheric counterflows, accompanied motions of the lithosphere in Central and East Asia, are defined on basis of spatial-temporal activity of mantle sources [Rasskazov et al., 2012; Rasskazov, Chuvashova, 2013; Chuvashova, Rasskazov, 2014] and the tomographic model of the Rayleigh wave group velocities [Kozhevnikov et al., 2014]. The opposite fluxes are defined relative to centers of convective instability (low-velocity anomalies), expressed by thinning of the mantle transition layer under Southwestern Gobi (44 °N, 95 °E) and Northern Baikal (52 °N, 108 °E). Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic fields in Southern Gobi are shifted eastwards relative to the former anomaly over 600 km with the opposite sub-lithospheric flux at depths of 150-300 km. Likewise, the Late Tertiary Vitim volcanic field is shifted relative to the latter anomaly over 100-200 km. We suggest that the Gobi and Baikal asthenospheric counterflows contributed to the rollback mechanism of downgoing slab material from the Pacific under the eastern margin of Asia in the Cretaceous-Paleogene and Early-Middle Miocene. The east-west Gobi reverse flux, caused by differential block motions in front of the Indo-Asian convergence, resulted in the oblique Honshu-Korean flexure of the Pacific slab that propagated beneath the continental margin, while the Japan Sea was quickly opening at about 15 Ma. The Baikal N60°W reverse flux, originated due to oncoming traffic between Eurasia and the Pacific plate, entailed the formation of the Baikal Rift Zone and direct Hokkaido Amur slab flexure [Rasskazov et al., 2004]. The study is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 14-05-31328). References Chuvashova I.S., Rasskazov S.V. Magmatic sources in the mantle of the evolving Earth. Irkutsk: Publishing House of the Irkutsk State University, 2014. 310 p. (in Russian) Kozhevnikov V.M., Seredkina A.I., Solovei O.A. 3D mantle structure of Central Asia from Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion

  16. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

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    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  17. Del Horizonte Medio al Horizonte Tardío en la Costa Sur Central: el caso del valle de Asia

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    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available DE L’HORIZON MOYEN A L’HORIZON RECENT SUR LA COTE CENTRALE : LE CAS DE LA VALLEE DE ASIA. La vallée de Asia, située à quelque 100 km au sud de Lima, a joué un rôle important durant l’Horizon moyen. En effet, les contextes funéraires de la Huaca Malena et les textiles élaborés qui en sont issus, suggèrent d’étroites relations avec Huari, Pachacamac, et les côtes centrale et nord. L’étude des textiles nous permet de voir que la transition de l’Horizon moyen à la période Intermédiaire récent se marque par une croissance des relations avec la côte centrale. Selon les données ethnohistoriques, la vallée de Asia était durant la période Intermédiaire récent habitée par les Coyallo, qui versaient tribut à Pachacamac. À l’Horizon récent, les Incas construisirent d’importants centres administratifs dans la vallée, et durant cette période le matériel céramique montre de fortes relations avec les styles des vallées voisines au nord, comme Mala, Chilca, et la côte aux alentours de Lima. El valle de Asia, situado a 100 kilómetros al sur de Lima, jugó un rol de importancia durante el Horizonte Medio. En efecto, los contextos funerarios de Huaca Malena, así como los finos textiles que los acompañan indican una fuerte relación con Wari, Pachacamac, la Costa Central y la Costa Norte. De acuerdo con la evidencia textil, el tránsito del Horizonte Medio al periodo Intermedio Tardío incrementó las relaciones con la costa central. Para el periodo Intermedio Tardío, de acuerdo a la información etnohistórica, el valle estuvo habitado por los coayllo, quienes tributaban a Pachacamac. Durante el Horizonte Tardío, los incas construyen importantes centros administrativos en el valle, y la cerámica durante este periodo se relacionó fuertemente con los estilos propios de los vecinos valles norteños de Mala, Chilca y la costa de Lima. FROM THE MIDDLE HORIZON TO THE LATE HORIZON ON THE SOUTH CENTRAL COAST: THE CASE OF THE

  18. Advancing human rights in patient care through higher education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tamar; Overall, Judy

    2013-12-12

    In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, for society's most marginalized people, health systems are too often places of violations of basic rights, rather than of treatment and care. At the same time, health practitioners are largely unaware of how to incorporate human rights norms in their work. Additionally, they may face abuses themselves, such as unsafe working conditions and sanctions for providing evidence-based care. Similarly, legal professionals have limited experience working in the health sector, trying to address abuses that occur. Republics of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia have emerged from communism and experienced continued restructuring of their health care systems. As faculties of law, public health, and medicine have sought to incorporate these rapid changes into their curricula, this period of reform and openness to new approaches presented a particular opportunity to integrate human rights education. The Open Society Foundations have attempted to respond to the need to build health and human rights capacity by supporting the development of over 25 courses in human rights in patient care in nine countries. Targeted at different audiences, these courses are now part of the regular offerings at the academic institutions where they are taught. Student evaluations point to the strength of the interdisciplinary approach and the need to integrate practical examples and exercises. Faculty response has led to the development of a virtual community of practice and series of workshops to gain exposure to new ideas, strengthen interactive teaching, and share materials and experiences. Critical to this initiative has been working with faculty champions in each university, who shaped this initiative to meet the needs in their context. It quickly became apparent that teaching methodology is as important as content in human rights education. Meaningful engagement with health practitioners has entailed connections to day-to-day practice, participatory

  19. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  20. RUSSIAN PERIODICALS AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH -20TH CENTURIESON RUSSIAN MIGRANTS’ SOCIOCULTURAL ADAPTATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р А Арсланов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Russian historiography, the views of the publicists of the early 20th century of the Russian colonists’ life in Central Asia aren’t duly highlighted. The novelty and aim of the research consist in revealing the general and particular in the Russian periodicals’ percep-tion of the colonization of Turkestan, in determining their ideological bent. The authors have discovered that all the reviewed periodicals were adherents of Central Asia colonization. They supported the imperial policy of the government with minor reserva-tions. Most publicists noted that the settling of colonists depended on the actions of the central government, which insuffi ciently took into account the local conditions. However, publicists differed in the choice of the main direction and in the assessments of the value of colonists’ adaptation activity; they proposed various ways of developing the intercultural dialogue.The authors come to the conclusions that liberal periodicals paid special attention to the economic activities of Russian immigrants, assessing the degree of their adaptation by the level of well-being achieved. The Narodnik periodicals considered migrants as a part of the peasant world of Russia. They were concerned, above all, about the colonists’ commu-nity, which they considered an effective means of adaptation, preserving the culture and moral qualities of the Russians. Probably, they considered it a pledge of building fair relations with the local population. Conservative and offi cial publicists viewed Russian immigrants primarily as support of the Russian government in Central Asia. That is why they paid special attention to the preservation of assimilation qualities of the Russians, the loss of which could become, in their view, an obstacle to the strengthening of the empire positions in the region.

  1. Holocene climate variability in arid Central Asia as revealed from high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analyses of laminated sediments from Lake Chatyr Kol (Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, S.; Plessen, B.; Dulski, P.; Mingram, J.; Prasad, S.

    2013-12-01

    A pronounced trend from a predominantly wet climate during the early Holocene towards significantly drier conditions since the mid-Holocene, mainly attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, climate in the adjacent regions of mid-latitude arid Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is supposed to have been characterized by pronounced dry conditions during the early Holocene, wet conditions during the mid-Holocene and a rather moderate drying during the late Holocene, which is mainly attributed to the complex interplay between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. However, although mid-latitude Central Asia thus might represent a key region for the understanding of teleconnections between the ASM system and the Westerlies, knowledge about past climate development in this region is still ambiguous due to the limited number of high-resolution palaeoclimate records. Hence, new well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from this region are expected to provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, a sediment core of about 6.25 m length has been recovered from alpine Lake Chatyr Kol (40°36' N, 75°14' E, 3530 m a. s. l., surface area ~170 km2, maximum depth ~20 m), located in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. Sediment microfacies analysis on large-scale petrographic thin sections reveals continuously sub-mm scale laminated sediments throughout the record except for the uppermost ca. 60 cm. Microsedimentological characterization of these laminae, which are most probably

  2. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Chinese Altai, central Asia: new insights from microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Jian; Schulmann, Karel; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun

    2013-04-01

    pressure and that in the high-T rocks was featured by the significant increase of temperature. The pressure increase could attribute to the progressive crustal thickening that may be correlated to the accretionary regime of the southern Altai in the mid-Devonian and the high temperature conditions most likely imply a significant heat input from the deep depth, consistent with the syn-chronologically emplacement of juvenile magmas on a large scale. Our study indicates the development of high-T metamorphism was genetically linked with that of the medium-P metamorphism and suggests that the crustal thickening during the orogenic process of the Altai region was accompanied by large heat input. This study is supported by Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P), National Science Foundation of China (41273048), IGCP #592 Project "Continental construction in Central Asia" and Research grant of State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SKLIG-KF-12-06) .

  3. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation. PMID:24666927

  4. Quantifying the Impacts of Environmental Factors on Vegetation Dynamics over Climatic and Management Gradients of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Dubovyk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a lack of quantitative information regarding the driving factors of vegetation dynamics in post-Soviet Central Asia. Insufficient knowledge also exists concerning vegetation variability across sub-humid to arid climatic gradients as well as vegetation response to different land uses, from natural rangelands to intensively irrigated croplands. In this study, we analyzed the environmental drivers of vegetation dynamics in five Central Asian countries by coupling key vegetation parameter “overall greenness” derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series data, with its possible factors across various management and climatic gradients. We developed nine generalized least-squares random effect (GLS-RE models to analyze the relative impact of environmental factors on vegetation dynamics. The obtained results quantitatively indicated the extensive control of climatic factors on managed and unmanaged vegetation cover across Central Asia. The most diverse vegetation dynamics response to climatic variables was observed for “intensively managed irrigated croplands”. Almost no differences in response to these variables were detected for managed non-irrigated vegetation and unmanaged (natural vegetation across all countries. Natural vegetation and rainfed non-irrigated crop dynamics were principally associated with temperature and precipitation parameters. Variables related to temperature had the greatest relative effect on irrigated croplands and on vegetation cover within the mountainous zone. Further research should focus on incorporating the socio-economic factors discussed here in a similar analysis.

  5. Simulation and spatiotemporal pattern of air temperature and precipitation in Eastern Central Asia using RegCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianyong; Long, Aihua; Wu, Yiping; Yin, Gang; Wang, Hao; Ji, Xiaonan

    2018-02-26

    Central Asia is a region that has a large land mass, yet meteorological stations in this area are relatively scarce. To address this data issues, in this study, we selected two reanalysis datasets (the ERA40 and NCEP/NCAR) and downscaled them to 40 × 40 km using RegCM. Then three gridded datasets (the CRU, APHRO, and WM) that were extrapolated from the observations of Central Asian meteorological stations to evaluate the performance of RegCM and analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation and air temperature. We found that since the 1960s, the air temperature in Xinjiang shows an increasing trend and the distribution of precipitation in the Tianshan area is quite complex. The precipitation is increasing in the south of the Tianshan Mountains (Southern Xinjiang, SX) and decreasing in the mountainous areas. The CRU and WM data indicate that precipitation in the north of the Tianshan Mountains (Northern Xinjiang, NX) is increasing, while the APHRO data show an opposite trend. The downscaled results from RegCM are generally consistent with the extrapolated gridded datasets in terms of the spatiotemporal patterns. We believe that our results can provide useful information in developing a regional climate model in Central Asia where meteorological stations are scarce.

  6. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations and expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedi-Ardekani Behnoush

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC shows geographic variations in incidence, with high incidences (>50/105 person-years in central Asia, including North Eastern Iran (Golestan and Northern India (Kashmir. In contrast to Western countries, smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for ESCC in central Asia. In lung adenocarcinoma, activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are frequent in tumors of never smokers of Asian origin, predicting therapeutic sensitivity to Egfr-targeting drugs. Methods In this study 152 cases of histologically confirmed ESCC from Iran (Tehran and Golestan Province and North India (Kashmir Valley have been analyzed for EGFR mutation by direct sequencing of exons 18–21. Egfr protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 34 samples from Tehran and HER2 mutations were analyzed in 54 cases from Kashmir. Results A total of 14 (9.2% EGFR variations were detected, including seven variations in exons. Among those, four (2.6% were already documented in lung cancers, two were reported as polymorphisms and one was a potentially new activating mutation. All but one variation in introns were previously identified as polymorphisms. Over-expression of Egfr was detected in 22/34 (65% of tested cases whereas no HER2 mutation was found in 54 cases from Kashmir. Conclusion Overall, EGFR mutations appear to be a rare event in ESCC in high incidence areas of central Asia, although a very small proportion of cases may harbor mutations predicting sensitivity to anti-Egfr drugs.

  8. Central Asia and Its Asian Neighbors: Security and Commerce at the Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    16 Tajik Television (2005). 17 “Tajikistan: Iran Allocates Total of $30 Million for Tunnel” (2003); Avesta (2004). 18 Asia-Plus News...International Re- ports, August 24, 2004. Avesta , “Road Linking Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran To Be Built Soon,” BBC Worldwide Monitoring: International

  9. Central Asia as a Regional Security Complex from the Perspectives of Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Putri Pratama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan menganalisis kawasan Asia Tengah, dilihat dari perspektif Realisme, Liberalisme dan Konstruktivisme, melalui teori Regional Security Complex oleh Barry Buzan dan Ole Waever. Teori ini hendak menunjukkan keamanan regional berdasarkan interdependensi antar unit dalam kawasan dilihat dari struktur power dan proses sekuritisasi di dalamnya, demikian pola hubungan keamanan dalam kawasan Asia Tengah berusaha dijelaskan dengan elemen-elemen dari ketiga paradigma yang terdapat dalam teori tersebut. Hasil analisis tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa Asia Tengah dipandang sebagai bentuk insecurity interdependence by external forces dari perspektif Realis, security interdependence by interest dari perspektif Liberalis dan securitization interdependence by understanding of threat/security dari perspektif Konstruktivis. Kompleks keamanan Asia Tengah termasuk dalam tipe kompleks keamanan Great Power, terlihat dari peran besar kekuatan-kekuatan eksternal terutama Rusia dan Cina dalam kawasan tersebut; baik dalam pembentukan pola pertemanan dengan kerjasama, pola permusuhan dengan persaingan dan ketakutan, juga proses sekuritisasi isu separatisme, ekstremisme dan terorisme sebagai ancaman terhadap keamanan regional.Tulisan ini diambil dari tugas karya akhir penulis yang diajukan untuk medapatkan gelar Sarjana Sosial dari Departemen Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Universitas Indonesia.

  10. Seasonal and long-term change in lead deposition in central Japan: evidence for atmospheric transport from continental Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellis, David J.; Satake, Kenichi; Inagaki, Michiko; Zeng, Jiye; Oizumi, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Long-range transport of air pollution from continental Asia is currently an important issue concerning the Japanese environment, especially in regions susceptible to acidification due to low buffering capacity, such as Murakami, Niigata prefecture, located on the west coast of central Japan. Evidence for long-range transport was obtained through lead and lead isotopic analysis of 84 archived precipitation filters, showing seasonal changes in lead deposition from May 1999 to May 2002. Lead deposition was highest in winter and spring (November through May) each year and lowest in summer. Computed 72-h back trajectories showed that in winter air masses were predominantly transported from the northwest, passing over northern China and eastern Russia, whilst in summer air masses predominantly originated from the southeast passing over Japan. Lead isotopic analysis showed higher 208 Pb/ 206 Pb during winter, indicating that lead originated from a different source. A plot of 207 Pb/ 206 Pb vs. 208 Pb/ 206 Pb identified a thorogenic component, which is excess 208 Pb compared to a standard lead growth curve, indicative of certain lead ores and coals in continental Asia. The data provided evidence of long-range transport of lead from continental Asia to Japan. Bark pockets included within the trunks of two Japanese cedar trees harvested near Murakami, dating between 1972 and 1982, exhibited lead isotope ratios indicative of Japanese-sourced lead. In contrast, current (2003) bark showed thorogenic ratios, consistent with a relative decline in Japanese-sourced and increase in continental-sourced lead

  11. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    Lake Outburst Floods can evolve from complex process chains like avalanches of rock or ice that produce flood waves in a lake which may overtop and eventually breach glacial, morainic, landslide, or artificial dams. Rising lake levels can lead to progressive incision and destabilization of a dam, to enhanced ground water flow (piping), or even to hydrostatic failure of ice dams which can cause sudden outflow of accumulated water. These events often have a highly destructive potential because a large amount of water is released in a short time, with a high capacity to erode loose debris, leading to a powerful debris flow with a long travel distance. The best-known example of a lake outburst flood is the Vajont event (Northern Italy, 1963), where a landslide rushed into an artificial lake which spilled over and caused a flood leading to almost 2000 fatalities. Hazards from the failure of landslide dams are often (not always) fairly manageable: most breaches occur in the first few days or weeks after the landslide event and the rapid construction of a spillway - though problematic - has solved some hazardous situations (e.g. in the case of Hattian landslide in 2005 in Pakistan). Older dams, like Usoi dam (Lake Sarez) in Tajikistan, are usually fairly stable, though landsildes into the lakes may create floodwaves overtopping and eventually weakening the dams. The analysis and the mitigation of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard remains a challenge. A number of GLOFs resulting in fatalities and severe damage have occurred during the previous decades, particularly in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Central Asia (Pamir, Tien Shan). The source area is usually far away from the area of impact and events occur at very long intervals or as singularities, so that the population at risk is usually not prepared. Even though potentially hazardous lakes can be identified relatively easily with remote sensing and field work, modeling and predicting of GLOFs (and also

  12. Climate model performance and change projection for freshwater fluxes: Comparison for irrigated areas in Central and South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa M. Asokan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The large semi-arid Aral Region in Central Asia and the smaller tropical Mahanadi River Basin (MRB in India. Study focus: Few studies have so far evaluated the performance of the latest generation of global climate models on hydrological basin scales. We here investigate the performance and projections of the global climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5 for freshwater fluxes and their changes in two regional hydrological basins, which are both irrigated but of different scale and with different climate. New hydrological insights for the region: For precipitation in both regions, model accuracy relative to observations has remained the same or decreased in successive climate model generations until and including CMIP5. No single climate model out-performs other models across all key freshwater variables in any of the investigated basins. Scale effects are not evident from global model application directly to freshwater assessment for the two basins of widely different size. Overall, model results are less accurate and more uncertain for freshwater fluxes than for temperature, and particularly so for model-implied water storage changes. Also, the monsoon-driven runoff seasonality in MRB is not accurately reproduced. Model projections agree on evapotranspiration increase in both regions until the climatic period 2070–2099. This increase is fed by precipitation increase in MRB and by runoff water (thereby decreasing runoff in the Aral Region. Keywords: CMIP5 global climate models, Hydro-climate, Freshwater change, Central Asia, South Asia, Monsoon driven seasonality

  13. Risk assessment of pet-traded decapod crustaceans in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the leading country in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uderbayev Talgat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pet trade with decapod crustaceans has been considered one of the main pathway of introduction of these animals worldwide. As the leading markets in this regards are the Czech Republic, Germany and the USA. Central Asia is not perceived as an important market with ornamental decapod crustaceans. Despite this assumption, we found at least 16 species of freshwater shrimp, crayfish and crab species pet-traded in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the largest country in this region. Considering computed risk assessment, the origin of particular species, their availability on the market, the probability of establishment and further aspects, we identified two crayfish Procambarus clarkii and Procambarus fallax f. virginalis being the seriously hazardous taxa with high potential to threaten native crayfish species as well as inhabited ecosystems. To prevent their introductions and to minimize the risks of mentioned species, similarly as in the case of European Union, we recommend the total ban of import, trade and keeping of these high-risk taxa within Central Asia.

  14. Overview of Iodine Deficiency Prevention Strategies in the South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region: 2009–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Gerasimov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Universal salt iodization (USI strategies gained strong momentum in countries of the Southern Europe and Central Asia (SECA region during the 2000–2009 decade. By the end of the first decade, several countries in the region had already reached the goal of optimum iodine nutrition; other countries were quickly approaching this goal, and in only a few countries the progress toward USI had remained slow. This paper reports an overview of the two Sub-Regional workshops (for countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and South-Eastern Europe conducted in 2015 and 2016. Both workshops demonstrate that the SECA region remains on track in the pursuit of USI for sustainable IDD elimination. Notwithstanding the noted imperfections, none of the data or information from countries of the region suggested that the conquest of iodine deficiency is seriously threatened. However, more efforts should be made to develop and streamline USI strategies in Russia and Ukraine, two major countries that are lagging behind.

  15. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Basic survey of prioritized fields in Central Asia; 1999 nendo Chuo Asia chiiki juten bun'ya kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For working out and proposing project themes optimum for the popularization of technologies for effectively utilizing energy in four countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan), basic surveys were conducted into their energy policies, trends of supply and demand, electric power industry, metal refining industry, and cement making industry. Common to the four nations were that they were rich in energy resources (natural gas, oil, and coal) but that they failed to utilize them effectively despite of an increase in the yields. Incomplete infrastructures and delay in the implementation of energy measures attracted attention. A higher priority was found attached to the upgrading of and investment in structures, renewal of facilities, and the intensification of management. The basic industries wanted the modernization of their facilities and processes. As for electric power consumption, Kazakhstan consumed 53.0-billion kWh, Uzbekistan 39.0-billion kWh, Turkmenistan 4.4-billion kWh, and Azerbaijan 16.4-billion kWh. In Uzbekistan, where the nonferrous metal refining industry led its national economy, the energy consumption rate was found to be quite high. There was a decrease in production in the cement making industry. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Basic survey of prioritized fields in Central Asia; 1999 nendo Chuo Asia chiiki juten bun'ya kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For working out and proposing project themes optimum for the popularization of technologies for effectively utilizing energy in four countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan), basic surveys were conducted into their energy policies, trends of supply and demand, electric power industry, metal refining industry, and cement making industry. Common to the four nations were that they were rich in energy resources (natural gas, oil, and coal) but that they failed to utilize them effectively despite of an increase in the yields. Incomplete infrastructures and delay in the implementation of energy measures attracted attention. A higher priority was found attached to the upgrading of and investment in structures, renewal of facilities, and the intensification of management. The basic industries wanted the modernization of their facilities and processes. As for electric power consumption, Kazakhstan consumed 53.0-billion kWh, Uzbekistan 39.0-billion kWh, Turkmenistan 4.4-billion kWh, and Azerbaijan 16.4-billion kWh. In Uzbekistan, where the nonferrous metal refining industry led its national economy, the energy consumption rate was found to be quite high. There was a decrease in production in the cement making industry. (NEDO)

  17. Study on underground gas storage in Europe and Central Asia; Etude sur le stockage souterrain du gaz en Europe et en Asie Centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, R. [NlfB, Germany (Germany); Rott, W. [Wintershall AG, Celle (Germany); Rokosz, W. [POGC, Poland (PL)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The Working Party on Gas of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE), at its sixth session in 1996, decided to undertake a study on 'Underground gas storage in Europe and Central Asia'. The study was launched by the Working Party on Gas in the recognition of the role of underground gas storage (UGS) in the creation of unified European gas market, its liberalization, security of gas supply and cooperation among gas enterprises. The data analysed by the study was collected through the comprehensive questionnaire, circulated among gas companies/organizations of the ECE member-countries. To carry out the study, a special Ad Hoc Group of Experts, representing leading gas companies of the region, was set up. The study deals with a wide range of issues related to the underground storage of gas, such as current status of UGS in Europe and Central Asia, new and emerging technologies, new and existing UGS projects, regulatory framework, cost of storage in USA and in Europe, future gas markets development. An attempt was also made to identify the UGS facilities that play (and could provide in the future) the international contract border services. (authors)

  18. Abrupt climatic events recorded by the Ili loess during the last glaciation in Central Asia: Evidence from grain-size and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yougui; Zeng, Mengxiu; Chen, Xiuling; Li, Yue; Chang, Hong; An, Zhisheng; Guo, Xiaohua

    2018-04-01

    The loess record of Central Asia provides an important archive of regional climate and environmental changes. In contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences remain poorly understood. Here, we present an aeolian loess section in the southern Ili Basin. Based on granularity and mineralogical analyses, we reconstruct climatic changes during the last glaciation. The results indicated that most of the abrupt climatic events (such as Dansgaard-Oeschger events and Heinrich events) were imprinted in this loess section, although their amplitudes and ages showed some differences. Compared with the millennial oscillations recoded in loess and stalagmites in East Asia, the arid Central Asia responded more sensitively to the warming events than to the cooling events. The shifting trajectory of westerlies across Central Asia played an important role in dust deposition during the stadials. The North Atlantic climatic signals may have been transmitted from Central Asia to the East Asian monsoon regions via the westerlies.

  19. Fabric of topsoil horizons in aridic soils of Central Asia Fábrica de horizontes superficiales en suelos áridos de Asia Central Tessitura dos horizontes superficiais de solos Arídicos da Ásia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lebedeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two surface microhorizons – vesicular and platy – were found to be typical of the fabric of topsoil horizons in gravely loamy soils located along an arid/continental climatic gradient in the Subboreal zone of Central Asia (from southern Russia to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia. Their genesis is related to active vesiculation (for vesicular ?1 microhorizon and cryogenesis (for platy ?2 microhorizon against a background of high clay mobility and/or eolian accumulation of fine material. New mechanisms responsible for the formation of vesicular pores are suggested: (a the leaching of dense complete crystal infillings (moldic voids and (b the development of biogenic capsules typical of iron bacteria that were diagnosed by the microbiological method of fouling Agar-covered glasses under natural conditions. In a series of studied soils, Yermic Regosols are characterized by additional specific microfeatures: (1 iron depletion from the material around the pores and formation of iron concentrations in the intrapedal mass owing to biogenic mobilization of iron with participation of sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria and (2 the accumulation of organic matter (residues of microbial cells in the vesicular pores.En este trabajo se estudiaron dos microhorizontes superficiales- vesicular y laminar- cuya fábrica se encuentra típicamente en horizontes superficiales de suelos franco gravosos situados a lo largo del gradiente climático árido/continental de la zona Subboreal de Asia Central (desde el sur de Rusia hacia Uzbekistán, Kazakhstán y Mongolia. Su génesis se relaciona con una activa formación de vesículas (para el microhorizonte A1 vesicular y con criogénesis (para el microhorizonte A2 laminar en un medio con elevada movilidad de arcilla y/o acumulación de material fino. Se proponen los siguientes nuevos mecanismos responsables de la formación de los poros vesiculares: a el lavado de rellenos cristalinos densos (poros móldicos; y b el

  20. Erica Marat, The Military and the State in Central Asia: From Red Army to Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Petric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Erica Marat is a one of the United States’ most brilliant Central Asian political scientists. She has offered numerous analyses of political transformations as presented by different think tanks and American foundations. In this book, Marat focuses on the role of the army in building state processes in contemporary Central Asian states. The book offers a wide panorama of Central Asian armies, compiling sources already published (books, reports in Russian and English etc. and some original da...

  1. Contemporary changes of water resources, water and land use in Central Asia based on observations and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Prousevitch, A.; Sokolik, I. N.; Lammers, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Water is a key agent in Central Asia ultimately determining human well-being, food security, and economic development. There are complex interplays among the natural and anthropogenic drivers effecting the regional hydrological processes and water availability. Analysis of the data combined from regional censuses and remote sensing shows a decline in areas of arable and irrigated lands and a significant decrease in availability of arable and irrigated lands per capita across all Central Asian countries since the middle of 1990thas the result of post-Soviet transformation processes. This change could lead to considerable deterioration in food security and human system sustainability. The change of political situation in the region has also resulted in the escalated problems of water demand between countries in international river basins. We applied the University of New Hampshire - Water Balance Model - Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems (WBM-TrANS) to understand the consequences of changes in climate, water and land use on regional hydrological processes and water availability. The model accounts for sub-pixel land cover types, glacier and snow-pack accumulation/melt across sub-pixel elevation bands, anthropogenic water use (e.g. domestic and industrial consumption, and irrigation for most of existing crop types), hydro-infrastructure for inter-basin water transfer and reservoir/dam regulations. A suite of historical climate re-analysis and temporal extrapolation of MIRCA-2000 crop structure datasets has been used in WBM-TrANS for this project. A preliminary analysis of the model simulations over the last 30 years has shown significant spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and water availability for crops and human across the region due to climatic and anthropogenic causes. We found that regional water availability is mostly impacted by changes in extents and efficiency of crop filed irrigation, especially in highly arid areas of Central Asia

  2. Postoperative Central Nervous System Infection After Neurosurgery in a Modernized, Resource-Limited Tertiary Neurosurgical Center in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Swathi; Nair, M Nathan; Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Cai, Ling; Gu, Weiling; Vasudevan, Madabushi Chakravarthy

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) are rare but serious complications after neurosurgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and causative pathogens of PCNSIs at a modernized, resource-limited neurosurgical center in South Asia. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the medical records of all 363 neurosurgical cases performed between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, at a neurosurgical center in South Asia. Data from all operative neurosurgical cases during the 13-month period were included. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated that 71 of the 363 surgical cases had low CSF glucose or CSF leukocytosis. These 71 cases were categorized as PCNSIs. The PCNSIs with positive CSF cultures (9.86%) all had gram-negative bacteria with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Escherichia coli (n = 1), or Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). The data suggest a higher rate of death (P = 0.031), a higher rate of CSF leak (P < 0.001), and a higher rate of cranial procedures (P < 0.001) among the infected patients and a higher rate of CSF leak among the patients with culture-positive infections (P = 0.038). This study summarizes the prevalence, causative organism of PCNSI, and antibiotic usage for all of the neurosurgical cases over a 13-month period in a modernized yet resource-limited neurosurgical center located in South Asia. The results from this study highlight the PCNSI landscape in an area of the world that is often underreported in the neurosurgical literature because of the paucity of clinical neurosurgical research undertaken there. This study shows an increasing prevalence of gram-negative organisms in CSF cultures from PCNSIs, which supports a trend in the recent literature of increasing gram-negative bacillary meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic aspects of coal deposits exploration of the Ulug-Khem basin (Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev V.I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available in accordance with the article, 11 deposits coal on the territory of Tuva are accounted by State Reserves Register of the Russian Federation, the total profitable reserves are estimated at 1,12 billion tons whereof 936.6 thousand tons are dealt with as coking coals. The vast majority of explored deposits of coals of the republic are concentrated in the Ulugh-Khem basin, the total projected resources of which exceed 20 bill.t. It is substantiated that coking coal of the Ulugh-Khem basin is the most competitive resource of Tyva Republic. Low ash content, excellent caking index, low sulfur and phosphorus in coking coal of ranks GG and GZh indicate their high quality, according to these characteristics GG, GZh coal ranks take precedence over Kuznetsk and Pechora coals. About 70 bill.t of coking coal are annually mined in Russia, but there is a deficit on certain coal ranks. It is primarily related to internal prices increase for coking coal in Russia. According to forecasts of researchers coal deficit will rise up to 15–17 bill.t in the country.

  4. Assimilation or integration: Similarities and differences between acculturation attitudes of migrants from Central Asia and Russians in Central Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50, Russia (50, and Central Africa (50 (age range 21–60; M = 34. We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova and the “Directed associations with ‘love’ as the wordstimulus” technique (on the basis of C.G. Jung’s associative experiment and P. Vergès’s methodology. The results show similarities and differences in how love is represented among the groups. The following similarities were found: Love is seen as all that is good and kind about a person, a way to become better. At the peripheral level, the social representation of love includes friendship, patience, and passion. At the point of cross-cultural differences, it was found that: a The main emotion reflecting how love is represented for Brazilians is honesty, for Russians — suffering, for Central Africans — tenderness; b Brazilians understand love as a sensual, personal moral choice; Russians perceive love as an obstacle, a problem in itself; Central Africans conceptualize love as God-given and ennobling of the person; c love is conceptualized as something inherent and family-oriented among Russians, intrapersonal and intimate among Brazilians, and divine among Central Africans. The results mean that within peripheral confines, the notion of love among the groups matches to a certain extent R. Sternberg’s triangle of love, while its core zone is culturally specific.

  5. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichol, Jim

    2004-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE...

  6. Policies to improve the local impact from hydrocarbon extraction: Observations on West Africa and possible lessons for Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, Ulrich H.; Pastor, Gonzalo; Segura, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The paper offers specific inputs to the debate on local content promotion in the oil industries of West Africa and Central Asia. To this end, we document the international experience with local content promotion to derive best practices in the field. We then use a case study approach to devise a simple analytical framework for rationalizing the selection of viable sectors for local content promotion, in an attempt to make operational one of the best practice principles (efficiency) developed before. By proposing specific rules regarding the acceptability of a project, the analysis seeks to add rigor and address distortions on localization outcomes from rent-seeking. The emphasis is not on supporting efforts to 'pick winners' and subsidize them through a range of by and large discredited instruments. Rather, the paper focuses on the specific public inputs the government would have to provide to support an otherwise market-driven process

  7. Do Countries Export Their Corruption? A Micro Analysis of Russia’s Trade Partners in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Belostecinic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a probit and dprobit model to examine the domestic determinants of corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In addition, it also looks at whether economic links with a country that is perceived as corrupt—Russia—leads to an increase or decrease in the level of domestic corruption. Using a dataset at the firm level provided by the World Bank, this paper finds that the “Control Rights Hypothesis,” the “Bargaining Power Hypothesis”, and the “Grease the Wheels Hypothesis” are statistically significant at the domestic level and also shows that increased commerce links with Russia leads to a statistically significant correlation with the instance of corruption via the “Grease the Wheels Hypothesis” channel.

  8. Hissar-Alai and the Pamirs: Junction and Position in the System of Mobile Belts of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, M. G.; Rybin, A. K.; Batalev, V. Yu.; Matyukov, V. E.; Shchelochkov, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    The position of the Pamirs and the Hissar-Alai mountainous system in the structure of Central Asia and features of their junction are considered. It is shown that their outer contours and tectonic infrastructure are significantly distinct in the planar pattern: latitudinally linear and arched for the Hissar-Alai and the Pamirs, respectively. These structures logically match those of the Central Asian and Alpine-Himalayan belts, respectively. The Pamir orogen is a relatively autonomous structural element of the crust, which is located discordantly relative to the country lithospheric blocks. Most of the Pamirs (at least, the Northern and Central) probably form a giant allochthon on the ancient basement of the Tarim and Afghan-Tajik blocks. The junction zone of these two "hard" crustal segments is reflected in the transverse Transpamir threshold, which is expressed in the relief, deep structure, and seismicity. The specific geological structure of the junction zone of the Pamirs and Hissar-Alai (systems of the Tarim, Alai, and Afghan-Tajik troughs) is shown. It suggested that this zone is a damper, which significantly neutralizes the dynamic influence of the Pamir and the southernmost elements of the Pamir-Punjab syntax on Hissar-Alai structures.

  9. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author) [de

  10. Russian autonomous labor colony in the People’s Republic of Tuva as a unique case of Russian regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Dazishen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of Russian regionalism in mid-19th – early 20th century Tuva, which took shape of setting up a colony of Russian subjects and became one of the most powerful factors behind the declaration of the People’s Republic of Tuva. Russian Autonomous Labor Colony (RALC was established in early 1920s and lasted for 10 years as a unique political entity in the history of Russia. RALC was fully controlled by official representatives of the Soviet state. Its stable population of over 10000 was mainly involved in cattle breeding, agriculture, crafts and even trade. RALC had its own legislation which even provided for certain elements of statehood. It was allowed to create its own flag and emblem, control its budget, and had its own military unit. The land under use by the colonists was on official lease from the government of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT. Ethnic Russians with Soviet citizenship complied with the legislation of the RSFSR. RALC had its own court, with convicted criminals serving their sentence in the PRT. Both RALC and PRT passed through several stages of increasingly radical left-wing reforms, which gave Moscow a firm grip over the local political establishment. In the second half of the decade the sociopolitical structure that included the RALC started to crumble away. On May 24, 1932, the autonomy was abolished by the new USSR-PRT agreement that oversaw the transformation of the colony’s remnants into Committees of Soviet Citizens. The article introduces a number of unpublished or little-known documents from the state archives of Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk and other cities of the Russian Federation.

  11. Power's promise: electricity reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampietti, J. (ed.)

    2004-06-01

    This study analyzes the fiscal, efficiency, social, and environmental impact of power sector reforms in seven countries in the Europe and East Asia region - Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Hungary; Kazakhstan and POland. It finds sector deficits have been falling over the last decade and that the savings from lower sector deficits did not translate into higher social spending. More emphasis must be placed on monitoring deficits and tailoring policy reform to country specific circumstances. The impact of reform on utility efficiency, as measured by the cost of generation, system loss collections, and operational efficiency, is ambiguous. While overall revenue per kilowatt hour increased in almost all countries, problems continue with losses, collection rates, and staffing. In terms of social impacts, electricity spending as a share of income increased, especially for the poor, while consumption stayed the same. In terms of environmental impacts, reforms did slightly improve energy efficiency in power plants though this has little direct impact on human health because the electricity sector's share of the total health damage from air pollution is negligible. Several lessons emerge from the analysis. Undertaking simple ex ante simulations of reform impacts will allow better identification of potential reform benefits and costs. Placing more emphasis on outcome-based indicators of service quality would help ensure that future operations produce the intended end-user benefits. In many cases, tariff increases can and should be explicitly timed to coincide with service quality improvements. 24 figs., 15 tabs., 10 annexes.

  12. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  13. Well-Being in Central Asia and the Caucasus | Abbott | Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with four countries that, like Rwanda, suffered economic and social collapse in the early 1990s. It develops a sociologically informed understanding of what influences the well-being of people living in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan (Central Asian Republics) and Armenia and Georgia ( the Caucasus), four of ...

  14. Mapping lake level changes using ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry data: a case study in arid regions of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JunLi; Fang, Hui; Yang, Liao

    2011-12-01

    Lakes in arid regions of Central Asia act as essential components of regional water cycles, providing sparse but valuable water resource for the fragile ecological environments and human lives. Lakes in Central Asia are sensitive to climate change and human activities, and great changes have been found since 1960s. Mapping and monitoring these inland lakes would improve our understanding of mechanism of lake dynamics and climatic impacts. ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry provides an efficient tool of continuously measuring lake levels in these poorly surveyed remote areas. An automated mapping scheme of lake level changes is developed based on GLAS altimetry products, and the spatial and temporal characteristics of 9 typical lakes in Central Asia are analyzed to validate the level accuracies. The results show that ICESat/GLAS has a good performance of lake level monitoring, whose patterns of level changes are the same as those of field observation, and the max differences between GLAS and field data is 3cm. Based on the results, it is obvious that alpine lakes are increasing greatly in lake levels during 2003-2009 due to climate change, while open lakes with dams and plain endorheic lakes decrease dramatically in water levels due to human activities, which reveals the overexploitation of water resource in Central Asia.

  15. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  16. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents

  17. Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

  18. Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

  19. Laws, Institutions and Transboundary Pasture Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountain Ecosystem of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rangeland governance is a priority for the governments of the post-Soviet Central Asian states of the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan. Major transitional challenges confront the newly independent states of Central Asia. These challenges include the withdrawal of subsidies previously provided by the centralised Soviet government; moves towards privatisation and the conversion of administrative boundaries to international boundaries. In this context transboundary approaches to rangeland management are essential. This paper highlights the challenges for effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem; the inadequacies of pasture-related legal instruments and the absence of institutions for the implementation of these instruments. Transboundary management is hampered by the lack of agreements between the two countries and the differences between national level laws and institutions. Meaningful transboundary agreements and the harmonization of national level laws would be a significant step towards achieving sustainable transboundary pasture management. However, on their own these legal tools are insufficient. Long-term effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem necessitates that the causes of degradation are addressed. Mountain communities would also need to be convinced of economic and other benefits before current resource-use practices could be expected to change. Institutional and capacity building and adequate funding are also fundamental to ensuring the effectiveness of any legal instruments that are developed and any strategies that are employed.

  20. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  1. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  2. Central banks' use in East Asia of money market instruments in the conduct of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Emery

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the greater use in the past decade of money market instruments in the conduct of monetary policy by the central banks, or their equivalent, in six of the main East Asian developing economies. Some of these economies have been successful in using various money market instruments to control liquidity, while others have been much less successful. A common theme in the case of the successful economies has been one of employing money market instruments that have yields based on ...

  3. The Kazakh oil industry: a potential critical role in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, J.P.; Indriyanto, S.H.; Zhanseitov, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    While mostly undeveloped, tremendous oil resources are found in the largest Central Asian republic, Kazakhstan. Owing to progressive legislation and a determined government, the second largest country of the former USSR is attracting significant investments from overseas energy companies. Continued limited access to global markets may, however, slow future investments unless the existing pipeline network can be expanded. This paper describes current oil exploration and production activities in Kazakhstan, and outlines prospects for future developments. (Author)

  4. Comparison of GPS and Quaternary slip rates: Insights from a new Quaternary fault database for Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd; Bendick, Rebecca; Mutz, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies related to the kinematics of deformation within the India-Asia collision zone have relied on slip rate data for major active faults to test kinematic models that explain the deformation of the region. The slip rate data, however, are generally disputed for many of the first-order faults in the region (e.g., Altyn Tagh and Karakorum faults). Several studies have also challenged the common assumption that geodetic slip rates are representative of Quaternary slip rates. What has received little attention is the degree to which geodetic slip rates relate to Quaternary slip rates for active faults in the India-Asia collision zone. In this study, we utilize slip rate data from a new Quaternary fault database for Central Asia to determine the overall relationship between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates for 18 faults. The preliminary analysis investigating this relationship uses weighted least squares and a re-sampling analysis to test the sensitivity of this relationship to different data point attributes (e.g., faults associated with data points and dating methods used for estimating Quaternary slip rates). The resulting sample subsets of data points yield a maximum possible Pearson correlation coefficient of ~0.6, suggesting moderate correlation between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates for some faults (e.g., Kunlun and Longmen Shan faults). Faults with poorly correlated Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates were identified and dating methods used for the Quaternary slip rates were examined. Results indicate that a poor correlation between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates exist for the Karakorum and Chaman faults. Large differences between Quaternary and GPS slip rates for these faults appear to be connected to qualitative dating of landforms used in the estimation of the Quaternary slip rates and errors in the geomorphic and structural reconstruction of offset landforms (e.g., offset terrace riser reconstructions for Altyn Tagh fault

  5. Outlook for the energy sector of Russia and Central Asia: structural and cultural perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heus, R.

    1994-01-01

    The combined interaction of three factors produces unique challenges in the energy sectors of Russia and the Central Asian Republics. The first is the specific nature and history of the oil industry of the former USSR. For many decades this, the largest oil industry in the world, was run by the government of the USSR without external assistance. Furthermore, unlike any other frontier region, most oil and gas exploration and discovery was domestic. Secondly, the former USSR is a society with structural and cultural features of both the East and the West. Thirdly, there is the legacy of an autocratic decision-making structure. The integration of the energy sector of the former USSR into the world energy sector will require the challenges represented by these factors to be worked through and this may take well into the next century. (UK)

  6. Production potential in the “bread baskets” of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinnen, Johan; Burkitbayeva, Saule; Schierhorn, Florian

    2017-01-01

    How to select locations for biofuel production is still a critical consideration for balance of crop and biofuel productions as well as of energy consumption and environmental conservation. Biofuels are widely produced all over the world, but this practice in China is still at the initial stage....... Based on China's current stage on food security and changing biofuel demands, this paper selected agro-environmental and socio-economic factors of biofuel production, and simulated and spatially allocated areas suited for biofuel production under the two scenarios of planning-oriented scenario (Po......S) and biofuel-oriented scenario (BoS) by the target year 2020. It also estimated biofuel production potentials and zones across China's provinces. The results show that land suited for biofuel production is primarily located in Northwestern, Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southwestern China...

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the population of Central Asia on the example of inhabitants of Eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    Parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are a major health problem worldwide, especially in the Third World countries, where poor standards of hygiene and sanitation as well as the lack of medical care facilitate the spread of food and waterborne infections. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Central Asia on the example of the population inhabiting the Ghazni Province in eastern part of the country and to assess the validity of the WHO recommended mass deworming campaign carried out in Afghanistan. Taking into consideration the fact that hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Asia and Africa have recently been flooding into Europe, it has become necessary to investigate the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in areas characterized by different climatic conditions and poor standards of sanitation. The study was conducted in eastern Afghanistan between November 2011 and April 2014. Parasitological examination was performed on 3 different study groups: 110 soldiers from the Afghan National Army (adults), 1,167 patients hospitalized at the Ghazni Provincial Hospital (807 children and adolescents aged 1–18 and 360 adults), and 1,869 students (7–18 years) frequenting local schools. The study involved 3,146 people including: 2,248 females and 898 males; 2,676 children and adolescents (1–18 years) and 460 adults (19–85 years). Three stool samples were collected from each study subject at the intervals of 2 to 3 days. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then transported by air to the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine (Military Institute of Medicine) in Poland, where they were examined by light microscopy using 3 different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation). In total, 1,220 Afghans were found to be infected with pathogenic intestinal parasites (38.8%): 44/110 soldiers (40.0%), 322/807 hospitalized children and adolescents

  8. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  9. Problems of Cosmopolitanism and Alternativeness in the History of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis T. Nurulla-Khodzhaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We residents of Samarkand and Bukhara, throughout history aimed to accumulate traditions of challenging the established (often elitist limits of local culture, economics and history. The cities communities were under constant pressure of the dichotomy between the notions of nomadism and sedentism, Turkic and Persian speakers. Many community-based units of Samarkand had their own commercial, socio-cultural and educational networks that preserved alternativeness within the life cycle, which balanced between universality and particularism. These lands were dominated by a unique parity, based on Sufi ethics, which designed not syncretic cosmopolitism, but rather introduced the recognition of alternativeness that took into account both similar and diverse waves of ideas. Based on this vision, the author aims to diminish Kantian cosmopolitanism to a level of Euro-American and illustrate the view of cosmopolitanism through a dialogic platform, precisely including its links with the Central Asian versions. Moreover, one cannot identify local cosmopolitanism with the ideas of European Enlightenment, namely individualism and universalism on a global scale. Due to the alternativeness and cosmopolitanism, as well as lack of radical individualism within the local communities, there was no monocultural view on life, since both science and morality (religion, culture, and community were mutually essential. Nonetheless, present proves that these fields remain their equal vitality to an individual who is capable of simultaneously possessing knowledge about the reality and receiving satisfaction from the reality. This constant motion based on reciprocation was maintained in the ancient culture of Samarkand by two factors: cosmopolitanism and alternativeness.

  10. Climate Change in Central and West Asia. Routes to a More Secure, Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    ADB's Central and West Asian countries are Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Geoclimatic and environmental factors make this region highly vulnerable to the risks and hazards of climate change. For example, accelerated glacial melt has serious implications for agriculture, water supply, and energy generation - problems exacerbated by overexploitation of natural resources. Countries may find it difficult to shift to low-carbon growth, since many have abundant fossil fuel and tend to use energy inefficiently. ADB is responding to these climate hazards and low-carbon pathways with a comprehensive strategy that strengthens policies, governance, and capacity support; expands the use of clean and renewable energy; encourages sustainable transport and urban development; promotes development that will be more resilient to climate change, especially in water-dependent sectors; and manages land use and forests for carbon sequestration. ADB's support is helping its developing member countries face the challenges of climate change and, with partners, is providing innovative solutions, while continuing to work to reduce poverty.

  11. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barber, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betsill, J. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlefield, Adriane C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yuldashev, Bekhzad [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Saalikhbaev, Umar [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Radyuk, Raisa [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djuraev, Akram [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Djuraev, Anwar [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilev, Ivan [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Tolongutov, Bajgabyl [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Valentina, Alekhina [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Solodukhin, Vladimir [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Pozniak, Victor [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html), and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  12. Canopy Transpiration and Stomatal Responses to Prolonged Drought by a Dominant Desert Species in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxing Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid lands, canopy transpiration and its dynamics depend largely on stomatal sensitivity to drought. In this study, the sap flow of a dominant species, Haloxylon ammodendron growing in Central Asian deserts, was monitored using Granier-type sensors, from which the canopy stomatal conductance was derived. The responses of canopy transpiration and stomatal conductance to environmental variables during the second half of the growing season, when annual prolonged drought occurred, was analyzed for four continuous years, from 2013 to 2016. A soil water content (SWC of 3% was identified as the lower soil water threshold for this species, below which the plant lost the ability for stomatal regulation on water loss and suffered the risk of mortality. Above this threshold, the sensitivity of canopy transpiration to vapor pressure deficit, VPD (K, was linearly correlated with SWC, which mainly resulted from different stomatal behaviors at varying drought intensities. Stomatal sensitivity to VPD (m/Gsref increased linearly with soil moisture deficit, inducing a shift from more anisohydric to a more isohydric stomatal behavior. The flexibility of stomatal behavior regarding soil drought was one key element facilitating the survival of H. ammodendron in such an extreme dry environment.

  13. La política exterior de España hacia Asia Central (2000-2011

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    Antonio Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aunque las relaciones de España con los actuales países de Asia Central se remontan a varios siglos atrás, fue la desaparición de la Unión Soviética la que abrió una ventana de oportunidades para profundizar en dichas relaciones. España tuvo que confeccionar una Política Exterior orientada hacia estos países, aunque se centró, casi exclusivamente, en su relación con los dos más grandes: Kazajstán y Uzbekistán. Los sucesivos Gobiernos han ampliado y profundizado la cooperación con aquellos actores, sobre todo en materia de seguridad y energía. No obstante, la presencia española en la zona es muy tímida y escasa, a pesar de la buena relación existente entre el Rey D. Juan Carlos y los respectivos Presidentes de las repúblicas centroasiáticas.

  14. First fossil occurrence of a filefish (Tetraodontiformes; Monacanthidae) in Asia, from the Middle Miocene in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Yusuke; Koike, Hakuichi; Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    2014-04-10

    A new fossil filefish, Aluterus shigensis sp. nov., with a close resemblance to the extant Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck), is described from the Middle Miocene Bessho Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. It is characterized by: 21 total vertebrae; very slender and long first dorsal spine with tiny anterior barbs; thin and lancet-shaped basal pterygiophore of the spiny dorsal fin, with its ventral margin separated from the skull; proximal tip of moderately slender first pterygiophore of the soft dorsal fin not reaching far ventrally; soft dorsal-fin base longer than anal-fin base; caudal peduncle having nearly equal depth and length; and tiny, fine scales with slender, straight spinules. The occurrence of this fossil filefish from the Bessho Formation is consistent with the influence of warm water currents suggested by other fossils, but it is inconsistent with the deep-water sedimentary environment of this Formation. This is the first fossil occurrence of a filefish in Asia; previously described fossil filefishes are known from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Italy, the Pliocene of Greece, and the Miocene and Pliocene of North America. These fossil records suggest that the genus Aluterus had already been derived and was widely distributed during the Middle Miocene with taxa closely resembling Recent species.

  15. Challenges in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: An Evaluation of 18 Years of Swiss Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bonvin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSwitzerland’s State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO has been working in the energy sectors of Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1992, financing 41 projects to the value of CHF 316 million. In 2009 an independent evaluation was commissioned to assess the effects of these projects in the region and to draw lessons for future project funding. The evaluation found the projects to be highly satisfactory in terms of relevance, satisfactory in terms of effectiveness and sustainability, and — because of external factors relating to governance, transparency and political stability in a country — generally unsatisfactory in terms of efficiency.Lessons drawn from the successful projects will be used to further improve them in the future. With limited financial resources governments are attempting to find a balance between energy security and environmental sustainability. SECO will support this mission by helping to reduce inefficient consumption, to increase the share of renewable energy, to strengthen the sustainability of utility companies and to develop effective energy policies.

  16. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  17. Land–Atmosphere Exchange of Water and Heat in the Arid Mountainous Grasslands of Central Asia during the Growing Season

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    Xiaotao Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Arid grassland ecosystems are widely distributed across Central Asia. However, there is a lack of research and observations of the land–atmosphere exchange of water and heat in the arid grasslands in this region, particularly over complex surfaces. In this study, systematic observations were conducted from 2013 to 2015 using an HL20 Bowen ratio and TDR300 and WatchDog1400 systems to determine the characteristics of these processes during the growing season (April–October of the arid mountainous grasslands of this region. (1 The latent heat flux (Le was lower than the sensible heat flux (He overall, and a small transient decrease in Le was observed before its daytime maximum; daily comparative variations in both fluxes were closely related to vegetation growth. (2 Evapotranspiration (ET showed substantial variation across different years, seasons and months, and monthly variations in ET were closely related to vegetation growth. Water condensation (Q was low and relatively stable. Relatively high levels of soil water were measured in spring followed by a decreasing trend. The land–atmosphere exchange of water and heat during the growing season in this region was closely associated with phenology, available precipitation and terrain. This study provides data support for the scientific management of arid mountainous grasslands.

  18. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

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    Kausrud Kyrre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108

  19. Biofacies evidence for Late Cambrian low-paleolatitude oceans, western United State and central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Cook, H.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Melnikova, L. (Palaeontological Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1991-02-01

    Biofacies that formed on carbonate platform-margin slopes adjacent to an early Paleozoic, low-paleolatitude paleoocean are contained in the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation, Tyby Shale, and Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone of the Hot Creek Range, Nevada, and the Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician part of the Shabakty Suite of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan. These in-situ limestones formed in platform-margin slope and basin-plain environments. Shoal-water faunal assemblages occur in carbonate-turbidite and debris-flow deposits interbedded with in-situ deeper water assemblages of the submarine-fan facies. Abundant sponge spicules, geographically widespread benthic trilobites, and rare ostracodes occur in some of the in-situ beds. In contrast, the shoal-water platform environments were well oxygenated and contain mainly endemic trilobite assemblages. These biofacies characteristics support an interpretation that Late Cambrian oceans were poorly oxygenated, but not anoxic, below the surface mixing layer and that benthic trilobite faunas were widely distributed in response to the more-or-less continuous deep water, low-oxygen habitats. Elements of the Late Cambrian low-oxygen biofacies are widespread in the Tien Shan structural belt of China and the Soviet Union, in central and eastern China, and along the western margin of early Paleozoic North America. This facies distribution pattern defines the transition from low-paleolatitude, shoal-water carbonate platforms to open oceans which have since been destroyed by pre-Late Ordovician and pre-middle Paleozoic Paleotectonic activity.

  20. Remediation of former uranium mining and milling activities in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Several of the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union were involved in the uranium mining and milling industry from about 1945 for varying periods until the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991 and beyond. Some facilities are still producing in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. However, before the break up, many facilities had been abandoned and in only a few cases had any remediation been undertaken. Since 1991 the newly independent states of the region have been seeking assistance for the remediation of the multitude of tailings piles, waste rock stockpiles and abandoned, and often semi dismantled, production facilities that may be found throughout the region. Many of these sites are close to settlements that were established as service towns for the mines. Most towns still have populations, although the mining industry has departed. In some instances there are cases of pollution and contamination and in many locations there is a significant level of public concern. The IAEA has been undertaking a number of Technical Cooperation (TC) projects throughout the region for some time to strengthen the institutions in the relevant states and assist them to establish monitoring and surveillance programs as an integral part of the long term remediation process. The IAEA is liaising with other agencies and donors who are also working on these problems to optimise the remediation effort. The paper describes the objectives and operation of the main TC regional program, liaison efforts with other agencies, the achievements so far and the long term issues for remediation of these legacies of the 'cold war' era. (authors)

  1. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  2. US POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA: TWO APPROACHES ADMINISTRATION OF GEORGE. BUSH (2005-2009 GG. AND BARACK OBAMA (2009-2010 BIENNIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Troitsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evolution of the U.S. strategy towards Central Asia in the second half of the 2000s was defined greatly by the development of the war in Afghanistan. However, since the middle of the decade the course of its implementation depended on the necessity to compensate or overcome consequences of the deterioration of the U.S. relations with Uzbekistan.

  3. Regional drought shifts (1710-2010) in East Central Asia and linkages with atmospheric circulation recorded in tree-ring δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobao; Liu, Xiaohong; Trouet, Valerie; Treydte, Kerstin; Wu, Guoju; Chen, Tuo; Sun, Weizhen; An, Wenling; Wang, Wenzhi; Zeng, Xiaomin; Qin, Dahe

    2018-04-01

    Drought occurrence and duration in central Asia are of important socioeconomic, ecological, and geophysical significance and have received increasing research attention in recent years. Understanding long-term drought trends and their driving forces require reliable records of past drought variability with broad spatial representativeness. Here, we compiled four tree-ring δ18O records from eastern central Asia (ECA) and composited them into a drought-sensitive proxy to explore regional ECA moisture variations over the past 301 years (1710-2010 CE). A robust regional standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) reconstruction was established based on the tree-ring cellulose δ18O fractionation mechanism and statistically significant proxy-climate relationships. We identified prominent droughts in 1710-1770, 1810-1830, and the beginning of the twenty-first century, and a regime shift to a persistently wet period from the 1880s to 2000. Our reconstruction reveals the impact of drought and pluvial patterns on the decline of Zhungar Empire, and on historical agricultural and socio-economical activities, including increased migration into ECA during the 1770-1800 pluvial. Our findings also suggest that wet conditions in the twentieth century in ECA were related to a strengthening of the westerly circulation and thus shed light on large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics in central Asia.

  4. Could Changing Power Relationships Lead to Better  Water Sharing in Central Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek Zhupankhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though Central Asia is water rich, water disputes have characterized the region after crumbling of the Soviet Union in 1991. The uneven spatial distribution and complex pattern of transboundary water sources with contrasting national water needs have created an intricate water dilemma. Increasing national water needs, water claims by surrounding countries, uncertainties in renewable water volumes, and effects of climate change will put further strain on the future water use in Central Asia. We argue that the present power distribution with three downstream hegemons (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan and two upstream much poorer countries with less political influence (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is not likely to lead forward to a greater willingness to share water. We discuss this situation with the analogue Egypt-Sudan-Ethiopia in the Nile Basin. Thus, as in the case of Ethiopia in the Nile Basin, gradually economically stronger upstream countries Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan due to hydropower development are likely to eventually re-define the hydropolitical map of Central Asia. As in the case of the Nile Basin, a more even power balance between upstream and downstream countries may lead to an improved political structure for a much-needed better collaboration on water issues.

  5. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  6. Estimating Spatial and Temporal Variability in Surface Kinematics of the Inylchek Glacier, Central Asia, using TerraSAR–X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Neelmeijer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use 124 scenes of TerraSAR–X data that were acquired in 2009 and 2010 to analyse the spatial and temporal variability in surface kinematics of the debris-covered Inylchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan mountain range in Central Asia. By applying the feature tracking method to the intensity information of the radar data and combining the results from the ascending and descending orbits, we derive the surface velocity field of the glaciated area. Analysing the seasonal variations over the upper part of the Southern Inylchek branch, we find a temperature-related increase in velocity from 25 cm/d up to 50 cm/d between spring and summer, with the peak occurring in June. Another prominent velocity peak is observable one month later in the lower part of the Southern Inylchek branch. This area shows generally little motion, with values of approximately 5–10 cm/d over the year, but yields surface kinematics of up to 25 cm/d during the peak period. Comparisons of the dates of annual glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs of the proglacial Lake Merzbacher suggest that this lower part is directly influenced by the drainage, leading to the observed mini-surge, which has over twice the normal displacement rate. With regard to the GLOF and the related response of Inylchek Glacier, we conclude that X–band radar systems such as TerraSAR–X have a high potential for detecting and characterising small-scale glacial surface kinematic variations and should be considered for future inter-annual glacial monitoring tasks.

  7. Spatial Patterns of Species Diversity and Phylogenetic Structure of Plant Communities in the Tianshan Mountains, Arid Central Asia

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    Hong-Xiang Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tianshan Mountains, located in arid Central Asia, have a humid climate and are biodiversity hotspots. Here, we aimed to clarify whether the pattern of species diversity and the phylogenetic structure of plant communities is affected by environmental variables and glacial refugia. In this study, plant community assemblies of 17 research sites with a total of 35 sample plots were investigated at the grassland/woodland boundaries on the Tianshan Mountains. Community phylogeny of these plant communities was constructed based on two plant DNA barcode regions. The indices of phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic community structure were calculated for these sample plots. We first estimated the correlation coefficients between species richness (SR and environmental variables as well as the presence of glacial refugia. We then mapped the significant values of indices of community phylogeny (PD, RPD, NRI, and NTI to investigate the correlation between community phylogeny and environmental structure or macrozones in the study area. The results showed that a significantly higher value of SR was obtained for the refugial groups than for the colonizing groups (P < 0.05; presence of refugia and environmental variables were highly correlated to the pattern of variation in SR. Indices of community phylogeny were not significantly different between refugial and colonizing regions. Comparison with the humid western part showed that plant communities in the arid eastern part of the Tianshan Mountains tended to display more significant phylogenetic overdispersion. The variation tendency of the PhyloSor index showed that the increase in macro-geographical and environmental distance did not influence obvious phylogenetic dissimilarities between different sample plots. In conclusion, glacial refugia and environmental factors profoundly influenced the pattern of SR, but community phylogenetic structure was not affected by glacial refugia among different plant

  8. Ion chemistry and individual particle analysis of atmospheric aerosols over Mt. Bogda of eastern Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuhui; Li, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Aerosol samples were collected during the scientific expedition to Mt. Bogda in July-August, 2009. The major inorganic ions (Na( + ), NH⁺₄, K( + ), Mg(2 + ), Ca(2 + ), Cl( - ), SO²⁻₄, and NO⁻₃) of the aerosols were determined by ion chromatography. SO²⁻₄, NO⁻₃, and Ca(2 + ) were the dominate ions, with the mean concentrations of 0.86, 0.56, and 0.28 μg m⁻³, respectively. These mean ion concentrations were generally comparable with the background conditions in remote site of Xinjiang, while much lower than those in Ürümqi. Morphology and elemental compositions of 1,500 particles were determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Based on the morphology and elemental compositions, particles were classed into four major groups: soot (15.1%), fly ash (4.7%), mineral particles (78.9%), and little other matters (0.8% Fe-rich particles and 0.5% unrecognized particles). Presence of soot and fly ash particles indicated the influence of anthropogenic pollutions, while abundance mineral particles suggested that natural processes were the primary source of aerosols over this region, coinciding with the ionic analysis. Backward air mass trajectory analysis suggested that Ürümqi may contribute some anthropogenic pollution to this region, while the arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia were the primary source.

  9. Atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentrations at ten sites with contrasting land use in an arid region of central Asia

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    K. H. Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of reactive nitrogen (Nr species from 2009 to 2011 are reported for ten sites in Xinjiang, China, an arid region of central Asia. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4+ and pNO3 showed large spatial and seasonal variation and averaged 7.71, 9.68, 1.81 and 1.13 μg N m−3, and PM10 concentrations averaged 249.2 μg m−3 across all sites. Lower NH3 concentrations and higher NO2, pNH4+ and pNO3 concentrations were found in winter, reflecting serious air pollution due to domestic heating in winter and other anthropogenic sources such as increased emissions from motor traffic and industry. The increasing order of total concentrations of Nr species was alpine grassland; desert, desert-oasis ecotone; desert in an oasis; farmland; suburban and urban ecosystems. Lower ratios of secondary particles (NH4+ and NO3 were found in the desert and desert-oasis ecotone, while urban and suburban areas had higher ratios, which implied that anthropogenic activities have greatly influenced local air quality and must be controlled.

  10. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF INTRACONTINENTAL AREAS: INSTRUMENTAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS AND DEFORMATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Sankov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of recent geodynamics have been conducted by the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, SB RAS since 1998. Present-day crustal deformations are monitored at the geodynamic GPS polygon established by the Laboratory of Recent Geodynamics in the Mongol-Baikal region. Original methods and techniques using specialized equipment are applied to research intra-continental tectonic deformation and have already provided original scientific results. Independent data are received concerning the onset and character of processes of neotectonic activation and the state of stresses and deformation of the crust in the southern part of Siberia and in Mongolia. A model of the Late Cenozoic and contemporary geodynamics of the Mongol-Siberian mobile area is proposed. With application of GPS geodesy methods, quantitative parameters of present-day horizontal movements and deformations are determined for Central Asia and a part of the Far East at different scale levels. Present-day velocities of extension of the Baikal rift are estimated, and parameters of rotation of the Amur plate relative to Eurasia are calculated. Data on long-term and contemporary deformation are subject to comparative analyses. The Laboratory develops studies of present-day and historical seismicity in relation to processes of contemporary faulting in active tectonic zones of inter-plate boundaries and diffusive activation of subactive intraplate territories. The first results are obtained in studies of local crustal deformation by methods of satellite radar interferometry and ground polygonometry. Jointly with other institutes of SB RAS, the Laboratory conducts instrumental studies of interaction between the lithosphere and the ionosphere. Looking further ahead, the main scientific fields and prospects of the Laboratory are highlighted.  

  11. Holocene moisture variations over the arid central Asia revealed by a comprehensive sand-dune record from the central Tian Shan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Chen, Jianhui; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi; Frechen, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the largest arid (desert) areas in the world, and its climate is dominated by the westerlies. In this study, we examined sand dune evolution from the Bayanbulak Basin in the Tian Shan (Xinjiang, NW China), aiming to infer the Holocene moisture history of the ACA. Combined with stratigraphic observation and environmental proxies analysis (grain size, magnetic susceptibility and total organic content), large numbers of luminescence ages from multiple sites (eight sections, 79 samples) were applied to reconstruct the evolution of the sand dune accumulation in the study basin. The overall results imply very dry conditions characterized by sand dune accumulation at ∼12-6.5 ka, a wet interval between ∼6.5 and 0.8 ka when soil formation occurred, and decreased moisture during the last 0.8 ka. This moisture variation pattern is generally consistent with that inferred from many lacustrine records in the core zone of ACA, suggesting a widespread dry period in the early-to-middle Holocene and relatively wet middle-to-late Holocene. Thus, the moisture history derived from the current sand dune system contrasts with that in Asian monsoon areas, which are characterized by a strong monsoon (high precipitation) in the early and mid-Holocene and a weak monsoon (low precipitation and dry climate) during the late Holocene. Our results strongly suggest that the winter solar insolation and the external boundary conditions such as atmospheric CO2 concentration, ice sheets, and meltwater fluxes, have been major influential factors triggering the Holocene moisture evolution in the core zone of ACA.

  12. Central Asia After 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    arms technology and resell this on markets where Russia will be a competitor.9 Finally, in economic terms, Russia remains the underdog . China has the...with the ultimate aim of reducing the attraction of the West. Brand marks like “multipolarity,” a “changing world order,” “shifting power...specific brand of energy bal- ancing—i.e., not a traditional power-balancer game but a game designed to pit bidders up against one another and thus

  13. China-Russia relations in Central Asia. Energy policy, Beijing's new assertiveness and 21{sup st} century geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Thomas Stephan [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Ostasienwissenschaften

    2014-07-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. As China rises to global power status, its relations with other major powers, including Russia, are constantly renegotiated. Energy figures prominently in both countries' foreign policy. An extensive analysis of Chinese language sources - academic debate 1997-2012 - confirms a collision of interests over Central Asian reserves. While unanimous appeals to compromise render previous predictions of impending confrontation unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian energy relations as ''central to energy security'', and the explicit rejection of a Russian ''sphere of influence'', also exclude a retreat. In the long term, China will likely replace Russia as the dominant force in Central Asia's energy sector, causing the Kremlin to perceive another ''encroachment''. The current notion of a ''strategic partnership'' will inevitably be challenged.

  14. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-09-02

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia.

  15. Assessing the Use of Remote Sensing and a Crop Growth Model to Improve Modeled Streamflow in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Richey, J. E.; Tan, A.; Liu, M.; Adam, J. C.; Sokolov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Central Asia presents a perfect case study to understand the dynamic, and often conflicting, linkages between food, energy, and water in natural systems. The destruction of the Aral Sea is a well-known environmental disaster, largely driven by increased irrigation demand on the rivers that feed the endorheic sea. Continued reliance on these rivers, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, often place available water resources at odds between hydropower demands upstream and irrigation requirements downstream. A combination of tools is required to understand these linkages and how they may change in the future as a function of climate change and population growth. In addition, the region is geopolitically complex as the former Soviet basin states develop management strategies to sustainably manage shared resources. This complexity increases the importance of relying upon publically available information sources and tools. Preliminary work has shown potential for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to recreate the natural water balance in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins by comparing results to total terrestrial water storage changes observed from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Modeled streamflow is well correlated to observed streamflow at upstream gauges prior to the large-scale expansion of irrigation and hydropower. However, current modeled results are unable to capture the human influence of water use on downstream flow. This study examines the utility of a crop simulation model, CropSyst, to represent irrigation demand and GRACE to improve modeled streamflow estimates in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins. Specifically we determine crop water demand with CropSyst utilizing available data on irrigation schemes and cropping patterns. We determine how this demand can be met either by surface water, modeled by VIC with a reservoir operation scheme, and/or by groundwater derived from GRACE. Finally, we assess how the

  16. Assessing gaps in irrigated agricultural productivity through satellite earth observations-A case study of the Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Fliemann, Elisabeth; Lamers, John P. A.; Conrad, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Improving crop area and/or crop yields in agricultural regions is one of the foremost scientific challenges for the next decades. This is especially true in irrigated areas because sustainable intensification of irrigated crop production is virtually the sole means to enhance food supply and contribute to meeting food demands of a growing population. Yet, irrigated crop production worldwide is suffering from soil degradation and salinity, reduced soil fertility, and water scarcity rendering the performance of irrigation schemes often below potential. On the other hand, the scope for improving irrigated agricultural productivity remains obscure also due to the lack of spatial data on agricultural production (e.g. crop acreage and yield). To fill this gap, satellite earth observations and a replicable methodology were used to estimate crop yields at the field level for the period 2010/2014 in the Fergana Valley, Central Asia, to understand the response of agricultural productivity to factors related to the irrigation and drainage infrastructure and environment. The results showed that cropping pattern, i.e. the presence or absence of multi-annual crop rotations, and spatial diversity of crops had the most persistent effects on crop yields across observation years suggesting the need for introducing sustainable cropping systems. On the other hand, areas with a lower crop diversity or abundance of crop rotation tended to have lower crop yields, with differences of partly more than one t/ha yield. It is argued that factors related to the infrastructure, for example, the distance of farms to the next settlement or the density of roads, had a persistent effect on crop yield dynamics over time. The improvement potential of cotton and wheat yields were estimated at 5%, compared to crop yields of farms in the direct vicinity of settlements or roads. In this study it is highlighted how remotely sensed estimates of crop production in combination with geospatial technologies

  17. Water Productivity Mapping (WPM Using Landsat ETM+ Data for the Irrigated Croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabirjan Isaev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this paper was to espouse methods and protocols for water productivity mapping (WPM using high spatial resolution Landsat remote sensing data. In a world where land and water for agriculture are becoming increasingly scarce, growing “more crop per drop” (increasing water productivity becomes crucial for food security of future generations. The study used time-series Landsat ETM+ data to produce WPMs of irrigated crops, with emphasis on cotton in the Galaba study area in the Syrdarya river basin of Central Asia. The WPM methods and protocols using remote sensing data consisted of: (1 crop productivity (ton/ha maps (CPMs involvingcrop type classification, crop yield and biophysical modeling, and extrapolating yield models to larger areas using remotely sensed data; (2 crop water use (m3/ha maps (WUMs (or actual seasonal evapotranspiration or actual ET developed through Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB model; and (3 water productivity (kg/m3 maps (WPMs produced by dividing raster layers of CPMs by WUMs. The SSEB model calculated WUMs (actual ET by multiplying the ET fractionby reference ET. The ETfraction was determined using Landsat thermal imagery by selecting the “hot” pixels (zero ET and “cold” pixels (maximum ET. The grass reference ET was calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method using meteorological data. The WPMs for the Galaba study area demonstrated a wide variations (0-0.54 kg/m3 in water productivity of cotton fields with overwhelming proportion (87% of the area having WP less than 0.30 kg/m3, 11% of the area having WP in range of 0.30-0.36 kg/m3, and only 2% of the area with WP greater than 0.36 kg/m3. These results clearly imply that there are opportunities for significant WP increases in overwhelming proportion of the existing croplands. The areas of low WP are spatially pin-pointed and can be used as focus for WP improvements

  18. Catchment-scale contaminant transport under changing hydro-climatic conditions in the Aral Sea Drainage Basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarsjö, Jerker; Törnqvist, Rebecka; Su, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Dependable projections of future water availability and quality are essential in the management of water resources. Changes in land use, water use and climate can have large impacts on water and contaminant flows across extensive catchments that may contain different administrative regions where shared water resources must be managed. We consider the extensive Aral Sea Drainage Basin (ASDB) and the Amu Darya River Delta in Central Asia, which are currently under severe water stress due to large-scale irrigation expansion. We interpret data on hydro-climatic conditions, main contaminants of surface water and shallow groundwater systems, location of rivers and canal networks, and groundwater flow directions. The data are used together with climate change projections from general circulation models (GCMs) as input to hydrological and (advective) transport modelling. The main goal is to assess how regional transport pathways and travel times have changed, and are likely to change further, in response to past and projected future hydro-climatic changes. More specifically, the hydrological modelling was based on temperature and precipitation change (ΔT and ΔP) results from 65 GCM projections of 21st century conditions (specifically considering time periods around 2025, 2050, and 2100), relative to reference conditions around 1975 (taken from the reference period 1961-1990). Whereas ΔT is robustly projected to increase with time, the projected magnitude of ΔP differs more among projections for the distant future (2100) than for the near future (2025), with uncertainty remaining even about the direction of change (i.e., positive or negative ΔP). However, mainly due to the projected temperature-driven increases in evapotranspiration, ensemble average results show that the Amu Darya river discharge Q in the downstream ASDB is likely to show a decreasing trend throughout the 21st century. Notably, projected changes in the upstream, mountainous regions have a relatively

  19. Detailed Mapping of Historical and Preinstrumental Earthquake Ruptures in Central Asia Using Multi-Scale, Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, A. J.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.; Ren, Z.; Ainscoe, E. A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Mackenzie, D.; Arrowsmith, R.; Gruetzner, C.

    2016-12-01

    In regions of the planet with long historical records, known past seismic events can be attributed to specific fault sources through the identification and measurement of single-event scarps in high-resolution imagery and topography. The level of detail captured by modern remote sensing is now sufficient to map and measure complete earthquake ruptures that were originally only sparsely mapped or overlooked entirely. We can thus extend the record of mapped earthquake surface ruptures into the preinstrumental period and capture the wealth of information preserved in the numerous historical earthquake ruptures throughout regions like Central Asia. We investigate two major late 19th and early 20th century earthquakes that are well located macroseismically but whose fault sources had proved enigmatic in the absence of detailed imagery and topography. We use high-resolution topographic models derived from photogrammetry of satellite, low-altitude, and ground-based optical imagery to map and measure the coseismic scarps of the 1889 M8.3 Chilik, Kazakhstan and 1932 M7.6 Changma, China earthquakes. Measurement of the scarps on the combined imagery and topography reveals the extent and slip distribution of coseismic rupture in each of these events, showing both earthquakes involved multiple faults with variable kinematics. We use a 1-m elevation model of the Changma fault derived from Pleiades satellite imagery to map the changing kinematics of the 1932 rupture along strike. For the 1889 Chilik earthquake we use 1.5-m SPOT-6 satellite imagery to produce a regional elevation model of the fault ruptures, from which we identify three distinct, intersecting fault systems that each have >20 km of fresh, single-event scarps. Along sections of each of these faults we construct high resolution (330 points per sq m) elevation models using quadcopter- and helikite-mounted cameras. From the detailed topography we measure single-event oblique offsets of 6-10 m, consistent with the large

  20. Historical Influences and a Modern Alternative for Leadership Models in Central Asia = Orta Asya'da Liderlik Modellerinde Tarihsel Etkiler ve Modern Alternatifler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Michael COX

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1991 demise of the Soviet Union that led to the emancipation of many Central Asian states, also led to a grab for power by a variety of leadership types. Although the characteristics of leadership types in the 1990s were diverse, few followed the pattern of Samuel Huntington's Third Wave of authoritarian transition, whereby authoritarian regimes were abandoned in favor of democratically elected and democratically oriented governments. Historically, Eurasia has had little experience with popular government. This is reflected in the general characteristics of leadership types in the post-Soviet era, which closely follow three regional historical influences - the early Islamic Emperors, the Mongolian Khans and the Russian Tsars (and later Soviet leaders. This article examines the historic influences on Eurasian leadership types and the impact of these types on the politics, societies and economies of these same states. It will be argued that at the current stage of political development, it would ultimately benefit the states of Central Asia to follow, at this time, the most successful Eurasian model to date, that of Kemal Atatürk and Turkey, rather than to push for a fully participatory democracy or sustain the post-Soviet personal dictatorships that have prospered throughout Central Asia.

  1. Central Asia in a Changing World: From a Peripheral Region to an Area of Policy Generation and Application. Actors, Policy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with Central Asia, beginning with an analysis of the characteristics of international insertion of the area as a whole and of the former Soviet republics that comprise it. In a general way, it aims to analyse the evolution of Central Asia from a peripheral region to an area that generates behaviours and receives the application of policies on the part ofinternational actors. In the first part of the study, it mentions a series of particularities of the republics that have determined the relationships in the region(the Central Asian order and those between the region and the outside world; it indicates geo-historical and economic-strategic aspects. In the second part, it examines the foreign policy of the republics in the post-Cold War era from the singularities of domestic policy. And, in the third part, it analyses, according to the aforementioned peculiarities, the policies that the area and each State has generated in international actors, both regional ones and global ones, and which have transformed the region from a peripheral one to a geopolitically emerging one.

  2. Estimation of water storage changes in small endorheic lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (Northern Kazakhstan, Central Asia); the effect of climate change and anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapiyev, Vadim; Sagintayev, Zhanay; Verhoef, Anne; Samarkhanov, Kanat; Jumassultanova, Saltanat

    2017-04-01

    Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. It has been observed in recent decades that water-limited steppe regions of Central Asia are among ecosystems found to exhibit enhanced responses to climate variability. In fact, the largest share of worldwide net loss of permanent water extent is geographically concentrated in the Central Asia and Middle East regions attributed to both climate variability/change and human activities impacts. We used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and high resolution Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia, for the period 2000-2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, hydrometeorological network observations as well as regional climate model projections we evaluate the impacts of past thirty years and future climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. The anthropogenic water consumption was estimated based on data collected at a local water supply company and regulation authorities. One the one hand historical in-situ observations and future climate projections do not show a significant change in precipitation in BNNP. On the other hand both observations and the model demonstrate steadily rising air temperatures in the area. It is concluded that the long-term decline in water levels for most of these lakes can be largely attributed to climate change (but only via changes in air temperature, causing evaporation to exceed precipitation) and not to direct anthropogenic influences such as increased water withdrawals. In addition, the two largest lakes, showing the highest historical water level decline, do not have sufficient water drainage basin area to sustain water levels under increased evaporation rates.

  3. Value orientations of the population of the Republic of Tuva (a study of an opinion poll of urban and rural residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana P. Tatarova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the system of value orientations and cultural preferences in post-Soviet Russia are of highest importance for contemporary researchers. This article examines the value orientations of the residents of the Republic of Tuva (a constituent subject of Russian Federation both in toto and by generation and along the urban/rural divide. Our analysis utilized the outcomes of our empirical studies titled “The current state of sociocultural institutions in the Republic of Tuva and their role in preventing social problems” (2011 and “The rural culture of the Republic of Tuva” (2011-2012. I am grateful to students of the Tuva Branch of East Siberian State Academy of Culture and Fine Arts for their aid in conducting the study. The study showed that the system of value orientations in Tuva features certain distinctions between those of urban and rural residents, and along the generational divide. The urban population’s vital values are health, personal security and success (for the elder generation and health, money and personal success (for the younger generation. Among the social values the elder generations most frequently name respect from others, integrity, good family relations, while the younger generation focuses on respect from others, good friendship and integrity. Rural population places family and health above everything else. Studying leisure time of the urban population in Tuva showed that the list of top activities includes spending time with friends and/or family, watching TV and a day outdoors. The outcomes of our study do not completely match the hierarchy of leisure time activities in other regions of Russia and the national average. There is a certain danger in contemporary urban environment’s trend towards leaning down the variety of leisure activities. Our study showed that the urban and rural populations have almost identical TV watching habits, with the majority preferring newscasts, music shows and crime reports

  4. El ascenso de China en Asia Central: ¿un nuevo hegemón regional en gestación?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás de Pedro

    2010-01-01

    China tiene un papel cada vez más relevante en Asia Central. Beijing lidera la Organización de Cooperación de Shanghai, el foro de cooperación regional más dinámico y con una creciente relevancia en el panorama comercial, energético y de seguridad centroasiático. Este ascenso chino supone un desplazamiento progresivo de Rusia, el hegemón tradicional y cuyos intereses parecen crecientemente divergentes con los de China, a pesar del aparente entendimiento entre ambos durante los últimos años. E...

  5. Las migraciones transnacionales en Asia Central como amenaza a la seguridad de las ex-repúblicas soviéticas (1991-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Bocanegra, Camilo Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Esta monografía tiene como objetivo explicar cómo las migraciones transnacionales se han convertido en una amenaza para la seguridad de las ex repúblicas soviéticas de Asia central durante las últimas dos décadas dando lugar a un Complejo de Seguridad Regional (CSR). Mediante la teoría crítica del CSR elaborada por Barry Buzan, se buscará probar que estos flujos migratorios transnacionales han configurado una amenaza compartida para la seguridad de la región debido a su asociación con grupos ...

  6. Alternative policy study. Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios. GEO 2000 alternative policy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and whether this will be enough. Similar Geo-2000 region-specific studies on alternative policies have been compiled other world regions. This report outliners the general methodology for these reports

  7. Mid- to Late Holocene climate development in Central Asia as revealed from multi-proxy analyses of sediments from Lake Son Kol (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Stefan; Dulski, Peter; Gleixner, Gerd; Hettler-Riedel, Sabine; Mingram, Jens; Plessen, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Schwalb, Antje; Schwarz, Anja; Stebich, Martina; Witt, Roman

    2013-04-01

    A mid-Holocene shift from predominantly wet to significantly drier climate conditions, attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, Holocene climate development in the arid regions of mid-latitude Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is less well-constrained but supposed to have been influenced by a complex interaction between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. Hence, well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from Central Asia might provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, several sediment cores were recovered from alpine Lake Son Kol (41° 48'N, 75° 12'E, 3016 m a. s. l.) in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. A radiocarbon-dated sediment sequence of 154.5 cm length, covering approximately the last 6000 years, was investigated by using a multi-proxy approach, including sedimentological, (bio)geochemical, isotopic and micropalaeontological analyses. Preliminary proxy data indicate hydrologically variable but predominantly wet conditions until ca. 5100 cal. a BP, characterized by the deposition of finely laminated organic-carbonatic sediments. In contrast to monsoonal Asia, where a distinct trend towards drier conditions is observed since the mid-Holocene, the hydrologically variable interval at Lake Son Kol was apparently followed by an only short-term dry episode between ca. 5100 and 4200 cal. a BP. This is characterized by a higher δD of the C29 n-alkanes, probably reflecting increased evapotranspiration. Also pollen, diatom and ostracod data point

  8. Vegetation change and terrestrial carbon storage in eastern Asia during the Last Glacial Maximum as indicated by a new pollen record from central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, P.M.; Kuo, C.M.; Huang, S.Y.; Tseng, M.H. [Geological Department, National Taiwan Univ. 245, Chou-shan Rd., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-05-01

    Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) carbon storage in eastern Asia is a key issue for understanding the sinks and sources of paleocarbon. Palynological data with good time constraint for the LGM in a peat bog from a site at 650 m above mean sea level in central Taiwan, together with data from low-lying deltaic and basin deposits of Taiwan and South China, increase our understanding about vegetational evolution and possible terrestrial carbon storage in this area and probably eastern Asia. Contrasting to today`s Machilus-Castanopsis forest zone around the peat bog, the vegetation before the LGM was dominated by Alnus, a relatively xerophytic element in Taiwan. An increase in herbs and decrease in spores during the LGM is recognized when compared with Holocene and modern assemblages. A less humid interval dominated by herbs (>50%) occurred between 21 and 15.8 ka. Basin deposits in northern Taiwan and deltaic deposits in central Taiwan show that during the LGM Artemisia, Umbelliferae and Gramineae were the main components contrasting with the Pinus or Cyclobalanopsis-dominant assemblages in the rest of the last glacial. Thus, less humid conditions lasted about 5000 to 6000 years in the LGM even on this very humid island. This may also be true in eastern Asia where a large area of the widely exposed continental shelf may have been occupied by grasslands and the uplands of South China were occupied by less dense coniferous or temperate forests during the LGM in contrast to the modern subtropical forest. This scenario improves our understanding of the terrestrial paleocarbon storage

  9. Vegetation change and terrestrial carbon storage in eastern Asia during the Last Glacial Maximum as indicated by a new pollen record from central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, P. M.; Kuo, C. M.; Huang, S. Y.; Tseng, M. H.

    1998-05-01

    Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) carbon storage in eastern Asia is a key issue for understanding the sinks and sources of paleocarbon. Palynological data with good time constraint for the LGM in a peat bog from a site at 650 m above mean sea level in central Taiwan, together with data from low-lying deltaic and basin deposits of Taiwan and South China, increase our understanding about vegetational evolution and possible terrestrial carbon storage in this area and probably eastern Asia. Contrasting to today's Machilus-Castanopsis forest zone around the peat bog, the vegetation before the LGM was dominated by Alnus, a relatively xerophytic element in Taiwan. An increase in herbs and decrease in spores during the LGM is recognized when compared with Holocene and modern assemblages. A less humid interval dominated by herbs (>50%) occurred between 21 and 15.8 ka. Basin deposits in northern Taiwan and deltaic deposits in central Taiwan show that during the LGM Artemisia, Umbelliferae and Gramineae were the main components contrasting with the Pinus or Cyclobalanopsis-dominant assemblages in the rest of the last glacial. Thus, less humid conditions lasted about 5000 to 6000 years in the LGM even on this very humid island. This may also be true in eastern Asia where a large area of the widely exposed continental shelf may have been occupied by grasslands and the uplands of South China were occupied by less dense coniferous or temperate forests during the LGM in contrast to the modern subtropical forest. This scenario improves our understanding of the terrestrial paleocarbon storage.

  10. Eolian dust dispersal patterns since the last glacial period in eastern Central Asia: insights from a loess-paleosol sequence in the Ili Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Song, Yougui; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Chang, Hong; Orozbaev, Rustam; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    The extensive loess deposits of the Eurasian mid-latitudes provide important terrestrial archives of Quaternary climatic change. As yet, however, loess records in Central Asia are poorly understood. Here we investigate the grain size and magnetic characteristics of loess from the Nilka (NLK) section in the Ili Basin of eastern Central Asia. Weak pedogenesis suggested by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd%) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) peaks in primary loess suggest that MS is more strongly influenced by allogenetic magnetic minerals than pedogenesis, and may therefore be used to indicate wind strength. This is supported by the close correlation between variations in MS and proportions of the sand-sized fraction. To further explore the temporal variability in dust transport patterns, we identified three grain size end-members (EM1, mode size 47.5 µm; EM2, 33.6 µm; EM3, 18.9 µm) which represent distinct aerodynamic environments. EM1 and EM2 are inferred to represent grain size fractions transported from proximal sources in short-term, near-surface suspension during dust outbreaks. EM3 appears to represent a continuous background dust fraction under non-dust storm conditions. Of the three end-members, EM1 is most likely the most sensitive recorder of wind strength. We compare our EM1 proportions with mean grain size from the Jingyuan section in the Chinese loess plateau, and assess these in the context of modern and Holocene climate data. Our research suggests that the Siberian High pressure system is the dominant influence on wind dynamics, resulting in loess deposition in the eastern Ili Basin. Six millennial-scale cooling (Heinrich) events can be identified in the NLK loess records. Our grain size data support the hypothesis that the Siberian High acts as teleconnection between the climatic systems of the North Atlantic and East Asia in the high northern latitudes, but not for the mid-latitude westerlies.

  11. Trade Policies in Central Asia after EU Enlargement and before Russian WTO accession: Regionalism and Integration into the world economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pomfret

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements which the Central Asian countries have signed have had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for the Central Asian countries of Chinese and Russian WTO membership and the consequences of the current Central Asian applicants’ (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbeki...

  12. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ΁ standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ΁ 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%, 83 (5% patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture.

  13. Fine-grained quartz OSL dating chronology of loess sequence from southern Tajikistan: Implications for climate change in arid central Asia during MIS 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leibin; Jia, Jia; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Zaijun; Wang, Xin; Chen, Fahu

    2018-04-01

    The desert and semi-desert region of arid central Asia is one of the most important areas of middle-latitude dust emission and deposition in the Northern Hemisphere. Marine isotope stage 2 (MIS 2) was the latest and one of the most representative intervals of dust emission from the region, and it is especially important for research into processes of dust transportation and deposition. Here, we report the results of an optically stimulated luminescence study of the Hoalin section in southern Tajikistan, which was deposited during MIS 2. The fine-grained quartz single aliquot regeneration (SAR) approach was used and its reliability was verified by internal checks. In addition, grain-size analyses, calculated dust accumulation rates (DARs) and mass accumulation rates (MARs) were used to reconstruct the pattern of climate change during MIS 2. The mean DAR for southern Tajikistan during MIS 2 was 0.43 m/ka, and the corresponding average MAR was 673 g/cm2/a for a non-river-terrace site, which is higher than the average MARs estimated for the central and southern Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). In contrast to previous suggestions, the high dust DARs and MARs during the LGM indicate a 'cold-dry' climatic pattern, rather than a 'cold-humid' pattern. Our results also confirm that the patterns of high dust emission and deposition during the LGM in the mid-latitude arid zone of Asia were synchronous.

  14. Atmosphere aerosol/dust composition over central Asia and western Siberia derived from snow/ice core records and calibrated with NASA remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Joswiak, D. R.; Surazakov, A. B.; Takeuchi, N.

    2007-12-01

    The vast arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia, Mongolia, and Northern China are the world's second largest source of atmospheric mineral dust. In recent years, severe dust storms in Asia have intensified in frequency, duration, and areal coverage. However, limited spatial and temporal extent of aerosol measurements precludes definitive statements to be made regarding relationship between the Asian aerosol generation and climate. It has been well known that glaciers are the natural archives of environmental records related to past climate and aerosol generation. In our research, we utilized central Asian and western Siberia shallow ice-core records recovered from Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir mountain glaciers. Despite the fact that ice-core data may extend climate/aerosol records back in time, their sparse coverage is inadequate to document aerosol spatial distribution. The NASA products from Aura, Terra and Aqua satellite missions address this gap identifying aerosol sources, transport pathways, and area of deposition. The main objective of our research is to evaluate an affect of climate variability on dynamics of Asian aerosol loading to atmosphere and changes in aerosol transport pathways. Dust particle, major and rare earth element analysis from dust aerosols deposited and accumulated in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers suggests that loess from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and north-western China are main sources of aerosol loading into the upper troposphere over the central Asia and western Siberia. At the same time, the soluble ionic component of the ice-cores, related to aerosol generated from evaporate deposits, demonstrated both anthropogenic and natural impacts on atmospheric chemistry over these regions. Large perturbations of Ca2+ derived from CaCO3- rich dust transported from Goby Desert to Altai and Tien Shan. Origin and pathway of the ice-core aerosol depositions for the last 10-years were identified through calibrating ice-core records with dust

  15. Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  16. Mental and ethno-psychological features of Tuvans within the system of development determinants of the Republic of Tuva: the case of ethno-tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Madyukova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethno-tourism is now often seen as an economic and sociocultural determinant of regional development in the Republic of Tuva. This is now understood by the regional authorities, embodied in a certain amount of legislation and implemented through a number of action plans. However, the work of the authorities relies largely on economic resources available. In this article, the author chose to focus on Tuvan mental and ethno-psychological features which can either facilitate or impede the progress of tourism in the region. Among these significant features of Tuvan ethnic character are the small degree of mental openness to outside influence, the high importance of family affinities and of belonging to kinship groups, the collectivist way of thinking, national pride and love of the homeland, low acquisitive demands (especially concerning money, a certain inertia of behavior, the presence of specific ‘Tuvan time’, bilingualism and the negative image of Tuvans in mass media – an image which does not match the self-image of Tuvans. Having analyzed festivals and ethnic celebrations in Tuva which can be classified as resources of event tourism, the author focused on one of the most implication-rich aspects of developing ethno-tourism in the region. It concerns the value-based and ethical transformation of the ethnic self-consciousness which found their expression in desacralization and commercialization of traditional culture. Ethno-tourism appears to be the most “eloquent” practice in the rise of this ersatz culture, where traditional cuisine is simplified, cheaper cloth and machine embroidery is used, the traditional designs, such as that of the yurta, appear in commercial projects, e.g. of holiday camps. The author concludes that, on the one hand, increasing popularity of ethno-tourism in Tuva can propel the industry to becoming an important economic determinant of regional development. More positive influences can be expected in potential

  17. Did Inequality Increase in Transition? An Analysis of the Transitional Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rozsas, Tamas

    2002-01-01

    ... from centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy. Since the behavior of these countries contradicted previous models of inequality, researchers analyzing the transition process linked the increase in income inequality to the egalitarian values...

  18. El ascenso de China en Asia Central: ¿un nuevo hegemón regional en gestación?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás de Pedro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available China tiene un papel cada vez más relevante en Asia Central. Beijing lidera la Organización de Cooperación de Shanghai, el foro de cooperación regional más dinámico y con una creciente relevancia en el panorama comercial, energético y de seguridad centroasiático. Este ascenso chino supone un desplazamiento progresivo de Rusia, el hegemón tradicional y cuyos intereses parecen crecientemente divergentes con los de China, a pesar del aparente entendimiento entre ambos durante los últimos años. En el artículo, se analizan la acción e intereses de China agrupados en cinco dimensiones: fronteriza, uigur, comercial, energética y geopolítica.

  19. A new Triassic shortening-extrusion tectonic model for Central-EasternAsia: Structural, geochronological and paleomagnetic investigations in the Xilamulun Fault (North China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei

    2017-04-01

    At the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB), the Xilamulun Fault (XMF) is a key belt to decipher the tectonic evolution of Central-Eastern Asia, as it records the Paleozoic final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, and localizes a Late Triassic intracontinental deformation. In this study, structural analysis, 40Ar-39Ar dating, and paleomagnetic studies were performed to investigate the kinematics of the XMF and to further discuss its Triassic geodynamic significance in the Central-Eastern Asia framework after the Paleozoic Central Asian Orogenic evolution. The structural analyses reveal two phases of ductile deformation. The first one (D1), which displays N-verging and E-W trending folds, is related to the Early Paleozoic collisional event between the NCB and the Songliao-Hunshandake Block (SHB). The second phase (D2) displays a high-angle foliation and a pervasive sub-horizontalE-W stretching lineation with kinematic criteria indicative of dextral strike-slip shearing. The 40Ar-39Ar dating on mylonitic granite places the main shearing event around 227-209 Ma. This D2 shearing is coeval with that of the dextral strike-slip Bayan Obo-Chifeng Fault (BCF) and the Chicheng-Fengning-Longhua Fault to the south, which together constitute a dextral shearing fault system on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. The paleomagnetic study performed on the Middle Permian Guangxingyuan pluton, located between the XMF and BCF, documents a local clockwise rotation of this pluton with respect to the NCB and SHB. Our multidisciplinary study suggests anNNW-SSE shortening and strike-slip shearing dominated tectonic setting on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. Combining the contemporaneous dextral strike-slip movements of the XMF and BCF in northern China and the sinistral strike-slip movement of East Gobi Fault (EGF) in southeastern Mongolia with the large-scale tectonic framework, a Late Triassic NNW-SSE shortening-eastward extrusion

  20. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  1. THE DEEP STRUCTURE AND PALEOGEODYNAMICS OF SIBERIA AND CENTRAL ASIA IN STUDIES OF THE INSTITUTE OF THE EARTH’S CRUST, SB RAS (2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Gladkochub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep structure and paleogeodynamics of the Siberian craton and the Central Asian folded belt are studied by two specialized laboratories of the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, SB RAS – the Laboratory of Complex Geophysics and the Laboratory of Paleogeodynamics. A variety of modern geophysical methods is applied. Surface wave tomography is focused on determination of 3D velocity structure of the upper mantle. Seismic, gravimetric and electrical surveys are aimed at stu­dies of structures of the crust and the upper mantle. Geothermic parameters of the lithosphere in Central Asia are measured. In search for mineral resources, new geophysical prospecting technologies are developed. Quality paleogeodynamics reconstructions require a proper understanding of the structural evolution of the Siberian craton and the Central Asian folded belt. Researches in this scientific field are conducted by the Laboratory of Paleogeodynamics. Besides, the Laboratory studies new minerals and conditions of their formation. Some of the scientific research projects are jointly implemented by the two laboratories, and research results are regularly published in Russia and abroad.  

  2. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  3. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Eolian dust dispersal patterns since the last glacial period in eastern Central Asia: insights from a loess-paleosol sequence in the Ili Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The extensive loess deposits of the Eurasian mid-latitudes provide important terrestrial archives of Quaternary climatic change. As yet, however, loess records in Central Asia are poorly understood. Here we investigate the grain size and magnetic characteristics of loess from the Nilka (NLK section in the Ili Basin of eastern Central Asia. Weak pedogenesis suggested by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd% and magnetic susceptibility (MS peaks in primary loess suggest that MS is more strongly influenced by allogenetic magnetic minerals than pedogenesis, and may therefore be used to indicate wind strength. This is supported by the close correlation between variations in MS and proportions of the sand-sized fraction. To further explore the temporal variability in dust transport patterns, we identified three grain size end-members (EM1, mode size 47.5 µm; EM2, 33.6 µm; EM3, 18.9 µm which represent distinct aerodynamic environments. EM1 and EM2 are inferred to represent grain size fractions transported from proximal sources in short-term, near-surface suspension during dust outbreaks. EM3 appears to represent a continuous background dust fraction under non-dust storm conditions. Of the three end-members, EM1 is most likely the most sensitive recorder of wind strength. We compare our EM1 proportions with mean grain size from the Jingyuan section in the Chinese loess plateau, and assess these in the context of modern and Holocene climate data. Our research suggests that the Siberian High pressure system is the dominant influence on wind dynamics, resulting in loess deposition in the eastern Ili Basin. Six millennial-scale cooling (Heinrich events can be identified in the NLK loess records. Our grain size data support the hypothesis that the Siberian High acts as teleconnection between the climatic systems of the North Atlantic and East Asia in the high northern latitudes, but not for the mid-latitude westerlies.

  5. Efficacy and safety of etanercept in patients from Latin America, Central Europe and Asia with early non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Citera, Gustavo; Kotak, Sameer; Llamado, Lyndon

    2016-11-11

    To evaluate etanercept in patients from Latin America, Central/Eastern Europe, and Asia with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). A subset analysis was performed on nr-axSpA patients from Argentina, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Russia and Taiwan who were enrolled in EMBARK (NCT01258738). Patients received either etanercept 50 mg or placebo once weekly. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients achieving 40% improvement from baseline based on Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria. Secondary endpoints included other efficacy assessments, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and safety. Of the 117 patients in this subset, 59 were treated with etanercept and 58 received placebo. At week 12, numerically greater improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy endpoints in etanercept-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups were observed for proportion of patients achieving ASAS40 (P = 0.0413, at week 8), ASAS5/6 (P = 0.0126), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score - C-reactive protein (CRP) inactive disease (P = 0.0093), Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliac joint scores (P = 0.0014), high-sensitivity CRP (P=0.032), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.0082). Statistically significant improvements in the etanercept-treated group compared with placebo group were observed for nocturnal back pain (P = 0.040), total back pain (P = 0.025), physician global assessment of disease (P = 0.023), and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire percent impairment while working (P = 0.047). Adverse events were similar between the two treatment groups. In this subset of patients with nr-axSpA from Latin America, Central/Eastern Europe, and Asia, treatment with etanercept, compared with placebo, resulted in improved disease symptoms and patient HRQo

  6. The resolution of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” (Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation, November 17-18, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . . .

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief summary of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” held in Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation on November 17-18, 2015. Also provided is the full text of the resolution adopted at the conference.

  7. Communication dated 30 May 2014 received from the Permanent Mission of Uzbekistan to the Agency regarding the implementation of the initiative of the President of Uzbekistan on Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 30 May 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Uzbekistan to the Agency regarding the implementation of the initiative of the President of Uzbekistan, HE Mr Islam Karimov, on Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia. The note verbale and its attachment are circulated herewith for information, as requested by the Permanent Mission

  8. Can a change in cropping patterns produce water savings and social gains: A case study from the Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimov Akmal Kh.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines possible water savings by replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley, located upstream of the Syrdarya River in Central Asia. Agricultural reforms since the 1990s have promoted this change in cropping patterns in the Central Asian states to enhance food security and social benefits. The water use of alfalfa, winter wheat/fallow, and winter wheat/green gram (double cropping systems is compared for high-deficit, low-deficit, and full irrigation scenarios using hydrological modeling with the HYDRUS-1D software package. Modeling results indicate that replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley released significant water resources, mainly by reducing productive crop transpiration when abandoning alfalfa in favor of alternative cropping systems. However, the winter wheat/fallow cropping system caused high evaporation losses from fallow land after harvesting of winter wheat. Double cropping (i.e., the cultivation of green gram as a short duration summer crop after winter wheat harvesting reduced evaporation losses, enhanced crop output and hence food security, while generating water savings that make more water available for other productive uses. Beyond water savings, this paper also discusses the economic and social gains that double cropping produces for the public within a broader developmental context.

  9. The luminescence dating chronology of a deep core from Bosten Lake (NW China) in arid central Asia reveals lake evolution over the last 220 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Guoqiang; Duan, Yanwu; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    The lacustrine deposits of lakes in arid central Asia (ACA) potentially record palaeoclimatic changes on orbital and suborbital time scales, but such changes are still poorly understood due to the lack of reliable chronologies. Bosten Lake, the largest freshwater inland lake in China, is located...... in the southern Tianshan Mountains in central ACA. A 51.6-m-deep lacustrine succession was retrieved from the lake and 30 samples from the succession were used for luminescence dating to establish a chronology based on multi-grain quartz OSL and K-feldspar post-IR IRSL (pIRIR290) dating. Quartz OSL ages were only....... A stable deep lake occurred at c. 220, 210–180, c. 165, 70–60, 40–30 and 20–5 ka, while shallow levels occurred at c. 215, 180–165, 100–70, 60–40 and 30–20 ka. Bosten Lake levels decreased by at least ~29 m and possibly the lake even dried up between c. 160 and c. 100 ka. We suggest that the water...

  10. A Tale of Amalgamation of Three Permo-Triassic Collage Systems in Central Asia: Oroclines, Sutures, and Terminal Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Sun, Shu; Li, Jiliang; Huang, Baochun; Han, Chunming; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Chen, Hanlin

    2015-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt records the accretion and convergence of three collage systems that were finally rotated into two major oroclines. The Mongolia collage system was a long, N-S-oriented composite ribbon that was rotated to its current orientation when the Mongol-Okhotsk orocline was formed. The components of the Kazakhstan collage system were welded together into a long, single composite arc that was bent to form the Kazakhstan orocline. The cratons of Tarim and North China were united and sutured by the Beishan orogen, which terminated with formation of the Solonker suture in northern China. All components of the three collage systems were generated by the Neoproterozoic and were amalgamated in the Permo-Triassic. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt evolved by multiple convergence and accretion of many orogenic components during multiple phases of amalgamation, followed by two phases of orocline rotation.

  11. Integrating the Holocene tephrostratigraphy for East Asia using a high-resolution cryptotephra study from Lake Suigetsu (SG14 core), central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Danielle; Albert, Paul G.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takehiko; Staff, Richard A.; Yamada, Keitaro; Kitaba, Ikuko; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Junko; Smith, Victoria C.; SG14 Project Members

    2018-03-01

    Tephra (volcanic ash) layers have the potential to synchronise disparate palaeoenvironmental archives on regional to hemispheric scales. Highly productive arc regions, like those in East Asia, offer a considerable number of widespread isochrons, but before records can be confidently correlated using these layers, a refined and integrated framework of these eruptive events is required. Here we present the first high-resolution Holocene cryptotephra study in East Asia, using the Lake Suigetsu sedimentary archive in central Japan. The Holocene tephrostratigraphy has been extended from four to twenty ash layers using cryptotephra extraction techniques, which integrates the deposits from explosive eruptions from North Korea/China, South Korea and along the Japanese arc. This Lake Suigetsu tephrostratigraphy is now the most comprehensive record of East Asian volcanism, and the linchpin site for correlating sequences across this region. Major element glass geochemical compositions are presented for the tephra layers in the sequence, which have been compared to proximal datasets to correlate them to their volcanic source and specific eruptions. This study has significantly extended the ash dispersal of many key Holocene marker layers, and has identified the first distal occurrence of isochrons from Ulleungdo and Changbaishan volcanoes. Utilising the high-precision Lake Suigetsu chronology, we are able to provide constrained eruption ages for the tephra layers, which can be transferred into other site-specific age models containing these markers. This new framework indicates that several isochrons stratigraphically bracket abrupt climate intervals in Japan, and could be used to precisely assess the regional and hemispheric synchronicity of these events.

  12. Statistical forecast of seasonal discharge in Central Asia using observational records: development of a generic linear modelling tool for operational water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Apel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien Shan and Pamir and Altai mountains. During the summer months the snow-melt- and glacier-melt-dominated river discharge originating in the mountains provides the main water resource available for agricultural production, but also for storage in reservoirs for energy generation during the winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for sustainable management and planning of water resources. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of all national hydro-meteorological services in the region. In order to support the operational seasonal forecast procedures of hydro-meteorological services, this study aims to develop a generic tool for deriving statistical forecast models of seasonal river discharge based solely on observational records. The generic model structure is kept as simple as possible in order to be driven by meteorological and hydrological data readily available at the hydro-meteorological services, and to be applicable for all catchments in the region. As snow melt dominates summer runoff, the main meteorological predictors for the forecast models are monthly values of winter precipitation and temperature, satellite-based snow cover data, and antecedent discharge. This basic predictor set was further extended by multi-monthly means of the individual predictors, as well as composites of the predictors. Forecast models are derived based on these predictors as linear combinations of up to four predictors. A user-selectable number of the best models is extracted automatically by the developed model fitting algorithm, which includes a test for robustness by a leave-one-out cross-validation. Based on the cross-validation the predictive uncertainty was quantified for every prediction model. Forecasts of the mean seasonal discharge of the period April to September are derived

  13. Statistical forecast of seasonal discharge in Central Asia using observational records: development of a generic linear modelling tool for operational water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Abdykerimova, Zharkinay; Agalhanova, Marina; Baimaganbetov, Azamat; Gavrilenko, Nadejda; Gerlitz, Lars; Kalashnikova, Olga; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Gafurov, Abror

    2018-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien Shan and Pamir and Altai mountains. During the summer months the snow-melt- and glacier-melt-dominated river discharge originating in the mountains provides the main water resource available for agricultural production, but also for storage in reservoirs for energy generation during the winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for sustainable management and planning of water resources. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of all national hydro-meteorological services in the region. In order to support the operational seasonal forecast procedures of hydro-meteorological services, this study aims to develop a generic tool for deriving statistical forecast models of seasonal river discharge based solely on observational records. The generic model structure is kept as simple as possible in order to be driven by meteorological and hydrological data readily available at the hydro-meteorological services, and to be applicable for all catchments in the region. As snow melt dominates summer runoff, the main meteorological predictors for the forecast models are monthly values of winter precipitation and temperature, satellite-based snow cover data, and antecedent discharge. This basic predictor set was further extended by multi-monthly means of the individual predictors, as well as composites of the predictors. Forecast models are derived based on these predictors as linear combinations of up to four predictors. A user-selectable number of the best models is extracted automatically by the developed model fitting algorithm, which includes a test for robustness by a leave-one-out cross-validation. Based on the cross-validation the predictive uncertainty was quantified for every prediction model. Forecasts of the mean seasonal discharge of the period April to September are derived every month from

  14. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in Central Asia for water resources management: development of a generic (pre-)operational modeling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Baimaganbetov, Azamat; Kalashnikova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Nadejda; Abdykerimova, Zharkinay; Agalhanova, Marina; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Gafurov, Abror

    2017-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt dominated river discharge originating in the mountains provides the main water resource available for agricultural production, but also for storage in reservoirs for energy generation during the winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of all national hydro-meteorological services in the region. In order to support the operational seasonal forecast procedures of hydromet services, this study aims at the development of a generic tool for deriving statistical forecast models of seasonal river discharge. The generic model is kept as simple as possible in order to be driven by available hydrological and meteorological data, and be applicable for all catchments with their often limited data availability in the region. As snowmelt dominates summer runoff, the main meteorological predictors for the forecast models are monthly values of winter precipitation and temperature as recorded by climatological stations in the catchments. These data sets are accompanied by snow cover predictors derived from the operational ModSnow tool, which provides cloud free snow cover data for the selected catchments based on MODIS satellite images. In addition to the meteorological data antecedent streamflow is used as a predictor variable. This basic predictor set was further extended by multi-monthly means of the individual predictors, as well as composites of the predictors. Forecast models are derived based on these predictors as linear combinations of up to 3 or 4 predictors. A user selectable number of best models according to pre-defined performance criteria is extracted automatically by the developed model fitting algorithm, which includes a test

  15. Water resources in Central Asia - status quo and future conflicts in transboundary river catchments - the example of the Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Michael; Opp, Christian; Kulmatov, Rashid; Normatov, Inom; Stulina, Galina; Shermatov, Nurmakhmad

    2014-05-01

    Water is the most valuable resource in Central Asia and due to its uneven distribution and usage among the countries of the region it is also the main source of tension between upstream and downstream water users. Due to the rapidly shrinking glaciers in the Pamir, Tien-Shan and Alai mountains, the available water resources will, by 2030, be 30% lower than today while the water demand of the growing economies will increase by 30%. This will further aggravate the pressure on the water resources and increase the water deficit caused by an unsustainable water use and political agendas. These challenges can only be overcome by an integrated water resource management for the important transboundary river catchments. The basis for such an IWRM approach however needs to be a solid data base about the status quo of the water resources. To that end the research presented here provides a detailed overview of the transboundary Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan), the lifeline for more than 6 mln people. The Zarafshan River is well suited for this as it is not only one of the most important rivers in Central Asia but because the public availability of hydrological and ecological data is very limited, Furthermore the catchment is characterized by the same imbalances in the Water-Energy-Food-Nexus as most river systems in that region, which makes the Zarafshan a perfect model river for Central Asia as a whole. The findings presented here are based on field measurements, existing data from the national hydrometeorological services and an extensive literature analysis and cover the status quo of the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Zarafshan as well as the most important water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, nitrate, phosphate, arsenic, chromate, copper, zinc, fluoride, petroleum products, phenols and the aquatic invertebrate fauna). The hydrology of the Zarafshan is characterized by a high natural discharge dynamic in the mountainous upper parts of

  16. Structural evolution of the Irtysh Shear Zone: implication for the Late Paleozoic amalgamation of multiple arc systems in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-04-01

    The NW-SE Irtysh Shear Zone represents a major tectonic boundary in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, recording the amalgamation history between the peri-Siberian orogenic system and the Kazakhstan orogenic system. The structural evolution and geodynamics of this shear zone is still poorly documented. Here we present new structural data complemented by chronological data in an attempt to unravel the geodynamic significance of the Irtysh Shear Zone in the context of accretion history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Our results show three episodes of deformation for the shear zone. D1 foliation is locally recognized in low strain area and recorded by garnet inclusions, whereas D2 is represented by a sub-horizontal fabric and related NW-SE lineation. D3 is characterized by a transpersonal deformation event, to form a series of NW-SE mylonitic belts with sinistral kinematics, and to overprint D2 fabric forming regional-scale NW-SE upright folds. A paragneiss sample from the shear zone yielded the youngest detrital zircon peaks in the late Carboniferous, placing a maximum age constraint on the deformation, which overlaps in time with the late Paleozoic collision between the Chinese Altai and the intraoceanic arc system of the East Junggar and West Junggar. We interpret three episodes of deformation to represent orogenic thickening (D1), collapse (D2) and thickening (D3) in response to this collisional event. Sinistral shearing (D3) together with the coeval dextral shearing in the Tianshan accommodate eastward extrusion of the Kazakhstan orogenic system during the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by the Major Basic Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant: 2014CB440801), Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P), National Science Foundation of China (41273048, 41273012) and a HKU CRCG grant. The work is a contribution of the Joint

  17. Japanese strategic thought toward asia

    CERN Document Server

    Rozman, Gilbert; Ferguson, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Japanese leaders and often the media too have substituted symbols for strategy in dealing with Asia. This comprehensive review of four periods over twenty years exposes the strategic gap in viewing individually and collectively China, Taiwan, the Korean peninsula, Russia, Central Asia, and regionalism.

  18. Comparison of Key Absorption and Optical Properties Between Pure and Transported Anthropogenic Dust over East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Holben, Brent N.; Zhang, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Asian dust particulate is one of the primary aerosol constituents in the Earth-atmosphere system that exerts profound influences on environmental quality, human health, the marine biogeochemical cycle, and Earth's climate. To date, the absorptive capacity of dust aerosol generated from the Asian desert region is still an open question. In this article, we compile columnar key absorption and optical properties of mineral dust over East and Central Asian areas by utilizing the multiyear quality-assured datasets observed at 13 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We identify two types of Asian dust according to threshold criteria from previously published literature. (1) The particles with high aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD(440) > or = 0.4) and a low Angstrom wavelength exponent at 440-870 nm (alpha or = 0.4 and 0.2 < alpha < 0.6 are designated as Transported Anthropogenic Dust (TDU), which is mainly dominated by dust aerosol and might mix with other anthropogenic aerosol types. Our results reveal that the primary components of high AOD days are predominantly dust over East and Central Asian regions, even if their variations rely on different sources, distance from the source, emission mechanisms, and meteorological characteristics. The overall mean and standard deviation of single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, real part and imaginary part of complex refractive index at 550 nm for Asian PDU are 0.935 +/- 0.014, 0.742 +/- 0.008, 1.526 +/- 0.029, and 0.00226 +/- 0.00056, respectively, while corresponding values are 0.921 +/- 0.021, 0.723 +/- 0.009, 1.521 +/- 0.025, and 0.00364 +/- 0.0014 for Asian TDU. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative effects at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), at the surface (SFC), and in the atmospheric layer (ATM) for Asian PDU (alpha < 0.2) and TDU (0.2 < alpha < 0.6) computed in this study, are a factor of 2 smaller than the results of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral-accumulated (mineral-acc.) and

  19. Impact of Operating Room Environment on Postoperative Central Nervous System Infection in a Resource-Limited Neurosurgical Center in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Swathi; Vasudevan, Madabushi Chakravarthy; Nair, Mani Nathan; Joyce, Cara; Germanwala, Anand V

    2018-02-01

    Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) are serious complications following neurosurgical intervention. We previously investigated the incidence and causative pathogens of PCNSIs at a resource-limited, neurosurgical center in south Asia. This follow-up study was conducted to analyze differences in PCNSIs at the same institution following only one apparent change: the operating room air filtration system. This was a retrospective study of all neurosurgical cases performed between December 1, 2013, and March 31, 2016 at our center. Providers, patient demographic data, case types, perioperative care, rate of PCNSI, and rates of other complications were reviewed. These results were then compared with the findings of our previous study of neurosurgical cases between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. All 623 neurosurgical operative cases over the study period were reviewed. Four patients (0.6%) had a PCNSI, and no patients had a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. In the previous study, among 363 cases, 71 patients (19.6%) had a PCNSI and 7 (1.9%) had a positive CSF culture (all Gram-negative organisms). The differences in both parameters are statistically significant (P system inside the neurosurgical operating rooms; this environmental change occurred during the 5 months between the 2 studies. This study demonstrates the impact of environmental factors in reducing infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal changes in antifreeze protein gene transcription and water content of beetle Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Gurbantonggut desert in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, F; Ma, J; Liu, X; Wang, Y; Liu, X N; Zhang, F C

    2010-01-01

    Desert beetle Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebriondae) is a special species in Gurbantonggut Desert in Central Asia. To investigate the possible strategy it employs for cold survival, seasonal changes in supercooling point (SCP), body water content, haemolymph osmolality and antifreeze protein gene (Mpafp) expression were measured over 13 months. Our results show SCPs in M. punctipennis adults changed from -8.0°C in summer to -18.7°C in winter. During winter, adults endured modest water loss; total water decreased from 65.4 percent in summer to 55.9% in winter. Mpafp mRNAs level increased by 13.1 fold from summer to early winter, and haemolymph osmolality increased accordingly from 550 mOsm to 1486 mOsm. Correlation coefficient of Mpafp mRNAs level and SCP indicates that Mpafp mRNA explained 65.3 percent of the variation in SCPs. The correlation between Mpafp mRNA level and total water reflected an indirect influence of antifreeze protein on water content via reducing SCP.

  1. Vaginal yeast infections while deployed in Southwest/Central Asia, active component females, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In field settings, female service members may not have adequate access to bathrooms, showers, laundry, or sanitary products necessary to maintain adequate feminine hygiene; therefore, service women may be at risk for vaginal yeast infections while deployed. During the 6-year surveillance period, nearly 3,000 U.S. military service women were diagnosed with at least one clinically significant yeast infection while supporting combat operations in Southwest/Central Asia. The crude overall incidence rate was 35.1 per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs). Overall incidence rates were higher among black, non-Hispanic service women, and among those in the Army and Air Force, in enlisted grades, and in communications/intelligence and motor transport occupations. The yearly rate of yeast infections was relatively stable from 2008 through 2010, then decreased in 2011 through 2013. Prior to deploying to austere operational settings, female service members should be provided practical and useful information, realistic training, and material support to decrease the risk of acquiring and increase the effectiveness of treating clinically and military operationally significant yeast infections.

  2. Effect of TV and radio family planning messages on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim; Zainiddinov, Hakim

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of family planning message broadcast on radio and TV on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia. Viewing family planning messages on TV improves the chances of using modern contraception for a woman who actually saw the messages by about 11 and 8 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. If every woman in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan had an opportunity to watch a family planning message on TV, then the likelihood of using modern contraception would have improved by 10 and 7 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. By contrast, the effect of hearing family planning messages on radio is not significant in both countries. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Viewing family planning messages on TV improves the chances of using modern contraception for a woman who actually saw the messages by about 11 and 8 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. If every woman in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan had an opportunity to watch a family planning message on TV, then the probability of using modern contraception would have improved by 10 and 7 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. Consequently, using TV family planning messages in both countries should be encouraged. In comparison, the effect of hearing family planning messages on radio is not significant in both countries. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, Debjani; Sinsky, Eric; Miller, James

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°–45°N and 50°–120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback. (letter)

  5. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Bank Sebelum Dan Sesudah Diakuisisi Oleh Investor Asing: Studi Empiris Pada Bank Central Asia Dan Bank Niaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry is one of the most influence factors in the economy growth of one country. However, during 1997-1998 Indonesia banking industry went through hard times because of economic crisis. After that years, many banks were liquidated and restructured. The interesting part is through the restructuring process, several bank acquired by foreign investor and became the foreign-domestic bank. In 2010, some of those banks were in the 10 biggest banks in Indonesia based on asset. Hence, the writer interesting to compare the bank’s financial performance before and after being acquired using two banks as samples of empirical study. Data is based on financial statements published by the companies and Central Bank of Indonesia in 1995-1996, and 2003-2004. Two sample of banks have been selected based on several criteria, they are BCA and Bank Niaga. To analyse their financial performance, several analysis tools will be using, specifically CAMELS (CAR, NPL, NIM, BOPO, LDR minus mangement and sensitivity. The result of the study observed that after being acquired, financial performance of BCA and Niaga Bank is getting better in CAR, NIM, BOPO, but NPL and LDR is less favorable for BCA and so NPL is less favorable for Niaga Bank. Moreover, in terms of profitability analysis, both banks shows better performance. While, the result of credit analysis indicates that the credit risk for both banks is in the stable range at CCC.

  6. Theming Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Maribeth; Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on Theme Parks in Asia with reflections on how the various theoretical ideas on theming and theme parks that are found in the social science literature can help us to understand the proliferation of theming and theme parks in contemporary Asia. How does theming

  7. International Project - Atlas of Geological Maps of Central Asia and Adjacent Territories 1:2 500 000 Scale - the Status and the Development Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, Y.; Petrov, O. V.; Dong, S.; Morozov, A.; Shokalsky, S.; Pospelov, I.; Erinchek, Y.; Milshteyn, E.

    2011-12-01

    geological survey of China Dr. Wang Min, in two last years we are going to put into practice the following directions: 1. Study of deep processes and metallogeny of the northern passive and eastern active continental margins of Asia with using of new isotopic data along geotransects and the reprocessing of 3-component seismic data and 3D modeling of the region deep structure. 2. Correlation of the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau and Baikal rift system in Cenozoic, which is of great importance for understanding the geodynamic evolution of the Central Asia and seismic predictions. 3. Comparison of Siberian and Emeishan major volcanic provinces, accompanied with unique ore deposits. Last VSEGEI isotopic studies revealed the significant role of assimilation of metasedimentary upper crust rocks by mantle magma in the formation of unique Norilsk copper-nickel deposits. The results of the next stage of joint studies under the project will be presented at the 34th IGC, at which a scientific symposium "Geological and Metallogenic Responses to Deep Processes in Eastern Asia and Continental Margins" is to be held.

  8. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  9. PCDD/F measurement at a high-altitude station in Central Taiwan: evaluation of long-range transport of PCDD/Fs during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Yang, Chang-Feng Ou; Wang, Jia-Lin; Lin, Neng-Heui; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te

    2010-04-15

    Recent biomass burning in Southeast Asia has raised global concerns over its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. The concentrations of total suspended particles (TSPs) and other vapor-phase pollutants (CO and ozone) were monitored at Lulin, an atmospheric background station in central Taiwan in 2008. To evaluate the long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event, the atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also measured at Lulin station. The atmospheric PCDD/F and TSP concentrations measured at Lulin station ranged from 0.71-3.41 fg I-TEQ/m(3) and 5.32-55.6 microg/m(3), respectively, during the regular sampling periods. However, significantly higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs, TSPs, CO, and ozone were measured during the spring season. These high concentrations could be the result of long-range transport of the products of Southeast Asia biomass burning. During the Southeast Asia biomass burning event (March 18-24, 2008), an intensive observation program was also carried out at the same station. The results of this observation program indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased dramatically from 2.33 to 390 fg I-TEQ/m(3) (March 19, 2008). The trace gas (CO) of biomass burning also significantly increased to 232 ppb during the same period, while the particle-bound PCDD/Fs in the TSP increased from 28.7 to 109 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP at Lulin station during the burning event. We conclude that there was a significant increase in the PCDD/F concentration in ambient air at a high-altitude background station in central Taiwan during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

  10. Pathways of primary CO2 fixation in C-4 plants of the family chenopodiaceae from the arid zone of central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P'yankov, V.I.; Vakhrusheva, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    The authors determined the kinetics of 14 C incorporation after a 10-sec gulp of 14 CO 2 to study formation of primary photosynthetic products in 35 C-4 species of the family chenopodiaceae in the desert zone of central Asia. Representatives of the main life forms of desert plants with various types of anatomical structure of the assimilating organs (salsoloid, kochioid, atriplercoid, and suaedoid groups) were among the studied species. It was demonstrated that the ratio of pathways of formation of C-4 acids (malate and aspartate) depends upon the structural type affiliation and the ecological conditions of the habitat. Plants of the suaedoid and atriplecoid groups (which usually dwell under conditions of salination) exhibit the aspartate NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) type of C-4 photosynthesis. The malate and aspartate types of metabolism are detected in species of the kochioid group. All biochemical variants (NADP-ME, NAD-ME, and mixed) are represented in the salsoloid group. Psammophilous species of this group have the malate type of acid metabolism, whereas halophilic species have the aspartate type. Quantitative criteria are proposed for referring C-4 plants to the NAD- and NADP-ME types on the basis of formation of primary products. It is demonstrated that the role of the aspartate pathway of CO 2 transfer in plants increases in proportion to worsening of ecological conditions of the habitat. The evolutionary sequence of metabolic systems was formed in the C-3-NAD-ME-NADP-ME direction, the origin of the C-4 syndrome having been associated with colonization of arid territories, especially saline localities

  11. Inferred Early Permian Arc Rifting in Bogda Mountain, Southernmost of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Evidence from a Peperite Bearing Volcano-Sedimentary Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memtimin, M.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Late Paleozoic tectonic history, especially Carboniferous-Permian periods, of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is considered to be the turning point for the termination of terrane amalgamation and closure of the Paleoasian Ocean. However, the debate about the paleoenvironment and tectonic setting of the region during the period is still not resolved. In this study, we report a set of volcano-sedimentary sequence in the Bogda Mountain of the southernmost of CAOB, which is associated with contemporaneous subaqueous emplacement of and interaction between mafic lava and carbonate sediments. The succession contains four distinct facies including closely packed pillow basalts, pillow basalts with interstitial materials, hyaloclastites and peperites. We discuss their formation and emplacement mechanism, interaction between hot magma-water/unconsolidated sediments and thermal metamorphism during the interaction. Textural features of the sequence, especially hyaloclastites and peperites, provide clear evidence for in situ autofragmentation of lava flows, synvolcanic sedimentation of carbonates, fuel coolant interaction when hot magma bulldozed into wet unconsolidated sediments, and represent autochthonous origin of the succession. Lateral transition of the lithofacies indicate a progressively deepening subaqueous environment, resembling a stepwise evolution from early stage of volcanic intrusion with lower lava flux in shallower water level to increasingly subsiding basin with more lava flux in greater depth. Previous studies determined that the mafic magma was intruded around the Carboniferous-Permian boundary ( 300Ma), and geochemical studies showed the magma was originated from dry depleted mantle with little crustal contamination. Nevertheless, the succession was thought to be fault related allochthones formation which was transferred in as part of a Carboniferous intraplate arc. Combining our findings with the previous study results, we propose a new model to

  12. Essentials of Endorheic Basins and Lakes: A Review in the Context of Current and Future Water Resource Management and Mitigation Activities in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Yapiyev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Endorheic basins (i.e., land-locked drainage networks and their lakes can be highly sensitive to variations in climate and adverse anthropogenic activities, such as overexploitation of water resources. In this review paper, we provide a brief overview of one major endorheic basin on each continent, plus a number of endorheic basins in Central Asia (CA, a region where a large proportion of the land area is within this type of basin. We summarize the effects of (changing climate drivers and land surface–atmosphere feedbacks on the water balance. For the CA region, we also discuss key anthropogenic activities, related water management approaches and their complex relationship with political and policy issues. In CA a substantial increase in irrigated agriculture coupled with negative climate change impacts have disrupted the fragile water balance for many endorheic basins and their lakes. Transboundary integrated land and water management approaches must be developed to facilitate adequate climate change adaptation and possible mitigation of the adverse anthropogenic influence on endorheic basins in CA. Suitable climate adaptation, mitigation and efficient natural resource management technologies and methods are available, and are developing fast. A number of these are discussed in the paper, but these technologies alone are not sufficient to address pressing water resource issues in CA. Food–water–energy nexus analyses demonstrate that transboundary endorheic basin management requires transformational changes with involvement of all key stakeholders. Regional programs, supported by local governments and international donors, which incorporate advanced adaptation technologies, water resource research and management capacity development, are essential for successful climate change adaptation efforts in CA. However, there is a need for an accelerated uptake of such programs, with an emphasis on unification of approaches, as the pressures

  13. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  14. Cavitation vulnerability in roots and shoots: does Populus euphratica Oliv., a poplar from arid areas of Central Asia, differ from other poplar species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukin, D; Cochard, H; Dreyer, E; Le Thiec, D; Bogeat-Triboulot, M B

    2005-08-01

    Populus euphratica is a poplar species growing in arid regions of Central Asia, where its distribution remains nevertheless restricted to river-banks or to areas with an access to deep water tables. To test whether the hydraulic architecture of this species differs from that of other poplars with respect to this ecological distribution, the vulnerability to cavitation of P. euphratica was compared with that of P. alba and of P. trichocarpa x koreana. The occurrence of a potential hydraulic segmentation through cavitation was also investigated by assessing the vulnerability of roots, stems, and leaf mid-rib veins. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to assess the level of embolism in fine roots and leaf mid-ribs and a low pressure flowmeter (LPFM) was used for stems and main roots. The cryo-SEM technique was validated against LPFM measurements on paired samples. In P. alba and P. trichocarpa x koreana, leaf mid-ribs were more vulnerable to cavitation than stems and roots. In P. euphratica, leaf mid-ribs and stems were equally vulnerable and, contrary to what has been observed in other species, roots were significantly less vulnerable than shoots. P. euphratica was by far the most vulnerable. The water potential inducing 50% loss of conductivity in stems was close to -0.7 MPa, against approximately -1.45 MPa for the two others species. Such a large vulnerability was confirmed by recording losses of conductivity during a gradual drought. Moreover, significant stem embolism was recorded before stomatal closure, indicating the lack of an efficient safety margin for hydraulic functions in this species. Embolism was not reversed by rewatering. These observations are discussed with respect to the ecology of P. euphratica.

  15. Analysis of Accuracy of Modis BRDF Product (MCD43 C6) Based on Misr Land Surface Brf Product - a Case Study of the Central Part of Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Chen, S.; Qin, W.; Murefu, M.; Wang, Y.; Yu, Y.; Zhen, Z.

    2018-04-01

    EOS/MODIS land surface Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product (MCD43), with the latest version C6, is one of the most important operational BRDF products with global coverage. The core sub-product MCD43A1 stores 3 parameters of the RossThick-LiSparseR semi-empirical kernel-driven BRDF model. It is important for confident use of the product to evaluate the accuracy of bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) predicted by MCD43A1 BRDF model (mBRF). A typical region in the central part of Northeast Asia is selected as the study area. The performance of MCD43A1 BRDF model is analyzed in various observation geometries and phenological phases, using Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) land-surface reflectance factor product (MILS_BRF) as the reference data. In addition, MODIS products MCD12Q1 and MOD/MYD10A1 are used to evaluate the impacts of land cover types and snow covers on the model accuracy, respectively. The results show an overall excellent performance of MCD43A1 in representing the anisotropic reflectance of land surface, with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0262 and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9537, for all available comparable samples of MILS_BRF and mBRF pairs. The model accuracy varies in different months, which is related to the phenological phases of the study area. The accuracy for pixels labelled as `snow' by MCD43 is obviously low, with RMSE/R of 0.0903/0.8401. Ephemeral snowfall events further decrease the accuracy, with RMSE/R of 0.1001/0.7715. These results provide meaningful information to MCD43 users, especially those, whose study regions are subject to phenological cycles as well as snow cover and change.

  16. Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Brian E; Mallory, J P

    2004-07-01

    Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Täklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical appearance of the population, raised questions as to where these people came from. Two hypotheses have been offered by archaeologists to account for the origins of Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. These are the "steppe hypothesis" and the "Bactrian oasis hypothesis." Eight craniometric variables from 25 Aeneolithic and Bronze Age samples, comprising 1,353 adults from the Tarim Basin, the Russo-Kazakh steppe, southern China, Central Asia, Iran, and the Indus Valley, are compared to test which, if either, of these hypotheses are supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (the weighted pair average linkage method and the neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis. Rather, the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age. After 1200 B.C., this population experienced significant gene flow from highland populations of the Pamirs and Ferghana Valley. These highland populations may include those who later became known as the Saka and who may have served as "middlemen" facilitating contacts between East (Tarim Basin, China) and West (Bactria, Uzbekistan) along what later became known as the Great Silk Road. Copyright

  17. Large-Scale Evaluation of Quality of Care in 6 Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia Using Clinical Performance and Value Vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, John W; DeMaria, Lisa; Smith, Owen; Hoth, Angela; Dragoti, Edmond; Luck, Jeff

    2017-09-27

    A significant determinant of population health outcomes is the quality of care provided for noncommunicable diseases, obstetric, and pediatric care. We present results on clinical practice quality in these areas as measured among nearly 4,000 providers working at more than 1,000 facilities in 6 Eastern European and Central Asian countries. This study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2013 in Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirov Province in Russia, and Tajikistan. Using a probability proportional-to-size sampling technique, based on number of hospital beds, we randomly selected within each country 42 hospitals and their associated primary health care clinics. Physicians and midwives within each clinical area of interest were randomly selected from each hospital and clinic and asked how they would care for simulated patients using Clinical Performance and Value (CPV) vignettes. Facility administrators were also asked to complete a facility survey to collect structural measures of quality. CPV vignettes were scored on a scale of 0% to 100% for each provider. We used descriptive statistics and t tests to identify significant differences in CPV scores between hospitals and clinics and rural vs. urban facilities, and ANOVA to identify significant differences in CPV scores across countries. We found that quality of care, as concurrently measured by performance on CPV vignettes, was generally poor and widely variable within and between countries. Providers in Kirov Province, Russia, had the highest overall performance, with an average score of 70.8%, while providers in Albania and Tajikistan had the lowest average score, each at 50.8%. The CPV vignettes with the lowest scores were for multiple noncommunicable disease risk factors and birth asphyxia. A considerable proportion (11%) of providers performed well on the CPV vignettes, regardless of country, facility, or structural resources available to them. Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia are

  18. Demyelinating diseases in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Hirofumi; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The present review aims to discuss the recent advances in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system in Asia. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asia is lower than that in Western countries, although it has been increasing recently. Meanwhile, there seems to be no major difference in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) prevalence in various regions or ethnicities. Thus, the ratios of NMO/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) to MS are higher in Asia as compared with Western countries, indicating that the differential diagnosis between NMO/NMOSD and MS is a major challenge in Asia. Although the detection of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-antibody is critical in distinguishing NMO/NMOSD from MS, some patients with NMO/NMOSD phenotype are seronegative for AQP4-antibody, and a fraction of those patients possess autoantibody against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. The clinical profile of Asian MS seems to be essentially similar to that in Western MS after careful exclusion of NMO/NMOSD, although some unique genetic and/or environmental factors may modify the disease in Asians. MS prevalence has been low but is increasing in Asia. In contrast, NMO/NMOSD prevalence seems relatively constant in the world. Asian MS is not fundamentally different from Western MS, but some genetic and/or environmental differences may cause some features unique to Asian patients.

  19. Distribution and interannual variability of supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tumor Mountains, Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Liu; Mayer, Christoph; Liu, Shiyin

    2015-01-01

    Supraglacial lakes are widely formed on debris-covered glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tumor Mountains (KTTM), Tianshan, Central Asia. Study of their distribution characters based on regional-wide remote sensing investigations is still lacking, but it can promote our understanding about the influence of supraglacial lakes on the surface melting, hydrology and dynamics of debris-covered glaciers in this region. This study presents results of the supraglacial lake inventory in the KTTM region, based on multi-year Landsat images. We focus on the glacio-geomorphological characters of the supraglacial lakes and their late summer conditions, since all suitable Landsat images were acquired between August and September during 1990–2011. With a minimum threshold extent of 3600 m 2 for conservative mapping results, we totally mapped 775 supraglacial lakes and 38 marginal glacial lakes on eight huge debris-covered glaciers. Supraglacial lakes are concentrated on the Tumor Glacier and the South Inylchek Glacier, two biggest glaciers in this region. Although most supraglacial lakes are short-lived, a number of lakes can be repeatedly identified between different Landsat images. Detailed investigation of these ‘perennial’ lakes on the Tumor Glacier indicates that their filling frequency and area contributions have increased since 2005. Analysis of the area-elevation distributions for all mapped supraglacial lakes shows that they predominantly occur close to the altitude of 3250 m a.s.l., as high as the lowest reach of clean ice where surface debris begins to appear, and can further develop upglacier to a limit of about 3950 m a.s.l.. Total and mean area of supraglacial lakes in the KTTM region during the late summer seasons show great variability between years. Correlation analysis between the annual lake area and the observed nearby meteorological conditions suggests that warmer springs seem related to the draining of some supraglacial lakes during the following seasons, due

  20. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and Ochotona cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) from western North America and Central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M-C; Galbreath, K E; Hoberg, E P

    2010-06-01

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp. and Ohbayashinema aspeira n. sp., are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiated from the 5 known species of the genus parasitic in Ochotonidae from the Old World by very long spicules and an oblique axis of orientation for the ridges composing the synlophe. Ohbayashinema aspeira, described only from females, is similar to Oh. nearctica based on the number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body. It is mainly differentiated by an uncoiled anterior extremity and by near equal dimensions of the vestibule and the uterus. The third species, Ohbayashinema patriciae n. sp., is parasitic in Gansu pika, Ochotona cansus , from China. It is similar to Ohbayashinema erbaevae parasitic in Ochotona dauurica from Buriatia and Ohbayashinema ochotoni in Ochotona macrotis from Nepal, based on the length of the spicules and the ratio of spicule length to body length. It differs from the former species by possessing a smaller number of cuticular ridges and in the comparative length of the vestibule and infundibulum. Related to Oh. ochotoni by an identical number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body, it differs from this species in having smaller ridges in the dorsal rather than ventral field and in the dimensions of the dorsal ray where rays 9 are less than rays 10. Species of Ohbayashinema appear to be host-specific among the Ochotonidae but had not been previously reported in pikas from the Nearctic. Although much remains to be demonstrated about the diversity for helminths in pikas, it is apparent that factors associated with the assembly and structure of parasite faunas have been complex, involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization along with coevolutionary mechanisms. Understanding the historical factors, particularly climate

  1. Assessment of health services for people who use drugs in Central Asia: findings of a quantitative survey in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Moritz; Kerimi, Nina; Takenova, Madina; Impinen, Antti; Mamyrov, Mirlan; Degkwitz, Peter; Zurhold, Heike; Martens, Marcus-Sebastian

    2016-01-27

    In Central Asia, there is a need to update information about the situation of people who use (opioid) drugs (PWUD), especially regarding their access to and utilization of health care services. The aim of the study was to gather information about two different groups of drug users in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. In 2013, two groups of PWUD were recruited in Kazakhstan and in Kyrgyzstan in order to gather quantitative data via interviewer-administered questionnaires. PWUD registered with the Narcological Register were allocated to group A while non-registered PWUD were allocated to group B. Interviews were conducted in the office of the Narcological Register as well as in low-threshold facilities. Participants reported about their drug use patterns, health status, and utilization of health services as well as barriers to utilization. The sample consisted of N = 600 PWUD (301 registered and 299 non-registered PWUD) from Kazakhstan and N = 900 PWUD (450 registered and 450 non-registered PWUD) from Kyrgyzstan. Both groups-registered (group A) and non-registered (group B)-consisted of mainly male long-term intravenous opioid users. We found high rates of current (last 30 days) opioid use (group A up to 70%; group B up to 84%). Most PWUD were burdened with poor physical and mental health. The prevalence of infectious diseases added up to 19% (group A) or 13% (group B) regarding HIV, 56% (group A) or 30% (group B) regarding HCV, and 24% (group A) or 20% (group B) regarding tuberculosis. Registered and non-registered PWUD reported high rates (95 or 82%) of lifetime use of health services for PWUD. Drug-related services were utilized less often, especially among the non-registered PWUD (13%). The most important barriers preventing PWUD from accessing services were the belief not to need treatment, doubts about the effectiveness of treatment, mistrust of treatment regime/staff, and fear of being registered with the Narcological Register (mainly group B). Results show

  2. Some regularities of spatial and time distribution of organogenous material in Upper-Pleistocene and Holocene sediments of Central Asia (from the data of Carbon-isotope dating)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenin, G.N.; Steklenkov, A.P.; Varushchenko, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of space time distribution of ancient organogenous material is carried out through generalization of practically all available at the present time data on radiocarbon dating of Upper-Pleistocene and Holocene sediments in the Middle Asia. The investigations were performed to study the variability of humidification over the specific territory of the Middle Asia within a determined period of time. Three rather clearly limited vertical height intervals are determined by the results of the isotope dating of wood, coal, peat and mollus samples

  3. Los retos de la cooperación regional en Asia central: Más sombras que luces en la gestión de los recursos hídricos compartidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Campins Eritja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the situation in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tayikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan is an interesting excercice in order to analyze the evolution of the international environmental security concept. As an exemple of how environmental changes may come to acquire an entity such as to be perceived as a threat when they combine with inequitable allocation of resources, we focus on shared water resources management. The framework at international level should be the two main instruments in this field, the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. On the one hand, Central Asian States have shown only a weak commitment to these international regimes. On the contrary, they have prioritized the former URSS’s model of water and energy exchange. This model, as being unsustainable and inequitable, favors the extreme dichotomy between the two major competing uses of water in the region (irrigation and hydropower production. On the other hand, some sub-regional institutions served to clarify the articulation of water management structures. However, because of important issues on their internal organization, they have not been able to achieve their mission and their efforts seems to be directed to seek stability and the status quo in Central Asia.

  4. Assessment of clinical efficacy and safety in a randomized double-blind study of etanercept and sulfasalazine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis from Eastern/Central Europe, Latin America, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Nemanja; Shehhi, Waleed Al; Huang, Feng; Kotak, Sameer; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Shirazy, Khalid; Bananis, Eustratios; Szumski, Annette; Llamado, Lyndon J Q; Mahgoub, Ehab

    2016-05-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of etanercept for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), sulfasalazine is often prescribed, especially in countries with limited access to biologic agents. The objective of this subset analysis of the ASCEND trial was to compare the efficacy of etanercept and sulfasalazine in treating patients with AS from Asia, Eastern/Central Europe, and Latin America. A total of 287 patients, 190 receiving etanercept 50 mg once weekly and 97 receiving sulfasalazine 3 g daily, from eight countries were included in this subset analysis. Differences in disease activity and patient-reported outcomes assessing health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters in response to treatment were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical efficacy endpoints and analysis of covariance model for continuous variables. At week 16, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving etanercept achieved ASAS20 (79.0 %) compared with patients receiving sulfasalazine (61.9 %; p = 0.002). At week 16, treatment with etanercept also resulted in significantly better responses than sulfasalazine for ASAS40 (64.7 vs. 35.1 %; p Disease Activity Index (65.8 vs. 42.3 %; p Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and Latin America.

  5. RECENT STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN CENTRAL ASIA: REGULAR TECTONOPHYSICAL FEATURES OF LOCATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE AND GEODYNAMICS OF THE LITHOSPHERE. PART 1. MAIN GEODYNAMIC FACTORS PREDETERMINING LOCATIONS OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying locations of strong earthquakes (М≥8 in space and time in Central Asia has been among top prob-lems for many years and still remains challenging for international research teams. The authors propose a new ap-proach that requires changing the paradigm of earthquake focus – solid rock relations, while this paradigm is a basis for practically all known physical models of earthquake foci. This paper describes the first step towards developing a new concept of the seismic process, including generation of strong earthquakes, with reference to specific geodynamic features of the part of the study region wherein strong earthquakes were recorded in the past two centuries. Our analysis of the locations of М≥8 earthquakes shows that in the past two centuries such earthquakes took place in areas of the dynamic influence of large deep faults in the western regions of Central Asia. In the continental Asia, there is a clear submeridional structural boundary (95–105°E between the western and eastern regions, and this is a factor controlling localization of strong seismic events in the western regions. Obviously, the Indostan plate’s pressure from the south is an energy source for such events. The strong earthquakes are located in a relatively small part of the territory of Central Asia (i.e. the western regions, which is significantly different from its neighbouring areas at the north, east and west, as evidenced by its specific geodynamic parameters. (1 The crust is twice as thick in the western regions than in the eastern regions. (2 In the western regions, the block structures re-sulting from the crust destruction, which are mainly represented by lense-shaped forms elongated in the submeridio-nal direction, tend to dominate. (3 Active faults bordering large block structures are characterized by significant slip velocities that reach maximum values in the central part of the Tibetan plateau. Further northward, slip velocities decrease

  6. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  7. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Oskar; Benecke, Norbert; Frölich, Kai; Peng, Zuogang; Kaniuth, Kai; Sverchkov, Leonid; Reinhold, Sabine; Belinskiy, Andrey; Ludwig, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia. PMID:28632161

  8. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Schroeder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia.

  9. Involvement of Russian Organized Crime Syndicates, Criminal Elements in the Russian Military, and Regional Terrorist Groups in Narcotics Trafficking in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Chechnya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E

    2002-01-01

    ... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...

  10. Second regional plasmapheresis conference and workshop for Southeast Asia (SEA) on the immunomodulatory role of plasma exchange in central and peripheral nervous system disorders, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9th December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Shanthi; Hung, Stefanie Kar Yan; Goyal, Vinay; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Thirugnanam, Umapathi N; Abdullah, Suhailah; Aye, Seinn Mya Mya; Ohnmar, Ohnmar; Si, Le Tri; Keosodsay, Saysavath; Estiasari, Riwanti; Khalife, Najib; Hiew, Fu Liong

    2018-04-06

    In December 2017, 79 delegates attended the 2nd regional plasmapheresis conference and workshop for Southeast Asia (SEA) on the immunomodulatory role of plasma exchange in central and peripheral nervous system disorders in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This meeting featured 6 plenary lectures, interactive sessions dedicated for experience sharing, case presentations, and a practical session for paramedics. Clinical experts and researchers from 7 SEA countries and India shared experience and challenges in treating autoimmune neurological disorders. While the spectrum of diseases and neurology practice remained largely similar, there was great disparities in accessibility of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) within SEA countries and between urban or rural settings. Costs, human resources, and healthcare policies are common challenges in providing sustainable TPE services. Novel techniques and innovative ideas in performing TPE were explored. A working consortium comprising of key opinion leaders was proposed to improve standards of TPE and enhance future research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fiscal 1993 investigational report on the strengthening of the resource/energy industrial basis of CIS Central Asia (the Republic of Kazakhstan); 1993 nendo CIS Chuo Asia (Kazafusutan kyowakoku) no shigen energy sangyo kiban kyoka ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The paper grasps the present situation of economy and industry in Kazakhstan and studies a policy for developing the industrial machine manufacturing industry of the country. Since the independence in 1992, the country is now at the great turning point in politics, economy, society and industry. The country is forced to convert from the industrial structure of one local area where much of its own discretion had not been given under the economy system of power centralization to the industrial structure which meets the international economic market system as an independent country. Making good use of agricultural and industrial property in the former U.S.S.R., the country needs to export energy resource like oil, natural gas and coal, and abundant ore resource like iron and non-ferrous metal, which were added with values. As the technical base for it, fostering and strengthening of the industrial machine manufacturing industry is important. At present, the situation is that because of the economic sluggishness, the country cannot manufacture domestically even basic mechanical parts and simply-manufactured parts which are required by the domestic energy industry, machine manufacturing industry, and other industries. The technical program to be proposed by Japan is planned to be worked out later based on the basic research made in fiscal 1993. 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-01-01

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995

  13. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-05-30

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.

  14. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  15. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  16. HIV epidemics and prevention responses in Asia and Eastern Europe: lessons to be learned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jamie; Lazarus, Jeff; Atun, Rifat

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes characteristics of the HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) and Asia and Central Asia, and draws comparisons between these regions. It focuses on the role that key populations continue to play in HIV transmission in both regions, the challenges that this po...

  17. Asia Beyond the Border: Physical Geography - Central and Northeastern Asia -

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-03-21

    Shan: the kiang species ( Equus hemionus kiang). Forest hoofed animals are characteristic only for the western and northern mountain groups which are...severe winter olinate or its hot suremers» ’ „ ,, . •The Hwang Ho has a bread a»4>in S»*** a low vamy «»«»S tee sand and alluvial desert

  18. Atmospheric pollution for trace elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in central Asia as recorded in snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Hong, Sungmin; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Liu, Yapping; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

    2008-10-01

    A series of 42 snow samples covering over a one-year period from the fall of 2004 to the summer of 2005 were collected from a 2.1-m snow pit at a high-altitude site on the northeastern slope of Mt. Everest. These samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sb, Pb, and Bi in order to characterize the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources to the fallout of these elements in central Himalayas. Our data were also considered in the context of monsoon versus non-monsoon seasons. The mean concentrations of the majority of the elements were determined to be at the pg g(-1) level with a strong variation in concentration with snow depth. While the mean concentrations of most of the elements were significantly higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, considerable variability in the trace element inputs to the snow was observed during both periods. Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Bi displayed high crustal enrichment factors (EFc) in most samples, while Cr, Ni, Rb, and Pb show high EFc values in some of the samples. Our data indicate that anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in the central Himalayas. The relationship between the EFc of each element and the Al concentration indicates that a dominant input of anthropogenic trace elements occurs during both the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, when crustal contribution is relatively minor. Finally, a comparison of the trace element fallout fluxes calculated in our samples with those recently obtained at Mont Blanc, Greenland, and Antarctica provides direct evidence for a geographical gradient of the atmospheric pollution with trace elements on a global scale.

  19. ASIAS - Some History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASIAS effort builds on demonstrations that an open exchange of information contributes to improved aviation safety. ASIAS is a comprehensive effort, covering the...

  20. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Minagar, Alireza; Pourmand, Shadi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common chronic immune-mediated diseases of the human central nervous system and an important cause of non-traumatic neurologic disability among young population in several countries. Recent reports from East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia have proposed a low to moderate prevalence of MS in these countries. A literature review search was carried out in December 2014 in Medline, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane library to recover original population-based studies on MS epidemiology in East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia countries published between January 1, 1950 and December 30, 2014. We intended search strategies using the key words: multiple sclerosis, prevalence, incidence and epidemiology. Based on our inclusion criteria, 68 epidemiologic studies were included in this systematic review. The most extensively used diagnostic criteria in the studies were McDonald's criteria. Most studies were performed in a multi-center hospital setting. The female to male ratio varied and ranged from 0.7 in India to 9.0 in China. The mean age at disease onset ranged from the lowest age of 25.3 in Iran to the highest age of 46.4 in China. MS prevalence ranged from 0.77 in 100,000 populations in Hong Kong (1999) to 85.80 in 100,000 in Iran (2013). Advances in MS registries around the globe allow nationwide population-based studies and will allow worldly comparisons between the prevalence and incidence in different regions that are provided to monitor estimation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov

    2014-01-01

    -Baikal continent. The base of the Kazakhstan-Baikal continent was formed in the Vend-Cambrian due to subduction of the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, including the Precambrian microcontinents and terrains of the Gondvana group, underneath the south-eastern margin of the Siberian continent (in the current coordinates. Due to subduction followed by collision of the microcontinents with the Kazakhstan-Tuva-Mongolia island arc, the crust had consolidated, and a complex continent was formed. Another major plate is the plate of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by the long-term tectono-magmatic evolution without any involvement of the continental crust and by complex processes of the formation of the continental margins. Its evolution resulted in the formation of the Vend-Paleozoic continental margin complexes of the western segment of the Siberian continent which comprise the Vend-Cambrian Kuznetsk-Altai island arc and a complex of rocks of the Ordovic-Early Devonian passive margin and the Devon-Early Carbonic active margin. In the accretional wedges of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc, abundant are only fragments of the Vend-Early Cambrian oceanic crust including ophiolites and paleo-oceanic uplifts. The contemporary analogue of the Central Asian folded belt is the south-eastern margin of Asia, represented by the junction area of the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates.  

  2. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE: A Genetic Trace of Human Mobility Related to Heterosexual Sexual Activities Centralized in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap trees estimated by the maximum likelihood method. We show that Thailand has been the source of viral dispersal to most areas worldwide, including 17 of 20 sampled countries in Europe. Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, and other Asian countries have played a secondary role in the viral dissemination. In contrast, China and Taiwan have mainly imported strains from neighboring Asian countries, North America, and Africa without any significant viral exportation. The central role of Thailand in the global spread of CRF01_AE can be probably explained by the popularity of Thailand as a vacation destination characterized by sex tourism and by Thai emigration to the Western world. Our study highlights the unique case of CRF01_AE, the only globally distributed non-B clade whose global dispersal did not originate in Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A.N.; Kazakov, S.V.; Stepanets, O.V.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Petrov, V.A.; Aitmatov, I.T.; Aitmatova, D.T.; Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Pyuskyulyan, K.; Gevorgyan, R.G.; Aleksanyan, G.M.; Guliyev, I.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

  4. A prototype system dynamic model of nuclear and radiological export controls in Central Asia and the Caucasus; enhancing the effectiveness of preventing illicit nuclear material trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguston, C.D.; Ouagrham, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control

  5. Remotely-Sensed Mapping of Irrigation Area in the Chu-Talas River Basin in Central Asia and Application to Compliance Monitoring of Transboundary Water Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Siegfried, T.; Herberz, T.

    2017-12-01

    In the Central Asian Chu-Talas River Basin, farmers depend on freshwater from international rivers to irrigate their fields during the summer growing season. While the allocation percentages of water sharing between up- and downstream are defined for both rivers, marked interannual supply variability plus inadequate monitoring renders the compliance with these quotas difficult. In such circumstances, data on irrigated area obtained by remote sensing can be used to map the extent of irrigation in terms of its area on at national and subnational scales. Due to its transparency on how the data was obtained (freely available satellite data) and processed, this objective measure could potentially be used as a data product for confidence building and for compliance monitoring. This study assesses the extent and location of irrigated areas over the period 2000 - 2016 in the basins by using state-of-the-art remote sensing technology. Using a random forest classifier, an automated irrigated cropland mapping algorithm was implemented in Google Earth Engine using Landsat 7 data. First, a training set was established through visual interpretation (irrigated and non-irrigated classes for the year 2015) and the classifier then trained. The classier was then applied on a series of seasonal greenest pixels image mosaics from 2000 to 2016. A four-stepped accuracy assessment confirmed that the classifier yielded robust, reliable and reproducible results. Outcomes indicate that irrigated areas in the Kyrgyz side of the Talas Basin approximately doubled by 2016 since 2000 while the irrigated area in the Kazakh part of the basin did not significantly change over the 17 year time period. In the Chu River Basin, total irrigated area tripled since 2000. Comparison with officially reported statistics shows differences and points to reporting issues in both countries. We conclude that remote sensing of irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid regions in combination with cloud computing offers

  6. Asia: point of no return?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Perhaps 1 million people in Asia are HIV positive (1% of the world's total). Even many more people are at risk since Asia has 50% of the world's population. Sexual transmission is the main mode of transmission. Yet people in Asia do not want to deal with sexual behavior. Thus high level political commitment is needed such has been done in Thailand which has set up a national AIDS committee. An AIDS expert predicts that by 1995 the number of HIV positive individuals in Asia will surpass the number of HIV positive individuals in all the developed countries. India, Myanmar, and Thailand where prostitution and intravenous (IV) drug use abounds (the Golden Triangle) suffer from the worst AIDS epidemics in the region. International sex tourism contributes greatly to both the heterosexual and homosexual spread of AIDS. In fact, the national AIDS committee in Thailand has begun a campaign to stop sex tourism, but as of September 1991, it had no effect. Further some sex businesses have attempted to stop the spread of AIDS. For example, 2 brothels in central Thailand have implemented a condom only policy for their clients. High rates of sexually transmitted diseases among prostitutes facilitate HIV transmission. This highlights the need for Asian countries to promote condom use. Not all of the Asian countries screen 100% of their blood and blood products. In fact, in India, commercial blood banks do not always screen donated blood since screening eats into their profits. Further unsterile needles are often used in medical facilities such as in India and Viet Nam. Hong Kong sells inexpensive sterile needles over the counter which may account for its low HIV positive rate among drug users. Despite the many problems in Asia which facilitate HIV transmission, tragedy can be averted if governments act at once.

  7. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  8. Intervention Packages to Reduce the Impact of HIV and HCV Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: A Modeling and Cost-effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabileau, Guillaume; Scutelniciuc, Otilia; Tsereteli, Maia; Konorazov, Ivan; Yelizaryeva, Alla; Popovici, Svetlana; Saifuddin, Karimov; Losina, Elena; Manova, Manoela; Saldanha, Vinay; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Eastern Europe/Central Asia. We specifically considered the needle-syringe program (NSP), opioid substitution therapy (OST), HCV and HIV diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and/or new HCV treatment (direct acting antiviral [DAA]) in Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, and Tajikistan. We developed a deterministic dynamic compartmental model and evaluated the number of infections averted, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of interventions. OST decreased frequencies of injecting by 85% and NSP needle sharing rates by 57%; ART was introduced at CD4 <350 and DAA at fibrosis stage ≥F2 at a $2370 to $23 280 cost. Increasing NSP+OST had a high impact on transmissions (infections averted in PWID: 42% in Tajikistan to 55% in Republic of Moldova for HCV; 30% in Belarus to 61% in Kazakhstan for HIV over 20 years). Increasing NSP+OST+ART was very cost-effective in Georgia (ICER = $910/year of life saved [YLS]), and was cost-saving in Kazakhstan and Republic of Moldova. NSP+OST+ART and HIV diagnosis was very cost-effective in Tajikistan (ICER = $210/YLS). Increasing the coverage of all interventions was always the most effective strategy and was cost-effective in Belarus and Kazakhstan (ICER = $12 960 and $21 850/YLS); it became cost-effective/cost-saving in all countries when we decreased DAA costs. Increasing NSP+OST coverage, in addition to ART and HIV diagnosis, had a high impact on both epidemics and was very cost-effective and even cost-saving. When HCV diagnosis was improved, increased DAA averted a high number of new infections if associated with NSP+OST.

  9. ANALYSIS OF ACCURACY OF MODIS BRDF PRODUCT (MCD43 C6 BASED ON MISR LAND SURFACE BRF PRODUCT – A CASE STUDY OF THE CENTRAL PART OF NORTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available EOS/MODIS land surface Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF product (MCD43, with the latest version C6, is one of the most important operational BRDF products with global coverage. The core sub-product MCD43A1 stores 3 parameters of the RossThick-LiSparseR semi-empirical kernel-driven BRDF model. It is important for confident use of the product to evaluate the accuracy of bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF predicted by MCD43A1 BRDF model (mBRF. A typical region in the central part of Northeast Asia is selected as the study area. The performance of MCD43A1 BRDF model is analyzed in various observation geometries and phenological phases, using Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR land-surface reflectance factor product (MILS_BRF as the reference data. In addition, MODIS products MCD12Q1 and MOD/MYD10A1 are used to evaluate the impacts of land cover types and snow covers on the model accuracy, respectively. The results show an overall excellent performance of MCD43A1 in representing the anisotropic reflectance of land surface, with root mean square error (RMSE of 0.0262 and correlation coefficient (R of 0.9537, for all available comparable samples of MILS_BRF and mBRF pairs. The model accuracy varies in different months, which is related to the phenological phases of the study area. The accuracy for pixels labelled as ‘snow’ by MCD43 is obviously low, with RMSE/R of 0.0903/0.8401. Ephemeral snowfall events further decrease the accuracy, with RMSE/R of 0.1001/0.7715. These results provide meaningful information to MCD43 users, especially those, whose study regions are subject to phenological cycles as well as snow cover and change.

  10. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia). Recently, capacity development has regained a central place on the agenda of many donor organizations, including IDRC. The challenge is to measure the results of capacity development initiatives. In Asia, there are a few ongoing efforts to document ...

  11. Far East Asia | Page 105 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Renforcement des capacités de recherche et de l'élaboration de politiques fondées sur des données probantes en Afghanistan et en Asie centrale. Language French. Read more about Microwork and Virtual Production Networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.

  12. Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    are minimal prospects for gainful employment and entrepreneurship in the formal economy. Corruption Corruption is the use of public office for private...perception among southern elites that former President Akayev’s patronage networks were resulting in their economic disen- franchisement and a widening

  13. Central Asia | Page 107 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Enabling Sex Workers to Document Violence (India and Cambodia). Language English. Read more about Graduate and Research Program in Forced Migration and Refugee Studies at Birzeit University, West Bank. Language English. Read more about Programme des cycles supérieurs et de recherche ...

  14. Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahnovski, Sergej; Akramov, Kamil; Karasik, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    .... The September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States led those in policymaking circles to realize that instability, failed and failing states, and economic and political underdevelopment present...

  15. Radiogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratov, R.B.; Kozyrev, V.I.; Shchukin, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The principal space-time regularities are studied of the U and Th geochemical evolution as well as ratios of values of the U and Th accumulation in dominating formations of the region to their probable concentrations in a basaltic (0.6x10 -4 per cent of U and 2.2x10 -4 per cent of Th) and a granite-metamorphic (2.7x10 -4 per cent of U and 18x10 -4 per cent of Th) layers. Six types of radiogeochemical provinces are distinguished; 1 - of simatic profile with the continuous tendency to the accumulation of Th accompanied with the deficit of U; 2 - of sialitic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements; 3 - of simatic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the sialitic accumulation; 4 - of sialitic profile with the disturbed distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the U accumulation; 5 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the accumulation of radioactive elements; 6 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the U accumulation - regions of the spread of Mezozoic - Cenozoic formations of the mantle of Turans plateau. For the U and Th accumulation in provinces of the first four principal types endogeneous factors have been the most essential, the degree of the accumulation of these elements being the function of their concentration in a granite - metamorphic and a basaltic layers. For the 5-th and 6-th types exogenous factors have been determination

  16. Central Asia | Page 109 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Strengthening the Knowledge Base for Public Interest Intellectual Property Policy. Language English. Read more about Assessing the Future Directions of Global Knowledge Partnership. Language English. Read more about Détermination des orientations futures de l'Alliance mondiale ...

  17. Central Asia | Page 103 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Dalit Women in Indian Politics: Making Impact through Parliament? Language English. Read more about Innovation en matière de biocarburants sous le signe de l'inclusion en Indonésie. Language French. Read more about Toward Inclusive Biofuel Innovation in Indonesia. Language ...

  18. Central Asia | Page 180 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... recherche-action rédigées dans une langue claire et faciles à comprendre. Aussi bien les chercheurs que les praticiens s'intéressant au développement rural ... et de la communication au service du développement (TIC-D) dans la région ...

  19. Central Asia | Page 108 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Graduate and Research Program in Forced Migration and Refugee Studies at Birzeit University, West Bank. Language English. Read more about Programme des cycles supérieurs et de recherche en études sur les réfugiés et les migrations forcées, Université de Birzeit, Cisjordanie. Language French.

  20. U.S. Engagement in Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraft, Erik

    2001-01-01

    .... This strategy has been primarily executed through Regional Commander in Chiefs using various military means including International Military Education and Training, Counter-Drug and Counter-Terrorist...

  1. Central Asia: A New Great Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-17

    as natural gas extraction, chemicals, agricultural products processing, hotel construction , and banking. In June 1994 India offered Turkmenistan a 10...34 promising cooperation in fighting terrorism, arms and drug trafficking and extremist ideologies.48 Specific investment projects included hotel ... construction in Tashkent, Samarkand, and Bukhara. In 1992 India signed a group of agreements with Almaty to develop its textile and hotel industries. India

  2. Central Asia | Page 102 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The stories presented in Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture reflect the unique nature of Asian aquaculture, providing first-time insight into how and why it has become so successful. Overall, the book demonstrates how the resiliency, adaptability, and innovation of small-scale aquaculture farmers have been crucial to this ...

  3. Plague epizootic cycles in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Begon, Mike; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-06-01

    Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which may affect the infection dynamics. Theory predicts that if the relevant abundance, or combination of abundances, is above the threshold, then the infection is able to spread; if not, it is bound to fade out. In practice, though, the observed level of infection may depend more on past than on current abundances. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), its vector (flea) and its host (great gerbil) in the PreBalkhash region in Kazakhstan. We describe how host and vector abundances interact over time and how this interaction drives the dynamics of the system around the infection threshold, consequently affecting the proportion of plague-infected sectors. We also explore the importance of the interplay between biological and detectability delays in generating the observed dynamics.

  4. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  5. Sensible climates in monsoon Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H S; Kawamura, T

    1991-06-01

    This study identifies characteristics of the geographical distribution of sensible climates and their diurnal and annual variations, and presents a classification of bioclimates in monsoon Asia by using Kawamura's discomfort index formula. During the hottest month, tropical areas and areas in central and South China are uncomfortable for humans throughout the day and night, and temperate zones in lowlands are uncomfortable during the daytime. Tropical zones are uncomfortable all year long and temperate zones in lowlands are uncomfortable during summer. Four climatic types were distinguished in monsoon Asia. Climatic type I, hyperthermal throughout the year, occurs in the tropics south of latitude 20 degrees N. Climatic type II, hyperthermal in the hottest month and comfortable in the coldest month, extends over latitudes from 20 degrees to 30 degrees N except in the highlands. Climatic type III, hyperthermal in the hottest month and hypothermal in the coldest month, encompasses temperate zones of East Asia and subtropical arid areas of northwestern India. Climatic type V, comfortable in the hottest month and hypothermal in coldest month, occurs near the southeast coast of the Soviet Union and in the highlands of the Himalayas.

  6. Towards a sustainable Asia. Environment and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This series of books are the output of the research project called ''Sustainable Development in Asia (SDA)'', which was initiated by the Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA). They are comprised of one synthesis report, which entitled ''Towards a Sustainable Asia: Green Transition and Innovation'', and four thematic reports on natural resources, energy, the environment and climate change, and culture from particular perspectives of agriculture. They aim to: (1) investigate common sustainability issues faced by all Asian countries, including population increase, poverty alleviation, pollution control, ecological restoration, as well as regional problems, such as water shortage in West and Central Asia, energy security in Northeast Asia, development model and transformation in East Asia; (2) analyze and summarize of best practices towards sustainable development in Asia; (3) bring forward suggestions and policy options for promoting green transition, system innovation and sustainable development of Asia. With best practice guidelines for a sustainable Asia, this series of reports, for the first time systematically address the common challenges and regional problems in regard to Asia's natural resources use, pollution reduction and climate protection, sustainable energy development, and innovations for environment-friendly and culture-compatible agriculture. They will provide handy and useful information to researchers, government policy makers and the general public who have concerns about Asia's sustainable development. AASA is a scientific and technological organization in Asia, established in 2000, comprising of 26 member academies all over Asia. Its vision is to provide a forum for the discussion of all issues relevant to science and technology development and its application on national level within Asia. (orig.)

  7. A new order in northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region

  8. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  9. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-lslamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly.

  10. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-islamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly

  11. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  12. In-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses of the Xiangshan Ni-Cu-Co deposit in Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang), Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Constraints on the timing and genesis of the mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Jien; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2010-12-01

    Eastern Tianshan orogen, and by inference, throughout much of Central Asia.

  13. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Linguistic Phylogenies Support Back-Migration from Beringia to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoli, Mark A.; Holton, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America. PMID:24621925

  15. The nuclear Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordonnier, I.; Tertrais, B.

    2001-01-01

    Since the demolition of the Berlin wall, Asia has become the theater of nuclear rivalry, with as main actors: india, Pakistan, China and South Korea. This book analyzes the geo-political situation in this region of the world and asks some important questions about the new strategic map of Asia: what is the impact of the development of nuclear activities on the security of Asia? Will the deployment of anti-missile defenses lead to a new weapons rush? Is there a nuclear warfare risk? (J.S.)

  16. Averting Crisis in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Lee-Jay

    1986-01-01

    Discusses issues related to population growth in Asia, considering various programs and their successes. Indicates that China has had the greatest recent success in reducing population growth (with its one-child family policy). (JN)

  17. Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... 53 Designing Financial Systems in East Asia and Japan ..... 5.3 Weights for the industrial production index (%) ..... The demand for manufactured goods for this low level of consumption per capita also tends to be very low.

  18. “URIANKHAI ISSUE”IN FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA IN EARLY 20TH CENTURY AND THE PROBLEM OF FOREIGN STATES’ PARTICIPATION IN IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В А Василенко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the participation of foreign countries in solving the problems related to the management of domestic and foreign policy in Tuva in the ear-ly twentieth century.The problem of determining the legal and political status of Tuva and its territorial jurisdiction is traditionally bound in domestic and foreign historiography with the words “Uriankhaiissue”. The latter, as a rule, is considered in the context of rivalry be-tween Russia, China and Mongolia - the countries of the “Central Asian triangle”. The author pays attention to the interests of other countries, including Japan and the coun-tries of Western Europe, in this region. There has been conducted a generalized analysis of the information relating to the presence of Western industrial capital inTuva, shows the nature of the relations between the European entrepreneurs from Russia, China and Tuva authorities. The article provides the detailed facts of the presence of various groups of foreign citizens in the province in the period of the protectorate. In the context of the analysis of the general geo-political situation in Central Asia, the author describes the actions of the Russian authorities against foreign troops, including the methods and forms of work in that direction. The author comes to the conclusion that, despite the use of exclusively peaceful measure-sagainst foreign troops in Tuva, the local authorities sought to prevent any actions aimed at undermining the Russian positions in the region. For this reason, depending on the geopolitical situation in Tuva, the regime of stay of foreigners, issuance of permits softened or hardened. The author concludes the study with the description of the events of the 1920s, the time when there was a change of concept relations with foreign states due tothe Bolsheviks’ coming to power.

  19. Asia electricity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    Electricity demand in Asia has grown and continues to grow rapidly. Over 40 per cent of the world's growth in electricity output up to 2010 is expected to come from China and East and South Asia. The need to build the additional production capacity to meet demand is the driving force behind the major structural and institutional changes that are presently transforming the electricity sectors throughout the region. The Asia Electricity Study looks in detail at the current and future role of the electricity sectors in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. It analyses existing and planned electricity policies in areas such as financing regulation, environment and end-use efficiency. To build the region's power infrastructure will require large investments, well beyond what governments or multilateral lending institutions can provide. Consequently, mobilizing private sector participation in the process is vital. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are being allowed to enter what has, until recently, been a government-dominated field. State-owned utilities are being corporatized and/or privatized to improve their competitiveness. Developing the regulatory environment to match the changes taking place is a key challenge. The significant expansion of generation capacity in Asia will have implications well beyond the region. Changes in energy trade volumes and patterns, caused by the need to obtain fuel for power stations, will have an impact on the energy security of Asia and the world as a whole Similarly, fuel and technology choices will have important consequences for both the regional and global environment. (author)

  20. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  1. Pleistocene Palaeoart of Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This comprehensive overview considers the currently known Pleistocene palaeoart of Asia on a common basis, which suggests that the available data are entirely inadequate to form any cohesive synthesis about this corpus. In comparison to the attention lavished on the corresponding record available from Eurasia’s small western appendage, Europe, it is evident that Pleistocene palaeoart from the rest of the world has been severely neglected. Southern Asia, in particular, holds great promise for the study of early cognitive development of hominins, and yet this potential has remained almost entirely unexplored. Asia is suggested to be the key continent in any global synthesis of ‘art’ origins, emphasising the need for a comprehensive pan-continental research program. This is not just to counter-balance the incredible imbalance in favour of Europe, but to examine the topic of Middle Pleistocene palaeoart development effectively.

  2. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Nuclear power in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Uranium Association reports that Asia is the only region in the world where electricity generating capacity and specifically nuclear power is growing significantly. In East and South Asia, there are over 109 nuclear power reactors in operation, 18 under construction and plans to build about a further 100. The greatest growth in nuclear generation is expected in China, Japan, South Korea and India. As a member of the SE Asian community, Australia cannot afford to ignore the existence and growth of nuclear power generation on its door step, even if it has not, up to now, needed to utilise this power source

  4. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  5. Nuclear power in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Ronald E.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Nuclear Energy in the Asian context; Types of nuclear power reactors used in Asia; A survey of nuclear power by country; The economics of nuclear power; Fuels, fuel cycles and reprocessing; Environmental issues and waste disposal; The weapons issues and nuclear power; Conclusions. (Author)

  6. Literacy in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the various facets and dimensions of literacy programs in South Asia indicates that literacy is viewed as a means of human resource development geared toward meaningful participation of all sectors in society, with individual programs varying according to the magnitude of illiteracy, national goals, linguistic setting, and regional…

  7. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  8. Peritoneal Dialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Vickie Wai-Ki; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing demand of dialysis in Asia for end-stage renal failure patients. Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries in Asia. The growth of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Asia is significant and seeing a good trend. With the enhanced practices of PD, the quality of care in PD in Asia is also improved. Overall, PD and hemodialysis (HD) are comparable in clinical outcome. There is a global trend in the reduction of peritonitis rates and Asian countries also witness such improvement. The socio-economic benefits of PD for end-stage renal failure patients in both urban and rural areas in the developed and developing regions of Asia are an important consideration. This can help to reduce the financial burden of renal failure in addressing the growing demand of patients on dialysis. Initiatives should be considered to further drive down the cost of PD in Asia. Growing demand for dialysis by an increasing number of end-stage renal failure patients requires the use of a cost-effective quality dialysis modality. PD is found to be comparable to HD in outcome and quality. In most countries in Asia, PD should be more cost-effective than HD. A 'PD-first' or a 'PD as first considered therapy' policy can be an overall strategy in many countries in Asia in managing renal failure patients, taking the examples of Hong Kong and Thailand. (1) PD is cheaper than HD and provides a better quality of life worldwide, but its prevalence is significantly lower than that of HD in all countries, with the exception of Hong Kong. Allowing reimbursement of PD but not HD has permitted to increase the use of PD over HD in many Asian countries like Hong Kong, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, as well as in New Zealand and Australia over the last years. In the Western world, however, HD is still promoted, and the proportion of patients treated with PD decreases. Japan remains an exception in Asia where PD penetration is very low. Lack of adequate education of

  9. Regionalisation of the recent and potential future climate of Central Asia. Modelling on the basis of direct climate data. Final report; Regionalisierung der rezenten und potentiell-zukuenftigen Klimaverhaeltnisse Zentralasiens. Modellierung auf Basis von direkten Klimadaten, geomorphologisch-palaeooekologischen Befunden und GCM-Simulationen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehner, J; Haselein, F; Hoffmann, H; Klinge, M; Lehmkuhl, F

    2001-07-01

    During the research project, the scientific base for the methodological coupling of GCM-Simulations and relief parametrisations for a spatially distributed downscaling scheme and for the detection of climatic controlled geomorphologic process regions was founded. The results of the application of the downscaling procedure and the detected climatic determinants of the recent geomorphologic process regions serve as the actualistic base for a proxy based climatic reconstruction as well as for the prognosis of potential future climatic impacts on the environment of Central and High Mountain Asia. For the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation of Central- and High Mountain Asia was reconstructed and compared to the downscaling results of GCM-Paleo simulations (ECHAM). Due to the possibility of a direct parameterisation of GCM generated circulation variables and complex relief parameters for the regionalisation of climatic variables and geomorphologic process regions, the validation of ECHAM paleo simulations was also possible by comparing the proxy based reconstruction of the late quaternary environment to the modelled environment as derived from the application of ECHAM LGM simulations. For the assessment of potential future climatic impacts on the natural environment, alternative SRES emission scenarios are taken into account to detect the range of possible future changes in the distribution of Central Asia mountain belts and climatic controlled geomorphologic process regions. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes wurden die Grundlagen zur methodisch-konzeptionellen Koppelung von GCM-Simulationen mit Reliefparametrisierungen zur raeumlich hochaufloesenden Klimaregionalisierung sowie zur Erfassung und quantitativen Eingrenzung klimatisch determinierter Prozessregionen geschaffen, die die aktualistische Basis fuer Klimarekonstruktionen auf Basis von Proxies aber auch die Grundlage fuer geomorphologisch

  10. Asia's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overholt, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    The book is a collection of seven papers by five specialists--two political scientists; a sociologist; and two specialists in the interaction between science and international affairs. They share a disregard for conventional boundaries between disciplines and for the emphasis on method over substance which have tended to fragment knowledge into ever-smaller and smaller fragments. The papers are: The Next Phase in Nuclear Proliferation Research, L.A. Dunn and W.H. Overholt; China as a Nuclear Power, J. D. Pollack; Nuclear Arms and Japan, Herbert Passin; Nuclear Proliferation in Eastern Asia, W. H. Overholt; India's Nuclear Program: Decisions, Intent, and Policy, 1950 to 1976, Onkar Marwah; India, Pakistan, Iran--A Nuclear Proliferation Chain, L. A. Dunn; and A U.S. Nuclear Posture for Asia, W. H. Overholt

  11. [The population and economic problems of South Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J

    1983-07-29

    South Asia, which includes Central South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Southwest Asia, had a comparatively higher population growth rate during the 30-year postwar period because of the overall backward economy and strong religious tradition. From the viewpoint of economics, the high population growth in South Asia has slowed down economic growth, increased the foreign trade imblance, and worsened poverty. Secondly, the rapid population growth has overburdened the area's educational system. The illiteracy rate has been going up continuously because of inadequate funds available for education. Thirdly, young labor is lacking in skills, training, and work experience, and related productivity has declined. Consequently, profits, the investment capability, and wages are also declining. The problems of the oversupply of labor, unemployment, and poverty have also become increasingly serious. In addition, the rapid population growth has intensified the pressure on the food supply and worsened the average nutrition of the general public. In recent years, countries in South Asia have been trying to deal with various problems caused by the rapid population growth. Measures have been taken to control the population growth, with a redistribution of the population to places outside cities, and export labor to oil-producing nations of the Middle East and Africa in order to solve the problem of the domestic labor surplus and earn more income for the foreign exchange. Countries in South Asia need more time and effort to achieve a balance between the population growth and economic development.

  12. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    apparently to save ammunition, according to the BPP report . The attacks came after a battalion of Burmese troops had arrived at the border areas to...Manuel Pangilinan says. 17 It will be divided into five " strategic business units" (or SBU’s): commercial banking, which will include Hibernia and...065082 JPRS-SEA-84-173 14 December 1 984 Southeast Asia Report Reproduced From Best Available Copy 20000107 100 IIXTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 9

  13. Southern comfort in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, F.

    1997-08-01

    The role of entrepreneurs in the recent success of the electric power industry in Asia is discussed. A willingness to run economic risks and skilled negotiation are identified as key factors for success in the competitive and rapidly changing market. The pioneering work of build, operate, transfer (BOT) power projects have also contributed to economic growth, as has the sale of Asian utilities to large power corporations from USA. (UK)

  14. The denuclearization of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Mun Tae

    1987-12-01

    This book is comprised of 4 parts, which are antinuclear peace movement in Asia, the pacific of anger including A man's action moves the world and what happens in the pacific, what the cause of nuclearization is, including many reports about background and structure of nuclearization, How to fulfill the denuclearization through report such as denuclearization and demilitarization in the Philippines by Alexander Magner and Message from Longgaraf. The last reports Declaration of peace for the great pacific in the future.

  15. Growth & Governance in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Project Discussion Paper no.14/2001. Institute for East Asian Studies, Gerhard Mercator Univesitat Duisburg, 2001(b); Mohamad Abu Bakar , “Islam...Dieter Evers, ed., Modernisation in Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford, 1973; Muhammad Yusoff Hashim, The Malay Sultanate of Malacca. Kuala Lumpur...from the peasantry (educated in the Malay vernacular of SITC or Sultan Idris Training College) and strongly influenced by the left wing of the

  16. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  17. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  18. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Juan-Juan Xue; Stewart C. Sanderson; Peter W. Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for...

  19. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-07

    ni Kristo came out with its own list. It did not concern me a0 lot because INK never ■• supported me even before. But I won in the previous...1,000 kilometers of central coastline. Director Nguyen Chuoc talked about marine products now preferred by the foreign market. Besides shrimp, squid ...has been extracted from Vietnamese-language sources published in Hanoi, unless otherwise indicated. Asterisked job title indicates that this is the

  20. Labor migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt

  1. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  2. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  3. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  4. ICT Infrastructure in Emerging Asia: Policy and Regulatory Roadblocks

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-06

    Feb 6, 2008 ... This book brings together scholars, practitioners, former regulators, and policymakers to address the problem of expanding information and communication technology (ICT) connectivity in emerging Asia. It centrally engages the widespread claim that technology by itself — independent of policy and ...

  5. Climate contributions to vegetation variations in Central Asian drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Li; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia comprises a large fraction of the world's drylands, known to be vulnerable to climate change. We analyzed the inter-annual trends and the impact of climate variability in the vegetation greenness for Central Asia from 1982 to 2011 using GIMMS3g normalized difference vegetation index...

  6. The Regional Centrality of Vietnam’s Central Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    strategic value turned it into a battleground among various Vietnamese parties, France, and the United States. It was here that the outcome of the Indochina wars was determined, but at a terrible price for the local population. After the adoption of economic reforms in reunified Vietnam the Central......Vietnam’s Central Highlands—or Tây Nguyên—area is usually described as remote, backward, and primitive, but this region has played a central role in the history of the surrounding states and the wider East and Southeast Asia region. Far from isolated, the Central Highlands engaged in trade...... various rivalrous polities now known as Vietnam, Champa, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand, the area occupied a strategic position in the wider mainland Southeast Asia region. With the emergence of a unified, neo-Confucianist Vietnamese state the region lost its centrality until the late colonial era, when its...

  7. Closing the gap in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Bailly, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the market for independent power plants in Asia and the financing available for these projects. The topics of the article include making room for non-utility generation; the markets in India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand; third-party ownership, 1989 installed capacity, capacity additions 1989-1990, and the outlook for the market in Asia

  8. THERMOCHRONOLOGY OF MINGLING DYKES IN WEST SANGILEN (SOUTH‐EAST TUVA, RUSSIA: EVIDENCE OF THE COLLAPSE OF THE COLLISIONAL SYSTEM IN THE NORTH‐WESTERN EDGE OF THE TUVA‐MONGOLIA MASSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Vladimirov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In West Sangilen (South‐East Tuva, Russia, there are outcrops of metamorphic and magmatic complexes of early Caledonides, which are related to the period of long‐term collisional and post‐collisional events in the north‐ western edge of the Tuva‐Mongolian massif. The evolution of orogenic structures in West Sangilen is an example of the collapse of folded structures in case of changes in tectonic regimes from compression and transpression (collision period to intra‐ and marginal continental transform‐shear extension (post‐collision period. Numerous geologic fea‐ tures give evidence of changes in the kinematics and characteristics of deformations, as well as in the conditions of metamorphism and magmatism in the study region. However, thinning of the crust during the collapse of the colli‐ sional orogenic structure has not been supported by any direct data. Indicators of such events are the complexes of combined dykes, which are abundant in West Sangilen, especially in the area between the Erzin and Naryn rivers and on the right bank of the Erzin river. The most representative object is a combined basite‐granite dyke at the foot of the Tavit‐Dag mountain. Its position is controlled by the strike‐slip fault system. The thermochronological analysis of mingling rocks shows different ages of the closure of isotope systems: 494.8±5.4 Ma (U/Pb, zircon, basites, 489.7±7 Ma (U/Pb, zircon, granitoids, 471.2±1.9 Ma (Ar/Ar , amphibole, basites, and 462.5±1.0 Ma (Ar/Ar, biotite, basites. Taking into account the parameters of the closure of isotope systems (~800–900 °C, zircon, U/Pb; ~500 °C, amphi‐ bole, Ar/Ar; ~300 °C, biotite, Ar/Ar, the cooling curve of the mingling dyke is estimated. It corresponds to lowering of the temperature by 600 °C (900 °С  500 °С  300 °C in the period from 500 (494.8±5.4 Ma to 461 (462.5±1.0 Ma. It is shown that the recent thermal events did not affect the mingling dyke located

  9. Glaucoma in Asia: regional prevalence variations and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Errol Wei'en; Li, Xiang; Tham, Yih-Chung; Liao, Jiemin; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate glaucoma prevalence and disease burden across Asian subregions from 2013 to 2040. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 population-based studies of 1318 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases in 66,800 individuals and 691 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) cases in 72,767 individuals in Asia. Regions in Asia were defined based on United Nations' (UN) classification of macro-geographic regions. PubMed, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched for population-based glaucoma prevalence studies using standardised criteria published to 31 December 2013. Pooled glaucoma prevalence for individuals aged 40-80 years was calculated using hierarchical Bayesian approaches. Prevalence differences by geographic subregion, subtype and habitation were examined with random effects meta-regression models. Estimates of individuals with glaucoma from 2013 to 2040 were based on the UN World Population Prospects. In 2013, pooled overall glaucoma prevalence was 3.54% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.83 to 6.28). POAG (2.34%, 95% CrI 0.96 to 4.55) predominated over PACG (0.73%, 95% CrI 0.18 to 1.96). With age and gender adjustment, PACG prevalence was higher in East than South East Asia (OR 5.55, 95% CrI 1.52 to 14.73), and POAG prevalence was higher in urban than rural populations (OR 2.11, 95% CrI 1.57 to 2.38). From 2013 to 2040, South Central Asia will record the steepest increase in number of glaucoma individuals from 17.06 million to 32.90 million compared with other Asian subregions. In 2040, South-Central Asia is also projected to overtake East Asia for highest overall glaucoma and POAG burden, while PACG burden remains highest in East Asia. Across the Asian subregions, there was greater glaucoma burden in South-Central and East Asia. Sustainable public health strategies to combat glaucoma in Asia are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  10. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...

  11. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  12. Scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions. Workshop and establishment of a common knowledge base for nuclear safety and security. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-technischer Erfahrungsaustausch Deutschlands mit der GUS, den Baltischen und den MOE-Staaten sowie Laendern Zentralasiens und anderer Regionen. Arbeitstreffen und Schaffung gemeinsamer Wissensbasen fuer nukleare Sicherheit und Sicherung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, Anna

    2017-03-15

    The report on the workshop concerning scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions includes the following issues: Results an d success of know-how transfer from West to East, topical issues for mutual exchange of experience, scope of the project, concept of the realization of mutual exchange of experiences. The emphasis of the workshop covered the following issues: emergency preparedness, international requirements concerning nuclear safety and radiation protection, transport of radioactive wastes and communication in nuclear technology.

  13. Crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai: Implications for the continental evolution and growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Buslov, M. M.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ming; Rubanova, E. S.; Kulikova, A. V.; Voytishek, E. E.

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a gigantic tectonic collage of numerous accreted terranes. However, its geodynamic evolution has been hotly debated primarily due to incomplete knowledge on the nature of these enigmatic terranes. This work presents new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data to constrain the crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai, a critical segment of Altai-Mongolian terrane. The youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 470 Ma constrain that the Terekta Formation, previously envisaged as Precambrian basement, was actually deposited after the Middle Ordovician. As for the three more sedimentary sequences above the Terekta Formation, they have youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 425 Ma, 440 Ma and 380 Ma, respectively, indicating their depositions likely in the Late Silurian to Devonian. From all analyses, it is noted that many zircon U-Pb ages cluster at ca. 520 Ma and ca. 800 Ma, and these zircons display oscillatory zoning and have subhedral to euhedral morphology, which, collectively, suggests that adjacent Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks were possibly dominant in the sedimentary provenance. Additionally, a few rounded Archean to Mesoproterozoic zircon grains are characterized by complex texture, which are interpreted as recycling materials probably derived from the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent. Precambrian rocks have not been identified in the Russian Altai, Chinese Altai and Mongolian Altai so far, therefore, Precambrian basement may not exist in the Altai-Mongolian terrane, but this terrane probably represents a large subduction-accretion complex built on the margin of the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent in the Early Paleozoic. Multiple episodes of ridge-trench interaction may have caused inputs of mantle-derived magmas to trigger partial melting of the newly accreted crustal materials, which contributed to the accretionary complex. During accretionary orogenesis of the CAOB, formation of such subduction-accretion complex is

  14. Análisis de la variación genética en clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis de Asia, Suramérica y Centroamérica usando marcadores RAPD Analysis of genetic variation in clones of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis from Asían, South and Central American origin using RAPDs markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Arias Mario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis representa a especies potenciales para reforestación y programas de explo­tación comercial en ciudades tropicales como Colombia. La variabilidad genética de una colección de caucho que se encuentra en la Estación experimental de Paraguaycito en Buenavista, departamento del Quindio en Colom­bia fue estudiada para aumentar el conocimiento en cuanto a las especies y realizar un mejor uso de los árboles disponibles. Un total de 25 clones, seis de Sur América, 17 de Asia y 2 de América Central fueron seleccionados y analizados usando RAPDs. Las muestras aisladas de ADN de los árboles fueron con 102 primers, 23 de los cuales mostraron polimorfismos. Aunque se encontró un alto grado de similaridad, los análisis grupales de datos llevaron a diferenciar los árboles de de caucho en términos de su origen geográfico. Por lo tanto, las relaciones genéticas que se encontraron entre los clones podrían ayudar a seleccionar parentales para uso en programas de reproducción y diseño de estrategias para la conservación de los clones que tengan características agronómicas deseables. Palabras clave: identificación de cultivos, distancia genética, diversidad genética, Hevea brasiliensis, marcadores RAPD.Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis represents a potential species for reforestation and commercial exploitation programmes in tropical countries such as Colombia. The genetic variability of a rubber collection kept at the Paraguaicito Experimental Station in Buenavista in the Quindio department of Colombia was studied to improve knowledge regarding this species and make better use of the trees available. A total of 25 clones, six from South-America, 17 from Asia and two from Central-América were selected and analysed using RAPDs. DNA samples isolated from the trees were screened with 102 primers, 23 of which revealed polymorphism. Although a high degree of similarity was found, clustering analysis of the data led

  15. Southwest Asia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, T

    1984-06-01

    Southwest Asia, which support 1/3 of the world's population, is acutely aware of the consequences of rapid and excessive population growth. No other region has consciously devoted so much of its resources to stemming excessive population growth. India, with a population of 684 million, formulated a policy of population limitation in the 1950s. The 1980 government rededicated itself to voluntary family planning and rebuilt the broad coalition of an excellent infrastructure of government institutions, voluntary organizations, and international agencies. Government support for family planning clinics began in Bangladesh in the 1960s. A strong institutional structure has been established under the supervision of the National Population Council. Innovative approaches to family planning service delivery have been initiated by an admirable array of institutions. Pakistan's Population Welfare Plan provides substantial funds and an administrative structure to make maternal/child helath care and family planning services available in rural areas. Another welfare program encourages smaller families through projects to enhance the status of women by improving literacy, establishing rural industries, and advocating late marriage. Nepal has had to struggle with a poor administrative structure, grossly insufficient medical services, and an inadequate database for policy formulation. Family planning services are now a component of the overall health program. The family planning services of the pioneer Afghan Family Guidance Association, established in 1968, have been incorported into the national maternal/child health program. The present government of Iran views foreign assistance as an unacceptable form of persuasion and has phased out all international funded family planning programs. Sri Lanka is the only country in the region to have made the demographic transition to fertility decline. An impressive health infrastructure delivers family planning services at every level using

  16. Future Heat Waves In Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2017-12-01

    I will review recent work from my group on the impact of climate change on the intensity and frequency of heat waves in Asia. Our studies covered Southwest Asia, South Asia, East China, and the Maritime continent. In any of these regions, the risk associated with climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that the wet-bulb temperature is a useful variable to consider in describing the natural hazard from heat waves since it can be easily compared to the natural threshold that defines the upper limit on human survivability. Based on an ensemble of high resolution climate change simulations, we project extremes of wet-bulb temperature conditions in each of these four regions of Asia. We consider the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a moderate mitigation scenario. The results from these regions will be compared and lessons learned summarized.

  17. Uranium resources potential for Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.

    1988-01-01

    Only four countries in Asia, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and Turkey, reported having uranium resources in response to a Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD/International Atomic Energy Agency questionnaire circulated before preparation of the report on Uranium: Resources, Production and Demand (the 'Red Book'). The reasonably assured resources (RAR) of these countries, which are recoverable at costs of up to US $130/kg U, amount to 67,690 t U or 3% of the total for the World Outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area (WOCA). It is believed that the largest uranium resources in Asia are in China; however, no official published figures are available to substantiate this fact. Within the framework of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) it was estimated that the speculative resources (SR) for Asia and the Far East outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area (CPEA) are of the order of 300,000 t U. This is 4.7% of the total for WOCA. With the exception of Proterozoic unconformity related deposits, all types of uranium deposits and occurrences are known to exist in Asia. Most deposits are of the vein and sandstone hosted types. Several published reports indicate that deposits in China are mainly of the volcanic type and those associated with granitic intrusion. For undiscovered deposits, probably India and China have the best possibility of finding deposits of the Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate and Proterozoic unconformity related types. In South-East Asia the deposits most likely to be found are those associated with Mesozoic granites and those in the intramontane basin sediments adjacent to these intrusions. The less known acid volcanic type is also a possibility. Only in China, India and Pakistan does there appear to be the possibility of finding calcrete type deposits. Uranium can still be recovered as a by-product of the phosphate rocks, monazite placer deposits and carbonatite known in many parts of Asia. (author). 21 refs

  18. Nuclear power in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This editorial discusses the shifting dominance in the nuclear reactor technology from the USA to new leadership in East Asia. With the expanding economies and electricity demand, Design, construction and operation of a large number of nuclear power plants in east Asia will support nuclear engineers, technologist, manufacturing facilities, and potential weapons experts. In contrast, the cessation of construction of power reactors in the US is leading to deminished nuclear capabilities

  19. Currency crises: Is Asia different?

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Markus; Schweickert, Rainer

    1998-01-01

    International investors' enthusiasm with respect to growth prospects in Southeast Asia has been followed by panic. Both the outstanding economic performance of Southeast Asian economies and their ability to master adjustment challenges had led most observers of these economies to the conclusion that "Asia is different". In comparison with previous currency crises, the macroeconomic fundamentals (GDP growth, inflation, fiscal deficit, external indebtedness, domestic savings, export performance...

  20. The Asia Pacific natural gas market: Large enough for all?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.; Inchauspe, Julian; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Among natural gas producing nations, there has been some concern about how the Asia Pacific will meet future demand for energy. We argue that natural gas, both regional and global, will play a vital role. Estimates of potential gas consumption in the region are analyzed and used to develop consensus projections to 2030. These consumption profiles are compared with gas supply estimates including indigenous, pipeline and LNG for the Asia Pacific market. From this analytical framework, we find that demand will be sufficiently large to accommodate supplies from diverse sources including North America, the Middle East, Central Asia, Russia, and the Asia Pacific itself. An important policy implication is that gas producing and consuming nations should benefit from promoting gas trade and not be concerned about a situation of potential lack of demand coupled with oversupply. - Highlights: • Estimates of gas consumption in the Asia Pacific (AP) in 2030 are presented. • Compared with supply estimates for AP including indigenous, pipeline, and LNG. • Find that demand in AP large enough to accommodate supply from all regions. • Nations should promote gas trade policy and not be overly concerned about oversupply

  1. Peritoneal dialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I K

    1996-01-01

    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last

  2. Energy challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquet, V.

    2007-01-01

    Energy challenges represent one of the most important security paradigms in the Asia Pacific region where you have a mixture of growing energy dependency, fuelled by high economic growth, the emergence of new major players like China and India, and a quasi-complete absence of regional regulatory mechanisms to tackle the challenges in a multilateral way. These challenges mostly concern Japan and China, where crucial energy issues are aggravated by power rivalry, historical and ideological issues, and a lack of both economic and political harmony between them. Neither countries are self sufficient in terms of energy needs. This can lead to a shared analysis and common approaches regarding Japan and China concerning this issue. Their cases are. however very different and the solutions applied are related to different world views that are not easily reconcilable. Both countries share common objectives: both want security and stable supply. But there are also big divergences and these divergences could be new sources of conflict and misunderstanding between Tokyo and Beijing. One of the main differences is history related. Both China and Japan are uneasy regarding outside energy dependency. In Japan, memories of the pre-war oil embargo have not disappeared. The oil shocks of the 70's renewed this uneasiness. However, Japan's outside dependency is not new. Tokyo has learned to live with it, finding a system to alleviate this vulnerability in cooperation with its partners, multilateral institutions like the International Energy Agency (IEA). China's outside dependency is new. The country's dependency on oil, which began in 1993, is particularly challenging since the principles of independence, non interference and military autonomy, principles at the core of Maoist foreign strategy, did not completely disappear in spite of China's new policy of reform and opening up. China's leadership, even the fourth generation, did not forget its isolation during the 60's and 70's

  3. Commercial Power of Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Sincai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, based on a detailed analysis of the main statistical foreign trade indicators of the emerging economies of the Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, outlines a series of characteristics of the foreign trade flows of the analysed economies from the ’50 up to the present. The accent is set on the period 1995-2006, which emphasizes two moments of crisis of the Asian trade: 1997-1998 and 2001. At the level of the analysed economies, it can be remarked a tendency of continuous growth of the share of the intra-regional trade flows in the total trade flows, mainly due to their participation in regional trade agreements, to the strenghtening of the regional production networks, to the role of China as engine of economic growth in the whole region and even at global level. On product category, the manufactures have the greatest share in the merchandise exports of the Asian emerging economies (especially office and telecom equipment, integrated circuits, automotive products, textiles and clothing, etc.. While China surpassed the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in the world trade in 2001 and that of Japan in 2004, the scenario presented in this paper indicates the surpass in 2007 of the share of Germany (second place in the world trade in 2005, the surpass of the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in 2009, and the surpass of the share of the group of the 8 Asian tigers and that of the USA as well in 2012. In the following decades, China might become the strongest world economy at the global level, but only if the sustainable development and the eradication of the social inequities will become de facto priorities of the Chinese officials. The actual negative externalities (costs of the Chinese economic growth, transferred on the environment and the society, will be object to another analyse.

  4. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-29

    the rural and urban areas. Health personnel of the i»337 rural health centres in rural areas, 345 maternity and child...34 authoritarian patriarchy," "disregarded discipline," "favoritism," and "leaving work unfinished." Is it a characteristic that needs to be stressed...without exception, must be placed under the control of authoritative party organizations. The Central Committee and the various party committee

  5. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-12

    now than it ever was. 16 The wholesale destruction of our forests, marine life and other natural re-^ sources has not been checked. Our...from their shoulders, and indiscriminately firing their firearms at helpless civilians," the NDF-Central Luzon said. /6662 CSO: 4200/353 35...refugees and wounding 14 others, including 7 children and 7 adults . At the same time, the Vietnamese enemy’s shells also killed two Thai soldiers

  6. Nuclear nonproliferation strategy in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, F.W.

    1989-07-01

    The most immediate danger of a further spread of nuclear weapons in Asia is in South Asia, where both India and Pakistan have developed the means of producing nuclear explosive materials. In East Asia, North Korea appears to be in the early stages of a weapon-related nuclear program, and before the end of the century South Korea or Taiwan could revive their past efforts to move closer to a nuclear weapons capability. Over the longer run, Japan could conceivably decide to abandon its present strong opposition to the acquisition of nuclear Weapons. At present, the United States has largely separate approaches to the nuclear weapon proliferation problems in South Asia and in East Asia. This paper argues that these separate approaches should be strengthened and integrated into a broader regional nonproliferation strategy. This regional strategy would have three major strands: inducing India and Pakistan to agree not to produce nuclear weapons or test nuclear explosive devices for a specific period; bolstering the existing nonproliferation regime, principally by maintaining nonproliferation incentives and involving China more in the nonproliferation regime; and encouraging regional cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  7. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  8. Colacium Minimum (Euglenophyta, A New Epiphytic Species For Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołowski Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colacium minimum Fott & Komárek, known so far from a few localities in Central Europe (Czech Republic, is reported here for the first time from Asia (Thailand. This epiphytic species was found growing on eight taxa of loricated euglenoids. The process of surface colonization of Trachelomonas Ehrenb. and Strombomonas Deflandre taxa by C. minimum in natural populations is briefly discussed and originally documented using LM and SEM.

  9. Sumatera Air Asia Training Center (Arsitektur Metafora)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, William

    2015-01-01

    Sumatera Air Asia Training Center as Air Asia training facility’s construction have a propose to train the Air Asia air craft crew who will be the employee of the Air Asia Airlines.Beside the main function;training facility for the Air Asia Crew; the other airline’s crew can be train by a cooperation with Air Asia.The aircraft crew that can be train in this facility is pilot initial, pilot type-rating, pilot recurrent, ATPL, Flight attendant initial and recurrent..This facility ha...

  10. Relationships between cancer pattern, country income and geographical region in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teo, Chin Hai; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Tan, Wei Phin; Tan, Hui Meng

    2015-09-03

    Cancer incidence and mortality varies across region, sex and country's economic status. While most studies focused on global trends, this study aimed to describe and analyse cancer incidence and mortality in Asia, focusing on cancer site, sex, region and income status. Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates of cancer were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Cancer mortality to incidence ratios (MIRs) were calculated to represent cancer survival. The data were analysed based on the four regions in Asia and income. Cancer incidence rate is lower in Asia compared to the West but for MIR, it is the reverse. In Asia, the most common cancers in men are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophageal cancers while the most common cancers in women are breast, lung, cervical, colorectal and stomach cancers. The MIRs are the highest in lung, liver and stomach cancers and the lowest in colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Eastern and Western Asia have a higher incidence of cancer compared to South-Eastern and South-Central Asia but this pattern is the reverse for MIR. Cancer incidence rate increases with country income particularly in colorectal and breast cancers but the pattern is the opposite for MIR. This study confirms that there is a wide variation in cancer incidence and mortality across Asia. This study is the first step towards documenting and explaining the changing cancer pattern in Asia in comparison to the rest of the world.

  11. Two new species of Ephysteris Meyrick, 1908, from Asia with brachypterous males (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy Bidzilya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Gelechiidae: Ephysteris kullbergi sp. n. from Tuva (Russia and Ephysteris ustjuzhanini sp. n. from Mongolia are described. In both species the hindwings in both sexes are distinctly reduced. The adults and genitalia are illustrated. Brachyptery in Gelechiidae and Ephysteris is briefly discussed, and type locality of E. kullbergi sp. n. is illustrated. The locomotion of E. kullbergi sp. n. is described.

  12. Weathering financial crises: bond markets in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2012-01-01

    The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and the Bank of Japan (BOJ) jointly organised a high-level seminar on "The development of regional capital markets" in Yokohama, Japan, on 21-22 November 2011. The seminar brought together senior officials of 12 central banks in Asia and the Pacific, the European Central Bank, the Bank of Mexico, the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, as well as an academic and a private sector participant. Masaaki Shirakawa, Governor of the ...

  13. Integrasi Ekonomi Asia: Solusi Asia Menghadapi Krisis Global 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Hidayat

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available No economies throughout the region managed to escape from the "global economic crisis in 2008" that was initiated in the United States. This is a logical consequence of the global economy that has been rolling along. The world economy is increasingly becoming more integrated and interdependent with one another. Exposure stems from the economic crisis in the prolonged United States subprime mortgage financial crisis, and eventually dragged the European economy, and also Asia. The Asian region was only affected, but even if only the impact of course, was enough to overwhelm the Asian region since the crisis has a major impact on a country's foreign exchange reserves. Therefore, after the G-20 summit held in Washington on November 15, 2008, the three major Asian countries, namely China, Japan and South Korea held a summit in Fukuoka Japanese initiative, which was attended by the three heads of government. This summit was to bring fresh air for the Asian region, because in addition to having a positive impact on Asian stocks, it also provides a new self confidence that Asia has formed an alliance that would at least fortify themselves (region with the resulting stimulus policy. This initiative to find a solution is eventually expanded, and was welcomed by ASEAN countries, known as ASEAN Plus Three. Since in Asia there is already the East Asia Summit (East Asia Summit, the negotiations and the name of the group changed into the 6 partner countries of ASEAN. These six countries are Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, and India.

  14. Central Asia | Page 94 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Trauma, Development and Peacebuilding : Toward an Integrated Psychological Approach. Language English. Read more about Élaboration d'une approche transsectorielle, multisectorielle et sexospécifique relativement à la violence faite aux femmes. Language French. Read more about Building a ...

  15. Central Asia | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Women and the Justice System in Cambodia. Language English. Read more about Traumatismes, développement et consolidation de la paix : vers une approche psychologique intégrée. Language French. Read more about Trauma, Development and Peacebuilding : Toward an Integrated Psychological ...

  16. Central Asia | Page 26 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Seed Alliance). Language English. Read more about La transformation économique de l'Inde favorise-t-elle l'autonomisation économique des femmes? Language French. Read more about Does India's Economic Transformation Promote ...

  17. Balance of Power in Central and Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Mediterranean 17. John Naismitt and Patricia Auburdene, Megatrends 2000 World in the Age of Philip !i, Volume I (New York: Harper, 1972 (New York: Morrow, 1990...York: Harper, 1972 Naismitt, John and Patricia Auburdene. Megatrends 2000. New (1949). York: Morrow, 1990. Clubb, O. Edmund. China and Russia: The...supervised destruction of all use of minimum force to enfrce the trade embargo. chemical and biological weapons, long-range Activity was not limited to

  18. Well-Being in Central Asia and the Caucasus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    impersonal institutions necessary for the effective working of parties, business and civil society ... amongst men in mid-life that was experienced in the CIS countries of Eastern ... West-East gradient, with the countries of Western Europe having the high levels of social ...... Journal of Economic Perspectives 30, pp. 3 – 24.

  19. A curve of thresholds governs plague epizootics in Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Davis, Stephen; Begon, Mike

    2012-01-01

    , it is common to assume a threshold defined by the ratio of vector and host abundances. Here, we show in contrast, both from field data and model simulations, that for plague (Yersinia pestis) in Kazakhstan, the invasion threshold quantity is based on the product of its host (Rhombomys opimus) and vector...

  20. Central Asia | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Language French. Read more about Occasions et difficultés associées aux activités commerciales dans les zones économiques spéciales en Birmanie. Language French. Read more about Opportunities and Challenges of Doing ...